WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon taxes

  1. Carbon taxes: Their benefits, liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon tax holds much promise for helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, but administration will be a problem. Non-compliance, tilting the economic scales in favor of one energy source at the expense of another, and questions of equity between and within nations all must be addressed if the market-based efficiencies of a carbon tax are to become a concrete global reality. This article discusses carbon taxes in the following topic areas: how to set the rates for carbon taxes; administering the tax; international cooperation; type or form of tax; tax adjustments in existing taxes

  2. Taxing carbon in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that both the Climate Change Levy and the fuel duty tax are outdated even before they are implemented. Apparently, the real problems are not in the bringing of road fuels into the scope of the Climate Change Levy but in introducing reforms to improve integration of greenhouse gases and taxation. Both fuel duty and the Levy are aimed at maximising efficiency and reducing air pollution. The system as it stands does not take into account the development of a market where the management and trading of carbon and greenhouse gases may jeopardise the competitiveness of UK businesses. It is argued that an overhaul of climate and emissions-related law is necessary. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) a fixation on energy; (ii) no focus on CO2; (iii) carbon markets - beyond the levy and (iv) tax structure. (UK)

  3. Carbon taxes and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  4. Carbon taxes and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India's rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) open-quotes Grandfathered emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) open-quotes Equal per capita emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions

  5. Carbon Dioxide, Energy Taxes and Household Income

    OpenAIRE

    Cathal O'Donoghue

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a carbon tax on the income distribution in Ireland using the 1987 Household Budget Survey. Previous studies have focused on the direct impact of the carbon tax on expenditures on domestic fuels. This study however, drawing on previous work expands the analysis to cover the indirect impact of carbon taxes on other household purchases> A direct and indirect tax would have a less regressive effect on the income distribution than a simple direct tax on household ...

  6. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  7. The Design of a Carbon Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Metcalf; David Weisbach

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of a tax on greenhouse gas emissions for a developed country such as the United States. We consider three sets of issues: the optimal tax base, issues relating to the rate (including the use of the revenues and rate changes over time) and trade. We show that a well-designed carbon tax can capture about 80% of U.S. emissions by taxing fewer than 3,000 taxpayers and up to almost 90% with a modest additional cost. We recommend full or partial delegation of rate setting aut...

  8. Are Differentiated Carbon Taxes Inefficient? A General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brita Bye; Karine Nyborg

    2003-01-01

    Revenue-raising environmental policy instruments, such as carbon taxes, tend to be politically controversial. In practice, carbon taxes are often differentiated between polluters, implying unequal marginal abatement costs. Grandfathered tradeable permits seem less controversial; this instrument yields equal marginal abatement costs, but does not raise revenue. We compare a system of differentiated carbon taxes, exemplified by the current Norwegian carbon tax regime, to uniform carbon taxation...

  9. Carbon taxes, the greenhouse effect, and developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Shah; Bjorn Larsen

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluate the case for carbon taxes in terms of national interests. They reach the following conclusions. (A) A global carbon tax involves issues of international resource transfers and would be difficult to administer and enforce. It is thus unlikely to be implemented in the near future. (b) National carbon taxes can raise significant revenues cost-effectively in developing countries and are not likely to be as regressive in their impact as commonly perceived. Such taxes can also ...

  10. The Initial Incidence of a Carbon Tax across Income Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Williams III, Roerton C.; Gordon, Hal; Burtraw, Dallas; Carbone, Jared C.; Richard D. Morgenstern

    2014-01-01

    Carbon taxes efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions but are criticized as regressive. This paper links dynamic overlapping-generation and microsimulation models of the United States to estimate the initial incidence. We find that while carbon taxes are regressive, the incidence depends much more on how carbon tax revenue is used. Recycling revenues to cut capital taxes is efficient but exacerbates regressivity. Lump-sum rebates are less efficient but much more progressive, benefiting the...

  11. Adaptation to carbon dioxide tax in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note discusses the consequences for the sea transport sector between Norway and continental Europe of levying a carbon dioxide tax on international bunker. The influence of such a tax on the operational costs of various types of ship and various transport routes is calculated. The profit obtainable from the following ways of adapting to an increased tax level is assessed: (1) Reducing the speed, (2) Rebuilding the engine to decrease fuel consumption, (3) Changing the design speed for new ships. It is found that a carbon dioxide tax of NOK 200 per tonne of CO2 will increase the transport costs by 3 - 15 percent. In the long run much of this may be transferred to the freight rates since so much of the sea transport are in segments in which the demand for the service is not sensitive to the prices. Even if the freight rates are not changed, a tax this size will not make it necessary to reduce the speed of the existing fleet. The income lost by taking fewer trips will exceed the costs saved in reducing the speed. However, the optimum design speed for new ships may be somewhat reduced (0.5 knots). Rebuilding engines to reduce the fuel consumption would pay off were it not for the fact that the remaining life of the present fleet is probably too short for this to be interesting

  12. Tax policy to combat global warming: On designing a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is divided into five sections. The first describes the basic structure of the carbon tax, focusing on the policies already in place in Europe as well as proposed taxes for the US. The second section considers the distributional burden of carbon taxes across income groups. The third section examines the production and consumption distortions from a carbon tax, using a simple partial-equilibrium model of the energy market. These estimates do not correspond to the net efficiency cost of carbon taxes because they neglect the reduction in negative externalities associated with these taxes, but they indicate the cost that must be balanced against potential efficiency gains from the externality channel. The fourth section discusses the short- and long-run macroeconomic effects of adopting a carbon tax, drawing on previous empirical studies of the relationship between tax rates and real output growth. A central issue in this regard is the disposition of carbon tax revenues. The fifth section considers several design issues relating to carbon taxes, such as harmonization with other greenhouse taxes and the difficulty of taxing fossil-fuel use in imported intermediate goods. There is a brief concluding section that discusses broader issues of policy design

  13. Carbon Taxes. A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Hillary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  14. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  15. Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.

  16. CGE Simulation for Levying Carbon Tax in China and International Experience of Levying Carbon Tax%CGE Simulation for Levying Carbon Tax in China and International Experience of Levying Carbon Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Mingxi

    2011-01-01

    Levying carbon tax is conducive to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and protecting the environment. The author firstly reviewed some relevant empirical studies on carbon tax both home and abroad, and then established the CGE model and simulated levying carbon tax in China. The study found that levying carbon tax would have little impact on China's economy: in a short-term, China's GDP might decrease by 0.51%, while in a long-term it might decrease by 0.08%; however, the carbon dioxide emissions would be substantially reduced. Meanwhile, levying carbon tax has some negative impact on the output of each industry in the very economic structure; of this, the mineral extractive industries would be influenced the most. Then the author summarized experience of levying carbon tax in foreign countries.

  17. Macroeconomic modelling of international carbon tax regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An econometric model of fossil fuel demand has been estimated for eight OECD countries, relating coal, oil and gas demands to GDP and prices. In addition, for five of these countries, a model of endogenous technical progress has been estimated, representing the decline in energy intensity as a function of price and macroeconomic variables. This aims to include both price induced innovation in energy and structural change in the economy as long term determinants of energy consumption. A number of possible international carbon/energy tax agreements are simulated, showing the impacts on carbon dioxide emissions and comparing the two models. It is shown that the endogenous technical change model does include an important element that is missed in the more conventional approach. However in the long run the magnitude of taxes required to stabilise or reduce emissions would be large, and it is suggested that other non-price policies will become more important. (Author)

  18. The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing

    2014-01-01

    South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border...... national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by...

  19. Combining international cap-and-trade with national carbon taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Heindl, Peter; Wood, Peter J.; Jotzo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of combining an international cap-and-trade scheme with national carbon taxes. We consider a two-country stochastic partial equilibrium model with log-normally distributed uncertainty. The situation is analogous to the situation where European countries impose national carbon taxes in addition to the EU emissions trading. The allowance price in the joint cap-and-trade scheme depends on the tax rate, the relative size of countries and abatement options, the magn...

  20. Combining International Cap-and-Trade with National Carbon Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Heindl, Peter; Wood, Peter J.; Jotzo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of combining an international cap-and-trade scheme with national carbon taxes. We consider a two-country stochastic partial equilibrium model with log-normally distributed uncertainty. The situation is analogous to the situation where European countries impose national carbon taxes in addition to the EU emissions trading. The allowance price in the joint cap-and-trade scheme depends on the tax rate, the relative size of countries and abatement op...

  1. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig

  2. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations

    2008-03-15

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.

  3. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs

  4. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  5. Designing A Carbon Tax to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert E. Metcalf

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a revenue and distributionally neutral approach to reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions that uses a carbon tax. The revenue from the carbon tax is used to finance an environmental earned income tax credit designed to be distributionally neutral. The credit is linked to earned income and helps offset the regressivity of the carbon tax. The carbon tax reform proposal is also revenue neutral and avoids conflating carbon policy with debates over the appropriate size of th...

  6. Energy Tax versus Carbon Tax. A quantitative macro economical analysis with the HERMES/MIDAS models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeloglou, P. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece)

    1992-03-01

    The idea of imposing a tax has been recently put forward as a policy-instrument to induce substitutions aiming at reducing CO{sub 2} overall emissions. One can distinguish two options: recycle tax revenues for energy system restructuring (supply or demand restructuring); or use the corresponding revenues in order to reduce the negative impacts caused on the economic activity by the introduction of the tax. Several papers dealing with only the macroeconomic aspects of the environmental problems have been written. These papers neglect more or less the energy sphere and consider that the energy feedback effects are very small. Macroeconomic impacts of the carbon tax have been examined for the United Kingdom and for the four big European countries elsewhere. In this paper a synthesis of both the energy and the macroeconomic approaches is realized. The approach adopted is global and tries to evaluate the impacts on both the economic and energy system. The main question examined is the effectiveness and impacts of fiscal policy on CO{sub 2} emission and the effects of the adoption of an accommodating policy. Thus, not only the effects of imposing an energy or carbon tax are examined, but also the effects of introducing accommodating measures are studied. The analysis is effected by using the HERMES-MIDAS linked system of models and is limited in analyzing the effects of carbon and energy taxes and the reduction of direct taxes and is effected for four countries namely France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In section 2 policy scenarios are described while in sections three and four the results of the policy simulations are presented. In section five we compare the differences of two taxes (energy tax and carbon tax) and in section six the reduction of direct taxation as an accommodating measure is examined. 27 tabs., 10 refs.

  7. Energy Tax versus Carbon Tax. A quantitative macro economical analysis with the HERMES/MIDAS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of imposing a tax has been recently put forward as a policy-instrument to induce substitutions aiming at reducing CO[sub 2] overall emissions. One can distinguish two options: recycle tax revenues for energy system restructuring (supply or demand restructuring); or use the corresponding revenues in order to reduce the negative impacts caused on the economic activity by the introduction of the tax. Several papers dealing with only the macroeconomic aspects of the environmental problems have been written. These papers neglect more or less the energy sphere and consider that the energy feedback effects are very small. Macroeconomic impacts of the carbon tax have been examined for the United Kingdom and for the four big European countries elsewhere. In this paper a synthesis of both the energy and the macroeconomic approaches is realized. The approach adopted is global and tries to evaluate the impacts on both the economic and energy system. The main question examined is the effectiveness and impacts of fiscal policy on CO[sub 2] emission and the effects of the adoption of an accommodating policy. Thus, not only the effects of imposing an energy or carbon tax are examined, but also the effects of introducing accommodating measures are studied. The analysis is effected by using the HERMES-MIDAS linked system of models and is limited in analyzing the effects of carbon and energy taxes and the reduction of direct taxes and is effected for four countries namely France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In section 2 policy scenarios are described while in sections three and four the results of the policy simulations are presented. In section five we compare the differences of two taxes (energy tax and carbon tax) and in section six the reduction of direct taxation as an accommodating measure is examined. 27 tabs., 10 refs

  8. The Initial Incidence of a Carbon Tax across US States

    OpenAIRE

    Roberton C. Williams III; Gordon, Hal; Burtraw, Dallas; Carbone, Jared C.; Richard D. Morgenstern

    2014-01-01

    Carbon taxes introduce potentially uneven cost burdens across the population. The distribution of these costs is especially important in affecting political outcomes. This paper links dynamic overlapping-generations and microsimulation models of the United States to estimate the initial incidence of a carbon tax across states. Geographic differences in incidence are driven primarily by differences in sources of income. Differing patterns of energy use also matter but are relatively less impor...

  9. The impact of a carbon tax on Greek electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of proposed carbon taxes on the electric power industry, using the Greek power system as a case study, is investigated in this paper. It uses the WASP model for electric generation capacity expansion to explore the optimal expansion path under alternative carbon tax scenarios and to estimate their impact on CO2 and other types of emissions and on electricity production costs. The findings suggest that low carbon taxes would lead to a considerable reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants counterbalanced predominantly by natural gas fired plants. High carbon taxes (100-200 US dollars per ton of carbon) would lead to a drastic reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants which would be mainly replaced by coal or lignite fired technologies with CO2 removal capabilities, which are not available today but might become available within the time horizon of the present study. Hydropower and renewable sources would be the second least-cost alternatives to lignite under both low and high tax scenarios. The study provides evidence that carbon taxes also result in significant increases in the cost of producing electricity, implying adverse economic effects on electricity consumers and the Greek economy in general. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  10. Global Carbon Cycle and the Optimal Time Path of a Carbon Tax.

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin, Y.H.; Tahvonen, O.

    1996-01-01

    The existing models of fossil fuel consumption with carbon accumulation imply that the optimal time path of carbon tax is either hump-shaped or monotonically decreasing. These models specify the decay of atmospheric carbon as a constant rate of total concentration. The authors extend this specification to more accurately reflect the global carbon cycle models of climatologists and show that this extension changes the basic economic properties of the optimal carbon tax. Their analysis reveals ...

  11. Research on the Influence of Carbon Tax on Carbon Emission and Economic Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Luo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax is one of ways to cut the emissions of GHG, which has already been employed by the west. To study the effect of carbon tax on energy conservation and carbon reduction in China, a new model is constructed based on dynamic CGE model and the linkage of dynamic CGE model and energy technology model. Besides the improvement of technology of energy, if carbon taxation is employed, the goal to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 compared with 2005 need to levy a tax of 60 yuan at least per tonne, the simulations of this tax to carbon reduction, economic and income of residents are analysed under different circumstances, the results shows that there is a great impact on income of residents and GDP with a higher tax burden level.

  12. Computable General Equilibrium Techniques for Carbon Tax Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Amin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Lacking of proper environmental models environmental pollution is now a solemn problem in many developing countries particularly in Malaysia. Some empirical studies of worldwide reveal that imposition of a carbon tax significantly decreases carbon emissions and does not dramatically reduce economic growth. To our knowledge there has not been any research done to simulate the economic impact of emission control policies in Malaysia. Approach: Therefore this study developed an environmental computable general equilibrium model for Malaysia and investigated carbon tax policy responses in the economy applying exogenously different degrees of carbon tax into the model. Three simulations were carried out using a Malaysian social accounting matrix. Results: The carbon tax policy illustrated that a 1.21% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 0.82% and exports by 2.08%; 2.34% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 1.90% and exports by 3.97% and 3.40% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 3.17% and exports by 5.71%. Conclusion/Recommendations: Imposition of successively higher carbon tax results in increased government revenue from baseline by 26.67, 53.07 and 79.28% respectively. However, fixed capital investment increased in scenario 1a by 0.43% and decreased in scenarios 1b and 1c by 0.26 and 1.79% respectively from the baseline. According to our policy findings policy makers should consider 1st (scenario 1a carbon tax policy. This policy results in achieving reasonably good environmental impacts without losing the investment, fixed capital investment, investment share of nominal GDP and government revenue.

  13. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  14. Distributional effects of a carbon tax in broader U.S. fiscal reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the distributional implications of an illustrative $15 carbon tax imposed in 2010 on carbon in fossil fuels. We analyze its incidence across income classes and regions, both in isolation and when combined with measures that apply the carbon tax revenue to lowering other distortionary taxes in the economy. Consistent with earlier findings, we find that a carbon tax is regressive. Using tax swap simulations, we then subtract the burden of other taxes the carbon tax revenue could displace, and compute the net effect on households under three assumptions about how capital and labor income might be distributed. - Highlights: • Shows that a carbon tax by itself is regressive. • Burden of a carbon tax may be offset partly with a corporate tax swap. • Higher income households face negative tax rates under corporate tax swap. • Corporate tax swap results in wider regional variations in burden than labor tax swaps. • Adding sources side incidence of carbon tax makes tax less regressive

  15. Carbon taxes, consumer demand and carbon dioxide emission: a simulation analysis for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines a policy instrument that has been proposed as a means of reducing 'greenhouse gases', the introduction of a carbon tax on fossil fuels. It investigates the implication of a carbon tax for consumer prices using an input-output framework. Thus the effect of a tax on use of fossil fuels is allowed to affect consumer prices. These are then used in a micro-simulation program that features estimates of a system of demand equations obtained using 116,000 observations from the Family Expenditure System. This predicts the behavioural reaction of each household to the tax changes and the consequent effect on CO2 emission, government revenue and any distributional effects. We illustrate the impact of a variety of carbon taxes, changes to indirect tax rates and lump-sum compensatory payments. (author)

  16. Public finance aspects of a european carbon tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. [Institute for Fiscal Studies, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-03-01

    The European Commission has recently made proposals for the introduction of a Community-wide carbon tax, as part of the Community`s response to the environmental problem of global warming. The proposals would levy a substantial new tax on fossil fuels in proportion to their carbon content, and would thus aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by encouraging industry and consumers to reduce their use of carbon-based energy. now clear. The tax is intended to be introduced in stages. According to the Commission`s proposals, it would be introduced in 1993, at a level equivalent to $3.00 per barrel of oil, and would then be increased by $1.00 per barrel annually, until it reached a level of $10.00 per barrel of oil in the year 2000. Revenues from the tax would accrue to the exchequers of member states. It would be for member states to decide what would be done with the revenue. However, the revenue should be used to reduce other taxes rather than to increase public spending. The possibility of a number of sectoral exemptions was also included in the statement. These would exempt from the tax a number of highly energy-intensive sectors, such as the steel and cement industries. This paper examines the public finance implications of the proposed tax, and is in five sections. The first discusses the general issues involved in the use of the tax system for purposes of environmental policy. Section 2 outlines the broad scale of the revenues that would be expected from the tax. The third section considers the direct distributional impact of the additional tax payments on households. Section 4 describes the various indirect distributional effects that would be expected. The fifth section considers some of the possible uses of the additional revenues, either to compensate for the distributional impact of the tax, or to reduce the welfare costs of raising public revenues, by taking the opportunity to reduce other distortionary taxes. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs.

  17. Systems and the problematique; The case of a carbon tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P. (City Univ., London (United Kingdom) Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-01

    The 'problematique' is an intermeshed set of global problems. Since The Limits to Growth was published, it has become generally accepted that there are indeed some serious planetary problems. Although one might have expected systems thinkers to contribute to solving such problems, there has recently been some discouragement to do so from a leading systems exponent. It is argued that far from discouraging systems thinkers, it should be recognized that their contribution is vital. An example is offered of countering the carbon dioxide problem through fuel tax - ultimately resource taxes -accompanied by a general basic income to offset the regressive nature of fuel tax. (author)

  18. Systems and the problematique. The case of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'problematique' is an intermeshed set of global problems. Since The Limits to Growth was published, it has become generally accepted that there are indeed some serious planetary problems. Although one might have expected systems thinkers to contribute to solving such problems, there has recently been some discouragement to do so from a leading systems exponent. It is argued that far from discouraging systems thinkers, it should be recognized that their contribution is vital. An example is offered of countering the carbon dioxide problem through fuel tax - ultimately resource taxes -accompanied by a general basic income to offset the regressive nature of fuel tax. (author)

  19. Reacting to Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Carbon Tax to Meet Emission Targets.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Metcalf

    2009-01-01

    In previous papers I have described a revenue and distributionally neutral approach to reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions that uses a carbon tax. The revenue from the carbon tax is used to finance an environmental earned income tax credit designed to be distributionally neutral. The carbon tax reform proposal is also revenue neutral and avoids conflating carbon policy with debates over the appropriate size of the federal budget. This paper describes a variant to address concerns of enviro...

  20. The distributional impact of a carbon tax in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Verde, Stefano; TOL, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Policy paper We study the effects of carbon taxation and revenue recycling across the income distribution in Ireland. Price changes of fuels and all other final goods and services are taken into account. If applied only to the emissions not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, a carbon tax of ???20/tCO2 would cost the poorest households around ???3.5/week and the richest ones ???5/week. The tax is regressive, therefore. However, if the revenue is used to increase social benefits and...

  1. The impacts of carbon tax and complementary policies on Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the pressure of global warming, it is imperative for Chinese government to impose effective policy instruments to promote domestic energy saving and carbon emissions reduction. As one of the most important incentive-based policy instruments, carbon tax has sparked a lively controversy in China. This paper explores the impact of carbon tax on Chinese economy, as well as the cushion effects of the complementary policies, by constructing a dynamic recursive general equilibrium model. The model can describe the new equilibrium for each sequential independent period (e.g. one year) after carbon tax and the complementary policies are imposed, and thus describe the long-term impacts of the policies. The simulation results show that carbon tax is an effective policy tool because it can reduce carbon emissions with a little negative impact on economic growth; reducing indirect tax in the meantime of imposing carbon tax will help to reduce the negative impact of the tax on production and competitiveness; in addition, giving households subsidy in the meantime will help to stimulate household consumptions. Therefore, complementary policies used together with carbon tax will help to cushion the negative impacts of carbon tax on the economy. The dynamic CGE analysis shows the impact of carbon tax policy on the GDP is relatively small, but the reduction of carbon emission is relatively large. - Research highlights: →Carbon tax is an effective policy tool, which generates larger carbon emission reduction with a little negative impact on economic growth. →Carbon tax recycling to firms or households will help to reduce the impact of carbon tax on production or consumption. →The growth rate of carbon emission is lower than that of GDP because of technology change. →The impact of carbon tax on the GDP is relatively small, but the reduction of carbon emission is relatively large in China in the long run. →The marginal abatement cost of carbon dioxide will rise up

  2. Energy taxes and industrial competitiveness: the case of Italian carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international debate on which economic instrument should be used to reduce pollutant emissions has begun since the nineties when the awareness of climatic risks aroused and first attempts to introduce a European carbon tax were made. Although this project failed, several national programmes of carbon/energy taxes have been developed with a common concern for industrial competitiveness of energy and/or carbon-intensive firms. Therefore, double dividend schemes have been applied to reduce existing distorsive taxes while introducing a higher burden on energy products. This paper reviews the most important European case studies and analyses the effects of the introduction of a carbon tax in Italy on energy expenditure and economic profitability of Italian manufacturing enterprises. This tax has been introduced in 1998 and should have progressively increased up to the final tax rates in 2005. However, this process halted in the year 2000 - as the world energy prices increased - and the ultimate rates have never been applied. Nonetheless, our analysis offers relevant insights both because energy excises are a major instrument in environmental policy and because industrial activities affected by energy taxes will also be affected by the tradable permits scheme recently adopted by the European Union. The study is performed with a micro simulation model to simulate changes, in energy excises and the associated reduction of social contributions to achieve the double dividends. Existing empirical analyses have usually been carried out at aggregate or sectoral level, but the effects on costs both of carbon tax and of compensative measures differ at the firm level, thus it is significant to study the impact on economic profitability on individual units of analysis. The data show that energy expenditure as a component of intermediate costs varies by economic activity as well as the energy mix used in the production process, thus suggesting possible competitiveness problems

  3. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on Chinese households: A case of Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an effective policy instrument to reduce CO2 emissions, the effects of a carbon tax on distribution have been the critical factor in determining whether a carbon tax will be acceptable in China. Taking Shanghai as an example, which is the economic center and front-runner of China, this paper estimates the distributional effect of a carbon tax on households in various income groups by using the input–output model and the Suits index. The results indicate that the comprehensive distributional effect of the carbon tax is regressive. The expenditure of the low-income group caused by the carbon tax accounts for 0.853% of the total expenditure, while that of the high-income group 0.712%. The direct distributional effect presents a weak progressivity, while the indirect one is significantly regressive, and the latter is much larger than the former. Moreover, the Suits index of the carbon tax is −0.078, implying that the carbon tax burden on the low-income group is the highest and thus that a carbon tax can intensify income inequality. Therefore, when introducing a carbon tax, some rational associated redistribution or compensation measures, such as purposive transfer payments, should be implemented to restrict or even eliminate the regressivity of the carbon tax. - Highlights: • The direct distributional effect of carbon tax presents a weak progressivity. • The indirect distributional effect of carbon tax is significantly regressive. • The comprehensive distributional effect of carbon tax is regressive. • The Suits index of carbon tax is −0.078. • Imposing carbon tax on fossil fuels can intensify income inequality

  4. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  5. Will carbon motivated border tax adjustments function as a threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to large incremental carbon emissions, China might become an important target country of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments). To levy CBTA could reduce China’s emissions. Meanwhile, China’s emissions reduction could also be achieved by China’s climate policies (termed as CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies). This paper contributes to the discussion on CBTA by comparing the potential regional effects of CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. The main findings are as follows: (1) CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies would result in relocations of outputs across regions and countries, affect the structure of economy and contribute to world’s emissions reduction. (2) There would be significant differences in the regional effects between CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. (3) Compared to carbon tax, CBTA would be a costly and inefficient policy instrument to reduce emissions, but could function as an effective coercion strategy. (4) These policies would result in competitiveness issue and rebound effects, wherein different countries would be affected differently. China is a large economy and energy consumer with high openness to international trade. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should consider the potential interactions between China and other economies when designing tax reforms. - Highlights: ►We compare regional effects of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments) and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. ► We explore the interactions between China and other economies. ► We investigate the potential international externalities and their effects across countries.

  6. The impact of a unilateral carbon tax on carbon-intensive industries: evidence from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golombek, R.

    1996-02-01

    This publication identifies the impact of a unilateral Norwegian carbon tax on the profitability and the exit probability in 12 carbon intensive manufacturing sectors. The study uses Norwegian panel data for manufacturing firms and focuses both on a tax on burning of fossil fuels and a tax on all emissions of carbon. It is demonstrated that for most carbon intensive sectors the impact on both profits and the exit probability of a tax on burning of fossil fuel is negligible or moderate. That is, the increase in the average sectorial exit probability is always less that one percentage point when the tax is 75 USD per tonne carbon dioxide. On the other hand, for sectors where carbon emissions are due to both burning of fossil fuels and the production process, the impact of a general tax on carbon dioxide (at 75 USD) is significant. In particular, in the manufacture of ferro alloys the average exit probability may increase by more than 15 percentage points. 15 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Computable General Equilibrium Techniques for Carbon Tax Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amin; Chamhuri Siwar; Abdul Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Lacking of proper environmental models environmental pollution is now a solemn problem in many developing countries particularly in Malaysia. Some empirical studies of worldwide reveal that imposition of a carbon tax significantly decreases carbon emissions and does not dramatically reduce economic growth. To our knowledge there has not been any research done to simulate the economic impact of emission control policies in Malaysia. Approach: Therefore this study developed a...

  8. Carbon tax, a socially regressive tax? True problems and false debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at clearing up misunderstandings about the distributive impacts of carbon taxes, which proved to be a decisive obstacle to their further consideration in public debates. It highlights the gap between partial equilibrium analyses, which are close to the agents' perception of the costs of taxation and general equilibrium analyses, which better capture its ultimate consequences. It shows that the real impact on households' income inequality is not mechanically determined by the initial energy budgets and their flexibility but also depends upon the recycling modes of the tax revenues and their general equilibrium effects. The comparison of five tax-recycling schemes highlights the existence of trade-off between maximizing total consumption, maximizing the consumption of the low-income classes and reducing income inequality. (authors)

  9. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Benefit of High-Speed Railway in Terms of Carbon Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Yanbing; Zhang Sufen; Xie Meiquan; Li Shuping; Huang Zelin

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway based on the carbon dioxide tax policy. We define the carbon dioxide emission system boundary for high-speed railway in its whole life cycle and estimate the life cycle carbon dioxide inventories during its construction, application, and recovery stages. And then we establish a theoretical model to calculate the life cycle carbon dioxide mitigation quantity for high-speed railway when compared with road transpor...

  10. The impacts of carbon tax and complementary policies on Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the pressure of global warming, it is imperative for Chinese government to impose effective policy instruments to promote domestic energy saving and carbon emissions reduction. As one of the most important incentive-based policy instruments, carbon tax has sparked a lively controversy in China. This paper explores the impact of carbon tax on Chinese economy, as well as the cushion effects of the complementary policies, by constructing a dynamic recursive general equilibrium model. The model can describe the new equilibrium for each sequential independent period (e.g. one year) after carbon tax and the complementary policies are imposed, and thus describe the long-term impacts of the policies. The simulation results show that carbon tax is an effective policy tool because it can reduce carbon emissions with a little negative impact on economic growth; reducing indirect tax in the meantime of imposing carbon tax will help to reduce the negative impact of the tax on production and competitiveness; in addition, giving households subsidy in the meantime will help to stimulate household consumptions. Therefore, complementary policies used together with carbon tax will help to cushion the negative impacts of carbon tax on the economy. The dynamic CGE analysis shows the impact of carbon tax policy on the GDP is relatively small, but the reduction of carbon emission is relatively large. (author)

  11. The impacts of carbon tax and complementary policies on Chinese economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chuanyi; Tong, Qing [Institute of Nuclear Energy and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Xuemei [Department of Economics, California State University, Long Beach (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Under the pressure of global warming, it is imperative for Chinese government to impose effective policy instruments to promote domestic energy saving and carbon emissions reduction. As one of the most important incentive-based policy instruments, carbon tax has sparked a lively controversy in China. This paper explores the impact of carbon tax on Chinese economy, as well as the cushion effects of the complementary policies, by constructing a dynamic recursive general equilibrium model. The model can describe the new equilibrium for each sequential independent period (e.g. one year) after carbon tax and the complementary policies are imposed, and thus describe the long-term impacts of the policies. The simulation results show that carbon tax is an effective policy tool because it can reduce carbon emissions with a little negative impact on economic growth; reducing indirect tax in the meantime of imposing carbon tax will help to reduce the negative impact of the tax on production and competitiveness; in addition, giving households subsidy in the meantime will help to stimulate household consumptions. Therefore, complementary policies used together with carbon tax will help to cushion the negative impacts of carbon tax on the economy. The dynamic CGE analysis shows the impact of carbon tax policy on the GDP is relatively small, but the reduction of carbon emission is relatively large. (author)

  12. The effect of carbon tax on per capita CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the most efficient market-based mitigation instrument, carbon tax is highly recommended by economists and international organizations. Countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Netherlands and Norway were the first adopters of carbon tax and as such, research on the impacts and problems of carbon tax implementation in these countries will provide great practical significance as well as caution for countries that are to levy the tax. Different from the existing studies that adopt the model simulation approaches, in this article, we comprehensively estimate the real mitigation effects of the five north European countries by employing the method of difference-in-difference (DID). The results indicate that carbon tax in Finland imposes a significant and negative impact on the growth of its per capita CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, the effects of carbon tax in Denmark, Sweden and Netherlands are negative but not significant. The mitigation effects of carbon tax are weakened due to the tax exemption policies on certain energy intensive industries in these countries. Notwithstanding, in Norway, as the rapid growth of energy products drives a substantial increase of CO2 emissions in oil drilling and natural gas exploitation sectors, carbon tax actually has not realized its mitigation effects. - Highlights: → DID method is employed to test the real mitigation effect of carbon tax. → Carbon tax in Finland imposes a significant and negative impact. → The effects of carbon tax in other four countries are limited. → Tax exemption or tax relief is the main reason of limited effects. → High tax rates and recycling the revenue contribute to emission reduction.

  13. The European carbon tax: an assessment of the European Commission's proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a lengthy internal debate within the European Commission, the Environment Commissioner announced the broad structure of the Commission's proposals for a European carbon tax towards the end of September. The proposed tax would be a combination of a tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels, and a tax on all non-renewable forms of energy. Thus, fossil fuels such as gas, coal and oil would bear a tax comprising two components, one related to their carbon content, the other related to their energy content. Non-renewable forms of energy other than fossil fuels (mainly nuclear power) would be subject to the energy-related part of the tax, but would not bear the carbon component. Overall, the two components would be combined in equal proportions, in the sense that half of the tax on a typical barrel of oil would be related to the carbon component and half to the energy component. (author)

  14. The effect of a carbon Tax on Australian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commonwealth Government has adopted an interim planning target of stabilizing emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide based on 1988 levels, by the year 2000, and reducing these emissions by 20% by the year 2005. The Government also agreed that Australia will not adopt measures which would damage Australia's competitiveness, in the absence of similar action by major greenhouse gas producing countries. This paper reports on a study, carried out by London Economics, which assesses the impact of a carbon tax on the international competitiveness of energy-intensive australian industries. A special feature of the study is that analysis is done at a disaggregated level using information on all major world plant in each of the industries. The study finds that a tax imposed to meet the Toronto target would virtually wipe out australian steel and aluminium industries and have a severe impact on the coal industry. 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. A new strategic plan for a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a new Green House Gas policy building upon general consensus in scientific, political and economic communities including: 1.Concern too little progress is being made toward an integrated global approach to controlling CO2 emissions. 2.Recommendation of a carbon tax. 3.Need for increased R and D for alternative energy sources. 4.Substantially increased research and development expenditures are relatively inexpensive. Here,these elements are woven into a coherent strategy that should be farmore politically acceptable by global governments than currentalternatives. Here are its elements: 1.A small carbon tax whose proceeds are tied exclusively to energy research and development in a dedicated trust fund. 2.Deployment of the fund to demonstrate benefits of the approach and its incentives for other countries to join. 3.The establishment of a commonality of interest among participating nations. 4.Clear incentives for additional nations to participate. The ultimate goal, energy services at lower cost than today with fossil fuels, is appropriately ambitious. The proposed approach is functional, timely and will produce benefits going well beyond simply stemming global warming. It would also tend to obviate the need for implementation policy: economic choice would lead to transition to such new technologies. - Highlights: • International Green House Gas negotiations have foundered on the need to allocate caps. • A small carbon tax is a more achievable policy than the global cooperation needed for caps. • A small carbon tax among cooperating nations can fund much more energy research and development. • Access to advanced technology creates a relatively low cost incentive to cooperate. • Lower cost energy services, if achieved, would improve human welfare

  16. Global climate change, energy subsidies and national carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous chapter of the book it is indicated that fossil-fuel burning is one of the main environmental culprits. Nevertheless, many countries continue to subsidize fossil fuels. In this chapter estimates of subsidies to energy and energy complements in OECD and non-OECD countries are provided. The authors conclude that the removal of energy subsidies in OECD countries on the order of US$30 billion annually (primarily in the US and Germany) and subsidies to complements on the order of US$50-90 (United States) are likely to have only little impact on CO-emissions. In contrast, the removal of energy subsidies of US$270-330 billion in non-OECD countries could substantially curb the growth of global CO2 emissions, equivalent to the impact of a carbon tax on the order of US$60-70 per ton in the OECD countries. Nonetheless, even with the removal of energy subsidies, the growth in CO2 emissions in non-OECD countries is projected to increase by 80% from the year 1990 to 2010. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of a revenue-neutral national carbon tax, in addition to energy subsidy removal, can yield significant health benefits from the reduction in local pollution. The authors note that carbon taxes are considerably less regressive relative to lifetime income or annual consumption expenditures than to annual income. 7 tabs., 23 refs

  17. The carbon tax: myth or reality? From the theory to the practical; La taxe carbone: mythe ou realite? De la theorie a la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    The climatic change is an international problem. Meanwhile actions must begin at an european and national scale. The France is involved in the european policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction by emissions quotas. In this framework an external carbon tax, aiming to offset the differences between the european and non european enterprises, is studied. The government decided to implement an internal carbon tax called 'contribution climate-energy'. This tax and the context are detailed in this document: the ecological challenge, the economical stakes, the regulation, the conditions of implementing and the consequences of this internal tax. (A.L.B.)

  18. Taxe carbone globale, effet taille de marché et mobilité des firmes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelly Exbrayat; Carl Gaigné; Stéphane Riou

    2013-01-01

    [Paper in French] We analyze the impact and the determinants of a global carbon tax maximizing social welfare in an imperfectly integrated economy. Using a model of trade and location with two countries with different population size, we first show that agglomeration of firms in the larger country raises total CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, the introduction of a global carbon tax induces a partial relocation of firms from the larger to the smaller country. Thus, even though the carbon tax is id...

  19. Statistical evidence of tax fraud on the carbon allowances market

    OpenAIRE

    Frunza, Marius-Cristian; Guegan, Dominique; Lassoudière, Antonin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show evidence and to quantify with forensic econometric methods the impact of the Value Added Tax fraud on European carbon allowances markets. This fraud mainly occurred at the beginning of between the end of 2008 and the beginning of 2009. In this paper, we explore the financial mechanisms of the fraud and the impact on the market behavior as well as the reflexion on its econometric features. In a previous work, we showed that the European carbon market is strongl...

  20. Taxing Strategies for Carbon Emissions: A Bilevel Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative and computational method to determine the optimal tax rate among generating units. To strike a balance between the reduction of carbon emission and the profit of energy sectors, the proposed bilevel optimization model can be regarded as a Stackelberg game between the government agency and the generation companies. The upper-level, which represents the government agency, aims to limit total carbon emissions within a certain level by setting optimal tax rates among generators according to their emission performances. The lower-level, which represents decision behaviors of the grid operator, tries to minimize the total production cost under the tax rates set by the government. The bilevel optimization model is finally reformulated into a mixed integer linear program (MILP which can be solved by off-the-shelf MILP solvers. Case studies on a 10-unit system as well as a provincial power grid in China demonstrate the validity of the proposed method and its capability in practical applications.

  1. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on car fuels in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, Benjamin [MINES Paris Tech, CERNA (France)

    2011-01-15

    This paper analyses the distributional effects of alternative scenarios of carbon taxes on car fuels using disaggregated French panel data from 2003 to 2006. It incorporates household price responsiveness that differs across income groups into a consumer surplus measure of tax burden. Carbon taxation is regressive before revenue recycling. However, taking into account the benefits from congestion reduction induced by the tax mitigates regressivity. We show also that recycling additional revenues from the carbon tax either in equal amounts to each household or according to household size makes poorest households better off. (author)

  2. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on car fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the distributional effects of alternative scenarios of carbon taxes on car fuels using disaggregated French panel data from 2003 to 2006. It incorporates household price responsiveness that differs across income groups into a consumer surplus measure of tax burden. Carbon taxation is regressive before revenue recycling. However, taking into account the benefits from congestion reduction induced by the tax mitigates regressivity. We show also that recycling additional revenues from the carbon tax either in equal amounts to each household or according to household size makes poorest households better off. (author)

  3. Distributional effects of a carbon tax on car fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the distributional effects of alternative scenarios of carbon taxes on car fuels using dis-aggregated French panel data from 2003 to 2006. It incorporates household price responsiveness that differs across income groups into a consumer surplus measure of tax burden. Carbon taxation is regressive before revenue recycling. However, taking into account the benefits from congestion reduction induced by the tax mitigates regressiveness. We show also that recycling additional revenues from the carbon tax either in equal amounts to each household or according to household size makes poorest households better off. (author)

  4. Economic effects of using carbon taxes to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in major OECD countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tax on fossil fuels designed to obtain a 20 percent reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2020 would lower output among major OECD nations by 1 to 3 1/2 percent. The tax required to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by 2020 ranged from $489.4 (Sweden) per metric ton of carbon to $2,427.9 (Japan) per ton of carbon. The tax required for the U.S. was $720.6 per ton. In the U.S., a tax per $100 per ton of carbon would equate to a tax of $70.68 per short ton of coal, $11.42 per barrel of oil, $1.66 per MCF of natural gas and 0.27 per gallon of gasoline. The study is part of a multi-phase effort to gauge the economic consequences of various measures being discussed by the international community to mitigate the possibility of global climate change by limiting emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use. The study assumed that the carbon tax program would be revenue neutral in that increased revenues from the carbon tax would be offset by reductions in personal income taxes

  5. Increasing carbon and material productivity through environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental tax reform (ETR), a shift in taxation towards environmental taxes, has been implemented on a small scale in a number of European countries. This paper first gives a short review of the literature about ETR. An Appendix briefly describes the model used for a modelling exercise to explore, through scenarios with low and high international energy prices, the implications of a large-scale ETR in the European Union, sufficient to reach the EU's emission reduction targets for 2020. The paper then reports the results of the exercise. The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity, with the emission reductions distributed across all sectors as a reduction in the demand for all fossil fuels. There are also small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries for all the scenarios, and for the EU as a whole. Both the environmental and macroeconomic outcomes are better with low than with high energy prices, because the former both increases the scale of the ETR required to reach the targets, and reduces the outflow of foreign exchange to pay for energy imports. ETR emerges from the exercise as an attractive and cost-effective policy for environmental improvement. - Highlights: ► European experience with environmental tax reform (ETR) is reviewed. ► Scenarios which meet EU carbon emission targets are modelled. ► The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity. ► There are small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries. ► ETR emerges as an attractive and cost-effective environmental policy.

  6. The carbon tax: myth or reality? From the theory to the practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic change is an international problem. Meanwhile actions must begin at an european and national scale. The France is involved in the european policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction by emissions quotas. In this framework an external carbon tax, aiming to offset the differences between the european and non european enterprises, is studied. The government decided to implement an internal carbon tax called ''contribution climate-energy'. This tax and the context are detailed in this document: the ecological challenge, the economical stakes, the regulation, the conditions of implementing and the consequences of this internal tax. (A.L.B.)

  7. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and

  8. Can a carbon tax result in a strong double dividend in developing economies : the case of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the use of carbon taxes as a means of increasing economic welfare. It was suggested that carbon taxes can result in a reduction of emissions as well as inefficiencies in existing tax systems, and that the double dividend hypothesis is a key proponent of carbon taxing. The strong double dividend refers to a situation in which the revenue neutral substitution of environmental taxes for an existing tax results in zero or negative costs. However, evidence of a strong double dividend, where a carbon tax produces environmental benefits at zero or negative gross costs, is rare. This study intends to show that the existence of a strong double dividend depends predominantly on how tax revenues are recycled back to the economy. The study was accomplished through a general equilibrium analysis of carbon taxes in Thailand. It was suggested that in order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 10 per cent below the base case, a carbon tax rate of U.S. $41.3/tC is required and the corresponding welfare gain would be 0.39 per cent when all recycled tax revenue is used to subsidize agricultural products. It was concluded that the existence of a strong double dividend depends on how tax revenues are recycled back to the economy. Carbon taxes not only reduce emissions, but also increase economic welfare, particularly when tax revenue is recycled to cut existing indirect tax rates of goods. Moreover, the level of strong double dividend benefits depends on the selection of goods used to cut existing tax rates through recycled carbon tax revenues. In Thailand, economic welfare was increased when tax revenue was recycled to subsidize agricultural products. 42 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Untapped Fossil Fuel and the Green Paradox: A classroom calibration of the optimal carbon tax

    OpenAIRE

    Rick van der Ploeg

    2013-01-01

    A classroom model of global warming, fossil fuel depletion and the optimal carbon tax is formulated and calibrated. It features iso-elastic fossil fuel demand, stock-dependent fossil fuel extraction costs, an exogenous interest rate and no decay of the atmospheric stock of carbon. The optimal carbon tax reduces emissions from burning fossil fuel, both in the short and medium run. Furthermore, it brings forward the date that renewables take over from fossil fuel and encourages the market to ke...

  10. Why Finance Ministers Favor Carbon Taxes, Even if They Do not Take Climate Change into Account

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Max; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Lessmann, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Fiscal considerations may shift governmental priorities away from environmental concerns: Finance ministers face strong demand for public expenditures such as infrastructure investments but they are constrained by international tax competition. We develop a multi-region model of tax competition and resource extraction to assess the fiscal incentive of imposing a tax on carbon rather than on capital. We explicitly model international capital and resource markets, as well as intertemporal capit...

  11. Economic effects of a carbon tax: with a general equilibrium illustration for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility and efficiency arguments of an international and a national carbon tax are analysed. It is argued that an internationally organized carbon tax can be a good instrument for implementing an international CO2 abatement strategy. Less efficient instruments like national CO2 reduction emission objectives are more likely to be implemented. A national carbon tax is analysed as a policy instrument to reach such an internationally agreed national CO2 emission reduction objective. This is done for Belgium using a dynamic general equilibrium model. (author)

  12. Carbon tax scenarios and their effects on the Irish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we use annual time series data from 1960 to 2008 to estimate the long run price and income elasticities underlying energy demand in Ireland. The Irish economy is divided into five sectors: residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural and transport, and separate energy demand equations are estimated for all sectors. Energy demand is broken down by fuel type, and price and income elasticities are estimated for the primary fuels in the Irish fuel mix. Using the estimated price and income elasticities we forecast Irish sectoral energy demand out to 2025. The share of electricity in the Irish fuel mix is predicted to grow over time, as the share of carbon intensive fuels such as coal, oil and peat, falls. The share of electricity in total energy demand grows most in the industrial and commercial sectors, while oil remains an important fuel in the residential and transport sectors. Having estimated the baseline forecasts, two different carbon tax scenarios are imposed and the impact of these scenarios on energy demand, carbon dioxide emissions, and government revenue is assessed. If it is assumed that the level of the carbon tax will track the futures price of carbon under the EU-ETS, the carbon tax will rise from €21.50 per tonne CO2 in 2012 (the first year forecasted) to €41 in 2025. Results show that under this scenario total emissions would be reduced by approximately 861,000 tonnes of CO2 in 2025 relative to a zero carbon tax scenario, and that such a tax would generate €1.1 billion in revenue in the same year. We also examine a high tax scenario under which emissions reductions and revenue generated will be greater. Finally, in order to assess the macroeconomic effects of a carbon tax, the carbon tax scenarios were run in HERMES, the ESRI's medium-term macroeconomic model. The results from HERMES show that, a carbon tax of €41 per tonne CO2 would lead to a 0.21% contraction in GDP, and a 0.08% reduction in employment. A higher carbon tax

  13. Implications of Carbon and Energy Taxes as Instrument for Environmental Emission Reduction in China's Power Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the Integrated Resources Planning Assessment (IRPA) model, implications of carbon tax and energy tax on technological selection, power price and environmental pollution in power industry of China were studied. This model is a least-cost generation planning model, with which the technological composition, electricity price and pollutant emission can be calculated by comparing the cost changes for different power generation options due to carbon and energy taxes. The primary simulation result shows that the levy of US$ 25/tC carbon tax or US$ 0.5/Mbtu energy tax can improve the power generation structure and greatly reduce CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions in power industry. Several advanced power generation technologies such as IGCC and NGCC are of competitive cost, and should be given priority in future planning of power industry.

  14. The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbin, Warwick [Australian National Univ. (Australia); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Morris, Adele [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Wilcoxen, Peter [Syracuse University, NY (United States); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Cai, Yiyong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian National Univ. (Australia)

    2012-07-24

    This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that

  15. An analysis on the short-term sectoral competitiveness impact of carbon tax in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market-based instruments, particularly carbon tax, have recently drawn the attention of Chinese government by their cost-effective contribution to the achievement of China's climate targets. Most of the recent policy proposals have focused on its long-term impact. However, particularly for policy makers, both long term and short term effects of carbon tax would be necessary when determining tax rates. We provided a detailed analysis of short-term impacts of carbon tax on sectoral competitiveness in this paper. We divided China's economy into 36 sectors, based on its 2007 input-output table, in order to examine the ratio of carbon tax added costs to sector GDP. We were thus able to determine the impact level of a carbon tax on each sector. We then divided the sectoral trade impact into domestic competitiveness with regards to foreign imported products and international competitiveness external to the Chinese domestic market. We found that a high tax level (100 yuan/t CO2) may necessitate compensatory measures to certain highly affected industries, and that a low tax rate (10 yuan/t CO2) would generate few competitiveness problems for all industries and may therefore be considered as an appropriate starting point. - Highlights: → We study short-term sectoral competitiveness impact of carbon tax in China. → For each sector, we study its carbon cost, GDP share and trade intensity. → A high rate (100 yuan/t CO2) may require compensatory measures to certain industries. → A low rate (10 yuan/t CO2) would generate few competitiveness problems.

  16. Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory%Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Gang

    2011-01-01

    Among all the emission reduction measures, carbon tax is recognized as the most effective way to protect our climate. That is why the Chinese government has recently taken it as a tax reform direction, In the current economic analysis, the design of carbon tax is mostly based on the target to maximize the efficiency However, based on the theory of tax system optimization, we should also consider other policy objectives, such as equity, revenue and cost, and then balance different objectives to achieve the suboptimum reform of carbon tax system in China.

  17. Revenue-Neutral Tax-Subsidy Policy for Carbon Emission Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gregmar I. Galinato; Yoder, Jonathan K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the benefits of biofuel use is a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to fossil fuels, but no policy directly targets carbon emissions across the full spectrum of renewable and nonrenewable fuels. In light of the political unpopularity of carbon taxes in the United States, we develop a model for a revenue neutral price instrument that maximizes social welfare subject to an exogenously determined net tax revenue target. This approach may be more palatable because it has the po...

  18. Modeling the impact of a carbon tax: A trial analysis for Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, energy policy makers have proposed a carbon tax as an economy-wide policy tool to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The quantification of its impact on GHG emissions has relied on an energy-economy model, whose complexity often makes it difficult to comprehend how it simulates the interaction of a carbon tax and energy demand. This study therefore aims at developing an alternative model called the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM). The elasticity-based approach used in C-TAM is less sophisticated than an equilibrium-based approach used in an energy-economy model, but C-TAM is designed to maximize its predictive capabilities by using a wide range of elasticities for each sector and fuel use, accounting for likely changes in fuel mix for electricity generation, and addressing the model's sensitivity to elasticity estimates with Monte Carlo simulation. The trial analysis in this study evaluates a potential carbon tax in Washington State, suggesting a carbon tax at US$30 per metric ton of CO2 (tCO2) lowers GHG emissions by 8.4% from the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario in 2035. The study concludes that C-TAM can provide meaningful policy implications by forecasting detailed impact on revenues and energy demand for each sector and fuel use. - Highlights: ► An elasticity-based model is developed to forecast the impact of a carbon tax. ► This model can show detailed impacts on each sector and fuel use. ► Extensive literature review and sensitivity analyses cover the model's weakness. ► A carbon tax is effective in curbing greenhouse gas emissions in Washington State. ► A carbon tax is however more effective if implemented nationwide.

  19. The Impact of a Carbon Tax on the Chilean Electricity Generation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Benavides; Luis Gonzales; Manuel Diaz; Rodrigo Fuentes; Gonzalo García; Rodrigo Palma-Behnke; Catalina Ravizza

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the economy-wide implications of a carbon tax applied on the Chilean electricity generation sector. In order to analyse the macroeconomic impacts, both an energy sectorial model and a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model have been used. During the year 2014 a carbon tax of 5 US$/tCO2e was approved in Chile. This tax and its increases (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 US$/tCO2e) are evaluated in this article. The results show that the effectiveness of this policy depend...

  20. The carbon tax: in order not to discredit an idea with prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author aims at setting the carbon tax considered as an environment policy instrument in a context of broader challenges like energy security or the upholding of a high level social protection within a context of economy globalization and demographic aging. Using data on the evolution of oil prices, petrol prices, housing prices and available incomes since 1960, he shows that, in fact, the cost of energy has notably decreased over this period. He wanders whether other possibilities than the carbon tax could be used, like for example building renovation programs, whether this carbon tax will impact behaviours, and which economical impact it could have. He discusses how this tax could conciliate environment, job and energy security. He examines competitiveness and social equity issues in relationship with the introduction of this tax. He considers the useful purpose of this tax in front of the current oil prices, and examines the possibility of introducing such a tax in France within the European Union context

  1. Accounting for behavioral effects of increases in the carbon dioxide (CO2) tax in revenue estimation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe how behavioral responses of carbon dioxide (CO2) tax increases are accounted for in tax revenue estimation in Sweden. The rationale for developing a method for this is a mix between that a CO2 tax is a primary climate policy tool aiming to reduce CO2 emissions and that the CO2 tax generates sizable tax revenues. - Highlights: → We develop a method on the long run tax revenue effects of increasing the CO2 tax in Sweden. → We use long run price elasticities as the basis for calculating the long run effects. → The CO2 tax is the primary instrument to reduce CO2 emissions from sectors outside the EU ETS. → There is almost an exact correlation between fossil energy use and fossil CO2 emissions. → The method provide consistent estimates of emission reductions following from CO2 tax increases.

  2. Reports from Ministry of Finance: China Nay Begin to Collect Carbon Tax in the Next Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The investigation team of Research Institute for Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance, just published a report on the "Study on the Issue of Beginning to Levy Carbon Tax in China." The report said that the beginning of the collection of carbon tax could be considered in the next five years.

  3. The Impact of a Carbon Tax on the Chilean Electricity Generation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benavides

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the economy-wide implications of a carbon tax applied on the Chilean electricity generation sector. In order to analyse the macroeconomic impacts, both an energy sectorial model and a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model have been used. During the year 2014 a carbon tax of 5 US$/tCO2e was approved in Chile. This tax and its increases (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 US$/tCO2e are evaluated in this article. The results show that the effectiveness of this policy depends on some variables which are not controlled by policy makers, for example, non-conventional renewable energy investment cost projections, natural gas prices, and the feasibility of exploiting hydroelectric resources. For a carbon tax of 20 US$/tCO2e, the average annual emission reduction would be between 1.1 and 9.1 million tCO2e. However, the price of the electricity would increase between 8.3 and 9.6 US$/MWh. This price shock would decrease the annual GDP growth rate by a maximum amount of 0.13%. This article compares this energy policy with others such as the introduction of non-conventional renewable energy sources and a sectorial cap. The results show that the same global greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction can be obtained with these policies, but the impact on the electricity price and GDP are lower than that of the carbon tax.

  4. Modelling consumer demand and household labour supply: Welfare effects of increasing carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse consumer response and welfare effects due to changes in energy or environmental policy. To achieve this objective we formulate and estimate an econometric model for non-durable consumer demand in Sweden that utilises micro- and macro-data. In the demand model male and female labour supply is included as conditioning goods. To account for possible changes in labour supply due to increasing carbon taxes we estimate separate labour supply functions for men and women. In the simulations we consider two revenue neutral scenarios that both imply a doubling of the CO2 tax; one that returns the revenues in the form of a lower VAT and one that subsidise public transport. One conclusion from the simulations is that the CO2 tax has regional distribution effects, in the sense that household living in sparsely populated areas carry a larger share of the tax burden

  5. Is carbon / CO2 taxes implementation timely for electricity and heat generation in Romania ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lately, carbon / CO2 taxes are very much discussed in Europe and in many countries of the world as economic and financial instruments for reducing the CO2 emissions. Some countries have already introduced such taxes while in other countries or international organisations they are under study, especially concerning the moment, the way of implementation and the amount of taxes. CO2 emissions in Romania, in absolute and specific values (per capita, per kWh equivalent) are lower than in other countries. This can be justified by the low level of electricity and heat output owing to the recent economic restructuring and by the energy sector characteristics: natural gas major contribution, hydroelectric power, cogeneration and nuclear power implementation. We can also mention, as a positive factor, the CO2 absorption potential of the Romanian forests. Carbon / CO2 taxes introduction has severe economic and social impact, such as: domestic coal extraction blockage, increase in the electricity and heat prices, decrease of Romanian export products competitiveness and reduction of population standard of living. Therefore, the authors are considering that carbon / CO2 taxes introduction is not timely by the year 2000 for the Romanian electricity and heat generation. (author). 3 figs. 2 tabs. 10 refs

  6. The impact of a carbon tax on the Susquehanna River Basin economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first study of the economic impacts of a carbon tax on an environmentally delineated, sub-national area. The study is based on a 32-sector computable general equilibrium model of the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) of the US. A special feature of the analysis is that it incorporates changes in prices of traded goods facing the focal region as a result of the imposition of a tax imposed globally. The results show that a tax of $16.96 per ton of carbon could have rather negligible negative impacts on the SRB economy as a whole, but that the negative impacts on its energy industries could be sizeable. Also, several sensitivity tests on closure rules and key parameter values indicate that the results are rather robust. 22 refs

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of carbon tax for total emission control of carbon dioxide. Systems analysis of a dynamic environmental-economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with how to evaluate the effectiveness of carbon tax (environmental tax) for regulating the carbon dioxide emissions. For this purpose we mainly deal with a primal problem and its dual problem of dynamic linear programming model. The primal problem is formulated by using Leontief type input-output model and the basic idea of commodity stocks. It represents the balance of materials. The dual problem is obtained and interpreted as cash balance. It is clarified in this paper whether the carbon tax is effective to decrease the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions. (author)

  8. Carbon tax simulations using a household demand model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse consumer response due to changes in energy or environmental policy. To achieve the objective we formulate and estimate an econometric model for non-durable consumer demand in Sweden that utilises micro- as well as macro-data. The microeconomic model is conditional on male and female labour supply. A 100 percent increase of the Swedish CO2 tax will, according to the simulations, result in an increased tax payment of SEK 630 or 0.7 percent of disposable income for the households with the lowest disposable incomes. The corresponding numbers for the richest households are SEK 990 and 0.3 percent 38 refs, 10 tabs

  9. TAX TREATMENT OF CARBON CREDIT OPERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES WITH CDM PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to identify the tax treatment applied to carbon credit operations in Brazilian companies that are developing projects in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Therefore, an exploratory research with a qualitative approach was developed. Data were collected with the help of questionnaire, forwarded to all Brazilian companies with CDM projects that received approval from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change (CIMGC without safeguards, according to the list of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. Out of 117 companies listed, only five answered the research instrument, which represents an accessibility sample. The results show that, as for the tax treatment applied in the companies under analysis, IRPJ and CSLL should be charged on carbon credit operations. Regarding PIS, COFINS, ISS, some companies considered that these taxes are due and others that they are not. There is a consensus, though, about the fact that ICMS and IOF should not be charged. In conclusion, no uniform understanding exists as of yet about due taxes in the research sample, as no specific fiscal legislation exists yet on carbon credits in Brazil.

  10. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed. PMID:23365531

  11. Does a carbon tax make sense in countries with still a high potential for energy efficiency? Comparison between the reducing-emissions effects of carbon tax and energy efficiency measures in the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries have not yet successfully decoupled their growth and their energy consumption. Moreover, power production frequently entails a number of negative externalities, like greenhouse gas emissions from thermo electrical units. This situation has highlighted the need for countries to move towards sustainable economic growth. Accordingly, many countries have proposed and established measures to decrease their carbon emissions. In this line, the Chilean government has just passed a carbon tax of $5/Ton CO2e. In this work, we compare the effects on reducing CO2 emissions of this carbon tax and of some energy efficiency measures in the power sector. The results obtained indicate that the imposed carbon tax will produce an expected annual reduction in CO2 emissions of 1% with respect to the estimated baseline during the 2014–2024 period. However, this reduction will be accompanied by an expected 3.4% increase in the marginal cost of power production on the main Chilean power system. In contrast, the introduction of some energy efficiency measures, aimed to reduce 2% of the power demand of the residential sector, could achieve larger reductions in CO2 emissions, while simultaneously decreasing energy price. - Highlights: • We estimate CO2 emission reductions due to a carbon tax and EE measures in Chile. • We simulate the main Chilean power system with diverse levels of carbon tax and EE. • Energy efficiency measures could achieve better results than carbon tax in Chile. • The carbon tax imposed in Chile reduces CO2 emissions in 1% in the 2014–2024 period. • The carbon tax imposed in Chile increases system marginal cost in 3.4% in 2014–2024

  12. The Probability of Tax Charges for Industrial Emission of Carbon Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, although all industrial by product can be toxic and non-toxic pollutant that have potential hazard for human being and environmental. One of these pollutants is carbon dioxide that has potential contribution for greenhouse effect. Although carbon dioxide can be absorbed by plants at the forest but quantity of this emission more higher than quantity of forest area. For this reason rehabilitation of the forest and diversifications and energy saving can be used for decreasing of greenhouse effect. The synergy action such as economical instrumentation (specially microeconomics) can be implemented base on regulators, taxing and incentive and effluent charge by deeper assessment on environmental economics. By identification of quality and quantity fossil fuels that was burned in the industrial process so with stoichiometry calculation will be found quantity of carbon dioxide emission and the taxes can be estimated. (author)

  13. Economic analysis of the energy and carbon tax for the sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.K.; Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The concept of 'Sustainable Development' has been playing a very important role since seventies. Countries all over the world, whether developed or developing, strive to achieve their economic development in a sustainable way. U.N Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 at Rio was instrumental in the movement of the sustainable development. Korea is not an exception in this movement as Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD) was established in September 2000. The Climate Change occupies the heart of the sustainable development. In response to the urgent need to protect global climate, the U.N. Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the Kyoto Protocol (1997) were adopted. An analysis is required to respond effectively and sustainedly to the issue of climate change. Energy sector is the main contributor to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, this study aims to analyse the implication of the energy{center_dot}carbon tax for the benefit of present and future generation, its impact on economy, industry, and energy. It also studies new elements related to the differential impact of energy carbon tax on income classes. We developed 'Overlapping Generation Equilibrium model' which consists of eleven industry, three income classes, time span of 100 years. Scenario analysis was performed for the case of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent in 2010 and afterward in comparison with its 'Business As Usual' path. Three major analysis preformed are as follows: 1. Numerical computation was done on the differential impact of the carbon tax on three income classes. 2. The impact on various generation was calculated. 3. Most importantly, the hypothesis of 'Double Dividend' was tested. This study cautiously concludes that carbon tax recycling by the reduction of the corporate income tax may increase GDP despite the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxides. The results of this

  14. Need a carbon tax be socially regressive? True challenges and wrong debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at clearing up misunderstandings about the distributive impacts of carbon taxes, which proved to be a decisive obstacle to their further consideration in public debates. It highlights the gap between partial equilibrium analyses, which are close to the agents' perception of the costs of taxation, and general equilibrium analyses, which better capture its ultimate consequences. It shows that the real impact on households' income inequality is not mechanically determined by the initial energy budgets and their flexibilities but also depends upon the way tax revenues are recycled and its general equilibrium consequences. The comparison of five tax-recycling schemes highlights the existence of trade-off between maximizing total consumption, maximizing the consumption of the low-income classes and reducing income inequality. (authors)

  15. Environmental tax on products and services based on their carbon footprint: A case study of the pulp and paper sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this work is to define an environmental tax on products based on their carbon footprint. We examine the relevance of life cycle analysis (LCA) and environmentally extended input–output analysis (EIO) as methodological tools for identifying the emission intensities on which the tax is based. The price effects of the tax and the policy implications of considering non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHG) are also analyzed. The results from the case study on pulp production show that the environmental tax rate based on LCA (1.8%) is higher than both EIO approaches (0.8 and 1.4% for product and industry, respectively), but they are of the same order of magnitude. Although LCA is more product specific and provides a more detailed analysis, we recommend EIO as a more relevant approach to applying an economy-wide environmental tax. If an environmental tax were applied to non-CO2 GHG instead to CO2 alone, the tax would greatly affects sectors such as agriculture, mining of coal, extraction of peat, and food. Therefore, it is worthwhile for policy-makers to pay attention to the implications of considering either a CO2 tax or a global GHG emissions tax in order to make their policy measures effective and meaningful. - Highlights: ► Carbon footprints of products and services are modeled using EIO and LCA. ► Environmental taxes are introduced based on the estimated emission intensities. ► The effect of excluding non-GHG and its policy implications is discussed. ► Emission intensity and environmental tax are higher in LCA than EIO for the analyzed case study of pulp and paper production. ► EIO is more relevant than LCA for economy wide environmental tax application.

  16. A Multi-Objective Unit Commitment Model for Setting Carbon Tax to Reduce CO2 Emission: Thailand's Electricity Generation Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjarin Intalar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax policy is a cost-effective instrument for emission reduction. However, setting the carbon tax is one of the challenging task for policy makers as it will lead to higher price of emission-intensive sources especially the utility price. In a large-scale power generation system, minimizing the operational cost and the environmental impact are conflicting objectives and it is difficult to find the compromise solution. This paper proposes a methodology of finding a feasible carbon tax rate on strategic level using the operational unit commitment model. We present a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to solve the unit commitment problem and consider the environmental impacts. The methodology of analyzing of the effect of carbon tax rates on the power generation, operating cost, and CO2 emission is also provided. The trade-off relationship between total operating cost and total CO2 emission is presented in the Pareto-optimal curve to analyze the feasible carbon tax rate that is influencing on electricity operating cost. The significant outcome of this paper is a modeling framework for the policy makers to determine the possible carbon tax that can be imposed on the electricity generation.

  17. Computational Framework for Optimal Carbon Taxes Based on Electric Supply Chain Considering Transmission Constraints and Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modeling and computational framework is presented for the determination of optimal carbon taxes that apply to electric power plants in the context of electric power supply chain with consideration of transmission constraints and losses. In order to achieve this goal, a generalized electric power supply chain network equilibrium model is used. Under deregulation, there are several players in electrical market: generation companies, power suppliers, transmission service providers, and consumers. Each player in this model tries to maximize its own profit and competes with others in a noncooperative manner. The Nash equilibrium conditions of these players in this model form a finite-dimensional variational inequality problem (VIP. By solving this VIP via an extragradient method based on an interior point algorithm, the optimal carbon taxes of power plants can be determined. Numerical examples are provided to analyze the results of the presented modeling.

  18. A Carbon Exergy Tax Evaluation Based on the Efficient Use of Energy Resources: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Santarelli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An instrument to promote the CO2 emission reductions, taking the Kyoto Protocol goal into account, can be the assignment to energy conversion plants of a monetary charge linked to their specific emission intensity. Once the choice of a charge is defined, the next problem is the choice of a strategy to determine the amount of the imposed charge, named Carbon Tax (CT.

    In this paper an analytical procedure for the Carbon Tax evaluation is proposed and applied. This approach is based on the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system, that represents the evaluation of the cost of the exergy destroyed inside the system and the cost of the exergy rejected in the biosphere with the plant wastes; the Efficiency Penalty term is coupled with the evaluation of the Index of CO2 Emission, which connects the amount of the CO2 emitted by the plant with the Second Law efficiency of the plant itself. The evaluated charge on the CO2 emissions is defined as Carbon Exergy Tax (CET. The procedure is applied here to the analysis of a 700 MW combined plant burning fossil fuels in two different configurations: a typical natural gas fired combined plant, and a coal fired combined plant burning coal in a Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustor (PFBC.

  19. Energy demand and energy-related CO2 emissions in Greek manufacturing. Assessing the impact of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to study the demand for energy in two-digit manufacturing sectors of Greece and to evaluate the impact of a carbon tax on energy-related CO2 emissions. The theoretical model utilized in the analysis is the two-stage translog cost function. The model is estimated using time series data over the period 1982-1998. The results indicate substitutability between electricity and liquid fuels (diesel and mazout), and substitutability between capital, energy and labor. A carbon tax of $50 per tonne of carbon results in a considerable reduction in direct and indirect CO2 emissions from their 1998 level. This implies that a carbon tax on Greek manufacturing is an environmentally effective policy for mitigating global warming, although a costly one

  20. The effects of carbon taxes on the Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's contribution to global CO2 emissions, which is already high, is expected to grow significantly. Thus, advocates of CO2 emissions control are calling for substantial efforts in China. However, the Chinese authorities have argued that China cannot be expected to make a significant contribution to the carbon emission problem unless the country receives substantial international aid for this purpose. This contrasts sharply with the wishes of proponents of CO2 emissions control. This paper explains this difference in opinion by analysing the economic implications of possible future CO2 emissions limits in China through a newly-developed dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Chinese economy. The authors believe that such an analysis is also useful in broadening the picture painted by global models, thus serving as a complement to the results obtained through global models. 4 tabs

  1. Can a unilateral carbon tax reduce emissions elsewhere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Joshua [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); Fullerton, Don [Illinois Univ., Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-02-15

    One country that tries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may fear that other countries get a competitive advantage and increase emissions (''leakage''). Estimates from computable general equilibrium (CGE) models such as Elliott et al (2010a,b) indicate that 15% to 25% of abatement might be offset by leakage. Yet the Fullerton et al (2012) analytical general equilibrium model shows an offsetting term with negative leakage. To derive analytical expressions, their model is quite simple, with only one good from each country or sector, a fixed stock of capital, competitive markets, and many identical consumers that purchase both goods. Their model is not intended to be realistic, but only to demonstrate the potential for negative leakage. Most CGE models do not allow for negative leakage. In this paper, we use a full CGE model with many countries and many goods to measure effects in a way that allows for negative leakage. We vary elasticities of substitution and confirm the analytical model's prediction that negative leakage depends on the ability of consumers to substitute into the untaxed good and the ability of firms to substitute from carbon emissions into labor or capital.

  2. Beyond the Carbon Tax: Personal Carbon Trading and British Columbia's Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman Flores, Laura Isela

    2014-01-01

    This thesis proposes a policy framing, communication and implementation model for personal carbon trading in British Columbia. Personal carbon trading is a scheme under which all individuals are allocated a number of free carbon allowances forming a personal carbon budget. Persons whose carbon emissions are lower than their carbon budgets can sell their surplus to persons who have exceeded theirs. As distributed allowances are reduced annually, consumers are encouraged to modify their behavio...

  3. What do we know about carbon taxes? An inquiry into their impacts on competitiveness and distribution of income

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has set legally binding emissions targets for a basket of six greenhouse gases and timetables for industrialised countries. It has also incorporated three international flexibility mechanisms. However, the Articles defining the flexibility mechanisms carry wording that their use must be supplemental to domestic actions. This has led to the open debates on interpretations of these supplementarity provisions. Such debates ended at the resumed sixth Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC, held in Bonn, July 2001, and at the subsequent COP-7 in Marrakesh, November 2001. The final wording in the Bonn Agreement, reaffirmed in the Marrakesh Accords, at least indicates that domestic policies will have an important role to play in meeting Annex B countries' emissions commitments. Carbon taxes have long been advocated because of their cost effectiveness in achieving a given emissions reduction. In this paper, the main economic impacts of carbon taxes are assessed. Based on a review of empirical studies on existing carbon/energy taxes, it is concluded that competitive losses and distributive impacts are generally not significant and definitely less than often perceived. However, given the ultimate objective of the Framework Convention, future carbon taxes could have higher rates than those already imposed and thus the resulting economic impacts could be more acute. In this context, it has been shown that how to use the generated fiscal revenues will be of fundamental importance in determining the final economic impacts of carbon taxes. Finally, we briefly discuss carbon taxes in combination with other domestic and international instruments

  4. Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C)2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  5. Economy wide emission impacts of carbon and energy tax in electricity supply industry: A case study on Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted with the objective of investigating the impact on economy wide emissions due to carbon and energy taxes levied within the electricity generation sector of Sri Lanka. This exercise is mainly based on the input-output table developed by the national planning department. An input-output decomposition technique is used to analyze four types of effects that contribute to the overall reduction in equivalent carbon, NO x and SO2 emissions. These four effects are: fuel mix effect (i.e. the change in emissions due to variation I fuel mix), structural effect (i.e. change in emissions due to changes in technological coefficients with taxes compared to that without taxes), final demand effect (i.e. the change in emissions associated with changes in final demand) and joint effect (i.e. the interactive effect between or among the fuel mix, structural and final demand effects). The polluting fuel sources and low energy efficiency generation technologies are less preferred under these tax regimes. Of the four effects, a change in fuel mix in thermal electricity generation and a change final demand for electricity were found to be the main contributors in achieving economy wide emission reductions. It was found in the analysis that a minimum of US$ 50/tC tax or US$ 1.0/MBtu of energy tax is required to have a significant impact on economy wide emissions in the Sri Lankan context. This translates into an overall increase in electricity generation cost of approximately USCts 0.9 kW-1 h-1 and USCts 0.6 kW-1 h-1 under the carbon and energy tax regimes, respectively. The reduction in emissions is also strongly coupled with the value of the price elasticity of electricity

  6. Economy wide emission impacts of carbon and energy tax in electricity supply industry: A case study on Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardena, K.; Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Attalage, R.A. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, 29, Fairfield Gardens, Colombo 8 (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted with the objective of investigating the impact on economy wide emissions due to carbon and energy taxes levied within the electricity generation sector of Sri Lanka. This exercise is mainly based on the input-output table developed by the national planning department. An input-output decomposition technique is used to analyze four types of effects that contribute to the overall reduction in equivalent carbon, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. These four effects are: fuel mix effect (i.e. the change in emissions due to variation I fuel mix), structural effect (i.e. change in emissions due to changes in technological coefficients with taxes compared to that without taxes), final demand effect (i.e. the change in emissions associated with changes in final demand) and joint effect (i.e. the interactive effect between or among the fuel mix, structural and final demand effects). The polluting fuel sources and low energy efficiency generation technologies are less preferred under these tax regimes. Of the four effects, a change in fuel mix in thermal electricity generation and a change final demand for electricity were found to be the main contributors in achieving economy wide emission reductions. It was found in the analysis that a minimum of US$ 50/tC tax or US$ 1.0/MBtu of energy tax is required to have a significant impact on economy wide emissions in the Sri Lankan context. This translates into an overall increase in electricity generation cost of approximately USCts 0.9 kW{sup -1} h{sup -1} and USCts 0.6 kW{sup -1} h{sup -1} under the carbon and energy tax regimes, respectively. The reduction in emissions is also strongly coupled with the value of the price elasticity of electricity. (author)

  7. Carbon capture and storage & the optimal path of the carbon tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lontzek, Thomas S.; Rickels, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of rising carbon concentrations more attention should be given to the role of the oceans as a sink for atmospheric carbon. We do so by setting up a simple dynamic global carbon cycle model with two reservoirs containing atmosphere and two ocean layers. The net flux between these reservoirs is determined by the relative reservoir size and therefore constitutes a more appropriate description of the carbon cycle than a proportional decay assumption. We exploit the specific featur...

  8. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives; Regulacao tributaria do mercado de carbono no Brasil: entraves e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa [Madrona Hong Mazzuco Brandao - Sociedade de Advogados (MHM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: gerusa.magalhaes@mhmlaw.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br; Romeiro, Viviane [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: viviromeiro@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  9. Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. → We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. → Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. → HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. → Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to

  10. Controversy of International Carbon-motivated Border Tax Adjustment and Its Impact on China's Manufacturing Industries%Controversy of International Carbon-motivated Border Tax Adjustment and Its Impact on China's Manufacturing Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Keting

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-motivated border tax adjustment (BTA) aims to compensate for the loss of competitiveness of carbon intensive products due to carbon dioxide abatement actions. Based on the analysis of the international background of carbon-motivated BTAs, this paper discusses the fundamental motivation leading to US policy transformation, the potential impacts of the policy on China's manufacturing industries, and the compatibility of the policy to WTO rules. Carbon-motivated BTAs violate the fundamental principle of the UNFCCC, and potentially conflict with the core WTO principle of non-discrimination reflected in the GATT Articles 1 and III. However, Article XX of the GATT may be applicable. Thus, the author suggests several measures to alleviate the impacts of carbon-motivated BTAs, and puts forward countermeasures based on carbon consumption per capita.

  11. Econometric modelling for the analysis of carbon tax impacts in Korea - with an emphasis on the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to take a look at the role of nuclear energy within the framework of energy demand and supply when the international environmental regulation is imposed. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of imposition of carbon tax on energy sector in Korea. To do so, an econometric simulation model was developed. The model is composed of not only energy part in detail but also economic activity part in a rather simple manner. To analyze the electric sector in detail, energy block is divided into the electric and the non-electric energy sector. In the electric sector there are four blocks such as demand, conversion efficiency, fuel, and price. Several carbon tax scenarios were assumed to figure out the impacts on such variables as C0 sub 2 emissions, GDP, energy demand and price. After estimating the carbon tax effects, another set of scenario was created in analyzing the possible role of nuclear power for alleviating the impacts from carbon tax. From the results it is found that the national economy is significantly influenced according to which regulation is adopted. If international regulation is imposed on the quantity of total carbon emission, the impact is so severe that Korean economy could not stand alone. Therefore, the economy cannot overcome the impact from the regulation only by the increased share of nuclear. However, if the regulation is imposed on the quantity of carbon emission proportional to population instead of total carbon emission, it would bring definitely better opportunity to the Korean economy. In the latter case, there is room that nuclear can contribute. If the share of nuclear increases up to 60% in 2020 instead of 45%, GDP would rise by 1.9% while the electricity price lower by 46%. The model could be used in other purposed such as studies on the impacts from fuel prices increases, from capital investment costs increases, and so on

  12. Effects of Carbon Taxes in an Economy with Large Informal Sector and Rural-Urban Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Karlygash Kuralbayeva

    2013-01-01

    I build an equilibrium search and matching model of an economy with an informal sector and rural-urban migration to analyze the effects of budget-neutral green tax policy (raising pollution taxes, while cutting payroll taxes) on the labor market. The key results of the paper suggest that when general public spending varies endogenously in response to tax reform and higher energy taxes can reduce the income from self-employed work in the informal sector, green tax policy can produce a triple d...

  13. Sharing responsibility for carbon dioxide emissions: A perspective on border tax adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns about the equity and efficiency of current allocation principles related to responsibility for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been presented in the recent literature. The objective of this paper is to design a calculation framework for shared responsibility from the perspective of border tax adjustments. The advantage of this framework is that it makes the shared responsibility principle and border carbon taxation complementary to each other; these are important policies for reducing global CO2 emissions, but they are individually supported by developing and developed countries. As an illustration, the proposed framework is applied to data from China in 2007. The empirical results show that for the Chinese economy as a whole, changing from the production-based criterion to the shared responsibility approach would lead to an 11% decrease in its responsibility for CO2 emissions. Moreover, the differences observed between the production-based criterion and the shared responsibility approach are considerable in several sectors; for example, changing from the production-based criterion to the shared principle would lead to a 60% decrease in the responsibility of the textile sector. - Highlights: • This paper designs a shared responsibility calculation framework for CO2 emissions. • This paper suggests that the carbon tariff rate serve as a basis for calculating shared responsibility. • The proposed framework is applied to data from China in 2007. • Shared responsibility principle will significantly decrease China's responsibility for CO2 emissions

  14. A holistic approach in analyzing the impact of a carbon tax in the OECD: a framework for further discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide is one of the byproducts of burning fossil fuel and a major greenhouse effect gas, responsible for the anthropogenic climate change. To reduce the global warming from this perspective, will require calling on the doors of energy demand. It becomes obvious that energy demand will be influenced primarily by sustainable economic development in the medium term and by environmental considerations in the longer term. Measures being contemplated within the OECD to tackle global warming are mainly regulatory, economic, taxes, technological improvement, and change in social behaviour and attitude. The European Community has come up with a specific proposal of a carbon/energy tax. However, the energy exporting developing countries, where oil revenues are the major source for foreign exchange, capital formation and economic development, are worried. This paper examines the impacts of implementing a carbon tax to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and also analyze the effect of such on the use of non-commercial energy in developing countries. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Introduction of a 'carbon tax' and its effects on competitiveness in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of a 'carbon tax' that is debated in France, following the Pigouvian principle of the 'polluter pays' and within a European framework, led us to examine more in depth the functioning of such a measure and the effects to foresee on French, and European, industrial competitiveness. While the controversy is focused on its apparent cost, we explain the virtuous spin-off effects and mechanisms of the internalisation of the carbon price by producers. The latter would indeed be incentivized to engage in an efficient substitution process across sources of energy and to intensify technological progress. Moreover, the 'double - even triple - dividend' of environmental taxation is a guarantee of the social acceptability of a tax that might be, in the long run, implemented under alternative forms. (author)

  16. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  17. Japan's Carbon Tax Practice and Its Enlightenment to China%日本碳税实践经验及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美琴

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Government Work Report has stated to legislate environment tax, but at present there exists some con-troversy about whether imposing carbon tax in environment tax or not. Japan carried out its carbon tax scheme since 2007; it has achieved great achievement and gained rich experience. Based on detailed analysis of Japan's carbon tax scheme and Chi-na's actual situation, this article put forward 4 enlightenment to China: imposing tax rates from a low starting point and then increasing it gradually according to China's national condition; combining carbon tax with the present energy tax; establishing preferential policy and supporting measures; strengthening the carbon tax propaganda and supervision.%2014年政府工作报告指出要做好环保税立法相关工作,而目前国内关于环保税中碳税的开征仍存在着争议。日本自2007年开始实施碳税方案以来,取得了明显的成效,在碳税实践方面拥有着丰富的经验。因此,本文在对日本碳税实践方案以及我国实际情况进行深入研究与分析的基础上,提出日本碳税实践经验对中国的四点启示:中国开征碳税应从国情出发,低起点、有步骤地推进碳税开征;将碳税与现有的能源税收相结合;做好课税的相关优惠政策与配套工作;加强碳税宣传与监督。

  18. How large are the impacts of carbon-motivated border tax adjustments on China and how to mitigate them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been growing clamours for carbon-motivated border tax adjustments (CBTAs) targeted at countries that do not accept the carbon emission reduction targets. Currently, China is the largest carbon emitter with large annual incremental carbon emissions and might have to face the challenge of CBTA. Therefore, it is a pressing policy challenge for the government to get prepared for mitigating the negative impacts of CBTAs on China. In this article, we compare the impacts of CBTAs across large developing economies and compare the performances of different policy options to mitigate the negative impacts. The main findings are as follows. First, CBTA would affect different economies and different sectors differently. CBTA would result in a shift of production across sectors and relocation of output from the target countries to CBTA users. Second, CBTA would contribute to world's emissions reduction, but less than expected due to carbon leakage. Finally, policy options, which could reduce the present distorting effects, would be preferred to other policy options that would add additional distorting effects to the economy. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should get prepared for mitigating the negative impacts of CBTAs because its economy could be adversely affected. - Highlights: • We compare impacts of carbon-motivated border tax adjustments (CBTAs) across large emerging countries. • We test effectiveness of different policy options to mitigate the negative impacts. • We investigate how to design policy mix to mitigate negative impacts of CBTAs

  19. Proposal for a national inventory adjustment for trade in the presence of border carbon adjustment: Assessing carbon tax policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we pointed out a hidden inequality in accounting for trade-related emissions in the presence of border carbon adjustment. Under a domestic carbon pricing policy, producers pay for the carbon costs in exchange for the right to emit. Under border carbon adjustment, however, the exporting country pays for the carbon costs of their exports to the importing country but not be given any emission credits. As a result, export-related emissions will be remained in the national inventory of the exporting country based on the UNFCCC inventory approach. This hidden inequality is important to climate policy but has not yet been pointed out. To address this issue we propose a method of National Inventory Adjustment for Trade, by which export-related emissions will be deducted from the national inventory of the exporting country and added to the national inventory of the importing country which implements border carbon adjustment. To assess the policy impacts, we simulated a carbon tax policy with border tax adjustment for Japan using a multi-region computable general equilibrium model. The results indicate that with the National Inventory Adjustment for Trade, both Japan′s national inventory and the carbon leakage effects of Japan′s climate policy will be greatly different. - Highlights: • The inequality in GHG accounting caused by border carbon adjustment presented. • National inventory adjustment for trade under border carbon adjustment proposed. • Policy impacts on international competitiveness and carbon leakage assessed. • Practical issues related to the national inventory adjustment for trade discussed

  20. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Role of embodied energy in the European manufacturing industry: Application to short-term impacts of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Role of energy in the manufacturing industry is a major concern for energy and environmental policy design. Issues like energy prices, security of supply and carbon mitigation are often connected to the industry and its competitiveness. This paper examines the role and consequences of embodied energy in the European industry. To this end, a multi-regional input–output analysis including 59 industrial sectors for all European Union countries and 17 more aggregated industries for other regions of the World is developed. Other segments of the economy are not included. This base is combined with energy consumption, carbon emission as well as bilateral trade data for every sector in all included countries. Our main result is that embodied energy in manufactured products' imports represents a significant aspect of the energy situation in European industries, with quantities close to the direct energy consumption. These flows can further be broken down for detailed analysis at the sector level thanks to the number of distinct industries included. Results demonstrate that an important part of embodied energy inside European products is not concerned with domestic energy price changes. In addition, a European-wide carbon tax would induce an unbalanced burden on industries and countries. - Highlights: ► We calculate embodied energy and carbon flows in the European and World industry. ► A multi-regional input–output analysis is used with a detailed nomenclature. ► National industries' energy prices dependence is a domestic issue. ► With a European carbon tax energy-intensive industries would be penalised. ► Such a tax may also induce competition distortion among EU countries.

  2. Development and Rethinking of Carbon-tax Research in China%我国碳税研究的进展及反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新婷

    2011-01-01

    In the period of "low-carbon" economy development, carbon-tax has become the focus of researchers in financing field. In recent years, research results of carbon-tax began to increase, based on the conception and connotation of carbon-tax, the author induced the necessity and possibility of carbon-tax, the influence of carbon-tax to economy development of China and the design of carbon-tax system in China, and finally concluded the development and insufficiency of carbon-tax research in China, got the conclusion that the current carbon-tax research failed to emphasize the sufficient public options process, and barely considered the historic evolution and the optimistic design, especially discussed the carbon-tax law to ensure the imple- mentation which worth of people's thoughts and considerations.%在"低碳经济"发展的时代,碳税成为财政领域的学者们广泛关注的焦点。近年来碳税的研究成果开始增加,笔者在理清碳税的概念和内涵的基础上,对碳税开征的必要性和可能性、碳税对我国经济的影响以及我国碳税制度的设计等方面的文献进行整理和归纳,最后总结出目前我国在碳税研究上的发展和不足,认为碳税研究并没有强调充分的公共选择过程、也很少考虑税制的历史演进和最优设计,尤其从法学的角度考虑碳税立法来保障碳税的合法实施等问题也值得人们去思考和研究。

  3. EU-Type Carbon Emissions Trade and the Distributional Impact of Overlapping Emissions Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Rüdiger

    2009-01-01

    The European Union fulfills its emissions reductions commitments by means of an emissions trading scheme covering some part of each member state's economy and by national emissions control in the rest of their economies. The member states also levy energy/emissions taxes overlapping with the trading scheme. Restricting our focus on cost-effective policies, this paper investigates the distributive consequences of increasing the overlapping emissions tax that is uniform across countries. For qu...

  4. The Carbon Tax Reform under the Mode of Low-carbon Economy in China%低碳经济模式下的我国碳税改革思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭玲

    2012-01-01

    the mode of low-carbon economy is the main way to achieve our economic and social sustainable development. As a powerful tool to promote energy conservation and address climate change, Carbon tax is applied by the international community. With the trend of the global low carbon economy, research and design the carbon tax policy to meet the condition of our country is imperative. Reform of the carbon tax levies on oil, chemical companies, the tax base is to estimate the amount of carbon emissions, the tax burden of carbon tax should not be high, and we should set the tax relief measures to reduce the burden on enterprises.%低碳经济模式是实现我国经济社会可持续发展的主要途径。碳税作为促进节能减排、应对气候变化的有力工具被国际社会广泛应用。在全球发展低碳经济的趋势下,研究与设计符合我国国情的碳税政策势在必行。碳税改革的征收对象主要为石油、化工企业,税基采用碳排放的估算量,碳税的税负宜低不宜高,应设定减免税措施,降低企业负担。

  5. Modelling the impacts of a carbon emission-differentiated vehicle tax system on CO2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing awareness of the effects of climate change on the environment and the economic pressure on oil supply has focused international attention on reducing CO2 emissions and energy usage across all sectors. In order to meet their Kyoto protocol commitments and in line with European Union policy, the Irish government has introduced a carbon-based tax system for new vehicles purchased from the 1st of July 2008. This new legislation aims to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector, a sector which is responsible for a significant proportion of both. This paper presents the results of the development, calibration, and application of a car choice model which predicts the changes in CO2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases as a result of the changes in vehicle tax policy and fuel price in Ireland. The model also predicts the impact of such changes on tax revenue for the Irish government and the changes in the split between the number of diesel and petrol vehicles purchased. The investigation found that the introduction of these new carbon-based taxes in Ireland will result in a reduction of 3.6-3.8% in CO2 emissions intensity and a reduction in annual tax revenue of EUR191 M. (author)

  6. Modelling the impacts of a carbon emission-differentiated vehicle tax system on CO2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing awareness of the effects of climate change on the environment and the economic pressure on oil supply has focused international attention on reducing CO2 emissions and energy usage across all sectors. In order to meet their Kyoto protocol commitments and in line with European Union policy, the Irish government has introduced a carbon-based tax system for new vehicles purchased from the 1st of July 2008. This new legislation aims to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector, a sector which is responsible for a significant proportion of both. This paper presents the results of the development, calibration, and application of a car choice model which predicts the changes in CO2 emissions intensity from new vehicle purchases as a result of the changes in vehicle tax policy and fuel price in Ireland. The model also predicts the impact of such changes on tax revenue for the Irish government and the changes in the split between the number of diesel and petrol vehicles purchased. The investigation found that the introduction of these new carbon-based taxes in Ireland will result in a reduction of 3.6-3.8% in CO2 emissions intensity and a reduction in annual tax revenue of Euro 191 M

  7. Effects of carbon taxes on different industries by fuzzy goal programming: A case study of the petrochemical-related industries, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of a carbon tax is one of the major ways to mitigate CO2 emission. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful in CO2 reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of carbon taxes on different industries, and meanwhile to find an optimal carbon tax scenario for Taiwan's petrochemical industry. A fuzzy goal programming approach, integrated with gray prediction and input-output theory, is used to construct a model for simulating the CO2 reduction capacities and economic impacts of three different tax scenarios. Results indicate that the up-stream industries show improved CO2 reduction while the down-stream industries fail to achieve their reduction targets. Moreover, under the same reduction target (i.e. return the CO2 emission amount to year 2000 level by 2020), scenario SWE induces less impact than FIN and EU on industrial GDP. This work provides a valuable approach for researches on model construction and CO2 reduction, since it applies the gray envelop prediction to determine the boundary values of the fuzzy goal programming model, and furthermore it can take the economic interaction among industries into consideration. (author)

  8. The effectiveness of differentiation of the Finnish car purchase tax according to carbon dioxide emission performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, A.; Tuovinen, T.

    2012-01-15

    The study concerns an assessment of the effectiveness of car purchase tax differentiation according to the CO{sub 2}-emission performance of newly sold cars as implemented in Finland. This policy instrument came into force as of 1 January 2008. The effectiveness of the instrument is assessed by means of decomposition of car sales by key features of cars and by estimation of impact relations between changes in the emission performance of newly sold cars and various explanatory variables, including the imputed tax differentiation based price differences. (orig.)

  9. H.R. 804: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by imposing a tax on certain fuels based on their carbon content. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 3, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.R. 804 proposes the imposition of a carbon tax on primary fossil fuels. In general, Chapter 38 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is to be amended by adding at the end thereof the following new subchapter: open-quotes Subchapter E--Carbon Tax on Primary Fossil Fuels.close quotes Section 4691 will be concerned with the tax on coal; Section 4692 with the tax on petroleum; Section 4693 with the tax on natural gas; and Section 4694 will discuss inflation adjustments

  10. Effects of Introduction Carbon Tax on China' s Economy%征收碳税对中国经济影响的实证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 李文

    2011-01-01

    近年来,中国CO2排放置显著增加,已引起社会各界的广泛关注.碳税作为最有效的经济手段之一,适时开征,不仅是我国应对气候变化、节能减排的要求,也是中国承担相应的国际责任的要求.本文根据中国各省(市、自治区)能源消费量及相关系数对相关能源产品使用产生的CO2排放量进行了核算,并依据国际实践经验拟定了三种不同情景的碳税税率.利用1999 - 2007年间的省际面板数据,通过面板数据模型定量分析了征收碳税对中国经济的影响,特别是对经济增长、能源消耗影响.研究表明:①征收碳税会降低社会总产出,对经济增长具有消极影响,从长期看,随着碳税体制完善,税率逐步提高,这种消极影响将逐渐减弱;②征收碳税可以提高能源的产出效率,降低能源要素的使用,减少CO2的排放;③碳税税率提高会减小劳动和资本要素之间的收入分配差距.因此,碳税开征具有明显的节能减排效果,且能有效地调整要素间收入分配.但是受中国现阶段经济发展水平的制约,碳税对中国经济冲击较大,短期内暂不适合开征.%In recent years, China's carbon dioxide emissions have increased significantly, and aroused wide attention of the whole society. Carbon tax is one of the most effective economic means. Taxing on carbon dioxide at proper opportunity is not only China' s response to climate change, energy consumption and emission reduction but also China' s response to assuming corresponding international responsibility. According to the Chinese provincial energy consumption and the correlation coefficient of energy products, this paper accounted the carbon dioxide emissions of fossil energy products, then setting three different carbon tax rates according to the accounting data and international practice experience. Using a panel data model and the panel data of China's provinces from 1999 -2007,we quantitatively analyzed

  11. Taxing Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. Bird

    2009-01-01

    Domestic consumption in most countries is taxed through general sales taxes, excise taxes on specific commodities, and a variety of miscellaneous taxes on such services as hotels and transfers of property. This note considers only the first two of these categories, with particular attention to general sales taxes. Consumption taxes are obviously related both to customs duties and other tax...

  12. What would be the effects of a carbon tax in Japan: an historic analysis of subsidies and fuel pricing on the iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Wakiyama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how a carbon tax could affect industrial-related carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in Japan. Rather than forecasting the effects of a tax, the paper employs a time-series autoregressive moving average (ARMA model to determine how past subsidies and fuel price changes affected investments in energy and carbon intensity in Japan’s iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries from 1993 to 2004. The results suggest the impacts varied greatly across industries. In the iron & steel industry, subsidies and price changes produced negligible effects on investments in energy and carbon intensity. This may be because existing iron & steel technologies have long lifetimes and substantial replacement costs. It may also be because the few large companies dominating the industry were relatively immune to subsidy provisions and pricing changes. In the chemical industry, subsidies and fuel prices gave rise to investments that improved carbon and energy intensity. This may be because the industry has relatively higher operation costs that could be cut easily given financial incentives. In the machinery industry, two of three fuel price changes (oil and gas, but not subsidy provisions, yielded improvements in carbon and energy intensity. This may reflect the heterogeneity of companies and products comprising the industry. Overall, the study underscores that policymakers need to tailor the rates and revenue recycling provisions of a carbon tax to an industry’s unique features to stimulate CO2 reductions.

  13. Differential effects of green tax reform over economies: A case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heon

    2011-12-01

    It is controversial whether or not green tax reform through a carbon tax has double dividend feature. The economic effects of green tax reform vary according to economies due to different preexisting conditions. Recent studies about the economic impacts of a carbon tax have noted the role of preexisting factor taxes in the second best world. The present study, however, explores the role of existing taxes on energy products in introducing a carbon tax, by employing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea, a country that has high existing taxes on petroleum products. Above all, I find that a carbon tax is the most efficient policy instrument among three alternative taxes---an energy tax, a carbon tax and an ad valorem tax---to reduce carbon emissions in Korea under both lump-sum tax replacement and labor tax replacement. The carbon tax, however, brings about welfare and GDP loss. The economic costs can be reduced, but cannot be completely removed by revenue recycling. Second, this study explores how existing taxes on petroleum products affect the economic cost of introducing a carbon tax, by manipulating existing taxes on petroleum products. I find that the existing taxes raise the economic costs of introducing a carbon tax. Third, this study shows that the economic costs of a carbon tax can be reduced when its revenue is returned to cut preexisting taxes on petroleum products. Thus, restructuring existing taxes on energy products plays a crucial role in introducing a carbon tax. From the specific case of the Korean economy, the present study indicates that existing taxes on not only factors but also energy products are one of the main sources of economic costs in introducing a carbon tax.

  14. Carbon Markets and Beyond: The Limited Role of Prices and Taxes in Climate and Development Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Ackerman

    2008-01-01

    The climate policy debate has advanced from science to economics, with a growing focus on creating carbon markets and getting the prices right. This is necessary but far from sufficient for an effective and equitable response to the climate challenge. While market-oriented forces such as the IMF and the World Bank have focused almost exclusively on carbon markets, others, such as the Human Development Report and the Stern Review, have emphasized the need for complementary, non-market climate ...

  15. Effectss of Collecting Carbon Tax on Sustainable Development of China's Economy%开征碳税对中国经济可持续发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀梅

    2011-01-01

    指出了碳税的定义及其内涵,阐述了开征碳税的积极作用,从碳排放、经济发展方式探讨了开征碳税对中国经济可持续发展的影响。%During the Twelve Five Year Period,, in order to actively respond to global climate change, China will significantly reduce energy consumption intensity and carbon dioxide intensity as a binding target, while a carbon tax as the indicators of economic policy can play a supporting role. The introduction of a carbon tax can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, promote economic pattern, and developing the low--carbon economy, etc. , but it may have some negative impacts on GDP in the short term. In general, to collect carbon tax will promote the sustainable development of China's economy.

  16. Tax Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    James Andreoni; Brian Erard; Jonathan Feinstein

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the major findings in the economics literature on tax compliance. It focuses exclusively on the personal income tax, examining both the theory and the empirical work on enforcement and compliance with the tax laws.

  17. Tax Complexity, Tax Salience and Tax Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Mumford, Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the implications of the tax salience literature for the United Kingdom. First, the different categories, and definitions, of tax salience that have developed in the literature are reviewed, and some of the prescriptive implications of these terms are introduced. Tax salience refers, essentially, to the capacity of taxpayers to understand legislation. Thus, the potential reasons behind tax complexity and the potential beneficiaries of it are addressed. The article consid...

  18. Possible restructuring of the worldwide oil market caused by the incidence of carbon tax; Possivel reestruturacao do mercado mundial de petroleo diante da incidencia da taxacao de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Anna Cecilia J. de; Szklo, Alexandre; Cohen, Claude; Schaeffer, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    In the context of global climate change, carbon taxes, which vary positively with the carbon content of fuels, are seen as one of the main mitigative alternatives.. The incidence of this taxation will impact the relative prices of the different oil products and, possibly, change the demand curves for these products. Also, it will impact oil companies, which will have to adapt themselves to this new policy, so as to avoid, or to minimize, market share losses. However, only in the long term more complex changes in the market structures will be observed. As such, this paper aims at analyzing the relationships between the consumption of oil products in the short and long terms, and their corresponding consumers' income and price elasticities of demand due to carbon taxation, so as to assess their impacts on the World Petroleum Industry (WPI). (author)

  19. Environnement et fiscalité : l'enjeu de la taxe carbone

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    Alors que le Grenelle de l'environnement a proposé de réorganiser la fiscalité environnementale et énergétique en adoptant une « contribution climat énergie », la Commission européenne présentait le 23 janvier dernier un dispositif efficace de péréquation des émissions de carbone, visant à neutraliser tout effet de distorsion imputable aux importations. Il s'agirait de compenser par ce biais le coût du système d'échange de quotas supporté par les entreprises européennes. A peine ébauchée, cet...

  20. 税收政策如何促进低碳经济发展%How to Promote the Development of Low-carbon Economy by Tax Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丹; 李国茹

    2013-01-01

    随着经济的迅猛发展,工业化建设步伐仍然占据着重要地位,随之而来的就会遇到环境污染、资源枯竭等问题。其中大气中二氧化碳浓度升高带来的全球变暖已成为国际社会关注的焦点。低碳经济是一种可持续的发展模式,是能达到碳排放量、生态环境代价以及社会经济成本共赢的一种经济发展模式。文章在剖析我国发展低碳经济现有税制存在的问题的基础上,结合实际状况,提出解决问题办法,充分发挥税收政策对促进低碳经济发展的重要作用。%With the rapid economic development, the industrialization pace of building continues to occupy an important position, so following we will encounter environmental pollution, resource depletion and other issues. The global warming caused by carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has become the focus of attention of the international community. Low-carbon economy is a sustainable model of development and is an economic development model which can achieve win-win of carbon emissions, costs of ecological environment and socio-economic costs. This article analyzed the problems in China's existing tax system for development of low-carbon economy, and based on that solutions are proposed according to the actual situation, to fully play the important role of tax policy in promoting low-carbon economy.

  1. Tax Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker; Imhof, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    We examine the provision of public projects under tax and subsidy rules. We find that tax rules separated from project cum subsidy decisions exhibit several advantages when incentive problems of the agenda-setter are taken into account. In particular, tax rules may prevent the proposal of inefficient projects that benefit only a small lobby group. We propose “redistribution efficiency” as a socially desirable property of proposals and find that tax rules always guarantee this kind of efficien...

  2. Tax Competition through Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Beckmann

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, 1 analyse the competitive behaviour of benevolent governments in the presence of (capital) income tax evasion when information exchange is not possible. My approach is to introduce a cost of evasion function into an otherwise standard tax competition model and to explore three variants of the basic tax competition cum evasion game. Two distinct justifications for tax harmonisation emerge. First, harmonisation of taxation at the source can be supported with the usual spil...

  3. 西方国家碳税政策实践的比较及启示*%Carbon Tax Policy Practice in Western Countries:A Comparative Study and Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉

    2013-01-01

    在我国开征碳税既有利于树立国际形象,也有利于缓解环境压力,改变粗放的经济增长方式。西方发达国家尤其是北欧国家在碳税的推行上积累了丰富的经验,通过对这些国家碳税政策特征进行比较,从征税范围、税率、税收收入使用和优惠政策四方面借鉴其成功经验。最后得出我国应循序渐进地推行适合我国国情的碳税政策的几点启示。%The levying of carbon tax in China will help the country to set up a good international image,re-duce the burden of environment,and change the existing mode of economic growth.Western developed countries,especially the Nordic countries,have accumulated rich experience in carbon tax practice.By comparing the characteristics of carbon tax policies in these countries,this paper points out that we should learn from their experience in terms of the scope of taxation,tax rate,tax service and their preferential policies.On such a basis,it summarizes the enlightening points in carrying out a carbon tax policy suitable for the situation of our country.

  4. Taxes,Taxes and More Taxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈士臻

    2005-01-01

    Americans often say that there are only two things a person can be sure of in life:death and taxes.Americans do not have a comer on the“death”market,but many people feel that the United States leads the world with the worst taxes.

  5. Tax Distortions and Global Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa H. Babiker; Gilbert E. Metcalf; John Reilly

    2002-01-01

    We consider the efficiency implications of policies to reduce global carbon emissions in a world with pre-existing tax distortions. We first note that the weak double-dividend, the proposition that the welfare improvement from a tax reform where environmental taxes are used to lower distorting taxes must be greater than the welfare improvement from a reform where the environmental taxes are returned in a lump sum fashion, need not hold in a world with multiple distortions. We then present a l...

  6. Tax Culture as Tax Administration Staff Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Synchak

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the tax culture has been grounded. Various approaches to the tax culture have been highlighted. The ambiguous aspects of the tax culture approaches and interpretation have been pointed out. The authors have also given the definition of the tax body officials' culture. The tax culture has been defined as a special kind of tax service employee's culture. The necessity of the tax culture phenomenon to be familiarized with by every tax official prior to their employment has been pr...

  7. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...... include those on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in Sweden, on toxic waste in Germany, on water pollution in The Netherlands, and the tax differentials on leaded fuel and 'cleaner' diesel fuel in Sweden.3.Taxes as such have potential negative impacts on competitiveness and on employment, Most barriers...... to implementation, especially of energy (particularly on specific sectors or regions); and on low income groups can be overcome by: a) careful design, b) the use of environmental taxes and respective revenues as part of policy packages and green tax reforms, c) gradual implementation; d) extensive consultation...

  8. Feasibility and Mode Selection of Carbon Tax Policy in China Based on Game Theory%中国碳税政策可行性与方式选择的博弈研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于维生; 张志远

    2013-01-01

    To examine the applicability of the ' Pigouvian tax' in China's present development of low-carbon economy,the paper built a three-stage game model between the government and enterprises to analyze the feasibility and mode selection of carbon tax policy.Through model solution and numerical simulation it concluded:When contrasted,unified carbon tax and differential carbon tax would not improve the level of social welfare as a whole,and unified carbon tax policy had greater impacts on the level of total social welfare; differential carbon tax could expand the market share of low-carbon environmental friendly products,which helped to promote the development of low-carbon environmental friendly enterprises,while unified carbon tax would bring forth the problem of ‘adverse selection' in the marketplace; both forms of carbon taxes could promote enterprises to research and develop low-carbon technology while differential carbon tax was more effective; unified carbon tax enabled consumers to pay attention to the price attribute,while differential carbon tax made consumers pay more attention to the environmental friendliness of the commodity,and thus there were more low-carbon environmental friendly products bought by consumers.This paper argued that if the carbon tax policy was to be implemented at the present stage,differential carbon tax should be the chosen form,and the level of taxation should not be too high; there should also be increased financial supports for innovation in low-carbon technology of enterprises.The enterprise should establish the concept of low-carbon strategy,seize investment opportunities and command the heights of the industry.%为了探查“庇古税”在我国现阶段低碳经济发展中的适用性,本文构建政府与企业之间三阶段博弈模型,分析我国碳税政策的可行性和方式选择问题.通过模型求解和数值仿真得出结论:对比统一碳税形式和差异化碳税形式后发现,两种碳税形式都不会

  9. Tax Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    LEROY Marc

    2009-01-01

    Tax sociology investigates the fundamental relationship between taxation, State and society. This article presents a literature review and issues on the sociopolitical side of tax sociology. Several social representations are considered : “contribution-tax”, “exchange-tax” and “obligation/constraint/tribute-tax”, but the elaboration of a typology of the tax State emphasizes “contribution-tax” paid by possibly altruist citizen to finance public policies. In the framework of fiscal democracy, t...

  10. Schubert Katheline, 2009, Pour la taxe carbone. La politique économique face à la menace climatique, CEPREMAP, ENS rue d’Ulm, 90 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Grandclaude

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Katheline Schubert est économiste de l’environnement, professeure à l’université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, professeure associée à l’Ecole d’Economie de Paris et chercheure au Centre d’économie de la Sorbonne. Dans cet ouvrage publié par le Centre pour la Recherche Economique et ses Applications (CEPREMAP, elle prend position dans le débat français pour l’instauration de la Contribution Climat Energie  (CCE  par la défense du principe général de la taxe carbone. Le principal intérêt de ce l...

  11. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Taxing energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, R.; DeCanio, S.; Frech, H.E. III; Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    In this book, the authors have produced an analysis of state energy taxation. Their factual findings are of particular relevance to California and other states in their consideration of severance taxes on oil production. It turns out, for example, that while California's tax burden on oil producers is slightly below average among the states, the combined revenues from taxes and royalties (expressed as a percent of the value of production) indicate that California is not easy on oil producers. In fact, California's oil tax system appears to be particularly well suited to its oil industry. Much of the production in the state is relatively high-cost and economically marginal. The state must tread carefully in taxing this production, lest it force it to be curtailed.

  13. Flat Taxes and Effective Tax Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Calegari, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Stiglitz (1985) shows that income deferral opportunities and differentially taxed economic activities provide incentives for investors to engage in tax avoidance strategies. In this paper, I describe several tax avoidance strategies that can be used by taxpayers in a Hall-Rabushka flat tax system to reduce or eliminate their tax liabilities. Effective tax planning continues to be viable in a flat tax regime because the idealized environment envisioned by the proposal does not consider taxpaye...

  14. Trading Off Tax Distortion and Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfram F. Richter; Boadway, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Tax evasion is modeled as a risky activity and integrated into a standard problem of optimal tax design. It is shown that there is a trade off between reducing tax evasion and reducing tax distortion. Thus it is efficient to supplement a broad-based wage tax by a tax on specific consumption if the former is evaded and the latter not. The optimal tax structure can be characterized by an explicit formula.

  15. Tax Morale, Tax Compliance and the Optimal Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Lisi

    2013-01-01

    Following the behavioural branch of tax compliance literature, this paper tries to incorporate tax morale into the optimal taxation theory. We show that tax morale affects the optimal mix of policy tools of deterrence to clamp down tax evasion. The optimal tax policy in fact differs according to the type of tax payer taken into account. Precisely, in the case of honest taxpayers the optimal strategy from a social welfare standpoint is to substitute a higher taxation/penalty with tighter monit...

  16. Can Electronic Tax Invoicing Improve Tax Compliance?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the Republic of Korea's experience with electronic tax invoices for its value-added tax regime from the perspectives of tax policy makers and administrators. The paper evaluates Korea's implementation of electronic tax invoicing and analyzes its effect on tax compliance through enhanced transparency of business transactions and taxpayer services. First implemented in 201...

  17. 基于碳税的政府与企业行为博弈模型研究%A Game Model for Government and Enterprise Behaviour Based on a Carbon Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛; 赵道致; 祝晓光

    2013-01-01

    In the process of supply chain low-carbonization, a three-stage game model is constructed between the government and enterprises by considering the carbon tax as one regulation mode. This model integrates factors such as low-carbon production, consumer low- carbon preferences and carbon rates. In the first stage, the government determines the carbon tax rate; in the second stage, manufacturers determine optimal emission reduction rates; and in the third stage, manufacturers determine prices of their own products. Our research shows that levying carbon tax plays an effective role in driving enterprises to reduce carbon emissions. In the proposed implementation phase, the government sets the carbon rate at 10 CNY/tCO2 and then increases it gradually over time to reach 50 CNY/tCO2. The rate of emission reduction will change from 4.11% to 20.65%. Under different carbon rates the performance of enterprises is changes. The higher the carbon tax, the faster the rate of emission reduction, but it has less impact on product pricing and general producers. Under the rapid development of a low-carbon economy, the Chinese government has signed the Kyoto Protocol and committed that Chinese unit GDP carbon dioxide emissions in 2020 will be reduced by 40%~50% of 2005 levels. In order to realize this goal, the proper carbon tax should be chosen by forecasting models. We also present an application analysis to test the effects of variation in different factors so as to provide technical guidance and data support for low-carbonization supply chain management.%在供应链低碳化过程中,考虑到政府拟采取征收碳税的方式对制造企业碳排放进行规制,构建了政府和企业的三阶段博弈模型.在模型中综合考虑了产品低碳度、消费者低碳偏好、碳税税率等因素,使模型更加接近现实从而减少预测误差.第一阶段为政府制定单位碳排放的征收税率,第二阶段为制造商确定最优减排率,第三阶段为制造

  18. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... development of social science studies of taxation....

  19. The impact of carbon taxes or allowances on the electric generation market in the Ohio and ECAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American electricity grid is separated into 11 regional reliability councils, collectively called the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). The East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR) is the reliability council that covers Ohio and Indiana, along with parts of Kentucky, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Ohio and the rest of the ECAR region rely more heavily on coal-fired generation than any other US region. The purpose of this report is to study the effect of carbon reduction policies on the cost and price of generation in the ECAR region, with an emphasis on Ohio. In order to do that, the author modeled the possible electric generation system for the ECAR and Ohio region for the year 2010 using a model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory called the Oak Ridge Competitive Electric Dispatch model (ORCED). He let the model optimize the system based on various factors and carbon reduction policies to understand their impact. He then used the electricity prices and assumed demand elasticities to change the demands while also requiring all power plants to be profitable. The author discusses the different potential policies for carbon reduction and issues involving a restructured market; describes the model used for this analysis, the ECAR electricity sector, and the establishment of a base case; and describes the results of applying various carbon emission reduction approaches to the region. 14 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Tax Amnesty (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Kateryna Bornukova; Dzmitry Kruk; Gleb Shymanovich; Yuri Tserlukevich

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores international experience of tax amnesties. Despite the popular use of tax amnesties, the results are mixed. The main advantage of the tax amnesty is the possibility to increase tax collections and improve tax compliance. However, it does not account for adverse effect of amnesties on tax compliance and high direct and indirect costs of amnesties. The success of the tax amnesty depends largely on the state of the economy. We have identified target groups and discussed a que...

  1. Concept of Tax Advising Within Tax Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Bychkova; Makarova Nadiya

    2013-01-01

    Tax advising is strictly individual service requiring knowledge in the fields of law, tax and accounting. Tax advising includes not only advising on taxation models depending on the economic entity type of activity, but it also deals with issues of tax optimization. In the article the authors have offered their views on the concept of tax consulting in the area of tax optimization (tax planning). The subject matter has been a set of the most rational and important settings that allow you to u...

  2. Income Tax Buyouts and Income Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    A tax buyout is a contract between tax authorities and a tax payer which reduces the marginal income tax rate in exchange for a lump-sum payment. While previous contributions have focussed on labour supply, we consider the interaction with tax evasion and show that a buyout can increase expected tax revenues. This will be the case if (1) the audit probability is constant and the penalty for evasion is a function of undeclared income or (2) the penalty depends on the amount of taxes evaded, an...

  3. Tax Compliance, Tax Morale, and Governance Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Benno Torgler; Markus Schaffner; Alison Macintyre

    2007-01-01

    Taxpayers are more compliant than the traditional economic models predict. Why? The literature calls it the ?puzzle of tax compliance?. In this paper we use field, experimental and survey data to investigate the empirical evidence on whether presence of tax morale helps to resolve this puzzle. The results reveal a strong correlation between tax morale and tax evasion/compliance which confirms the value of taking the research a step further by looking at the determinants of tax morale. We expl...

  4. Tax compliance under tax regime changes

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Kocher, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the compliance effects of tax regime changes. According to the economic model of tax evasion, a tax reform should affect compliance through its impact on tax rates and incentives. Our findings demonstrate the importance of at least two further effects not covered by the traditional model: First, reform losers tend to evade more taxes after the reform. Second, a reform from a proportionate to a progressive system decreases compliance compared to a switch in the revers...

  5. Are we taxing ourselves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2011-01-01

    We let consumers vote on tax regimes in experimental markets. We test if taxes on sellers are more popular than taxes on consumers, i.e. on voters themselves, even if taxes on sellers are inefficiently high. Taxes on sellers are more popular if voters underestimate the extent of tax-shifting in the...... market. We show that inexperienced voters are prone to such a tax-shifting bias, that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism, but that pre-vote deliberation about tax regimes makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct. Our results suggest that voting on taxes is prone to bias...

  6. Environmental tax shifting in Canada : theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's leading energy and resource companies along with the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development have collaborated in the Triple E Tax Shift Research Collaborative which examines the use of environmental tax shifting in Canada. The objective is to design, evaluate and advance federal and provincial environmental tax shifts that will influence individual behaviour and decisions to improve ecological integrity through measurable reductions in materials and energy throughput, and to maintain or increase economic competitiveness through the creation of a tax framework that would encourage businesses to improve energy efficiency. Another objective is to increase employment and social benefits through more employment opportunities and improved quality of life. Environmental tax shifting means shifting a portion of a government's tax base onto goods, services and activities associated with harmful environmental impacts that add to societal costs. Tax shifting can be implemented by offering rebates to consumers of environmental significant goods, or by adjustments to existing taxes so that environmentally sensitive goods are taxed at a lower rate than environmentally harmful goods and services. Environmental tax shifting can also be implemented by reducing existing environmental taxes and introducing a carbon dioxide emissions tax. This report is the first product of the collaboration and is intended to promote public dialogue on the subject and identify ways to implement environmental tax shifting. tabs., figs

  7. International trade and environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental crisis has provoked a number of tax proposals to control damage to the planet. These proposals are attractive, but they are subject to contentious debate because, among other things, they can have a significant impact on foreign trade patterns. That in turn implicates an obscure body of international trade law that arises under multilateral treaties to which many nations are parties. The remainder of the paper considers the relationship of international trade treaties and a carbon tax proposal that the EU is considering. (author)

  8. Tax Expenditures in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax system of the Republic of Croatia contains a large number of very diverse kinds of tax expenditures whose the declared aim is to achieve certain social and economic objectives. This paper considers all the items that constitute tax expenditures in Croatia, within the systems of the personal income tax, corporate income tax, and real estate transfer tax and value added tax. The objective of the article is to determine the real level of tax expenditures per form of tax in the 2001-2004 period. We hypothesised that the tax expenditures in the analysed forms of tax are both high and growing, which was ultimately borne out, for almost all the analysed items in the tax forms considered are growing.

  9. Estonian Tax Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian tax structure changes during the last decade and critically assesses the current situation. The country’s tax mix is rather unique among EU countries – it has one of the highest proportions of consumption taxes in total taxes and the lowest level of capital and profit taxes. Such an unbalanced tax structure creates risks for public finances, limits revenue collection and distorts the business environment.

  10. Tax Evasion and Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Steeve Mongrain

    2000-01-01

    Tax evasion is typically analyzed in a principal/agent framework, the government (principal) trying to provide agents with the incentives to pay their taxes. However, evading sales, excise or trade taxes requires the cooperation of at least two taxpayers. When individuals evade taxes, they face two potential costs. One is that tax evasion may be detected and sanctioned; the other is that their partner in crime might cheat. An increase in the sanction for tax evasion leads to a direct increase...

  11. Cash-Flow Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Parthasarathi Shome; Christian Schutte

    1993-01-01

    The cash-flow tax has been proposed as an alternative to corporate income tax on grounds of clarity and simplicity in defining the tax base in the face of widespread departures from the comprehensive income tax in actual practice. Variants of the tax, with their advantages and disadvantages, demonstrate that it would require careful design. Simplicity is not an obvious property because of expectable administration problems related to tax avoidance and evasion through transfer pricing; to infl...

  12. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  13. Tax Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Hsu, Chungwen

    2009-01-01

    There are seven main categories on which the USDA bases its calculations for raising a child: housing, food, transportation, clothing, health care, childcare, education, and miscellaneous goods and services. This is an overview of tax benefits. This is one fact sheet in a series entitled Children and Family Finances. This fact sheet was revised from Planning for Baby ヨ Family Finances by Hayhoe, C., Jamison, S. Dillard, A. F., and Chase, M.

  14. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirical...

  15. 分布式能源系统最佳策略下碳税与气价敏感性分析%Sensitivity Analysis on Carbon Tax and Gas Price of Distributed Energy System Under Optimal Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 王惠; 康利改; 安青松

    2016-01-01

    针对目前冷热电(CCHP)三联供分布式系统应用的不完善性,提出了一套包含CCHP、电热泵、蓄能系统的分布式能源系统,以及能够模拟分布式系统负荷和系统效率与负荷率、冷却水温的三维关联模型.考虑系统碳排放并引进碳税和电力回购(电力反向卖回电网),提出综合考虑环境性和经济性的碳税附加到电价的折算系数,构建了以日运行费用为目标的分布式系统分析模型.基于对几种不同运行模式的经济性分析,得出碳税完全附加到电价时分布式系统经济性优势更明显的结论;以热定电模式为经济性最优的运行模式.最后将分布式系统与传统燃煤电厂做对比,并对碳税和气价做敏感性分析,可知碳税、气价对分布式系统和燃煤电厂系统的经济性是相互影响的,当气价为3.15元/m3、碳税大于0.75元/kg 时,或碳税为0.30元/kg、气价小于2.00元/m3时,分布式系统经济性更优.%Considering the limitation of combined cooling,heating and power(CCHP)system application at present,a three-dimensional model simulating the correlation of system load with efficiency,load ratio and cooling water temperature was established,which consisted of CCHP,electric heat pump and energy storage.The conver-sion coefficient of adding carbon tax to electricity price was put forward,and the system model of distributedsystem taking the day operating cost as the target was built based on carbon emissions,carbon tax and the electricity buy-back from on-site(the surplus electricity out of the distributed system can be sold back to the grid when the generated power exceeds local demands).Then the conversion coefficient of adding carbon tax to the electricity price that con-siderated the environment and economy was proposed,the model of regard operating cost as the target was built, based on the analysis on several different operation strategies of the system,it is shown

  16. Effective tax rates under IP tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Lisa; Spengel, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Tax planning with intangibles has become one of the most popular and most vividly debated topics in international taxation. We incorporate various intellectual property (IP) tax planning models into forward-looking measures of effective tax rates, namely the disposal of intangibles to low-tax subsidiaries, intra-group licensing arrangements, and intra-group contract R&D. In doing so, we draw upon the methodology put forward by Devereux and Griffith and amend this model by consi...

  17. From tax evasion to tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud BOURGAIN; PIERETTI, Patrice; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze within a simple model how a re- moval of bank secrecy can impact tax revenues and banks' profitability assuming that offshore centers are able to offer sophisticated but legal or not easily detectable tax planning. Two alternative regimes are considered. A first in which there is strict bank secrecy and a second where there is international information exchange for tax purposes. We show in particular that sharing tax information with onshore coun- tries can...

  18. Paying Taxes: Understanding Americans’ Tax Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines American attitudes about taxation. Surveys and interviews shed new light on how Americans think about four fundamental questions: Should one pay taxes, and if so, how much? Who pays their fair share of taxes in America, and who does not? Where should tax money go? How well do we decide how to spend tax money? In considering these four questions, my respondents talked about their feelings of fellowship with others in the political community; their doubts about the qu...

  19. Estimation of Tax Revenue and Tax Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    CHUN-YAN KUO

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the general approach to project various tax revenues in future years under the current tax law and proposed changes in the law. It also presents a short term monthly model for monitoring tax revenues. The model is applied to the case of China.

  20. Measuring tax attractiveness across countries

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Sara; Schanz, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a new tax measure - the Tax Attractiveness Index - reflecting the attractiveness of a country's tax environment and the tax planning opportunities that are offered. Specifically, the Tax Attractiveness Index covers 16 different components of real-world tax systems, such as the statutory tax rate, the taxation of dividends and capital gains, withholding taxes, the existence of a group taxation regime, loss offset provision, the double tax treaty network, thin capitalization...

  1. Dynamic Tax Depreciation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the prof- itability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects. Pr

  2. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.M. Terra; P.J. Wattel

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

  3. Economic effects on taxing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaparanta, P. [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland); Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J. [The Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO{sub 2} taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO{sub 2} tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  4. Integrating ICT Skills and Tax Software in Tax Education: A Survey of Malaysian Tax Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Ming; Nawawi, Nurul Hidayah Ahamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e-tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e-tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding…

  5. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  6. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  7. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household of...... only 31%. We use 2007 municipal reform in Denmark in which 256 municipalities changed tax rates, as an exogenous shock to taxes. The exogeneity of the shock to taxes and the size of the data set is an improvement over earlier studies. Our findings significantly downward adjust the degree of tax...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  8. Taxes in Europe Database

    OpenAIRE

    European Commission DG Taxation and Customs Union

    2009-01-01

    The Taxes in Europe database is the European Commission's on-line information tool covering the main taxes in force in the EU Member States. Access is free for all users. The system contains information on around 650 taxes, as provided to the European Commission by the national authorities. The "Taxes in Europe" database contains, for each individual tax, information on its legal basis, assessment base, main exemptions, applicable rate(s), economic and statistical classification, as well as t...

  9. TAX BUDGETING AS A TOOL OF A TAX OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bashkatov V. V.; Kalashnikova M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses one of the main tax optimization - budgeting taxes. We have investigated in detail the category of “tax planning”. The basic principles and steps of the tax budgeting have been listed

  10. Reflections on the Scandinavian Model: Some Insights into Energy-Related Taxes in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes how excise taxes on energy products and electricity have been combined with taxes on CO2 emissions and air pollution in the Nordic countries. The methods and principles employed in this region may be of interest to other countries considering how to tax fossil fuels as part...... of their transition to low-carbon energy systems....

  11. Reflections on the Scandinavian model: some insights into energy-related taxes in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how excise taxes on energy products and electricity have been combined with taxes on CO2 emissions and air pollution in the Nordic countries. The methods and principles employed in this region may be of interest to other countries considering how to tax fossil fuels as part...... of their transition to low-carbon energy systems....

  12. Introduction of a Uranium tax in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, it is possible to create a tax model on uranium that will not compromise the profitability of future power plant investments or decisively reduce climate policy incentives for carbon-free energy production. The rise in energy costs caused by the tax could be compensated by lowering the electricity tax imposed on industry. The estimates above were made by Managing Director Pasi Holm and Professor Markku Ollikainen, who, on 4 February 2011, handed over their report concerning introduction of uranium tax to Minister of Economic Affairs Mauri Pekkarinen. According to the administrators, one can deem nuclear power to include specific grounds for imposing a tax via the fact that storage of used nuclear fuel involves a (infinitesimally small) risk of accidents with irreversible effects, and that, through the EU climate policy, nuclear power companies gain extra profit 'for nothing', i.e. windfall profit. The EU Energy Tax Directive facilitates collection of uranium tax. Uranium tax, imposed as an excise tax, would target the nuclear power plants in operation as well as the Olkiluoto 3 plant, presently under construction. The amount of uranium fuel used would serve as the basis of taxation. Holm and Ollikainen introduce two tax models, adjustable in a manner that the uranium tax would yield revenues of approximately EUR 100 million a year. The companies would still keep more than half of the profit and the state, depending on the model used, would collect 43 to 45 per cent of it via the tax. In the minimum tax model, the uranium tax is 44.5 of the difference between the market price of emission allowance and the average price of 2010 (EUR 15/tonne of CO2), used as the comparison price, the minimum being EUR 2/MWh. The tax would yield a minimum of EUR 67 million to the state a year. When the emission allowance price rises to EUR 30, the tax would be EUR 6.7/MWh and the state would earn revenues of EUR 223 million. In a flexible tax model, the fixed part of the

  13. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  14. From Optimal Tax Theory to Applied Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a perspective on the ideal tax system using insights from optimal-tax theory supplemented with empirical evidence. These insights are applied to actual policy questions regarding the progressiveness of the labor income tax, in-work tax credits, the design of the capital income tax, the taxation of housing and pensions, the role of indirect taxes, optimal environmental taxes, and corrective taxes on alcohol and tobacco.

  15. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  16. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2001 (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2001 (and budget figure for 2002). Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 62,2 billions DDK in 2001 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes' part og the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,4% in 2001. In 2001 the energy taxes are 57%, the transportation taxes 36% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (LN)

  17. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part of the...... paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...... tax could be relevant for New Zealand....

  18. Would Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance Undermine a National Retail Sales Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifting to an indirect tax system (a national sales tax) will not necessarily reduce tax avoidance and tax evasion behavior by businesses and individuals, particularly if the tax rate is set high to maintain revenue neutrality. Lack of experience in administering a high-rate, indirect tax system precludes definitive statements regarding the likely extent of tax base erosion under a national sales tax.

  19. Business Tax in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RICHARD; HOFFMANN

    2009-01-01

    Business tax is a tax payable against turnover by all enterprises and individuals undertaking the following business activities:providing taxable services, including communication, transport, construction, finance and insurance, telecom, culture,

  20. The Estate Tax Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ellen K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the implications for planned giving of the new Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001. Describes changes in income, estate, generation-skipping, and gift tax regulations and their consequences for estate planning. (EV)

  1. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  2. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2000 (2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2000 (and budget figure for 2001). Environmental taxes is a collective concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 60,6 billions DDK in 2000 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,7% in 2000. In 2000 the energy taxes are 55%, the transportation taxes 38% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (EHS)

  3. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  4. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  5. Measuring Tax Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    David Ulph

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines a number of issues relating to the measurement of tax complexity. It starts with an analysis of the concept of tax complexity, distinguishing tax design complexity and operational complexity. It considers the consequences/costs of complexity, and then examines the rationale for measuring complexity. Finally it applies the analysis to an examination of an index of complexity developed by the UK Office of Tax Simplification (OTS). Postprint

  6. Improvement of tax administration

    OpenAIRE

    Joppe, Aina

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the promotion work, based on the result analysis of the specific economical literature and tax administration praxis worldwide and in Latvia, is to elaborate proposals for the development of tax administration in Latvia. The work consists of three chapters. In the first chapter of the work viewpoints on the essence and functions of tax administration encountered in the scientific literature have been researched and factors affecting tax administration have been analyzed. T...

  7. THE FIGHT AGAINST TAX FRAUD AND TAX EVASION

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela AGHENITEI

    2013-01-01

    Collecting taxes and fighting against tax fraud and tax evasion are competences of EU Member States. In a globalised world, with globalised actors, Member States would often need more global means to collect taxes due. The European Union provides a framework and offers instruments to handle cross-border tax issues including potential tax evasion. On 2 March 2012, the European Council called on the Council and the Commission to rapidly develop concrete ways to improve the fight against tax fra...

  8. Down With Income Taxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China increases its income tax exemption threshold to reduce tax burdens on low-wage earners As a company clerk, 32-year-old Ren Jun doesn’t make a lot of money.Of his meager paycheck, he needs to pay about 250 yuan ($39) in taxes each month. From September,

  9. The three hurdles of tax planning: How business context, aims of tax planning, and tax manager power affect tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Anna; Schanz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The question of why some companies pay more taxes than others is a widely investigated topic of interest. One of the famous suspect explanations is a phenomenon called tax avoidance. We develop a holistic theoretical concept of influences on corporate tax planning through a series of 19 in-depth German tax expert interviews. Our findings show that three distinct hurdles in the tax planning process can explain different levels of tax expense across companies. Those three hurdles are which tax ...

  10. Optimization of firm's tax liability

    OpenAIRE

    Švihálek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The thesis is divided in two basic parts. The first part includes structure of the tax system in the Czech Republic, explanation of tax definitions and characteristics of Czech tax system. The goal of the first part is to clarify the tax system, tax base calculation and factors that influence its amount. The second part is structured more practically and should offer several possibilities of how to optimize the firm's tax liability, with focus on the corporate income tax.

  11. 基于实物期权的碳税政策对CCS项目投资决策影响研究%Research on the Effect of Carbon Tax Policy on CCS Projects Investment Decision Based on Real Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林则夫; 文书洋; 宋斌

    2015-01-01

    全球变暖对人类的生存和发展造成了巨大的威胁. 作为一个崛起中的大国,节能减排、保护环境是中国不可避免的责任更是可持续发展的要求. 碳捕集与封存( CCS)技术可以实现短期大量减排,受到各国重视. CCS项目具有不确定性,投资者在投资过程中具有较高的决策灵活性. 本文在考虑CCS投资特点的基础上,建立了基于实物期权CCS项目投资决策模型. 大量研究表明碳排放政策是影响投资者决策的重要因素,本文设定税率为政策变量,给出了包含推迟期权价值的CCS项目价值函数. 假设使得CCS项目价值为正的最低税率是最佳的税率. 以项目价值函数等于零为临界条件求解模型得到临界税率与其他技术经济变量的隐函数.最后,本文结合案例用数值仿真的方法研究了各技术经济变量对临界税率的影响. 发现税收政策的有效性主要受到碳交易价格、无风险利率以及CCS项目的投资额的影响. 最后根据研究发现提出了政策建议.%Global warming is a challenge and threat for human beings. As a rising power, China has its own obligation to contribute to emission reduction which is also a requirement of sustainable development. CCS technology plays an important role in emission reduction for its ability to achieve large amount of reduction in a short time. CCS investment is full of uncertainty, the investors have flexibility during the process. In this paper, the characteristics of CCS investment was taken into account, and the investment decision model of CCS investment was build. Researches show that policy on CO2 emission is a key factor of CCS project investment decision. In this study, carbon tax rate is set as policy variable. Function of project value of CCS is given, which take the value of real option into consideration. Under the assumption that as long as the tax rate is able to make manufacturers to invest in CCS, the policy is

  12. TAX REFORM IN SINGAPORE

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Rup Khadka

    1998-01-01

    Globalization has forced many governments to change their economic policies, including tax policies, in the recent years. It has had an even greater impact on Singapore’s economy due to the high degree of its openness with respect to trade and investment. In this context, Singapore undertook a major restructuring of its tax system in the early 1990s. The introduction of a modern value added tax system (goods and services tax) was a part of the overall tax reform package. This paper examines h...

  13. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  14. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...... environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system and...

  15. 17 CFR 256.408 - Taxes other than income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes other than income taxes... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.408 Taxes other than income taxes. (a) This account shall include the amount of state unemployment insurance, franchise taxes,...

  16. Opportunities and potential costs of an environmental tax. Working paper Nr 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined the role of an environmental tax in the policy for energy transition, the author discusses the definition of this tax and its objectives. She discusses the characteristics a carbon tax could have in terms of base, of exemption, of tax rate determination by using a cost-efficiency ratio, and of expected revenues. She identifies and comments benefits and drawbacks of an environmental tax, i.e.: economic and environmental benefits, lessons learned from the Swedish case (implementation of a carbon tax in 1991), negative impacts on economy, and assessment of anticipated macro-economic impacts by using economic models. She finally discusses the conditions of acceptability of such a tax by considering how revenues are redistributed

  17. Unit Tax versus Ad Valorem Tax: A Tax Competition Model with Cross-border Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hikaru OGAWA; Aiura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of spatial tax competition with cross-border shopping, we examine the choice of tax method between ad valorem tax and unit (specific) tax. The paper shows that governments endogenously choose ad valorem tax not because of a classic welfare reason, but because it is a good strategy in competing for mobile customers. Another key finding is that while governments are committed to the ad valorem tax method, the choice is not efficient; Tax-cutting competition becomes more ser...

  18. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse everyday reasoning in public administration. This is done by focusing on front line tax inspectors’ decisions about tax evasion. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents ethnography of bureaucracy and field audits. The material stems from...... fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do not...... just administer the laws; they also enact a policy of fair-mindedness. Doing this they are constrained by time and man-powers, but also enabled by various organizational devices. Research limitations/implications – The tax inspectors that the author followed were carefully chosen and acted in...

  19. 基于可计算的一般均衡模型的我国碳税政策“双重红利”研究%Research on "Double Dividend" of the Carbon Tax Policy Based on CGE Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健

    2011-01-01

    建立了分析我国减少二氧化碳排放而征收碳税的可计算的一般均衡模型,分析碳税政策的“双重红利”.结果显示:为减少二氧化碳排放而征收碳税,对社会经济变量将造成一定的负面影响.保持财政中性,在征收碳税的时候,减少居民或者企业间接税,都可以在减少二氧化碳排放量的同时提高社会福利或者保持社会福利变化不大,实现碳税的“双重红利”.但是在保持财政中性,在征收碳税的同时减少企业所得税,虽然减少了二氧化碳排放量,居民的社会福利却有了更大程度的下降.%The paper establishes the CGE model to analyse "double dividend" of carbon tax policy, and to reduce dioxide emissions in China. The results show that carbon tax policy has some negative impact on socio-economic variables. To maintain fiscal neutrality, when the government levy the carbon tax and reduce the indirect taxes residents or businesses, we can improve the social welfare or keep little change, and reduce dioxide emissions, and achieve the "double dividend" . However, to maintain fiscal neutrality, when to reduce the corporate income tax, there is a greater degree decline of social welfare.

  20. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Hugh [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Tol, Richard S.J., E-mail: richard.tol@esri.ie [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Economics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-11-15

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: > Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. > These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. > Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. > Tax revenues will fall too. > The exchequer cost per tonne of CO{sub 2} avoided is very high.

  1. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: → Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. → These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. → Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. → Tax revenues will fall too. → The exchequer cost per tonne of CO2 avoided is very high.

  2. From taxes to permits? The Norwegian climate policy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxation as an instrument for environmental policy (green taxes) has been a topic of heated debate in Norway for almost 30 years. The subject of environmental taxes has time after time inflamed both policy makers and scholars alike. The suitability of green taxes as a policy instrument was first discussed in the 1970s. The 1980s introduced the idea that income from green taxes would make reductions in other taxes possible: a green tax reform. In the 1990s, the tax discussion boiled down to whether or not all polluters should face the same carbon tax. Lately, however, the discussion around the Kyoto Protocol has led to increased interest around the alternative of introducing a system of tradable emission quotas. Environmental taxation might thus be a declining policy instrument in Norway. This is contrary to recent developments in several other European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper explores why the idea of a green tax reform never got off the ground in Norway by providing an overview of Norwegian environmental policy in the period from 1972 to early 2000. (author)

  3. From taxes to permits? The Norwegian climate policy debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretteville, Camilla; Soefting, Guri Bang

    2000-09-01

    Taxation as an instrument for environmental policy (green taxes) has been a topic of heated debate in Norway for almost 30 years. The subject of environmental taxes has time after time inflamed both policy makers and scholars alike. The suitability of green taxes as a policy instrument was first discussed in the 1970s. The 1980s introduced the idea that income from green taxes would make reductions in other taxes possible: a green tax reform. In the 1990s, the tax discussion boiled down to whether or not all polluters should face the same carbon tax. Lately, however, the discussion around the Kyoto Protocol has led to increased interest around the alternative of introducing a system of tradable emission quotas. Environmental taxation might thus be a declining policy instrument in Norway. This is contrary to recent developments in several other European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper explores why the idea of a green tax reform never got off the ground in Norway by providing an overview of Norwegian environmental policy in the period from 1972 to early 2000. (author)

  4. Carbon Pricing: Design, Experiences and Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the consequential outcomes of different taxation compositions as regulatory instruments. Expert contributors assess a variety of national experiences to provide an empirical insight into the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading, energy taxes and excise taxes. The overarching discussion concludes that successful...

  5. Carbon-energy taxation: lessons from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book examines carbon-energy taxation in detail and looks at tax shifting programmes for lowering other taxes. It offers extensive analysis on the basis of historical data and seeks to answer important questions for policy-making, such as: What was the impact of tax shifting for economic...

  6. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  7. Tax Aversion, Optimal Tax Rates, and Indexation

    OpenAIRE

    Roger N. Waud

    1988-01-01

    Taking account of the costs of tax evasion and avoidance activity together with the government's costs of tax enforcement it is shown that the optimal point on a stylized Laffer curve is located on the positively sloped region, not at the maximum point of the, curve. The analysis eschews the usual supply-side-type rationale for the Laffer curve and shows that such a curve can arise solely as a consequence of the optimizing tax aversion activity of a utility maximizing economic agent. The anal...

  8. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Classical Corporation Tax as a Global Means of Tax Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Seppo; Ylä-Liedenpoha, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    Classical corporation tax entails double taxation of corporate income. The alternative practice of imputing corporation tax to the domestic recipients of dividends is shown, in the case of a company with international owners, to effectively convert the imputation system back to a classical corporation tax. It also requires complex rules for exempting flow-through dividends from equalization tax to avoid the cumulation of corporation tax internationally. In contrast, classical corporation tax ...

  10. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Nichita Ramona-Anca; Batrancea Larissa-Margareta

    2012-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income). Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax mora...

  11. Tax planning and tax planning effectiveness in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Andries, Kathleen; COOLS, Martine; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra; VAN UYTBERGEN, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This study documents to what extent small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs) are effectively planning their taxes, the determinants of the tax planning process and how the tax planning process influences outcome measures such as effective tax rates. We draw on the upper echelons theory to investigate whether the characteristics of the finance manager determine the likelihood of planning taxes in SMEs. Our study uses the semi-experimental setting of the Belgian Tax Reform in 2...

  12. Tax burden of businessmen during tax filling and accounts keeping

    OpenAIRE

    Špačková, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    This work is about tax burden of entrepreneurs during tax filling and bookkeeping. There are defined first the key words, main diferences between tax evidence and bookkeeping. There are incomes and expenses in tax evidence according to the real time when they are received or payed. In bookkeeping there are accounted revenues and costs according to the chart of accounts regardless of the time of payment. That means that the tax base may be diverse. Tax base is difference between incomes and ex...

  13. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Swistak

    2016-01-01

    Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures d...

  14. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality thatmeasures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal taxstructure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1]number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configurationis from the optimal one and......, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  15. The Incentives for Tax Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Christopher S.; Jennifer L. Blouin; Larcker, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research argues that differences in the structure of top executive compensation plans and/or corporate culture explain cross-sectional variation in tax avoidance. However, this research does not link tax planning to the incentives of the specific executive managing the tax function in the firm. We use a proprietary data set with detailed executive compensation to examine the relation between the incentives of the tax director and the book-tax gap, financial and cash effective tax rates...

  16. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  17. Gasoline Taxes and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanjun; Linn, joshua; Muehlegger, Erich J.

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline taxes can be employed to correct externalities associated with automobile use, to reduce dependency on foreign oil, and to raise government revenue. Our understanding of the optimal gasoline tax and the efficacy of existing taxes is largely based on empirical analysis of consumer responses to gasoline price changes. In this paper, we directly examine how gasoline taxes affect consumer behavior as distinct from tax-exclusive gasoline prices. Our analysis shows that a 5-cent tax increa...

  18. Income distribution and tax competition

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Cappelen, Alexander W.

    2001-01-01

    The literature on international tax competition has shown how increased international mobility of the tax base may create a downward pressure on tax rates and give rise to increased inequality in disposable income. This paper endogenises the mobility of the tax base, explaining mobility as a function of the pre-tax income distribution. We show that increased pre-tax income inequality may reduce the ability of governments to carry out redistributive policies. Moreover, inc...

  19. Tax Management and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Přidal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Recent accounting scandals and current global financial crisis have brought new demands on the whole corporate world. The call for better corporate governance is strengthening in all business areas including tax. Tax non -- compliance brings substantial risks for both tax payers and tax revenue authorities. The way how companies manage their tax risks can significantly influence their overall financial performance and reputation. The paper deals with issues of tax non -- compliance as a lack ...

  20. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  1. Debt, Taxes, and Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Keen; Ruud A. de Mooij

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of the asymmetric tax treatment of debt and equity on the capital structures of financial institutions is critical to shaping and assessing responses to the problem of excessive leverage that underlay the 2009 financial crisis - but there is no empirical evidence to draw on. Guided by a simple model of banks? financing decisions in the presence of both regulatory constraints and tax asymmetries, this paper explores the impact of corporate tax bias on bank leverage, th...

  2. Payroll Taxes and Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; Sally Wallace

    2004-01-01

    This staff paper analyzes this “system” of payroll taxes and contributions, focusing mainly on the tax and contribution side rather than on the benefit aspects of the contribution programs. The administration of each of these payroll programs is discussed, and the effects of the entire system are also analyzed. Much of the analyses is based on microsimulation models developed in the course of this tax reform project.

  3. An Optimal Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow

    2011-01-01

    A notable feature and principal virtue of Tax by Design is its system-wide perspective on different elements of the tax system. This review essay builds on this trait and offers a more explicit foundation for the report's general approach, drawing on a distribution-neutral methodology that is developed in other work. This technique is then employed to illuminate and extend Tax by Design's analysis regarding the VAT, environmental taxation, wealth transfer taxation, and income transfers.

  4. CSR, tax and development

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys; Newell, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores and critically examines the connections between tax and development on the one hand and tax and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the other. It does so because, while there is increasing recognition of the importance of taxation to efforts to resource the state and to finance ways of tackling poverty, there is a surprising lack of attention to tax avoidance and evasion as a CSR issue for transnational corporations operating in the South, even among those companies...

  5. FACTS BRIEF: TEXAS TAXES

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lonnie L.; Judith I. Stallman; Ay en TANYERI-ABUR

    1997-01-01

    This fact book provides: (1) a basic enumeration and explanation of the general taxes that make up the bulk of state and local tax revenues in Texas, (2) an evaluation of the impact of each major tax on efficiency, competitiveness, administrative simplicity, adequacy, and equity, and (3) a glossary of commonly used terms and concepts relating to taxation and public revenue. No attempt is made, herein, to present the numerous user fees, licenses, and other charges that may be imposed by state ...

  6. TAX STRUCTURE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina; Garello, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Using macro-level panel data, we examine the effects of taxation and tax progressivity on entrepreneurship in a large group of European countries. We address two main objectives. First, we try to explore whether tax increases discourage entrepreneurial activity, distinguishing between the effects on existing self-employment and new self-employment (nascent entrepreneurship). Second, we investigate the impact of tax progressivity on entrepreneurship, focusing in particular on the impact on new...

  7. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  8. Understanding the Tax Gap1

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Mark J.; Plumley, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tax Gap is defined as the difference between the amount of tax imposed by the Tax Code and the amount that is reported and paid with timely filed returns. For the federal government, the gross tax gap is estimated at $345 billion for Tax Year 2001 (after the collection of late and enforced payments, the net tax gap is estimated at $290 billion for Tax Year 2001). This paper explains the concept of the tax gap, discusses how it is estimated, and points out some limitations with the estimates.

  9. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes in...... the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...

  10. Climatic impacts of land-use change due to crop yield increases and a universal carbon tax from a scenario model

    OpenAIRE

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P.J.; Singarayer, Joy; Jones, C. D.

    2014-01-01

    Future land cover will have a significant impact on climate and is strongly influenced by the extent of agricultural land use. Differing assumptions of crop yield increase and carbon pricing mitigation strategies affect projected expansion of agricultural land in future scenarios. In the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), the carbon effects of these land cover changes are included, although the biogeophysical ef...

  11. The Personal Wealth Taxes: The Inheretance and Gift Taxes and the Net Wealth Tax in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Laura de Pablos Escobar

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to analyze the role played by the Personal Wealth Tax in the process of Spanish tax reform started in 1977. Besides the Personal Net Wealth Tax we also study the reform process of the Inheritance and Gift Taxes. These taxes have generally been justified on equity grounds, more specifically, their role of improving income distribution and the overall progressively of the fiscal systems. This chapter studies whether, in practice, these taxes have achieved their object...

  12. Managerial Incentive and Optimal Technology Licensing of Firm in Considering Carbon Tax%考虑碳税条件的企业管理激励与技术许可方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胡杰; 石岿然

    2014-01-01

    With the carbon tax and managerial incentive being imposed , the optimal selection problem of transfer of low carbon technology is discussed .It assumes that , in a duopoly market under managerial in-centive with regard to the carbon tax , one of the firms has a low-carbon technology .Based on Cournot competition model and bargaining model , fixed-fee licensing and royalty licensing are studied by using game theory .It shows that , if the innovation is drastic , the firm does not want to license its low carbon technology .If the innovation is non-drastic , whether the firm is willing to license its technology or not de-pends on how drastic the innovation is .Royalty licensing is always better than fixed-fee licensing for the innovative firm.There is a managerial incentive that affects the amount of the royalty .Further, different technology licensing influences the firm's equilibrium managerial incentive .%文章讨论了当存在碳税和管理激励的条件下,企业拥有低碳技术时技术转让方式的最优选择问题。运用基于博弈论的数量竞争模型和讨价还价模型,假定双寡头市场中某企业拥有低碳技术,具体研究了存在管理激励条件下的固定费用和比例抽成两种技术许可方式。结果表明:显著创新情形下,创新企业不会将技术许可给其他企业使用。非显著创新情形下,当创新在特定幅度以内时,创新企业愿意进行技术许可;但当创新超过特定幅度时,只有在比例抽成方式下,企业才愿意进行技术许可。对创新企业而言,比例抽成的技术许可方式优于固定费用许可方式,管理激励的存在与否会影响创新企业在进行比例抽成许可方式时的最大抽成比例,而不同的技术许可方式也会对企业内部的均衡管理激励程度产生影响。

  13. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  14. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  15. Effect of Tax Avoidance and Tax Evasion on Personal Income Tax Administration in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F Adebisi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the effect of tax avoidance and tax evasion on personal income tax administration in Nigeria. Tax evasion and tax avoidance, a problem which seems to have defied solution, had been deviled the tax system right from colonial times. While some had blamed the situation on tax authorities for not living up to expectation with regards to tax administration, others attribute it to the unpatriotic attitude of tax payers. It was in this light of contending position that the researcher carryout a survey in Nigeria with particular reference to Federal Inland Revenue Service Abuja. The sample size was derived statistically using Yaro Yamani formula. The sample size consists of three hundred and five (305 employees of Federal Inland Revenue Service Abuja. The study utilizes primary and secondary data. Tables and percentages were used for the analysis. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses. The research findings disclose that enlightenment and adequate utilization of tax revenue on public goods will discourage tax avoidance and tax evasion, high tax rates encourage tax avoidance and tax evasion, personal income tax generation has not being impressive and personal income tax rates are too high. The researcher therefore concluded that there is a direct and positive relationship between tax avoidance, tax evasion, tax rates and personal income tax administration in Nigeria. Hence recommended that tax officials should be constantly trained and retrained on the job, a deliberate and more aggressive public enlightenment campaign should be embarked upon by government and the reduction in tax rates for the poor. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  16. Labor taxes, wage setting and the relative wage effect

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello, Giorgio; Parisi, Maria Luisa; Sonedda, Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Public finance solutions to high unemployment in Europe have often been advocated during the past years. With unemployment concentrated among the young and unskilled, it has been suggested that the reduction of social security contributions for low wage earnings, financed by a carbon tax, could yield a double dividend, the reduction of unemployment and the abatement of pollution. A decline in average labor taxes reduces unemployment if it generates lower pretax wages. Pretax wages fall if rea...

  17. Tax base and its relation to the income before taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Červová, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    The thesis investigates the issue of finding the tax base from the income before taxes, aims mainly on costs and revenues, which are assessed from both the accounting and taxation perspective. It also defines the accounting system, corporate income tax and the interconnection between accounting and tax system. The thesis concludes with a practical example.

  18. Use of accounting for tax search conducted by tax administrator

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is to describe the use of accounting and financial statements for tax search conducted by tax administrator. Besides various methods and ways of using accounting, this paper focuses on principles, criteria and phases of tax search. The final chapter describes possibility of making electronic tax search, which is based on accounting and other data in electronic form.

  19. Review of Tax Policy and Reform Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the activities of the 97th Congress on taxes. Reviews 1981 enactments and 1982 proposals regarding tax cuts, tax increases, indexing of tax brackets, interest earnings, depreciation, and business incentives. Examines tax administration problems and flat-rate tax proposals and discusses the progressive income tax. (Author/RW)

  20. Less Tax, More Kindness?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many companies are reluctant to donate to charities, largely because of the government's tax policies While there are more than 10 million government-registered companies in China, a recent survey found that fewer than 100,000 of them have any record of making charitable contributions, with many experts citing the country's tax

  1. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  2. Arkansas' Disappearing Tax Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppmeyer, Martin; Venters, Tommy

    State legislation that has contributed to the reduction of Arkansas' tax base is described in this paper. Amendment 59, adopted in 1980, has reduced the state tax base by millions of dollars. At the end of 1992, the majority of school districts have equalized their real, personal, and carrier and utility property. Act 34, the current foundation…

  3. Payroll taxes in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; Hugo López Castaño

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses these payroll taxes, focusing specially on what is called the "parafiscales". The parafiscales are defined by Artivle 2 of Law 225 (1995) as "mandatory taxes established by law, which affect a certain and unique social or economic group and are used for the benefit of the same sector".

  4. Socially Improving Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, Jean-Yves; Paul MAKDISSI; Wodon, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes graphical methods to determine whether commodity tax changes are "socially improving," in the sense of improving social welfare or decreasing poverty for large classes of social welfare and poverty indices. It also shows how estimators of critical poverty lines and economic efficiency ratios can be used to characterize socially improving tax reforms. The methodology is illustrated using Mexican data.

  5. Study on the Tax Planning of Enterprise Income Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Hongceng Cao; Xiaohui Xu; Guojie Ao

    2009-01-01

    The enterprise income tax occupies very important status in the tax paying of enterprise, and it has large space of tax planning. Under the background that the new enterprise income tax law was issued, we discussed the problem how to use tax planning to reduce the tax burden of enterprise and realize the maximization of the total profit for the enterprise. In this article, we studied the tax financing in the stage of enterprise financing from the selection of financing mode and the confirmati...

  6. Carbon tariffs and cooperative outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete à la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: • One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. • Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. • Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment

  7. Tax Compliance and Advance Tax Payments: A Prospect Theory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yaniv, Gideon

    1999-01-01

    While obligatory advance tax payments do not interfere with the taxpayer ’s evasion decision under expected utility theory, they do affect the decision to evade under prospect theory. The present paper applies prospect theory to a simple model of tax evasion, exploring the role that advance tax payments may play in enforcing tax laws. The paper demonstrates, as empirically found in the United States, that advance tax payments may substitute for costly detection efforts in enhancing compliance...

  8. Tax compliance, self-assessment and tax administration

    OpenAIRE

    James, Simon; Alley, Clinton

    2002-01-01

    Tax compliance is likely to become even more important with developments such as self-assessment and electronic commerce. This paper re-examines the meaning of tax compliance. It finds that existing definitions are usually too narrow to encompass the topic in full and a wider definition is offered. The paper describes the purpose of tax compliance and the factors that affect the willingness of taxpayers to comply with a tax system. It discusses two different approaches to tax compliance and s...

  9. Tax Rate and Tax Base Competition for Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Raff, Horst

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the large reduction in corporate tax rates and only gradual widening of tax bases in many countries over the last decades are consistent with tougher international competition for foreign direct investment (FDI). To make this point we develop a model in which governments compete for FDI using corporate tax rates and tax bases. The model's predictions regarding the slope of policy reaction functions and the response of equilibrium tax parameters to trade costs and market...

  10. Tax reform in Japan: The case of personal taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Horioka, Charles Yuji; Sekita, Shizuka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a theoretical analysis of personal taxes (defined to include consumption and income taxes), describe and evaluate the past and present structure of personal taxes in Japan, and based on our findings, make a number of policy recommendations about how to reform personal taxes in Japan. We find that the structure of Japan's current consumption and income taxes is problematic from the viewpoints of both efficiency and equity and propose a reform package that improves bot...

  11. The impacts of air-pollution motivated automobile consumption tax adjustments of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Junji; Ju, Heng

    2011-01-01

    A concomitant of the rapid development of the automobile industry in China is the serious air pollution and carbon dioxide emission. There are various regulation instruments to reduce the air pollution from automobile sources. China government chooses a small-displacement oriented consumption tax as well as fuel tax to alleviate the worse air pollution. This paper evaluates the effects of both policy instruments on fuel consumption and social welfare. Our empirical results show that fuel tax ...

  12. The Impact of Tax Reform on New Car Purchases in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Hugh; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shif...

  13. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss their...... experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  14. Survey on EU27 Budgets: Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Mihai INCEU; Paul ZAI; Mihai BABICI; Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2010-01-01

    In this study we make an analysis of the major aspects concerning the budgets of the EU countries. On this paper we focus on the main taxes of the 27 EU countries. Our analysis concerns the direct taxes and indirect taxes. Direct taxes have the following structure: current taxes on income and taxes on capital. Current taxes on income are made up of: taxes on income and other current taxes. Taxes on income consist of tax on personal income and the tax on the revenue or profit of companies. Ind...

  15. The Administration of Tax Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Hasseldine

    2010-01-01

    This chapter analyses recent developments in tax administration and best practice. The chapter begins by contextualizing tax administration through a discussion on the necessary separation between the operational tasks performed in tax administration and the more generic, but nevertheless crucial, issues of organization, strategy and internal management required in tax administration. The chapter then describes the recent genesis and the current context of tax administration - especially in E...

  16. Tax havens and the terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Popa George-Dorel

    2013-01-01

    In everyday language the term "tax haven" means economic and geographical area that offers a wide range of tax benefits where so called offshore companies are registered and carry on financial activities related to money laundering. Basically, an offshore company could operate under conditions of favorable tax only if it is recorded in a "tax haven." Using those companies situated in "tax havens", today, billons of US dollars are “recycled” in complicated financial operations supported by wel...

  17. A Cost of Tax Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Margalioth Yoram; Sulganik Eyal; Eldor Rafael; Edrey Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Tax planning is an area of growing interest and this paper is an attempt to contribute to the small formal literature on this topic. The paper analyzes the case of tax planning that manipulates the tax system to impose lower effective tax rates on gains than on losses, and proves that such tax planning may provide firms with an incentive to produce more than the social optimum. This inefficiency is different from the general inefficiency entailed by income taxation, captured by the convention...

  18. Who participates in tax avoidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...

  19. Environmental Taxes: Dead or Alive?

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Both theory and recent trends suggest some optimism for the future of environment-related taxes. While new research emphasizes the potentially significant distortions created by environmental taxes and appears to undermine the so-called "double dividend" theory, it also suggests that virtually any environmental policy, including regulations, taxes, and tradable permits, can compound existing distortions in the tax system. Currently, direct environmental taxes, such as per-unit charges on emis...

  20. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO2. The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on household

  1. Impacts of CO2 taxes in an Economy with Niche Markets and Learning-by-doing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyse the impact of carbon taxes on emission levels, when niche markets exist for new carbon-free technologies, and when these technologies experience 'learning-by-doing' effects. For this purpose, a general equilibrium model has been developed, DEMETER, which specifies two energy technologies: one based on fossil fuels and one on a composite of carbon-free energy technologies. Initially, the carbon-free technology has relatively high production costs, but niche markets ensure positive demand. Learning-by-doing decreases production costs, which increases the market share, which in turn accelerates learning-by-doing, and so forth. This mechanism allows a relatively modest carbon tax, of about 50 US$/tC, to almost stabilise carbon emissions at their 2000 levels throughout the entire 21st century. Sensitivity analysis shows that the required carbon tax for emission stabilisation crucially depends on the elasticity of substitution between the fossil fuel and carbon-free technology

  2. Impacts of CO2-taxes in an Economy with Niche Markets and Learning-by-doing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyse the impact of carbon taxes on emission levels, when niche markets exist for new carbon-free technologies, and when these technologies experience 'learning-by-doing' effects. For this purpose, a general equilibrium model has been developed, DEMETER, that specifies two energy technologies: one based on fossil fuels and one on a composite of carbon-free technologies. Initially, the carbon-free technology has relatively high production costs, but niche markets ensure positive demand. Learning-by-doing decreases production costs, which increases the market share, which in turn accelerates learning-by-doing, and so forth. This mechanism allows a relatively modest carbon tax, of about 50 US$/tC, to almost stabilise carbon emissions at their 2000 levels throughout the entire 21st century. Sensitivity analysis shows that the required carbon tax for emission stabilisation crucially depends on the elasticity of substitution between the fossil-fuel and carbon-free technology

  3. Levying Inheritance Tax Now?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Whether China should levy inheritance tax has become a hot topic of discussion. One survey about levying such a tax on high-income earners conducted by a consultancy agency of China Youth Daily shows 48.46 percent of 11,203 respondents thought it was not yet the right time while 34.03 percent of them said it was and 17.51 percent were not sure. The survey also shows 52.6 percent of the respondents thought affluent Americans’ giving of money to charity was related to inheritance tax.

  4. Taxes and Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2001-01-01

    A common prescription for reducing the number of uninsured is to increase the tax subsidization of health insurance in the U.S. Yet, we already provide over $100 billion per year in tax subsidies to health insurance. This paper provides an assessment of the past and potential impacts of taxation on health insurance coverage and costs. I begin by reviewing the central facts on health insurance and taxation. I then provide a framework for assessing the impacts of tax policies on health insuranc...

  5. Corporate taxation, evolution of tax bases and tax revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Juppová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims for provision of an overall overview of the corporate income tax and of its position in the tax system in the Czech Republic and in the international view, with analysis of factors, which influence the tax base and the tax profit. The main goal of this thesis is to analyze an adjustment of the companies' profit to a tax base and to determinate a degree of an impact which the chosen variables have on the tax revenue in the Czech Republic.

  6. The Required Tax Rate in a National Retail Sales Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, William G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the required tax rate in a national retail sales tax (NRST). I show that recent proposals, such as one to replace virtually all federal revenues with a 23 percent tax-inclusive NRST, are based on assumptions that real government spending would decline by $480 billion per year and that there would be no tax avoidance, evasion, or political erosion of the tax base in an NRST. Correcting for these assumptions indicates that the required tax-inclusive rate would be over 50 per...

  7. Tax competition: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Božidar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax competition is increasingly attracting the attention of not only experts Although it is difficult to define precisely, grosso modo, it is actually a competition between states (jurisdictions in attracting capital (investors by tax instruments, especially tax incentives. The first recorded cases of tax competition emerged in 12th century (attracting wool weavers into regions of North Italy-Piemont. Today, tax competition has undreamt-of and very dynamic forms, both territorial and sectored. However, tax competition is accompanied not only by positive but also by rather strong negative effects. Positive effects worth mentioning are the following: 1. control of power, 2. innovations, and 3. incentives. However, negative effects, embodied in "unfair tax competition", provoke a range of unwanted and important distortions in international trade. All of them arise from requirements and wants of tax payers (especially companies to minimize or evade their tax obligations, on the one hand, as well as.

  8. TEXAS TAXES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Stallmann, Judith I.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    1998-01-01

    This document is part of an educational series on Texas taxes. State and local taxes in Texas are compared with those of the fifty states and the District of Columbia. Taxes are compared per capita and per $1,000 of personal income. The taxes include: all state and local taxes, property taxes, sales and gross receipts taxes, personal income taxes, corporate income taxes and corporate franchise taxes. For each tax the national average, median, maximum and minimum are given along with the corre...

  9. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  10. Real Property Tax - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  11. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....

  12. Public Service? Tax Credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Acknowledges the good work of private schools but resists the provision of further direct or indirect government aid to these schools. Argues that tax credits will adversely affect public education and American society. (Author/WD)

  13. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  14. The Disappearing State Corporate Income Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Cornia, Gary; Kelly D. Edmiston; Sjoquist, David L.; Wallace, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines alternative explanations for the decline over the past two decades in state corporate income taxes relative to the state economy. We employ a survey of state tax administrators, individual tax returns from Georgia and Utah, and panel data to explore the importance of tax policy, tax planning, and economic factors on the trend in state corporate taxes. We find that corporate tax planning and economic factors account for much of the relative decline, and that state tax polic...

  15. Tax optimization methods of international companies

    OpenAIRE

    Černá, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on methods of tax optimization of international companies. These international concerns are endeavoring tax minimization. The disparity of the tax systems gives to these companies a possibility of profit and tax base shifting. At first this thesis compares the differences of tax optimization, aggressive tax planning and tax evasion. Among the areas of the optimization methods, which are described in this thesis, belongs tax residention, dividends, royalty payments, tra...

  16. Corporate Income Tax Competition in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Koffie Ben Nassar

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the concern that corporate income tax (CIT) competition may have eroded the tax base, this paper calculates average effective tax rates to measure the impact of CIT competition, including the widespread use of tax holidays, on the tax base for 15 countries in the Caribbean. The results not only confirm erosion of the tax base, but also show that CIT holidays must be removed for recent tax policy initiatives (such as accelerated depreciation, loss carry forward provisions, and tax...

  17. The optimal inflation tax

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Correia; Pedro Teles

    1997-01-01

    We determine the second best rule for the inflation tax in monetary general equilibrium models where money is dominated in rate of return. The results in the literature are ambiguous and inconsistent across different monetary environments. We derive and compare the optimal inflation tax solutions across the different environments and find that Friedman's policy recommendation of a zero nominal interest rate is the right one. (Copyright: Elsevier)

  18. Tax efficient supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Borralho, Joana Patrícia Costeira

    2014-01-01

    Master of Science in Business Administration. This case started with the following question: How supply chains and tax policy interact? This question was the starting point for this study and was developed under the areas of Logistics and International Tax Policy. In order to support this study, the adopted methodology was the selection of a Multinational company – LPR Portugal – which has the transportation and distribution in the European Union as a scope of service and...

  19. Understanding Tax Evasion Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; James R. Hines Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Americans who are caught evading taxes in one year may be audited for prior years. While the IRS does not disclose its method of selecting tax returns to audit, it is widely believed that a taxpayer's probability of being audited is an increasing function of current evasion. Under these circumstances, a rational taxpayer's current evasion is a decreasing function of prior evasion, since, if audited and caught for evading this year, the taxpayer may incur penalties for past evasions. The paper...

  20. Taxing Hydroelectricity in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    David W. Gillen; Jean-François Wen

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the financial statements of Ontario Hydro and an observed cost of importing electricity to the province, we provide an estimate of the hydroelectric rent that is potentially available in Ontario as tax revenue. Our results suggest that the existing water charges in Ontario can be raised ten-fold to capture this rent. We assess the impact that fully taxing the rent would have on the prices of electricity and manufacturing products, given that a substantial portion of the potent...

  1. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven......I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity of...... sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  2. 27 CFR 19.21 - Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax. 19.21 Section 19.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.21 Tax. (a) A tax is imposed by 26...

  3. 19 CFR 351.509 - Direct taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... direct tax (e.g., an income tax), or a reduction in the base used to calculate a direct tax, a benefit exists to the extent that the tax paid by a firm as a result of the program is less than the tax the firm... in the amount of the tax deferred, according to the methodology described in § 351.505. The...

  4. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  5. Tax Area Boundaries, Tax districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tax Area Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'Tax districts'. Data by this publisher...

  6. The impact of tax uncertainty on irreversible investment

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Traditional models of capital budgeting including taxes are based on deterministic tax rates and tax bases. In reality, however, there are multiple sources of tax uncertainty. Tax reforms induce frequent changes in both tax rates and tax bases, making future taxation of investments a stochastic process. Fiscal authorities and tax courts create additional tax uncertainty by interpreting current tax laws differently. Apart from fiscal tax uncertainty, there is modelspecific tax uncertainty, bec...

  7. Unobserved Tax Avoidance and the Tax Elasticity of FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Merlo, Valeria; Wamser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the tax responsiveness of multinational firms’ investment decisions in foreign countries, distinguishing firms that are able to avoid taxes (avoiders) from those that are not (non-avoiders). From a theoretical point of view, the tax responsiveness of firms crucially depends on this distinction. Empirically, however, a firm’s ability to avoid profit taxes is inherently unobservable to the researcher. To address this problem, we use a finite mixture modeling approach whi...

  8. Tax Morale and Tax Compliance from the Firm's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; Chandler McClellan

    2012-01-01

    Much recent research has investigated whether values, social norms, and attitudes differ across countries and whether these differences have measurable effects on economic behavior. One area in which such studies are particularly relevant is tax compliance, and a factor that has been suggested as a factor in compliance behavior is "tax morale", or the intrinsic motivation to pay taxes. However, all of this work on tax morale has focused on individuals, not on firms. In this paper, we use info...

  9. The Minnesota income tax compliance experiment: State tax results

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Minnesota Income Tax Compliance Experiment conducted by the Minnesota Department of Revenue in 1995. The experiment tested alternative strategies to improve voluntary compliance with the state income tax. These strategies included: increased examination and auditing of tax returns with prior notice to taxpayers, enhanced services to taxpayers, information messages in letters sent to taxpayers, and a new M-1 tax form. About 47,000 taxpayers participated in the experim...

  10. Anticipated Tax Amnesties and Tax Compliance: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christian; Müller, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Many countries grant exemption from legal prosecution under certain conditions, allowing for voluntary disclosures regarding tax evasion. It has been claimed that tax amnesties are most successful when they are accompanied by an increase in compliance efforts because amnesties then help tax evaders to adjust to the new circumstances. At the same time, time-limited amnesties are often repeated or in some countries even permanent amnesty laws exist. When tax amnesties are, however, anticipated,...

  11. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  12. Higher tax morale implies a higher optimal income tax rate

    OpenAIRE

    Simonovits, András

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the impact of (exogenous) tax morale on the optimal design of progressive income taxation. In our model, only universal basic income (transfer) is financed from a linear income tax and the financing of public goods is neglected. Each individual supplies labor and (un)declares earning, depending on his labor disutility and tax morale, respectively. Limiting the utilitarianism to the poorer parts of the population (defined by the welfare share), the optimal tax rate is an increasing ...

  13. Tax Rate Biases in Tax Planning Decisions: Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Amberger, Harald; Eberhartinger, Eva; Kasper, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to standard economic theory, recent empirical findings suggest that firms do not always minimize their tax payments. We conduct a laboratory experiment and find robust evidence that decision biases offer a behavioral explanation for suboptimal tax planning. When facing time pressure in an intra-group, cross-border financing decision, subjects apply heuristics based on the salience of statutory tax rates. This stirs decision makers to underestimate the effects of tax base ...

  14. Learning to Tax ?- Interjurisdictional Tax Competition under Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Johannes; Ronald B Davies

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-period model in which countries set source-based taxes without having precise information how their and their neighbours' tax rates affect the tax base. Countries can learn from past experience and from observing their neighbours' outcomes and/or tax policy choices. We consider the sequence of Markov perfect equilibria and show that the beliefs become more precise over time and, eventually, correct. The precision of beliefs in a given period increases in the number of obser...

  15. Should Financial Services be Taxed Under a Consumption Tax? Probably.

    OpenAIRE

    Donald J. Rousslang

    2002-01-01

    Previous authors have concluded that a broad-based consumption tax would be more efficient if financial services to consumers, such as services for investment, loans and insurance, were exempted from the tax, even if taxing the financial services posed no special administrative burden. I argue, however, that this conclusion rests on some key assumptions and that alternative, equally plausible assumptions support the conclusion that, absent any special administrative burden, the tax rate on fi...

  16. Transaction Taxes, Capital Gains Taxes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Aregger; Martin Brown; Enzo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the search for instruments to contain future housing bubbles, we examine the impact of transaction taxes and capital gains taxes on residential house price growth. We exploit the variation in taxation across Swiss cantons, as well as within-canton changes in taxation over time. We relate these taxes to house price growth observed for 92 regions of the country during the period 1985 - 2009. Our results suggest that higher taxes on capital gains exacerbate house price dynamics whil...

  17. Macroeconomic effects of carbon dioxide emission reduction: a computable general equilibrium analysis for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Abdul Hamid, Jaafar; Chamhuri, Siwar

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the macroeconomic effects of limiting carbon emissions using computable general equilibrium (CGE) model in the Malaysian economy. Doing so, we developed an environmental computable general equilibrium model and investigate carbon tax policy responses in the economy applying exogenously different degrees of carbon tax into the model. Three simulations were carried out using a Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix. The carbon tax policy illustrates that a 1.21% reduction of car...

  18. Tax Expenditures: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditures are an instrument frequently used when a government wishes to achieve certain economic and social effects. But because of the increasing number and scope of tax expenditures, their proper use, quality of administration and record-keeping have become a major challenge for the tax authorities and the whole of the government. The article considers and explains very diverse forms of tax expenditure such as reliefs, tax deductions, tax allowances, tax exceptions and special rates of taxation and the ways in which they are defined and calculated. The key problems in the analysis are the absence of a single definition and of methodology for the calculations; these ultimately make it impossible to compare tax expenditures between or among countries.

  19. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  20. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  1. Businessmen´s tax evasions

    OpenAIRE

    Karásková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is categorize businessmen's tax evasions at personal income tax and find out their portion on total tax evasions. In the first chapter I focus on tax avoidance and tax evasion, causes of tax evasion and his measurement. Next parts of this thesis focus on businessmen's tax evasion at personal income tax. In the second part I describe some very frequented cases of tax evasions revealed by revenue authorities. In the last part I analyse these tax evasions, c...

  2. Imperfect tax competition for profits, asymmetric equilibrium and beneficial tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    countries. In the second part of the paper, we introduce tax havens. Starting from a symmetric equilibrium, tax havens unambiguously reduce the tax revenue of countries due to a ‘leakage effect' - tax havens attract tax base from countries - and a 'competition effect' - the optimal response to the increased...... tax sensitivity of tax bases involves a reduction of tax rates. Starting from an asymmetric equilibrium, however, tax havens also raise the tax revenue of countries through a 'crowding effect' - tax havens make it less attractive to compete for profits and thus induce low-tax countries to become high-tax......We present a model of tax competition for real investment and profits and show that the presence of tax havens in some cases increases the tax revenue of countries. In the first part of the paper, we argue that tax competition for profits is likely to be imperfect in the sense that the jurisdiction...

  3. Trade Liberalization and Trade Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi

    2003-01-01

    This note discusses trade liberalization and trade taxes. The main issue should not be the reduction of trade taxes but of total tax revenue. By potentially changing the structure of the economy, trade liberalization will affect not just tax revenue but also the role of the state in the economy and, thus, also public spending. In this discussion the author focuses on taxation and ignores the potential impact of trade liberalization on public spending. This note was prepared for the meeting of...

  4. Do Tax Havens Really Flourish?

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Luisa R.; Rogers Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    That tax haven policies contribute to favorable economic growth in tax haven countries is commonly accepted. Empirical investigations, however, do not substantiate this assertion and are subject to endogeneity bias. Using a sample of 155 countries from 1982 to 2003, we find that the standard tax haven variable is endogenous to the error term in a typical growth regression. We offer land area measures as valid instruments for tax haven status. Results based on two-stage least squares estimatio...

  5. Administrative Dimensions of Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The best tax policy in the world is worth little if it cannot be implemented effectively. Tax policy design in developing countries must therefore take the administrative dimension of taxation carefully into account. What can be done may to a considerable extent determine what is done in any country. This paper discusses the relationship between tax policy and tax administration. When can policy lead administration? When must policy initiatives wait on administrative reform? How exactly can b...

  6. Economic Effects of Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Iacob Oana Camelia; Volintiru Ana-Maria; Hohan Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Tax evasion is the most thorough chapter in tax law both specialists and practitioners etc. However, and in spite of everything written about the causes, methods, scope, control or penalties related to tax evasion, words that designate this phenomenon are unclear, and the area that we are exploring is uncertain. As such, tax evasion is a very difficult to say, in addition, there is no legal definition of fraud. However, the outlook for this phenomenon has changed over time. It persists in all...

  7. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  8. Dividend Taxes and Stock Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Erin E. Syron

    2015-01-01

    How do dividend taxes affect stock volatility? In this paper, I use a decrease in dividend taxes as a natural experiment to identify their impact on firm's price volatility. If a risk-averse executive faces price risk through his incentive contract, changes in stock volatility due to dividend taxes may increase agency costs and therefore decrease overall welfare. Stock volatility decreased after the tax cut for firms where an executive has large holdings of shares and options relative to firm...

  9. How Globalization Affects Tax Design

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Hines Jr.; Summers, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    The economic changes associated with globalization tighten financial pressures on governments of high-income countries by increasing the demand for government spending while making it more costly to raise tax revenue. Greater international mobility of economic activity, and associated responsiveness of the tax base to tax rates, increases the economic distortions created by taxation. Countries with small open economies have relatively mobile tax bases; as a result, they rely much less heavily...

  10. Taxing Consumption and Other Sins

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Hines Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state governments in the United States use income and payroll taxes as their primary tools to collect revenue. Relative to the United States, governments in the rest of the world rely much more heavily on taxing consumption. Heavy American reliance on income rather than consumption taxation has not served the U.S. economy well. The inefficiency associated with taxing the return to capital means that the tax system reduces investment in the United States and distorts intertemporal ...

  11. Redistributive Effects of Income Tax Rates and Tax Base 1984-2009: Evidence from Japanese Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kitamura, Yukinobu

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to examine how and to what extent changes in income tax rates and income tax deductions affect income inequality from longitudinal perspectives, by using microdata from Japanese individuals and households. The findings of this paper could shed light on the effects of tax rates and tax deduction on tax progressivity. First, redistributive effects of the Japanese income tax are likely to decline for the period 1984-2009. Second, the income tax reforms, i.e...

  12. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...

  13. Regional Tax Reform Goes National

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2011-01-01

    After a year of experimental reform on the resource tax ratio in China's western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the State Council announced on September 21 to add the method of levying the resource tax ratio by value to the existing practice of levying the ratio by volume only.It will also change resource tax rates on crude oil and natural gas.

  14. Budgeting, Tax Trims in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Florida voters' overwhelming approval last week of a constitutional amendment slashing their property taxes--and potentially costing schools millions of dollars in funding--illustrates the vexing trade-offs policymakers nationwide face in trying to reduce one of the most unpopular of all taxes. While lower tax bills may make homeowners happy, they…

  15. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  16. “Investments and public finance in a green, low carbon, economy”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper evaluates the impacts on investments and public finance of a transition to a green, low carbon, economy induced by carbon taxation. Four global tax scenarios are examined using the integrated assessment model WITCH. Taxes are levied on all greenhouse gases (GHGs) and lead to global GHG concentrations equal to 680, 560, 500 and 460 ppm CO2-eq in 2100. Investments in the power sector increase with respect to the Reference scenario only with the two highest taxes. Investments in energy-related R and D increase in all tax scenarios, but they are a small fraction of GDP. Investments in oil upstream decline in all scenarios. As a result, total investments decline with respect to the Reference scenario. Carbon tax revenues are high in absolute terms and as share of GDP. With high carbon taxes, tax revenues follow a “carbon Laffer” curve. The model assumes that tax revenues are flawlessly recycled lump-sum into the economy. In all scenarios, the power sector becomes a net recipient of subsidies to support the absorption of GHGs. In some regions, with high carbon taxes, subsidies to GHG removal are higher than tax revenues at the end of the century. - Highlights: ► Costs, investments and tax revenues induced by carbon taxes are only loosely related. ► Investments in power generation increase only with stabilization targets below 550 ppm CO2-eq. ► The carbon taxes induce an overall contraction of investments. ► Tax revenues can be as high as 20% of GDP and follow a “carbon” Laffer curve. ► Subsidies for absorption of GHG may be higher than carbon taxes at the end of the century.

  17. Tax Culture: A Basic Concept for Tax Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Nerré, Birger

    2008-01-01

    I have suggested not to limit tax-cultural considerations to the side of taxpayers, but to widen its understanding by using an embeddedness approach considering the history of taxation and by that means explicating national tax-cultural diversity (e.g. Nerré 2001b, 2002b, 2006a). In the course of continuing globalization two different kinds of disturbances of tax culture have been identified: tax culture shocks and tax culture lags. Both are due to ignorant and/or ethnocentric policy measures...

  18. Carbon taxation and market structure: A CGE analysis for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia is one of the world's major sources of carbon based energy as well as one its most intensive users. Introducing carbon taxes can lead to a reduction in emissions and encourage investment in energy efficiency. We investigate the economic effects of carbon taxes on the Russian economy under perfect competition and a Cournot oligopoly in output markets. The main findings are: (i) substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can yield a strong double dividend in Russia; however, welfare gains strongly depend on the labour supply elasticity and elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, and energy. (ii) Under the assumption of a Cournot oligopoly with homogenous products and symmetric firms in the markets for natural gas, petroleum and chemical products, metals, and minerals, welfare costs of the environmental tax reform can be higher than under perfect competition. This is because introducing carbon taxes leads to a reduction in already sub-optimal output, thereby exacerbating pre-existing distortions arising from imperfect competition. (iii) Furthermore, increases in energy costs can result in higher mark-ups in some markets because of less competition resulting from firms' exit. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes in Russia can yield a double dividend. ► The labour supply elasticity and substitution possibilities between factors are crucial. ► Introducing carbon taxes can exacerbate distortions from imperfect competition. Increases in energy costs result in higher mark-ups because of less competition.

  19. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  20. ECONOMIC INEFFICIENCY AND TAX SHELTER FINANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins

    1989-01-01

    When a large number of firms are not able to use the tax preferences as fast as legally allowed, pressures arise to create innovative after-tax financing (tax shelter) instruments. The purpose of these financing instruments is to transfer the tax losses of the corporation to investors who are willing to buy these losses to offset their taxable income. In the case of unused tax credits, they are purchased to offset their tax liabilities directly. These instruments provide the income tax system...

  1. Fundamental Tax Reform and Corporate Financial Policy

    OpenAIRE

    William M. Gentry; R. Glenn Hubbard

    1998-01-01

    How tax reform affects corporate financial decisions helps determine whether reform will increase capital formation and simplify the tax system. This paper describes the effects of fundamental tax reform on corporate tax planning and summarizes economists' knowledge of the magnitude of these effects. We analyze income tax reform, consisting of integrating corporate and personal income taxes, and moving to a broad-based consumption tax. As prototypes of reform, we use the U.S. Treasury's Compr...

  2. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  3. The Tax Base And The Tax Bill. Tax Implications of Development: A Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Deb; Northup, Jim

    The property tax base in Vermont's towns are overburdened as property taxes are usually the only funding method available to finance schools, police departments, highway work, recreation programs, and government in general. Attempting to offer their citizens a balanced program of services without exorbitant taxes, local officials are striving to…

  4. Fuel taxes: An important instrument for climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article shows that fuel taxes serve a very important role for the environment and that we risk a backlash of increased emissions if they are abolished. Fuel taxes have restrained growth in fuel demand and associated carbon emissions. Although fuel demand is large and growing, our analysis shows that it would have been much higher in the absence of domestic fuel taxes. People often assert that fuel demand is inelastic but there is strong research evidence showing the opposite. The price elasticity is in fact quite high but only in the long-run: in the short run it may be quite inelastic which has important implications for policy makers. Had Europe not followed a policy of high fuel taxation but had low US taxes, then fuel demand would have been twice as large. Hypothetical transport demand in the whole OECD area is calculated for various tax scenarios and the results show that fuel taxes are the single most powerful climate policy instrument implemented to date-yet this fact is not usually given due attention in the debate

  5. Bribes and Business Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulfaian, David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of governance, in particular bribes to tax officials, in shaping business tax compliance behavior in transition economies. The empirical results show that business noncompliance rises with the frequency of tax related bribes. More specifically, the findings from 27 economies suggest that tax evasion thrives when bribes to tax officials are commonplace. These findings are robust to a number of specifications that control for firm and country attributes as well as address the potential endogeneity of bribes.

  6. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  7. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  8. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    OpenAIRE

    Ljunge Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesi...

  9. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  10. Advanced training of tax consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigamova Farida F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to review and analyze the data on the necessity to provide an educational environment for training and advanced training of tax consultants in Russia. The article considers the types of tax consulting, the historical background of training financiers in Russia, as well as identifies conditions determining the significance of tax consulting. The research establishes the connection between the negative attitude to tax payment and tax evasion. The advanced training of tax consultants should be a continuous process as they need to take into account both external and internal taxpayers risks associated with the development of law and law-enforcement practice. Obviously, the training of tax consultants should take into account the experience of developed foreign countries, such as Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European countries as well. In Russia, it is necessary to open educational institutions, which will not only be involved in the certification of tax consultants, but also provide training courses. These courses should contribute to constant increase of tax consultants knowledge, consider the tax treatment of economic activities, as well changes in the legislation, economics, finance, accounting, manufacturing processes, which will improve the quality of services provided by tax consultants.

  11. The environmental tax reforms in Europe: mitigation, compensation, and CO2-stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Speck, S.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbon-energy taxes would need to be increased to a level of 20-30 ?/tonne CO2 in 2020 in order to accomplish a stabilisation target for greenhouse gas concentrations. While increases of carbon-energy taxes inevitably raise questions about the negative impacts on economic......-intensive industries and so to some extent for the biggest polluters the incentives to improve energy efficiency and shift towards low-carbon fuels have been weaker than the nominal rates would suggest. In view of the need to increase the real level of carbon-energy taxation, while retaining the competitiveness of the...

  12. Legal and Illegal Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Suvelea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the economic and social plan, tax evasion is a reality seen in various forms, such as the keeping of not realistic accounting books; willful destruction of documents that might lead to the discovery of real product deliveries, adopted prices, fees received or paid, establishing false customs declarations for the goods import or export, preparing false tax declarations, while knowingly not mentioning but a portion of the incomes. The largest tax evasion - 60% - is generated from VAT, while social contributions generate approximately 24% of the total fiscal evasion, mainly through the phenomenon of “illegal work” (employees in the underground economy. For this purpose it is necessary a deep reform of the taxes administration, mainly in the direction of increasing the degree of tax collection. The phenomenon as a whole is very difficult to control and to quantify and to this contribute also the tax laws’ peculiarities, tax policies, corruption and the standard of living

  13. Theoretical Provision of Tax Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feofanova Iryna V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation

  14. Tax Rate Cuts and Tax Compliance—The Laffer Curve Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás K. Papp; Elöd Takáts

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows how tax rate cuts can increase revenues by improving tax compliance. The intuition is that tax evasion has externalities: tax evaders protect each other, because they tie down limited enforcement capacity. Thus, relatively small tax rate cuts, which decrease incentives to evade taxes, can lead to increased revenues through spillovers - creating Laffer effects. Interestingly, tax rate cuts here imply increasing effective taxes. The model is consistent with what happened in Russ...

  15. Competitiveness effects of environmental tax reforms (COMETR). Final report to the European Commission, DG Research and DG TAXUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Speck, S. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)); Barker, T.; Junankar, S.; Pollitt, H. (Cambridge Econometrics (United Kingdom)); Fitz Gerald, J.; Scott, S. (Economic and Social Research Institute (Ireland)); Jilkova, J. (Univ. of Economics Prague, Institute for Economic and Environmental Policy (Czech Republic)); Salmons, R.; Ekins, P. (Policy Studies Institute (United Kingdom)); Christie, E.; Michael Landesmann, M. (Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Austria))

    2007-12-15

    COMETR provides an ex-post assessment of experiences and competitiveness impacts of using carbon-energy taxes as an instrument of an Environmental Tax Reform (ETR), which shifts the tax burden and helps reduce the carbon emissions that cause global warming. COMETR: reviews the experience in ETR in seven EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Slovenia, Sweden and UK); analyses world market conditions for a set of energy-intensive sectors, as a framework for considering competitiveness effects; analyses the effects of ETR on sector-specific energy usage and carbon emissions in Member States with carbon-energy taxes introduced on industry; presents a macroeconomic analysis of the competitiveness effects of ETR for individual Member States as well as for the EU as a whole; provides ex-post figures for environmental decoupling and assesses carbon leakage; reviews mitigation and compensation mechanisms for energy-intensive industries. (au)

  16. Tax Potential vs. Tax Effort; A Cross-Country Analysis of Armenia's Stubbornly Low Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Grigorian; Hamid Reza Davoodi

    2007-01-01

    Despite recording double digit growth since 2000, Armenia's tax-to-GDP ratio has been fairly stable at about 14½ percent. This paper catalogues a range of factors that may account for Armenia's stubbornly for tax collection by benchmarking Armenia's tax-to-GDP against some comparator countries and conducting an extensive econometric study of the main determinants of tax collection. We find empirical support for the hypothesis that the persistence of Armenia's low tax-GDP ratio can be traced ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.641(a)-1 - Imposition of tax; application of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of tax; application of tax. 1.641(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(a)-1 Imposition of tax; application of tax. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970, section 641...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6651-1 - Failure to file tax return or to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the tax which is paid before the first day of such month. (e) No addition to tax if fraud penalty... tax if a 50-percent addition to the tax for fraud is assessed with respect to the same underpayment... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to file tax return or to pay tax....

  19. Assessment of a progressive electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

  20. Tax Cut Legislation: What's Fair? Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, Davis, CA.

    Front and center in 2001 domestic policy debates is President George W. Bush's proposed tax relief plan. The U.S. federal tax is a progressive tax code, predicated on the assumption that "people who are most able to pay should pay the most." A progressive tax system makes an individual's tax bill increase faster than his/her income. The lesson…

  1. Introducing the Microcomputer into Undergraduate Tax Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Manson P.; Savage, Allan H.

    Although accountants have used computers for tax planning and tax return preparation for many years, tax education has been slow to reflect the increasing role of computers in tax accounting. The following are only some of the tasks that a business education department offering undergraduate tax courses for accounting majors should perform when…

  2. Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base - deductible costs

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrožová, Radana

    2007-01-01

    This paper is focus on deductible costs in the project CCCTB. I describe and compare, from the perspective of tax deductible expenses, tax legislation in selected countries of the European Union. I suggest a possible way how this costs should be defined and treated as a tax deductible for the tax agency in the project Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base.

  3. 7 CFR 1925.3 - Servicing taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing taxes. 1925.3 Section 1925.3 Agriculture... TAXES Real Estate Tax Servicing § 1925.3 Servicing taxes. (a) The County Supervisor will be responsible for ascertaining that all mortgaged real estate is listed properly for tax purposes. (b) The...

  4. Tax Breaks for Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Dale

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the policy of using tax incentives to stimulate investment in training, which allows the federal government to offer financial support without getting directly involved. The popularity of this policy and the reasons for it are examined. Proposed legislation directed at training needs is described. (CT)

  5. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  6. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank’s propos......Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank......’s proposition identifies three justifications for a tax on consumption: efficiency, paternalism and equality. This chapter has two purposes. Firstly, it reviews these justifications, highlighting some objections and possible replies. As such, it suggests that reasons based on equality or paternalism are...... controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words, the...

  7. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  8. Recent Tax Law Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewski, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Describes provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 as they influence business and personal taxes. Also explains a recent ruling, the IRS Revenue Procedure 96-31, which will benefit businesses which did not claim all the depreciation expenses they were entitled to over the years. (KB)

  9. ARGUMENTS AGAINST MINIMUM TAX

    OpenAIRE

    Mitu, Narcis Eduard

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to debate from a critical perspective the opportunity and legality of introducing the minimum tax system introduced in Romania by the Emergency Ordinance on the budget rectification for the year 2009 and the regulation of some financial and fiscal measures.

  10. Tax Area Boundaries, TaxDistrictBoundary - tax district boundries, Published in 2010, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tax Area Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'TaxDistrictBoundary - tax district boundries'....

  11. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax...

  12. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    fishermen or hunters (here named "bureaucratic tax-seeking"). Second, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Taxing citizens or firms is then like harvesting rents from a natural resource and therefore we apply a common-pool resource...... model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax......-seeking efforts to maximise budgets in the long run and that the ministries that collect green tax revenues should not be allowed to control these revenues. Furthermore, our results dictate that postulated effects from green tax intervention need to be demonstrated....

  13. Tax Progressivity, Income Distribution and Tax Non-Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic; David Ulph

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of tax non-compliance when we recognise the existence of an imperfectly competitive "tax advice" industry supplying schemes which help taxpayers reduce their tax liability. We apply a traditional industrial organisation framework to model the behaviour of this industry. This tells us that an important factor determining the equilibrium price and hence, the level of noncompliance, is the convexity of the demand schedule. We show that in this context, this...

  14. Tax Structure and Government Behavior: Implications for Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Roger H. Gordon; Wilson, John D.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in tax policy can affect all aspects of the economy. Not only do firms and individuals change behavior, creating efficiency costs, but government expenditure choices can also change. Unless these expenditure choices had been optimal' previously, changes in response to a tax reform affect welfare and should be taken into account when designing tax policy. This paper develops a specific model of government behavior and then explores the implications of government, as well as private, be...

  15. Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    The federal specific gasoline tax falls equally on consumers and wholesalers; whereas state specific taxes fall almost entirely on consumers. The consumer incidence of state taxes is greater in states that use relatively little gasoline.

  16. Incidence of federal and state gasoline taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M

    2003-01-01

    The federal specific gasoline tax falls equally on consumers and wholesalers; whereas state specific taxes fall almost entirely on consumers. The consumer incidence of state taxes is greater in states that use relatively little gasoline.

  17. Corporate Tax Compliance and Financial Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Lillian F. Mills

    1996-01-01

    Discusses tax law that provides varying opportunities for tax planning. Presents preliminary results that IRS audit adjustments increase in the excess of book income over taxable income and investigates the relationship between compliance and taxes paid.

  18. Tax Reforms in Sri Lanka: will a Tax on Public Servants Improve Progressivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha Arunatilake; Priyanka Jayawardena; Anushka Wijesinha

    2012-01-01

    The Sri Lankan government implemented tax reforms in 2011, including removal of the tax exemption given to public servants and reduction of personal income tax rates in order to improve tax compliance from pay-as-you-earn (PAYE) tax payers. This study evaluates the 2007 and 2011 tax systems in order to examine the effects that taxing the income of public sector employees has on total tax revenues and the tax base. The study also compares the distributional effects of the different tax systems...

  19. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  20. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  1. Relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Inger, Kerry Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance. Prior studies find that firm value is positively associated with overall measures of tax avoidance; I extend this research by providing evidence that investors distinguish between methods of tax reduction in their valuation of tax avoidance. The impact of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of tax risk, permanence of tax savings, tax planning costs, implicit taxes and contrasts in disclosures of tax re...

  2. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  3. METHODOLOGY OF THE TAX CONTROL IN ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALLA, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the tax administration in Albania is to encourage and achieve the highest level of implementation and voluntary compliance of tax obligations. Also, the mission is to ensure the highest degree of public trust to the integrity and efficiency of the tax administration. Actually, the law "On Tax Procedures in RA" regulates the procedures for administering taxes and principles of organization and functioning of the tax administration in the Republic of Albania. The provisions of th...

  4. Tax planning, corporate governance and firm value

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wahab, Nor Shaipah; Holland, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Tax planning by firms is a highly significant activity. After audit fees, tax related services are the largest source of fee income for UK accounting firms. When viewed in terms of its impact, tax planning is the major source of the corporation tax gap amongst large firms (HMRC, 2010). Although traditionally tax planning has been viewed as benefiting shareholders via increased after tax earnings, more recently the underlying motivation has been questioned. Desai and Dharmapala (2006) argu...

  5. The Effect of Tax Rates and Tax Bases on Corporate Tax Revenues: Estimates with New Measures of the Corporate Tax Base

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Kawano; Joel Slemrod

    2012-01-01

    Several recent analyses have suggested that the revenue-maximizing corporate tax rate resides in the low-30's. We challenge this result by re-examining this relationship using a new compilation of changes in corporate tax base definitions for OECD countries between 1980 and 2004. By considering tax base changes in addition to tax rate changes, we can address the estimation bias that applies to tax rates absent their consideration. We find that the relationship between corporate tax rates and ...

  6. TAX EXPENDITURES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes a broad approach in the sense that only the fundamental structure elements of each tax system are considered as part of the benchmark tax system. Moreover, this paper will go beyond the traditional tax expenditure reporting by taking into account an ideal tax system with minor distortions as part of the benchmark. Because of having an ideal tax system as a norm, the report makes some judgments about the appropriateness of the ideal tax structure in the Dominican Republic and ...

  7. Taxing hazardous waste : the US experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sigman, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    Many states in the US impose taxes on hazardous waste. This paper conducts an empirical evaluation of the determinants of these taxes and reviews earlier research on their effects on hazardous waste. Earlier studies have shown that the taxes affect waste management, but my results and other evidence suggest that the tax-induced changes may not have improved welfare. Taxes on industrial hazardous waste are one of the most extensive uses of pollution taxes in the United States. The federal gove...

  8. Competition in Unit vs. Ad Valorem Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lockwood

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that in a standard model of tax competition, the Nash equilibrium in capital taxes depends on whether these taxes are unit (as assumed in the literature) or ad valorem (as in reality). In a symmetric version of the model, general results are established: taxes and public good provision are both higher, and residents in all countries are better off, when countries compete in unit taxes, as opposed to ad valorem taxes. However, the difference in equilibrium outcomes is negligib...

  9. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wid...

  10. The Proposals for a European Tax on CO2 and Their Implications for Intercountry Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the advantages and implications of the implementation of a European tax on carbon dioxide emissions as an own resource of the EU and it focuses on its effects on intercountry distribution. In contrast to a harmonized tax, which would only have distributive effects within each member state, a tax collected at European scale would also have important distributive effects among different countries. These effects would also depend on the use of tax revenues. The paper investigates through a simple empirical analysis the distributive effects among the member states of three tax models: a pure CO2 model; a 50%/50% energy-CO2 model and a CO2 model with a burden on nuclear power

  11. TAX POLICIES FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    DALE CHUA; Glenn Jenkins

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the government of Sri Lanka appointed a commission to undertake a comprehensive analysis of its tax system. The commission completed its work in 1990 and published its findings in the Report of The Taxation Commission, 1990, Sessional paper No. 1- June 1991. This report is a comprehensive examination of the present tax system and among its objectives was to consider the tax policy and administrative issues that have an impact on the incentives for the private sector to undertake produ...

  12. Agglomeration, Integration and Tax Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Baldwin; Paul Krugman

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers tax competition and tax harmonization in the presence of agglomeration forces and falling trade costs. With agglomerative forces operating, industry is not indifferent to location in equilibrium, so perfectly mobile capital becomes a quasi-fixed factor. This suggests that the tax game is something subtler than a race to the bottom. Advanced 'core' nations may act like limit-pricing monopolists toward less advanced 'periphery' countries. Consequently, integration need not ...

  13. PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS AND TAX COMPLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    For taxpayers it is important to be treated in a procedurally fair and respectful manner, especially when being committed to pay their share of taxes and feeling identified with the nation. In case of perceived unfair treatment and processes of unfair decision making, taxpayers resist paying the whole amount of their taxes due. In this article the relationship between taxpayers’ treatment by tax authorities and non-compliance was further investigated. Based on the group engagement model (Tyle...

  14. Regional Tax Reform Goes National

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China plans to increase resource tax to curb waste,but the plans raise fears of inflation After a year of experimental reform on the resource tax ratio in China’s western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the State Council announced on September 21 to add the method of levying the resource tax ratio by value to the existing practice of levying the ratio by volume only.

  15. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  16. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time. PMID:25673328

  17. Carbon taxation in Russia: Prospects for a double dividend and improved energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the sectoral and macroeconomic impact of carbon taxes on the Russian economy, one of the world's most energy- and carbon-intensive economies, while assessing the hypothesis of a double dividend. Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can reduce GHG emissions and enhance welfare by improving the efficiency of the tax system — a strong double dividend. The analyses confirm, when capital is not internationally mobile, that a double dividend is likely to occur under (i) a high elasticity of labour supply, (ii) high elasticities of substitution between labour and the capital-energy aggregate, (iii) low elasticities of substitution between capital and energy. It is the tax-shifting effect between capital and labour that is crucial. In contrast, welfare losses resulting from the environmental tax reform may be substantial if capital is internationally mobile. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes may result in a double dividend. ► The tax-shifting effect between capital and labour is crucial. ► The less elastic supply of capital, the more pronounced the tax-shifting effect. ► The more elastic supply of labour, the more pronounced the tax-shifting effect. ► The more elastic demand for labour, the more pronounced the tax-shifting effect

  18. The provinces and carbon pricing : three inconvenient truths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed the role that the federal government should play in introducing a carbon price policy in Canada whereby a carbon tax would be instituted to send a price signal to those considering future investment in carbon-intensive energy projects. It focused on bridging the gap between federal and provincial jurisdictions and assessed how various carbon pricing models can play a role in environmental federalism while allowing provinces to remain involved in policy making. Policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems were discussed along with carbon import tariffs and domestic carbon taxes. In a market-based policy on climate change, proceeds of carbon taxes will serve to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article also reviewed tax incentives as well as price signal systems designed to ensure successful climate change adjustments for Canadian enterprises. 1 fig

  19. Tax Pilferage—Causes and Cures

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Azhar

    1996-01-01

    Tax pilferage” is an English equivalent of the well-known Urdu phrase “Tax Chori”. The formal expression is tax evasion. To begin with, we draw a distinction between tax evasion and tax avoidance. Tax evasion is defined to include all illegal acts of omission and commission which result in tax loss to the exchequer. According to the United Kingdom Royal Commission on the Taxation of Profits and Income, the term “evasion” To be more specific, evasion refers to the nonpayment of tax as a resul...

  20. Corrective Taxes and Cigarette Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, Paul; Petkov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    If cigarette design was exogenous, inefficiencies arising from smoking could be addressed either with a tax per packet or with an ad valorem tax. However, it is well known that the consequences of these two instruments differ when product characteristics are endogenous. We consider three such characteristics: nicotine, tar, and flavor. Implementation of the first-best social optimum typically requires the capacity to tax or regulate harmful ingredients. Without such a capacity, the next-best policy often combines a per-unit tax on cigarettes with an ad valorem subsidy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25919448

  1. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes in the...... presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  2. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    OpenAIRE

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the stat...

  3. European Taxes in a Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Matus Senaj; Milan Vyskrabka

    2011-01-01

    Labour tax rates are considerably heterogeneous across European countries. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a policy experiment in which the tax rates levied on labour are harmonised in the member countries of the euro area. Using a four-country DSGE model, we find that shifts in domestic tax rates are the main driver of the total outcome of the policy change while spillover effects are rather limited in the long run. Countries that decrease their total tax wedge boost their econo...

  4. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  5. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show...

  6. The Optimal Strategy of the Carbon Tax Revenue Transfer to the Agricultural Sector in Taiwan --Base on the Application of CGE Model%台湾碳税财政支付移转至农业部门之最适策略——基于可计算一般均衡模型(CGE)的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施正屏; 徐逢桂

    2012-01-01

    由于人为排放的二氧化碳等温室气体,引起了全球暖化,威胁到了人类的生存,以低能耗、低污染、低排放为基础的低碳经济模式的革命是拯救人类群体社会永续生存的机会。目前台湾在CO:减量的策略除了调整产业政策与产业结构、提升能源效率之外,厚植台湾地区的森林资源,大规模推动农业生产用地用于造林碳汇,以及加入国际森林资源碳交易市场,亦为未来温室气体减量策略的可行方案。该文以台湾社经资料为基础,运用可计算一般均衡模型(CGE)推算各种碳税政策对于产业最终需求结构变动及个别产业产出之影响,找出台湾碳税财政支付移转至农业部门之最适策略组合。%Due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, causing global warming, threats to human survival, with low power consumption, low pollution, low emissions, low carbon economic model based on the revolution to save the long-term survival of human groups and social opportunities. C02 reduction strategies in Taiwan in addition to the adjustment of industrial policy and industrial structure, improving energy effi- ciency, strengthening for the forest resources of the Taiwan region, large-scale promotion of agricultural production land for afforestation carbon sequestration, and join the international forest resources, carbon trading market, also the possible options of future greenhouse gas reduction strategy. Taking the social-economic data in Taiwan as the basis, This study analyzes the influences of various carbon tax policy for industrial final demand structure change and individual industrial output by using CGE model, and find out the optimal strategy combination of the carbon tax fiscal payment transfered to the agricultural departments.

  7. Debt, Taxes, and Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Bolton; Hui Chen; Neng Wang

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a model of optimal capital structure and liquidity choice based on a dynamic tradeoff theory for financially constrained firms. In addition to the classical tradeoff between the expected tax advantages of debt and bankruptcy costs, we introduce a cost of external financing for the firm, which generates a precautionary demand for liquidity and an optimal liquidity management policy for the firm. An important new cost of debt financing in this context is an endogenous debt servicing ...

  8. Taxing the Stork

    OpenAIRE

    KUREISHI Wataru; Wakabayashi, Midori

    2008-01-01

    We examine the tax–deduction incentive for parents to have babies in December rather than January, focusing on whether or not parents get "shotgun married." We choose this focus because non–shotgun–married parents are more likely than shotgun–married parents to time conception and, consequently, the birth of their children. Results show that in the 1976 forward sample, the tax deduction is positively correlated with December births among non–shotgun–married parents, who are likely to time con...

  9. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  10. Analysis of the tax burden on individuals in tax accounting and accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Lamačová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Thesis on The analysis tax burden on individuals in tax accounting and accounting deals with comparing and explaining differences between the calculated tax on basis a tax return by supporting documents from tax records and supporting documents in accounting The theoretical part discourses about method of tax accounting and accounting. It describes the tax on personal income and its calculation. Based on data obtained from the businessman Marcel Lebduška are in the practical part compared...

  11. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  12. Does accounting for taxes on income provide information about tax planning performance? Evidence from German multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Overesch, Michael; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the quality of information on tax planning performance which is provided by financial accounting based on IAS 12 (Income taxes). A simple theoretical investment model is used to show that reported tax expenses can be misleading as an indicator of tax planning performance, since timing effects of tax depreciations are suppressed. However, it is shown that IAS 12 provides meaningful information if tax planning strategies are driven by statutory tax rate differences, e.g....

  13. It's all about tax rates: An empirical study of tax perception

    OpenAIRE

    Blaufus, Kay; Bob, Jonathan; Hundsdoerfer, Jochen; Kiesewetter, Dirk; Weimann, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we apply conjoint analysis to study the influence of changes in the tax rate and the tax base on the perceived tax burden. Our results show that the majority of individuals do not make rational tax decisions based on the actual tax burden, but rather use simple decision heuristics. This leads to the importance of the tax rate being significantly overestimated and the importance of the tax base being significantly underestimated. Furthermore we determine framing effects and show ...

  14. Tax competition with formula apportionment: the interaction between tax base and sharing mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmar, Martin; Wagener, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The EU Commission is advocating a common consolidated tax base for the corporate income tax, accompanied by a revenue sharing mechanism based on formula apportionment. We analyse tax competition in such a regime, focussing on the interaction between the definition of the tax base and the apportionment method. Tax competition leads to suboptimally low tax rates if and only if the investment elasticity of the tax base is lower than the investment elasticity of the apportionment factor. For any ...

  15. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  16. Genesis of tax administration

    OpenAIRE

    Myskin, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    The history of formation and development of tax administration is studied. The stages of genesis of tax administration are identified and described. The historically caused major trends in tax administration which are based on knowledge of the nature of causality are formulated. Досліджено історію становлення та розвитку управління оподаткуванням. Визначено та охарактеризовано етапи генезису управління оподаткуванням. На основі пізнання природи причинно-наслідкових зв’язків сфо...

  17. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  18. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Federal tax credits for renewable energy (RE) have served as one of the primary financial incentives for RE deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind power production tax credit and solar investment tax credits were extended for five years as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This report explores the impact that these tax credit extensions might have on future RE capacity deployment and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures as natural gas prices have been key factors in influencing the economic competitiveness of new RE development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price futures, RE tax credit extensions can spur RE capacity investments at least through the early 2020s and can help lower emissions from the U.S. electricity system. More specifically, the RE tax credit extensions are estimated to drive a net peak increase of 48-53 GW in installed RE capacity in the early 2020s -- longer term impacts are less certain. In the longer term after the tax credits ramp down, greater RE capacity is driven by a combination of assumed RE cost declines, rising fossil fuel prices, and other clean energy policies such as the Clean Power Plan. The tax credit extension-driven acceleration in RE capacity development can reduce fossil fuel-based generation and lower electric sector CO2 emissions. Cumulative emissions reductions over a 15-year period (spanning 2016-2030) as a result of the tax credit extensions are estimated to range from 540 to 1420 million metric tonnes CO2. These findings suggest that tax credit extensions can have a measurable impact on future RE deployment and electric sector CO2 emissions under a range of natural gas price futures.

  19. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wide variety of potential determinants of voluntary compliance with individual income/profit tax filing and reporting obligations. The most important determinants identified are: economic factors as the level of income, audit probabilities, tax audit, tax rate, tax benefits, penalties, fines and other non-economic factors as attitudes toward taxes, personal, social and national norms, perceived fairness etc.

  20. Optimal Tax Depreciation under a Progressive Tax System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time, an

  1. Tax Exportability in Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tax incidence is a basic topic in public economics as the tourism industry is an increasingly major contributor to government revenue. Generally, government taxation objectives are for the purpose of financing programs that improve people’s lives and economic prosperity, accelerate economic growth and allow for access to sustainable development. In the first view, tax policy decisions by government are based on their effects on the distribution of economic welfare. Therefore, to provide incentives for governments to select a suitable tax policy, exportability of tax is important. Hotel room tax is one of the main parts of tourism tax. Despite the importance of tax for government, it seems that the exportability of hotel room tax is still not well known. Therefore, understanding the counteraction of foreign visitors with respect to its main factors is important for the Malaysian government and tourism management. To achieve these aims, this study examines tax incidence effects on the tourism market. Approach: We use hotel room as representative of tourism market. Quarterly data from 1995-2009 are used and a dynamic model of simultaneous equation is employed. Results: Our results indicate that in the short run supply is elastic and demand is inelastic.But in the long run both demand and supply are elastic to price. Conclusion: Based the results if the government imposes one ringgit (Malaysian currency tax on hotel room price, the tourist contribution is more than 89 and 74% in the short run and long run respectively. Hence, we conclude that the Malaysian tourism market is exportable. Our results also indicate that tax on hotel has no negative social effects in the short run.

  2. Taxes on waste today - and in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    fertilisation. The purpose of these recommendations is to make good use of valuable nutrients and avoid a long-term impoverishment of forest soil. Considerable development work is now under way on suitable forms for recycling ash. The waste tax on biofuel ash has a marginal effect on the cost of using biofuels in the energy supply system. The waste tax provides an incentive to make use of such waste as excavated earth, bricks, concrete, asphalt, and slag and ash from incineration, instead of disposing of it in landfills. These forms of waste can serve as substitutes for gravel and other aggregates, such as crushed rock. No tax is currently payable on waste that is incinerated. We have assessed and analysed the economic and environmental consequences of introducing a tax of this kind. While there are good reasons for a tax on waste incineration, there are also a number of disadvantages or risks. A tax on waste incineration could be introduced as a means of making the system of energy and environmental taxation more consistent. Fossil fuels are subject to energy and carbon dioxide taxes. Waste contains a fossil component that at present is not taxed. The proportion of fossil materials in household waste ranges from 10 to 15 per cent. Overall, a tax on waste incineration could help increase total waste treatment capacity while lessening the burden on the environment and promoting a more efficient use of resources. However, it should be emphasised that the principal means of achieving environmental gains is to reduce landfill. In relative terms, the substitution of biological treatment methods for waste incineration has little environmental impact and what effect it does have depends on the specific design of the waste treatment system. Our analysis also shows that a waste incineration tax would involve certain problems and risks, especially if the tax rate were high. Plants that burn virgin biofuels or waste that can be regarded as a pure biofuel are tax-exempt. Exemptions from

  3. Tax modifications: sustainable energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of taxes is said to be a valuable means of solving environmental problems; provision of the right incentives will invariably achieve the goal. The policy requirements for addressing the environmental problems are (i) to understand and accept a vision of a sustainable future; (ii) to understand the nature of the challenge; (iii) decide a course of action for the desired future and (iv) the will to implement the actions. The subject is discussed under the sub-headings of (a) The Government Approach; (b) The Climate Change Levy; (c) The Future (short, medium and long term); (d) Recommendations and (e) Renewable Technologies. The potential for carbon savings through a market led transition to a low carbon economy is 'extensive'. The Government must have regulation, taxation or legislation to shape the market to lead to a socially desirable outcome

  4. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  5. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on...... border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  6. Options to optimize the tax base for tax on corporate income

    OpenAIRE

    Grygarová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the complicated issue of the tax on corporate income. It introduces the tax regulations which are crucial for every tax payer. Without a thorough knowledge of the regulations, tax payers are unable to optimize their tax obligation in a legal way without breaking the law. The theoretical part describes options for the tax base optimization for the tax on corporate income, and shows how the tax base and the eventual tax obligation may be reduced within the law while us...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3221-1 - Measure of employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measure of employer tax. 31.3221-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers §...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3211-3 - Employee representative supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative supplemental tax. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3201-1 - Measure of employee tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measure of employee tax. 31.3201-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employees §...

  10. The Tax Break's Double Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Stimulating economic activity by offering tax abatements can deprive schools of tax revenues for years while enrollment is increasing. Taking action forestalled a substantial loss of revenue for the Twinsburg City Schools in Ohio. Offers advice to boards facing a similar circumstance and suggests ways school boards can be involved in enterprise…

  11. Taxes and Venture Capital Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    's success, but is not verifiable. Asa result, the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capitalsupport. The capital gains tax becomes especially harmful, as it further impairsadvice and causes a first-order welfare loss. Once the capital gains tax is in place,limitations on loss off...

  12. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  13. Petroleum Tax Policy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Bobylev

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum complex is Russia’s basic economic sector which is playing a leading role in providing the state budget revenues. This paper is dedicated to the main issues of the government petroleum tax policy in Russia. The author analyses the outcome of the implemented petroleum tax reform and possible measures designed for further taxation improvement in this sector.

  14. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  15. Resource rents: The effects of energy taxes and quantity instruments for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide emissions correspond to fossil resource use. When considering this supply side of climate protection, crucial questions come to fore. It seems likely that owners of fossil resources would object to emission reductions. Moreover, policy instruments such as taxes may not be effective at all: it seems individually rational to leave no fossil resources unused. In this context, it can be expected that economic sectors will react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. To address these questions, we investigate the effectiveness, efficiency, and resource rents for energy taxes, resource taxes, and quantity rationing of emissions. The analysis is based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently, energy taxation is only second-best. The use of quantity rationing to achieve climate protection generates substantial rents for resource owners. - Highlights: ► Resource taxes and quantity rationing (carbon budgets) are efficient. ► Carbon budgets increase resource rents, while taxes decrease rents. ► Resource owners may support climate protection. ► Climate protection introduces a climate rent.

  16. Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Simon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.

  17. Fighting Harmful Tax Competition Generated by Offshore Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Drosu Saguna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful tax competition is not just tax system, but can also undermine the interests of local communities and the environment. Tax havens are a huge drain of resources from other countries (basic non tax haven to offshore areas. To operate, tax havens are supported economically, politically, and socially by high tax states. Also, by encouraging savings, it boosts investment and capital formation. Because they are low tax jurisdictions, they exert a higher tax on tax rates worldwide.

  18. Specific Features of Functioning of the Corporate Tax Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachyk Lesya P.

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies and reveals the essence of functional elements of corporate tax management, which are tax planning, tax analysis, tax accounting and reporting, tax control and tax monitoring. The article builds a functional model of corporate tax management that reflects interaction of its functional elements in the process of realisation of tax activity of economic subjects. Pursuant to this model, the corporate tax management is conducted in several stages, namely: development of alt...

  19. Firing Costs, Payroll Taxes and Unemployement

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrel, Frédéric; Lebon, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Using a simple extension of Mortensen and Pissarides (1994), we show that substituting layoff taxes for payroll taxes reduces unemployment. Indeed, layoff taxes lead the firms to internalize the effect of dismissals on unemployment costs. So countries which have costly employment protection procedures (as happens in continental Europe) have much to gain in replacing them by firing taxes.

  20. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deducted and withheld is allowed as a credit against the income tax liability of the employee receiving... the amount of such tax exceeds $100. (6) Separate accounting. If an employer fails to withhold and pay... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes....

  1. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1436.14 - Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxes. 1436.14 Section 1436.14 Agriculture... Taxes. The borrower must pay, when due, all real and personal property taxes that may affect CCC's..., CCC may pay any unpaid taxes with respect to the collateral or land securing a loan made in...

  3. 27 CFR 70.412 - Excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excise taxes. 70.412 Section 70.412 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Beer § 70.412 Excise taxes. (a) Collection. Taxes on distilled spirits, wines, and beer are paid...

  4. Are LCCEs Exempt from Income Taxes?

    OpenAIRE

    Philipsen, Nayna Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Lamaze International Certified Childbirth Educators (LCCEs) may incorporate as tax-exempt organizations under the federal tax law if they meet all of the outlined requirements. They may then be considered exempt from income taxes for the purpose of any law that refers to tax-exempt organizations.

  5. Labor tax reform, unemployment, and search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    2009-01-01

    A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal ta

  6. Asymmetric responses to tax-induced changes in personal income: the 2013 payroll tax hike versus anticipated 2012 tax refunds

    OpenAIRE

    Bracha, Anat; Cooper, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Boston Earned Income Tax Credit Coalition's free tax preparation service offered at the Boston Roxbury Resource Center between January and April 2013, 945 low-to-moderate income individuals were asked about payroll tax changes, financial planning, and their personal characteristics. Using these survey responses, the authors calculated how these individuals planned to respond to the payroll tax hike and their tax refund. The results show that their marginal propensity to consume...

  7. Economic Effects of Regional Tax Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Mihir A. Desai; C. Fritz Foley; James R. Hines

    2004-01-01

    How does the opportunity to use tax havens influence economic activity in nearby non-haven countries? Analysis of affiliate-level data indicates that American multinational firms use tax haven affiliates to reallocate taxable income away from high-tax jurisdictions and to defer home country taxes on foreign income. Ownership of tax haven affiliates is associated with reduced tax payments by nearby non-haven affiliates, the size of the effect being equivalent to a 20.8 percent tax rate reducti...

  8. Blueprint for a business energy tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report argues the case for energy taxation as against emissions trading to reduce energy consumption by UK businesses, and presents a blueprint for the implementation of energy taxes. The case for a business energy tax is set out, and the use of energy taxes in other European countries such as Denmark, Austria, the Netherlands, Finland and Sweden is outlined. The form of energy tax for the UK and key questions on operation of an energy tax are discussed, and tax relief for investments which reduce emissions, the potential effects of tax relief on energy intensive industry, and the combination of policy measures are considered

  9. Goods and Services Tax for India

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kavita Rao

    2008-01-01

    Indirect taxes on goods and services at the state level constitute 85 percent of own tax revenue of the state governments of which sales tax alone accounts for 61 percent. A change in regime in recent times from cascading types sales taxes to taxes based on input-tax credit within taxation of goods, as well as the adoption of a uniform rates of tax, has resulted in buoyant revenues. However, the reform agenda is far from complete. The proposed GST regime constitutes the next step towards comp...

  10. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  11. Impact of Different Carbon Policies on City Logistics Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jianhua; Gao Huijie

    2015-01-01

    A programming model for a four-layer urban logistics distribution network is constructed and revised based on three types of carbon emissions policies such as Carbon tax, carbon emissions Cap, Carbon Trade. Effects of different policies on logistics costs and carbon emissions are analyzed based on a spatial Logistics Infrastructure layout of Beijing. Research findings are as follows: First, based on low-carbon policies, the logistics costs and carbon emissions can be changed by different mode...

  12. Tax Compliance Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    ªtefura Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    To every state it is essential to ensure that the public budget copes with the public expenditure, in other words, to make sure that it collects sufficient revenues in order to have a stable economy. These revenues come especially from the collecting of taxes and fees. In order to have a functional fiscal system, it is important to understand both the fiscal component and the behaviour of its contributors. That is why the taxpayer behaviour has grown as a subject of research, in many fields b...

  13. Europe's New Border Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Verwaal, Ernst; Cnossen, Sijbren

    2003-01-01

    textabstractInstead of abolishing internal border controls in 1992, the European Union (EU) replaced them with VAT and statistical requirements that appear to be just as onerous and costly. This paper shows that the compliance costs of the new requirements are on average 5 percent of the value of intra-EU trade of Dutch businesses. Clearly, the costs constitute a (differentiated) border tax that impedes intra-EU trade and violates the Treaty of Rome. The paper analyses the magnitude and deter...

  14. Specific Features of Functioning of the Corporate Tax Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachyk Lesya P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies and reveals the essence of functional elements of corporate tax management, which are tax planning, tax analysis, tax accounting and reporting, tax control and tax monitoring. The article builds a functional model of corporate tax management that reflects interaction of its functional elements in the process of realisation of tax activity of economic subjects. Pursuant to this model, the corporate tax management is conducted in several stages, namely: development of alternative variants of tax activity, analysis of alternative variants of tax activity, selection of the optimal variant of tax activity, realisation of tax activity, control over realisation of tax activity and development of measures of increase of efficiency of tax management. Application of the functional model of corporate tax management, which envisages use of all instruments, allows optimisation of tax payments of economic subjects.

  15. Inheritance tax - an equitable tax no longer: time for abolition?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    Statistics from HM Revenue & Customs predict that receipts from inheritance tax will amount to some £3.56 billion in the tax year 2006/07. This compares to £1.68 billion in 1997/98. This paper explores the reason for the large increase in inheritance tax revenues and, in the light of those findings, together with a consideration of the recent public reaction to the changes to the inheritance taxation of trusts announced in the Budget 2006 and incorporated in the Finance Act 2006, argues that,...

  16. The challenge of tax reform and expanding the tax base

    OpenAIRE

    James Poterba

    2010-01-01

    Geary Lecture ? 2009 My topic today is the design of tax policy, and in particular the role of socalled ?tax expenditures? in income tax systems. It is a topic that is important not just in Ireland but in many other nations ? including the United States. I shall begin by talking about the revenue imperative, the challenge that policymakers around the world will face as they struggle to raise revenue to rebuild public treasuries in the aftermath of the recent economic crisis.I will illustra...

  17. Complex organizations, tax policy and financial stability

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Nicodano; Luca Regis

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of corporate ownership and leverage of multi- ple firms under a tax-bankruptcy trade-off, allowing for internal bailouts. It then questions whether tax policy contributes to the default of the resulting complex or- ganization. Absent other taxes and non-financial synergies, ownership is irrelevant to firm value. With Intercorporate Dividend Taxes, SPV-like subsidiaries or hori- zontal groups are optimal as they avoid double-taxation while preserving the tax benefi...

  18. Eliciting taxpayer preferences increases tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Lamberton, Cait; Norton, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments show that eliciting taxpayer preferences on government spending—providing taxpayer agency--increases tax compliance. We first create an income and taxation environment in a laboratory setting to test for compliance with a lab tax. Allowing a treatment group to express nonbinding preferences over tax spending priorities, leads to a 16% increase in tax compliance. A followup online study tests this treatment with a simulation of paying US federal taxes. Allowing taxpayers to sig...

  19. Third Round of Tax Reforms Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINYIYI

    2004-01-01

    China's third round of tax reform is underway.Premier Wen Jiabao declared the three main lpoints of this tax reform in this year's 'state-of-the-art' government working report:to shift gradually from production-oriented value added tax(VAT) to consumption-oriented,the reform of export tax rebate system and to eliminate the agricultural tax in five yeaars.

  20. Tax Evasion within European Union - VAT Fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Horga Maria-Gabriela; Dãnilã Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Tax avoidance and tax evasion are two major problems which have significant negative effects on national economies, mostly undermining budgetary revenue collection and leading to failure in achievement of redistributive tax system objectives. These issues are addressed very seriously within the European policy agenda, the European Union's concrete ways of strengthening the fight against fraud and tax evasion. VAT is one of the most fraud taxes, as it represents one of the most important compo...

  1. Tax Morale, Entrepreneurship, and the Irregular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano; Pugno, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    This paper incorporates tax morale into a search and matching model of equilibrium unemployment, with on-the-job search, extended to both the irregular sector and entrepreneurship. Tax morale is modelled as a social norm for tax compliance which renders evasion costly. The moral cost of tax evasion (the strength of the social norm) is negatively related to the fraction of entrepreneurs that evades taxes. Precisely, if the relationship is non-linear, multiple equilibria may emerge, thus accoun...

  2. Interconnection of accounting and corporate income tax

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTRUNCOVÁ, Kristýna

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical part defines terms related to the interconnection of accounting and corporate income tax such as accounting closing, accountig statements, tax base and tax on corporate income. In the practical part of bachelor thesis the basic informations about the selected accounting entity are presented. Analysis of closing operations, tax non-deductible items, total costs and total revenue are carried out. Transformation of accounting profit to tax base is devoted, too. Accounting profit is c...

  3. A NEUROECONOMIC APPROACH OF TAX BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Nichita Ramona-Anca; Batrancea Larissa-Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Governments around the world register substantial losses due to tax non-compliance behavior. Whether it is tax avoidance or tax evasion, non-compliance has repercussions on the whole society because it mitigates the quality of the provision of public goods. Nevertheless, the level of tax compliance is significantly higher than the classical tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo (1972) predicts. A manifold of theoretical and empirical studies invalidate the assumptions of the classical mod...

  4. SMEs’ corporate income tax compliance in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mahangila, Deogratius Ng'winula

    2014-01-01

    Many governments are struggling with inadequate tax revenue and increasing tax gaps. Consequently, changing behaviour of non-compliant taxpayers as small and medium enterprises (SMEs) because of their tax revenue potential and non-compliance behaviour is essential. This thesis examined the impact of corporate income tax penalty incidence, retributive justice, procedural justice, the interaction between retributive and procedural justice on corporate income tax compliance behaviour. Also, the ...

  5. Evaluating Neutrality Properties of Corporate Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Devereux; Simon Loretz

    2010-01-01

    We propose a methodology for assessing the neutrality of corporate tax reform proposals in an open economy. The methodology identifies variation in effective tax rates to assess the proximity of a tax system to capital export neutrality (CEN) and to market neutrality (MN, which holds if all potential competitors in a single market face the same effective tax rate). We apply the methodology to two reform options in the EU. Optional international loss consolidation would move the EU tax system ...

  6. Corporate and personal income tax declarations

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo

    2006-01-01

    Decisions by firms and individuals on the extent of their tax payments have generally been treated as separate choices. Empirically, a positive relationship between corporate and personal income tax evasion can be observed. The theoretical analysis in this paper shows that a manager's decision on the firm's behaviour will be independent of his personal preferences if the gain from reducing corporate tax payments is certain, as in the case of tax avoidance. If, however, the firm evades taxes s...

  7. Optimization of the tax base for corporate

    OpenAIRE

    Kubíčková, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Dissertation is oriented to optimization of basic personal income tax in a company EMIL BUREŠ HOPSERVIS Ltd. The theoretical part pays attention to introduction to tax problematics with follow-up orientation to basic personal income tax. The practical part is oriented to the analysis of costs and yield recorded in companys accountancy, furthermore calculation of real and optimized economic result and its following transformation to tax base and calculation tax obligation are realized.

  8. Solomon Islands; Tax Summary and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Tax Summary and Statistical Appendix for the Solomon Islands outlines the summary of various taxes. Residents are taxed on their worldwide income. Nonresidents are taxed on income sourced from the Solomon Islands. Both resident and nonresident investors undertaking commercial, economic, industrial or professional activity in the Solomon Islands may apply to the Commissioner of Inland Revenue for an exemption from income tax. An excise duty is levied on plugs, twist, fig, stick, cake, and...

  9. Payout Taxes and the Allocation of Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Bo; Jacob, Marcus; Jacob, Martin

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT. When corporate payout is taxed, internal equity (retained earnings) is cheaper than external equity (share issues). If there are no perfect substitutes for equity finance, payout taxes may therefore have an effect on the investment of firms. High taxes will favor investment by firms who can finance internally. Using an international panel with many changes in payout taxes, we show that this prediction holds well. Payout taxes have a large impact on the dynamics of corporate investme...

  10. Taxes, Earnings Payout, and Payout Channel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the tax regulations in relation to dividends and capital gains over the last two decades for the UK in order to determine whether changes in tax regimes affect corporate payout policy (dividends, share repurchases, or a combination). While we can identify investors’ tax-driven preferences for a specific payout channel, we find no evidence of tax-induced clienteles. Firms do indeed not cater to the tax preferences of their shareholders (including individuals, pension funds, corporatio...

  11. Generating Larger Tax Revenue in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Despite repeated attempts, South Asian countries have managed only limited and sporadic success in mobilizing larger tax revenue. Tax-to-GDP ratios in most countries in the region remain below cross country averages and are considered inadequate to meet their financing needs. Underperformance in tax revenue generation does not seem due to paucity of tax policy reforms. South Asian countries have undertaken considerable reforms in the last decade, and their tax structures have converged with t...

  12. On the political economics of tax reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Castanheira, Micael; Nicodème, Gaëtan; Profeta, Paola

    2011-01-01

    There is often a gap between the prescriptions of an “optimal” tax system and actual tax systems, some of which can be neither efficient economically nor efficient at redistributing income. With a focus on personal income taxes, this paper reviews the political economics literature on tax systems and reforms to see whether political mechanisms allow us to better understand why tax systems look the way they look. Finally, we exploit a database of reforms in labour taxation in the European Unio...

  13. Starting Over: The Automated Payment Transaction Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feige, Edgar L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a 21st century global fiscal architecture to replace the present system of personal and corporate income, sales, excise, capital gains, import and export duties, gift and estate taxes with a single comprehensive revenue neutral Automated Payment Transaction (APT) tax. In its simplest form, the APT tax consists of a flat tax levied on all transactions. The tax is automatically assessed and collected when transactions are settled through the electronic technology of the ban...

  14. 75 FR 17976 - WNC Tax Credits 38, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 39, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager, LLC and WNC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... COMMISSION WNC Tax Credits 38, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 39, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager, LLC and WNC... Act. Applicants: WNC Tax Credits 38, LLC (``Fund 38'') and WNC Tax Credits 39, LLC (``Fund 39'') (each a ``Fund,'' and collectively, the ``Funds''), WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager, LLC (the...

  15. 76 FR 40946 - WNC Tax Credits 40, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 41, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager 2, LLC, WNC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... COMMISSION WNC Tax Credits 40, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 41, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager 2, LLC, WNC... sections other than rule 38a-1 under the Act. Applicants: WNC Tax Credits 40, LLC (``Fund 40'') and WNC Tax Credits 41, LLC (``Fund 41'') (each a ``Fund,'' and collectively, the ``Funds''), WNC Housing Tax...

  16. Spatial Graduation of Fuel Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial differences exist among fuel taxes in various countries. These differences represent a form of fiscal competition that has undesirable side effects because it leads to cross-border fuelling and hence to extra kilometres driven. One possible way of solving the problem of low fuel taxes in neighbouring countries is to introduce a spatial differentiation of taxes: low near the border and higher further away. This paper contains an empirical analysis of the consequences of such a spatial graduation of fuel taxes for the Netherlands. We will analyse impacts on fuelling behaviour, vehicle kilometres driven, tax receipts, and sales by owners of gas stations. The appropriate slope of the graduation curve is also discussed. Our conclusion is that in a small country such as the Netherlands, a spatial graduation of fuel taxes will lead to substantial changes in fuelling behaviour, even when the graduation curve is not steep. Depending on the graduation profile implemented, the spatial differentiation of fuel tax will give rise to substantial problems for owners of gas stations in areas with decreasing fuel sales. 9 refs

  17. Property Tax Reform in China : Optional property tax proposals and the effects on residence price

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yiyi

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives some theoretical instructions of China’s property tax reform which include the reform of land lease system, the design of tax base, tax rates and tax relief, and also provides some interesting property tax proposals for Shanghai and estimates the effects of property tax reform on residence price.This paper selects a case study of Shanghai which can provide useful methods or findings to other cases characterized by similar traits and situations. Through observation and analysi...

  18. Tax Sparing, FDI, and Foreign Aid: Evidence from Territorial Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Azémar, Céline; Dharmapala, Dhammika

    2016-01-01

    The governments of many developing countries seek to attract inbound foreign direct investment (FDI) through the use of tax incentives for multinational corporations (MNCs). The effectiveness of these tax incentives depends crucially on MNCs’ residence country tax regime, especially where the residence country imposes worldwide taxation on foreign income. Tax sparing provisions are included in many bilateral tax treaties to prevent host country tax incentives being nullified by residence coun...

  19. TAX PLANNING BY MUTUAL FUNDS: EVIDENCE FROM CHANGES IN THE CAPITAL GAINS TAX RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feng; Kraft, Arthur; Weiss, Ira

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether mutual funds engage in tax planning by testing how they respond to changes in the capital gains tax rates. While previous evidence suggests that individual investors time capital gains realizations, mutual fund managers may not tax plan like individuals because fund managers have incentives to consider the tax liability of both current and potential investors. Our analysis spans over 44 years and six major tax changes, allowing us to examine the effects of both tax rate...

  20. TAX PLANNING ADVANTAGES FOR INDIAN CORPORATES: STRATEGIES UNDER INCOME TAX ACT-1961

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have shown that corporate tax have significant impact on dividend policy, industrial growth, FDI inflows, capital structure etc. so if this tax structure can be simplified and tax burden can be reduced then a significant amount of savings can be allocated towards industrial growth. The present study discusses the taxation of Indian corporates under the law. Also the study makes comparison between tax planning, tax avoidance and tax evasion. The present paper discus...

  1. The Tax system of the Czech Republic with a focus on income tax of individuals

    OpenAIRE

    VÁVRA, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is assessment of taxation system in the Czech Republic. The thesis is focused on Personal Income Tax, explaination of technical terms, principles of taxes, functions of taxes and their features. The taxes are very necessary for state budget financing and budget of territorial self-governing units. The taxes are very important parts of incoming aspects of mentioned budgets, from which the public services are financed. From time immemorial different kind of taxes...

  2. Wine tax reform: The impact of introducing a volumetric excise tax for wine

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, James Joseph; Jakeman, Guy

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the GST, alcohol sold in Australia is subject to excise tax. Although both beer and spirits are subject to a volumetric excise tax, wine is subject to an additional value added tax known as the Wine Equalisation Tax (WET). The recent Henry tax review recommended substantial changes to Australian alcohol taxation policy. Here, the implications for the wine industry of the Henry tax review recommendations are explored using a computable general equilibrium model. The results show...

  3. Effective Corporate Taxation, Tax Incidence and Tax Reforms: Evidence from OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Salvador; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.; Fuentes, Antonio Jesus Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides estimates of the Effective Marginal Tax Rates (EMTRs) for a sample of 17 OECD countries and 11 manufacturing sectors in a single framework encompassing capital, labour and energy taxes. Our cross-country/cross-sector approach allows us comparing the incentives provided by the tax systems and gauging the effects of tax changes taking explicitly into account the possible substitution between factors as well as their tax incidence. Our results suggest that the OECD tax...

  4. Consumer Response to Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Matthew D.; Joel Slemrod

    2001-01-01

    Many households received income tax rebates in 2001 of $300 or $600. These rebates represented advance payments of the tax cut from the new 10 percent tax bracket. Based on a survey of a representative sample of households, this paper finds that only 22 percent of households receiving the rebate would spent it. Instead, they would either save it or use it to pay off debt. This very low rate of spending represents a striking break with past behavior, which would have suggested a much higher ra...

  5. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  6. open-quotes Put it on my carbon tabclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial develops the idea of taxing the carbon we spend each day. Climatic change from unprecedented concentrations of carbon dioxide will disrupt the world's economy in the future. The problem is that people don't pay for their carbon emissions, and so they make little effort to spend them wisely. A carbon tax would go a long way toward linking carbon emissions to economics. Policy solutions and life style changes are also important. Ultimately reducing carbon emissions will depend on whether we incorporate their costs into the way we think about economics and the way we think about our lifestyles

  7. China should Improve its Tax Regime to Reduce Excess Tax Burden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪昊

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing relevant theories,this article uses Barro’s tax-smoothing model to present an empirical analysis on China’s excess tax burden.Whilst providing an explanation for the abnormally high growth of tax revenue,the author suggests further improvements to the tax regime,and in light of current tax policies and the new round of tax reforms,puts forward policy recommendations on how to realize tax-smoothing and reduce the excess tax burden for higher economic efficiency.

  8. Economic Effects of A Personal Capital Income Tax Add-on to a Consumption Tax

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Diamond; Zodrow, George R.

    2007-01-01

    The general idea is the following: any tax authority that respects basic human rights has to impose taxes on a base to avoid random and arbitrary taxation. The tax base should be announced prior to the imposition of the tax and therefore, taxpayers are given an advanced warning concerning the tax base. The advanced warning enables the taxpayers to adjust the tax base to the new circumstances so that they can adjust their behavior to the existence of the tax. This adjustment of the tax base by...

  9. Evaluation of Value Added Tax (VAT and Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fathi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explain the Value Added Tax and Tax Evasion by Experience Countries. During recent year’s world’s countries have welcomed using of VAT because of its efficiency at increasing government’s income. On this basis, this article will be investigated in two parts. First, investigating features and VAT analysis second, considering relation between VAT and tax evasion by using of several countries experiences. The result's of this study shows that VAT execution don’t affect inflation rate and VAT deduction effects on trade deficit depends on change at relative prices of exportable and importable goods. Finally, the results show that there is no positive and significant relationship between VAT rate and the amount of tax evasion.

  10. Why Pay Taxes? A Review of Tax Compliance Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Erich Kirchler; Stephan Muehlbacher; Barbara Kastlunger; Ingrid Wahl

    2007-01-01

    Since the standard model of income tax evasion (Allingham & Sandmo, 1972; Srinivasan, 1973) was published, much research has tested its four parameters (level of actual income, tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate) for empirical validity. Surveys, laboratory experiments and analysis of aggregate data revealed ambiguous evidence for the model’s behavioral implications. The present article reviews these studies and concludes that compliance decisions can only partly be explained by the rat...

  11. Must Financial Services be Taxed Under a Consumption Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Harry; Mackie, James B. III

    2000-01-01

    The taxation of financial services used by households has been a stumbling block in designing consumption taxes. We present a theoretical case for exempting from tax investment services, loan services, and insurance services. These services are not consumption items. Instead, they represent the cost of smoothing consumption across time, as in the case of investment or loan services, and across states of nature, as in the case of insurance services. Since these services provide the funds used ...

  12. Tax Morale and Tax Evasion: Social Preferences and Bounded Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We study a family of models of tax evasion, where a flat-rate tax finances only the provision of public goods, neglecting audits and wage differences. We focus on the comparison of two modeling approaches. The first is based on optimizing agents, who are endowed with social preferences, their utility being the sum of private consumption and moral utility. The second approach involves agents acting according to simple heuristics. We find that while we encounter the traditionally shaped Laffer-...

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Tax). (12) Impuesto de Rentas Sobre el Capital (Capital Gains Tax). (13) Plus Vailia (Increase on Real Property). (14) Contribucion Territorial Urbana (Metropolitan Real Estate Tax). (15) Contribucion... Compensacion a la Importacion (Compensation Tax on Imports). (3) Transmissiones Patrionomiales...

  14. Greening the Australian income tax : radical tax shift or incrementalism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current approach of the Australian Government to encourage ecologically sustainable behaviour was discussed. In particular, this paper outlined the principles of tax system design for sustainability and presented the systematic obstacles to, and technical arguments against a broad based emissions tax. The basic economic principle behind ecotaxation is that the true costs of an activity should fall on the individual carrying out that activity. This stems from the principle of neutrality, one of the key elements of a benchmark taxation system. It was argued that while the tax system appears to actively encourage ecologically damaging practices, the government's spending program is trying to moderate the tendency of a resource rich country to increase damaging emissions and unsustainable economic activity. The Australian governments have not embraced the principle of neutrality to the extent of adopting eco-taxation as a means of promoting ecologically sustainable behaviour. Instead, it has inconsistent subsidies, tax expenditures, regulatory controls and tax measures. It was argued that taxation in one mechanism by which governments might achieve desirable outcomes, but other options for Australian ecological tax reform should also be considered for the near to medium term. This paper also presented a review of the perceived advantages of economic instruments over regulatory controls in achieving environmental responsibility. An overview of the current Commonwealth government policy was also presented with respect to ecologically sustainable behaviour, with particular focus on the confusion within existing Commonwealth policy. Various options for reform of the taxation system were also presented. 51 refs., 1 tab

  15. Tax havens or tax hells? A discussion of the historical roots and present consequences of tax havens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Raposo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax havens are not recent phenomena. However, in contrast to historical precedents, tax havens in the age of mobile capital allow for non-consensual transfers and are not profitable for every citizen. We discuss the four main groups of tax havens (former Western possessions, sovereign nations, countries controlled by cartels, and emerging economies. This article also synthesizes the history of tax havens and describes their current heterogeneity, discussing the main methods available to regulate tax haven flows. Some of the most efficient methods involve unilateral measures (such as the Fiscal Transparency of Outland Societies but also encompass multilateral measures (such as Tax Harmonization and the Request for Information.

  16. Intellectual Property (IP) Box Regimes : Tax Planning, Effective Tax Burdens, and Tax Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current debate on Intellectual Property (IP) Box regimes and IP tax planning. It provides a comprehensive survey of the 12 IP Box regimes in place in Europe by the end of 2014 and presents effective tax rates associated with the IP Box regimes and the use of popular tax planning models. Moreover, it evaluates the IP Box regimes on the basis of the EU State Aid rules and the EU Code of Conduct for business taxation and discusses options to reform the taxation of ...

  17. Tax_Units_2011_Final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  18. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  19. Green tax reforms and habits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Manzano, Baltasar [Universidad de Vigo and Rede, Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Using a dynamic general equilibrium model, we explore the role of habit formation when analyzing green tax reforms under the double dividend hypothesis. We assume increases in energy taxes and adjust capital taxation in a revenue-neutral framework to evaluate the effects on welfare. Since the existence of an environmental dividend is uncontroversial, we mainly focus on the efficiency dividend. Our findings show that, when taxes on household energy consumption increase, habits and transitional dynamics alter household decisions, and change the efficiency dividend. However, when the tax increase is on energy used as an input, reform always induces a welfare cost in terms of efficiency. In this case, habits play a less important role. (author)

  20. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Real-world industries are composed from heterogeneous firms and substantial intra-industry reallocations take place, i.e. high productivity firms squeeze out low productivity firms. Previous tax-tool comparisons have not included these central forces of industry structure. This paper examines a...... general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...