WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon taxes

  1. Carbon taxes: Their benefits, liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Thompson, L.L.J.

    1993-01-01

    A carbon tax holds much promise for helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, but administration will be a problem. Non-compliance, tilting the economic scales in favor of one energy source at the expense of another, and questions of equity between and within nations all must be addressed if the market-based efficiencies of a carbon tax are to become a concrete global reality. This article discusses carbon taxes in the following topic areas: how to set the rates for carbon taxes; administering the tax; international cooperation; type or form of tax; tax adjustments in existing taxes

  2. Effects of carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.

    1992-01-01

    At the recent United Nations Conference held in Rio de Janeiro, a proposal was made by Italy to have surcharges be applied by OECD member countries on fossil fuels (carbon tax), primarily to fund pollution abatement technology transfer to developing countries and promote pollution abatement, energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources in industrialized countries. This paper assesses how the application of the proposed carbon tax might be successfully combined with additional fiscal policies favouring coal gasification and reforestation so as to provide energy policy strategists of oil-importing countries with a long term economically and environmentally viable alternative to petroleum imports

  3. Taxing carbon in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Rob

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that both the Climate Change Levy and the fuel duty tax are outdated even before they are implemented. Apparently, the real problems are not in the bringing of road fuels into the scope of the Climate Change Levy but in introducing reforms to improve integration of greenhouse gases and taxation. Both fuel duty and the Levy are aimed at maximising efficiency and reducing air pollution. The system as it stands does not take into account the development of a market where the management and trading of carbon and greenhouse gases may jeopardise the competitiveness of UK businesses. It is argued that an overhaul of climate and emissions-related law is necessary. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) a fixation on energy; (ii) no focus on CO 2 ; (iii) carbon markets - beyond the levy and (iv) tax structure. (UK)

  4. Carbon taxes and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India's rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) open-quotes Grandfathered emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) open-quotes Equal per capita emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions

  5. The carbon tax faces difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulot, R.

    2009-01-01

    In France big companies are submitted to the European system of carbon allowances exchanges, but now other companies and households will have to pay a carbon tax whose rate has been fixed at 17 euros per ton of CO 2 . Some sectors like electricity, agriculture, fishing and road transport expect to be free of duty. Some economists think that the carbon tax will be efficient only if its rate increases quickly and dramatically. If France wants to cut its CO 2 emission by a factor 4 by 2030, the carbon tax must reach around 100 euros per ton in 2030 which means an increase rate of 6% a year. (A.C.)

  6. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  7. The carbon tax: a good idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.Ch.; Ghersi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Although unpopular, a carbon tax, correctly applied, could help to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions, and contribute to the financing of the social system without curbing the economy. The authors aim to justify the advantages of the carbon tax. (A.L.B.)

  8. Taxing Electricity Sector Carbon Emissions at Social Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Anthony; Beasley, Blair; Palmer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about budget deficits, tax reform, and climate change are fueling discussions about taxing carbon emissions to generate revenue and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Imposing a carbon tax on electricity production based on the social cost of carbon (SCC) could generate between $21 and $82 billion in revenues in 2020 and would have important effects on electricity markets. The sources of emissions reductions in the sector depend on the level of the tax. A carbon tax based on lower SCC ...

  9. Econometric modelling of international carbon tax regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Clare; Hall, Stephen; Mabey, N.

    1995-01-01

    An economometric model of fossil fuel demand has been estimated for eight OECD countries, relating coal, oil and gas demands to GDP and prices. In addition a model of endogenous technical progress has been estimated, aiming to include both price induced innovation in energy and structural change in the economy as long-term determinants of energy consumption. A number of possible international carbon/energy tax agreements are simulated, showing the impacts on carbon dioxide emissions and comparing the two models. (author)

  10. The distributional implications of a carbon tax in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, Tim; Lyons, Sean; Scott, Susan; Tol, Richard S.J.; Verde, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of carbon tax and revenue recycling across the income distribution in the Republic of Ireland. In absolute terms, a carbon tax of EUR20/tCO 2 would cost the poorest households less than EUR3/week and the richest households more than EUR4/week. A carbon tax is regressive, therefore. However, if the tax revenue is used to increase social benefits and tax credits, households across the income distribution can be made better off without exhausting the total carbon tax revenue. (author)

  11. Adaptation to carbon dioxide tax in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This note discusses the consequences for the sea transport sector between Norway and continental Europe of levying a carbon dioxide tax on international bunker. The influence of such a tax on the operational costs of various types of ship and various transport routes is calculated. The profit obtainable from the following ways of adapting to an increased tax level is assessed: (1) Reducing the speed, (2) Rebuilding the engine to decrease fuel consumption, (3) Changing the design speed for new ships. It is found that a carbon dioxide tax of NOK 200 per tonne of CO 2 will increase the transport costs by 3 - 15 percent. In the long run much of this may be transferred to the freight rates since so much of the sea transport are in segments in which the demand for the service is not sensitive to the prices. Even if the freight rates are not changed, a tax this size will not make it necessary to reduce the speed of the existing fleet. The income lost by taking fewer trips will exceed the costs saved in reducing the speed. However, the optimum design speed for new ships may be somewhat reduced (0.5 knots). Rebuilding engines to reduce the fuel consumption would pay off were it not for the fact that the remaining life of the present fleet is probably too short for this to be interesting

  12. Carbon and energy taxes in a small and open country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solaymani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, as a small and developing country, must reduce carbon emissions because the country is one of the top CO2-emitting countries in the ASEAN region. Therefore, the current study implements two environmental tax policies; carbon and energy taxes, in order to examine the impacts of these policies on the reduction of carbon emission in the whole of the economy by applying a computable general equilibrium model. Since the whole of the government revenue from these tax policies is transferred to all household and labor types through two schemes, a lump sum tax, and a labor tax, respectively, it is assumed that there is revenue neutrality in the model for the government. The findings from simulated scenarios indicate that the carbon tax policy is the more efficient policy for reducing CO2 emission, in both transferring schemes, while its impact on macroeconomic variables is almost lower than the equivalent energy tax. The carbon tax is more effective than the energy tax for Malaysia to achieve 40% carbon reduction target in comparison with its 2005 level. The carbon tax, compared to the energy tax, also leads to more decrease in consumption of fossil fuels. The carbon tax policy, in comparison with the energy tax, due to revenue recycling causes much more increase in the welfare of rural and urban households in Malaysia, especially the welfare of rural (lower income households.

  13. Tax policy to combat global warming: On designing a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poterba, J.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is divided into five sections. The first describes the basic structure of the carbon tax, focusing on the policies already in place in Europe as well as proposed taxes for the US. The second section considers the distributional burden of carbon taxes across income groups. The third section examines the production and consumption distortions from a carbon tax, using a simple partial-equilibrium model of the energy market. These estimates do not correspond to the net efficiency cost of carbon taxes because they neglect the reduction in negative externalities associated with these taxes, but they indicate the cost that must be balanced against potential efficiency gains from the externality channel. The fourth section discusses the short- and long-run macroeconomic effects of adopting a carbon tax, drawing on previous empirical studies of the relationship between tax rates and real output growth. A central issue in this regard is the disposition of carbon tax revenues. The fifth section considers several design issues relating to carbon taxes, such as harmonization with other greenhouse taxes and the difficulty of taxing fossil-fuel use in imported intermediate goods. There is a brief concluding section that discusses broader issues of policy design

  14. The welfare cost of a global carbon tax when tax revenues are recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, William K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper assesses the welfare cost of a global carbon tax when tax revenues finance reductions in existing revenue-raising taxes. The analysis finds that by lowering the excess burden from existing taxes, a revenue-neutral carbon tax policy has a positive net welfare effect in the range required to aggressively slow climate change. Based on tax efficiency considerations alone, the optimal reduction in emissions is 37 percent. When benefits from avoiding greenhouse damages are included in the model, the optimal reduction is 40 percent. Even more stringent restraints, avoiding more than 90 percent of greenhouse damages, are shown to have positive net benefits

  15. The impact of a carbon tax on international tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    A simulation model of international tourist flows is used to estimate the impact of a carbon tax on aviation fuel. The effect of the tax on travel behaviour is small: A global tax of $1000/t C would change travel behaviour and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from international aviation by 0.8%. A

  16. Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.

  17. Macroeconomic modelling of international carbon tax regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.; Mabey, N.; Smith, Clare

    1994-01-01

    An econometric model of fossil fuel demand has been estimated for eight OECD countries, relating coal, oil and gas demands to GDP and prices. In addition, for five of these countries, a model of endogenous technical progress has been estimated, representing the decline in energy intensity as a function of price and macroeconomic variables. This aims to include both price induced innovation in energy and structural change in the economy as long term determinants of energy consumption. A number of possible international carbon/energy tax agreements are simulated, showing the impacts on carbon dioxide emissions and comparing the two models. It is shown that the endogenous technical change model does include an important element that is missed in the more conventional approach. However in the long run the magnitude of taxes required to stabilise or reduce emissions would be large, and it is suggested that other non-price policies will become more important. (Author)

  18. Carbon Taxes. A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Hillary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  19. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  20. Will Carbon Tax Yield Employment Double Dividend for China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax is an important economic means to reduce carbon emission. This paper establishes a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to reflect China’s resource environment where economic growth and employment play a role by analyzing impacts of carbon tax on employment. The CGE model measures short and long-term impacts of carbon tax on employment, and examines whether the employment “double dividend” would be possible. The analysis shows that the demand for employment tends to decrease as a whole, but different groups of employees would be affected in various ways. “Double dividend” will be possible if appropriate carbon tax cycle is in place.

  1. Carbon and energy taxes in a small and open country

    OpenAIRE

    S. Solaymani

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia, as a small and developing country, must reduce carbon emissions because the country is one of the top CO2-emitting countries in the ASEAN region. Therefore, the current study implements two environmental tax policies; carbon and energy taxes, in order to examine the impacts of these policies on the reduction of carbon emission in the whole of the economy by applying a computable general equilibrium model. Since the whole of the government revenue from these tax policies is transferr...

  2. The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing

    2014-01-01

    carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces......South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border...

  3. The prospects and challenges of the proposed carbon tax regime in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GHGs) is carbon tax. Carbon tax- an economic instrument which levies taxes on the carbon content of goods and services, is increasingly getting popular among policy makers worldwide. South Africa is one of the countries with advanced plans ...

  4. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig

  5. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.W.; Kristroem, B.

    1997-01-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs

  6. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G W [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  7. Should a carbon tax rise or fall over time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulph, Alistair; Ulph, David; Pezzey, John

    1991-01-01

    A carbon tax has been proposed as one possible way of reducing the emissions of ''greenhouse gases''. Much of the recent work on carbon taxation has concentrated on analysing the effects of introducing such a tax at a level which would meet certain emission targets at some fixed date. Less attention has been devoted to the time profile of this tax. Yet in securing international agreement on the introduction of a carbon tax it could matter greatly whether what is being proposed is a tax which is initially low but rising, or initially high but falling. We show that in a wide class of cases the optimal time path of the tax will be that it initially rises and then falls as the exhaustion constraint starts to bite. However there are few general conclusions, and much depends on more detailed modelling assumptions on which the scientific evidence gives no firm guidance. (author)

  8. Economic effects of a carbon tax in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossier, F.; De Rous, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes to evaluate the consequences of the introduction of a carbon tax for the Belgian economy. To this end, two scenarios are studied. The first scenario introduces a carbon tax of about 23.5 ecus per ton of CO 2 emitted and the second scenario combines the tax with incentives to energy savings investments. The results suggest that the tax, alone, is not sufficient to meet the international requirements as far as a stabilization of CO 2 emissions is required. It is therefore suggested that a policy-mix of pure taxation measures with various forms of subsidies to investments should be achieved. (author)

  9. R and D Policies, Carbon Tax and Green Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Neubauer, Mauricio; Grimaud, Andre; Rouge, Luc

    2016-01-01

    We study an economy in which a final good is produced by two sectors. One uses a non-renewable and polluting resource, the other a renewable and clean resource. A specific type of research is associated with each sector. The public authorities levy a carbon tax and simultaneously subsidise both research sectors. We study the impact of such a policy scheme on the rate of resource extraction and emissions. In the clean sector, the research subsidy and the carbon tax have opposite effects. If the tax creates a green paradox, the subsidy moderates it; if the tax slows resource extraction, then the subsidy generates a green paradox

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions in Norway: do carbon taxes work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Larsen, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, Norway has carried out an ambitious climate policy. The main policy tool is a relatively high carbon tax, which was implemented already in 1991. Data for the development in CO 2 emissions since then provide a unique opportunity to evaluate carbon taxes as a policy tool. To reveal the driving forces behind the changes in the three most important climate gases, CO 2 , methane and N 2 O in the period 1990-1999, we decompose the actually observed emissions changes, and use an applied general equilibrium simulation to look into the specific effect of carbon taxes. Although total emissions have increased, we find a significant reduction in emissions per unit of GDP over the period due to reduced energy intensity, changes in the energy mix and reduced process emissions. Despite considerable taxes and price increases for some fuel-types, the carbon tax effect has been modest. While the partial effect from lower energy intensity and energy mix changes was a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 14 percent, the carbon taxes contributed to only 2 percent reduction. This relatively small effect relates to extensive tax exemptions and relatively inelastic demand in the sectors in which the tax is actually implemented

  11. The impact of a carbon tax on economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conefrey, Thomas; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Valeri, Laura Malaguzzi; Tol, Richard S J

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the medium-term effects of a carbon tax on growth and CO2 emissions in Ireland, a small open economy. We find that a double dividend exists if the carbon tax revenue is recycled through reduced income taxes. If the revenue is recycled by giving a lump-sum transfer to households,

  12. A carbon tax to reduce CO2 emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Paola; Botteon, Michele; Carraro, Carlo

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of introducing a tax on carbon dioxide emissions produced by combustion processes in OECD-European countries. A sectoral model of energy consumption is constructed to examine energy-saving and inter-fuel substitution effects induced by the introduction of various carbon taxes. The simulation period is 1989-94. Our results provide a mild support to the environmental role of a carbon tax. Energy-saving or inter-fuel substitution processes, that result from the introduction of environmental taxation, stabilize emissions at the 1988 level only in the electricity generation sector, and only if high tax rates are assumed ($100/ton.C). By contrast, total emissions (all sectors and all fuels) keep growing, and the implementation of a tax of $100/ton.C can only reduce the emission growth rate. (Author)

  13. Energy Tax versus Carbon Tax. A quantitative macro economical analysis with the HERMES/MIDAS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeloglou, P.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of imposing a tax has been recently put forward as a policy-instrument to induce substitutions aiming at reducing CO[sub 2] overall emissions. One can distinguish two options: recycle tax revenues for energy system restructuring (supply or demand restructuring); or use the corresponding revenues in order to reduce the negative impacts caused on the economic activity by the introduction of the tax. Several papers dealing with only the macroeconomic aspects of the environmental problems have been written. These papers neglect more or less the energy sphere and consider that the energy feedback effects are very small. Macroeconomic impacts of the carbon tax have been examined for the United Kingdom and for the four big European countries elsewhere. In this paper a synthesis of both the energy and the macroeconomic approaches is realized. The approach adopted is global and tries to evaluate the impacts on both the economic and energy system. The main question examined is the effectiveness and impacts of fiscal policy on CO[sub 2] emission and the effects of the adoption of an accommodating policy. Thus, not only the effects of imposing an energy or carbon tax are examined, but also the effects of introducing accommodating measures are studied. The analysis is effected by using the HERMES-MIDAS linked system of models and is limited in analyzing the effects of carbon and energy taxes and the reduction of direct taxes and is effected for four countries namely France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In section 2 policy scenarios are described while in sections three and four the results of the policy simulations are presented. In section five we compare the differences of two taxes (energy tax and carbon tax) and in section six the reduction of direct taxation as an accommodating measure is examined. 27 tabs., 10 refs

  14. Energy Tax versus Carbon Tax. A quantitative macro economical analysis with the HERMES/MIDAS models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeloglou, P. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece)

    1992-03-01

    The idea of imposing a tax has been recently put forward as a policy-instrument to induce substitutions aiming at reducing CO{sub 2} overall emissions. One can distinguish two options: recycle tax revenues for energy system restructuring (supply or demand restructuring); or use the corresponding revenues in order to reduce the negative impacts caused on the economic activity by the introduction of the tax. Several papers dealing with only the macroeconomic aspects of the environmental problems have been written. These papers neglect more or less the energy sphere and consider that the energy feedback effects are very small. Macroeconomic impacts of the carbon tax have been examined for the United Kingdom and for the four big European countries elsewhere. In this paper a synthesis of both the energy and the macroeconomic approaches is realized. The approach adopted is global and tries to evaluate the impacts on both the economic and energy system. The main question examined is the effectiveness and impacts of fiscal policy on CO{sub 2} emission and the effects of the adoption of an accommodating policy. Thus, not only the effects of imposing an energy or carbon tax are examined, but also the effects of introducing accommodating measures are studied. The analysis is effected by using the HERMES-MIDAS linked system of models and is limited in analyzing the effects of carbon and energy taxes and the reduction of direct taxes and is effected for four countries namely France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In section 2 policy scenarios are described while in sections three and four the results of the policy simulations are presented. In section five we compare the differences of two taxes (energy tax and carbon tax) and in section six the reduction of direct taxation as an accommodating measure is examined. 27 tabs., 10 refs.

  15. Intertemporal properties of an international carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, M.

    1993-01-01

    For national environmental problems appropriately designed emission taxes lead to efficient outcomes. The paper gives an analysis of the properties of an international tax on CO 2 emissions. A uniform CO 2 tax for all countries does not necessarily give the first best social optimum. In practice, however, a uniform tax at an appropriate level will give an allocation of emissions which is very close to the allocation in the first-best optimum. CO 2 emissions affect the climate through cumulative emissions. In a dynamic game of CO 2 emissions, it is shown that the tax giving a Pareto optimal solution is the same for the open loop and the perfect equilibrium in spite of the fact that these two equilibria differ in the absence of a CO 2 tax. 10 refs., 3 figs

  16. he Distributional Impact Of A Carbon Tax Policy In Indonesia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Laos, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines ... Environmental Policy: The Case of Carbon Tax and Energy Pricing Reform in Indonesia", by Dr. Arief ... i.e., the burden is borne more by lower income .... privileged members of society.

  17. Externalities and carbon taxes: Status and impacts on coal use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    More than half of the Nation's public utility commissions have developed, are developing, or are seriously considering the use of environmental externalities in the selection of new electric power generation. Most externality-based resource planning approaches heavily penalize carbon dioxide emissions and therefore the externality issue is linked closely to the issue of carbon taxes. Several foreign countries have instituted carbon taxes and many state and federal legislators and policy makers favor carbon taxes as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions which are believed to play a major role in future global warming. Both externalities and carbon taxes will have a disproportionate and a significant impact on future coal use because of the relatively higher proportion of carbon in coal compared to other fossil fuels and the absence of carbon in other means of electricity generation. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to report on the status of carbon taxes and externality-based electric utility resource allocation requirements around the world with an emphasis on the US, and (2) to present a review of the literature dealing with estimated impacts of these policies on coal use, in general, and the deployment of specific coal-using technologies in particular

  18. The impact of a carbon tax on Greek electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassos, S [Strategy and Planning Dept., Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece); Vlachou, A [Department of Economics, Athens Univ. of Economics and Business, Athens (Greece)

    1997-09-01

    The impact of proposed carbon taxes on the electric power industry, using the Greek power system as a case study, is investigated in this paper. It uses the WASP model for electric generation capacity expansion to explore the optimal expansion path under alternative carbon tax scenarios and to estimate their impact on CO{sub 2} and other types of emissions and on electricity production costs. The findings suggest that low carbon taxes would lead to a considerable reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants counterbalanced predominantly by natural gas fired plants. High carbon taxes (100-200 US dollars per ton of carbon) would lead to a drastic reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants which would be mainly replaced by coal or lignite fired technologies with CO{sub 2} removal capabilities, which are not available today but might become available within the time horizon of the present study. Hydropower and renewable sources would be the second least-cost alternatives to lignite under both low and high tax scenarios. The study provides evidence that carbon taxes also result in significant increases in the cost of producing electricity, implying adverse economic effects on electricity consumers and the Greek economy in general. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. The impact of a carbon tax on Greek electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassos, S.; Vlachou, A.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of proposed carbon taxes on the electric power industry, using the Greek power system as a case study, is investigated in this paper. It uses the WASP model for electric generation capacity expansion to explore the optimal expansion path under alternative carbon tax scenarios and to estimate their impact on CO 2 and other types of emissions and on electricity production costs. The findings suggest that low carbon taxes would lead to a considerable reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants counterbalanced predominantly by natural gas fired plants. High carbon taxes (100-200 US dollars per ton of carbon) would lead to a drastic reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants which would be mainly replaced by coal or lignite fired technologies with CO 2 removal capabilities, which are not available today but might become available within the time horizon of the present study. Hydropower and renewable sources would be the second least-cost alternatives to lignite under both low and high tax scenarios. The study provides evidence that carbon taxes also result in significant increases in the cost of producing electricity, implying adverse economic effects on electricity consumers and the Greek economy in general. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  20. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  1. Welfare Analysis of an Optimal Carbon Tax in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Espinosa; Jorge Fornero

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model which includes a negative externality that arises from fossil fuels burnings. The carbon released to the atmosphere by electricity producers is the main driver of climate change. We adapt the optimal tax derived by Golosov et al. (2011) to a small open economy to force polluters to internalize their damages. The results show that the tax benefits outweigh their costs; yet welfare gains seem to be marginal under plausible parameters. We...

  2. The Carbon Tax: an idea for the future only if..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    The transition from theory to practice is a difficult exercise for carbon tax. This article explains why the ambitious projects of carbon tax are generally all doomed to fail. Past experience shows that individual adjustment costs are perceived as immediate and very high while benefits are perceived as weak, uncertain and delayed, which induces a strong opposition from both households and companies. Yet the double dividend -carbon emission reduction and gains in employment - is potentially high. One solution consists in encompassing the environmental taxation issues in a global view of public finance and managing this tax as a component of a new social contract. The current period of low oil prices is favorable to adopt such a change, but this window of opportunity could be short-lived

  3. Distributional effects of a carbon tax in broader U.S. fiscal reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Aparna; Morris, Adele C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distributional implications of an illustrative $15 carbon tax imposed in 2010 on carbon in fossil fuels. We analyze its incidence across income classes and regions, both in isolation and when combined with measures that apply the carbon tax revenue to lowering other distortionary taxes in the economy. Consistent with earlier findings, we find that a carbon tax is regressive. Using tax swap simulations, we then subtract the burden of other taxes the carbon tax revenue could displace, and compute the net effect on households under three assumptions about how capital and labor income might be distributed. - Highlights: • Shows that a carbon tax by itself is regressive. • Burden of a carbon tax may be offset partly with a corporate tax swap. • Higher income households face negative tax rates under corporate tax swap. • Corporate tax swap results in wider regional variations in burden than labor tax swaps. • Adding sources side incidence of carbon tax makes tax less regressive

  4. Energy taxes and industrial competitiveness: the case of Italian carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardazzi, Rossella; Pazienza, Maria Grazia

    2005-01-01

    An international debate on which economic instrument should be used to reduce pollutant emissions has begun since the nineties when the awareness of climatic risks aroused and first attempts to introduce a European carbon tax were made. Although this project failed, several national programmes of carbon/energy taxes have been developed with a common concern for industrial competitiveness of energy and/or carbon-intensive firms. Therefore, double dividend schemes have been applied to reduce existing distorsive taxes while introducing a higher burden on energy products. This paper reviews the most important European case studies and analyses the effects of the introduction of a carbon tax in Italy on energy expenditure and economic profitability of Italian manufacturing enterprises. This tax has been introduced in 1998 and should have progressively increased up to the final tax rates in 2005. However, this process halted in the year 2000 - as the world energy prices increased - and the ultimate rates have never been applied. Nonetheless, our analysis offers relevant insights both because energy excises are a major instrument in environmental policy and because industrial activities affected by energy taxes will also be affected by the tradable permits scheme recently adopted by the European Union. The study is performed with a micro simulation model to simulate changes, in energy excises and the associated reduction of social contributions to achieve the double dividends. Existing empirical analyses have usually been carried out at aggregate or sectoral level, but the effects on costs both of carbon tax and of compensative measures differ at the firm level, thus it is significant to study the impact on economic profitability on individual units of analysis. The data show that energy expenditure as a component of intermediate costs varies by economic activity as well as the energy mix used in the production process, thus suggesting possible competitiveness problems

  5. Carbon taxes, consumer demand and carbon dioxide emission: a simulation analysis for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.J.; Proops, J.L.R.; Gay, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines a policy instrument that has been proposed as a means of reducing 'greenhouse gases', the introduction of a carbon tax on fossil fuels. It investigates the implication of a carbon tax for consumer prices using an input-output framework. Thus the effect of a tax on use of fossil fuels is allowed to affect consumer prices. These are then used in a micro-simulation program that features estimates of a system of demand equations obtained using 116,000 observations from the Family Expenditure System. This predicts the behavioural reaction of each household to the tax changes and the consequent effect on CO 2 emission, government revenue and any distributional effects. We illustrate the impact of a variety of carbon taxes, changes to indirect tax rates and lump-sum compensatory payments. (author)

  6. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-10-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  7. Should there be an EC carbon/energy tax?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, D.

    1993-01-01

    The European Commission has suggested that an EC-wide carbon/energy tax should be introduced to meet the Community's commitment to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, and to bear down on criticisms of sulphur dioxide and other harmful energy externalities. The UK government to data has pursued at best an agnostic position. Although the White Paper, This Common Inheritance, (DOE, 1990) gave prominence to the use of market-based instruments in advancing environmental objectives, their use in air pollution has been limited to the tax differential on unleaded petrol, the commitment to increase petrol tax in real terms in successive budgets and the imposition of VAT on domestic fuel in a phased series of stages. (Author)

  8. Should there be an EC carbon/energy tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, D. (New College, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1993-12-01

    The European Commission has suggested that an EC-wide carbon/energy tax should be introduced to meet the Community's commitment to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, and to bear down on criticisms of sulphur dioxide and other harmful energy externalities. The UK government to data has pursued at best an agnostic position. Although the White Paper, This Common Inheritance, (DOE, 1990) gave prominence to the use of market-based instruments in advancing environmental objectives, their use in air pollution has been limited to the tax differential on unleaded petrol, the commitment to increase petrol tax in real terms in successive budgets and the imposition of VAT on domestic fuel in a phased series of stages. (Author)

  9. Carbon tax, a socially regressive tax? True problems and false debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combet, E.; Ghersi, F.; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at clearing up misunderstandings about the distributive impacts of carbon taxes, which proved to be a decisive obstacle to their further consideration in public debates. It highlights the gap between partial equilibrium analyses, which are close to the agents' perception of the costs of taxation and general equilibrium analyses, which better capture its ultimate consequences. It shows that the real impact on households' income inequality is not mechanically determined by the initial energy budgets and their flexibility but also depends upon the recycling modes of the tax revenues and their general equilibrium effects. The comparison of five tax-recycling schemes highlights the existence of trade-off between maximizing total consumption, maximizing the consumption of the low-income classes and reducing income inequality. (authors)

  10. Will carbon motivated border tax adjustments function as a threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aijun; Zhang Aizhen

    2012-01-01

    Due to large incremental carbon emissions, China might become an important target country of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments). To levy CBTA could reduce China’s emissions. Meanwhile, China’s emissions reduction could also be achieved by China’s climate policies (termed as CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies). This paper contributes to the discussion on CBTA by comparing the potential regional effects of CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. The main findings are as follows: (1) CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies would result in relocations of outputs across regions and countries, affect the structure of economy and contribute to world’s emissions reduction. (2) There would be significant differences in the regional effects between CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. (3) Compared to carbon tax, CBTA would be a costly and inefficient policy instrument to reduce emissions, but could function as an effective coercion strategy. (4) These policies would result in competitiveness issue and rebound effects, wherein different countries would be affected differently. China is a large economy and energy consumer with high openness to international trade. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should consider the potential interactions between China and other economies when designing tax reforms. - Highlights: ►We compare regional effects of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments) and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. ► We explore the interactions between China and other economies. ► We investigate the potential international externalities and their effects across countries.

  11. TRADABLE CARBON PERMITS IN EUROPE - FEASIBILITY AND COMPARISON WITH TAXES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOUTSTAAL, P; NENTJES, A

    In the European Union (EU) the discussions on climate policy have focused on the instrument of taxation. However, there has been considerable opposition from both Member States and industry against the combined carbon/energy tax proposals. In this article, an alternative market-oriented instrument

  12. Cumulative emissions, unburnable fossil fuel, and the optimal carbon tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.; Rezai, A.

    2017-01-01

    A stylised analytical framework is used to show how the global carbon tax and the amount of untapped fossil fuel can be calculated from a simple rule given estimates of society's rate of time impatience and intergenerational inequality aversion, the extraction cost technology, the rate of technical

  13. Structural consequences of carbon taxes: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yuhu.

    1992-01-01

    A model system is provided for examining for examining the structural consequences of carbon taxes on economic, energy, and environmental issues. The key component is the Iterative Multi-Optimization (IMO) Process model which describes, using an Input-Output (I-O) framework, the feedback between price changes and substitution. The IMO process is designed to assure this feedback process when the input coefficients in an I-O table can be changed while holding the I-O price model. The theoretical problems of convergence to a limit in the iterative process and uniqueness (which requires all IMO processes starting from different initial prices to converge to a unique point for a given level of carbon taxes) are addressed. The empirical analysis also examines the effects of carbon taxes on the US economy as described by a 78 sector I-O model. Findings are compared with those of other models that assess the effects of carbon taxes, and the similarities and differences with them are interpreted in terms of differences in the scope, sectoral detail, time frame, and policy assumptions among the models

  14. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa; Parente, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  15. The Political Economy of Carbon Tax in South Africa | Mbadlanyana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is why many countries are trying to change environmentally harmful behaviour by introducing market-based mitigation measures such as carbon tax. This article engages with the discourse on the political economy of climate change, with a particular focus on South Africa, with the aim of assessing the viability of ...

  16. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on Chinese households: A case of Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhujun; Shao, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    As an effective policy instrument to reduce CO 2 emissions, the effects of a carbon tax on distribution have been the critical factor in determining whether a carbon tax will be acceptable in China. Taking Shanghai as an example, which is the economic center and front-runner of China, this paper estimates the distributional effect of a carbon tax on households in various income groups by using the input–output model and the Suits index. The results indicate that the comprehensive distributional effect of the carbon tax is regressive. The expenditure of the low-income group caused by the carbon tax accounts for 0.853% of the total expenditure, while that of the high-income group 0.712%. The direct distributional effect presents a weak progressivity, while the indirect one is significantly regressive, and the latter is much larger than the former. Moreover, the Suits index of the carbon tax is −0.078, implying that the carbon tax burden on the low-income group is the highest and thus that a carbon tax can intensify income inequality. Therefore, when introducing a carbon tax, some rational associated redistribution or compensation measures, such as purposive transfer payments, should be implemented to restrict or even eliminate the regressivity of the carbon tax. - Highlights: • The direct distributional effect of carbon tax presents a weak progressivity. • The indirect distributional effect of carbon tax is significantly regressive. • The comprehensive distributional effect of carbon tax is regressive. • The Suits index of carbon tax is −0.078. • Imposing carbon tax on fossil fuels can intensify income inequality

  17. Coordinating a Two-Echelon Supply Chain under Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the impact of carbon tax on carbon emission and retail price in a two-echelon supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer. Specifically, by adopting two types of contracts, i.e., the modified wholesale price (MW and the modified cost-sharing contract (MS, supply chain coordination is achieved, which promotes the supply chain efficiency. Our study shows that: (1 with the increase of carbon tax, both the optimal emission reduction level and the optimal retail price increase, and then keep unchanged; (2 neither MW nor MS benefits the manufacturer after the supply chain coordination; and (3 to effectively coordinate the supply chain, we propose an innovative supply chain contract that integrates the firms’ optimal decisions under MW or MS with a two part tariff contract (TPT and a fixed fee the retailer can pay to ensure a win–win solution.

  18. The effect of a carbon Tax on Australian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Commonwealth Government has adopted an interim planning target of stabilizing emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide based on 1988 levels, by the year 2000, and reducing these emissions by 20% by the year 2005. The Government also agreed that Australia will not adopt measures which would damage Australia's competitiveness, in the absence of similar action by major greenhouse gas producing countries. This paper reports on a study, carried out by London Economics, which assesses the impact of a carbon tax on the international competitiveness of energy-intensive australian industries. A special feature of the study is that analysis is done at a disaggregated level using information on all major world plant in each of the industries. The study finds that a tax imposed to meet the Toronto target would virtually wipe out australian steel and aluminium industries and have a severe impact on the coal industry. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. The Case for a Carbon Tax in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2015-11-01

    if we combine the emissions from the transportation sector with those of the manufacturing and industrial sector, which can also be characterized by scattered operations, they substantially exceed those of the electricity and heat generation sector. Indeed, over 58 per cent of Alberta emissions come from places other than oil and gas and mining. There will surely be those who prefer strengthening SGER to a carbon tax; this is not likely to make enough of a difference for Alberta to meet its carbon-reduction goal of 218 Mt by 2020. The government would make far more progress by implementing a broad carbon tax, similar to the one in British Columbia, which applies to all emitters and consumers. The cost to the economy would not be steep: For a $20 per tonne tax, the cost would be 0.9 per cent of gross output (or 1.7 per cent at $40 a tonne. And the cost to households would be less than $700 a year. As in B.C., the proceeds would be better recycled in the form of reduced corporate income taxes, personal taxes, and subsidies to lowincome households, to offset the extra burden and distortions a carbon tax would create. But unlike the current SGER, a carbon tax would succeed in being more than a symbolic, largely futile gesture.

  20. On the Views of Carbon Tax in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Heon G. Kim

    2008-01-01

    To comply with the UNFCCC agreement, many countries are expected to make efforts to reduce the greenhouse gas emission level down to 1990 by the year of 2012. The agreement is intended to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel that causes the greenhouse effect. The global warming has been accelerated by the greenhouse effect resulted from the CO2 emission and has become a serious global issue requiring a fundamental solution. Many environmentalists regard the carbon tax imposition on fossil fu...

  1. A new strategic plan for a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, Bruce Nels

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new Green House Gas policy building upon general consensus in scientific, political and economic communities including: 1.Concern too little progress is being made toward an integrated global approach to controlling CO 2 emissions. 2.Recommendation of a carbon tax. 3.Need for increased R and D for alternative energy sources. 4.Substantially increased research and development expenditures are relatively inexpensive. Here,these elements are woven into a coherent strategy that should be farmore politically acceptable by global governments than currentalternatives. Here are its elements: 1.A small carbon tax whose proceeds are tied exclusively to energy research and development in a dedicated trust fund. 2.Deployment of the fund to demonstrate benefits of the approach and its incentives for other countries to join. 3.The establishment of a commonality of interest among participating nations. 4.Clear incentives for additional nations to participate. The ultimate goal, energy services at lower cost than today with fossil fuels, is appropriately ambitious. The proposed approach is functional, timely and will produce benefits going well beyond simply stemming global warming. It would also tend to obviate the need for implementation policy: economic choice would lead to transition to such new technologies. - Highlights: • International Green House Gas negotiations have foundered on the need to allocate caps. • A small carbon tax is a more achievable policy than the global cooperation needed for caps. • A small carbon tax among cooperating nations can fund much more energy research and development. • Access to advanced technology creates a relatively low cost incentive to cooperate. • Lower cost energy services, if achieved, would improve human welfare

  2. A new carbon tax in Portugal: A missed opportunity to achieve the triple dividend?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Alfredo M.; Pereira, Rui M.; Rodrigues, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Portuguese government appointed a Commission for Environmental Tax Reform that formulated a carbon-tax proposal designed to achieve three dividends: to help Portugal meet the European Union's target for emissions reductions by 2030, to boost long-term employment and GDP above their pre-carbon-tax levels, and to strengthen public finances by lowering public indebtedness. A key feature of this proposal was a judicious set of mixed strategies to recycle all carbon-tax revenues back into the economy. In this note, we show how the carbon tax that the Portuguese Parliament eventually approved deviated from such guidelines, and ultimately failed to achieve the triple dividend. We argue that authorities need to quickly amend the existing legislation to avoid this misguided attempt turning into a missed opportunity to improve environmental, macroeconomic, and fiscal outcomes. - Highlights: •In a general-equilibrium model, we simulate the effects of a carbon tax in Portugal. •A carbon tax is needed for Portugal to meet its 2030 target in emissions reductions. •In the long run, it's possible to design a carbon tax to achieve the triple dividend. •The Portuguese parliament ultimately approved an unsatisfactory carbon-tax package. •Carbon-tax revenues must be recycled into lower taxes and promote energy efficiency.

  3. The impacts of carbon tax and complementary policies on Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chuanyi; Tong, Qing; Liu, Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, it is imperative for Chinese government to impose effective policy instruments to promote domestic energy saving and carbon emissions reduction. As one of the most important incentive-based policy instruments, carbon tax has sparked a lively controversy in China. This paper explores the impact of carbon tax on Chinese economy, as well as the cushion effects of the complementary policies, by constructing a dynamic recursive general equilibrium model. The model can describe the new equilibrium for each sequential independent period (e.g. one year) after carbon tax and the complementary policies are imposed, and thus describe the long-term impacts of the policies. The simulation results show that carbon tax is an effective policy tool because it can reduce carbon emissions with a little negative impact on economic growth; reducing indirect tax in the meantime of imposing carbon tax will help to reduce the negative impact of the tax on production and competitiveness; in addition, giving households subsidy in the meantime will help to stimulate household consumptions. Therefore, complementary policies used together with carbon tax will help to cushion the negative impacts of carbon tax on the economy. The dynamic CGE analysis shows the impact of carbon tax policy on the GDP is relatively small, but the reduction of carbon emission is relatively large. (author)

  4. Global climate change, energy subsidies and national carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.; Shah, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the previous chapter of the book it is indicated that fossil-fuel burning is one of the main environmental culprits. Nevertheless, many countries continue to subsidize fossil fuels. In this chapter estimates of subsidies to energy and energy complements in OECD and non-OECD countries are provided. The authors conclude that the removal of energy subsidies in OECD countries on the order of US$30 billion annually (primarily in the US and Germany) and subsidies to complements on the order of US$50-90 (United States) are likely to have only little impact on CO-emissions. In contrast, the removal of energy subsidies of US$270-330 billion in non-OECD countries could substantially curb the growth of global CO 2 emissions, equivalent to the impact of a carbon tax on the order of US$60-70 per ton in the OECD countries. Nonetheless, even with the removal of energy subsidies, the growth in CO 2 emissions in non-OECD countries is projected to increase by 80% from the year 1990 to 2010. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of a revenue-neutral national carbon tax, in addition to energy subsidy removal, can yield significant health benefits from the reduction in local pollution. The authors note that carbon taxes are considerably less regressive relative to lifetime income or annual consumption expenditures than to annual income. 7 tabs., 23 refs

  5. The effect of carbon tax on per capita CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Boqiang, E-mail: bqlin@xmu.edu.cn [New Huadu Business School, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); China Center for Energy Economics Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li Xuehui [China Center for Energy Economics Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2011-09-15

    As the most efficient market-based mitigation instrument, carbon tax is highly recommended by economists and international organizations. Countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Netherlands and Norway were the first adopters of carbon tax and as such, research on the impacts and problems of carbon tax implementation in these countries will provide great practical significance as well as caution for countries that are to levy the tax. Different from the existing studies that adopt the model simulation approaches, in this article, we comprehensively estimate the real mitigation effects of the five north European countries by employing the method of difference-in-difference (DID). The results indicate that carbon tax in Finland imposes a significant and negative impact on the growth of its per capita CO{sub 2} emissions. Meanwhile, the effects of carbon tax in Denmark, Sweden and Netherlands are negative but not significant. The mitigation effects of carbon tax are weakened due to the tax exemption policies on certain energy intensive industries in these countries. Notwithstanding, in Norway, as the rapid growth of energy products drives a substantial increase of CO{sub 2} emissions in oil drilling and natural gas exploitation sectors, carbon tax actually has not realized its mitigation effects. - Highlights: > DID method is employed to test the real mitigation effect of carbon tax. > Carbon tax in Finland imposes a significant and negative impact. > The effects of carbon tax in other four countries are limited. > Tax exemption or tax relief is the main reason of limited effects. > High tax rates and recycling the revenue contribute to emission reduction.

  6. The effect of carbon tax on per capita CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Li Xuehui

    2011-01-01

    As the most efficient market-based mitigation instrument, carbon tax is highly recommended by economists and international organizations. Countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Netherlands and Norway were the first adopters of carbon tax and as such, research on the impacts and problems of carbon tax implementation in these countries will provide great practical significance as well as caution for countries that are to levy the tax. Different from the existing studies that adopt the model simulation approaches, in this article, we comprehensively estimate the real mitigation effects of the five north European countries by employing the method of difference-in-difference (DID). The results indicate that carbon tax in Finland imposes a significant and negative impact on the growth of its per capita CO 2 emissions. Meanwhile, the effects of carbon tax in Denmark, Sweden and Netherlands are negative but not significant. The mitigation effects of carbon tax are weakened due to the tax exemption policies on certain energy intensive industries in these countries. Notwithstanding, in Norway, as the rapid growth of energy products drives a substantial increase of CO 2 emissions in oil drilling and natural gas exploitation sectors, carbon tax actually has not realized its mitigation effects. - Highlights: → DID method is employed to test the real mitigation effect of carbon tax. → Carbon tax in Finland imposes a significant and negative impact. → The effects of carbon tax in other four countries are limited. → Tax exemption or tax relief is the main reason of limited effects. → High tax rates and recycling the revenue contribute to emission reduction.

  7. The European carbon tax: an assessment of the European Commission's proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.; Smith, Stephen.

    1991-12-01

    After a lengthy internal debate within the European Commission, the Environment Commissioner announced the broad structure of the Commission's proposals for a European carbon tax towards the end of September. The proposed tax would be a combination of a tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels, and a tax on all non-renewable forms of energy. Thus, fossil fuels such as gas, coal and oil would bear a tax comprising two components, one related to their carbon content, the other related to their energy content. Non-renewable forms of energy other than fossil fuels (mainly nuclear power) would be subject to the energy-related part of the tax, but would not bear the carbon component. Overall, the two components would be combined in equal proportions, in the sense that half of the tax on a typical barrel of oil would be related to the carbon component and half to the energy component. (author)

  8. Taxing Strategies for Carbon Emissions: A Bilevel Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative and computational method to determine the optimal tax rate among generating units. To strike a balance between the reduction of carbon emission and the profit of energy sectors, the proposed bilevel optimization model can be regarded as a Stackelberg game between the government agency and the generation companies. The upper-level, which represents the government agency, aims to limit total carbon emissions within a certain level by setting optimal tax rates among generators according to their emission performances. The lower-level, which represents decision behaviors of the grid operator, tries to minimize the total production cost under the tax rates set by the government. The bilevel optimization model is finally reformulated into a mixed integer linear program (MILP which can be solved by off-the-shelf MILP solvers. Case studies on a 10-unit system as well as a provincial power grid in China demonstrate the validity of the proposed method and its capability in practical applications.

  9. WELFARE GAIN FROM CARBON TAX APPLIED TO LEISURE AIR TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rendeiro Martín-Cejas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe rapid growth in the air transport required satisfying the increased demand for tourism become a factor of unsustainability due to the substantial environmental impact that supports such a development. There is the need to establish an alternative to the traditional air transport pricing structure that reflects the true cost that air market operators impose on others. This paper analyses one application of a Carbon tax by considering the CO2 emission costs as a valuable input. A tentative tax on CO2 emissions from air transport is calculated considering its applications in leisure air transport market. Finally, one of the main conclusions of the analysis performed is that the available evidence suggests that international aviation emissions should be restricted. In this case, a Ramsey pricing structure, which involved aviation users bearing the environmental costs, would work reasonably well at restricting inefficient demand and produce a reasonable welfare gain respect to the do-nothing scenerywill be pointed out.

  10. The carbon tax: myth or reality? From the theory to the practical; La taxe carbone: mythe ou realite? De la theorie a la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    The climatic change is an international problem. Meanwhile actions must begin at an european and national scale. The France is involved in the european policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction by emissions quotas. In this framework an external carbon tax, aiming to offset the differences between the european and non european enterprises, is studied. The government decided to implement an internal carbon tax called 'contribution climate-energy'. This tax and the context are detailed in this document: the ecological challenge, the economical stakes, the regulation, the conditions of implementing and the consequences of this internal tax. (A.L.B.)

  11. Carbon Reduction Strategies Based on an NW Small-World Network with a Progressive Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasingly urgent need to reduce carbon emissions. Devising effective carbon tax policies has become an important research topic. It is necessary to explore carbon reduction strategies based on the design of carbon tax elements. In this study, we explore the effect of a progressive carbon tax policy on carbon emission reductions using the logical deduction method. We apply experience-weighted attraction learning theory to construct an evolutionary game model for enterprises with different levels of energy consumption in an NW small-world network, and study their strategy choices when faced with a progressive carbon tax policy. The findings suggest that enterprises that adopt other energy consumption strategies gradually transform to a low energy consumption strategy, and that this trend eventually spreads to the entire system. With other conditions unchanged, the rate at which enterprises change to a low energy consumption strategy becomes faster as the discount coefficient, the network externality, and the expected adjustment factor increase. Conversely, the rate of change slows as the cost of converting to a low energy consumption strategy increases.

  12. Increasing carbon and material productivity through environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, Paul; Pollitt, Hector; Summerton, Philip; Chewpreecha, Unnada

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR), a shift in taxation towards environmental taxes, has been implemented on a small scale in a number of European countries. This paper first gives a short review of the literature about ETR. An Appendix briefly describes the model used for a modelling exercise to explore, through scenarios with low and high international energy prices, the implications of a large-scale ETR in the European Union, sufficient to reach the EU's emission reduction targets for 2020. The paper then reports the results of the exercise. The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity, with the emission reductions distributed across all sectors as a reduction in the demand for all fossil fuels. There are also small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries for all the scenarios, and for the EU as a whole. Both the environmental and macroeconomic outcomes are better with low than with high energy prices, because the former both increases the scale of the ETR required to reach the targets, and reduces the outflow of foreign exchange to pay for energy imports. ETR emerges from the exercise as an attractive and cost-effective policy for environmental improvement. - Highlights: ► European experience with environmental tax reform (ETR) is reviewed. ► Scenarios which meet EU carbon emission targets are modelled. ► The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity. ► There are small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries. ► ETR emerges as an attractive and cost-effective environmental policy.

  13. Effects of carbon tax on social welfare: A case study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zi-yue; Nie, Pu-yan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon tax on the production link may lead to the rise of social welfare. • Oligopoly model of energy sector expands the optimal model of carbon tax. • The impact of carbon taxes is stable under different social redistribution demand. - Abstract: Almost all countries around the world concern about the emission of greenhouse gas. The most widely used model of carbon tax is based on complete competition model of energy market, which, however, cannot completely reflect the real condition. This article establishes a social optimal welfare model that based on oligopoly competition of energy department. According to the model, the article calculates the substitution elasticity of factors in China’s energy sectors, non-energy department and consumption preference in domestic energy and non-energy commodities. Based on the social optimal welfare model, the effect on social welfare caused by carbon taxes in different links is further evaluated. The results show that a certain amount of carbon tax in the production link raises the social welfare, while in consumption and redistribution links lowers the social welfare. Specifically, the absolute value of marginal social welfare in the redistribution link is larger. Moreover, the values of the three types of carbon taxes vary under different redistribution demands though the variation trends of tax in the same link are similar. As a result, a small amount of carbon tax on the production link contributes to the growth of social welfare.

  14. Public willingness to pay for a US carbon tax and preferences for spending the revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchen, Matthew J.; Turk, Zachary M.; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2017-09-01

    We provide evidence from a nationally representative survey on Americans’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a carbon tax, and public preferences for how potential carbon-tax revenue should be spent. The average WTP for a tax on fossil fuels that increases household energy bills is US177 per year. This translates into an average WTP of 14% more on average for households across the United States, where energy costs differ significantly across states. Regarding the tax revenues, Americans are most in support of using the money to invest in clean energy and infrastructure. There is relatively less support for reducing income or payroll taxes, returning dividends to households, and other expenditure categories. Finally, Americans support using the tax revenues to assist displaced workers in the coal industry enough to compensate each miner nearly US146 000 upon passage of a carbon tax.

  15. Carbon-related border tax adjustment: mitigating climate change or restricting international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christine; Weber, Rolf H

    2011-01-01

    Border tax adjustments in the form of carbon taxes on products from countries with lax environmental production standards or in the form of a required participation in an emissions allowances' trading system have become a heavily debated issue under WTO law. Such an adjustment might be permissible if energy taxes as indirect taxes are applied on inputs during the production process. Compliance with the Most Favoured Nation principle has less practical importance than the not-yet settled liken...

  16. Effects of energy and carbon taxes on building material competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund, (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The relations between building material competitiveness and economic instruments for mitigating climate change are explored in this bottom-up study. The effects of carbon and energy taxes on building material manufacturing cost and total building construction cost are modelled, analysing individual materials as well as comparing a wood-framed building to a reinforced concrete-framed building. The energy balances of producing construction materials made of wood, concrete, steel, and gypsum are described and quantified. For wood lumber, more usable energy is available as biomass residues than is consumed in the processing steps. The quantities of biofuels made available during the production of wood materials are calculated, and the cost differences between using these biofuels and using fossil fuels are shown under various tax regimes. The results indicate that higher energy and carbon taxation rates increase the economic competitiveness of wood construction materials. This is due to both the lower energy cost for material manufacture, and the increased economic value of biomass by-products used to replace fossil fuel. (Author)

  17. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on car fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the distributional effects of alternative scenarios of carbon taxes on car fuels using disaggregated French panel data from 2003 to 2006. It incorporates household price responsiveness that differs across income groups into a consumer surplus measure of tax burden. Carbon taxation is regressive before revenue recycling. However, taking into account the benefits from congestion reduction induced by the tax mitigates regressivity. We show also that recycling additional revenues from the carbon tax either in equal amounts to each household or according to household size makes poorest households better off. (author)

  18. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on car fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the distributional effects of alternative scenarios of carbon taxes on car fuels using dis-aggregated French panel data from 2003 to 2006. It incorporates household price responsiveness that differs across income groups into a consumer surplus measure of tax burden. Carbon taxation is regressive before revenue recycling. However, taking into account the benefits from congestion reduction induced by the tax mitigates regressiveness. We show also that recycling additional revenues from the carbon tax either in equal amounts to each household or according to household size makes poorest households better off. (author)

  19. Economic effects of using carbon taxes to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in major OECD countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A tax on fossil fuels designed to obtain a 20 percent reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2020 would lower output among major OECD nations by 1 to 3 1/2 percent. The tax required to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by 2020 ranged from $489.4 (Sweden) per metric ton of carbon to $2,427.9 (Japan) per ton of carbon. The tax required for the U.S. was $720.6 per ton. In the U.S., a tax per $100 per ton of carbon would equate to a tax of $70.68 per short ton of coal, $11.42 per barrel of oil, $1.66 per MCF of natural gas and 0.27 per gallon of gasoline. The study is part of a multi-phase effort to gauge the economic consequences of various measures being discussed by the international community to mitigate the possibility of global climate change by limiting emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use. The study assumed that the carbon tax program would be revenue neutral in that increased revenues from the carbon tax would be offset by reductions in personal income taxes

  20. Carbon emissions tax policy of urban road traffic and its application in Panjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longhai; Hu, Xiaowei; Fang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    How to effectively solve traffic congestion and transportation pollution in urban development is a main research emphasis for transportation management agencies. A carbon emissions tax can affect travelers' generalized costs and will lead to changes in passenger demand, mode choice and traffic flow equilibrium in road networks, which are of significance in green travel and low-carbon transportation management. This paper first established a mesoscopic model to calculate the carbon emissions tax and determined the value of this charge in China, which was based on road traffic flow, vehicle speed, and carbon emissions. Referring to existing research results to calibrate the value of time, this paper modified the traveler's generalized cost function, including the carbon emissions tax, fuel surcharge and travel time cost, which can be used in the travel impedance model with the consideration of the carbon emissions tax. Then, a method for analyzing urban road network traffic flow distribution was put forward, and a joint traffic distribution model was established, which considered the relationship between private cars and taxis. Finally, this paper took the city of Panjin as an example to analyze the road traffic carbon emissions tax's impact. The results illustrated that the carbon emissions tax has a positive effect on road network flow equilibrium and carbon emission reduction. This paper will have good reference value and practical significance for the calculation and implementation of urban traffic carbon emissions taxes in China.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Benefit of High-Speed Railway in Terms of Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yanbing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper calculates the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway based on the carbon dioxide tax policy. We define the carbon dioxide emission system boundary for high-speed railway in its whole life cycle and estimate the life cycle carbon dioxide inventories during its construction, application, and recovery stages. And then we establish a theoretical model to calculate the life cycle carbon dioxide mitigation quantity for high-speed railway when compared with road transport and then calculate its carbon dioxide mitigation benefit. The numerical example shows that the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway is better than that of road transport from the whole life cycle perspective.

  2. When do increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming? A note on the green paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kalkuhl, Matthias, E-mail: kalkuhl@pik-potsdam.d [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The 'green paradox' by Hans-Werner Sinn suggests that increasing resource taxes accelerate global warming because resource owners increase near-term extraction in fear of higher future taxation. In this note we show that this effect does only occur for the specific set of carbon taxes that increase at a rate higher than the effective discount rate of the resource owners. We calculate a critical initial value for the carbon tax that leads to a decreased cumulative consumption over the entire (infinite) time horizon. Applying our formal findings to carbon taxes for several mitigation targets, we conclude that there is a low risk of a green paradox in case the regulator implements and commits to a permanently mal-adjusted tax. This remaining risk can be avoided by emissions trading scheme as suggested by Sinn-as long as the emission caps are set appropriately and the intertemporal permit market works correctly. - Research highlights: {yields} Fast increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming if they start at a low level. {yields} Appropriately high carbon taxes can always reduce cumulative emissions. {yields} Many existing tax proposals are unlikely to accelerate global warming. {yields} Capital income taxes cannot reduce cumulative emissions.

  3. When do increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming? A note on the green paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The 'green paradox' by Hans-Werner Sinn suggests that increasing resource taxes accelerate global warming because resource owners increase near-term extraction in fear of higher future taxation. In this note we show that this effect does only occur for the specific set of carbon taxes that increase at a rate higher than the effective discount rate of the resource owners. We calculate a critical initial value for the carbon tax that leads to a decreased cumulative consumption over the entire (infinite) time horizon. Applying our formal findings to carbon taxes for several mitigation targets, we conclude that there is a low risk of a green paradox in case the regulator implements and commits to a permanently mal-adjusted tax. This remaining risk can be avoided by emissions trading scheme as suggested by Sinn-as long as the emission caps are set appropriately and the intertemporal permit market works correctly. - Research highlights: → Fast increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming if they start at a low level. → Appropriately high carbon taxes can always reduce cumulative emissions. → Many existing tax proposals are unlikely to accelerate global warming. → Capital income taxes cannot reduce cumulative emissions.

  4. Will the use of a carbon tax for revenue generation produce an incentive to continue carbon emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Integrated assessment models are commonly used to generate optimal carbon prices based on an objective function that maximizes social welfare. Such models typically project an initially low carbon price that increases with time. This framework does not reflect the incentives of decision makers who are responsible for generating tax revenue. If a rising carbon price is to result in near-zero emissions, it must ultimately result in near-zero carbon tax revenue. That means that at some point, policy makers will be asked to increase the tax rate on carbon emissions to such an extent that carbon tax revenue will fall. Therefore, there is a risk that the use of a carbon tax to generate revenue could eventually create a perverse incentive to continue carbon emissions in order to provide a continued stream of carbon tax revenue. Using the Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy (DICE) model, we provide evidence that this risk is not a concern for the immediate future but that a revenue-generating carbon tax could create this perverse incentive as time goes on. This incentive becomes perverse at about year 2085 under the default configuration of DICE, but the timing depends on a range of factors including the cost of climate damages and the cost of decarbonizing the global energy system. While our study is based on a schematic model, it highlights the importance of considering a broader spectrum of incentives in studies using more comprehensive integrated assessment models. Our study demonstrates that the use of a carbon tax for revenue generation could potentially motivate implementation of such a tax today, but this source of revenue generation risks motivating continued carbon emissions far into the future.

  5. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and

  6. The carbon tax: myth or reality? From the theory to the practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The climatic change is an international problem. Meanwhile actions must begin at an european and national scale. The France is involved in the european policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction by emissions quotas. In this framework an external carbon tax, aiming to offset the differences between the european and non european enterprises, is studied. The government decided to implement an internal carbon tax called ''contribution climate-energy'. This tax and the context are detailed in this document: the ecological challenge, the economical stakes, the regulation, the conditions of implementing and the consequences of this internal tax. (A.L.B.)

  7. Forest Carbon Sequestration Subsidy and Carbon Tax as Part of China’s Forestry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry is an effective strategy for climate change mitigation. However, forestry activities not only sequester carbon but also release CO2. It is therefore important to formulate carbon subsidy and carbon taxation policies on the basis of the price of carbon. In this study, a forestry-based Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model was built by using input-output data of China in 2014 to construct a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM. The model simulates different carbon price scenarios and was used to explore the effects of carbon subsidy and carbon taxation policies on the forestry economy. The main results can be summarized as follows: When the carbon price is low, the implementation of the policy increases forestry output and causes forest product prices to rise. When the carbon price is high, the carbon tax will produce an inhibitory effect, and output and prices will decline. With the constant rise of the carbon price, value addition will decrease, with flow to other industries. For the carbon sequestration policy, there is a reasonable carbon price range bound. In light of these results, relevant policies are proposed.

  8. Carbon emissions tax policy of urban road traffic and its application in Panjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longhai; Fang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    How to effectively solve traffic congestion and transportation pollution in urban development is a main research emphasis for transportation management agencies. A carbon emissions tax can affect travelers’ generalized costs and will lead to changes in passenger demand, mode choice and traffic flow equilibrium in road networks, which are of significance in green travel and low-carbon transportation management. This paper first established a mesoscopic model to calculate the carbon emissions tax and determined the value of this charge in China, which was based on road traffic flow, vehicle speed, and carbon emissions. Referring to existing research results to calibrate the value of time, this paper modified the traveler’s generalized cost function, including the carbon emissions tax, fuel surcharge and travel time cost, which can be used in the travel impedance model with the consideration of the carbon emissions tax. Then, a method for analyzing urban road network traffic flow distribution was put forward, and a joint traffic distribution model was established, which considered the relationship between private cars and taxis. Finally, this paper took the city of Panjin as an example to analyze the road traffic carbon emissions tax’s impact. The results illustrated that the carbon emissions tax has a positive effect on road network flow equilibrium and carbon emission reduction. This paper will have good reference value and practical significance for the calculation and implementation of urban traffic carbon emissions taxes in China. PMID:29738580

  9. Sustainable Trade Credit and Replenishment Policies under the Cap-And-Trade and Carbon Tax Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Qin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the sustainable trade credit and inventory policies with demand related to credit period and the environmental sensitivity of consumers under the carbon cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations. First, the decision models are constructed under three cases: without regulation, carbon cap-and-trade regulation, and carbon tax regulation. The optimal solutions of the retailer in the three cases are then discussed under the exogenous and endogenous credit periods. Finally, numerical analysis is conducted to obtain conclusions. The retailer shortens the trade credit period as the environmental sensitivity of the consumer is enhanced. The cap has no effects on the credit period decisions under the carbon cap-and-trade regulation. Carbon trade price and carbon tax have negative effects on the credit period. The retailer under carbon cap-and-trade regulation is more motivated to obey regulations than that under carbon tax regulation when carbon trade price equals carbon tax. Carbon regulations have better effects on carbon emission reduction than with exogenous credit term when the retailer has the power to decide with regards credit policies.

  10. Carbon tax scenarios and their effects on the Irish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Cosmo, Valeria; Hyland, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use annual time series data from 1960 to 2008 to estimate the long run price and income elasticities underlying energy demand in Ireland. The Irish economy is divided into five sectors: residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural and transport, and separate energy demand equations are estimated for all sectors. Energy demand is broken down by fuel type, and price and income elasticities are estimated for the primary fuels in the Irish fuel mix. Using the estimated price and income elasticities we forecast Irish sectoral energy demand out to 2025. The share of electricity in the Irish fuel mix is predicted to grow over time, as the share of carbon intensive fuels such as coal, oil and peat, falls. The share of electricity in total energy demand grows most in the industrial and commercial sectors, while oil remains an important fuel in the residential and transport sectors. Having estimated the baseline forecasts, two different carbon tax scenarios are imposed and the impact of these scenarios on energy demand, carbon dioxide emissions, and government revenue is assessed. If it is assumed that the level of the carbon tax will track the futures price of carbon under the EU-ETS, the carbon tax will rise from €21.50 per tonne CO 2 in 2012 (the first year forecasted) to €41 in 2025. Results show that under this scenario total emissions would be reduced by approximately 861,000 tonnes of CO 2 in 2025 relative to a zero carbon tax scenario, and that such a tax would generate €1.1 billion in revenue in the same year. We also examine a high tax scenario under which emissions reductions and revenue generated will be greater. Finally, in order to assess the macroeconomic effects of a carbon tax, the carbon tax scenarios were run in HERMES, the ESRI's medium-term macroeconomic model. The results from HERMES show that, a carbon tax of €41 per tonne CO 2 would lead to a 0.21% contraction in GDP, and a 0.08% reduction in employment. A higher carbon

  11. Economic effects of a carbon tax: with a general equilibrium illustration for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, S.; Regemorter, D. Van

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility and efficiency arguments of an international and a national carbon tax are analysed. It is argued that an internationally organized carbon tax can be a good instrument for implementing an international CO 2 abatement strategy. Less efficient instruments like national CO 2 reduction emission objectives are more likely to be implemented. A national carbon tax is analysed as a policy instrument to reach such an internationally agreed national CO 2 emission reduction objective. This is done for Belgium using a dynamic general equilibrium model. (author)

  12. The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbin, Warwick [Australian National Univ. (Australia); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Morris, Adele [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Wilcoxen, Peter [Syracuse University, NY (United States); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Cai, Yiyong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian National Univ. (Australia)

    2012-07-24

    This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that

  13. Climate policy and fiscal constraints : Do tax interactions outweigh carbon leakage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Fox, Alan K.

    2012-01-01

    Climate policymaking faces twin challenges of carbon leakage and public sector revenue requirements. A large literature advocates the use of CO2 pricing and recycling the revenues to lower distorting taxes as a way to minimize costs. In this paper, we explore the implications of labor tax

  14. Carbon taxes. A drop in the ocean, or a drop that erodes the stone? The effect of carbon taxes on technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Lise, Wietze

    2005-01-01

    We develop an economic partial equilibrium model for energy supply and demand with capital and labor as production factors, and endogenous technological change through learning by research and learning by doing. Our model can reproduce the learning curve typical for (bottom-up) energy-system models. The model also produces an endogenous S-curved transition from fossil-fuel energy sources to carbon-free energy sources over the coming two centuries. We use the model to study carbon taxes' effects on fossil-fuel and carbon-free energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. It is shown that without induced technological change, carbon taxes have a modest effect on emissions, while with induced technological change, they accelerate the substitution of carbon-free energy for fossil fuels substantially

  15. An analysis on the short-term sectoral competitiveness impact of carbon tax in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Li Ji Feng; Zhang Yaxiong

    2011-01-01

    Market-based instruments, particularly carbon tax, have recently drawn the attention of Chinese government by their cost-effective contribution to the achievement of China's climate targets. Most of the recent policy proposals have focused on its long-term impact. However, particularly for policy makers, both long term and short term effects of carbon tax would be necessary when determining tax rates. We provided a detailed analysis of short-term impacts of carbon tax on sectoral competitiveness in this paper. We divided China's economy into 36 sectors, based on its 2007 input-output table, in order to examine the ratio of carbon tax added costs to sector GDP. We were thus able to determine the impact level of a carbon tax on each sector. We then divided the sectoral trade impact into domestic competitiveness with regards to foreign imported products and international competitiveness external to the Chinese domestic market. We found that a high tax level (100 yuan/t CO 2 ) may necessitate compensatory measures to certain highly affected industries, and that a low tax rate (10 yuan/t CO 2 ) would generate few competitiveness problems for all industries and may therefore be considered as an appropriate starting point. - Highlights: → We study short-term sectoral competitiveness impact of carbon tax in China. → For each sector, we study its carbon cost, GDP share and trade intensity. → A high rate (100 yuan/t CO 2 ) may require compensatory measures to certain industries. → A low rate (10 yuan/t CO 2 ) would generate few competitiveness problems.

  16. Carbon tax effects on the poor: a SAM-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Joana; Ortega, Araceli

    2017-09-01

    A SAM-based price model for Mexico is developed in order to assess the effects of the carbon tax, which was part of the fiscal reform approved in 2014. The model is formulated based on a social accounting matrix (SAM) that distinguishes households by the official poverty condition and geographical area. The main results are that the sector that includes coke, refined petroleum and nuclear fuel shows the highest price increase due to the direct impact of the carbon tax; in addition, air transport and inland transport are the most affected sectors, in an indirect manner, because both employ inputs from the former sector. Also, it is found that welfare diminishes more in the rural strata than in the urban one. In the urban area, the carbon tax is regressive: the negative impact of carbon tax on family welfare is greater on the poorest families.

  17. Carbon tax and greenhouse gas control : options and considerations for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-23

    This report prepared by the Congressional Research Service discusses the current policy tools available for use in bridging the gap between a carbon tax and a cap-and-trade program, implementation issues and options for revenue distribution.

  18. Government Subsidy for Remanufacturing or Carbon Tax Rebate: Which Is Better for Firms and a Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government as a policy maker wishing to promote remanufacturing and proper disposal of hazardous old products which are harmful to environment has taken many actions, ranging from carbon regulation and financial incentives such as trade-in subsidy. However, carbon tax can result in loss of profit for firms to some degree, so the government has to give other subsidy to balance the profits and carbon emission. Thus, this article investigates two subsidy mechanisms: remanufacturing subsidy or tax rebate. The optimal pricing and production decision under these policies are examined. Our results show that carbon tax has a great impact on pricing strategies. Trade-in subsidy can encourage customers to replace their existing products with new and remanufactured products. Both remanufacture subsidy and tax rebate are beneficial to manufacturer and can further promote remanufacturing development.

  19. The energy price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading—Theory and evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Fan-Ping; Kuo, Hsiao-I.; Chen, Chi-Chung; Hsu, Chia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading from theoretical and empirical models are developed. • The theoretical findings show that the price effects of these two schemes depend on the market structures. • Energy prices under a carbon tax is lower than an issions trading in an imperfectly competitive market. • A case study from Taiwan gasoline market is applied here. - Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to estimate the energy price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading in an energy market. To this end, both the carbon tax and emissions trading systems are designed in the theoretical model, while alternative market structures are taken into consideration. The theoretical findings show that the economic effects of these two schemes on energy prices depend on the market structures. Energy prices are equivalent between these two schemes given the same amount of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) reduction when the market structure is characterized by perfect competition. However, energy prices will be lower when a carbon tax is introduced than when emissions trading is implemented in an imperfectly competitive market, which implies that the price effects of a carbon tax and emissions trading depend on the energy market structure. Such a theoretical basis is applied to the market for gasoline in Taiwan. The empirical results indicate that the gasoline prices under a carbon tax are lower than under emissions trading. This implies that the structure of the energy market needs to be examined when a country seeks to reduce its GHGE through the implementation of either a carbon tax or emissions trading.

  20. Modeling the impact of a carbon tax: A trial analysis for Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Keibun

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy policy makers have proposed a carbon tax as an economy-wide policy tool to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The quantification of its impact on GHG emissions has relied on an energy-economy model, whose complexity often makes it difficult to comprehend how it simulates the interaction of a carbon tax and energy demand. This study therefore aims at developing an alternative model called the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM). The elasticity-based approach used in C-TAM is less sophisticated than an equilibrium-based approach used in an energy-economy model, but C-TAM is designed to maximize its predictive capabilities by using a wide range of elasticities for each sector and fuel use, accounting for likely changes in fuel mix for electricity generation, and addressing the model's sensitivity to elasticity estimates with Monte Carlo simulation. The trial analysis in this study evaluates a potential carbon tax in Washington State, suggesting a carbon tax at US$30 per metric ton of CO 2 (tCO 2 ) lowers GHG emissions by 8.4% from the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario in 2035. The study concludes that C-TAM can provide meaningful policy implications by forecasting detailed impact on revenues and energy demand for each sector and fuel use. - Highlights: ► An elasticity-based model is developed to forecast the impact of a carbon tax. ► This model can show detailed impacts on each sector and fuel use. ► Extensive literature review and sensitivity analyses cover the model's weakness. ► A carbon tax is effective in curbing greenhouse gas emissions in Washington State. ► A carbon tax is however more effective if implemented nationwide.

  1. Simulating the Impact of Carbon Taxes on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Nutrition in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with food consumption have become particularly pertinent issues given recent warnings that the planet recently has experienced its hottest year. One way proposed to reduce those emissions is through a carbon consumption taxes. This study uses consumption, nutrient and GHG emission data to estimate the impact of two ad-valorem taxes: one applied by food category and another by the carbon emission of the products. The results suggest that the carbon consumption tax scenarios would reduce GHG emissions by a greater quantity relative to the ad-valorem tax scenario; however, the intake of important nutrients will also decrease in these scenarios. Therefore, creating an environmentally sustainable and nutritious diet through taxation is challenging and requires compromise between the nutrition and environmental sustainability.

  2. The costs of different energy taxes for stabilizing U.S. carbon dioxide emissions: An application of the Gemini model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, N.A.; Scheraga, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the absence of policies to mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide, US emissions will grow substantially over the period 1990 to 2030. One option for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions is to tax energy use. For example, fossil energy might be taxed according to its carbon content, heating value, or market value. Using a partial equilibrium model of US energy markets that combines detailed representation of technological processes with optimizing behavior by energy users and suppliers, the authors compare the costs of using carbon, Btu, and ad valorem taxes as instruments to implement a policy of emission stabilization. The authors also examine the differential impacts of these taxes on the mix of primary energy consumed in the US. The carbon tax induces the substitution of renewables and natural gas for coal and stabilizes carbon dioxide emissions at an estimated annual cost of $125 billion. The Btu tax induces the substitution of renewables for coal, but does not encourage the use of natural gas. The estimated cost of stabilization with the Btu tax is $210 billion per year. The ad valorem tax, like the Btu tax, does not encourage the substitution of natural gas for coal. It also causes a significant shift away from oil in comparison to the carbon tax. The cost of stabilizing emissions with the ad valorem tax is estimated at $450 billion per year

  3. Carbon Based Energy Taxes in Developing Countries. Feasibility and effects of a tax restructuring in China, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report is part of a study of the effects of converting the existing energy tax structure to one based on the carbon content of the fuel. The countries considered are China, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Russia. They contribute 28% of the worlds energy related carbon emission and are expected to have the greatest increase in carbon emissions over the next decades. Restructuring the energy taxes could play a role in reducing global carbon emissions. But this is difficult to achieve in non-OECD countries because of existing energy market distortions and policy barriers. The report first maps the present tax structure of the energy, power, and transport sectors, then redistributes the tax burden among the fuels based on their carbon content. Three scenarios are then studied, confining the tax structure to: (1) the industrial sector, (2) the industrial and power sectors, (3) industrial, power and transport sectors. Some important conclusions are: (1) reduced energy prices are the result of subsidies rather than of reduced taxes, (2) moving towards a carbon-based tax system requires major changes in the overall structure of energy pricing and government policy, (3) substantial institutional barriers exist to any reform of energy taxes, (4) among the fuel types, coal would have by far the largest price increase as it is now subsidized, (5) confining the carbon tax restructuring to the industry and power sectors would have minor effects, (6) including the transport sector with the other two does impact carbon emissions. Reducing the energy subsidies is probably the most urgent issue in reforming the energy sector and would bring substantial benefits in terms of reduced carbon emissions and improved overall energy efficiency of the economy. 25 refs., 20 figs., 41 tabs.

  4. The carbon tax: in order not to discredit an idea with prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims at setting the carbon tax considered as an environment policy instrument in a context of broader challenges like energy security or the upholding of a high level social protection within a context of economy globalization and demographic aging. Using data on the evolution of oil prices, petrol prices, housing prices and available incomes since 1960, he shows that, in fact, the cost of energy has notably decreased over this period. He wanders whether other possibilities than the carbon tax could be used, like for example building renovation programs, whether this carbon tax will impact behaviours, and which economical impact it could have. He discusses how this tax could conciliate environment, job and energy security. He examines competitiveness and social equity issues in relationship with the introduction of this tax. He considers the useful purpose of this tax in front of the current oil prices, and examines the possibility of introducing such a tax in France within the European Union context

  5. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xueying

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  6. Taxes will be insufficient (as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, J.

    1992-01-01

    The political barriers to the introduction of environmental taxes are high. Although studies within the European Community have shown that the overall macroeconomic implications of a carbon-energy tax could be modest, the impacts on particular sectors and groups of consumers would be large. In important sectors such as transport, the price effect would actually be rather small due to the high level of existing taxation. Given the significant fall in energy prices during the 1980s, fiscal measures to modify the price of energy are highly plausible. They would have the greatest effect on industry and the power sector which have the technical and financial resources to respond to price signals. It is therefore ironical that energy-intensive industry has succeeded in persuading the European Commission that it should be exempt from the currently proposed carbon-energy tax. Nevertheless, the possibility of unilaterally applied taxes leading to the migration of energy-intensive industry is real. Outside industry, the operation of energy markets is such that other types of measure may be more effective. Apart from the widely publicized carbon-energy tax, the European Commission has proposed a range of traditional regulatory measures aimed at improving energy efficiency. The effectiveness of the tax measure has undoubtedly been compromised by the industrial exemptions. (author)

  7. Accounting for behavioral effects of increases in the carbon dioxide (CO2) tax in revenue estimation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, Henrik; Sjoestroem, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe how behavioral responses of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) tax increases are accounted for in tax revenue estimation in Sweden. The rationale for developing a method for this is a mix between that a CO 2 tax is a primary climate policy tool aiming to reduce CO 2 emissions and that the CO 2 tax generates sizable tax revenues. - Highlights: → We develop a method on the long run tax revenue effects of increasing the CO2 tax in Sweden. → We use long run price elasticities as the basis for calculating the long run effects. → The CO2 tax is the primary instrument to reduce CO2 emissions from sectors outside the EU ETS. → There is almost an exact correlation between fossil energy use and fossil CO 2 emissions. → The method provide consistent estimates of emission reductions following from CO 2 tax increases.

  8. The Impact of a Carbon Tax on the Chilean Electricity Generation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benavides

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the economy-wide implications of a carbon tax applied on the Chilean electricity generation sector. In order to analyse the macroeconomic impacts, both an energy sectorial model and a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model have been used. During the year 2014 a carbon tax of 5 US$/tCO2e was approved in Chile. This tax and its increases (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 US$/tCO2e are evaluated in this article. The results show that the effectiveness of this policy depends on some variables which are not controlled by policy makers, for example, non-conventional renewable energy investment cost projections, natural gas prices, and the feasibility of exploiting hydroelectric resources. For a carbon tax of 20 US$/tCO2e, the average annual emission reduction would be between 1.1 and 9.1 million tCO2e. However, the price of the electricity would increase between 8.3 and 9.6 US$/MWh. This price shock would decrease the annual GDP growth rate by a maximum amount of 0.13%. This article compares this energy policy with others such as the introduction of non-conventional renewable energy sources and a sectorial cap. The results show that the same global greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction can be obtained with these policies, but the impact on the electricity price and GDP are lower than that of the carbon tax.

  9. Impact of a carbon tax on the Chilean economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Benavente, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the government of Chile announced their official commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below a business-as-usual projection by 2020. Due to the fact that an effective way to reduce emissions is to implement a national carbon tax, the goal of this article is to quantify the value of a carbon tax that will allow the achievement of the emission reduction target and to assess its impact on the economy. The approach used in this work is to compare the economy before and after the implementation of the carbon tax by creating a static computable general equilibrium model of the Chilean economy. The model developed here disaggregates the economy in 23 industries and 23 commodities, and it uses four consumer agents (households, government, investment, and the rest of the world). By setting specific production and consumptions functions, the model can assess the variation in commodity prices, industrial production, and agent consumption, allowing a cross-sectoral analysis of the impact of the carbon tax. The benchmark of the economy, upon which the analysis is based, came from a social accounting matrix specially constructed for this model, based on the year 2010. The carbon tax was modeled as an ad valorem tax under two scenarios: tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned only by producers and tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned by producers and households. The abatement cost curve has shown that it is more cost-effective to tax only producers, rather than to tax both producers and households. This is due to the fact that when compared to the emission level observed in 2010, a 20% emission reduction will cause a loss in GDP of 2% and 2.3% respectively. Under the two scenarios, the tax value that could lead to that emission reduction is around 26 US dollars per ton of CO_2-equivalent. The most affected productive sectors are oil refinery, transport, and electricity — having a contraction between 7% and 9%. Analyzing the electricity

  10. Modelling consumer demand and household labour supply: Welfare effects of increasing carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, R.; Nordstroem, J.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse consumer response and welfare effects due to changes in energy or environmental policy. To achieve this objective we formulate and estimate an econometric model for non-durable consumer demand in Sweden that utilises micro- and macro-data. In the demand model male and female labour supply is included as conditioning goods. To account for possible changes in labour supply due to increasing carbon taxes we estimate separate labour supply functions for men and women. In the simulations we consider two revenue neutral scenarios that both imply a doubling of the CO 2 tax; one that returns the revenues in the form of a lower VAT and one that subsidise public transport. One conclusion from the simulations is that the CO 2 tax has regional distribution effects, in the sense that household living in sparsely populated areas carry a larger share of the tax burden

  11. Carbon tax simulations using a household demand model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, Runar; Nordstroem, Jonas

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse consumer response due to changes in energy or environmental policy. To achieve the objective we formulate and estimate an econometric model for non-durable consumer demand in Sweden that utilises micro- as well as macro-data. The microeconomic model is conditional on male and female labour supply. A 100 percent increase of the Swedish CO 2 tax will, according to the simulations, result in an increased tax payment of SEK 630 or 0.7 percent of disposable income for the households with the lowest disposable incomes. The corresponding numbers for the richest households are SEK 990 and 0.3 percent 38 refs, 10 tabs

  12. Carbon tax simulations using a household demand model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Nordstroem, Jonas [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economics

    1999-11-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse consumer response due to changes in energy or environmental policy. To achieve the objective we formulate and estimate an econometric model for non-durable consumer demand in Sweden that utilises micro- as well as macro-data. The microeconomic model is conditional on male and female labour supply. A 100 percent increase of the Swedish CO{sub 2} tax will, according to the simulations, result in an increased tax payment of SEK 630 or 0.7 percent of disposable income for the households with the lowest disposable incomes. The corresponding numbers for the richest households are SEK 990 and 0.3 percent 38 refs, 10 tabs

  13. Carbon tax simulations using a household demand model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Nordstroem, Jonas [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economics

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse consumer response due to changes in energy or environmental policy. To achieve the objective we formulate and estimate an econometric model for non-durable consumer demand in Sweden that utilises micro- as well as macro-data. The microeconomic model is conditional on male and female labour supply. A 100 percent increase of the Swedish CO{sub 2} tax will, according to the simulations, result in an increased tax payment of SEK 630 or 0.7 percent of disposable income for the households with the lowest disposable incomes. The corresponding numbers for the richest households are SEK 990 and 0.3 percent 38 refs, 10 tabs.

  14. Is carbon / CO2 taxes implementation timely for electricity and heat generation in Romania ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, O.; Fulger, E.D.; Vieru, A.; Feher, M.

    1996-01-01

    Lately, carbon / CO 2 taxes are very much discussed in Europe and in many countries of the world as economic and financial instruments for reducing the CO 2 emissions. Some countries have already introduced such taxes while in other countries or international organisations they are under study, especially concerning the moment, the way of implementation and the amount of taxes. CO 2 emissions in Romania, in absolute and specific values (per capita, per kWh equivalent) are lower than in other countries. This can be justified by the low level of electricity and heat output owing to the recent economic restructuring and by the energy sector characteristics: natural gas major contribution, hydroelectric power, cogeneration and nuclear power implementation. We can also mention, as a positive factor, the CO 2 absorption potential of the Romanian forests. Carbon / CO 2 taxes introduction has severe economic and social impact, such as: domestic coal extraction blockage, increase in the electricity and heat prices, decrease of Romanian export products competitiveness and reduction of population standard of living. Therefore, the authors are considering that carbon / CO 2 taxes introduction is not timely by the year 2000 for the Romanian electricity and heat generation. (author). 3 figs. 2 tabs. 10 refs

  15. Tracking global carbon revenues: A survey of carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade in the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, Jeremy; Fedor, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the current use of public revenues which are generated through both carbon taxes and cap-and-trade systems. More than $28.3 billion in government “carbon revenues” are currently collected each year in 40 countries and another 16 states or provinces around the world. Of those revenues, 27% ($7.8 billion) are used to subsidize “green” spending in energy efficiency or renewable energy; 26% ($7.4 billion) go toward state general funds; and 36% ($10.1 billion) are returned to corporate or individual taxpayers through paired tax cuts or direct rebates. Cap-and-trade systems ($6.57 billion in total public revenue) earmark a larger share of revenues for “green” spending (70%), while carbon tax systems ($21.7 billion) more commonly refund revenues or otherwise direct them towards government general funds (72% of revenues). Drawing from an empirical dataset, we also identify various trends in systems’ use of “carbon revenues” in terms of the total revenues collected annually per capita in each jurisdiction and offer commensurate qualitative observations on carbon policy design choices. - Highlights: •We analyze public revenue generated from global carbon tax and cap-and-trade systems. •70% of cap-and-trade revenues ($4.60 billion) are earmarked for “green spending”. •72% of carbon tax revenues ($15.6 billion) are refunded or used in general funds. •Revenues per capita vary widely and are a useful qualitative explanatory variable.

  16. The effect of expected energy prices on energy demand: implications for energy conservation and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical method for estimating the effect of expected prices on energy demand. Data for expected oil prices are compiled from forecasts for real oil prices. The effect of expectations on energy demand is simulated with an expectation variable that proxies the return on investment for energy efficient capital. Econometric results indicate that expected prices have a significant effect on energy demand in the US between 1975 and 1989. A model built from the econometric results indicates that the way in which consumers anticipate changes in energy prices that are generated by a carbon tax affects the quantity of emissions abated by the tax. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  18. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soocheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan’s emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  19. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed. PMID:23365531

  20. TAX TREATMENT OF CARBON CREDIT OPERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES WITH CDM PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to identify the tax treatment applied to carbon credit operations in Brazilian companies that are developing projects in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Therefore, an exploratory research with a qualitative approach was developed. Data were collected with the help of questionnaire, forwarded to all Brazilian companies with CDM projects that received approval from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change (CIMGC without safeguards, according to the list of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. Out of 117 companies listed, only five answered the research instrument, which represents an accessibility sample. The results show that, as for the tax treatment applied in the companies under analysis, IRPJ and CSLL should be charged on carbon credit operations. Regarding PIS, COFINS, ISS, some companies considered that these taxes are due and others that they are not. There is a consensus, though, about the fact that ICMS and IOF should not be charged. In conclusion, no uniform understanding exists as of yet about due taxes in the research sample, as no specific fiscal legislation exists yet on carbon credits in Brazil.

  1. The Probability of Tax Charges for Industrial Emission of Carbon Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arief-Goeritno

    2000-01-01

    Generally, although all industrial by product can be toxic and non-toxic pollutant that have potential hazard for human being and environmental. One of these pollutants is carbon dioxide that has potential contribution for greenhouse effect. Although carbon dioxide can be absorbed by plants at the forest but quantity of this emission more higher than quantity of forest area. For this reason rehabilitation of the forest and diversifications and energy saving can be used for decreasing of greenhouse effect. The synergy action such as economical instrumentation (specially microeconomics) can be implemented base on regulators, taxing and incentive and effluent charge by deeper assessment on environmental economics. By identification of quality and quantity fossil fuels that was burned in the industrial process so with stoichiometry calculation will be found quantity of carbon dioxide emission and the taxes can be estimated. (author)

  2. Economic analysis of the energy and carbon tax for the sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.K.; Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The concept of 'Sustainable Development' has been playing a very important role since seventies. Countries all over the world, whether developed or developing, strive to achieve their economic development in a sustainable way. U.N Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 at Rio was instrumental in the movement of the sustainable development. Korea is not an exception in this movement as Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD) was established in September 2000. The Climate Change occupies the heart of the sustainable development. In response to the urgent need to protect global climate, the U.N. Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the Kyoto Protocol (1997) were adopted. An analysis is required to respond effectively and sustainedly to the issue of climate change. Energy sector is the main contributor to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, this study aims to analyse the implication of the energy{center_dot}carbon tax for the benefit of present and future generation, its impact on economy, industry, and energy. It also studies new elements related to the differential impact of energy carbon tax on income classes. We developed 'Overlapping Generation Equilibrium model' which consists of eleven industry, three income classes, time span of 100 years. Scenario analysis was performed for the case of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent in 2010 and afterward in comparison with its 'Business As Usual' path. Three major analysis preformed are as follows: 1. Numerical computation was done on the differential impact of the carbon tax on three income classes. 2. The impact on various generation was calculated. 3. Most importantly, the hypothesis of 'Double Dividend' was tested. This study cautiously concludes that carbon tax recycling by the reduction of the corporate income tax may increase GDP despite the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxides. The results of this

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of carbon tax for total emission control of carbon dioxide. Systems analysis of a dynamic environmental-economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Abe, Makoto; Tomiyama, Shinji; Hatono, Itsuo

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with how to evaluate the effectiveness of carbon tax (environmental tax) for regulating the carbon dioxide emissions. For this purpose we mainly deal with a primal problem and its dual problem of dynamic linear programming model. The primal problem is formulated by using Leontief type input-output model and the basic idea of commodity stocks. It represents the balance of materials. The dual problem is obtained and interpreted as cash balance. It is clarified in this paper whether the carbon tax is effective to decrease the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions. (author)

  4. Need a carbon tax be socially regressive? True challenges and wrong debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combet, E.; Ghersi, F.; Hourcade, J.Ch.; Thery, D.

    2009-02-01

    This research aims at clearing up misunderstandings about the distributive impacts of carbon taxes, which proved to be a decisive obstacle to their further consideration in public debates. It highlights the gap between partial equilibrium analyses, which are close to the agents' perception of the costs of taxation, and general equilibrium analyses, which better capture its ultimate consequences. It shows that the real impact on households' income inequality is not mechanically determined by the initial energy budgets and their flexibilities but also depends upon the way tax revenues are recycled and its general equilibrium consequences. The comparison of five tax-recycling schemes highlights the existence of trade-off between maximizing total consumption, maximizing the consumption of the low-income classes and reducing income inequality. (authors)

  5. Too little oil, too much coal: Optimal carbon tax and when to phase in oil, coal and renewables

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees A.

    2011-01-01

    Our main message is that it is optimal to use less coal and more oil once one takes account of coal being a backstop which emits much more CO2 than oil. The way of achieving this is to have a steeply rising carbon tax during the initial oil-only phase, a less-steeply rising carbon tax during the intermediate phase where oil and coal are used alongside each other and the following coal-only phase, and a flat carbon tax during the final renewables-only phase. The "laissez-faire" outcome uses co...

  6. Does a carbon tax make sense in countries with still a high potential for energy efficiency? Comparison between the reducing-emissions effects of carbon tax and energy efficiency measures in the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Sonia; Sauma, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Many countries have not yet successfully decoupled their growth and their energy consumption. Moreover, power production frequently entails a number of negative externalities, like greenhouse gas emissions from thermo electrical units. This situation has highlighted the need for countries to move towards sustainable economic growth. Accordingly, many countries have proposed and established measures to decrease their carbon emissions. In this line, the Chilean government has just passed a carbon tax of $5/Ton CO 2 e. In this work, we compare the effects on reducing CO 2 emissions of this carbon tax and of some energy efficiency measures in the power sector. The results obtained indicate that the imposed carbon tax will produce an expected annual reduction in CO 2 emissions of 1% with respect to the estimated baseline during the 2014–2024 period. However, this reduction will be accompanied by an expected 3.4% increase in the marginal cost of power production on the main Chilean power system. In contrast, the introduction of some energy efficiency measures, aimed to reduce 2% of the power demand of the residential sector, could achieve larger reductions in CO 2 emissions, while simultaneously decreasing energy price. - Highlights: • We estimate CO 2 emission reductions due to a carbon tax and EE measures in Chile. • We simulate the main Chilean power system with diverse levels of carbon tax and EE. • Energy efficiency measures could achieve better results than carbon tax in Chile. • The carbon tax imposed in Chile reduces CO 2 emissions in 1% in the 2014–2024 period. • The carbon tax imposed in Chile increases system marginal cost in 3.4% in 2014–2024

  7. Carbon Taxes and Joint Implementation. An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis for Germany and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, C.; Loeschel, A. [Centre for European Economic Research ZEW, Mannheim (Germany); Conrad, K. [Department of Economics, Mannheim University, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Germany has committed itself to reducing its carbon emissions by 25% in 2005 as compared to 1990 emission levels. To achieve this goal, the government has recently launched an environmental tax reform which entails a continuous increase in energy taxes in conjunction with a revenue-neutral cut in non-wage labor costs. This policy is supposed to yield a double dividend, reducing both, the problem of global warming and high unemployment rates. In addition to domestic actions, international treaties on climate protection allow for the supplementary use of flexible instruments to exploit cheaper emission reduction possibilities elsewhere. One concrete option for Germany would be to enter joint implementation (JI) with developing countries such as India where Germany pays emission reduction abroad rather than meeting its reduction target solely by domestic action. In this paper, we investigate whether an environmental tax reform cum JI provides employment and overall efficiency gains as compared to an environmental tax reform stand-alone. We address this question in the framework of a large-scale general equilibrium model for Germany and India where Germany may undertake JI with the Indian electricity sector. Our main finding is that JI offsets largely the adverse effects of carbon emission constraints on the German economy. JI significantly lowers the level of carbon taxes and thus reduces the total costs of abatement as well as negative effects on labor demand. In addition, JI triggers direct investment demand for energy efficient power plants produced in Germany. This provides positive employment effects and additional income for Germany. For India, joint implementation equips its electricity industry with scarce capital goods leading to a more efficient power production with lower electricity prices for the economy and substantial welfare gains.

  8. Wood-energy: success depends on the price of fossil energies and on the carbon tax level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaye, Serge; Maindrault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by several graphs indicating the structure of fossil energy prices, the comparison between domestic fuel and wood-energy for public network exploitation, the levels of fossil prices and carbon tax for non-subsidised projects, this article analyses the development of biomass (and more particularly wood-energy), the success of which depends on the price of fossil energies and on the carbon tax level. It outlines the differences of price-building elements between fossil and renewable heat, that subsidies are necessary if reference prices are low. It discusses the influence of carbon tax level and of fossil prices. It finally identifies conditions to be met (reduction of fossil energy supply and therefore higher fossil prices, introduction of a carbon tax) to reach COP objectives

  9. Distributional effects of subsidy removal and implementation of carbon taxes in Mexican households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Bakhat, Mohcine; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio; Fernández Zayas, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a microsimulation using data from the National Households Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) from 1994 to 2010 to determine the distributional effects of the price changes arising from energy and environmental policies and their impact on Mexican households. We reported simulations of several changes in energy prices as a result of partial or total energy subsidy removal, including carbon tax. In order to examine whether the subsidy mechanism and carbon tax tend to be progressive or regressive, we evaluated the households' burden in different income levels. These simulations respond to the need for an assessment of economic and environmental impacts of energy subsidies in Mexico. This is of great importance for Mexico because of effort that has been taken in the development of energy policies, and the rising interest of the Mexican government in mitigating carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions and their concomitant environmental damage. - Highlights: • The results indicate that subsidies in electricity are progressive (indeed less progressive for LPG). • Some regression evidence is shown in gasoline subsidies, that is, low-income households benefit less from the subsidies than do high-income households. • The analysis demonstrates that a hypothetical CO_2 tax is regressive in LPG and progressive in the case of gasoline.

  10. The economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in South Africa: A dynamic CGE modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Heerden

    2016-12-01

    South Africa’s National Treasury released its Carbon Tax Policy Paper in May 2013. The paper proposed a R120/tCO2-equiv. levy on coal, gas and petroleum fuels. Here, we model the possible impacts of such a tax on the South African economy using the computable general equilibrium (CGE 53-sector model of the University of Pretoria’s Department of Economics. The model shows that the carbon tax has the capacity to decrease South Africa’s greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by between 1 900MtCO2-equiv. and 2 300MtCO2-equiv. between 2016 and 2035. The extent of emissions reductions is most sensitive to the rate at which tax exemptions are removed. Recycling of carbon tax revenue reduces the extent of emissions reductions due to the fact that economic growth is supported. The manner in which carbon tax revenue is recycled back into the economy is therefore important in terms of the extent of emissions reductions achieved, but not as significant as the influence of different exemption schedules. The model shows the carbon tax to have a net negative impact on South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP relative to the baseline under all exemption regimes and all revenue recycling options assessed. The negative impact of the carbon tax on GDP is, however, greatly reduced by the manner in which the tax revenue is recycled. Recycling in the form of a production subsidy for all industries results in the lowest negative impact on GDP.

  11. A Multi-Objective Unit Commitment Model for Setting Carbon Tax to Reduce CO2 Emission: Thailand's Electricity Generation Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjarin Intalar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax policy is a cost-effective instrument for emission reduction. However, setting the carbon tax is one of the challenging task for policy makers as it will lead to higher price of emission-intensive sources especially the utility price. In a large-scale power generation system, minimizing the operational cost and the environmental impact are conflicting objectives and it is difficult to find the compromise solution. This paper proposes a methodology of finding a feasible carbon tax rate on strategic level using the operational unit commitment model. We present a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to solve the unit commitment problem and consider the environmental impacts. The methodology of analyzing of the effect of carbon tax rates on the power generation, operating cost, and CO2 emission is also provided. The trade-off relationship between total operating cost and total CO2 emission is presented in the Pareto-optimal curve to analyze the feasible carbon tax rate that is influencing on electricity operating cost. The significant outcome of this paper is a modeling framework for the policy makers to determine the possible carbon tax that can be imposed on the electricity generation.

  12. The effects of carbon taxes on the Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZhongXiang Zhang

    1996-01-01

    China's contribution to global CO 2 emissions, which is already high, is expected to grow significantly. Thus, advocates of CO 2 emissions control are calling for substantial efforts in China. However, the Chinese authorities have argued that China cannot be expected to make a significant contribution to the carbon emission problem unless the country receives substantial international aid for this purpose. This contrasts sharply with the wishes of proponents of CO 2 emissions control. This paper explains this difference in opinion by analysing the economic implications of possible future CO 2 emissions limits in China through a newly-developed dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Chinese economy. The authors believe that such an analysis is also useful in broadening the picture painted by global models, thus serving as a complement to the results obtained through global models. 4 tabs

  13. Carbon exergy tax applied to biomass integrated gasification combined cycle in sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Filho, Valdi Freire da; Matelli, José Alexandre; Perrella Balestieri, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies based on energy renewable sources is increasing worldwide in order to diversify the energy mix and satisfy the rigorous environmental legislation and international agreements to reduce pollutant emission. Considering specific characteristics of biofuels available in Brazil, studies regarding such technologies should be carried out aiming energy mix diversification. Several technologies for power generation from biomass have been presented in the technical literature, and plants with BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle) emerge as a major technological innovation. By obtaining a fuel rich in hydrogen from solid biomass gasification, BIGCC presents higher overall process efficiency than direct burning of the solid fuel in conventional boilers. The objective of this paper is to develop a thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium model of a BIGCC configuration for sugarcane bagasse. The model embodies exergetic cost and CO_2 emission analyses through the method of CET (carbon exergy tax). An exergetic penalty comparison between the BIGCC technology (with and without CO_2 capture and sequestration), a natural gas combined cycle and the traditional steam cycle of sugarcane sector is then presented. It is verified that the BIGCC configuration with CO_2 capture and sequestration presents technical and environmental advantages when compared to traditional technology. - Highlights: • We compared thermal cycles with the exergetic carbon exergy tax. • Thermal cycles with and without carbon capture and sequestration were considered. • Burned and gasified sugarcane bagasse was assumed as renewable fuel. • Exergetic carbon penalty tax was imposed to all studied configurations. • BIGCC with carbon sequestration revealed to be advantageous.

  14. British Columbia’s revenue-neutral carbon tax: A review of the latest “grand experiment” in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Brian; Rivers, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, British Columbia implemented the first comprehensive and substantial carbon tax in North America. By 2012, the tax had reached a level of C$30/t CO 2 , and it covers about three-quarters of all greenhouse gas emissions in the province. This paper reviews existing evidence on the effect of the tax on greenhouse emissions, the economy, and the distribution of income, and provides new evidence on public perceptions of the tax. Empirical and simulation models suggest that the tax has reduced emissions in the province by between 5% and 15% since being implemented. At the same time, models show that the tax has had negligible effects on the aggregate economy, despite some evidence that certain emissions-intensive sectors face challenges. Studies differ on the effects of the policy on the distribution of income, however all studies agree that the effects are relatively small in this dimension. Finally, polling data shows that the tax was initially opposed by the majority of the public, but that three years post-implementation, the public generally supported the carbon tax. - Highlights: • We review the experience with the carbon tax in British Columbia. • The carbon tax has reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 5–15%. • The carbon tax has a negligible impact on overall economic activity. • Public support for the carbon tax increased over time.

  15. Can a unilateral carbon tax reduce emissions elsewhere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Joshua [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); Fullerton, Don [Illinois Univ., Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-02-15

    One country that tries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may fear that other countries get a competitive advantage and increase emissions (''leakage''). Estimates from computable general equilibrium (CGE) models such as Elliott et al (2010a,b) indicate that 15% to 25% of abatement might be offset by leakage. Yet the Fullerton et al (2012) analytical general equilibrium model shows an offsetting term with negative leakage. To derive analytical expressions, their model is quite simple, with only one good from each country or sector, a fixed stock of capital, competitive markets, and many identical consumers that purchase both goods. Their model is not intended to be realistic, but only to demonstrate the potential for negative leakage. Most CGE models do not allow for negative leakage. In this paper, we use a full CGE model with many countries and many goods to measure effects in a way that allows for negative leakage. We vary elasticities of substitution and confirm the analytical model's prediction that negative leakage depends on the ability of consumers to substitute into the untaxed good and the ability of firms to substitute from carbon emissions into labor or capital.

  16. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andrés Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana María; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate CO 2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO 2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO 2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO 2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. An assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper. - Highlights: • Four energy and economy-wide models under carbon mitigation scenarios are compared. • Baseline results show that CO

  17. Tripartite equilibrium strategy for a carbon tax setting problem in air passenger transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Qiu, Rui; Tao, Zhimiao; Xie, Heping

    2018-03-01

    Carbon emissions in air passenger transport have become increasing serious with the rapidly development of aviation industry. Combined with a tripartite equilibrium strategy, this paper proposes a multi-level multi-objective model for an air passenger transport carbon tax setting problem (CTSP) among an international organization, an airline and passengers with the fuzzy uncertainty. The proposed model is simplified to an equivalent crisp model by a weighted sum procedure and a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) transformation method. To solve the equivalent crisp model, a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm with entropy-Bolitzmann selection (FLC-GA with EBS) is designed as an integrated solution method. Then, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization method. Results show that the cap tax mechanism is an important part of air passenger trans'port carbon emission mitigation and thus, it should be effectively applied to air passenger transport. These results also indicate that the proposed method can provide efficient ways of mitigating carbon emissions for air passenger transport, and therefore assist decision makers in formulating relevant strategies under multiple scenarios.

  18. Carbon taxes and tradeable emissions permits: the economic impacts of climate change policies in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, A.; Porter, M. [Tasman Institute (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Examines the potential economic impacts on New Zealand of climate change policy covering carbon taxes, expanding forest areas as carbon sinks (including selling plantation based emission credits to other OECD nations), and emissions quotas. It is concluded that climate change policy appears to offer high short-term economic costs and little prospect of longer-term economic gain, apart from uncertain environmental benefits. If the Government pursues an active policy to stabilise gross emissions of carbon dioxide at 1990 levels, short term losses in national output and real spending power could be around 0.5 to 1% of GDP. Any major intervention by the New Zealand Government to alter energy use patterns would bring about structural changes in the economy. 4 tabs., 12 refs.

  19. Energy demand and energy-related CO2 emissions in Greek manufacturing. Assessing the impact of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floros, Nikolaos; Vlachou, Andriana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the demand for energy in two-digit manufacturing sectors of Greece and to evaluate the impact of a carbon tax on energy-related CO 2 emissions. The theoretical model utilized in the analysis is the two-stage translog cost function. The model is estimated using time series data over the period 1982-1998. The results indicate substitutability between electricity and liquid fuels (diesel and mazout), and substitutability between capital, energy and labor. A carbon tax of $50 per tonne of carbon results in a considerable reduction in direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from their 1998 level. This implies that a carbon tax on Greek manufacturing is an environmentally effective policy for mitigating global warming, although a costly one

  20. Green taxation in Italy: an assessment of a carbon tax on transport

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Cingano; Ivan Faiella

    2013-01-01

    The Europe 2020 strategy commits Italy to reduce emissions by about 16 per cent by 2020, compared with 2005. In the case of transport, the sector that has contributed most to the growth of total emissions between 1990 and 2008, the 2020 target could be achieved by introducing a Carbon Tax (CT). A CT would significantly reduce households� demand for private transportation, lowering their emissions. CT proceedings could pay for the reduction of more distortive levies (e.g. labour taxation) or...

  1. The missing link in an international framework for carbon pricing: border adjustment with taxes or allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances have tripled, from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries the scope...... allow for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention, but also how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  2. Border adjustment with taxes or allowances to level the price of carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2018-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years, the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances has tripled from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries, the scope...... for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention; attention must also be paid as to how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  3. What do we know about carbon taxes? An inquiry into their impacts on competitiveness and distribution of income

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongxiang; Baranzini, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has set legally binding emissions targets for a basket of six greenhouse gases and timetables for industrialised countries. It has also incorporated three international flexibility mechanisms. However, the Articles defining the flexibility mechanisms carry wording that their use must be supplemental to domestic actions. This has led to the open debates on interpretations of these supplementarity provisions. Such debates ended at the resumed sixth Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC, held in Bonn, July 2001, and at the subsequent COP-7 in Marrakesh, November 2001. The final wording in the Bonn Agreement, reaffirmed in the Marrakesh Accords, at least indicates that domestic policies will have an important role to play in meeting Annex B countries' emissions commitments. Carbon taxes have long been advocated because of their cost effectiveness in achieving a given emissions reduction. In this paper, the main economic impacts of carbon taxes are assessed. Based on a review of empirical studies on existing carbon/energy taxes, it is concluded that competitive losses and distributive impacts are generally not significant and definitely less than often perceived. However, given the ultimate objective of the Framework Convention, future carbon taxes could have higher rates than those already imposed and thus the resulting economic impacts could be more acute. In this context, it has been shown that how to use the generated fiscal revenues will be of fundamental importance in determining the final economic impacts of carbon taxes. Finally, we briefly discuss carbon taxes in combination with other domestic and international instruments

  4. The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the emission reductions due to wind power and carbon tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Rajagopal, Ram

    2015-02-17

    Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce emissions. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater emission reduction by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 emission when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 emission reduction when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% emission reduction associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 emission is similar to the emission level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol.

  5. Sustainability Concept in Decision-Making: Carbon Tax Consideration for Joint Product Mix Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Tsai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions are receiving greater scrutiny in many countries due to international forces to reduce anthropogenic global climate change. Carbon taxation is one of the most common carbon emission regulation policies, and companies must incorporate it into their production and pricing decisions. Activity-based costing (ABC and the theory of constraints (TOC have been applied to solve product mix problems; however, a challenging aspect of the product mix problem involves evaluating joint manufactured products, while reducing carbon emissions and environmental pollution to fulfill social responsibility. The aim of this paper is to apply ABC and TOC to analyze green product mix decision-making for joint products using a mathematical programming model and the joint production data of pharmaceutical industry companies for the processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs in drugs for medical use. This paper illustrates that the time-driven ABC model leads to optimal joint product mix decisions and performs sensitivity analysis to study how the optimal solution will change with the carbon tax. Our findings provide insight into ‘sustainability decisions’ and are beneficial in terms of environmental management in a competitive pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, H.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C) 2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO 2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  7. Effect of Green Technology Investment on a Production-Inventory System with Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Datta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions play the central role in global warming. Manufacturing firms are significant contributors to carbon emissions. In many countries, regulatory authorities are taking actions to reduce emissions. Carbon taxation and cap-and-trade schemes are two mechanisms implemented in many countries. In the present paper, the author analyzes a production-inventory model under a carbon tax system. The production rate is assumed to be a decision variable and can be set at any level within machine limits. A proportion of items produced are defective, and this proportion depends on the production rate. Demand depends on the selling price. Unit price is a decreasing function of the production rate. Emissions can be reduced to some extent by capital investment on green technology, and this capital investment amount is a decision variable. Customers are categorized as retail customers and wholesale customers. A discount is offered to the wholesale customers on the regular selling price. The results are illustrated by a numerical example and a sensitivity analysis is performed.

  8. Economy wide emission impacts of carbon and energy tax in electricity supply industry: A case study on Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardena, K.; Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted with the objective of investigating the impact on economy wide emissions due to carbon and energy taxes levied within the electricity generation sector of Sri Lanka. This exercise is mainly based on the input-output table developed by the national planning department. An input-output decomposition technique is used to analyze four types of effects that contribute to the overall reduction in equivalent carbon, NO x and SO 2 emissions. These four effects are: fuel mix effect (i.e. the change in emissions due to variation I fuel mix), structural effect (i.e. change in emissions due to changes in technological coefficients with taxes compared to that without taxes), final demand effect (i.e. the change in emissions associated with changes in final demand) and joint effect (i.e. the interactive effect between or among the fuel mix, structural and final demand effects). The polluting fuel sources and low energy efficiency generation technologies are less preferred under these tax regimes. Of the four effects, a change in fuel mix in thermal electricity generation and a change final demand for electricity were found to be the main contributors in achieving economy wide emission reductions. It was found in the analysis that a minimum of US$ 50/tC tax or US$ 1.0/MBtu of energy tax is required to have a significant impact on economy wide emissions in the Sri Lankan context. This translates into an overall increase in electricity generation cost of approximately USCts 0.9 kW -1 h -1 and USCts 0.6 kW -1 h -1 under the carbon and energy tax regimes, respectively. The reduction in emissions is also strongly coupled with the value of the price elasticity of electricity

  9. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives; Regulacao tributaria do mercado de carbono no Brasil: entraves e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa [Madrona Hong Mazzuco Brandao - Sociedade de Advogados (MHM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: gerusa.magalhaes@mhmlaw.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br; Romeiro, Viviane [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: viviromeiro@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  10. Sharing responsibility for carbon dioxide emissions: A perspective on border tax adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the equity and efficiency of current allocation principles related to responsibility for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have been presented in the recent literature. The objective of this paper is to design a calculation framework for shared responsibility from the perspective of border tax adjustments. The advantage of this framework is that it makes the shared responsibility principle and border carbon taxation complementary to each other; these are important policies for reducing global CO 2 emissions, but they are individually supported by developing and developed countries. As an illustration, the proposed framework is applied to data from China in 2007. The empirical results show that for the Chinese economy as a whole, changing from the production-based criterion to the shared responsibility approach would lead to an 11% decrease in its responsibility for CO 2 emissions. Moreover, the differences observed between the production-based criterion and the shared responsibility approach are considerable in several sectors; for example, changing from the production-based criterion to the shared principle would lead to a 60% decrease in the responsibility of the textile sector. - Highlights: • This paper designs a shared responsibility calculation framework for CO 2 emissions. • This paper suggests that the carbon tariff rate serve as a basis for calculating shared responsibility. • The proposed framework is applied to data from China in 2007. • Shared responsibility principle will significantly decrease China's responsibility for CO 2 emissions

  11. Carbon tax and substitution effects in the French industrial sector: an econometric assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Nicolas; Callonnec, Gael (ADEME (Agence de l' environnement et de la maitrise de l' energie) (France))

    2009-07-01

    Within the political framework of the 'Grenelle de l'environnement' in France, the French government is studying various fiscal measures to encourage actors to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, among others a carbon tax on every fossil energy source. The efficiency of such a measure is directly linked to the price responsiveness of the actors concerned. In this paper, after a survey of the different possible forms for an energy demand function, we focus on the secondary sector of the French economy (after having removed the industrial sub-sectors concerned with double usage or non-energy use of fuels) and assess the likelihood of industrialists shifting from one energy source to another due to a change in the relative prices of different energy sources (coal, heavy fuel oil, heating oil, natural gas and electricity), besides the improvements in energy efficiency. We conclude that with price variations of the magnitude that was observed between 1986 and 2004 the substitution effects remain low: industrialists were much more likely to improve the energy efficiency of their appliances and processes than to shift energy sources in response to a given increase in prices. Significant substitution effects, for example after applying a carbon tax, would probably only occur for greater price variations. However, the actors' response (interfuel substitution) to an increase in the price of coal is 5 to 10 times higher than for other energy sources. The study also gives us information about the speed at which industrialists adapt to variations in prices, and the results have already been used for the assessment of future fiscal measures in France.

  12. Econometric modelling for the analysis of carbon tax impacts in Korea - with an emphasis on the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.K.; Kim, S.S.; Moon, K.H.; Song, K.D.; Choi, Y.M.

    1997-01-01

    It is very important to take a look at the role of nuclear energy within the framework of energy demand and supply when the international environmental regulation is imposed. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of imposition of carbon tax on energy sector in Korea. To do so, an econometric simulation model was developed. The model is composed of not only energy part in detail but also economic activity part in a rather simple manner. To analyze the electric sector in detail, energy block is divided into the electric and the non-electric energy sector. In the electric sector there are four blocks such as demand, conversion efficiency, fuel, and price. Several carbon tax scenarios were assumed to figure out the impacts on such variables as C0 sub 2 emissions, GDP, energy demand and price. After estimating the carbon tax effects, another set of scenario was created in analyzing the possible role of nuclear power for alleviating the impacts from carbon tax. From the results it is found that the national economy is significantly influenced according to which regulation is adopted. If international regulation is imposed on the quantity of total carbon emission, the impact is so severe that Korean economy could not stand alone. Therefore, the economy cannot overcome the impact from the regulation only by the increased share of nuclear. However, if the regulation is imposed on the quantity of carbon emission proportional to population instead of total carbon emission, it would bring definitely better opportunity to the Korean economy. In the latter case, there is room that nuclear can contribute. If the share of nuclear increases up to 60% in 2020 instead of 45%, GDP would rise by 1.9% while the electricity price lower by 46%. The model could be used in other purposed such as studies on the impacts from fuel prices increases, from capital investment costs increases, and so on

  13. Tax reforms - taxes without tax laws

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2009-01-01

    All Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, accounting, auditing and tax returns, can be abolished if a new tax system called "TOP Tax system" is adopted and implemented by all nations. Ultimate economic reforms will relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, tax collection, tax enforce...

  14. Introduction of a 'carbon tax' and its effects on competitiveness in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Ombeline

    2010-07-01

    The implementation of a 'carbon tax' that is debated in France, following the Pigouvian principle of the 'polluter pays' and within a European framework, led us to examine more in depth the functioning of such a measure and the effects to foresee on French, and European, industrial competitiveness. While the controversy is focused on its apparent cost, we explain the virtuous spin-off effects and mechanisms of the internalisation of the carbon price by producers. The latter would indeed be incentivized to engage in an efficient substitution process across sources of energy and to intensify technological progress. Moreover, the 'double - even triple - dividend' of environmental taxation is a guarantee of the social acceptability of a tax that might be, in the long run, implemented under alternative forms. (author)

  15. How large are the impacts of carbon-motivated border tax adjustments on China and how to mitigate them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Zhang, Aizhen; Cai, Hongbo; Li, Xingfeng; Peng, Shishen

    2013-01-01

    There have been growing clamours for carbon-motivated border tax adjustments (CBTAs) targeted at countries that do not accept the carbon emission reduction targets. Currently, China is the largest carbon emitter with large annual incremental carbon emissions and might have to face the challenge of CBTA. Therefore, it is a pressing policy challenge for the government to get prepared for mitigating the negative impacts of CBTAs on China. In this article, we compare the impacts of CBTAs across large developing economies and compare the performances of different policy options to mitigate the negative impacts. The main findings are as follows. First, CBTA would affect different economies and different sectors differently. CBTA would result in a shift of production across sectors and relocation of output from the target countries to CBTA users. Second, CBTA would contribute to world's emissions reduction, but less than expected due to carbon leakage. Finally, policy options, which could reduce the present distorting effects, would be preferred to other policy options that would add additional distorting effects to the economy. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should get prepared for mitigating the negative impacts of CBTAs because its economy could be adversely affected. - Highlights: • We compare impacts of carbon-motivated border tax adjustments (CBTAs) across large emerging countries. • We test effectiveness of different policy options to mitigate the negative impacts. • We investigate how to design policy mix to mitigate negative impacts of CBTAs

  16. A Tale of Two Climate Policies: Political Economy of British Columbia's Carbon Tax and Clean Electricity Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Rhodes; Mark Jaccard

    2013-01-01

    In 2007-08, British Columbia implemented two significant climate policies: the first broadly based carbon tax and the first almost 100-percent "clean" electricity standard in North America. We describe the key design characteristics of these policies and analyse them against the criteria of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions, economic efficiency, administrative feasibility, and public acceptance. We find that the clean electricity standard is estimated to reduce four to six times more ...

  17. Investigating the Impact of Carbon Tax to Power Generation in Java-Bali System by Applying Optimization Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maxensius Tri Sambodo

    2010-01-01

    Java-Bali power system dominates the national installed capacity and will contribute to about 76% of the national CO2 emissions from the electricity sector in the future. Thus, minimizing CO2 emission from the Java-Bali system can help Indonesia to reduce the national CO2 emissions level. We apply optimization approach to investigate this problem by including carbon tax into the cost function. We analyzed data based on electricity generating system in 2008. In general the optimization showed ...

  18. Grid-connected photovoltaic systems for Malaysian residential sector: Effects of component costs, feed-in tariffs, and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Muhamad, N.A.; Arief, Y.Z.; Tan, C.W.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Blessed with abundant solar radiation, Malaysia has a huge potential for grid-connected PV (photovoltaic) installations, particularly for its fast-growing residential sector. Nevertheless, Malaysia's PV installation capacity is relatively small compared with the global PV capacity. Significantly, the pricing mechanisms for grid-connected PV projects need to be appropriately assessed to build up the public's confidence to invest in PV projects. In this paper, we analyze the effects of component costs, FiTs (feed-in tariffs), and carbon taxes on grid-connected PV systems in Malaysian residential sector using the HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources) software. Results demonstrate that the implementation of grid-connected PV systems is highly feasible with PV array costs of $ 1120/kW or lower. For higher PV array costs up to $ 2320/kW, introducing an FiT rate three times higher ($ 0.30/kWh) than the grid tariff for a 100 kW grid sale capacity will, NPC-wise, prioritize grid-connected PV systems over the utility grid. By implementing the FiT ($ 0.50/kWh) and the carbon tax ($ 36/metric ton) schemes simultaneously, grid-connected PV systems will remain as the optimal systems even for costly PV arrays (up to $ 4000/kW). The findings are of paramount importance as far as PV pricing variability is concerned. - Highlights: • Grid-connected PV for Malaysian residential sector has been analyzed using HOMER. • Component costs, feed-in tariffs, and carbon taxes affect optimal system types. • Grid-connected PV projects are feasible for low PV array costs ($ 1120/kW or lower). • For higher PV array and inverter costs, feed-in tariffs should be implemented. • Combining feed-in tariffs with carbon taxes are effective for further lowering NPCs.

  19. State-scale evaluation of renewable electricity policy: The role of renewable electricity credits and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Todd; Thomas, Valerie M.; Lee, Audrey J.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a state-scale version of the MARKAL energy optimization model, commonly used to model energy policy at the US national scale and internationally. We apply the model to address state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard (RES) and a carbon tax in one southeastern state, Georgia. Biomass is the lowest cost option for large-scale renewable generation in Georgia; we find that electricity can be generated from biomass co-firing at existing coal plants for a marginal cost above baseline of 0.2-2.2 cents/kWh and from dedicated biomass facilities for 3.0-5.5 cents/kWh above baseline. We evaluate the cost and amount of renewable electricity that would be produced in-state and the amount of out-of-state renewable electricity credits (RECs) that would be purchased as a function of the REC price. We find that in Georgia, a constant carbon tax to 2030 primarily promotes a shift from coal to natural gas and does not result in substantial renewable electricity generation. We also find that the option to offset a RES with renewable electricity credits would push renewable investment out-of-state. The tradeoff for keeping renewable investment in-state by not offering RECs is an approximately 1% additional increase in the levelized cost of electricity. - Research Highlights: →We examine state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard and a carbon tax. →Georgia has low electricity prices and bioenergy is the main renewable option. →A carbon tax of $50/tCO 2 does not significantly increase renewable generation. →Renewable electricity credits divert renewable investment to other states. →Keeping renewable electricity generation in-state increases electricity costs by 1%.

  20. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza; Farrahi Moghaddam, Fereydoun; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  1. Cost-Sharing Contracts for Energy Saving and Emissions Reduction of a Supply Chain under the Conditions of Government Subsidies and a Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yuyin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level, and wholesale price successively. In the end, the retailer determines the retail price. As a regulation, the government provides subsidies for energy-saving products, while imposing a carbon tax on the carbon emitted. The results show that (1 both the energy-saving cost-sharing (ECS and the carbon emissions reduction cost-sharing (CCS contracts are not the dominant strategy of the two parties by which they can facilitate energy savings and emissions reductions; (2 compared with single cost-sharing contracts, the bivariate cost-sharing (BCS contract for energy saving and emissions reduction is superior, although it still cannot realise prefect coordination of the supply chain; (3 government subsidy and carbon tax policies can promote the cooperation of both the upstream and downstream enterprises of the supply chain—a subsidy policy can always drive energy saving and emissions reductions, while a carbon tax policy does not always exert positive effects, as it depends on the initial level of pollution and the level of carbon tax; and (4 the subsidy policy reduces the coordination efficiency of the supply chain, while the influences of carbon tax policy upon the coordination efficiency relies on the initial carbon-emission level.

  2. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Bhattacharya, K.; Fuller, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. How large a carbon tax is justified by the secondary benefits of CO2 abatement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels emits a range of damaging pollutants, the emissions of which are reduced if fossil fuel use is reduced in order to achieve CO 2 abatement. These reductions are termed the secondary benefits of such abatement. The paper reviews estimates of the size of these benefits at current levels of emissions of the relevant pollutants. Although the estimates are few and uncertain, their mid-range suggests that the secondary benefits are of the same order of magnitude as the gross costs of medium to high levels of CO 2 abatement, and are substantially larger than the (equally uncertain) estimates of the primary benefits of CO 2 abatement, except where these benefits derive from consideration of damages from unabated global warming in the very long term. The paper then reviews these calculations in the light of the limits on SO 2 emissions mandated by the Second Sulphur Protocol (SSP). It finds that the secondary benefits from abating SO 2 alone beyond the limits of the SSP still provide a substantial offset to the costs of a carbon tax. The paper concludes that the existence of significant secondary benefits greatly reinforces the economic case for an aggressive policy of CO 2 abatement

  4. Economic and legal problems arising in connection with an EC tax on carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressing, W.

    1993-01-01

    Having regard to maintaining the competitiveness of the German industry, the German Federal Government decided not to start a solo attempt with introducing in Germany a tax on CO 2 emissions, but instead is backing a proposed directive of the EC Commission, suggesting such tax to be established in the EC member states. There are various concepts on the table open for debate, intended to safeguard competitiveness of the industries by a mix of principles including e.g.: conditionality, the tax to be neutral in its effect on revenue, conditions for tax relieves for energy-intensive business, and tax relieves for investment into technologies and equipment for CO 2 abatement. (orig.) [de

  5. Proposal for a national inventory adjustment for trade in the presence of border carbon adjustment: Assessing carbon tax policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xin; Yano, Takashi; Kojima, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we pointed out a hidden inequality in accounting for trade-related emissions in the presence of border carbon adjustment. Under a domestic carbon pricing policy, producers pay for the carbon costs in exchange for the right to emit. Under border carbon adjustment, however, the exporting country pays for the carbon costs of their exports to the importing country but not be given any emission credits. As a result, export-related emissions will be remained in the national inventory of the exporting country based on the UNFCCC inventory approach. This hidden inequality is important to climate policy but has not yet been pointed out. To address this issue we propose a method of National Inventory Adjustment for Trade, by which export-related emissions will be deducted from the national inventory of the exporting country and added to the national inventory of the importing country which implements border carbon adjustment. To assess the policy impacts, we simulated a carbon tax policy with border tax adjustment for Japan using a multi-region computable general equilibrium model. The results indicate that with the National Inventory Adjustment for Trade, both Japan′s national inventory and the carbon leakage effects of Japan′s climate policy will be greatly different. - Highlights: • The inequality in GHG accounting caused by border carbon adjustment presented. • National inventory adjustment for trade under border carbon adjustment proposed. • Policy impacts on international competitiveness and carbon leakage assessed. • Practical issues related to the national inventory adjustment for trade discussed

  6. Role of embodied energy in the European manufacturing industry: Application to short-term impacts of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordigoni, Mathieu; Hita, Alain; Le Blanc, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Role of energy in the manufacturing industry is a major concern for energy and environmental policy design. Issues like energy prices, security of supply and carbon mitigation are often connected to the industry and its competitiveness. This paper examines the role and consequences of embodied energy in the European industry. To this end, a multi-regional input–output analysis including 59 industrial sectors for all European Union countries and 17 more aggregated industries for other regions of the World is developed. Other segments of the economy are not included. This base is combined with energy consumption, carbon emission as well as bilateral trade data for every sector in all included countries. Our main result is that embodied energy in manufactured products' imports represents a significant aspect of the energy situation in European industries, with quantities close to the direct energy consumption. These flows can further be broken down for detailed analysis at the sector level thanks to the number of distinct industries included. Results demonstrate that an important part of embodied energy inside European products is not concerned with domestic energy price changes. In addition, a European-wide carbon tax would induce an unbalanced burden on industries and countries. - Highlights: ► We calculate embodied energy and carbon flows in the European and World industry. ► A multi-regional input–output analysis is used with a detailed nomenclature. ► National industries' energy prices dependence is a domestic issue. ► With a European carbon tax energy-intensive industries would be penalised. ► Such a tax may also induce competition distortion among EU countries.

  7. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lacroix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially in North America, studies evaluating its effectiveness are valuable. We assessed the long-term viability potential of the BC carbon tax using common pool resource design principles, a novel application of the design principles to environmental policy. We found that the design principles can be applied productively to environmental policy and larger scale air pollution problems. With regard to the BC carbon tax, our findings suggest that closer monitoring of user behavior, further increases of the tax over time, and pursuing efforts for a more elaborate system of nested enterprises and interjurisdictional cooperation could increase the long-term success of the BC carbon tax. We also found that the design principles allowed us to more comprehensively reach conclusions regarding the broader effectiveness of the tax when compared to existing policy analysis. Traditionally, climate policy evaluation has focused on the end goal without considering broader constraints and issues of resource allocation. We suggest that common pool resource theory, which is based on strong theoretical principles and encourages reflexivity, will be able to address those limitations.

  8. Energy and the global warming issue in developing countries: analyzing the incidence of the fuel carbon tax and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddayao, C.M.; Percebois, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    By changing the natural environment, energy resource use has repercussions for human welfare. So do policies that are proposed to deal with concerns over global climate warming, particularly with respect to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Among the major policy options identified are reduction of emission from fossil fuel consumption, as well as more rigorous forest management to avoid further deforestation. The basic approach to reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuels is through the efficient use of energy. Fuel switching, pollution prevention technologies, and the 'polluter pays' principle are also among the policy strategies often discussed. One of the proposed economic policy instruments in the 'polluter pays' category that could lead to more efficient use of energy and at the same time deal with the CO 2 problem is the carbon tax. This paper will focus on the incidence of the tax in the different sectors of a developing country and suggest the key issues in analyzing this incidence. This introduction will include a brief background discussion on the greenhouse gas (GHG) issue which has led to the proposal for the carbon tax. In section II, the incidence of the carbon tax will be reviewed. In section III, the key analytical issues for analyzing incidence of the tax on a sector-by-sector analysis of a national tax will be raised. In this version of this paper, the intended quantitative analysis is not presented; we hope to have partial results by the time of conference. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. EU-Type Carbon Emissions Trade and the Distributional Impact of Overlapping Emissions Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eichner; Rüdiger Pethig

    2009-01-01

    The European Union fulfills its emissions reductions commitments by means of an emissions trading scheme covering some part of each member state’s economy and by national emissions control in the rest of their economies. The member states also levy energy/emissions taxes overlapping with the trading scheme. Restricting our focus on cost-effective policies, this paper investigates the distributive consequences of increasing the overlapping emissions tax that is uniform across countries. For ...

  10. Modelling the impacts of a carbon emission-differentiated vehicle tax system on CO2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, S.; McNabola, A.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the effects of climate change on the environment and the economic pressure on oil supply has focused international attention on reducing CO 2 emissions and energy usage across all sectors. In order to meet their Kyoto protocol commitments and in line with European Union policy, the Irish government has introduced a carbon-based tax system for new vehicles purchased from the 1st of July 2008. This new legislation aims to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector, a sector which is responsible for a significant proportion of both. This paper presents the results of the development, calibration, and application of a car choice model which predicts the changes in CO 2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases as a result of the changes in vehicle tax policy and fuel price in Ireland. The model also predicts the impact of such changes on tax revenue for the Irish government and the changes in the split between the number of diesel and petrol vehicles purchased. The investigation found that the introduction of these new carbon-based taxes in Ireland will result in a reduction of 3.6-3.8% in CO 2 emissions intensity and a reduction in annual tax revenue of EUR191 M. (author)

  11. Effects of carbon taxes on different industries by fuzzy goal programming: A case study of the petrochemical-related industries, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheng F.; Lin, Sue J.; Lewis, Charles; Chang, Yih F.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of a carbon tax is one of the major ways to mitigate CO 2 emission. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful in CO 2 reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of carbon taxes on different industries, and meanwhile to find an optimal carbon tax scenario for Taiwan's petrochemical industry. A fuzzy goal programming approach, integrated with gray prediction and input-output theory, is used to construct a model for simulating the CO 2 reduction capacities and economic impacts of three different tax scenarios. Results indicate that the up-stream industries show improved CO 2 reduction while the down-stream industries fail to achieve their reduction targets. Moreover, under the same reduction target (i.e. return the CO 2 emission amount to year 2000 level by 2020), scenario SWE induces less impact than FIN and EU on industrial GDP. This work provides a valuable approach for researches on model construction and CO 2 reduction, since it applies the gray envelop prediction to determine the boundary values of the fuzzy goal programming model, and furthermore it can take the economic interaction among industries into consideration. (author)

  12. Effects of carbon taxes on different industries by fuzzy goal programming: A case study of the petrochemical-related industries, Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheng F. [Diwan University, Tainan (China). Department of Environment and Resources Engineering; Lin, Sue J. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China). Department of Environmental Engineering, SERC; Lewis, Charles [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China). Department of Resources Engineering; Chang, Yih F. [Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan (China). Department of Tourism Management

    2007-08-15

    Implementation of a carbon tax is one of the major ways to mitigate CO{sub 2} emission. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful in CO{sub 2} reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of carbon taxes on different industries, and meanwhile to find an optimal carbon tax scenario for Taiwan's petrochemical industry. A fuzzy goal programming approach, integrated with gray prediction and input-output theory, is used to construct a model for simulating the CO{sub 2} reduction capacities and economic impacts of three different tax scenarios. Results indicate that the up-stream industries show improved CO{sub 2} reduction while the down-stream industries fail to achieve their reduction targets. Moreover, under the same reduction target (i.e. return the CO{sub 2} emission amount to year 2000 level by 2020), scenario SWE induces less impact than FIN and EU on industrial GDP. This work provides a valuable approach for researches on model construction and CO{sub 2} reduction, since it applies the gray envelop prediction to determine the boundary values of the fuzzy goal programming model, and furthermore it can take the economic interaction among industries into consideration. (author)

  13. What would be the effects of a carbon tax in Japan: an historic analysis of subsidies and fuel pricing on the iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Wakiyama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how a carbon tax could affect industrial-related carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in Japan. Rather than forecasting the effects of a tax, the paper employs a time-series autoregressive moving average (ARMA model to determine how past subsidies and fuel price changes affected investments in energy and carbon intensity in Japan’s iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries from 1993 to 2004. The results suggest the impacts varied greatly across industries. In the iron & steel industry, subsidies and price changes produced negligible effects on investments in energy and carbon intensity. This may be because existing iron & steel technologies have long lifetimes and substantial replacement costs. It may also be because the few large companies dominating the industry were relatively immune to subsidy provisions and pricing changes. In the chemical industry, subsidies and fuel prices gave rise to investments that improved carbon and energy intensity. This may be because the industry has relatively higher operation costs that could be cut easily given financial incentives. In the machinery industry, two of three fuel price changes (oil and gas, but not subsidy provisions, yielded improvements in carbon and energy intensity. This may reflect the heterogeneity of companies and products comprising the industry. Overall, the study underscores that policymakers need to tailor the rates and revenue recycling provisions of a carbon tax to an industry’s unique features to stimulate CO2 reductions.

  14. Carbon exergy tax (CET): its impact on conventional energy system design and its contribution to advanced systems utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, A.F.; Santarelli, M.; Borchiellini, R.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed analytical procedure for a charge on CO 2 emissions is used to determine its impact on the design process of different conventional energy systems. The charge on CO 2 emissions is defined as a Carbon Exergy Tax (CET). The CET utilises the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system coupled with the Index of CO 2 Emissions, which connects the amount of the CO 2 emitted by the plant with the Second Law efficiency of the plant itself. The aim is to reward the efficient use of energy resources, both from a resource and environmental standpoint, and to penalise plants inefficient in this respect. The CET and the conventional Carbon Tax (CT, based on energy policy considerations and imposed on the mass of emitted CO 2 ) are applied to different conventional energy systems (a gas turbine simple cycle; a regenerative cogeneration gas turbine; a three pressure levels combined cycle) in order to determine their impact on the design of the plants. The effects of the CET and CT are investigated for different scenarios (pressure ratio, fuel cost, etc.). The results are presented using useful representations: the cost of electricity vs. efficiency, the cost of electricity vs. specific work, and the cost of electricity vs. plant design parameters (e.g., pressure ratio). Finally, ways that the use of the CET can contribute to the widespread utilization of advanced energy systems, which are more efficient and less polluting, is discussed. In particular, the CET and CT influence is presented and discussed for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine combined cycle

  15. Sustainability Concept in Decision-Making: Carbon Tax Consideration for Joint Product Mix Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Hsien Tsai; Jui-Chu Chang; Chu-Lun Hsieh; Tsen-Shu Tsaur; Chung-Wei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon emissions are receiving greater scrutiny in many countries due to international forces to reduce anthropogenic global climate change. Carbon taxation is one of the most common carbon emission regulation policies, and companies must incorporate it into their production and pricing decisions. Activity-based costing (ABC) and the theory of constraints (TOC) have been applied to solve product mix problems; however, a challenging aspect of the product mix problem involves evaluating joint m...

  16. Tax Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Marcel; Hage, Jaap; Waltermann, Antonia; Akkermans, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Taxes are compulsory, unrequited payments to government. This chapter discusses the goals of taxation and provides an introduction to the most important taxes: taxes on income, taxes on goods and services, and taxes on property. Furthermore, the chapter offers insights to procedural issues of

  17. Joint Decision-Making and the Coordination of a Sustainable Supply Chain in the Context of Carbon Tax Regulation and Fairness Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Xiao-Xue; Gong, Ben-Gang; Gui, Yun-Miao

    2017-11-27

    Carbon tax regulation and consumers' low-carbon preference act as incentives for firms to abate emissions. Manufacturers can improve product sustainability and retailers can strengthen the promotion of low-carbon products as part of such abatement. Current incomplete rationality also affects product sustainability and low-carbon promotion level. In this context, we consider a supply chain with a manufacturer and a retailer and investigate the impacts of the manufacturer's and the retailer's fairness concerns on their production sustainability level, low-carbon promotion level and profitability. We also explore the coordination contract. The results show that the manufacturer's and the retailer's fairness concerns decrease their product sustainability and low-carbon promotion level, together with the profits of the system and the manufacturer. With regard to the retailer's fairness concern, the product sustainability level and the manufacturer's profit are lower; moreover, the low-carbon promotion level and the profits of the supply chain and the retailer are higher. A revenue-sharing contract can coordinate the supply chain perfectly; however, members' fairness concerns increase the difficulty of coordination. Finally, the numerical results reveal that carbon tax regulation can encourage the manufacturer to enhance the product sustainability level. Further, the impacts on the low-carbon promotion level and firms' profitability are related to the cost coefficients of product sustainability.

  18. Joint Decision-Making and the Coordination of a Sustainable Supply Chain in the Context of Carbon Tax Regulation and Fairness Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax regulation and consumers’ low-carbon preference act as incentives for firms to abate emissions. Manufacturers can improve product sustainability and retailers can strengthen the promotion of low-carbon products as part of such abatement. Current incomplete rationality also affects product sustainability and low-carbon promotion level. In this context, we consider a supply chain with a manufacturer and a retailer and investigate the impacts of the manufacturer’s and the retailer’s fairness concerns on their production sustainability level, low-carbon promotion level and profitability. We also explore the coordination contract. The results show that the manufacturer’s and the retailer’s fairness concerns decrease their product sustainability and low-carbon promotion level, together with the profits of the system and the manufacturer. With regard to the retailer’s fairness concern, the product sustainability level and the manufacturer’s profit are lower; moreover, the low-carbon promotion level and the profits of the supply chain and the retailer are higher. A revenue-sharing contract can coordinate the supply chain perfectly; however, members’ fairness concerns increase the difficulty of coordination. Finally, the numerical results reveal that carbon tax regulation can encourage the manufacturer to enhance the product sustainability level. Further, the impacts on the low-carbon promotion level and firms’ profitability are related to the cost coefficients of product sustainability.

  19. H.R. 804: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by imposing a tax on certain fuels based on their carbon content. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 3, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    H.R. 804 proposes the imposition of a carbon tax on primary fossil fuels. In general, Chapter 38 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is to be amended by adding at the end thereof the following new subchapter: open-quotes Subchapter E--Carbon Tax on Primary Fossil Fuels.close quotes Section 4691 will be concerned with the tax on coal; Section 4692 with the tax on petroleum; Section 4693 with the tax on natural gas; and Section 4694 will discuss inflation adjustments

  20. AGE analysis of the impact of a carbon energy tax on the Irish economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissema, W.W.; Dellink, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    computable general equilibrium model with specific detail in taxation and energy use is developed in this paper to quantify the impact of the implementation of energy taxation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland. Benchmark data combining physical energy and emissions data and economic data

  1. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  2. Can parked cars and carbon taxes create a profit? The economics of vehicle-to-grid energy storage for peak reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Gerad M.; Drennen, Thomas E.; White, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses a five-year, hourly economic model of vehicle-to-grid energy storage for peak reduction. Several scenarios are modeled for a participant using a 60 kW-h capacity battery electric vehicle, such as the Tesla Model S or Chevrolet Bolt, in the New York City area using pricing data for the years 2010 through 2014. Sensitivity analysis identifies that variables such as one-way power efficiency and battery lifetime are the major factors influencing the economics of selling electricity back to the grid. Although it is shown that vehicle-to-grid electricity sales can create positive economic benefits, the magnitudes are small due to the cost of added degradation to the vehicle's battery and are not likely to entice the average electric vehicle owner to participate. However, over the five-year period, the potential economic benefits of this technology have shown a promising trend. A carbon dioxide tax is examined as a potential policy measure to encourage vehicle-to-grid adoption. The implementation of a carbon dioxide tax is shown to create additional opportunities for economic gain but, these benefits are dependent on the grid's electricity generation portfolio. Added benefits from the tax are also small in magnitude considering current international carbon prices. - Highlights: • Three scenarios of vehicle-to-grid storage for peak reduction are proposed. • Average annual savings generated by vehicle-to-grid are small but positive. • Savings have remained positive or increased during 2010–2014. • Moderate carbon tax policies can generate extra savings, but they are small.

  3. Tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on the effects of additional tax incentives for the petroleum production industry. It considers the effects of additional incentives on petroleum production and federal revenues, the federal tax burden on new domestic petroleum production investments under current law, and the comparative tax treatment of petroleum production investments in the United States and other nations

  4. Possible restructuring of the worldwide oil market caused by the incidence of carbon tax; Possivel reestruturacao do mercado mundial de petroleo diante da incidencia da taxacao de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Anna Cecilia J. de; Szklo, Alexandre; Cohen, Claude; Schaeffer, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    In the context of global climate change, carbon taxes, which vary positively with the carbon content of fuels, are seen as one of the main mitigative alternatives.. The incidence of this taxation will impact the relative prices of the different oil products and, possibly, change the demand curves for these products. Also, it will impact oil companies, which will have to adapt themselves to this new policy, so as to avoid, or to minimize, market share losses. However, only in the long term more complex changes in the market structures will be observed. As such, this paper aims at analyzing the relationships between the consumption of oil products in the short and long terms, and their corresponding consumers' income and price elasticities of demand due to carbon taxation, so as to assess their impacts on the World Petroleum Industry (WPI). (author)

  5. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  6. Tax Administration Systems and Tax Consciousness of Income Tax and Consumption Tax

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 直子

    2015-01-01

    Tax compliance costs of consumption tax are relatively high. Tax compliance costs for self-assessment taxpayers are high, and for withholding income taxpayers, the compliance costs are small. That is to say, characteristics of tax compliance costs for income tax and consumption tax are various. And also characteristics of tax consciousness for income tax and consumption tax are many and various. The features of this paper are to clarify characteristics of tax compliance costs and tax consciou...

  7. Impacts of a carbon Tax on the emissions of car transport in Switzerland: an assessment using an engineering-econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaro, F.; Bertholet, J.L.; Chaze, J.P.; Taffe, P.

    1992-01-01

    It is well-known that road transport is the economic sector most responsible for the growing consumption of fossil fuels in developed countries and, as a consequence, of carbon dioxide emissions largely accountable of the greenhouse effect. Recently, the Swiss Federal Council, as many other European governments, has undertaken to set up an energy policy aiming at reducing CO 2 emissions according to the so-called Toronto targets. Among the different measures that can be used to achieve this objective, special attention has been devoted to the carbon tax as an economic incentive to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Considering motor fuels, such a taxation can lead to a decrease in fuel demand through many mechanisms. Conventional econometric models of energy demand, even when they allow to distinguish short-run from long-run responses of consumption to changing economic conditions, do not consider this engineering description of energy demand. Therefore, they fail to capture the important distinction between demand and supply reaction of energy consumption to energy taxation. The authors present an econometric model built according to an engineering logic which takes into account three possible impacts of a motor fuel tax: on the stock of cars, on their average specific consumption and on their average intensity of use. 5 refs., 2 figs

  8. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1.Although the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the EU in 1992 recommended the greater use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, there has been little progress in their use since then at the EU level. At Member State level, however, there has been a continuing...... increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...

  9. Taxing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, R.; DeCanio, S.; Frech, H.E. III; Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    In this book, the authors have produced an analysis of state energy taxation. Their factual findings are of particular relevance to California and other states in their consideration of severance taxes on oil production. It turns out, for example, that while California's tax burden on oil producers is slightly below average among the states, the combined revenues from taxes and royalties (expressed as a percent of the value of production) indicate that California is not easy on oil producers. In fact, California's oil tax system appears to be particularly well suited to its oil industry. Much of the production in the state is relatively high-cost and economically marginal. The state must tread carefully in taxing this production, lest it force it to be curtailed

  10. Leviathan taxes in the short-run - A letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    A cap is imposed on the carbon tax rate if the total tax revenue is not allowed to increase. Using recent data on the carbon-intensity of the economy and the overall tax take, I show that this cap constrains almost any climate policy in at least some countries. A larger number of countries, emitting

  11. Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Gravelle, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The federal government loses both individual and corporate income tax revenue from the shifting of profits and income into low-tax countries, often referred to as tax havens. Tax havens are located around the world with concentrations in the Caribbean and Europe. Corporate profit shifting may cost up to $60 billion in revenue and remedies are likely to involve tax law changes. Individual income tax losses more often arise from tax evasion, and are facilitated by the lack of information report...

  12. Tax planning in corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nevodnicheva, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis "Tax planning in corporation" puts brain to legal entity income tax and it is looking for possible solutions in tax planning in corporation. The first part deals with the tax theory, the other part is the theory of tax planning, comparison of tax regimes and tax policy and tax revenue by optimizing both internationally and in the local aspect. The last part discusses options for optimizing tax

  13. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Analysis of the Effects of Introduction of an Additional Carbon Tax on the Slovenian Economy Considering Different Forms of Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Koman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines some of the environmental and economic implications of an additional CO2 tax of EUR 15/tCO2 in Slovenia in the period 2012-2030 in order to determine whether it yield a double dividend. Authors analyze (using E3ME model different forms of revenue recycling by reducing the social security contributions of either the employers or the employees or by reducing the public deficit, in order to identify the optimal fiscal instrument for improving the environmental and economic welfare (double dividend. In this policy orientated paper authors argue that a reduction of employee social security contributions has more favourable effect than a reduction in employers' social security contributions.

  15. Economic effects on taxing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.

    1996-01-01

    The CO 2 emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO 2 taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO 2 tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  16. The impact of carbon taxes or allowances on the electric generation market in the Ohio and ECAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S.W.

    1998-07-01

    The North American electricity grid is separated into 11 regional reliability councils, collectively called the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). The East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR) is the reliability council that covers Ohio and Indiana, along with parts of Kentucky, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Ohio and the rest of the ECAR region rely more heavily on coal-fired generation than any other US region. The purpose of this report is to study the effect of carbon reduction policies on the cost and price of generation in the ECAR region, with an emphasis on Ohio. In order to do that, the author modeled the possible electric generation system for the ECAR and Ohio region for the year 2010 using a model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory called the Oak Ridge Competitive Electric Dispatch model (ORCED). He let the model optimize the system based on various factors and carbon reduction policies to understand their impact. He then used the electricity prices and assumed demand elasticities to change the demands while also requiring all power plants to be profitable. The author discusses the different potential policies for carbon reduction and issues involving a restructured market; describes the model used for this analysis, the ECAR electricity sector, and the establishment of a base case; and describes the results of applying various carbon emission reduction approaches to the region. 14 figs., 5 tabs

  17. The implications of air travel taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, air travel taxes have been introduced by different countries throughout Europe. Often, these tax measures serve a revenue-raising goal, but are promoted as measures that aim to cut back carbon emissions by the aviation industry. Their effectiveness with respect to the reduction of

  18. Concept of Tax Advising Within Tax Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Bychkova; Makarova Nadiya

    2013-01-01

    Tax advising is strictly individual service requiring knowledge in the fields of law, tax and accounting. Tax advising includes not only advising on taxation models depending on the economic entity type of activity, but it also deals with issues of tax optimization. In the article the authors have offered their views on the concept of tax consulting in the area of tax optimization (tax planning). The subject matter has been a set of the most rational and important settings that allow you to u...

  19. Tax Amnesty (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Kateryna Bornukova; Dzmitry Kruk; Gleb Shymanovich; Yuri Tserlukevich

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores international experience of tax amnesties. Despite the popular use of tax amnesties, the results are mixed. The main advantage of the tax amnesty is the possibility to increase tax collections and improve tax compliance. However, it does not account for adverse effect of amnesties on tax compliance and high direct and indirect costs of amnesties. The success of the tax amnesty depends largely on the state of the economy. We have identified target groups and discussed a que...

  20. Tax Expenditures in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax system of the Republic of Croatia contains a large number of very diverse kinds of tax expenditures whose the declared aim is to achieve certain social and economic objectives. This paper considers all the items that constitute tax expenditures in Croatia, within the systems of the personal income tax, corporate income tax, and real estate transfer tax and value added tax. The objective of the article is to determine the real level of tax expenditures per form of tax in the 2001-2004 period. We hypothesised that the tax expenditures in the analysed forms of tax are both high and growing, which was ultimately borne out, for almost all the analysed items in the tax forms considered are growing.

  1. Estonian Tax Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian tax structure changes during the last decade and critically assesses the current situation. The country’s tax mix is rather unique among EU countries – it has one of the highest proportions of consumption taxes in total taxes and the lowest level of capital and profit taxes. Such an unbalanced tax structure creates risks for public finances, limits revenue collection and distorts the business environment.

  2. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  3. From tax evasion to tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze within a simple model how a re- moval of bank secrecy can impact tax revenues and banks' profitability assuming that offshore centers are able to offer sophisticated but legal or not easily detectable tax planning. Two alternative regimes are considered. A first in which there is strict bank secrecy and a second where there is international information exchange for tax purposes. We show in particular that sharing tax information with onshore coun- tries can...

  4. Environmental taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šinković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental taxes should result in an improvement or prevention of deterioration of the environment. Although more advanced than previously existing Act on Excise Duty on Passenger Cars, Other Motor Vehicles, Vessels and Aircrafts from the 1997th year, the new law will hardly Croatia bring visible environmental benefit. Its application should not be expected to reduce the negative impacts of road traffic on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions until it does not clearly define how it will be at least part of the funds collected under this levy will be spent on measures to encourage the use of say hybrid or electric vehicles. Yet we should not neglect the fact that there is still need to work on educating people about the importance of environmental protection and any measures to be taken in the sphere of environmental protection should follow economic policies with a particular community or a country.

  5. TOP TAX SYSTEM - A common tax system for all nations

    OpenAIRE

    VIJAYA KRUSHNA VARMA

    2011-01-01

    TOP Tax system is a new tax system which can be used as a common tax system for all nations. This new tax system will be without present tax system’s all Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, tax exemptions, multiple tax collection departments to relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, t...

  6. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  7. Dynamic Tax Depreciation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the prof- itability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  8. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  9. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  10. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  11. The progressive tax

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the argumentative structure of Hayek on the relationship between power to tax and the progressive tax. It is observed throughout its work giving special attention to two works: The Constitution of Liberty (1959) and Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol3; The Political Order of Free People, 1979) Hayek describes one of the arguments most complete information bout SFP progressive tax systems (progressive tax). According to the author the history of the tax progressive system...

  12. Tax optimization of companies

    OpenAIRE

    Dědinová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with tax optimization of companies. The thesis is divided into two main parts - the theoretical and practical part. The introduction of the theoretical part describes the history of taxes, their basic characteristics and the importance of their collection for today's society. Subsequently, the tax system of the Czech Republic with a focus on value added tax and corporation tax is presented. The practical part deals with specific possibilities of optimization of the a...

  13. Tax havens and development

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Government Commission on Capital Flight from Poor Countries

    2009-01-01

    Tax havens harm both industrialised and developing countries, but the damaging impacts are largest in developing countries. This is partly because these countries are poor and thereby have more need to protect their national tax base, and partly because they generally have weaker institutions and thereby fewer opportunities for enforcing the laws and regulations they adopt. Tax treaties between tax havens and developing countries often contribute to a significant reduction in the tax base of...

  14. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  15. Environmental tax shifting in Canada : theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Hornung, R.; Cairns, S.

    2003-03-01

    Canada's leading energy and resource companies along with the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development have collaborated in the Triple E Tax Shift Research Collaborative which examines the use of environmental tax shifting in Canada. The objective is to design, evaluate and advance federal and provincial environmental tax shifts that will influence individual behaviour and decisions to improve ecological integrity through measurable reductions in materials and energy throughput, and to maintain or increase economic competitiveness through the creation of a tax framework that would encourage businesses to improve energy efficiency. Another objective is to increase employment and social benefits through more employment opportunities and improved quality of life. Environmental tax shifting means shifting a portion of a government's tax base onto goods, services and activities associated with harmful environmental impacts that add to societal costs. Tax shifting can be implemented by offering rebates to consumers of environmental significant goods, or by adjustments to existing taxes so that environmentally sensitive goods are taxed at a lower rate than environmentally harmful goods and services. Environmental tax shifting can also be implemented by reducing existing environmental taxes and introducing a carbon dioxide emissions tax. This report is the first product of the collaboration and is intended to promote public dialogue on the subject and identify ways to implement environmental tax shifting. tabs., figs

  16. The Incidence of Soda Taxes with Imperfect Information and Strategic Firm Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hualu; Huang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Using a random coefficient discrete choice model, this paper distinguishes between sales and excise taxes and compares their effectiveness on reducing carbonated soft drink (CSD) consumption. Estimation results show that the magnitude of tax elasticity of demand is much smaller than own price elasticity. Therefore by generalizing the tax nature of sales and excise tax policies and employing price elasticity of demand to assess tax effects, previous studies overestimate the ability of such pol...

  17. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  18. Integrating ICT Skills and Tax Software in Tax Education: A Survey of Malaysian Tax Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Ming; Nawawi, Nurul Hidayah Ahamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e-tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e-tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding…

  19. Tax Morality and Progressive Wage Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Simonovits

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of tax morality on progressive income (wage) taxation. We assume that transfers (cash-back) and public expenditures are financed from linear wage taxes. We derive the reported wages from individual utility maximization, when individuals obtain partial satisfaction from reporting wages (depending on their tax morality), and cannot be excluded from the use of public services. The government maximizes a utilitarian social welfare function, also taking into account the utili...

  20. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse everyday reasoning in public administration. This is done by focusing on front line tax inspectors’ decisions about tax evasion. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents ethnography of bureaucracy and field audits. The material stems from...... fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do...

  1. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  2. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  3. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance.

  4. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  5. Environmental taxes in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report briefly presents and comments the amount of environmental taxes which have been collected in France in 2008. These taxes comprise energy taxes (nearly 68 per cent), transport taxes (nearly 28 per cent) and pollution and resource taxes (less than 5 per cent), and represent 2 per cent of the French GDP and 5 per cent of mandatory contributions. The share of environmental taxes is compared among the European Union countries. This shows that France is close to the average. It also appears that these taxes evolve slower than the GDP. An indicator is built up and commented: it relates the rate between energy taxes and the GDP on the one hand, and energy consumption on the other hand. This indicator displays a slow but significant decrease since the end of the last century

  6. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  7. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2001 (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2001 (and budget figure for 2002). Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 62,2 billions DDK in 2001 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes' part og the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,4% in 2001. In 2001 the energy taxes are 57%, the transportation taxes 36% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (LN)

  8. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax su...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  9. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  10. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects. Previous research focusses on the optimal choice of depreciation method under the assumption that the depreciation method has to be set ex ante and cannot be changed during the useful life of the asset...

  11. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  12. Introduction of a Uranium tax in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In Finland, it is possible to create a tax model on uranium that will not compromise the profitability of future power plant investments or decisively reduce climate policy incentives for carbon-free energy production. The rise in energy costs caused by the tax could be compensated by lowering the electricity tax imposed on industry. The estimates above were made by Managing Director Pasi Holm and Professor Markku Ollikainen, who, on 4 February 2011, handed over their report concerning introduction of uranium tax to Minister of Economic Affairs Mauri Pekkarinen. According to the administrators, one can deem nuclear power to include specific grounds for imposing a tax via the fact that storage of used nuclear fuel involves a (infinitesimally small) risk of accidents with irreversible effects, and that, through the EU climate policy, nuclear power companies gain extra profit 'for nothing', i.e. windfall profit. The EU Energy Tax Directive facilitates collection of uranium tax. Uranium tax, imposed as an excise tax, would target the nuclear power plants in operation as well as the Olkiluoto 3 plant, presently under construction. The amount of uranium fuel used would serve as the basis of taxation. Holm and Ollikainen introduce two tax models, adjustable in a manner that the uranium tax would yield revenues of approximately EUR 100 million a year. The companies would still keep more than half of the profit and the state, depending on the model used, would collect 43 to 45 per cent of it via the tax. In the minimum tax model, the uranium tax is 44.5 of the difference between the market price of emission allowance and the average price of 2010 (EUR 15/tonne of CO 2 ), used as the comparison price, the minimum being EUR 2/MWh. The tax would yield a minimum of EUR 67 million to the state a year. When the emission allowance price rises to EUR 30, the tax would be EUR 6.7/MWh and the state would earn revenues of EUR 223 million. In a flexible tax model, the fixed part of the

  13. Economic effects on taxing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaparanta, P. [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland); Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J. [The Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO{sub 2} taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO{sub 2} tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  14. Economic effects on taxing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaparanta, P [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland); Jerkkola, J; Pohjola, J [The Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO{sub 2} taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO{sub 2} tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  15. Would Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance Undermine a National Retail Sales Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifting to an indirect tax system (a national sales tax) will not necessarily reduce tax avoidance and tax evasion behavior by businesses and individuals, particularly if the tax rate is set high to maintain revenue neutrality. Lack of experience in administering a high-rate, indirect tax system precludes definitive statements regarding the likely extent of tax base erosion under a national sales tax.

  16. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  17. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2000 (2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2000 (and budget figure for 2001). Environmental taxes is a collective concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 60,6 billions DDK in 2000 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,7% in 2000. In 2000 the energy taxes are 55%, the transportation taxes 38% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (EHS)

  18. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  19. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX ONE NATION ONE TAX IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuchi Sharma; Rupendra Prakash Yadav.

    2018-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax is a significant and logical step towards a comprehensive Indirect tax reform in India. This paper analyses the concept of Goods Service Tax and further discusses their impact on the various sectors in India. Brief description is given on Goods Service Tax background and Goods and Service Tax models helps to reduce tax burden. It aims at creating a single and unified market benefiting both corporate and economy because this is the only Indirect tax that directly affects ...

  20. Different Tax Systems among Nations and International Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2008-01-01

    As economic globalization proceeds, tax policies of one nation influence others more and greater pressures are imposed on tax systems and tax administrations.The possibility of tax avoidance will expand if cross-border transactions are abused.Specifically, tax system differentials among countries increase the opportunity for tax avoidance.Under some tax avoidance schemes, foreign entities which have no or little economic substance are used to create artificial losses, so that they can minimiz...

  1. Aggressive Tax Strategies and Corporate Tax Governance: An Institutional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarino, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of tax-aggressive strategies on corporate governance by adopting an agency perspective of the firm and discusses how certain corporate tax governance measures may limit these kinds of managerial actions. We first clarify a few basic concepts such as tax minimization, effective tax planning, tax avoidance, and tax evasion, which are important to understand in the discussion about aggressive tax behaviour. We further define the regulative concept of effective ta...

  2. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  3. Carbon taxation, a difficult instrument to handle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Taxing carbon is back on the agenda because of the difficulties met by emissions permits systems in sending a credible signal on the price of carbon. A review of different attempts to tax carbon shows that a number of these taxes are far from those systems recommended in the theoretical text books. (author)

  4. The three hurdles of tax planning: How business context, aims of tax planning, and tax manager power affect tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Anna; Schanz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The question of why some companies pay more taxes than others is a widely investigated topic of interest. One of the famous suspect explanations is a phenomenon called tax avoidance. We develop a holistic theoretical concept of influences on corporate tax planning through a series of 19 in-depth German tax expert interviews. Our findings show that three distinct hurdles in the tax planning process can explain different levels of tax expense across companies. Those three hurdles are which tax ...

  5. THE TAX CONTROL AS A COMPONENT OF TAX ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the features of tax control in the system of taxes administration were investigated. The basic approaches to the determination of tax control were defined. Principles of tax control that must be kept were defined and it will ensure efficiency and effectiveness of tax control. Basic forms of tax control were characterized. An advantages of horizontal monitoring that is one of the form of tax controls were directed. Key words: tax control, tax control forms, horizontal monitoring, documentaries, desk and actual checks.

  6. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  7. Reflections on the Scandinavian model: some insights into energy-related taxes in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how excise taxes on energy products and electricity have been combined with taxes on CO2 emissions and air pollution in the Nordic countries. The methods and principles employed in this region may be of interest to other countries considering how to tax fossil fuels as part...... of their transition to low-carbon energy systems....

  8. Reflections on the Scandinavian Model: Some Insights into Energy-Related Taxes in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes how excise taxes on energy products and electricity have been combined with taxes on CO2 emissions and air pollution in the Nordic countries. The methods and principles employed in this region may be of interest to other countries considering how to tax fossil fuels as part...... of their transition to low-carbon energy systems....

  9. The Impact of Tax Reform on New Car Purchases in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, H.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of

  10. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti; Dr.Sc. Muhamet Aliu; MSc. Alban Elshani; Yllka Ahmeti

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1) the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2) case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3) the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits o...

  11. Tax avoidance, tax evasion, and tax flight: Do legal differences matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich; Kirchler, Erich; Maciejovsky, Boris

    2001-01-01

    Although from an economic point of view, legal considerations apart, tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax flight have similar effects, namely a reduction of revenue yields, and are based on the same desire to reduce the tax burden, it is likely that individuals perceive them as different and as unequally fair. Overall, 252 fiscal officers, business students, business lawyers, and entrepreneurs produced spontaneous associations to a scenario either describing tax avoidance, tax evasion, or tax f...

  12. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality thatmeasures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal taxstructure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1]number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configurationis from the optimal one and......, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  13. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...... environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system...... and reduces tax uncertainty. The paper adopts an interdisciplinary approach for explaining findings, using contingency-based theory and network theory at the inter-organisational level....

  14. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  15. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  16. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  17. Tuition Tax Credits. Issuegram 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenblick, John; McGuire, Kent

    Approaches for using the federal income tax system to aid families of pupils attending private schools include: tax credits, tax deductions, tax deferrals, and education savings incentives. Tax credit structures can be made refundable and made sensitive to taxpayers' income levels, the level of education expenditures, and designated costs.…

  18. Taxing the Rich

    OpenAIRE

    Landier, Augustin; Plantin, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Affluent households can respond to taxation with means that are not economically viable for the rest of the population, such as sophisticated tax plans and international tax arbitrage. This article studies an economy in which an inequality-averse social planner faces agents who have access to a tax-avoidance technology with subadditive costs, and who can shape the risk profile of their income as they see fit. Subadditive avoidance costs imply that optimal taxation cannot be progre...

  19. Firm size and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chongvilaivan, Aekapol; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2010-01-01

    The scale dependence in firm growth (smaller firms grow faster) is systematically reflected in the size distribution. This paper studies whether taxes affect the equilibrium firm size distribution in a cross-country context. The main finding is that the empirical association between firm growth and corporate tax (VAT) is positive (negative), with notable differences in the response of manufacturing firms and that of the others. We draw implications for recent debate on the impact of taxes and...

  20. Corporate income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Popová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    1 RESUMÉ Corporate Income Tax The aim of this diploma thesis on "Corporate Income Tax" is to outline the current legal background of the corporate income tax and asses and evaluate the most substantial changes regarding the Act no. 586/1992 Coll., Income Tax Act, as amended that have become effective as of January 1, 2014. The changes discussed in this thesis include especially, but are not limited to, the changes adopted in connection with the recodification of Czech Civil Law. This thesis c...

  1. Classical Corporation Tax as a Global Means of Tax Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Seppo; Ylä-Liedenpoha, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    Classical corporation tax entails double taxation of corporate income. The alternative practice of imputing corporation tax to the domestic recipients of dividends is shown, in the case of a company with international owners, to effectively convert the imputation system back to a classical corporation tax. It also requires complex rules for exempting flow-through dividends from equalization tax to avoid the cumulation of corporation tax internationally. In contrast, classical corporation tax ...

  2. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  3. Tax planning strategies for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thomas R; Schwartz, Richard W

    2002-07-01

    The development of tax reduction strategies is a critical aspect of both corporate and personal financial planning because taxes represent the largest annual expenditure for the majority of Americans. The categories of tax reduction strategies discussed include charitable-giving techniques, ways to maximize business deductions, shifting income to family members, education tax incentives, retirement planning, and small business tax considerations. One use for these tax savings is the enhancement of a corporation's capabilities to provide services to patients.

  4. Progressive Taxes and Firm Births

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrich Bacher; Marius Brülhart

    2013-01-01

    Tax reform proposals in the spirit of the 'flat tax' model typically aim to reduce three parameters: the average tax burden, the progressivity of the tax schedule, and the complexity of the tax code. We explore the implications of changes in these three parameters on entrepreneurial activity, measured by counts of firm births. The Swiss fiscal system offers sufficient intra-national variation in tax codes to allow us to estimate these effects with considerable precision. We find that high ave...

  5. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  6. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  7. Waiting for tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of tax credits and related legislation under consideration by Congress on the economics of the renewable energy industry. The topics discussed in the article include conflicting industry opinion on financial incentives, the effectiveness of current incentives, and alternative approaches. The article also includes a sidebar on tax incentives offered by state programs

  8. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87......Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...

  9. THE WORLD OF TAx DEDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dujov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study and methodological foundations of the structure of taxes and fees. Disclosed the concept of elements of tax and duty. Focuses on the nature of the concept of «tax deduction». Provides legal and the author’s interpretation of the term «tax deduction». Examples of application of a tax deduction in the value-added tax and the tax to incomes of physical persons. the conclusions about the multilateral nature of the tax deduction.

  10. IS THE VALUE ADDED TAX A SUPERIOR SALES TAX IN ALL SALES TAXES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ALİ SARILI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is a tax imposed on the value added to a product at each stage of the production and distribution process. Value added is never taxed twice under VAT and thus cascading (tax on tax effects do not occur. It is a single tax on goods and services but the tax is collected multiple stages. At each of these stages, the amount of tax payable is computed by subtracting the tax previously paid on purchases from the tax charged on sales by the traders for each taxation period. In last three decades, VAT, a relatively new and better commodity taxation, has been introduced in many countries. It has replaced different types of sales taxes in such countries. This article attempts to evaluate VAT by comparing with other sales taxes.

  11. A note on the neutrality of profit taxes with tax evasion and tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Che-chiang Huang; Horn-in Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Traditional literature exploring the relationship between production and tax evasion ignores the impact of other activities on these two decisions. This paper incorporates firms' tax avoidance activities into the model of tax evasion. In contrast to conventional results, we find that profit tax is not necessarily neutral. In addition, the independency or separability of tax evasion and production decisions may not hold either whenever tax avoidance is present.

  12. The environmental tax reforms in Europe: mitigation, compensation, and CO2-stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Speck, S.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbon-energy taxes would need to be increased to a level of 20-30 ?/tonne CO2 in 2020 in order to accomplish a stabilisation target for greenhouse gas concentrations. While increases of carbon-energy taxes inevitably raise questions about the negative impacts on economic...... growth and competitiveness, the European experience shows that governments as part of already agreed environmental tax reforms (ETR) have in fact implicit carbon-energy taxes with a nominal level that in many cases exceeds this level. Still, European governments have exempt especially the energy...

  13. 48 CFR 52.229-4 - Federal, State, and Local Taxes (State and Local Adjustments).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. Excepted tax...

  14. 48 CFR 52.229-6 - Taxes-Foreign Fixed-Price Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. Excepted tax...

  15. Energy taxes -- Some critical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar concept of Pigouvian taxes has finally caught the interest of politicians as the various proposals for a pollution tax, often simplified to an energy tax, document. This paper reviews these proposals critically and points at some wrong presumptions. The suggestion to make the polluter liable for all damages is in general inefficient. In order to sell new taxes, politicians argue that Pigouvian taxes would not lower disposable income, because the associated revenues allow one to reduce other taxes (in particular, income taxes) correspondingly. However, strategic, noncompetitive energy producers may themselves attempt to internalize the external costs rather than to leave these tax revenues to the treasuries of the consuming countries. Moreover, the revenues from a commodity tax are potentially volatile. Finally, the conservation impact from Pigouvian energy taxes may fall short of expectations, in particular, if the tax is too low

  16. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  17. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2008 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes key federal income tax provisions for forestland owners, foresters, loggers, forest product businesses, and tax practioners, and is current as of October 1, 2008.  Consult your tax and legal professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  18. New tax law hobbles tax-exempt hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, S J

    1982-03-01

    The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 left tax-exempt hospitals at a significant disadvantage in the competition for capital. Although the new law's accelerated depreciation schedules and liberalized investment tax credits contain some marginal benefits for tax-exempt hospitals, these benefits are probably more than offset by the impact of the law on charitable giving.

  19. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2009 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes federal income tax information useful to woodland owners in preparing their 2009 tax returns. It is current as of October 1, 2009, and supersedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 132. It should not be sonstrued as legal or accounting advice: consult your legal and tax professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  20. Effect of shadow economy - country's tax losses

    OpenAIRE

    Krumplytė, Jolita

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the content of shadow economy through the prism of the tax administration. The author provides the limitations of the study and methodologically based relationship between the shadow economy and the tax revenue not to be received to the national consolidate budget. Country's tax losses (tax gap) is the amount of the tax revenue that is not received to the country's consolidated budget in the tax non-payment effects: tax avoidance and tax evasion. Tax losses (tax gap) is t...

  1. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  2. New taxes are late

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    A special tax for monopolies is not the only new tax the cabinet of Robert Fico is yet to introduce. As of the beginning of the year, new excise taxes prescribed by Brussels should have entered into force in Slovakia. According to the new arrangements, we should pay for energy consumed and for the coal and natural gas used to produce heat. And so the energy prices for companies should have already increased. Although the deadline set by the European Commission has already passed, the cabinet has still not completed the final version of the relevant legislation. Work stopped after the elections. The Ministry is very careful when it comes to making statements related to the excise tax. 'We do not wish to talk about details. There are still some minor issues that require fine tuning,' said Adrian Belanik, General Director of the Tax and Customs Section. Companies will have to get ready for the new costs related to the new excise taxes. The only thing that is clear is that the new taxes will be paid on the electricity and fuel used for heat production. (authors)

  3. Tax Evasion and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    .01% of the wealth distribution, a group that includes households with more than $45 million in net wealth. A simple model of the supply of tax evasion services can explain why evasion rises steeply with wealth. Taking tax evasion into account increases the rise in inequality seen in tax data since the 1970s......This paper attempts to estimate the size and distribution of tax evasion in rich countries. We combine random audits—the key source used to study tax evasion so far—with new micro-data leaked from large offshore financial institutions—HSBC Switzerland (“Swiss leaks”) and Mossack Fonseca (“Panama...... Papers”)—matched to population-wide wealth records in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. We find that tax evasion rises sharply with wealth, a phenomenon random audits fail to capture. On average about 3% of personal taxes are evaded in Scandinavia, but this figure rises to close to 30% in the top 0...

  4. From taxes to permits? The Norwegian climate policy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretteville, Camilla; Soefting, Guri Bang

    2000-09-01

    Taxation as an instrument for environmental policy (green taxes) has been a topic of heated debate in Norway for almost 30 years. The subject of environmental taxes has time after time inflamed both policy makers and scholars alike. The suitability of green taxes as a policy instrument was first discussed in the 1970s. The 1980s introduced the idea that income from green taxes would make reductions in other taxes possible: a green tax reform. In the 1990s, the tax discussion boiled down to whether or not all polluters should face the same carbon tax. Lately, however, the discussion around the Kyoto Protocol has led to increased interest around the alternative of introducing a system of tradable emission quotas. Environmental taxation might thus be a declining policy instrument in Norway. This is contrary to recent developments in several other European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper explores why the idea of a green tax reform never got off the ground in Norway by providing an overview of Norwegian environmental policy in the period from 1972 to early 2000. (author)

  5. Does an Uncertain Tax System Encourage "Aggressive Tax Planning"?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm

    2014-01-01

    "Aggressive tax planning" (ATP) is typically characterized as a tax scheme that reduces the effective tax rate of a particular type of income to a level below the one sought by fiscal policy for this income. One motivation often suggested for its use is the uncertainty in tax liabilities introduced by a complicated and ever changing tax system. In this paper, I examine the impact of an uncertainty on the use of such tax schemes; by implication, I also examine how a simpler and more stable tax...

  6. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  7. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  8. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...

  10. CEO Power, Corporate Tax Avoidance and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    GATOT SOEPRIYANTO

    2017-01-01

    My thesis investigates the association between CEO power, corporate tax avoidance and tax aggressiveness, using two organizational theory perspectives: self-interest and stewardship. I find that a powerful CEO engages in less corporate tax avoidance activities, which lends credence to the risk minimization motive of the stewardship perspective. My findings on the association between CEO power and tax aggressiveness show that powerful CEOs avoid risky tax avoidance strategies that expose a fir...

  11. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as e...

  12. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović-Ćuk, Jelena; Mitić, Petar; Dinić, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis,...

  13. Dividends and Taxes: Evidence on Tax-Reduction Strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplinsky, Susan; Seyhun, H Nejat

    1990-01-01

    This article investigates two aspects of dividend tax avoidance not addressed by prior research. First, it examines the aggregate dividend tax savings provided to individuals through tax-exempt and tax-deferred accumulators. Using the Internal Revenue Service Individual Income Tax Model, it then proceeds to determine whether specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, such as the preferential treatment of capital gains, the investment-interest limitation, and the $100 dividend exclusion...

  14. International capital tax evasion and the foreign tax credit puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley A. Scharf

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the role of international tax evasion for the choice of an optimal foreign tax credit by a capital exporting region. Since a foreign tax credit raises the opportunity cost of concealing foreign source income, it can be employed to discourage evasion activity. The existence of international tax evasion possibilities could thus help rationalize a choice of tax credit in excess of a deduction-equivalent credit level. Our analysis shows that, in general the optimal credit will...

  15. Tax Information Exchange with Developing Countries and Tax Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Julia; Zagler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The exchange of tax information has received ample attention recently, due to a number of recent headlines on aggressive tax planning and tax evasion. Whilst both participating tax authorities will gain when foreign investments (FDI) are bilateral, we demonstrate that FDI receiving nations will lose in asymmetric situations. We solve a bargaining model that proves that tax information exchange will only happen voluntarily with compensation for this loss. We then present empirical evidence in ...

  16. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  17. Tax Information Series, December 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-14

    to serve as an in-depth review or explanation of each topic discussed, rather its intent is to inform readers about updates in tax numerology and... NUMEROLOGY Tax Rates The 2000 federal income tax rates are: 15%, 28%, 31%, 36%, and 39.6%. The 2000 tax rates by filing status are

  18. Opportunities and potential costs of an environmental tax. Working paper Nr 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapecchi, Pascale

    2012-09-01

    After having outlined the role of an environmental tax in the policy for energy transition, the author discusses the definition of this tax and its objectives. She discusses the characteristics a carbon tax could have in terms of base, of exemption, of tax rate determination by using a cost-efficiency ratio, and of expected revenues. She identifies and comments benefits and drawbacks of an environmental tax, i.e.: economic and environmental benefits, lessons learned from the Swedish case (implementation of a carbon tax in 1991), negative impacts on economy, and assessment of anticipated macro-economic impacts by using economic models. She finally discusses the conditions of acceptability of such a tax by considering how revenues are redistributed

  19. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  20. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  1. An energy Btu tax alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Gehuang D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper extends the Ramsey tax rule and develops a tax rate by minimizing total excess burden, subject to government tax revenues. This tax rate is a function of its own and other fuels' price elasticities of compensated demand and supply, its own price and consumption level, other fuels' prices and consumption levels, and government revenues. It is this proposed tax rate, not the Ramsey tax ratio, that guides a government to levy a tax efficiently through a minimization of total excess burden. In the case of an energy tax, this tax rate provides direct guidance for taxation on various fuels. Moreover, total excess burden generated by the proposed tax rate is significantly less than that produced by the Clinton Administration's proposal

  2. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  3. Last hope: tax exemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2016-01-01

    Economically it is not possible to make money with old depreciated nuclear power plants because of the success of renewable energies, It is only the expectation on significant tax relief that keeps the power plants in operation.

  4. Public Service? Tax Credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Acknowledges the good work of private schools but resists the provision of further direct or indirect government aid to these schools. Argues that tax credits will adversely affect public education and American society. (Author/WD)

  5. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  6. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  7. Real Property Tax - 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  8. Real Property Tax - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  9. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessy, Hugh; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: → Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. → These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. → Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. → Tax revenues will fall too. → The exchequer cost per tonne of CO 2 avoided is very high.

  10. An Introductory Note on Carbon Taxation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2016-01-01

    Carbon taxes are in place in 14 countries in Europe, complementing emissions trading schemes for power plants and large industrial installations. Nordic countries pioneered carbon taxes 25 years ago, while France and Portugal most recently did so. Carbon taxes have been leveraged by linking...... their introduction to other issues and often through a ‘roundtable’ method of policy-making enabling agreement on exemptions and compensations. Distributional questions are key to the introduction of carbon taxes, although they are less regressive than many other taxes. Carbon taxes have proven effective in curbing...... emissions and with excise taxes on fuels provide a long-term signal capable of transforming energy and transport systems. Carbon tax schemes have been designed to reinforce employment and economic activity and to avoid damaging economic growth. With the large reserves of carbon allowances in Europe...

  11. Governance, Trust, and Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...

  12. Timing Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Niepelt

    2004-01-01

    Standard models of tax evasion implicitly assume that evasion is either fully detected, or not detected at all. Empirically, this is not the case, casting into doubt the traditional rationales for interior evasion choices. I propose two alternative, dynamic explanations for interior tax evasion rates: Fines depending on the duration of an evasion spell, and different vintages of income sources subject to aggregate risk and fixed costs when switched between evasion states. The dynamic approach...

  13. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  14. Who participates in tax avoidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...

  15. A Study of Japanese Consumption Tax System : Mainly on Multiple Tax Rates and Input Tax Credit Methods

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important discussions on Japanese tax system reform includes how consumption tax (Value-added tax) system ought to be. Facing issues like depopulation, aging society and large budget deficit, consumption tax can be an effective source of revenue to secure social security. This article mainly focuses on multiple tax rates and input tax credit methods of Japanese consumption tax system. Because of regressive nature of consumption tax, tax rate reduction, exemption on foodstuffs ...

  16. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO 2 . The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  17. Environmental taxes and subsidies 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1970 - 2002 and statements of environmentally related subsidies for the years 1996 - 2002. Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation, and resource related taxes. The State's revenue from environmental taxes have increased from 4,0 billions DKK in 1970 to 65,7 billions DKK in 2002. The environmental taxes' part of the GNP has increased from 3,2 % in 1970 to 4,8 % in 2002. The part of the environmental taxes of the total taxes and tariffs has increased from 8,2 % in 1970 to 9,8 % in 2002. >From 2001 to 2002 the environmental taxes increased with 5,6 %, primarily because the taxes in the transportation sector increased with 13,5 % due to more new cars. The pollution taxes increased with 6 % while the environmental taxes for energy increased with only 0,8 %. In 2002 the energy related taxes amounted to 54 %, the transport related taxes to 39 %, and pollution and resource related taxes amounted to 7 % of the total environmental taxes. The public environmentally related subsidies to companies and households has been on a stable level of a little more than 10 billions DKK through the latest years. The energy related subsidies have, however, been transferred to transport related subsidies, i.e. primarily subsidies to the public transport. (ln)

  18. TAX OPTIMIZATION, TAX AVOIDANCE OR TAX EVASION? CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OFFSHORE COMPANIES’ LEGAL BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Eva ERDÕS

    2010-01-01

    Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...

  19. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  20. Review of Tax Policy and Reform Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the activities of the 97th Congress on taxes. Reviews 1981 enactments and 1982 proposals regarding tax cuts, tax increases, indexing of tax brackets, interest earnings, depreciation, and business incentives. Examines tax administration problems and flat-rate tax proposals and discusses the progressive income tax. (Author/RW)

  1. 国际能源价格波动与中国碳税政策的协同模拟分析%Collaborative simulation analysis on international energy price volatility and China's carbon tax policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟帅; 沈镭; 赵建安; 孙艳芝; 武娜

    2017-01-01

    国际能源价格波动和碳税政策都会对能源成本产生直接作用,从而对能源安全状况和减排效果产生影响.现有研究往往基于外部条件不变的假设分别探讨两者的影响效应.然而,国际能源价格波动在现实中已成为常态,实施碳税可能无法实现预期减排效果,也可能影响能源安全.因此,评估国际能源价格波动与碳税政策的交互影响效应,有助于协调能源安全与碳减排的冲突问题.本研究构建了中国“产业-能源-碳排放”CGE模型,探讨了国际化石能源价格波动和碳税政策对实现2030年碳减排60%~65%目标的交互影响效应,研究结果显示:无论国际化石能源价格上升还是下降,碳税政策都能实现减排60%以上的目标;而当国际化石能源价格下降,碳税政策无法缓解能源对外依存度的提高,能源安全存在隐患.%Energy security and carbon emission mitigation play critical roles in guaranteeing sustainable development.International energy price volatility (IEPV)and carbon tax policy (CTP) have direct impacts on energy costs,and then create effects on energy security and carbon reduction.Previous studies have mostly focused on IEPV or CTP,respectively,based on the assumption that external conditions are invariable.In fact,however,IEPV has become a normal state,which may cause the result that CTP may not achieve emission reduction goals.Therefore,evaluating interactive effects between IEPV and CTP contributes insights to deal with conflict between energy security and carbon reduction.Here,we constructed a China CGE model with industry-energy-carbon emission modules applied to explore interactive effects on the 2030 target of carbon reduction 60%~65% (called the 2030 target),which were created by international fossil energy price volatility and CTP.We found that under the condition without any changes it was predicted that China's energy security would be improved,while carbon

  2. Tax Potential vs. Tax Effort; A Cross-Country Analysis of Armenia's Stubbornly Low Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Grigorian; Hamid R Davoodi

    2007-01-01

    Despite recording double digit growth since 2000, Armenia's tax-to-GDP ratio has been fairly stable at about 14½ percent. This paper catalogues a range of factors that may account for Armenia's stubbornly for tax collection by benchmarking Armenia's tax-to-GDP against some comparator countries and conducting an extensive econometric study of the main determinants of tax collection. We find empirical support for the hypothesis that the persistence of Armenia's low tax-GDP ratio can be traced t...

  3. Risk diversification and tax competition : the influence of risk correlations and tax provisions on tax competition

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Markus; Reichl, Bettina

    2000-01-01

    From standard-portfolio-models the authors derive demand elasticities for risky assets, and combine the results with a simple non-cooperative model of tax competition between capital importing countries. They find that tax rates resulting from tax competition depend heavily on the correlations of capital market indices. If investment alternatives are not correlated, the outcome of both tax competition and a cooperative solution of tax harmonization are identical. The results suggest regional ...

  4. Paying taxes in Euro area countries: issues behind tax morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Rutkauskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates theoretical and practical aspects of tax morale in euro area countries. The attitude of households on tax payment – whether to pay taxes or not – is assessed quantitatively by employing dichotomous logit-probit regression analysis. Research is based on household level data received from World Values Survey and European Values Study. The results suggest that the main issues behind weak tax morale are corruption, disrespect to the country. Additionally tax morale is significantly affected by factors like age, gender, religiousness, gender, income and education. Article concludes on possible policy options in order to increase tax morale.

  5. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  6. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2013 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2013-01-01

    This annual bulletin provides federal income tax reporting tips to assist forest landowners and their advisers in filing their 2013 income tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2013.

  7. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Ćuk Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis, synthesis and discussion, comparative, inductive and historical analysis, together with the usage of relevant national and international sources. This paper describes the basic features of tax havens, as well as specific business models applied in them. A separate chapter deals with overcoming the problem of tax evasion, which is the main adverse effect of doing business through tax havens.

  8. Employment impacts of alcohol taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Jernigan, David H

    2017-12-01

    There is strong scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related problems. Opponents have argued that alcohol tax increases lead to job losses. However, there has been no comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of alcohol taxes on employment. To fill this gap, a regional macroeconomic simulation model was used to assess the net impact of two hypothetical alcohol tax increases (a 5-cent per drink excise tax increase and a 5% sales tax increase on beer, wine, and distilled spirits, respectively) on employment in Arkansas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The model accounted for changes in alcohol demand, average state income, and substitution effects. The employment impact of spending the new tax revenue on general expenditures versus health care was also assessed. Simulation results showed that a 5-cent per drink additional excise tax on alcoholic beverages with new tax revenues allocated to general expenditures increased net employment in Arkansas (802 jobs); Florida (4583 jobs); Massachusetts (978 jobs); New Mexico (653 jobs); and Wisconsin (1167 jobs). A 5% additional sales tax also increased employment in Arkansas (789 jobs; Florida (4493 jobs); Massachusetts (898 jobs); New Mexico (621 jobs); and Wisconsin (991 jobs). Using new alcohol tax revenues to fund health care services resulted in slightly lower net increases in state employment. The overall economic impact of alcohol tax increases cannot be fully assessed without accounting for the job gains resulting from additional tax revenues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  10. Capital Market Effects of Taxes and Corporate Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Tassius, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays: The first essay entitled “Tax Effects on Asset Pricing – New Evidence from Tax Reform Announcements in Germany”, co-authored with Michael Overesch, Chair of Business Taxation at the University of Cologne, not only presents price effects for German shares given rumors about lowering the German corporate tax rate but also shows price effects for bonds following a substantial cut in the German personal interest tax rate. The second essay “Capital Inco...

  11. Tax Competition and Double Tax Treaties with Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Siggelkow, Benjamin Florian

    2013-01-01

    In a two-period tax competition model with provision of local public goods, we analyze efficiency properties of double taxation reliefs incorporating either the exemption method, the tax credit system or the full taxation after deduction system. Foreign direct investments are presumed to be one-way and characterized by long-term mergers and acquisitions. We find that in case of (i) tax revenue maximization the exemption method implies inefficiently low tax rates, whereas the fu...

  12. A study of the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of income tax revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Eureka

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of Indonesian's income tax revenues in the period of 1983-2011. It points out two key features of the Indonesian's income tax reforms: 1) the tax reforms have embraced tax rates cutting and tax bases broadening apcomprehensive income tax system toward the schedular tax system. Then, regarding tax revenues, data shows that the Indonesian's nominal income tax revenues have increased considerably during that period; howev...

  13. Tax Incentives : Using Tax Incentives to Attract Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Morisset, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The increasing mobility of international firms and the gradual elimination of barriers to global capital flows have stimulated competition among governments to attract foreign direct investment, often through tax incentives. This note reviews the debate about the effectiveness of tax incentives, examining two much-contested questions: can tax incentives attract foreign investment? And what...

  14. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2012 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2012-01-01

    Federal income tax law contains provisions to encourage stewardship and management of private forest land. The primary goal of this bulletin is to assist forest landowners and their advisors with timber tax information they can use to file their 2012 in-come tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2012.

  15. Tax Evasion in the Presence of Negative Income Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Joulfaian, David; Rider, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the impact of marginal tax rates, which incorporate the earned income tax credit as it existed in 1988, on the reporting of income by low-level taxpayers. Concludes that the amount of income underreported does not appear to be affected by the relatively high marginal tax rates which occur in the phase out range, except for proprietors.

  16. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...... are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words...

  17. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  18. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State (including franchise taxes). (4) Income tax component means that part of the cost-of-service that... deferred taxes becomes deficient in, or in excess of, amounts necessary to meet future tax liabilities. (2...

  19. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  20. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  1. Tax Expenditures: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditures are an instrument frequently used when a government wishes to achieve certain economic and social effects. But because of the increasing number and scope of tax expenditures, their proper use, quality of administration and record-keeping have become a major challenge for the tax authorities and the whole of the government. The article considers and explains very diverse forms of tax expenditure such as reliefs, tax deductions, tax allowances, tax exceptions and special rates of taxation and the ways in which they are defined and calculated. The key problems in the analysis are the absence of a single definition and of methodology for the calculations; these ultimately make it impossible to compare tax expenditures between or among countries.

  2. TEXAS TAXES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Stallmann, Judith I.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    1998-01-01

    This document is part of an educational series on Texas taxes. State and local taxes in Texas are compared with those of the fifty states and the District of Columbia. Taxes are compared per capita and per $1,000 of personal income. The taxes include: all state and local taxes, property taxes, sales and gross receipts taxes, personal income taxes, corporate income taxes and corporate franchise taxes. For each tax the national average, median, maximum and minimum are given along with the corre...

  3. Carbon Standards and Carbon Labelling: An Emerging Trade Concern

    OpenAIRE

    Nitya Nanda; Rajan Sudesh Ratna

    2010-01-01

    The current debate on climate change and its linkages to trade is rapidly gaining global attention. Thus it is reasonable to expect that the focus on carbon leakage and border tax adjustment will only intensify in the future. Carbon leakage is said to happen when production of carbon intensive products migrates from countries which have measures to reduce emissions to countries where there are no such measures. Therefore, border tax adjustment is suggested when carbon intensive products are i...

  4. Economic Effects Real Estate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The real estate tax is usually a fiscal instrument which performs the property tax. When it comes to real property or immovable this term include: apartments, houses, land, cottages, excess housing landscape and more. The real estate tax as a form of the fiscal charges ownership or use of certain forms of real estate, and the revenue from this tax is levied on the area where the property is located regardless of the place of residence of its owner. The tax base for the calculation of this tax usually consists of the market, estimated or annuity value of certain real estate. This form of taxation in the Republic of Serbian applies from 1.1.2012., and its introduction has been replaced by former property taxes. The differences between the two concepts mentioned taxes are numerous and significant. Among the more important are: subject to taxation under the new concept of the real estate rather than law, a taxpayer is any property owner rather than the holder of rights to immovable property tax base is the market value of real estate which is replaced by the payment of taxes per square meter of usable area, the rate of property tax is determined local government, which can not be lower than 0.05% of the estimated value of the real estate nor higher than 0.5% of the appraised value of real estate. The last change, ie. The new law on Property Tax from 5.11.2015. was determined by the tax rate to 20%. The fact that local governments each of them determines the tax rate on real estate which range from high to low rates of multiple, makes this tax is progressive. Progression is particularly expressed in the distinction applied tax rates of developed and undeveloped municipalities, where we have a case that less developed tolerate a higher tax burden, which leads to negative economic effects. However, real estate tax has its own economic and social characteristics which must be aligned with the objectives of tax policy. This means that the real estate tax

  5. Tax optimization methods of international companies

    OpenAIRE

    Černá, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on methods of tax optimization of international companies. These international concerns are endeavoring tax minimization. The disparity of the tax systems gives to these companies a possibility of profit and tax base shifting. At first this thesis compares the differences of tax optimization, aggressive tax planning and tax evasion. Among the areas of the optimization methods, which are described in this thesis, belongs tax residention, dividends, royalty payments, tra...

  6. The Disappearing State Corporate Income Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Cornia, Gary; Edmiston, Kelly D.; Sjoquist, David L.; Wallace, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines alternative explanations for the decline over the past two decades in state corporate income taxes relative to the state economy. We employ a survey of state tax administrators, individual tax returns from Georgia and Utah, and panel data to explore the importance of tax policy, tax planning, and economic factors on the trend in state corporate taxes. We find that corporate tax planning and economic factors account for much of the relative decline, and that state tax polic...

  7. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  8. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  9. Corporate tax structure and production

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Jeffrey; Shah, Anwar

    1993-01-01

    The authors provide an empirical framework for assessing the effects of tax policy on an array of producer decisions about output supplies and input demands in Mexico, Pakistan, and Turkey. They specify and estimate a dynamic production structure model with imperfect competition for selected industries in these countries. The model results suggest that tax policy affected production and investment and further that selective tax incentives such as investment tax credits, investment allowances,...

  10. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...

  11. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US ...

  12. Tax Information Series, January 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    are important for taxpayers in the military community. Its goal is to inform legal assistance attorneys of updates in tax numerology and changes...should mail tax returns to the address on the envelope received with their tax package, or note the proper mailing address 2001 NUMEROLOGY Five

  13. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  14. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  15. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  16. 27 CFR 19.21 - Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax. 19.21 Section 19.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.21 Tax. (a) A tax is imposed by 26 U.S...

  17. Tax Rate and Tax Base Competition for Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Horst Raff

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the large reduction in corporate tax rates and only gradual widening of tax bases in many countries over the last decades are consistent with tougher international competition for foreign direct investment (FDI). To make this point we develop a model in which governments compete for FDI using corporate tax rates and tax bases. The model’s predictions regarding the slope of policy reaction functions and the response of equilibrium tax parameters to trade costs and mark...

  18. Energy taxes in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhjalmsson, A.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed survey, including data, of energy taxation, and related reforms and plans for reforms, in Iceland is presented. The current energy tax system here is mostly connected with consumption. There is as yet no taxation on air pollutants from fuel combustion. (AB)

  19. Economic and tax issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene

    2002-01-01

    Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....

  20. Tax administration good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national

  1. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  2. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  3. Recent Tax Law Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewski, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Describes provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 as they influence business and personal taxes. Also explains a recent ruling, the IRS Revenue Procedure 96-31, which will benefit businesses which did not claim all the depreciation expenses they were entitled to over the years. (KB)

  4. Reflections on the Scandinavian Model: Some Insights into Energy-Related Taxes in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how excise taxes on energy products and electricity have been combined with taxes on CO2 emissions and air pollution in the Nordic countries. The methods and principles employed in this region may be of interest to other countries considering how to tax fossil fuels as part...... of their transition to low-carbon energy systems. (Reprint from European Taxation 55(6) 235–44)....

  5. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  6. Impacts of CO2 taxes in an Economy with Niche Markets and Learning-by-doing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Gerlagh, R.; Hofkes, M.W.; Klaassen, G.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, we analyse the impact of carbon taxes on emission levels, when niche markets exist for new carbon-free technologies, and when these technologies experience 'learning-by-doing' effects. For this purpose, a general equilibrium model has been developed, DEMETER, which specifies two energy technologies: one based on fossil fuels and one on a composite of carbon-free energy technologies. Initially, the carbon-free technology has relatively high production costs, but niche markets ensure positive demand. Learning-by-doing decreases production costs, which increases the market share, which in turn accelerates learning-by-doing, and so forth. This mechanism allows a relatively modest carbon tax, of about 50 US$/tC, to almost stabilise carbon emissions at their 2000 levels throughout the entire 21st century. Sensitivity analysis shows that the required carbon tax for emission stabilisation crucially depends on the elasticity of substitution between the fossil fuel and carbon-free technology

  7. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax-seeking'). Taxing...

  8. Everyday Representations of Tax Avoidance, Tax Evasion, and Tax Flight: Do Legal Differences Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchler, Erich; Maciejovsky, Boris; Schneider, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    From an economic point of view, legal considerations apart, tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax flight have similar effects, namely a reduction of revenue yields, and are based on the same desire to reduce the tax burden. Due to legal differences and moral concerns it is, however, likely that individuals perceive them as different and as unequally fair. Overall, 252 fiscal officers, business students, business lawyers, and entrepreneurs produced spontaneous associations to a scenario either de...

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  10. CO2 taxes as economic tool for energy efficiency analysis of CO2 tax impact on energy efficiency projects in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberga, D.; Blumberga, M.; Veidenbergs, I.

    2005-01-01

    The intended purpose of the carbon tax is to reduce CO 2 emissions. This tax can play a significant role in the implementation of energy saving projects. The paper evaluates three market mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: joint implementation, emissions trading and CO 2 taxes. The first market mechanism - pilot phase of joint implementation (Activities Implemented Jointly) opened the minds of specialists to the GHG emission reduction potential of energy efficiency projects. The second mechanism was implemented after Latvia had accepted the National Allocation Plan to start emission trading. The third mechanism is based on the introduction of a carbon tax, which will come into force in Latvia in July 2005. This paper describes the potential impact of this tax that could promote development of energy efficiency projects. The authors worked out an evaluation methodology to calculate the impact of CO 2 taxes on emissions levels and the potential value of such taxes. The proposed methodology is applicable to district heating companies and governmental institutions, defining links between the energy efficiency and CO 2 taxes and showing ways of justifying these taxes both economically and environmentally. (authors)

  11. Distributional effects of taxing transport fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the observation that fuel prices – and thus taxes – are important for good management of climate change and other environmental problems. To economists this should be no surprise yet it seems that the role of fuel taxation as an instrument of climate policy has not been fully appreciated. It is however one of the few policy instruments that, since several decades, has actually reduced fuel consumption appreciably. Thanks to taxation (mainly in Europe and Japan), carbon emissions are considerably lower than they would have been otherwise. In future where carbon emissions are to be cut drastically, this instrument will be crucial. There is however much opposition to the instrument. This opposition uses various arguments, for instance that fuel taxes hurt the poor since they are strongly regressive. We however find that the choice of country and methodology turns out to be of great consequence. We study seven European countries—France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Serbia, Spain and Sweden and do find some evidence of regressivity but the evidence is very weak. It does not apply when lifetime income is used and it does not apply to the poorest country in the group. The best one-line summary is probably that the tax is approximately proportional.

  12. The Tax Base And The Tax Bill. Tax Implications of Development: A Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Deb; Northup, Jim

    The property tax base in Vermont's towns are overburdened as property taxes are usually the only funding method available to finance schools, police departments, highway work, recreation programs, and government in general. Attempting to offer their citizens a balanced program of services without exorbitant taxes, local officials are striving to…

  13. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  14. Bribes and Business Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulfaian, David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of governance, in particular bribes to tax officials, in shaping business tax compliance behavior in transition economies. The empirical results show that business noncompliance rises with the frequency of tax related bribes. More specifically, the findings from 27 economies suggest that tax evasion thrives when bribes to tax officials are commonplace. These findings are robust to a number of specifications that control for firm and country attributes as well as address the potential endogeneity of bribes.

  15. ADA APA SETELAH TAX AMNESTY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antin Okfitasari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: What is the matter After Tax Amnesty? This study analyzes the taxpayer obligation after tax amnesty and the consequences that arise if they fail to perform their obligations. The research uses descriptive qualitative approach through literature study. The research shows that there are some obligations for taxpayers to be done. Failure and misconduct in the implementation of obligations after tax amnesty, will result in consequences of sanctions, tax amnesty cancellation, and examination. Finally the relief that should be obtained taxpayers tax amnesty participants will turn into a boomerang because of it.

  16. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  17. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  18. Advanced training of tax consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigamova Farida F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to review and analyze the data on the necessity to provide an educational environment for training and advanced training of tax consultants in Russia. The article considers the types of tax consulting, the historical background of training financiers in Russia, as well as identifies conditions determining the significance of tax consulting. The research establishes the connection between the negative attitude to tax payment and tax evasion. The advanced training of tax consultants should be a continuous process as they need to take into account both external and internal taxpayers risks associated with the development of law and law-enforcement practice. Obviously, the training of tax consultants should take into account the experience of developed foreign countries, such as Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European countries as well. In Russia, it is necessary to open educational institutions, which will not only be involved in the certification of tax consultants, but also provide training courses. These courses should contribute to constant increase of tax consultants knowledge, consider the tax treatment of economic activities, as well changes in the legislation, economics, finance, accounting, manufacturing processes, which will improve the quality of services provided by tax consultants.

  19. Theoretical Provision of Tax Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feofanova Iryna V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation

  20. Responsible Investment: Taxes and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutinen Reijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxes have become an issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, but the role of taxation is to some extent an ambiguous and controversial issue in the CSR framework. Similarly, another unclear question is what role investors who are committed to sustainable and responsible investment (SRI see taxes as having on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG agenda. Corporate taxes have an inverse relationship with the return of the investors: taxes paid directly affect what is left on the bottom line, reducing the return of investors. However, investors are now more aware of tax-related risks, which can include different forms of reputation risk. Corporate tax planning may increase the returns, but those increased returns are riskier. This study focuses particularly on the relationship between SRI and taxation. We find that tax matters are considered to be on the ESG agenda, but their role and significance in the ESG analysis is unclear.

  1. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show......Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...

  2. Businessmen´s tax evasions

    OpenAIRE

    Karásková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is categorize businessmen's tax evasions at personal income tax and find out their portion on total tax evasions. In the first chapter I focus on tax avoidance and tax evasion, causes of tax evasion and his measurement. Next parts of this thesis focus on businessmen's tax evasion at personal income tax. In the second part I describe some very frequented cases of tax evasions revealed by revenue authorities. In the last part I analyse these tax evasions, c...

  3. Redistributive Effects of Income Tax Rates and Tax Base 1984-2009: Evidence from Japanese Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kitamura, Yukinobu

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to examine how and to what extent changes in income tax rates and income tax deductions affect income inequality from longitudinal perspectives, by using microdata from Japanese individuals and households. The findings of this paper could shed light on the effects of tax rates and tax deduction on tax progressivity. First, redistributive effects of the Japanese income tax are likely to decline for the period 1984-2009. Second, the income tax reforms, i.e...

  4. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs

  5. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J. [Centre for Economic Policy OCFEB, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs.

  6. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1 the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2 case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3 the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits of the company and the host country. We will try to summarize here the three areas of study and come to some conclusions on how to deal with fiscal policy in Kosovo. In addition, we will offer our opinion on some interesting and important questions for future research.

  7. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  8. INTERPRETATION OF TAX TREATIES

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeltürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Nations benefit economically when their companies work abroad and develop their strength in international markets. Economic power also brings international political power and prestige. When dealing with international business, taxation is one o f the most important problems. Double taxation, which is to tax the same profit by two or more countries, is a serious obstacle that confronts international enterprises. Unless double taxation is avoided it will be difficult for enterprises to conduct...

  9. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  10. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  11. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  12. The empirical effects of a gasoline tax on CO2 emissions reductions from transportation sector in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Duk; Han, Hyun-Ok; Moon, Young-Seok

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of carbon tax is expected to mitigate GHG emissions cost-effectively. With this expectation identifying the impacts of carbon tax on energy demand and GHG emission reductions is an interesting issue. One of the basic methods of estimating these impacts is using the price elasticity. There are, however, some unanswered questions regarding the use of price elasticity. First, which elasticity estimates are appropriate to measure the impacts of carbon tax on energy demand? The existing estimates are estimated in the presence of a substitute. To assess the impact of carbon tax could we use these estimates? Second, how can we compromise the differences among the existing estimates depending on estimation methods and specifications? For example, how can we accommodate the difference in the estimates from the regional panel specification and the aggregate specification? This paper tries to answer these questions with the price elasticity of gasoline demand. With an appropriate price elasticity, we show how much gasoline consumption and GHG emissions are reduced by carbon tax for different scenarios of carbon tax rate. - Research highlights: →We offer an appropriate estimate for evaluating the effects of carbon tax. →We estimate the price elasticity of gasoline with instrument variables. →We measure the tax effects on CO 2 emissions from transportation sector.

  13. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  14. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  15. Tax reliefs in legal entities' capital gains tax

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Reducing a national corporate tax rate and introducing numerous/ ample tax reliefs may have adverse effects on a country's reputation as it is perceived as being susceptible to unfair tax competition practices and prone to allowing the subsidiaries of foreign companies to enter the national market at any cost (even at the expense of preserving its natural assets). For this reason, it is essential to find the right balance between the need to attract foreign capital (on the one hand) and the p...

  16. Tax policy: The fiscal revenue effects of international tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Beznoska, Martin; Hentze, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In the course of the 'Panama Papers' discussion, questions arise concerning the fiscal effects of international profit shifting and tax avoidance. A recent OECD study estimates the worldwide corporate tax losses to lie between 4 and 10 percent of the revenues. Applied to Germany, this would reflect between 3 and 7 billion Euro or maximum 1 percent of total tax revenues. However, the estimation underlies questionable assumptions and therefore severe uncertainties.

  17. Inheritance tax: Limit corporate privileges and spread tax burden

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    After the inheritance tax ruling by the German Federal Constitutional Court, legislators will have to limit the wide-ranging exemptions on company assets. In recent years, they have exempted half of all assets subject to inheritance tax. In particular, large transfers consisting mainly of corporate assets benefit from the favorable conditions. In 2012 and 2013, over half of all transfers of five million euros or more were tax exempt, and over 90 percent of transfers of 20 million euros or mor...

  18. 17 CFR 256.408 - Taxes other than income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC.... (a) This account shall include the amount of state unemployment insurance, franchise taxes, federal...

  19. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  20. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  1. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax......-seeking efforts to maximise budgets in the long run and that the ministries that collect green tax revenues should not be allowed to control these revenues. Furthermore, our results dictate that postulated effects from green tax intervention need to be demonstrated....

  2. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  3. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  4. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  5. Tax Havens in the Offshore World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Through taxation governments get money to fulfil their role in society. It plays a major role ininvestment decisions and can be also an innoportunity for taxpayers. Tax havens are tax free areasthat have the status of states and function legally. Their main business is to attract money bycreating taxpayers friendly environments and by total secrecy. Panama is the biggest USinfluencedtax haven. Tax evasion through tax havens is illegal and is the evading of declaringand paying taxes. Tax avoidance through tax havens is the legally avoiding of declaring andpaying taxes. Tax havens are not illegal but are immoral because vast amounts of money drainfrom the states around the world to them.

  6. Tax Cut Legislation: What's Fair? Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, Davis, CA.

    Front and center in 2001 domestic policy debates is President George W. Bush's proposed tax relief plan. The U.S. federal tax is a progressive tax code, predicated on the assumption that "people who are most able to pay should pay the most." A progressive tax system makes an individual's tax bill increase faster than his/her income. The…

  7. Assessment of a progressive electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

  8. Introducing the Microcomputer into Undergraduate Tax Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Manson P.; Savage, Allan H.

    Although accountants have used computers for tax planning and tax return preparation for many years, tax education has been slow to reflect the increasing role of computers in tax accounting. The following are only some of the tasks that a business education department offering undergraduate tax courses for accounting majors should perform when…

  9. Which Countries Become Tax Havens?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala; James R. Hines Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors influencing whether countries become tax havens. Roughly 15 percent of countries are tax havens; as has been widely observed, these countries tend to be small and affluent. This paper documents another robust empirical regularity: better-governed countries are much more likely than others to become tax havens. Using a variety of empirical approaches, and controlling for other relevant factors, governance quality has a statistically significant and quantitativel...

  10. Tax Shield, Insolvenz und Zinsschranke

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Sven; Lahmann, Alexander; Schwetzler, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert den Wertbeitrag fremdfinanzierungsbedingter Steuervorteile (Tax Shield) unter realistischen Bedingungen (keine Negativsteuer; mögliche Insolvenz) für unterschiedliche Finanzierungspolitiken. Zusätzlich wird der Effekt der sogenannten Zinsschranke auf den Wert des Tax Shield ermittelt. Die Bewertung des Tax Shield mit und ohne Zinsschranke findet im einperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Optionspreismodellen und im mehrperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Monte Carlo Simul...

  11. Tax incentives in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Brodzka, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Emerging economies have introduced tax incentives for various reasons. In some countries in transition, such instruments may be seen as a counterweight to the investment disincentives inherent in the general tax system. In other countries, the incentives are intended to offset other disadvantages that investors may face, such as a lack of infrastructure, complicated and antiquated laws, bureaucratic complexities and weak administration. The article brings closer the issue of tax incentives of...

  12. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of q...

  13. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  14. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Gaern Hansen, L.; Bech-Ravn, C.; Ramskov, J.L.

    2006-11-01

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO 2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO 2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  15. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  16. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market. PMID:27274568

  17. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  18. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda's charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market.

  19. Fuel taxes: An important instrument for climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This article shows that fuel taxes serve a very important role for the environment and that we risk a backlash of increased emissions if they are abolished. Fuel taxes have restrained growth in fuel demand and associated carbon emissions. Although fuel demand is large and growing, our analysis shows that it would have been much higher in the absence of domestic fuel taxes. People often assert that fuel demand is inelastic but there is strong research evidence showing the opposite. The price elasticity is in fact quite high but only in the long-run: in the short run it may be quite inelastic which has important implications for policy makers. Had Europe not followed a policy of high fuel taxation but had low US taxes, then fuel demand would have been twice as large. Hypothetical transport demand in the whole OECD area is calculated for various tax scenarios and the results show that fuel taxes are the single most powerful climate policy instrument implemented to date-yet this fact is not usually given due attention in the debate

  20. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate

  1. 26 CFR 1.641(a)-1 - Imposition of tax; application of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of tax; application of tax. 1.641(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(a)-1 Imposition of tax; application of tax. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970, section 641 prescribes...

  2. Optimal Tax Depreciation under a Progressive Tax System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time,

  3. Canada's gas taxes = highway robbery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This report was prepared for the second annual 'gas honesty day' (May 18, 2000) in an effort to draw attention to the frustration of Canadian taxpayers with gasoline retailers and the petroleum industry for the inordinately and unjustifiably high prices for gasoline at the pump. The report points out that the public outcry is, in fact, misdirected since the largest profiteers at the pumps, the federal government, remains largely unscathed. It is alleged in the report that gas taxes are tantamount to highway robbery. Ostensibly collected for road construction and maintenance, of the almost $ 5 billion collected in 1999, only a paltry $ 194 million was returned to the provinces for roadway and highway spending. The 10-year average of federal returns to the the provinces from tax on gasoline is a meager 4.7 per cent, which fell even further to 4.1 per cent in 1998-1999. Gasoline tax revenues continue to climb, while government commitment to real roadway and highway spending continues to decline. This document attempts to shed some light on the pricing structure for gasoline. Without defending or explaining the non-tax portion of the pump price charged by Canada's oil companies, which is a task for the oil companies to undertake, the document makes a concerted effort to raise public awareness and focus public attention on government's involvement, namely that gas taxes represent on average about 50 per cent of the pump price and that the majority of the taxes collected are not put back into road and highway improvements. The Canadian Taxpayers Federation, authors of this report, expect that by focusing debate on the issue of gasoline taxes a broad support for a lowering of the overall tax burden on motorists will result. Among other things, the CTF advocates reduction of federal and provincial fuel taxes to levels commensurate with highway funding; dedication of fuel tax revenues to highway construction and maintenance; elimination of the sales and goods

  4. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  5. Deferred Tax Assets and Deferred Tax Expense Against Tax Planning Profit Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the probability of earnings management performed by Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in the period 2011-2015. How to do the management to influence the accounting numbers can be either profit management through deferred tax assets, deferred tax expense and tax planning in the financial statements. This paper examines the effect of deferred tax assets deferred tax burden, and tax planning to earnings management conducted by the company. Data of the research is to use secondary data from company financial statements that were downloaded from the official website of Indonesia Stock Exchange. Using sampling technique is performed by purposive sampling. The study population is the Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period 2011-2015. The study take sample as many as 34 companies Property and Real Estate in the Stock Exchange in 2011-2015. Hypothesis testing uses multiple regressions with SPSS software version 22. The result shows that the Deferred Tax Assets positive and significant effect on earnings management; while deferred tax expense and tax planning significant negative effect on earnings management.

  6. Tax evasion and the law in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enya Matthew Nwocha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has dealt with the incidence of tax evasion and how the law in Nigeria has tackled the problem. It came against the background of massive tax evasion in the country which has resulted in the loss of needed revenue for development. Most individuals eligible to pay tax are not usually amenable to doing so willingly thereby resulting in tax evasion and tax avoidance. Neglect or refusal to pay tax invariably attracts various ranges of punishment. All of these issues have been discussed in this paper under introduction, conceptual framework, grounds for imposition of tax, statutory provisions on tax evasion, reasons for and implications of tax evasion, recommendations and conclusion. The paper in discussing the subject has focused on the principal tax legislations in the country, namely, the Personal Income Tax Act, Companies Income Tax Act, and the Federal Inland Revenue Service Act.

  7. Boundaries between Fair and Harmful Tax Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition. The author analyses OECD’s reports and literature related to the tax competition. In the beginning, the author presents the notion of tax competition and its division into fair and unfair tax competition. Differences between tax heaven and preferential tax regime are also discussed. In the summary, the author highlights that boundaries between fair and harmful tax competition are not obvious, but there are well-known guidelines, which let distinguish above-mentioned issues. The author considers that there are real tax burden, effective exchange of tax information and transparency in the fair tax regime. The author states that taxpayer can do justified tax planning in such tax system.

  8. Typology of taxpayers and tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niesiobedzka Malgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue how to reduce of tax evasion is widely discussed in the literature. A public authority may affect the behavior of taxpayers, not only through economic factors, but also by strengthen fiscal discipline. In this process especially role play such issues as tax morale, tax mentality and perceived tax justice. The purpose of the study was to identify groups of taxpayers with similar attitudes towards taxes and similar tax behaviors. Cluster analysis elicited four types of tax payers: Intrinsic Tax Payer, External Tax Payer, Intrinsic Tax Evader, External Tax Evader. In the study the most common were the first two types of taxpayers. Elicited types correspond with motivational tax postures identified by Braithwaite(2001, 2003 and Torgler (2003. The conclusions sum up the key issues discussed, policy implications and the limitation of the analysis.

  9. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  10. WACC and a Generalized Tax Code

    OpenAIRE

    Husmann, Sven; Kruschwitz, Lutz; Löffler, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    We extend the WACC approach to a tax system having a firm income tax and a personal income tax of the investor as well. We use an artificial tax system incorporating most of the G-7 national tax codes as for example the classical or the imputation systems. On our website (www.wacc.de) WACC formulas according to many of the actual G-7 national tax codes can be found.

  11. Tax Multipliers: Pitfalls in Measurement and Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Riera-Crichton; Carlos A. Vegh; Guillermo Vuletin

    2012-01-01

    We contribute to the literature on tax multipliers by analyzing the pitfalls in identification and measurement of tax shocks. Our main focus is on disentangling the discussion regarding the identification of exogenous tax policy shocks (i.e., changes in tax policy that are not the result of policymakers responding to output fluctuations) from the discussion related to the measurement of tax policy (i.e., finding a tax policy variable under the direct control of the policymaker). For this purp...

  12. International cooperation in good tax governance

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Brodzka

    2013-01-01

    In times of crisis and uncertainty the countries look for solutions that will protect tax revenues from tax base erosion. In attempts of increasing the level of tax collection they try to fight tax avoidance and tax evasion. Among the difficult challenges faced by governments, there are also aspects of maintaining their competitive position and keeping measures to stimulate countries’ economic development. Among the issues related to fiscal policy there are also the matters of good tax govern...

  13. Symmetric tax competition under formula apportionment

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares property taxation to a corporate income tax based on formula apportionment in a model where identical countries compete to attract capital. We find that if countries can pair a residence-based capital tax with a property tax (source tax on capital) the tax equilibrium is efficient. In contrast, the use of a 2-factor FA scheme based on sales and capital combined with a residence-based capital tax leads to an inefficient outcome.

  14. An Analysis of Tax Buoyancy Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Rasheed

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By using econometric techniques for estimating tax elasticities, this paper findssignificant but low tax buoyancy rates for GDP, M0 and volume of trade. Surprisingly,the theoretically important factor of tax evasion (SFTR was found to be ineffective. Thisindicates that SFTR is not an adequate measure of tax evasion. There is no significantassociation between tax revenue growth and investment, credit, public debt and inflation.This illustrates the weakness of the tax regime in Pakistan.

  15. TAX EXPENDITURES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes a broad approach in the sense that only the fundamental structure elements of each tax system are considered as part of the benchmark tax system. Moreover, this paper will go beyond the traditional tax expenditure reporting by taking into account an ideal tax system with minor distortions as part of the benchmark. Because of having an ideal tax system as a norm, the report makes some judgments about the appropriateness of the ideal tax structure in the Dominican Republic and ...

  16. Carbon tariffs and cooperative outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyland, Terry; Zaccour, Georges

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete à la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: • One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. • Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. • Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment

  17. Tax Treaty Interpretation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Roch, María Teresa; Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides insight in the interpretation of Spanish double taxation conventions. Taking as a premise the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the wording of Article 3(2) OECD Model Convention, the authors explore the relevance of mutual agreements, tax authority practice and foreign court decisions on the tax treaty interpretation.

  18. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  19. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  20. The CO2-energy tax in Belgium: the effects and the fiscal redistribution of the revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossier, F.; Van den Steen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and economic effects of the introduction of a carbon dioxide energy tax in Belgium are described. The objective of reducing carbon dioxide emission values by five percent in 2000 with respect to the carbon dioxide production in 1990 can only be achieved by taking additional measures. The environmental and economic effects of a carbon dioxide tax are strongly dependent on the spending of the revenues. The best results are achieved when the revenues are spent on projects for the rational use of energy. (A.S.)

  1. A choice experiment on tax: Are income and consumption taxes equivalent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Mori, Tomoharu; Ohtake, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We test the equivalence of income and consumption taxes through a choice experiment. Under a given set of income and consumption parameters, subjects were asked to choose among an income tax of 20%, a consumption tax of 25% (which is an equivalent tax burden), a consumption tax of 22%, and a consumption tax of 20%. Our results showed that subjects prefer income tax to consumption tax when the nominal consumption tax rate is higher than the nominal income tax rate. However, subjects tend to pr...

  2. Energy taxes in practice. Energy tax - electricity tax - biofuel quota - energy tax compliance. 3. upd. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Roland M.; Thoms, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    You need a quick and easy overview of the legal provisions of the energy tax law? You would like to understand the relationship between the European and national regulations and their impact on the daily practice? This manual prepares the energy tax, electricity tax and biofuel quota law for you clearly on and illustrated by examples, what to look in practice in order to avoid pitfalls. It picks up especially contentious issues and problems, discusses the relevant case law and the relevant regulations and finally gives precise recommendations for daily practice. Based on practice notes, examples and diagrams you can easily identify how to transfer the legal requirements on the own workspaces or optionally can use tax breaks. This includes information on both simplified - and thus less subject to error - methods and to tax exemptions and credits. The manual is complemented by forms, extracts from the Combined Nomenclature and an online material collection with regulatory and legal texts. [de

  3. Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Simon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.

  4. Tax modifications: sustainable energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The application of taxes is said to be a valuable means of solving environmental problems; provision of the right incentives will invariably achieve the goal. The policy requirements for addressing the environmental problems are (i) to understand and accept a vision of a sustainable future; (ii) to understand the nature of the challenge; (iii) decide a course of action for the desired future and (iv) the will to implement the actions. The subject is discussed under the sub-headings of (a) The Government Approach; (b) The Climate Change Levy; (c) The Future (short, medium and long term); (d) Recommendations and (e) Renewable Technologies. The potential for carbon savings through a market led transition to a low carbon economy is 'extensive'. The Government must have regulation, taxation or legislation to shape the market to lead to a socially desirable outcome

  5. Financial sector taxation: Financial activities tax or financial transaction tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.

  6. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  7. 2017 Tax Competitiveness Report: The Calm Before the Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2018-02-01

    in 2012 on the backs of provincial corporate tax hikes. Reforms in the U.S. are going to make that country a much more attractive place for investment than Canada because of the new tax advantages. However, Canada doesn’t have to accept this diminished status. Federal and provincial governments can do a number of things to offset the U.S. reforms. Corporate tax rates should be reduced so as to achieve a more neutral corporate tax structure. By doing things like scaling back the small business deduction and accelerated depreciation, Canada can reduce its corporate tax rate to 23 per cent, which would be just a bit below the U.S.’s combined federal-state figure without losing revenue. Sales taxes on capital purchases could be eliminated in some provinces, reforms could be made to the taxation of international income and incentives for debt financing reduced. Carbon revenues could be used to provide an offset for higher energy taxes businesses face in Canada. The U.S.’s tax reforms are going to affect the economies of all 92 countries studied in this report. Global policy-makers will likely respond with lower corporate rates putting even more pressure on Canada to respond if it wishes to continue to attract investment and remain competitive.

  8. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wide variety of potential determinants of voluntary compliance with individual income/profit tax filing and reporting obligations. The most important determinants identified are: economic factors as the level of income, audit probabilities, tax audit, tax rate, tax benefits, penalties, fines and other non-economic factors as attitudes toward taxes, personal, social and national norms, perceived fairness etc.

  9. Inheritance tax - an equitable tax no longer: time for abolition?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    Statistics from HM Revenue & Customs predict that receipts from inheritance tax will amount to some £3.56 billion in the tax year 2006/07. This compares to £1.68 billion in 1997/98. This paper explores the reason for the large increase in inheritance tax revenues and, in the light of those findings, together with a consideration of the recent public reaction to the changes to the inheritance taxation of trusts announced in the Budget 2006 and incorporated in the Finance Act 2006, argues t...

  10. Tax Havens and Effective Tax Rates: An Analysis of Private versus Public European Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Jaafar; John Thorton

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of tax-haven operations on the effective corporate tax burdens of publicly listed and privately held firms domiciled in Europe. In particular, we consider how European firmsÕ tax haven operations interacts with factors such listing status and home-country tax reporting systems to determine the relative tax burdens of publicly listed and private firms. Our main empirical results show that tax haven operations is associated with lower effective tax rates for both private a...

  11. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  12. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.

  13. Relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Inger, Kerry Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance. Prior studies find that firm value is positively associated with overall measures of tax avoidance; I extend this research by providing evidence that investors distinguish between methods of tax reduction in their valuation of tax avoidance. The impact of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of tax risk, permanence of tax savings, tax planning costs, implicit taxes and contrasts in disclosures of tax re...

  14. Faktor-Faktor yang Menyebabkan Wajib Pajak Melakukan Tax Offenses, Tax Fraud, dan Tax Evasion (Studi Empiris di KPP Pratama Medan-Polonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia, Gita

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the influence of tax fairness, tax compliance, tax knowledge, tax system, and discrimination against taxpayer perception about the ethical of tax offenses, tax fraud, and tax evasion. This research was conducted at the tax service office Pratama MedanPolonia, with a sampling technique is convenience sampling and distributing the questionnaires until fifty questionnaires. All of the questionnaires given to the taxpayer who listed on tax service office Pratama Meda...

  15. Competitiveness effects of environmental tax reforms (COMETR). Final report to the European Commission, DG Research and DG TAXUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Speck, S. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)); Barker, T.; Junankar, S.; Pollitt, H. (Cambridge Econometrics (United Kingdom)); Fitz Gerald, J.; Scott, S. (Economic and Social Research Institute (Ireland)); Jilkova, J. (Univ. of Economics Prague, Institute for Economic and Environmental Policy (Czech Republic)); Salmons, R.; Ekins, P. (Policy Studies Institute (United Kingdom)); Christie, E.; Michael Landesmann, M. (Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Austria))

    2007-12-15

    COMETR provides an ex-post assessment of experiences and competitiveness impacts of using carbon-energy taxes as an instrument of an Environmental Tax Reform (ETR), which shifts the tax burden and helps reduce the carbon emissions that cause global warming. COMETR: reviews the experience in ETR in seven EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Slovenia, Sweden and UK); analyses world market conditions for a set of energy-intensive sectors, as a framework for considering competitiveness effects; analyses the effects of ETR on sector-specific energy usage and carbon emissions in Member States with carbon-energy taxes introduced on industry; presents a macroeconomic analysis of the competitiveness effects of ETR for individual Member States as well as for the EU as a whole; provides ex-post figures for environmental decoupling and assesses carbon leakage; reviews mitigation and compensation mechanisms for energy-intensive industries. (au)

  16. Tax Planning Implementation on Income Tax, Article 23 as A Legal Effort To Minimize Tax Expense Payable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Daengs GS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An effort to minimize tax burden can be done in various ways start from inside the scope of taxation regulation to violate the taxation regulation. This research focuses on related Laws with the efforts to minimize Income tax. In general tax planning referred to engineered the business process and tax payer transaction. The aim is tax payable in minimal number but under taxation regulation scope. The outline of this study focus on planning effort of Tax Income Article 23 to minimize tax expense payable run in PT. TRIPERKASA AMININDAH Surabaya. Tax planning that done in this company refer to provision  in accordance with  Directorate General of Tax Decision Number : Kep-305/PJ/2001 on the estimates of nett income. Tax planning had done by this company in addition to refer the regulation also based on the condition of this company which experiencing poor performance. Then the aim that will be reached from that tax planning to reach minimal expense over the Income Tax Article 23 it can be done with gross up method. From the analysis result on the alternative it can draw a conclusion that PT. TRIPERKASA AMININDAH  Surabaya  has made adjustments on the regulation above, calculation of Income Tax Article 23 with gross up method in fact be able to saving the tax then suitable with the tax planning aim that is effort to minimize tax expense payable.

  17. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  18. Spatial Graduation of Fuel Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietveld, P.; Van Vuuren, D. [Tinbergen Institute, Labor, Region and Environment, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bruinsma, F. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-06-01

    Substantial differences exist among fuel taxes in various countries. These differences represent a form of fiscal competition that has undesirable side effects because it leads to cross-border fuelling and hence to extra kilometres driven. One possible way of solving the problem of low fuel taxes in neighbouring countries is to introduce a spatial differentiation of taxes: low near the border and higher further away. This paper contains an empirical analysis of the consequences of such a spatial graduation of fuel taxes for the Netherlands. We will analyse impacts on fuelling behaviour, vehicle kilometres driven, tax receipts, and sales by owners of gas stations. The appropriate slope of the graduation curve is also discussed. Our conclusion is that in a small country such as the Netherlands, a spatial graduation of fuel taxes will lead to substantial changes in fuelling behaviour, even when the graduation curve is not steep. Depending on the graduation profile implemented, the spatial differentiation of fuel tax will give rise to substantial problems for owners of gas stations in areas with decreasing fuel sales. 9 refs.

  19. Spatial Graduation of Fuel Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietveld, P.; Van Vuuren, D.; Bruinsma, F.

    1999-06-01

    Substantial differences exist among fuel taxes in various countries. These differences represent a form of fiscal competition that has undesirable side effects because it leads to cross-border fuelling and hence to extra kilometres driven. One possible way of solving the problem of low fuel taxes in neighbouring countries is to introduce a spatial differentiation of taxes: low near the border and higher further away. This paper contains an empirical analysis of the consequences of such a spatial graduation of fuel taxes for the Netherlands. We will analyse impacts on fuelling behaviour, vehicle kilometres driven, tax receipts, and sales by owners of gas stations. The appropriate slope of the graduation curve is also discussed. Our conclusion is that in a small country such as the Netherlands, a spatial graduation of fuel taxes will lead to substantial changes in fuelling behaviour, even when the graduation curve is not steep. Depending on the graduation profile implemented, the spatial differentiation of fuel tax will give rise to substantial problems for owners of gas stations in areas with decreasing fuel sales. 9 refs

  20. CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS REGARDING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Constantin SINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the paper, we have highlighted some controversial aspects regarding the crime of tax evasion, referring to some important decisions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice and also of the Bucharest Court of Appeal. Debating upon the impunity provision stated by art. 10 of Law no. 241/2005, the study also sheds light upon the issue of the perspective of the judicial organs regarding the juridical regime of the tax due for dividends. The main focus of the paper leads to the situations when there is legal ground for the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime. The study includes a short analysis of some relevant provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code and also some aspects deriving from decisions issued by the Administrative and Tax Litigation Chamber of The High Court of Cassation and Justice concerning the legal regime of dividends. Consequently, the authors are presenting both perspectives of the interpretation of the issue regarding the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime, resulting from two decisions of the two Criminal Sections of The Bucharest Court of Appeal, also arguing in favour of the most solid interpretation among them

  1. The role of taxes in climate policy; Avgiftenes rolle i klimapolitikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report suggests how a national climate policy should be designed to most effectively contribute to reduced global CO{sub 2} emission, given that the instrument is a CO{sub 2} taxation system. The main conclusions are: (1) If equal taxes are one-sidedly levied on all sectors in one country or a group of countries, then carbon intensive industry may relocate to countries with no climate policy. An efficient national instrument must prevent this `carbon leakage`. (2) If the national climate policy aims to reduce global CO{sub 2} emissions and only few countries take climate measures, then the tax should be differentiated among sectors. (3) How large the tax on a sector should be, depends on the mobility of the object of taxation. Households and the domestic transport sector should be relatively highly taxed while the carbon intensive process industry, which would otherwise move abroad, should be less severely taxed. (4) Most OECD countries do not have CO{sub 2} taxation. Public debate in Norway has created confusion as to what are the objectives of the climate policy. If Norway wants to be a leading country in emission reduction, taxes should be the same for all. If Norway aims to reduce emissions on a level with other industrialized countries, taxes should be differentiated and measures taken to eliminate carbon leakage. At present, the Nordic countries and the Netherlands are about the only countries still using taxes to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and there is no indication that general CO{sub 2} taxes may be introduced in the OECD countries. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 table

  2. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    amended based on destination principle to impose VAT on imported services rendered ... It was the view of Popoola (2009) that Nigeria tax administration and practice be structured ..... have low VAT rates, e.g. Nigeria, India and Malaysia.

  3. 76 FR 66181 - Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... tax lien will arise against all of Z's property and rights to property. (iv) * * * (B) Treatment of... chapter 32 of the Internal Revenue Code, any notice of lien the Internal Revenue Service files will be...

  4. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  5. Optimal tax depreciation under a progressive tax system

    OpenAIRE

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time, and after a number of periods the firm enters a steady state where depreciation is constant and equal to replacement investments. This way, the optimal solution trades off the benefits of accelerated...

  6. Legal Considerations of Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Dániel Deák

    2004-01-01

    The study of fiscal non-compliance - in particular, that of tax evasion - is quite extensive in the literature of economics. Lawyers do not show much interest in fiscal anomalies. An exception for this is perhaps tax avoidance which is usually interpreted as the problem of the form and substance. Apart from the modest interest in irregularities in fiscal law, the legal theories of obedience, or disobedience, and coherence have grown significantly, thanks to the precept of William Ross on prim...

  7. EFFECT OF TAX BENEFITS ON THE INCOME TAX COLLECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Ulloa, Milca Naara

    2017-01-01

    In Ecuador, fiscal policy is directly linked to economic policy, allowing the State to have a collection of taxes to cover public expenditure, this income should be redistributed in the less favored sectors. Given the need to identify the impact of the application of tax benefits used by companies, whether new or already operating, and natural persons who are or not required to keep accounting. There is a need to know the behavior of these Economic sectors, given the various changes that have...

  8. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J; Blanchette, Jason G; Nguyen, Thien H; Heeren, Timothy C; Nelson, Toben F; Naimi, Timothy S

    2015-03-01

    U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (-0.09, P = 0.02 versus -0.005, P = 0.63) and price elasticity (-1.40, P tax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P = 0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (P tax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The internal...

  10. Labor tax reform, unemployment, and search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal

  11. TAX EVASION BETWEEN FRAUD AND OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tax optimization, often called legal tax evasion is the use of methods and techniques that are within the law, in order to reduce or even cancel the tax liability. To achieve such an approach, the taxpayer or his advisers must know in depth the tax law - and by extension, the financial and administrative law - and, moreover, must be functional tax jurisdictions which allow the use of appropriate assemblies. The recent leasks, as WikiLeaks, LuxLeaks, SwissLeaks, Panama Papers etc. on financial flows to tax havens highlight the far-reaching unprecedented evasion and tax fraud, both in the amounts involved - trillions of dollars - and sophisticated assemblies used primarily by multinational companies to the detriment of the public finances of Member territory headquarters and branches which are located and, therefore, detrimental economic and social life of those countries. Tax evasion is based on legal mechanisms which, combined together in the montages of increasingly complex, allowing operators, mostly multinational legal entities to circumvent national tax law and not pay the taxes due. The border between tax optimization, tax evasion and fraud is very thin, optimization using various legal methods to reduce the tax owed, whereas tax evasion using illegal means, which covered crime. Tax evasion reveals either optimize or fraud. There is a significant international dimension of tax evasion because it is favored by multinational corporations operating conditions.

  12. achieving sustainable development through tax harmonization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    policies is a great challenge for governments; tax harmonization can be adopted for ... and the development trajectory of taxing state in diverse ways. For ... revenue is lost development opportunity.3 The existence of high corporate tax rate in a .... 26 This is levied pursuant to the Tertiary Education Trust Fund Tax Act 2011.

  13. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operated for profit, the return of both the employee tax and the employer tax imposed by Chapter 21 is on... such taxes within 3 banking days after the close of such quarter-monthly period. (ii) Monthly deposits... after January 31, 1971 (March 31, 1971, in the case of income tax withheld from wages paid for...

  14. Tax system competition – instruments and beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Biernacki

    2014-01-01

    Tax competition among states and jurisdictions has already been examined many times in the economic literature. However, the main scope of the research was focused on a tax rates competition in income taxes and its consequences in bringing direct investments. This scripture/commentary tries to analyze various instruments and beneficiaries of the tax system competition and provide a general overview on this subject.

  15. 19 CFR 351.509 - Direct taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.509 Direct taxes. (a) Benefit—(1) Exemption or... direct tax (e.g., an income tax), or a reduction in the base used to calculate a direct tax, a benefit...

  16. 27 CFR 46.223 - Tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax credit. 46.223 Section... for Sale on April 1, 2009 Tax Liability Calculation § 46.223 Tax credit. The dealer is allowed a credit of up to $500 against the total floor stocks tax. However, controlled groups are eligible for only...

  17. Montana fuel tax refunds : draft final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "The primary source of funding for transportation infrastructure is the taxes that are imposed on motor fuels. One aspect of fuel tax collections is the process that requires consumers to apply for refunds of taxes paid on fuels used for tax-exempt p...

  18. Effectiveness of Property Tax Relief in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.; Hwang, C. S.

    This study examines the effects of the 1979 Oregon Property Tax Relief Plan on 1980-81 school district budget decisions by comparing the available tax relief, the school expenditures, and the tax levies in the state for the years 1975-81. The history of direct and indirect property tax relief in Oregon is sketched for the years prior to 1979; the…

  19. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than in...

  20. 26 CFR 1.903-1 - Taxes in lieu of income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes. (a) In general. Section 903 provides that the term “income, war profits, and excess profits taxes” shall include a tax paid in lieu of a tax on income, war profits, or excess profits (“income tax... X currency) but is allowed a credit for 30u of excise tax that it has paid. Pursuant to paragraph (e...

  1. Accumulation of Tax-Loss Carryforwards : The Role of Book-Tax Non-Conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kohlhase (Saskia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUsing confidential corporate income tax return data, this paper investigates the association between book-tax non-conformity (measured as book-tax differences) and tax-loss carryforwards (TLCFs). I find that TLCFs are positively associated with temporary and permanent book-tax

  2. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect...

  3. Blueprint for a business energy tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, C.

    1998-11-01

    This report argues the case for energy taxation as against emissions trading to reduce energy consumption by UK businesses, and presents a blueprint for the implementation of energy taxes. The case for a business energy tax is set out, and the use of energy taxes in other European countries such as Denmark, Austria, the Netherlands, Finland and Sweden is outlined. The form of energy tax for the UK and key questions on operation of an energy tax are discussed, and tax relief for investments which reduce emissions, the potential effects of tax relief on energy intensive industry, and the combination of policy measures are considered

  4. HOW GOOD IS GOODS AND SERVICES TAX

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sreemoyee Guha Roy

    2016-01-01

    Goods and Services Tax is a broad based and a single comprehensive tax levied on goods and services consumed in an economy. GST is levied at every stage of the production-distribution chain with applicable set offs in respect of the tax remitted at previous stages. It is basically a tax on final consumption. The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a value added tax to be implemented in India, the decision on which is pending. GST is the only indirect tax that directly affects all sectors and sect...

  5. Optimization of tax on corporate income

    OpenAIRE

    OBERTÍKOVÁ, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    My diploma thesis is focused on the optimization of corporate income tax. The thesis is divided into the theoretical and practical part. In the theoretical part are described terms such as taxpayers, subject of tax, tax base, tax calculation or when the tax is payable. The practical part begins with the characteristic of the company, followed by the calculation of the tax liability and the optimization of the corporate income tax. The aim of the thesis was to find the optimal variant of the c...

  6. Economic Effects of Regional Tax Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Mihir A. Desai; C. Fritz Foley; James R. Hines

    2004-01-01

    How does the opportunity to use tax havens influence economic activity in nearby non-haven countries? Analysis of affiliate-level data indicates that American multinational firms use tax haven affiliates to reallocate taxable income away from high-tax jurisdictions and to defer home country taxes on foreign income. Ownership of tax haven affiliates is associated with reduced tax payments by nearby non-haven affiliates, the size of the effect being equivalent to a 20.8 percent tax rate reducti...

  7. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    on account of international tax evasion mayprevent the overall saving-investment tax wedge from becoming too high, and hencemay be beneficial for moderate preferences for public goods. A world with 'high-spending' governments, in contrast, is made worse off by the loss of saving taxes,and hence stands...... are financed by taxes on savingand investment. There is international cross-ownership of firms, and countries areassumed to be unable to tax away pure profits. Countries then face an incentiveto impose a rather high investment tax also borne by foreigners. In this setting,the loss of the saving tax instrument...

  8. Should the carbon price be the same in all countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Autume, A.; Schubert, K.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    International differences in fuel taxation are huge, and may be justified by different local negative externalities that taxes must correct, as well as by different preferences for public spending. In this context, should a worldwide uniform carbon tax be added to these local taxes to correct the

  9. The optimal gas tax for California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Prince, Lea

    2009-01-01

    This paper calculates the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California. According to our analysis, the optimal gasoline tax in California is $1.37/gal, which is over three times the current California tax when excluding sales taxes. The Pigovian tax is the largest part of this tax, comprising $0.85/gal. Of this, the congestion externality is taxed the most heavily, at $0.27, followed by oil security, accident externalities, local air pollution, and finally global climate change. The other major component, a Ramsey tax, comprises a full $0.52 of this tax, reflecting the efficiency in raising revenues from a tax on gasoline consumption due to the inelastic demand of this consumption good.

  10. The optimal gas tax for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Prince, Lea [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    This paper calculates the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California. According to our analysis, the optimal gasoline tax in California is USD1.37/gal, which is over three times the current California tax when excluding sales taxes. The Pigovian tax is the largest part of this tax, comprising USD0.85/gal. Of this, the congestion externality is taxed the most heavily, at USD0.27, followed by oil security, accident externalities, local air pollution, and finally global climate change. The other major component, a Ramsey tax, comprises a full USD0.52 of this tax, reflecting the efficiency in raising revenues from a tax on gasoline consumption due to the inelastic demand of this consumption good. (author)

  11. Taxes on waste today - and in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    fertilisation. The purpose of these recommendations is to make good use of valuable nutrients and avoid a long-term impoverishment of forest soil. Considerable development work is now under way on suitable forms for recycling ash. The waste tax on biofuel ash has a marginal effect on the cost of using biofuels in the energy supply system. The waste tax provides an incentive to make use of such waste as excavated earth, bricks, concrete, asphalt, and slag and ash from incineration, instead of disposing of it in landfills. These forms of waste can serve as substitutes for gravel and other aggregates, such as crushed rock. No tax is currently payable on waste that is incinerated. We have assessed and analysed the economic and environmental consequences of introducing a tax of this kind. While there are good reasons for a tax on waste incineration, there are also a number of disadvantages or risks. A tax on waste incineration could be introduced as a means of making the system of energy and environmental taxation more consistent. Fossil fuels are subject to energy and carbon dioxide taxes. Waste contains a fossil component that at present is not taxed. The proportion of fossil materials in household waste ranges from 10 to 15 per cent. Overall, a tax on waste incineration could help increase total waste treatment capacity while lessening the burden on the environment and promoting a more efficient use of resources. However, it should be emphasised that the principal means of achieving environmental gains is to reduce landfill. In relative terms, the substitution of biological treatment methods for waste incineration has little environmental impact and what effect it does have depends on the specific design of the waste treatment system. Our analysis also shows that a waste incineration tax would involve certain problems and risks, especially if the tax rate were high. Plants that burn virgin biofuels or waste that can be regarded as a pure biofuel are tax-exempt. Exemptions from

  12. Tax_Units_2011_Final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  13. Nuclear fuel tax in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Besides the 'Nuclear Energy Moratorium' (temporary shutdown of eight nuclear power plants after the Fukushima incident) and the legally decreed 'Nuclear Energy Phase-Out' (by the 13th AtG-amendment), also the legality of the nuclear fuel tax is being challenged in court. After receiving urgent legal proposals from 5 nuclear power plant operators, the Hamburg fiscal court (4V 154/13) temporarily obliged on 14 April 2014 respective main customs offices through 27 decisions to reimburse 2.2 b. Euro nuclear fuel tax to the operating companies. In all respects a remarkable process. It is not in favour of cleverness to impose a political target even accepting immense constitutional and union law risks. Taxation 'at any price' is neither a statement of state sovereignty nor one for a sound fiscal policy. Early and serious warnings of constitutional experts and specialists in the field of tax law with regard to the nuclear fuel tax were not lacking. (orig.)

  14. Phantom taxes: The big payback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a discussion of Accumulated Deferred Federal Income Taxes (AFDITs) associated with the stranded investments in nuclear facilities. The amounts are in the tens of billions of dollars and may rival the sum of recoverable stranded costs. The example is given of LILCO's Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant. Prior to cancellation, LILCO had capitalized the cost of the project for rate purposes and had generated income for rate purposes. For tax purposes, however, their accounting system produced a substantial loss, resulting in the collection of more than $1B in federal tax-expense reimbursements over and above actual tax expenses. These additional monies were retained by LILCO. The author argues that these monies should be used to offset standed recoverable costs

  15. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  16. Impact of Different Carbon Policies on City Logistics Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A programming model for a four-layer urban logistics distribution network is constructed and revised based on three types of carbon emissions policies such as Carbon tax, carbon emissions Cap, Carbon Trade. Effects of different policies on logistics costs and carbon emissions are analyzed based on a spatial Logistics Infrastructure layout of Beijing. Research findings are as follows: First, based on low-carbon policies, the logistics costs and carbon emissions can be changed by different modes of transport in a certain extent; second, only when carbon taxes and carbon trading prices are higher, carbon taxes and carbon trading policies can reduce carbon emissions while not significantly increase logistics costs at the same time, and more effectively achieve carbon reduction targets than use carbon cap policy.

  17. Carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebutte, H G; Goutal, E

    1921-07-04

    Materials such as coal, peat, or schist are subjected to a rising temperature in successive stages in apparatus in which the distillation products are withdrawn at each stage. For example in a three-stage process, the acid products of the first or low-temperature stage are fixed in a suitable reagent, the basic products from a second or higher-temperature stage are absorbed in an acid reagent, hydrocarbons being retained by solvents, while the third are subjected to a pyrogenation process carried out in a closed vessel. Wherein the material is subjected in stages to a rising temperature, the gasified products being withdrawn at each stage, and are prevented as far as possible from mixing with the carbonized products.

  18. Bargaining over Tax Information Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    May Elsayyad

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically studies recent treaty signings between tax havens and OECD countries as the outcome of a bargaining process over treaty form. Havens can decide not to sign an agreement, to sign a tax information exchange agreement or to sign a double taxation convention. We use a highly stylized bargaining model to develop testable hypotheses with regards to the type of agreement signed. We show that the main determinants of treaty signing are a haven's bargaining power and good govern...

  19. Tax Exportability in Tourism Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mohebi; Khalid A. Rahim; Lee Chin; Khairil W. Awang

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Tax incidence is a basic topic in public economics as the tourism industry is an increasingly major contributor to government revenue. Generally, government taxation objectives are for the purpose of financing programs that improve peoples lives and economic prosperity, accelerate economic growth and allow for access to sustainable development. In the first view, tax policy decisions by government are based on their effects on the distribution of economi...

  20. MOTOR FUEL TAXES AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2011-01-01

    Motor fuel taxes are primarily revenue-raising taxes. However, due to high fuel consumption these taxes can be quite an efficient source of general budget revenue in many countries. It seems that the taxes on motor fuels may also be useful instruments for environmental policy or climate change policy. Environmental objectives can be achieved through change of behavior of drivers. The paper presents theoretical basis for taxes levied on motor fuels. Attention is paid to the problem of external...