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Sample records for carbon supported polyaniline

  1. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min -1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 μm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 μm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm -1 , increased to 0.7 S cm -1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  2. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  3. Fabrication of graphene foam supported carbon nanotube/polyaniline hybrids for high-performance supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hongxia; Wang, Nan; Xu, Qun; Chen, Zhimin; Ren, Yumei; Razal, Joselito M; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale, high-powered energy storage system is crucial for addressing the energy problem. The development of high-performance materials is a key issue in realizing the grid-scale applications of energy-storage devices. In this work, we describe a simple and scalable method for fabricating hybrids (graphene-pyrrole/carbon nanotube-polyaniline (GPCP)) using graphene foam as the supporting template. Graphene-pyrrole (G-Py) aerogels are prepared via a green hydrothermal route from two-dimensional materials such as graphene sheets, while a carbon nanotube/polyaniline (CNT/PANI) composite dispersion is obtained via the in situ polymerization method. The functional nanohybrid materials of GPCP can be assembled by simply dipping the prepared G-py aerogels into the CNT/PANI dispersion. The morphology of the obtained GPCP is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed that the CNT/PANI was uniformly deposited onto the surfaces of the graphene. The as-synthesized GPCP maintains its original three-dimensional hierarchical porous architecture, which favors the diffusion of the electrolyte ions into the inner region of the active materials. Such hybrid materials exhibit significant specific capacitance of up to 350 F g −1 , making them promising in large-scale energy-storage device applications. (paper)

  4. Electrorheology of polyaniline, carbonized polyaniline, and their core-shell composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlacik, M.; Pavlinek, V.; Mrlik, M.; Morávková, Zuzana; Hajná, Milena; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 101, 15 June (2013), s. 90-92 ISSN 0167-577X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * carbonization * carbonized polyaniline Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2013

  5. Carbon dioxide sensing with sulfonated polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Bent, van der J.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Tong, H.D.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of polyaniline and especially sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) is explored for sensing carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature. Frequency-dependent AC measurements were carried out to detect changes in impedance of the polymer, drop casted on interdigitated electrodes, when exposed to CO2 gas.

  6. Twin carbons: The carbonization of cellulose or carbonized cellulose coated with a conducting polymer, polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Kovářová, Jana; Pfleger, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Novák, I.; Berek, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, November (2016), s. 836-842 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cellulose * carbon * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  7. The carbonization of thin polyaniline films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Exnerová, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 520, č. 19 (2012), s. 6088-6094 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * thin films * infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2012

  8. Carbon-polyaniline nanocomposites as supercapacitor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish Kumar, M.; Yamini Yasoda, K.; Batabyal, Sudip Kumar; Kothurkar, Nikhil K.

    2018-04-01

    Polyaniline-based nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes (CNT), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and mixture of CNTs and rGO were synthesized. UV-visible spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of polyaniline (PANi) and carbon nanomaterials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the neat PANi had a granular morphology, which can lead to increased electrical resistance to high interfacial resistance between domains of PANi. Cyclic voltammetry of PANi, PANi/CNT, PANi/rGO and PANi/CNT/rGO showed that in general, specific capacitance reduces with increasing scan rate within the range (10–100 mV s‑1). Also the specific capacitance values at any given scan rate within the above range, for PANi, PANi/CNT, PANi/rGO and PANi/CNT/rGO were found to be in increasing order. The specific capacitance of the PANi/CNT/rGO nanocomposite as measured by galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, was found to be 312.5 F g‑1. The introduction of the carbon nanomaterials (CNTs, rGO) in PANi in general leads to improved specific capacitance, while the addition of CNTs and rGO together leads to synergistic improvement in the specific capacitance, owing to a combination of factors.

  9. Modification of conductive polyaniline with carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Sajjad; Alavijeh, Mahdi Soleimani

    2014-08-01

    The synthesis of polyaniline/single-wall nanotube, polyaniline/multi-wall nanotube and polyaniline/single-wall nanotube/graphen nanosheets nanocomposites by in situ polymerization are reported in this study. The substrates were treated with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid before usage to functionalize with carboxylic and hydroxyl groups. Aniline monomers are adsorbed and polymerized on the surface of these fillers. Structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that nanomaterials dispersed into polymer matrix and made tubular structures with diameters several tens to hundreds nanometers depending on the polyaniline content. These nanocomposites can be used for production of excellent electrode materials applications in high-performance supercapacitors.

  10. Viscoelastic properties of electrorheological suspensions of core-shell (carbon/polyaniline) particles in silicone oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlačík, M.; Almajdalawi, S.; Mrlík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Saha, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 412, č. 1 (2013), 012006_1-012006_8 ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions /13./ - ERMR2012. Ankara, 02.07.2012-06.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * carbonization * electrorheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Improved electrochemical performance of hierarchical porous carbon/polyaniline composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Juan; Wang Huanlei; Huang Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polyaniline-coated hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) composites have been synthesized by in situ polymerization. ► The HPC/polyaniline composite has significantly better electrochemical capacitance performance than pure HPC and polyaniline. ► The amount of polyaniline loading has a significant effect on the composites’ electrochemical performances. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI)-coated hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) composites (HPC/PANI) for use as supercapacitor electrodes were prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization at 273 K of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed HPC particles. After polymerization, a thin layer of PANI was coated on the surface of the HPC particles, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared to pure PANI and HPC, the electrochemical capacitance performance of the composites was significantly improved. The highest specific capacitance of the composites obtained is 478 F g −1 at 1 mV s −1 , which is more than twice as that of pure PANI and three times as that of pure HPC. Because of the influence from the hierarchical pore structure of the carbon material, the calculated specific capacitance of PANI in the composite (pseudocapacitance contribution from PANI) is almost one magnitude higher than that of pure PANI.

  12. Perspectives on State-of-the-Art Carbon Nanotube/Polyaniline and Graphene/Polyaniline Composites for Hybrid Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Vadali V S S; Ramana, Gedela Venkata; Kumar, Puttapati Sampath

    2016-03-01

    Supercapacitors are attractive alternative energy storage sources. They offer high energy/power density with other characteristics like fast discharge/charge time, long operation stability, safety etc. In a supercapacitor, working electrode material is the principal constituent. At present there are numerous electrode materials (with properties) suitable for their use in hybrid type supercapacitors. Carbon/polyaniline (PANi) composites are one class of such electrode materials. Here, perspectives on state-of-the-art carbon/PANi composites namely carbon nanotube/polyaniline and graphene/polyaniline composites expedient as hybrid type supercapacitor electrode materials will be presented.

  13. Template-free electrochemical nanofabrication of polyaniline nanobrush and hybrid polyaniline with carbon nanohorns for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Di; Andrew, Piers; Ryhaenen, Tapani [Nokia Research Centre Cambridge, Broers Building, 21 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Wang, Haolan; Hiralal, Pritesh; Amaratunga, Gehan A J [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Hayashi, Yasuhiko, E-mail: di.wei@nokia.com, E-mail: gaja1@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2010-10-29

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanobrushes were synthesized by template-free electrochemical galvanostatic methods. When the same method was applied to the carbon nanohorn (CNH) solution containing aniline monomers, a hybrid nanostructure containing PANI and CNHs was enabled after electropolymerization. This is the first report on the template-free method to make PANI nanobrushes and homogeneous hybrid soft matter (PANI) with carbon nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the interaction between CNH and PANI. Electrochemical nanofabrication offers simplicity and good control when used to make electronic devices. Both of these materials were applied in supercapacitors and an improvement capacitive current by using the hybrid material was observed.

  14. Template-free electrochemical nanofabrication of polyaniline nanobrush and hybrid polyaniline with carbon nanohorns for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di; Wang, Haolan; Hiralal, Pritesh; Andrew, Piers; Ryhänen, Tapani; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2010-10-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanobrushes were synthesized by template-free electrochemical galvanostatic methods. When the same method was applied to the carbon nanohorn (CNH) solution containing aniline monomers, a hybrid nanostructure containing PANI and CNHs was enabled after electropolymerization. This is the first report on the template-free method to make PANI nanobrushes and homogeneous hybrid soft matter (PANI) with carbon nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the interaction between CNH and PANI. Electrochemical nanofabrication offers simplicity and good control when used to make electronic devices. Both of these materials were applied in supercapacitors and an improvement capacitive current by using the hybrid material was observed.

  15. Immobilization of xanthine oxidase on a polyaniline silicone support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadruz, W; Marques, E T; Azevedo, W M; Lima-Filho, J L; Carvalho, L B

    1996-03-01

    A polyaniline silicone support to immobilize xanthine oxidase is proposed as a reactor coil to monitor the action of xanthine oxidase on hypoxanthine, xanthine and 6-mercaptopurine. A purified xanthine oxidase immobilized on this support lost 80% of the initial activity after 12 min of use. Co-immobilization of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased the stability of immobilized xanthine oxidase so that the derivative maintained 79% of its initial activity after 4.6 h of continuous use in which 1.5 mumol purine bases were converted by the immobilized enzyme system. There is no evidence of either polyaniline or protein leaching from the coil during 3 h of continuous use. When solutions (10 ml) of hypoxanthine, xanthine and 6-mercaptopurine were circulated individually through the xanthine oxidase-superoxide dismutase-catalase-polyaniline coil (1 mm internal diameter and 3 m in length, 3 ml internal volume) activities of 8.12, 11.17 and 1.09 nmol min-1 coil-1, respectively, were obtained. The advantages of the reactor configuration and the redox properties of the polymer, particularly with respect to immobilized oxidoreductases, make this methodology attractive for similar enzyme systems. This immobilized enzyme system using polyaniline-silicone as support converted 6-mercaptopurine to 6-thiouric acid with equal efficiency as resins based on polyacrylamide and polyamide 11.

  16. A high-performance carbon derived from polyaniline for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China). Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology; College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun; Li, Tianyou [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China). Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology; Qiao, Wenming [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China). Coll. of Material Science and Chemical Engineering; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Qiankun [College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2010-10-15

    Activated carbon derived from rod-shaped polyaniline (the diameter of 170 nm) was synthesized by carbonization and subsequent activation with KOH. The obtained activated carbon exhibits a high specific capacitance (455 F g{sup -1}) and remarkable rate capability due to its high specific surface area (1976 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}), narrow pore size distribution (< 3 nm) as well as short diffusion length. It is indicated that the promising synthetic method used in this work can pave the way for designing new carbon based materials from different polymers for high-performance energy applications. (author)

  17. Microwave absorbing properties of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites with various polyaniline contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, T.H.; Jau, Y.N.; Yu, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PANI/MWNT) composites were synthesized using in situ polymerization at different aniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube weight ratios (Ani/MWNT = 1/2, 1/1, 2/1 and 3/1) and introduced into an epoxy resin to act as a microwave absorber. The spectroscopic characterization of the process of formation of PANI/MWNT composites were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron spin resonance. The microwave absorbing properties were investigated by measuring complex permittivity, complex permeability and reflection loss in the 2-18 and 18-40 GHz microwave frequency range, using the free space method. The results showed that the addition of PANI was useful for achieving a large absorption over a wide frequency range, especially for higher frequency values.

  18. Polyaniline-deposited porous carbon electrode for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-C.; Wen, T.-C.; Teng, H.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodes for supercapacitors were fabricated by depositing polyaniline (PANI) on high surface area carbons. The chemical composition of the PANI-deposited carbon electrode was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the electrochemical properties of electrodes. An equivalent circuit was proposed to successfully fit the EIS data, and the significant contribution of pseudocapacitance from PANI was thus identified. A comparative analysis on the electrochemical properties of bare-carbon electrodes was also conducted under similar conditions. The performance of the capacitors equipped with the resulting electrodes in 1 M H 2 SO 4 was evaluated by constant current charge-discharge cycling within a potential range from 0 to 0.6 V. The PANI-deposited electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 180 F/g, in comparison with a value of 92 F/g for the bare-carbon electrode

  19. Processable Conducting Polyaniline, Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan

    Good processability is often required for applications of conducting materials like polyaniline (PANI), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. This can be achieved by either physical stabilization or chemical functionalization. Functionalization usually expands the possible applications for the conducting materials depending on the properties of the functional groups. Processable conducting materials can also be combined with other co-dissolving materials to prepare composites with desired chemical and physical properties. Polyanilines (PANI) doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) are soluble in many organic solvents such as chloroform and toluene. Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be dispersed into PANI/DBSA to form homogeneous solutions. PANI/DBSA functions as a conducting surfactant for SWCNTs. The mixture can be combined with two-parts polyurethanes that co-dissolve in the organic solvent to produce conducting polymer composites. The composite mixtures can be applied onto various substrates by simple spray-on methods to obtain transparent and conducting coatings. Graphene, a single layer of graphite, has drawn intense interest for its unique properties. Processable graphene has been produced in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) by a one-step solvothermal reduction of graphite oxide without the aid of any reducing reagent and/or surfactant. The as-synthesized graphene disperses well in a variety of organic solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol and tetrahydrogenfuran (THF). The conductivity of solvothermal reduced graphite oxide is comparable to hydrazine reduced graphite oxide. Attempts were made to create intrinsically conducting glue comparable to mussel adhesive protiens using polyaniline and graphene. Mussels can attach to a variety of substrates under water. Catechol residue in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the key to the wet adhesion. Tyrosine and phosphoserine with primary alkyl amine groups also participate in adhesion. A

  20. Enhanced thermal stability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes after coating with polyaniline salt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Tomšík, Elena; Čechvala, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 8 (2012), s. 1405-1414 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA ČR GPP108/11/P763; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * polyaniline * nano-composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2012

  1. Hierarchically porous carbon/polyaniline hybrid for use in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Min Jae; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2014-12-01

    A hierarchically porous carbon (HPC)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid electrode was prepared by the polymerization of PANI on the surface of the HPC via rapid-mixing polymerization. The surface morphologies and chemical composition of the HPC/PANI hybrid electrode were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface morphologies and XPS results for the HPC, PANI and HPC/PANI hybrids indicate that PANI is coated on the surface of HPC in the HPC/PANI hybrids which have two different nitrogen groups as a benzenoid amine (-NH-) peak and positively charged nitrogen (N+) peak. The electrochemical performances of the HPC/PANI hybrids were analyzed by performing cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The HPC/PANI hybrids showed a better specific capacitance (222 F/g) than HPC (111 F/g) because of effect of pseudocapacitor behavior. In addition, good cycle stabilities were maintained over 1000 cycles.

  2. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hoa Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes/polyaniline (CNT/PANI nanocomposites were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization of aniline in the presence of CNTs using two green solvents, water and an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], as the two phases. The formation and incorporation of PANI on the surface of the CNTs were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface of the CNTs was coated with different morphologies of thin PANI layers depending on whether a HCl or HNO3 solution was used. The thermal stability of the composites was much better than that of the bare CNTs and pure PANI. The as-prepared composites were also used to modify the nickel foam electrodes for characterization of the electrochemical properties.

  3. The sorption of influenza viruses and antibiotics on carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, V T; Ilyna, M V; Kurochkina, Y E; Katrukha, G S; Timofeeva, A V; Baratova, L A; Sapurina, I Yu; Ivanov, V F

    2011-01-01

    The decontamination of the solutions from micropatogens and drug delivery are the important problems of modern life. It was shown that carbon nanotubes, polyaniline and their composites can interact with antibiotics-polypeptides and some viruses (pandemic strain of influenza viruses A(H1N1)v circulated in Russia in 2009-2010. During a short time drug and viruses can be absorbed by polyaniline and removed from aqueous solutions at the normal conditions. Polyaniline composites can be useful for the preparation of drug delivery and virus control filters and also in biotechnology for the improvement the methods of antibiotics purification.

  4. The sorption of influenza viruses and antibiotics on carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, V T; Ilyna, M V; Kurochkina, Y E [D.I. Ivanovsky Research Institute of Virology RAMS, Gamaleya st, 16, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Katrukha, G S [G.F.Gause Institute of New Antibiotics RAMS, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Timofeeva, A V; Baratova, L A [A.N. Belozersky Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Biology, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Sapurina, I Yu [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds RAS, 199004, St. Petersburgr. Bolshoy Pr.31 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V F, E-mail: valivanova1946@mail.ru [A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, RAS, Leninsky prospect, 31, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The decontamination of the solutions from micropatogens and drug delivery are the important problems of modern life. It was shown that carbon nanotubes, polyaniline and their composites can interact with antibiotics-polypeptides and some viruses (pandemic strain of influenza viruses A(H1N1)v circulated in Russia in 2009-2010. During a short time drug and viruses can be absorbed by polyaniline and removed from aqueous solutions at the normal conditions. Polyaniline composites can be useful for the preparation of drug delivery and virus control filters and also in biotechnology for the improvement the methods of antibiotics purification.

  5. The carbonization of colloidal polyaniline nanoparticles to nitrogen-containing carbon analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Hromádková, Jiřina; Kovářová, Jana; Kalendová, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 7 (2010), s. 875-878 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR KAN200520704; GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * colloids * carbonization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2010

  6. Activated polyaniline-based carbon nanoparticles for high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Tingting; Xing, Wei; Li, Zhaohui; Shen, Honglong; Zhuo, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles have been prepared by disperse polymerization of aniline in the presence of poly(4-styrenesulfonate). The PANI nanoparticles are further subjected to pyrolysis treatment and chemical-activation to prepare the activated nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (APCNs). The porosity, structure and nitrogen-doped surface chemistry are analyzed by a varies of means, such as scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, N 2 sorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The capacitive performance of the APCNs materials are test in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Benefitting from the abundant micropores with short length, large specific surface area, hierarchical porosity and heteroatom-doped polar pore surface, the APCNs materials exhibit v exhibit very high specific capacitance up to 341 F g −1 , remarkable power capability and excellent long-term cyclic stability (96.6% after 10 000 cycles). At 40 A g −1 , APCN-2 carbon shows a capacitance of 164 F g −1 , responding to a high energy and power densities of 5.7 Wh kg −1 and 10 000 W kg −1

  7. Preparation, electrochemical characterization and charge-discharge of reticulated vitreous carbon/polyaniline composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Carla; Biaggio, Sonia R.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Bocchi, Nerilso

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline was electrodeposited onto reticulated vitreous carbon - RVC - in order to obtain a tridimensional composite electrode. Three variations of these electrodes were analysed: a small-anion-doped polyaniline (RVC/Pani), a polyanion-doped polyaniline (RVC/PaniPSS) and a bi-layer type formed by an inner layer of the first electrode and an outer layer of the second one (RVC/Pani/PaniPSS). These composites were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electronic microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photomicrographies, voltammetric profiles and impedance data pointed to different morphological and electrochemical characteristics for polyaniline doped with small or large anions, and a mixed behavior for the bi-layer electrodes. Charge-discharge tests for these tridimensional (3D) electrodes, employed as the cathode in lithium batteries, indicated better performance for the RVC/Pani electrode. These RVC composites presented higher specific capacities when compared with those obtained for Pani deposited onto bidimensional substrates.

  8. Thin polyaniline and polyaniline/carbon nanocomposite films for gas sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobotka, P.; Kunzo, P.; Kováčová, E.; Vávra, I.; Križanová, O.; Smatko, V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Konyushenko, Elena; Omastová, M.; Špitálský, Z.; Mičušík, M.; Krupa, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 519, č. 12 (2011), s. 4123-4127 ISSN 0040-6090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : gas sensor * polyaniline thin film * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2011

  9. Polyaniline/Carbon nanotube Electrochromic Films: Electrochemical Polymerization and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xia; Zhao, Liang; Ma, De-Yue; Zeng, Yu-Run

    2018-02-01

    Polyaniline/Carbon nanotube (PANI/CNT) composite films doped with dodecyl-benzene sulfonic acid were synthesized by cyclic voltammetry on an ITO-coated glass substrate. FTIR, XRD and electrochemical analyzer were used to characterize the micro-morphology, chemical structure, crystallinity and electrochromic behavior of the films, respectively. The effect of CNT content on the properties of the films was investigated. Results show that the introducing CNTs make aniline polymerize easier than before. Within a range, the conductivity and crystallinity of PANI/CNT composites improves with CNT content increasing. The electrochromic device made from the PAN/CNT film with a CNT content of 2.5wt% presents a reflectance contrast of 38.8%, a mean response time of 2.3s and a coloration efficiency of 386.4cm2/C at 540nm. The PAN/CNT film shows better electrochromic behaviors due to some interaction between CNTs and the PANI backbones than PANI film.

  10. Bio-esters formation in transesterification and esterification reactions on carbon and silica supported organo-sulfonic acids-polyaniline solid catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalemba-Jaje, Z.; Drelinkiewicz, A.; Lalik, E.; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 135, 1 November (2014), s. 130-145 ISSN 0016-2361 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : sufonic acids * transesterification * triacetin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2014

  11. Lithium storage performance of carbon nanotubes prepared from polyaniline for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xiaoxia; Huang Zhengzheng; Liu Enhui; Shen Haijie; Tian Yingying; Xie Hui; Wu Yuhu; Wu Zhilian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polyaniline nanotube is synthesized by the self-assembly method in aqueous media. → Carbon nanotubes were prepared from polyaniline nanotube by physical activation. → Activation leads to large surface area, and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups. → Such physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. → After 20 cycles, a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 was obtained. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes with large surface area and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups are prepared by carbonizing and activating of polyaniline nanotubes, which is synthesized by polymerization of aniline with the self-assembly method in aqueous media. The physicochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The surface area and pore diameter are 618.9 m 2 g -1 and 3.10 nm. The electrochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes as anode materials in lithium ion batteries are evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the activated carbon nanotube shows an enormously first discharge capacity of about 1370 mAh g -1 and a charge capacity of 907 mAh g -1 . After 20 cycling tests, the activated carbon nanotube retains a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 . These indicate it may be a promising candidate for an anode material for lithium secondary batteries.

  12. Green Nanotechnology from Waste Carbon-Polyaniline Composite: Generation of Wavelength-Independent Multiband Photoluminescence for Sensitive Ion Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Goswami, Sumita

    2017-12-11

    This study reports on the qualitative analysis of photoluminescence effect generated from waste carbon of cooking oven by facile cost-effective material engineering. The waste carbon product as a form of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) is incorporated within a conjugate polymer, namely, polyaniline (PANI) to produce CNP-PANI composites that have shown excitation-wavelength-independent triple-band photoluminescence emission effect and highly sensitive Fe+3 ion detection ability. Herein the waste carbon material, while functionalized within the conjugated polymer, needs no further acid treatment or surface modification thus making the process cheaper, environmentally benign, and useful for green nanotechnology. The excitation-wavelength-independent unique triple-band photoluminescence spectrum is the direct consequence of carbon–polyaniline synergy in π–π transition and the surface passivation of CNPs by the [BOND]NH2 group rich aniline during in-situ polymerization. The current scenario has been studied for the samples prepared with different CNP concentrations for different reaction times and discussed in details with supportive physico-chemical characterizations. Moreover, the present study has demonstrated that the current material can be used as a fluorescent sensing platform for Fe+3 ions with high sensitivity and selectivity criteria where the detection limit of the sensing probe has a value as low as 12 × 10−9 nM.

  13. Spectroscopic study of the highly homogeneous polyaniline film formation on gold support

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Zuzana; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 152, 5 January (2016), s. 294-303 ISSN 1386-1425 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/0911 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * thin film * infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2016

  14. Crosslinked Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline Composites as a Pseudocapacitive Material with High Cycling Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The poor cycling stability of polyaniline (PANI limits its practical application as a pseudocapacitive material due to the volume change during the charge-discharge procedure. Herein, crosslinked carbon nanotubes/polyaniline (C-CNTs/PANI composites had been designed by the in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of crosslinked carbon nanotubes (C-CNTs, which were obtained by coupling of the functionalized carbon nanotubes with 1,4-benzoquinone. The composite showed a specific capacitance of 294 F/g at the scan rate of 10 mV/s, and could retain 95% of its initial specific capacitance after 1000 CV cycles. Such high electrochemical cycling stability resulting from the crosslinked skeleton of the C-CNTs makes them potential electrode materials for a supercapacitor.

  15. Characteristics of polyaniline electrosynthesized in propylene carbonate medium in the presence of di- and trichloroacetic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venancio Everaldo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the characterization of polyaniline electrosynthesized in propylene carbonate medium in the presence of di- and trichloroacetic acids was performed using different techniques. The electrochemical response by cyclic voltammetry showed redox processes due to the formation of polaron and bipolaron and polymer degradation. The characterization by infrared and UV-visible spectroscopies indicated that the polymers are in the emeraldine salt form with perchlorate anions incorporated. The films produced with both acids in propylene carbonate media presented a compact morphology as observed by scanning electron microscopy. By testing the polyaniline film produced in selected conditions in a lithium battery environment it was found that it presents a high coulombic efficiency, promising for battery applications.

  16. Ferromagnetic behaviour of polyaniline-coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes containing nickel nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konyushenko, Elena; Kazantseva, N. E.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Kovářová, Jana; Sapurina, I.; Tomishko, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 320, 3-4 (2008), s. 231-240 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050313; GA AV ČR IAA400500504; GA MŠk ME 847; GA ČR GA202/06/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : multi-wall carbon nanotube * conducting polymer * polyaniline coating Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2008

  17. Microporous carbon derived from polyaniline base as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Huang, Zhengzheng; Shen, Haijie; Tian, Yingying; Xiao, Chengyi; Yang, Jingjing; Mao, Zhaohui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nitrogen-containing microporous carbon was prepared from polyaniline base by K 2 CO 3 activation, and used as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery. → K 2 CO 3 activation promotes the formation of amorphous and microporous structure. → High nitrogen content, and large surface area with micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion, and thus improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon with large surface area was prepared from polyaniline base using K 2 CO 3 as an activating agent. The physicochemical properties of the carbon were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode material in lithium ion secondary battery were evaluated. The first discharge capacity of the microporous carbon was 1108 mAh g -1 , whose first charge capacity was 624 mAh g -1 , with a coulombic efficiency of 56.3%. After 20 cycling tests, the microporous carbon retains a reversible capacity of 603 mAh g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 . These results clearly demonstrated the potential role of microporous carbon as anode for high capacity lithium ion secondary battery.

  18. A facile preparation of Pt–Ru nanoparticles supported on polyaniline modified fullerene [60] for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Zhengyu, E-mail: baizhengyu2000@163.com; Shi, Min; Niu, Lu; Li, Zhichao; Jiang, Libin; Yang, Lin, E-mail: yanglin1819@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-11-15

    The use of fullerene [60] (C{sub 60}) as carbon support material for the dispersion of catalysts, which provides new ways to develop the advanced electrocatalyst materials for its distorted structure. In this article, polyaniline (PANI)-modified C{sub 60} (abbreviated as PANI-C{sub 60}) is introduced, and the platinum–ruthenium alloy nanoparticles are successfully supported on PANI-C{sub 60.} According to the transmission electron microscopy measurements, the average particle size of the as-prepared nanoparticles dispersed on PANI-C{sub 60} is 2.4 nm. Electrochemical studies reveal that the Pt-Ru/PANI-C{sub 60} nanocomposites show excellent electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation, showing that the PANI-C{sub 60} may be a better potential candidate to be used as the supports of catalyst for electrochemical oxidation.

  19. Conducting polyaniline/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite paints on low carbon steel for corrosion protection: electrochemical investigations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deshpande, P. P.; Vathare, S. S.; Vagge, S. T.; Tomšík, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1072-1078 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : corrosion * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  20. The effect of carbon nanofillers on the performance of electromechanical polyaniline-based composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gallegos, J C; Martín-Gullón, I; Conesa, J A; Vega-Cantú, Y I; Rodríguez-Macías, F J

    2016-01-01

    Different types of crystalline carbon nanomaterials were used to reinforce polyaniline for use in electromechanical bilayer bending actuators. The objective is to analyze how the different graphitic structures of the nanocarbons affect and improve the in situ polymerized polyaniline composites and their subsequent actuator behavior. The nanocarbons investigated were multiwalled carbon nanotubes, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, helical-ribbon carbon nanofibers and graphene oxide, each one presenting different shape and structural characteristics. Films of nanocarbon-PAni composite were tested in a liquid electrolyte cell system. Experimental design was used to select the type of nanocarbon filler and composite loadings, and yielded a good balance of electromechanical properties. Raman spectroscopy suggests good interaction between PAni and the nanocarbon fillers. Electron microscopy showed that graphene oxide dispersed the best, followed by multiwall carbon nanotubes, while nitrogen-doped nanotube composites showed dispersion problems and thus poor performance. Multiwall carbon nanotube composite actuators showed the best performance based on the combination of bending angle, bending velocity and maximum working cycles, while graphene oxide attained similarly good performance due to its best dispersion. This parallel testing of a broad set of nanocarbon fillers on PAni-composite actuators is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge and shows that the type and properties of the carbon nanomaterial are critical to the performance of electromechanical devices with other conditions remaining equal. (paper)

  1. On the high charge-carrier mobility in polyaniline molecular channels in nanogaps between carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, A. V., E-mail: emmsowton@gmail.com; Romashkin, A. V.; Tsarik, K. A. [National Research University of Electronic Technology (MIET) (Russian Federation); Nasibulin, A. G. [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Russian Federation); Nevolin, V. K.; Bobrinetskiy, I. I. [National Research University of Electronic Technology (MIET) (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    This study is devoted to the fabrication of molecular semiconductor channels based on polymer molecules with nanoscale electrodes made of single-walled carbon nanotubes. A reproducible technology for forming nanoscale gaps in carbon nanotubes using a focused Ga{sup +} ion beam is proposed. Polyaniline molecules are deposited into nanogaps up to 30 nm wide between nanotubes by electrophoresis from N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solution. As a result, molecular organic transistors are fabricated, in which the field effect is studied and the molecular-channel mobility is determined as 0.1 cm{sup 2}/(V s) at an on/off current ratio of 5 × 10{sup 2}.

  2. High-rate polyaniline/carbon-cloth electrodes: effect of mass loading on the pseudocapacitive performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomšík, Elena; Ivanko, Iryna; Kohut, Olena; Hromádková, Jiřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 11 (2017), s. 2884-2890 ISSN 2196-0216 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14791S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : pseudocapacitors * polyaniline * high charge-discharge rate Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.136, year: 2016

  3. Preparation of supported electrocatalyst comprising multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Zelenay, Piotr

    2013-08-27

    A process for preparing a durable non-precious metal oxygen reduction electrocatalyst involves heat treatment of a ball-milled mixture of polyaniline and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the presence of a Fe species. The catalyst is more durable than catalysts that use carbon black supports. Performance degradation was minimal or absent after 500 hours of operation at constant cell voltage of 0.40 V.

  4. Supramolecular polyaniline hydrogel as a support for urease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Słoniewska, Anna; Pałys, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels of conducting polymers are successfully used in bioelectrochemistry because of their mechanical and swelling properties of gels added to the specific electron transport properties of conducting polymers. We have studied polyaniline-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PANI–PSS) hydrogel as a substrate for the urease. The hydrogels were synthesized at pH = 0 and pH = 5. PANI–PSS hydrogel is a supramolecular self-assembly material consisting of positively-charged PANI chains and negatively-charged PSS chains. The hydrogel was studied by cyclic voltammetry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Raman spectra revealed presence of phenazine rings in the hydrogel structure. Phenazine rings form covalent cross-linkers contributing to the hydrogel mechanical stability. The covalent cross-linkers influence the cyclic voltammetry responses of the hydrogel in acidic media. We tested the activity of urease immobilized in the PANI–PSS hydrogel by the physical adsorption or by the covalent bonding with the carbodiimide reaction. The enzyme immobilized in hydrogels prepared at higher pH value reveals significantly higher sensitivity. The method of the enzyme immobilization has smaller impact on the sensitivity. All hydrogel sensors reveal largely higher sensitivity to urea comparing to urease immobilized in the typical electrochemically deposited PANI films. The sensitivity of urease covalently bond to the hydrogel obtained at pH = 5 was as high as 1693 μA/(mol dm 3 ). The sensor response was linear in the urea concentration range from 10 −4 to 7 × 10 −2 mol/dm 3

  5. A doped activated carbon prepared from polyaniline for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Limin; Liu, Enhui; Li, Jian; Yang, Yanjing; Shen, Haijie; Huang, Zhengzheng; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Li, Wen [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2010-03-01

    A novel doped activated carbon has been prepared from H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-doped polyaniline which is prepared by the oxypolymerization of aniline. The morphology, surface chemical composition and surface area of the carbon have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunaner-Emmett-Teller measurement, respectively. Electrochemical properties of the doped activated carbon have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol l{sup -1} KOH. The specific capacitance of the carbon is as high as 235 F g{sup -1}, the specific capacitance hardly decreases at a high current density 11 A g{sup -1} after 10,000 cycles, which indicates that the carbon possesses excellent cycle durability and may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors. (author)

  6. Polyaniline-stabilized electromagnetic wave absorption composites of reduced graphene oxide on magnetic carbon nanotube film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinsong; Duan, Yan; Lu, Weibang; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2018-04-01

    A multi-layered composite with exceptionally high electromagnetic wave-absorbing capacity and performance stability was fabricated via the facile electrophoresis of a reduced graphene oxide network on carbon nanotube (CNT)-Fe3O4-polyaniline (PANI) film. Minimum reflection loss (RL) of -53.2 dB and absorbing bandwidth of 5.87 GHz (graphene-based absorbers. In particular, comparing to the original composites, the minimum RL and bandwidth (< -10 dB) maintains 82.5% and 99.7%, respectively, after 20 h charge/discharge cycling, demonstrating high environmental suitability.

  7. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • The composites of polyaniline nanofiber and large mesoporous carbon were prepared for supercapacitors. • The large mesoporous carbons were simply prepared by nano-CaCO{sub 3} template method. • The composites exhibit high capacitance and good rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO{sub 3} templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g{sup −1} at a current load of 0.1 A g{sup −1} with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  8. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The composites of polyaniline nanofiber and large mesoporous carbon were prepared for supercapacitors. • The large mesoporous carbons were simply prepared by nano-CaCO 3 template method. • The composites exhibit high capacitance and good rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO 3 templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g −1 at a current load of 0.1 A g −1 with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors

  9. Polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites with enhanced optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Mrinmoy [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Ghosh, Ranajit, E-mail: ghosh.ranajit@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Maruyama, Takahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Meijo University, Nagoya, 4688502 (Japan); Meikap, Ajit Kumar [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, 713209 (India)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new kind of polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites have been synthesized via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer. • A degree of increase in conductivity. • Size-dependent optical properties of CdS quantum dots have been observed. - Abstract: A new kind of polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites have been developed via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of dispersed CdS quantum dots (size: 2.7–4.8 nm) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), which exhibits enhanced optical and electrical properties. The existences of 1st order, 2nd order, and 3rd order longitudinal optical phonon modes, strongly indicate the high quality of synthesized CdS quantum dots. The occurrence of red shift of free exciton energy in photoluminescence is due to size dependent quantum confinement effect of CdS. The conductivity of the composites (for example PANI/CNT/CdS (2 wt.% CdS)) is increased by about 7 of magnitude compared to that of pure PANI indicating a charge transfer between CNT and polymer via CdS quantum dots. This advanced material has a great potential for high-performance of electro-optical applications.

  10. Electrocatalytic oxidative determination of reserpine at electrochemically functionalized single walled carbon nanotube with polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, Riyaz Ahmad; Naikoo, Gowhar Ahmad; Pitre, Krishna Sadashive

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrode oxidation mechanism of reserpine at PANI modified-SWCNT/CPE. -- Highlights: • Electropolymerization of polyaniline at SWCNT/CPE. • CV, EIS, CC SEM techniques were used for characterization of electrode. • Electrode showed electrocatalytic activity towards anodic oxidation of reserpine. • Oxidation process as irreversible and adsorption-controlled. • Reserpine in bark of Rauwolfia serpentina and in its pharmaceutical formulations. -- Abstract: In the present work a polyaniline film was successfully deposited by electropolymerization on single walled carbon nanotube paste electrode. The electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, chronocoulometry and scanning electron microscopy. The modified electrode showed electrocatalytic behaviour towards the anodic oxidation of reserpine. The adsorptive stripping voltammetric behaviour of reserpine at polyaniline film modified single walled carbon nanotube paste electrode (modified-SWCNTPE) was investigated and validated in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry (AdSDPV) in 0.02 M phosphate buffer in the pH range of 2.5–8.5. Cyclic voltammetry has shown that the oxidation process is irreversible over the pH range studied and exhibited an adsorption-controlled behaviour. Further, the overall electrode process is mainly diffusion controlled with adsorption effects. The proposed more sensitive AdSDPV method allow quantitation over the range 0.085 μg mL −1 to 0.87 μg mL −1 with the detection limit of 0.407 ng mL −1 and has been successfully used to determine reserpine in bark of Rauwolfia serpentina and in its pharmaceutical formulations

  11. Fabrication and microwave shielding properties of free standing polyaniline-carbon fiber thin sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joon, Seema; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Shukla, Rajni; Dhawan, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Attempt has been made to synthesize polyaniline-carbon fiber (PANI-CF) composite via in-situ emulsion polymerization using β-naphthalene sulphonic acid (NSA) which acts as both surfactant as well as dopant. Free standing PANI-CF thin sheets are prepared which have electrical conductivity ∼1.02 S/cm with improved mechanical strength and thermal stability. The scanning electron microscopy is used to study the surface morphology of the composites. Structural characterization is done by using XRD. The dielectric attributes (ε* = ε′ − iε″) of PANI-CF sheets are calculated using experimental S parameters (S 11 , S 12 ) by Nicolson Ross Wier equations. It has been demonstrated that these sheets show maximum shielding effectiveness (SE) of 31.9 dB at 12.4 GHz frequency at a thickness of 1.5 mm. Free standing PANI-CF sheets so prepared have a potential for X-band microwave absorber application. - Highlights: • Free standing polyaniline-carbon fiber thin sheets fabricated for EMI shielding. • The mechanical strength of sheets improves with phenolic resin loading. • The dielectric parameters were calculated by Nicholson Ross Wier equations. • Sheets (1.5 mm thickness) demonstrate SE of 31.9 dB at 12.4 GHz frequency. • Sheets find potential application for X-band microwave absorption

  12. Enhanced microwave absorption properties of Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon/polyaniline nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liuding; Wu, Hongjing; Shen, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaoli; Wang, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► OMC-Ni/PANI nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The effective absorption bandwidth was 4.7 GHz for OMC-Ni0.15/PANI. ► OMC-Ni/PANI showed excellent microwave absorption with respect to OMC-Ni. ► This effect could be mainly attributed to the improvement of impendence matching. - Abstract: We propose and demonstrate a new scheme to improve microwave absorption property through polyaniline (PANI)-functionalized Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by in situ polymerization method. The polymer-functionalized nanocomposites, embedding polyaniline within ordered mesoporous carbon, exhibit strong and broadband microwave absorption due to its better dielectric loss characteristic. OMC-Ni0.15/PANI exhibits an effective absorption bandwidth (i.e., reflection loss (RL) ≤ −10 dB) of 4.7 GHz and an absorption peak of −51 dB at 9.0 GHz. The absorption peak intensity and position can be tuned by controlling the thickness of the coating.

  13. Enhancement of electrocatalytic properties of carbonized polyaniline nanoparticles upon a hydrothermal treatment in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, Nemanja; Vujkovic, Milica; Pasti, Igor A.; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Mentus, Slavko V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Carbonized polyaniline nanoparticles were treated hydrothermally in 1 M KOH. → Hydrothermal treatment improved the electrocatalytic activity towards ORR. → Significant effect of catalyst loading was evidenced too. → At the loading 0.5 mg cm -2 the 4e - reaction path was achieved. - Abstract: The electrocatalytic activity of carbonized polyaniline nanostructures (Carb-nanoPANI) towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), estimated in 0.1 mol dm -3 KOH solution, was significantly improved upon a hydrothermal treatment in 1 mol dm -3 KOH solution. Namely, the onset of ORR was shifted by ∼70 mV to more positive potentials, and the number of electrons consumed per O 2 molecule was enhanced in comparison to the original material. The number of electrons involved in ORR depended on loading, and with a loading of 0.5 mg cm -2 , for the potentials lower than -0.5 V vs SCE, the number of electrons approached 4. For this material, high stability of electrochemical behavior and resistance to the poisoning by ethanol was evidenced by potentiodynamic cycling.

  14. Enhancement of electrocatalytic properties of carbonized polyaniline nanoparticles upon a hydrothermal treatment in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, Nemanja; Vujkovic, Milica; Pasti, Igor A.; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Mentus, Slavko V., E-mail: slavko@ffh.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihajlova 35, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: > Carbonized polyaniline nanoparticles were treated hydrothermally in 1 M KOH. > Hydrothermal treatment improved the electrocatalytic activity towards ORR. > Significant effect of catalyst loading was evidenced too. > At the loading 0.5 mg cm{sup -2} the 4e{sup -} reaction path was achieved. - Abstract: The electrocatalytic activity of carbonized polyaniline nanostructures (Carb-nanoPANI) towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), estimated in 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution, was significantly improved upon a hydrothermal treatment in 1 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution. Namely, the onset of ORR was shifted by {approx}70 mV to more positive potentials, and the number of electrons consumed per O{sub 2} molecule was enhanced in comparison to the original material. The number of electrons involved in ORR depended on loading, and with a loading of 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}, for the potentials lower than -0.5 V vs SCE, the number of electrons approached 4. For this material, high stability of electrochemical behavior and resistance to the poisoning by ethanol was evidenced by potentiodynamic cycling.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline/activated carbon composites and preparation of conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengin, Huseyin; Kalayci, Guellue

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline was synthesized via polyaniline/activated carbon (PANI/AC) composites by in situ polymerization and ex situ solution mixing. PANI and PANI/AC composite films were prepared by drop-by-drop and spin coating methods. The electrical conductivities of HCl doped PANI film and PANI/AC composite films were measured according to the standard four-point-probe technique. The composite films exhibited an increase in electrical conductivity over neat PANI. PANI and PANI/AC composites were investigated by spectroscopic methods including UV-vis, FTIR and photoluminescence. UV-vis and FTIR studies showed that AC particles affect the quinoid units along the polymer backbone and indicate strong interactions between AC particles and quinoidal sites of PANI. The photoluminescence properties of PANI and PANI/AC composites were studied and the photoluminescence intensity of PANI/AC composites was higher than that of neat PANI. The increase of conductivity of PANI/AC composites may be partially due to the doping or impurity effect of AC, where the AC competes with chloride ions. The amount of weight loss and the thermostability of PANI and PANI/AC composites were determined from thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of particles and films were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM measurements indicated that the AC particles were well dispersed and isolated in composite films.

  16. Phosphorus and nitrogen-containing carbons obtained by the carbonization of conducting polyaniline complex with phosphites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Morávková, Zuzana; Kovářová, Jana; Vulić, I.; Gavrilov, N.; Pašti, I. A.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, 20 August (2017), s. 443-450 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbonization * conducting polymer * nitrogen-containing carbon Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  17. A Facile Synthesis of a Palladium-Doped Polyaniline-Modified Carbon Nanotube Composites for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soumen; Ghosh, Debasis; Malas, Asish; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Supercapacitors have evolved as the premier choice of the era for storing huge amounts of charge in the field of energy storage devices, but it is still necessary to enhance their performance to meet the increasing requirements of future systems. This could be achieved either through advancing the interfaces of the material at the nanoscale or by using novel material compositions. We report a high-performance material composition prepared by combining a transition metal (palladium)-doped conductive polymer with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs/palladium-doped polyaniline (MWCNTs/Pd/PANI) composites and multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (MWCNTs/PANI) composites (for comparison) were prepared via in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer. The reported composites were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. FESEM and TEM studies indicated the narrow size distribution of the π-conjugated polymer-protected palladium nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. All the electrochemical characterizations were executed using a three-electrode system in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis was performed to observe the capacitive performance and redox behavior of the composites. The ion transfer behavior and cyclic stability of the composites were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis and cyclic charge-discharge (CCD) testing, respectively. The MWCNTs/Pd/PANI composite was found to exhibit an especially high specific capacitance value of 920 F/g at scan rate of 2 mV/s.

  18. Nickel foam/polyaniline-based carbon/palladium composite electrodes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, Jan M.; Urbaniak, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The sandwich-like nickel/palladium/carbon electrodes exhibiting ability to absorb hydrogen in alkaline solution are presented. Electrodes were prepared by successive deposition of palladium and polyaniline layers on nickel foam substrate followed by heat treatment to give Ni/Pd/C electrode. It was shown that thermal conversion of polymer into carbon layer and subsequent thermal activation of carbon component bring about the modification of the mechanism of reversible hydrogen sorption. It was proven that carbon layer, interacting with Pd catalyst, plays a considerable role in the process of hydrogen storage. In the other series of experiments, Pd particles were dispersed electrochemically on carbon coating leading to Ni/C/Pd system. The adding of the next carbon layer resulted in Ni/C/Pd/C electrodes. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes depend on both the sequence of Pd and C layers and the preparation/activation of carbon coating. Electrochemical behavior of sandwich-like electrodes in the reaction of hydrogen sorption/desorption was characterized in 6 M KOH using the cyclic voltammetry method and the results obtained were compared to those for Ni/Pd electrode. The anodic desorption of hydrogen from electrodes free and containing carbon layer was considered after the potentiodynamic as well as potentiostatic sorption of hydrogen. The influence of the sorption potential and the time of rest of electrodes at a cut-off circuit on the kinetics of hydrogen recovery were examined. The results obtained for Ni/Pd/C electrodes indicate that the displacement of hydrogen between C and Pd phase takes place during the rest at a cut-off circuit. Electrodes containing carbon layer require longer time for hydrogen electrosorption. On the other hand, the presence of carbon layer in electrodes is advantageous because a considerable longer retention of hydrogen is possible, as compared to Pd/Ni electrode. Hydrogen stored in sandwich-like electrodes can instantly be

  19. Performance evaluation of photovoltaic cells using functionalized carbon nanotube and polyaniline film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavita, S; Mohan, B; Babu, J Sarat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The use of polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as photovoltaic materials has been presented in this paper. The promising properties of PANI and CNTs have encouraged utilizing them in photovoltaic devices and studying their performance. The photovoltaic performance of PANI has been studied with and without CNTs. We found that there is a considerable increase in the short circuit current density from 3.49 to 8.86 mA cm"−"2 with the use of CNTs in the device and also an increase in power conversion efficiency. The incorporation of CNTs film had led to an efficient transport of photo-generated holes to the anode and suppressed the recombination of free charges generated, thus increasing the efficiency of the device. The performance of the device shows that the PANI and CNTs can be effectively utilized as photovoltaic materials in a photovoltaic cell. (paper)

  20. Transparent and flexible electrodes and supercapacitors using polyaniline/single-walled carbon nanotube composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun; Cheng, Guanghui; Chen, Liwei

    2011-08-01

    Large-scale transparent and flexible electronic devices have been pursued for potential applications such as those in touch sensors and display technologies. These applications require that the power source of these devices must also comply with transparent and flexible features. Here we present transparent and flexible supercapacitors assembled from polyaniline (PANI)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite thin film electrodes. The ultrathin, optically homogeneous and transparent, electrically conducting films of the PANI/SWNT composite show a large specific capacitance due to combined double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance mechanisms. A supercapacitor assembled using electrodes with a SWNT density of 10.0 µg cm-2 and 59 wt% PANI gives a specific capacitance of 55.0 F g-1 at a current density of 2.6 A g-1, showing its possibility for transparent and flexible energy storage.

  1. Polyaniline nanowire arrays aligned on nitrogen-doped carbon fabric for high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pingping; Li, Yingzhi; Yu, Xinyi; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Lihao; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-09-24

    A combination of vertical polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays and nitrogen plasma etched carbon fiber cloths (eCFC) was fabricated to create 3D nanostructured PANI/eCFC composites. The small size of the highly ordered PANI nanowires can greatly reduce the scale of the diffusion length, allowing for the improved utilization of electrode materials. A two-electrode flexible supercapacitor based on PANI/eCFC demonstrates a high specific capacitance (1035 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1)), good rate capability (88% capacity retention at 8 A g(-1)), and long-term cycle life (10% capacity loss after 5000 cycles). The lightweight, low-cost, flexible composites are promising candidates for use in energy storage device applications.

  2. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO3 templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g-1 at a current load of 0.1 A g-1 with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  3. Preparation of graphene nanosheet/carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun; Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun; Zhang, Milin; Shen, Xiande [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-05-01

    Graphene nanosheet/carbon nanotube/polyaniline (GNS/CNT/PANI) composite is synthesized via in situ polymerization. GNS/CNT/PANI composite exhibits the specific capacitance of 1035 F g{sup -1} (1 mV s{sup -1}) in 6 M of KOH, which is a little lower than GNS/PANI composite (1046 F g{sup -1}), but much higher than pure PANI (115 F g{sup -1}) and CNT/PANI composite (780 F g{sup -1}). Though a small amount of CNTs (1 wt.%) is added into GNS, the cycle stability of GNS/CNT/PANI composite is greatly improved due to the maintenance of highly conductive path as well as mechanical strength of the electrode during doping/dedoping processes. After 1000 cycles, the capacitance decreases only 6% of initial capacitance compared to 52% and 67% for GNS/PANI and CNT/PANI composites. (author)

  4. Influence of the microstructure on the supercapacitive behavior of polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Environment and Energy, KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    Polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube (PANI/SWCNT) composites were prepared by in situ potentiostatic deposition of PANI onto SWCNTs at the potential of 0.75V versus SCE, with the aim to investigate the influence of microstructure on the specific capacitance of PANI/SWCNT composites. It was found that the specific capacitance of the PANI/SWCNT composites is strongly influenced by their microstructure, which is correlated to the wt.% of the PANI deposited onto the SWCNTs. The optimum condition, corresponding to the highest specific capacitance, 463Fg{sup -1} (at 10mAcm{sup -2}), was obtained for 73wt.% PANI deposited onto SWCNTs. The specific capacitance of the PANI/SWCNT composite electrode was highly stable, with a capacitive decrease of 5% during the first 500 cycles and just 1% during the next 1000 cycles, indicative of the excellent cyclic stability of the composite for supercapacitor applications. (author)

  5. Enhanced Supercapacitor Performance Using Electropolymerization of Self-Doped Polyaniline on Carbon Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsin Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we electrochemically deposited self-doped polyanilines (SPANI on the surface of carbon-nanoparticle (CNP film, enhancing the superficial faradic reactions in supercapacitors and thus improving their performance. SPANI was electrodeposited on the CNP-film employing electropolymerization of aniline (AN and o-aminobenzene sulfonic acid (SAN comonomers in solution. Here, SAN acts in dual roles of a self-doped monomer while it also provides an acidic environment which is suitable for electropolymerization. The performance of SPANI−CNP-based supercapacitors significantly depends upon the mole ratio of AN/SAN. Supercapacitor performance was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV, galvanostatic charge and discharge (GCD, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The optimal performance of SPANI−CNP-based supercapacitor exists at AN/SAN ratio of 1.0, having the specific capacitance of 273.3 Fg−1 at the charging current density of 0.5 Ag−1.

  6. Secondary doping in polyaniline layers coated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HC1 doped coaxial polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs nanocomposites were first prepared by in–situ chemical polymerization of aniline monomers in the presence of MWCNTs with less structural defects. P-toluene sulfonic acid (TSA and 5-sulfosalicylic acid dihydrate (SSA redoped PANI/MWCNT nanocomposites were achieved after the as-prepared nanocomposites were treated by ammonia respectively. The redoped nanocomposites were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X–ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The results indicated that the thermal stability and electrochemical behaviour of TSA doped PANI/MWCNT nanocomposites were better than that of SSA doped PANI/MWCNT nanocomposites.

  7. Portable cholesterol detection with polyaniline-carbon nanotube film based interdigitated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Le Huy; Nguyen, Ngoc Thinh; Nguyen, Hai Binh; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Tuan Dung

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline-carboxylic multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film (PANi-MWCNT) has been polymerized on the surface of interdigitated platinum electrode (fabricated by MEMS technology) which was compatibly connected to Autolab interface via universal serial bus (USB). An amperometric biosensor based on covalent immobilization of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) on PANi–MWCNT film with potassium ferricyanide (FeCN) as the redox mediator was developed. The mediator helps to shuttle the electrons between the immobilized ChOx and the PANi-MWCNT electrode, therefore operating at a low potential of −0.3 V compared to the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). This potential precludes the interfering compounds from oxidization. The bio-electrode exhibits good linearity from 0.02 to 1.2 mM cholesterol concentration with a correlation coefficient of 0.9985

  8. Synthesis and characterization of conducting composites of polyaniline and carbon black with high thermal stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio R. Simões

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a detailed chemical route to prepare thermally stable polyaniline (PANI/carbon black (CB composites is described. The syntheses were performed by chemical polymerization of aniline over CB particles, using different PANI/CB mass ratios. The thermal and electrical properties were characterized. Composites with mass ratio up to 65:35 (PANI:CB showed excellent thermal stability maintaining their conducting properties when thermally treated at 230 °C for two hours, which is adequate to process these materials. Moreover, the results showed an important reduction in the surface area of the composites which have a good relationship with the improvement of the rheological properties in melt processing.

  9. Dielectric microwave absorbing material processed by impregnation of carbon fiber fabric with polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza de Castro Folgueras

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that the adequate combination of components and experimental conditions may produce materials with specific requirements. This study presents the effect of carbon fiber fabric impregnation with polyaniline conducting polymer aiming at the radar absorbing material processing. The experiments consider the sample preparation with one and two impregnations. The prepared samples were evaluated by reflectivity measurements, in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The correlation of the results shows that the quantity of impregnated material influences the performance of the processed microwave absorber. This study shows that the proposed experimental route provides flexible absorbers with absorption values of the incident radiation close to 87%.

  10. Polyaniline-Derived Ordered Mesoporous Carbon as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon was synthesized by using polyaniline as the carbon source and SBA-15 as the template. The microstructure, composition and electrochemical behavior were extensively investigated by the nitrogen sorption isotherm, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode. It is found that the pyrolysis temperature yielded a considerable effect on the pore structure, elemental composition and chemical configuration. The pyrolysis temperature from 800 to 1100 °C yielded a volcano-shape relationship with both the specific surface area and the content of the nitrogen-activated carbon. Electrochemical tests showed that the electrocatalytic activity followed a similar volcano-shape relationship, and the carbon catalyst synthesized at 1000 °C yielded the best performance. The post-treatment in NH3 was found to further increase the specific surface area and to enhance the nitrogen doping, especially the edge-type nitrogen, which favored the oxygen reduction reaction in both acid and alkaline media. The above findings shed light on electrocatalysis and offer more strategies for the controllable synthesis of the doped carbon catalyst.

  11. Fabrication and electrochemical capacitance of hierarchical graphene/polyaniline/carbon nanotube ternary composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiangjun; Dou Hui; Yang Sudong; Hao Liang; Zhang Luojiang; Shen Laifa; Zhang Fang; Zhang Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A hierarchical film with coaxial polyaniline/carbon nanotube (PANI/CNT) nanocables uniformly sandwiched between graphene (GN) sheets was prepared by filtration of the complex dispersion of graphite oxide (GO) and PANI/CNT. Highlights: → A film composed of GN sheets, PANI and CNTs was fabricated. → The coaxial PANI/CNT nanocables uniformly sandwiched between the GN sheets. → The unique structure facilitates contact between electrolyte and electrode materials. → Each component provides unique function to achieve superior electrochemical properties. - Abstract: A film composed of graphene (GN) sheets, polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been fabricated by reducing a graphite oxide (GO)/PANI/CNT precursor prepared by flow-directed assembly from a complex dispersion of GO and PANI/CNT, followed by reoxidation and redoping of the reduced PANI in the composite to restore the conducting PANI structure. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the ternary composite film is a layered structure with coaxial PANI/CNT nanocables uniformly sandwiched between the GN sheets. Such novel hierarchical structure with high electrical conductivity perfectly facilitates contact between electrolyte ions and PANI for faradaic energy storage and efficiently utilizes the double-layer capacitance at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The specific capacitance of the GN/PANI/CNT estimated by galvanostatic charge/discharge measurement is 569 F g -1 (or 188 F cm -3 for volumetric capacitance) at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 . In addition, the GN/PANI/CNT exhibits good rate capability (60% capacity retention at 10 A g -1 ) and superior cycling stability (4% fade after 5000 continuous charge/discharge cycles).

  12. Polyaniline electrosynthesis on composite surface carbon fiber-epoxy Aeronautic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Richelmy Magi; Batista, Aline Fontana; Gama, Adriana Medeiros; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This work aims to obtain polyaniline (PAni) by electro synthesis, as thin layers on carbon fiber/epoxy composite surface, to attenuate microwave amplitude and so decrease radar cross section (RCS) on drone surfaces. In order to it, two procedures were used to obtain polyaniline on surface from aniline 0,5 mol L -1 and H 2 SO 4 1,0 mol L -1 , using cyclic voltammetry, from -0,50 up to 1,05 V x Ag/AgCl, using auxiliary electrode of Pt, by potentiostat-galvanostat Autolab PGSTAT 302. The first used 26 cycles to a sample and 53 cycles to another sample, at 25mVs -1 . The second differs to the first in to use 3 beginning cycles at 5mVs -1 and remaining cycles at 100 mVs -1 , obtaining two samples, similar to first treatment, with 26 and 53 cycles, at end. Processes temperature was 0°C. These procedures resulted in two different materials of PAni, evaluated in function of scanning velocity and variation on cycle numbers used. Resulting new composites were characterized scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electromagnetic measures in waveguide of intrinsic properties, scattering parameters and reflectivity on frequency range from 8,0 up to 12,0 GHz To verify applicability on aeronautics electromagnetic shields, computing sources were used, through numeric simulations to determine RCS of objects, overlapping concepts of geometric interactions with material properties applied on their surfaces, added with interception of microwaves emitted by hypothetical radars. To this end, software Computer Simulation Technology-(CST) was used, through which efficacy of composite PAni@carbon fiber@epoxy was indicated to aeronautic application in Stealth technology. (author)

  13. Polyaniline electrosynthesis on composite surface carbon fiber-epoxy Aeronautic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Richelmy Magi; Batista, Aline Fontana; Gama, Adriana Medeiros; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: rms.aero94@gmail.com [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Caracterizacao Fisico-Quimica; Quirino, Sandro Fonseca; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This work aims to obtain polyaniline (PAni) by electro synthesis, as thin layers on carbon fiber/epoxy composite surface, to attenuate microwave amplitude and so decrease radar cross section (RCS) on drone surfaces. In order to it, two procedures were used to obtain polyaniline on surface from aniline 0,5 mol L{sup -1} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 1,0 mol L{sup -1}, using cyclic voltammetry, from -0,50 up to 1,05 V x Ag/AgCl, using auxiliary electrode of Pt, by potentiostat-galvanostat Autolab PGSTAT 302. The first used 26 cycles to a sample and 53 cycles to another sample, at 25mVs{sup -1}. The second differs to the first in to use 3 beginning cycles at 5mVs{sup -1} and remaining cycles at 100 mVs{sup -1}, obtaining two samples, similar to first treatment, with 26 and 53 cycles, at end. Processes temperature was 0°C. These procedures resulted in two different materials of PAni, evaluated in function of scanning velocity and variation on cycle numbers used. Resulting new composites were characterized scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electromagnetic measures in waveguide of intrinsic properties, scattering parameters and reflectivity on frequency range from 8,0 up to 12,0 GHz To verify applicability on aeronautics electromagnetic shields, computing sources were used, through numeric simulations to determine RCS of objects, overlapping concepts of geometric interactions with material properties applied on their surfaces, added with interception of microwaves emitted by hypothetical radars. To this end, software Computer Simulation Technology-(CST) was used, through which efficacy of composite PAni@carbon fiber@epoxy was indicated to aeronautic application in Stealth technology. (author)

  14. Preparation and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-based carbon nanotubes as electrode material for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Miaomiao; Cheng Bin; Song Huaihe; Chen Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with open end and low specific surface area were prepared via the carbonization of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes synthesized by a rapidly mixed reaction. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of the original and carbonized PANI nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of PANI-based CNTs obtained at different temperatures as electrode materials for supercapacitors using 30 wt.% aqueous solution of KOH as electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the carbonized PANI nanotubes at 700 o C exhibit high specific capacitance of 163 F g -1 at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 and excellent rate capability in KOH solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement the nitrogen state and content in PANI-CNTs were analysed, which could play important roles for the enhancement of electrochemical performance. When the appropriate content of nitrogen is present, the presence of pyrrole or pyridone and quaternary nitrogen is beneficial for the improvement of electron mobility and the wettability of electrode.

  15. Polyaniline-coated freestanding porous carbon nanofibers as efficient hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chau; Singhal, Richa; Lawrence, Daniel; Kalra, Vibha

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional, free-standing, hybrid supercapacitor electrodes combining polyaniline (PANI) and porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated with the aim to integrate the benefits of both electric double layer capacitors (high power, cyclability) and pseudocapacitors (high energy density). A systematic investigation of three different electropolymerization techniques, namely, potentiodynamic, potentiostatic, and galvanostatic, for electrodeposition of PANI on freestanding carbon nanofiber mats was conducted. It was found that the galvanostatic method, where the current density is kept constant and can be easily controlled facilitates conformal and uniform coating of PANI on three-dimensional carbon nanofiber substrates. The electrochemical tests indicated that the PANI-coated P-CNFs exhibit excellent specific capacitance of 366 F g-1 (vs. 140 F g-1 for uncoated porous carbon nanofibers), 140 F cm-3 volumetric capacitance, and up to 2.3 F cm-2 areal capacitance at 100 mV s-1 scan rate. Such excellent performance is attributed to a thin and conformal coating of PANI achieved using the galvanostatic electrodeposition technique, which not only provides pseudocapacitance with high rate capability, but also retains the double-layer capacitance of the underlying P-CNFs.

  16. Preparation and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-based carbon nanotubes as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Miaomiao; Cheng Bin [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Song Huaihe, E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-09-30

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with open end and low specific surface area were prepared via the carbonization of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes synthesized by a rapidly mixed reaction. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of the original and carbonized PANI nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of PANI-based CNTs obtained at different temperatures as electrode materials for supercapacitors using 30 wt.% aqueous solution of KOH as electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the carbonized PANI nanotubes at 700 {sup o}C exhibit high specific capacitance of 163 F g{sup -1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup -1} and excellent rate capability in KOH solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement the nitrogen state and content in PANI-CNTs were analysed, which could play important roles for the enhancement of electrochemical performance. When the appropriate content of nitrogen is present, the presence of pyrrole or pyridone and quaternary nitrogen is beneficial for the improvement of electron mobility and the wettability of electrode.

  17. Polyaniline-encapsulated silicon on three-dimensional carbon nanotubes foam with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Liu, Yang; Du, Chunyu; Ren, Yang; Mu, Tiansheng; Zuo, Pengjian; Yin, Geping; Ma, Yulin; Cheng, Xinqun; Gao, Yunzhi

    2018-03-01

    Seeking free volume around nanostructures for silicon-based anodes has been a crucial strategy to improve cycling and rate performance in the next generation Li-ion batteries. Herein, through a simple pyrolysis and in-situ polymerization approach, the low cost commercially available melamine foam as a soft template converts carbon nanotubes into highly dispersed and three-dimensionally interconnected framework with encapsulated silicon/polyaniline hierarchical nanoarchitecture. This unique core-sheath structure based on carbon nanotubes foam integrates a large number of mesoporous, thus providing well-accessible space for electrolyte wetting, whereas the carbon nanotubes matrix serves as conductive thoroughfares for electron transport. Meanwhile, the outer polyaniline coated on silicon nanoparticles provides effective space for volume expansion of silicon, further inhibiting the active material escape from the current collector. As expected, the PANI-Si@CNTs foam exhibits a high initial specific capacity of 1954 mAh g-1 and retains 727 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1, which can be attributed to highly electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes and protective layer of polyaniline sheath, together with three-dimensionally interconnected porous skeleton. This facile structure can pave a way for large scale synthesis of high durable silicon-based anodes or other electrode materials with huge volume expansion.

  18. Hierarchical composites of sulfonated graphene-supported vertically aligned polyaniline nanorods for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zhou, Xiao; Bao, Hua; Li, Xingwei; Wang, Gengchao

    2012-10-01

    Hierarchical composites of sulfonated graphene-supported vertically aligned polyaniline nanorods (sGNS/PANI) are successfully synthesized via interfacial polymerization of aniline monomers in the presence of sulfonated graphene nanosheets (sGNS). The FE-SEM images indicate that the morphologies of sGNS/PANI composites can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of aniline monomers. FTIR and Raman spectra reveal that aligned PANI nanorod arrays for sGNS/PANI exhibit higher degree of conjugation compared with pristine PANI nanorods. The hierarchical composite based on the two-electrode cell possesses higher specific capacitance (497 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1), better rate capability and cycling stability (5.7% capacitance loss after 2000 cycles) than those of pristine PANI nanorods.

  19. Nanobiocomposite platform based on polyaniline-iron oxide-carbon nanotubes for bacterial detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu; Verma, Rachna; Sumana, G; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Sood, Seema; Gupta, Rajinder K; Malhotra, B D

    2012-08-01

    The nanocomposite based on polyaniline (PANI)-iron oxide nanoparticles (nFe(3)O(4)) and multi walled carbon-nanotubes (CNT) has been fabricated onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plate via facile electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline in presence of nFe(3)O(4) (~20 nm) and CNT (20-80 nm in diameter). The results of transmission electron microscopic studies show evidence of coating of PANI and nFe(3)O(4) onto the CNT. The PANI-nFe(3)O(4)-CNT/ITO nanoelectrode has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. The biotinylated nucleic acid probe sequence consisting of 20 bases has been immobilized onto PANI-nFe(3)O(4)-CNT/ITO nanoelectrode using biotin-avidin coupling. It is shown that the PANI-nFe(3)O(4)-CNT platform based biosensor can be used to specifically detect bacteria (N. gonorrhoeae) at minute concentration as low as (1×10(-19) M) indicating high sensitivity within 45 s of hybridization time at 298 K by differential pulse voltammetry using methylene blue as electroactive indicator. This bacterial sensor has also been tested with 4 positive and 4 negative PCR amplicons of gonorrhoea affected patient samples. The results of these studies have implications towards the fabrication of a handheld device for Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection that may perhaps result in a decrease in the human immunodeficiency virus infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrocatalytic Activity of Carbonized Nanostructured Polyanilines for Oxidation Reactions: Sensing of Nitrite Ions and Ascorbic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micić, Darko; Šljukić, Biljana; Zujovic, Zoran; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonized PANIs prepared from various nanostructured PANI precursors • Electroanalytical performances of carbonized PANIs evaluated using voltammetry • Study of carbonized PANIs physico-chemical properties related to electroactivity • The lowest over-potential for NO 2 − oxidation at c-PANI (+0.87 V vs. SCE) • The lowest over-potential for ascorbic acid oxidation at both c-PANI and c-PANI-SSA - Abstract: A comparative study of the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-containing carbon nanomaterials, prepared by the carbonization of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) salts, for the electrooxidation reactions is presented. Nanostructured PANI salts were synthesized by the oxidative polymerization of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in an aqueous solution in the presence of 5-sulfosalicylic acid (PANI-SSA), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (PANI-DNSA) as well as without added acid (PANI), and subsequently carbonized to c-PANI-SSA, c-PANI-DNSA and c-PANI, respectively. Glassy carbon tip was modified with nanostructured c-PANIs and used for the investigation of sensing of nitrite and ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions as model analytes by linear sweep voltammetry. All three types of the investigated c-PANIs gave excellent response to the nitrite ions and ascorbic acid electrooxidation. The lowest peak potential for nitrite ion oxidation exhibited c-PANI (+0.87 V vs. SCE), and for ascorbic acid oxidation both c-PANI and c-PANI-SSA (ca. + 0.13 V vs. SCE). Electrochemical data were correlated with structural and textural data obtained by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental and nitrogen sorption analysis

  1. Nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt-iron oxygen reduction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-29

    A Fe--Co hybrid catalyst for oxygen reaction reduction was prepared by a two part process. The first part involves reacting an ethyleneamine with a cobalt-containing precursor to form a cobalt-containing complex, combining the cobalt-containing complex with an electroconductive carbon supporting material, heating the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material under conditions suitable to convert the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material into a cobalt-containing catalyst support. The second part of the process involves polymerizing an aniline in the presence of said cobalt-containing catalyst support and an iron-containing compound under conditions suitable to form a supported, cobalt-containing, iron-bound polyaniline species, and subjecting said supported, cobalt-containing, iron bound polyaniline species to conditions suitable for producing a Fe--Co hybrid catalyst.

  2. Detonation nanodiamond and onion-like-carbon-embedded polyaniline for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Igor; Bucknall, David G.; Yushin, Gleb [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2010-11-23

    The detonation nanodiamond is a versatile low-cost nanomaterial with tunable properties and surface chemistry. In this work, it is shown how the application of nanodiamond (ND) can greatly increase the performance of electrochemically active polymers, such as polyaniline (PANI). Symmetric supercapacitors containing PANI-ND nanocomposite electrodes with 3-28 wt% ND show dramatically improved cycle stability and higher capacitance retention at fast sweep rate than pure PANI electrodes. Contrary to other PANI-carbon nanocomposites, specific capacitance of the selected PANI electrodes with embedded ND increases after 10 000 galvanostatic cycles and reaches 640 F g{sup -1}, when measured in a symmetric two-electrode configuration with 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. The demonstrated specific capacitance is 3-4 times higher than that of the activated carbons and more than 15 times higher than that of ND and onion-like carbon (OLC). (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Exploring aligned-carbon-nanotubes@polyaniline arrays on household Al as supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fan; Lou, Fengliu; Chen, De

    2012-05-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a new approach towards the construction of supercapacitors consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and conducting polymers (ECPs) with high specific power, high specific energy, and stable cycling performance through a 3D design of a thin film of polyaniline (PANI) on an aligned small carbon nanotube (ACNT) array on household Al foils. The thin-film strategy is used to fully exploit the specific capacitance of PANI, and obtain regular pores, strong interaction between PANI and CNTs, and reduced electrical resistance for the electrodes. A facile process is developed to fabricate a highly flexible supercapacitor using this binder-free composite on household Al foil as the current collector. It exhibits high specific energy of 18.9 Wh kg(-1) , high maximum specific power of 11.3 kW kg(-1) of the active material in an aqueous electrolyte at 1.0 A g(-1) , and excellent rate performance and cycling stability. A high specific energy of 72.4 Wh kg(-1) , a high maximum specific power of 24.9 kW kg(-1) , and a good cycling performance of the active material are obtained in an organic electrolyte. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites with enhanced optical and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mrinmoy; Ghosh, Ranajit; Maruyama, Takahiro; Meikap, Ajit Kumar

    2016-02-01

    A new kind of polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites have been developed via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of dispersed CdS quantum dots (size: 2.7-4.8 nm) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), which exhibits enhanced optical and electrical properties. The existences of 1st order, 2nd order, and 3rd order longitudinal optical phonon modes, strongly indicate the high quality of synthesized CdS quantum dots. The occurrence of red shift of free exciton energy in photoluminescence is due to size dependent quantum confinement effect of CdS. The conductivity of the composites (for example PANI/CNT/CdS (2 wt.% CdS)) is increased by about 7 of magnitude compared to that of pure PANI indicating a charge transfer between CNT and polymer via CdS quantum dots. This advanced material has a great potential for high-performance of electro-optical applications.

  5. Negative to positive magnetoresistance transition in functionalization of carbon nanotube and polyaniline composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Maity, Krishna; Tanty, Narendra; Patra, Ananya; Prasad, V.

    2018-03-01

    Electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance(MR) in polyaniline(PANI) with carbon nanotube(CNT) and functionalized carbon nanotube(fCNT) composites have been studied for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2 K and up to magnetic field 5 T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. This result depicts that the MR has strong dependency on disorder in the composite system. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.

  6. A high-capacitance solid-state supercapacitor based on free-standing film of polyaniline and carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrozadeh, A.; Xing, M.; Wang, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solid-state supercapacitor has high energy density and good cyclic stability. • The electrode is a freestanding composite film of polyaniline and carbon particles. • The impregnation of electrodes with gel electrolyte facilitates high capacitance. • The supercapacitor is lightweight, thin, flexible, and environmental friendly. - Abstract: Polyaniline tends to degrade with cycling in aqueous electrolytes and it can be alleviated using gel electrolytes. A low-cost solid-state supercapacitor of high energy density and good cyclic stability is fabricated with a facile method. The electrodes of the supercapacitor are made of a freestanding composite film of polyaniline and acid-treated carbon particles using phytic acid as a crosslinker, and the gel electrolyte is composed of sulfuric acid and polyvinyl alcohol. The electrochemical performances of the as-fabricated supercapacitor are investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Our results show that a maximum capacitance of 272.6 F/g (3.63 F/cm 2 ) at a current density of 0.63 A/g can be achieved by the supercapacitor, which is significantly higher than most solid-state ones reported in the literature. The ability to achieve a high-capacitance supercapacitor with good cyclic stability is mainly attributed to excellent infiltration of the gel electrolyte into the electrodes. The developed lightweight, thin, flexible, and environmental friendly supercapacitor would have potential applications in various energy storage devices, such as wearable electronics and hybrid electric vehicles

  7. Nickel foam-supported polyaniline cathode prepared with electrophoresis for improvement of rechargeable Zn battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Zhu, Derong; Si, Shihui; Li, Degeng; Wu, Sen

    2015-06-01

    Porous nickel foam is used as a substrate for the development of rechargeable zinc//polyaniline battery, and the cathode electrophoresis of PANI microparticles in non-aqueous solution is applied to the fabrication of Ni foam supported PANI electrode, in which the corrosion of the nickel foam substrate is prohibited. The Ni foam supported PANI cathode with high loading is prepared by PANI electrophoretic deposition, and followed by PANI slurry casting under vacuum filtration. The electrochemical charge storage performance for PANI material is significantly improved by using nickel foam substrate via the electrophoretic interlayer. The specific capacity of the nickel foam-PANI electrode with the electrophoretic layer is higher than the composite electrode without the electrophoretic layer, and the specific capacity of PANI supported by Ni foam reaches up to 183.28 mAh g-1 at the working current of 2.5 mA cm-2. The present electrophoresis deposition method plays the facile procedure for the immobilization of PANI microparticles onto the surface of non-platinum metals, and it becomes feasible to the use of the Ni foam supported PANI composite cathode for the Zn/PANI battery in weak acidic electrolyte.

  8. Sorption and Diffusion of Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide in Sulfonated Polyaniline as Chemical Sensing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhua Liang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid quantum mechanics (QM/molecular dynamics (MD simulation is performed to investigate the effect of an ionizable group (–SO3−Na+ on polyaniline as gas sensing materials. Polymers considered for this work include emeraldine base of polyaniline (EB-PANI and its derivatives (Na-SPANI (I, (II and (III whose rings are partly monosubstituted by –SO3−Na+. The hybrid simulation results show that the adsorption energy, Mulliken charge and band gap of analytes (CO2 and H2O in polyaniline are relatively sensitive to the position and the amounts of –SO3−Na+, and these parameters would affect the sensitivity of Na-SPANI/EB-PANI towards CO2. The sensitivity of Na-SPANI (III/EB-PANI towards CO2 can be greatly improved by two orders of magnitude, which is in agreement with the experimental study. In addition, we also demonstrate that introducing –SO3−Na+ groups at the rings can notably affect the gas transport properties of polyaniline. Comparative studies indicate that the effect of ionizable group on polyaniline as gas sensing materials for the polar gas molecule (H2O is more significant than that for the nonpolar gas molecule (CO2. These findings contribute in the functionalization-induced variations of the material properties of polyaniline for CO2 sensing and the design of new polyaniline with desired sensing properties.

  9. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of polyaniline/activated carbon composites as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Misoon; Kim, Seok

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/activated carbon (AC) composites were prepared by a chemical oxidation polymerization. To find an optimum ratio between PANI and AC which shows superior electrochemical properties, the preparation was carried out in changing the amount of added aniline monomers. The morphology of prepared composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The structural and thermal properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Composites showed a summation of capacitances that consisted of two origins. One is double-layer capacitance by ACs and the other is faradic capacitance by redox reaction of PANI. Fiber-like PANIs are coated on the surface of ACs and they contribute to the large surface for redox reaction. The vacancy among fibers provided the better diffusion and accessibility of ion. High capacitances of composites were originated from the network structure having vacancy made by PANI fibers. It was found that the composite prepared with 5 ml of aniline monomer and 0.25 g of AC showed the highest capacitance. Capacitance of 771 F/g was obtained at a scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  10. Polyaniline modified graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors of high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-11-01

    Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are explored as the electrodes for supercapacitors by coating polyaniline (PANI) nano-cones onto the graphene/CNT composite to obtain graphene/CNT-PANI composite electrode. The graphene/CNT-PANI electrode is assembled with a graphene/CNT electrode into an asymmetric pseudocapacitor and a highest energy density of 188 Wh kg-1 and maximum power density of 200 kW kg-1 are achieved. The structure and morphology of the graphene/CNT composite and the PANI nano-cone coatings are characterized by both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the assembled supercapacitors is also discussed and it is attributed to (i) effective utilization of the large surface area of the three-dimensional network structure of graphene-based composite, (ii) the presence of CNT in the composite preventing graphene from re-stacking, and (ii) uniform and vertically aligned PANI coating on graphene offering increased electrical conductivity.

  11. Coherent polyaniline/graphene oxides/multi-walled carbon nanotubes ternary composites for asymmetric supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Chen, Yi; Xiong, Weilai; Zhang, Liu; Wu, Liyang; Fu, Yang; Mei, Tao; Wang, Jianying; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xianbao

    2016-01-01

    A coherent polyaniline (PANI)/graphene oxides (GOs)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite was prepared by in-situ solution polymerization as a positive electrode of supercapacitors. The orderly growth of PANI nano-dots on GOs led to the formation of the nano-ravines that can enhance ions diffusion efficiency. MWCNTs surrounded by PANI connected all components, and thus the conductivity with the increasing electron transfer rate was improved. The results showed that the electrode exhibited the outstanding electrochemical performances with the specific capacitance up to 696 F g −1 at 20 mV s −1 . The KOH-activated GOs/MWCNTs were used as a negative electrode to assemble an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC). The ASC possessed an extended working potential (1.6 V), a good rate capability (58% capacitance retention even after the current density being increased by 10 times), an excellent cycling stability (89% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles), and a decent average energy and power density (69 W h/kg and 6.4 kW/kg).

  12. Structural, thermal and electrical characterizations of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kamal, E-mail: singhkamal204@gmail.com; Garg, Leena; Singh, Jaspal [Department of Applied Sciences, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Mohali (India); Kumar, Sanjeev [Applied Sciences Department, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Sharma, Amit L. [Central Scientific Instrumentation Organization, Sector 30, Chandigarh (India)

    2016-05-06

    The undoped and doped composite of MWNTs (Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes) with PANI (/Polyaniline) was prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization. The MWNTs/PANI composites have been characterized by using various techniques like Thermogravometric Analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and conductivity measurement by using two probe method. TGA results has shown that thermal stability followed the pattern undoped MWNTs/PANI composite < doped MWNTs/PANI composite. FE-SEM micrographs demonstrated the morphological changes on the surface of MWNTs as a result of composite formation. Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectra ascertained the formation of the composite. Study of electrical characteristics demonstrated that the doped MWNTs/PANI composite (1.2 × 10{sup 1} Scm{sup −1}) have better conductivity than the undoped MWNTs/PANI composite (10{sup −4} Scm{sup −1}). These CNTs based polymeric composites are of great importance in developing new nano-scale devices for future chemical, mechanical and electronic applications.

  13. Electrochemically Active Polyaniline (PANi) Coated Carbon Nanopipes and PANi Nanofibers Containing Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, G Venkata; Kumar, P Sampath; Srikanth, Vadali V S S; Padya, Balaji; Jain, P K

    2015-02-01

    A composite constituted by carbon nanopipes (CNPs) and polyaniline nanofibers (PANi NFs) is synthesized using in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. Owing to its electrochemical activity the composite is found to be suitable as a working electrode material in hybrid type supercapacitors. Microstructural and phase analyses of the composite showed that (i) CNP surfaces are coated with PANi and (ii) PANi coated CNPs are distributed among PANi NFs. The composite shows an excellent electrochemical activity and a high specific capacitance of ~224.39 F/g. The electro-chemical activity of the composite is explicated in correlation with crystallinity, intrinsic oxidation state, and doping degree of PANi in the composite. The electro-chemical activity of the composite is also explicated in correlation with BET surface area and ordered meso-porosity pertaining to the composite. Charge/discharge curves indicate that the specific capacitance of the composite is a result of electric double-layer capacitance offered by CNPs and Faradaic pseudo capacitance offered by PANi NFs.

  14. Synthesis of Fe nanoparticles on polyaniline covered carbon nanotubes for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Hang; Yin, Zhong-Shu; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Fe nanoparticles immobilized on polyaniline-covered carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces (Fe NPs-PANI/CNT) are prepared by reducing FeCl3 in the mixing solution of aniline and CNT. Significantly, the structure of such composites can be effectively optimized by pretreating FeCl3 with sodium citrate (CA). In the absence of CNTs, we found these two routes have large differences in reduction behaviors and different PANI states with varied conductivities. Therefore, the self-assembly mechanism in the preparation is proposed and the controlled self-assembly manner in the pretreating route is disclosed. Under acid condition, both catalysts demonstrate high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with four-electron pathway, and high electrochemical durability, revealing a promising application in the proton exchange membrane fuel cells. However, the high Tafel slopes relating to the surface red-ox couple and porous conductivity are still the main obstacles to improve their ORR dynamic, and more efforts on these aspects are needed to drive non-noble catalyst application in future.

  15. Gas sensors for ammonia detection based on polyaniline-coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lifang; Jia Yong; Meng Fanli; Li Minqiang; Liu Jinhuai

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline-coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PANI-coated MWNTs) were prepared by in situ polymerization method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the as-prepared PANI-coated MWNTs. Obtained results indicated that PANI was uniformly coated on MWNTs, and the thickness of the coatings can be controlled by changing the weight ratios of aniline monomer and MWNTs in the polymerization process. Sensors were fabricated by spin-coating onto pre-patterned electrodes, and ammonia gas sensing properties of the as-prepared PANI-coated MWNTs were studied. The results showed a good response and reproducibility towards ammonia at room temperature. In addition, PANI-coated MWNTs exhibited a linear response to ammonia in the range of 0.2-15 ppm. The effects of the thickness of PANI coatings on the gas sensing properties were also investigated in detail. The results suggest a potential application of PANI-coated MWNTs in gas sensor for detecting ammonia.

  16. Oriented Polyaniline Nanowire Arrays Grown on Dendrimer (PAMAM) Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Mengjie; Li, Honglong; Xiao, Linghan; Li, Ming; Ao, Yuhui

    2018-04-19

    At present, PANI/MWNT composites have been paid more attention as promising electrode materials in supercapacitors. Yet some shortcomings still limit the widely application of PANI/MWNT electrolytes. In this work, in order to improve capacitance ability and long-term stability of electrode, a multi-amino dendrimer (PAMAM) had been covalently linked onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as a bridge to facilitating covalent graft of polyaniline (PANI), affording P-MWNT/PANI electrode composites for supercapacitor. Surprisingly, ordered arrays of PANI nanowires on MWNT (setaria-like morphology) had been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of P-MWNT/PANI electrode had been characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge technique. The specific capacitance and long cycle life of P-MWNT-PANI electrode material were both much higher than MWNT/PANI. These interesting results indicate that multi-amino dendrimer, PAMAM, covalently linked on MWNT provides more reaction sites for in-situ polymerization of ordered PANI, which could efficiently shorten the ion diffusion length in electrolytes and lead to making fully use of conducting materials.

  17. Polyaniline/partially exfoliated multi-walled carbon nanotubes based nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potphode, Darshna D.; Sivaraman, P.; Mishra, Sarada P.; Patri, Manoranjan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyaniline (PANI)/partially exfoliated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Px-MWCNT) nanocomposites were investigated for supercapacitor application. Nanocomposites with varying weight/weight ratio of PANI and Px-MWCNT were prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline over Px-MWCNT. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that the MWCNT was partial unzipped along the length of tubes. The morphology of PANI/Px-MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited wrapping of PANI over Px-MWCNT. Symmetric supercapacitors containing PANI/Px-MWCNT nanocomposites as the electrode material were fabricated. The electrochemical characterization of the nanocomposites was carried by two electrode method (unit cell configuration). Cyclic voltammetric analysis showed a synergistic increase in specific capacitance of the nanocomposites. Charge-discharge cycle study indicated that nanocomposites have greater charge-discharge rate capability than pure PANI. The observed result is attributed to the shorter diffusion length of ions in the nanocomposites as compared to that of pure PANI. The electrochemical impedance spectra of supercapacitors were resolved into real and losscapacitances. The loss capacitance indicated that the time constant of the nanocomposites decreases with increase in the Px-MWCNT content. The supercapacitors showed enhanced stability during continuous charge-discharge cycling as the PX-MWCNT content in the nanocomposites increased. PANI-50 and PANI-25 nanocomposites based supercapacitors exhibited 91% and 93% capacitive retention after 2000 charge-discharge cycle while pure PANI showed only 67% capacitance retention for the same number of cycles

  18. Polyaniline integrated carbon nanohorn: A superior electrode materials for advanced energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maiti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-like polyaniline (PANI/carbon nanohorn (CNH composites (PACN composites were prepared as electrode materials for supercapacitor by simple method that involves in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of CNH in acidic (HCl medium with noteworthy electrochemical performances. Thus, the prepared PACN composites show high specific capacitance value of ≈ 834 F/g at 5 mV/s scan rate compared to ≈ 231 F/g for pure PANI and CNH (≈ 145 F/g at same scan rate of 5 mV/s. CNHs are homogeneously dispersed throughout the matrix and coated successfully. Thus, it provides more active sites for nucleation and electron transfer path. In addition, the composites show high electrical conductivity in the order of ≈ 6.7•10–2 S•cm–1 which indicates the formation of continuous interconnected conducting network path in the PACN composites. Morphological study of the PACN composites was carried out by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM.

  19. Microbial electrolysis cells with polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube-modified biocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yingwen; Xu, Yuan; Chen, Liuliu; Li, Peiwen; Zhu, Shemin; Shen, Shubao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we modified biocathodes with PANI (Polyaniline)/MWCNT (Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube) composites to improve hydrogen production in single-chamber, membrane-free biocathode MECs. The results showed that the hydrogen production rates increased with an increase in applied voltage. At an applied voltage of 0.9 V, the modified biocathode MECs achieved a hydrogen production rate of 0.67m 3 m −3 d −1 , current density of 205 Am −3 , COD of 86.8%, coulombic efficiency of 72%, cathodic hydrogen recovery of 42%, and energy efficiency of 81% with respect to the electrical power input. LSV (Linear Sweep Voltammetry) scans, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) images and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) demonstrated that hydrogen production is catalyzed by the special biofilm attached on a modified biocathode, and the microorganism species and quantity present were significantly different between the modified biocathode and the non-modified biocathode. In general, the performance of MECs with modified biocathodes was improved in the presence of a higher current density and hydrogen generation rate. - Highlights: • Different PANI/MWCNT composites were prepared and used to modify biocathode in MECs. • The performance of MECs was improved by the modification. • 75% wt PANI/MWCNT modified biocathode showed the better capacity on hydrogen generation. • LVS, SEM, DGGE were determined to figure out the effect of modification on MECs. • PANI/MWCNT modified biocathode in MECs was first studied to push MECs technology forward

  20. Carbons and carbon supported catalysts in hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, Edward

    2009-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive summary of recent research in the field and covers all areas of carbons and carbon materials. The potential application of carbon supports, particularly those of carbon black (CB) and activated carbon (AC) in hydroprocessing catalysis are covered. Novel carbon materials such as carbon fibers and carbon nano tubes (CNT) are also covered, including the more recent developments in the use of fullerenes in hydroprocessing applications. Although the primary focus of this book is on carbons and carbon supported catalysts, it also identifies the difference in the effect of carbon supports compared with the oxidic supports, particularly that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference in catalyst activity and stability was estimated using both model compounds and real feeds under variable conditions. The conditions applied during the preparation of carbon supported catalysts are also comprehensively covered and include various methods of pretreatment of carbon supports to enhance catalyst performance. The model compounds results consistently show higher hydrodesulfurization and hydrodeoxygenation activities of carbon supported catalysts than that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts. Also, the deactivation of the former catalysts by coke deposition was much less evident. Chapter 6.3.1.3 is on carbon-supported catalysts: coal-derived liquids.

  1. One-dimensional carbon nanotube@barium titanate@polyaniline multiheterostructures for microwave absorbing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Yu, Lu-Jun; Fu, Ya-Qin

    2015-04-01

    Multiple-phase nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed for their significant potential in microwave attenuation. The introduction of other phases onto the CNTs to achieve CNT-based heterostructures has been proposed to obtain absorbing materials with enhanced microwave absorption properties and broadband frequency due to their different loss mechanisms. The existence of polyaniline (PANI) as a coating with controllable electrical conductivity can lead to well-matched impedance. In this work, a one-dimensional CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite was fabricated. The fabrication processes involved coating of an acid-modified CNT with BaTiO3 (CNT@BaTiO3) through a sol-gel technique followed by combustion and the formation of CNT@BaTiO3@PANI nanohybrids by in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer in the presence of CNT@BaTiO3, using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant and HCl as a dopant. The as-synthesized CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with heterostructures were confirmed by various morphological and structural characterization techniques, as well as conductivity and microwave absorption properties. The measured electromagnetic parameters showed that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with 20 wt % loadings in paraffin wax reached -28.9 dB (approximately 99.87% absorption) at 10.7 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm, and a frequency bandwidth less than -20 dB was achieved from 10 to 15 GHz. This work demonstrated that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite can be potentially useful in electromagnetic stealth materials, sensors, and electronic devices.

  2. Adhered Supported Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dale F.; Craft, Benjamin J.; Jaffe, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (NTs) in excess of 200 μm long are grown by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon vapors. The nanotubes grow continuously without the typical extinction due to catalyst encapsulation. A woven metal mesh supports the nanotubes creating a metal supported nanotube (MSNT) structure. The 140 μm wide mesh openings are completely filled by 70 nm diameter multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs are straight, uniform and highly crystalline. Their wall thickness is about 10 nm (30 graphite layers). The adherent NTs are not removed from the support in a Scotch tape pull test. A 12.5 cm 2 capacitor made from two MSNT structures immersed in 1 M KCl has a capacitance of 0.35 F and an equivalent series resistance of 0.18 Ω. Water flows through the MSNT at a flow velocity of 1 cm/min with a pressure drop of 15 inches of water. With the support removed, the MWNTs naturally form a carbon nanocomposite (CNC) paper with a specific area of 80 m 2 /gm, a bulk density of 0.21 g/cm 3 , an open pore fraction of 0.81, and a resistivity of 0.16 Ω-cm

  3. Highly Stretchable Potentiometric pH Sensor Fabricated via Laser Carbonization and Machining of Carbon-Polyaniline Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Rahim; Ochoa, Manuel; Tamayol, Ali; Khalili, Shahla; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ziaie, Babak

    2017-03-15

    The development of stretchable sensors has recently attracted considerable attention. These sensors have been used in wearable and robotics applications, such as personalized health-monitoring, motion detection, and human-machine interfaces. Herein, we report on a highly stretchable electrochemical pH sensor for wearable point-of-care applications that consists of a pH-sensitive working electrode and a liquid-junction-free reference electrode, in which the stretchable conductive interconnections are fabricated by laser carbonizing and micromachining of a polyimide sheet bonded to an Ecoflex substrate. This method produces highly porous carbonized 2D serpentine traces that are subsequently permeated with polyaniline (PANI) as the conductive filler, binding material, and pH-sensitive membrane. The experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the stretchable serpentine PANI/C-PI interconnections with an optimal trace width of 0.3 mm can withstand elongations of up to 135% and are robust to more than 12 000 stretch-and-release cycles at 20% strain without noticeable change in the resistance. The pH sensor displays a linear sensitivity of -53 mV/pH (r 2 = 0.976) with stable performance in the physiological range of pH 4-10. The sensor shows excellent stability to applied longitudinal and transverse strains up to 100% in different pH buffer solutions with a minimal deviation of less than ±4 mV. The material biocompatibility is confirmed with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells via PrestoBlue assays.

  4. High-performance Supercapacitors Based on Electrochemical-induced Vertical-aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Polyaniline Nanocomposite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Tan, Pengfeng; Wang, Dongxing; Li, Zhe; Peng, Lu; Hu, Ying; Wang, Caifeng; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Su; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Supercapacitors, which store electrical energy through reversible ion on the surface of conductive electrodes have gained enormous attention for variously portable energy storage devices. Since the capacitive performance is mainly determined by the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes, the electrodes become more crucial to higher performance. However, due to the disordered microstructure and low electrochemical activity of electrode for ion tortuous migration and accumulation, the supercapacitors present relatively low capacitance and energy density. Here we report a high-performance supercapacitor based on polyaniline/vertical-aligned carbon nanotubes (PANI/VA-CNTs) nanocomposite electrodes where the vertical-aligned-structure is formed by the electrochemical-induction (0.75 V). The supercapacitor displays large specific capacitance of 403.3 F g-1, which is 6 times higher than disordered CNTs in HClO4 electrolyte. Additionally, the supercapacitor can also present high specific capacitance (314.6 F g-1), excellent cycling stability (90.2% retention after 3000 cycles at 4 A g-1) and high energy density (98.1 Wh kg-1) in EMIBF4 organic electrolyte. The key to high-performance lies in the vertical-aligned-structure providing direct path channel for ion faster diffusion and high electrochemical capacitance of polyaniline for ion more accommodation.

  5. High-performance Supercapacitors Based on Electrochemical-induced Vertical-aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Polyaniline Nanocomposite Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Tan, Pengfeng; Wang, Dongxing; Li, Zhe; Peng, Lu; Hu, Ying; Wang, Caifeng; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Su; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-08

    Supercapacitors, which store electrical energy through reversible ion on the surface of conductive electrodes have gained enormous attention for variously portable energy storage devices. Since the capacitive performance is mainly determined by the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes, the electrodes become more crucial to higher performance. However, due to the disordered microstructure and low electrochemical activity of electrode for ion tortuous migration and accumulation, the supercapacitors present relatively low capacitance and energy density. Here we report a high-performance supercapacitor based on polyaniline/vertical-aligned carbon nanotubes (PANI/VA-CNTs) nanocomposite electrodes where the vertical-aligned-structure is formed by the electrochemical-induction (0.75 V). The supercapacitor displays large specific capacitance of 403.3 F g -1 , which is 6 times higher than disordered CNTs in HClO 4 electrolyte. Additionally, the supercapacitor can also present high specific capacitance (314.6 F g -1 ), excellent cycling stability (90.2% retention after 3000 cycles at 4 A g -1 ) and high energy density (98.1 Wh kg -1 ) in EMIBF 4 organic electrolyte. The key to high-performance lies in the vertical-aligned-structure providing direct path channel for ion faster diffusion and high electrochemical capacitance of polyaniline for ion more accommodation.

  6. Synthesis of self-supported non-precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction with preserved nanostructures from the polyaniline nanofiber precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Zhao, Xiao; Huang, Yunjie

    2013-01-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are an active subject of recent research on proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this study, we report a new approach to preparation of self-supported and nano-structured NPMCs using pre-prepared polyaniline (PANI...

  7. Amperometric biosensor based on carbon nanotubes coated with polyaniline/dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles for glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lihuan; Zhu Yihua; Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong

    2009-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on the nanocomposites of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) coated with polyaniline (PANI) and dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (Pt-DENs) is prepared. CNT coated with protonated PANI is in situ synthesized and Pt-DENs is absorbed on PANI/CNT composite surface by self-assembly method. Then Glucose oxidase (GOx) is crosslink-immobilizated onto Pt-DENs/PANI/CNT composite film. The results show that the fabricated GOx/Pt-DENs/PANI/CNT electrode exhibits excellent response performance to glucose, such as low detection limit (0.5 μM), wide linear range (1 μM-12 mM), short response time (about 5 s), high sensitivity (42.0 μA mM -1 cm -2 ) and stability (83% remains after 3 weeks).

  8. Amperometric sensor for detection of bisphenol A using a pencil graphite electrode modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poorahong, S.; Thammakhet, C.; Numnuam, A.; Kanatharana, P.; Thavarungkul, P.; Limbut, W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a simple and highly sensitive amperometric method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) using pencil graphite electrodes modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified electrodes display enhanced electroactivity for the oxidation of BPA compared to the unmodified pencil graphite electrode. Under optimized conditions, the sensor has a linear response to BPA in the 1. 0 and 400 μM concentration range, with a limit of detection of 10 nM (at S/N = 3). The modified electrode also has a remarkably stable response, and up to 95 injections are possible with a relative standard deviation of 4. 2% at 100 μM of BPA. Recoveries range from 86 to 102% for boiling water spiked with BPA from four brands of baby bottles. (author)

  9. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells from covalent-bonded polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube complex counter electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-02-01

    Exploration of cost-effective counter electrodes (CEs) and enhancement of power conversion efficiency have been two persistent objectives for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the current work, polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube (PANi-MWCNT) complexes are synthesized by a reflux method and employed as CE materials for bifacial DSSCs. Owing to the high optical transparency of PANi-MWCNT complex CE, the incident light from rear side can compensate for the incident light from TiO2 anode. The charge-transfer ability and electrochemical behaviors demonstrate the potential utilization of PANi-MWCNT complex CEs in robust bifacial DSSCs. The electrochemical properties as well as photovoltaic performances are optimized by adjusting MWCNT dosages. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 9.24% is recorded from the bifacial DSSC employing PANi-8 wt‰ MWCNT complex CE for both irradiation, which is better than 8.08% from pure PANi CE.

  10. Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Coated with Conducting Polyaniline Nanocomposites for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT coated with conducting polyaniline (PAni nanocomposites has been enforced as for quasi-solid-state electrolyte layer in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, and the incorporation of MWNT-PAni nanoparticles on the cell performance has been examined. The MWNT-PAni nanoparticles exploited as the extended electron transfer materials, which can reduce charge diffusion length and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I3-. An ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl-imidazolium iodide (PMII together with the hybrid MWNT-PAni nanocomposites was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and achieved a moderately higher cell efficiency (3.15%, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.26%.

  11. Nitrogen- and oxygen-enriched carbon with square tubular structure prepared from polyaniline as electrode for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, X.; Liu, E.; Wu, Y.; Tian, Y.; Xie, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhu, Y. [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Square tubular carbon with a large number of surface functional groups are prepared by carbonizing and activating polyaniline, which are synthesized by polymerization of aniline with a template-free self-assembly method in aqueous media. The physicochemical properties of the square tubular carbon is characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. When used as an electrode, the square tubular carbon exhibit a specific capacitance of 223 F g{sup -1} at a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup -1}, which could still stay over 90% when the scan rate increased by 10 times. The specific capacitance even hardly decrease at a current density of 3 A g{sup -1} after 10,000 cycles, which indicates that the square tubular carbon have good cycle durability and may be a promising candidate as an electrode for supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Facile fabrication of homogeneous 3D silver nanostructures on gold-supported polyaniline membranes as promising SERS substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Mack, Nathan H; Jeon, Sea-Ho; Doorn, Stephen K; Han, Xijiang; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2010-06-01

    We report a facile synthesis of large-area homogeneous three-dimensional (3D) Ag nanostructures on Au-supported polyaniline (PANI) membranes through a direct chemical reduction of metal ions by PANI. The citric acid absorbed on the Au nuclei that are prefabricated on PANI membranes directs Ag nanoaprticles (AgNPs) to self-assemble into 3D Ag nanosheet structures. The fabricated hybrid metal nanostructures display uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) responses throughout the whole surface area, with an average enhancement factor of 10(6)-10(7). The nanocavities formed by the stereotypical stacking of these Ag nanosheets and the junctions and gaps between two neighboring AgNPs are believed to be responsible for the strong SERS response upon plasmon absorption. These homogeneous metal nanostructure decorated PANI membranes can be used as highly efficient SERS substrates for sensitive detection of chemical and biological analytes.

  13. A high-performance mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Lu, Shiyao; Chen, Xu; Wang, Jianan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiao, Chunhui; Ding, Shujiang

    2017-12-01

    Investigating low-cost and highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is of crucial importance for energy conversion and storage devices. Herein, we design and prepare mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon by pyrolysis of polyaniline coated on CMK-3. This electrocatalyst exhibits excellent performance towards ORR in alkaline media. The optimized nitrogen-doped mesoporous electrocatalyst show an onset potential (E onset) of 0.95 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)) and half-wave potential (E 1/2) of 0.83 V (versus RHE) in 0.1 M KOH. Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst presents superior durability and methanol tolerance compared to commercial Pt/C indicating its potential applications in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  14. A new method synthesis polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites for supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.; Wei, X.; Zhou, S.P. [Shandong Univ. of Technology, Zibo (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    A series of polyaniline multi-walled nanotube (PANIMWNT) composite films were prepared using an in situ polymerization technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the samples. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge analyses were used to determine the electrochemical properties of the PANIMWNT films in a 3-electrode system. The electrochemical performance of PANI, PANIMWNT, and MWNT film performances was then compared. Results of the study showed that the PANI electrodes showed a much higher capacitance than the MWNT and PANIMWNT electrodes. Both the PANI and PANIMWNT nanocomposites showed good electrochemical capacitance. The improved performance of the electrodes was attributed to the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). 5 refs.

  15. Polyaniline/single-wall carbon nanotube (PANI/SWCNT) composites for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2006-12-01

    PANI/SWCNT composites were prepared by electrochemical polymerisation of polyaniline onto SWCNTs and their capacitive performance was evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling in 1M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. The PANI/SWCNT composites single electrode showed much higher specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power than pure PANI and SWCNTs. The highest specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values of 485F/g, 228Wh/kg and 2250W/kg were observed for 73wt.% PANI deposited onto SWCNTs. PANI/SWCNT composites also showed long cyclic stability. Based upon the variations in the surface morphologies and specific capacitance of the composite, a mechanism is proposed to explain enhancement in the capacitive characteristics. The PANI/SWCNT composites have demonstrated the potential as excellent electrode materials for application in high performance supercapacitors. (author)

  16. 3 D Network-Structured Crumpled Graphene/Carbon Nanotube/Polyaniline Composites for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eun H; Jang, Hee D; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Sun K; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lee, Chong M

    2017-05-22

    Crumpled graphene (CGR) is considered a promising supercapacitor material to achieve high power and energy density because it could overcome the disadvantages of 2 D GR sheets such as aggregation during the electrode fabrication process, reduction of the available surface area, and limitation of the electron and ion transport. Even though CGR shows good results, carbon materials are limited in terms of their capacitance performance. Here, we report highly enhanced supercapacitor materials by fabricating a 3 D composite containing CGR, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and polyaniline (PANI). The CNTs increased the basal spacing and bridged the defects for electron transfer between the GR sheets in CGR. PANI can enhance the rate of conduction of electrons and offer high pseudocapacitance originating from its redox reactions. The synergistic effect of the CNTs and PANI may also result in a higher electrochemical capacitance and better stability than each individual component as electrode materials for supercapacitors in a two-electrode system. More importantly, the performance of the supercapacitors can be further enhanced by employing 2 D GR as the binder for the composite electrodes, resulting in specific capacitance of 456 F g -1 , rate capability of 89 %, and cyclic stability of 97 % after 1000 cycles. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Freestanding hierarchically porous carbon framework decorated by polyaniline as binder-free electrodes for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fujun; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Wang, Kexin; Lu, Na; Liu, Yichun

    2016-10-01

    Freestanding hierarchically porous carbon electrode materials with favorable features of large surface areas, hierarchical porosity and continuous conducting pathways are very attractive for practical applications in electrochemical devices. Herein, three-dimensional freestanding hierarchically porous carbon (HPC) materials have been fabricated successfully mainly by the facile phase separation method. In order to further improve the energy storage ability, polyaniline (PANI) with high pseudocapacitance has been decorated on HPC through in situ chemical polymerization of aniline monomers. Benefiting from the synergistic effects between HPC and PANI, the resulting HPC/PANI composites as electrode materials present dramatic electrochemical performance with high specific capacitance up to 290 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and good rate capability with ∼86% (248 F g-1) capacitance retention at 64 A g-1 of initial capacitance in three-electrode configuration. Moreover, the as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor based on HPC/PANI composites also demonstrates good capacitive properties with high energy density of 9.6 Wh kg-1 at 223 W kg-1 and long-term cycling stability with 78% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles. Therefore, this work provides a new approach for designing high-performance electrodes with exceptional electrochemical performance, which are very promising for practical application in the energy storage field.

  18. High energy (MeV) ion-irradiated π-conjugated polyaniline: Transition from insulating state to carbonized conducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.K.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, C.S.; Kim, H.M.; Joo, J.; Beag, Y.W.; Koh, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    High energy (MeV) C 2+ , F 2+ , and Cl 2+ ions were irradiated onto π-conjugated polyaniline emeraldine base (PAN-EB) samples. The energy of an ion beam was controlled to a range of 3-4.5 MeV, with the ion dosage varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . The highest dc conductivity (σ dc ) at room temperature was measured to be ∼60 S/cm for 4.5 MeV Cl 2+ ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples with a dose of 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . We observed the transition of high energy ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples from insulating state to conducting state as a function of ion dosage based on σ dc and its temperature dependence. The characteristic peaks of the Raman spectrum of the PAN-EB samples were reduced, while the D-peak (disordered peak) and the G peak (graphitic peak) appeared as the ion dose increased. From the analysis of the D and G peaks of the Raman spectra of the systems compared to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ion-irradiated graphites, and annealed carbon films, the number of the clusters of hexagon rings with conducting sp 2 -bonded carbons increased with ion dosage. We also observed the increase in the size of the nanocrystalline graphitic domain of the systems with increasing ion dosage. The intensity of normalized electron paramagnelic resonance signal also increased in correlation with ion dose. The results of this study demonstrate that π-conjugated pristine PAN-EB systems changed from insulating state to carbonized conducting state through high energy ion irradiation with high ion dosage

  19. Polymorphous Supercapacitors Constructed from Flexible Three-Dimensional Carbon Network/Polyaniline/MnO2 Composite Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjie; Dong, Liubing; Xu, Chengjun; Ren, Danyang; Ma, Xinpei; Kang, Feiyu

    2018-04-04

    Polymorphous supercapacitors were constructed from flexible three-dimensional carbon network/polyaniline (PANI)/MnO 2 composite textile electrodes. The flexible textile electrodes were fabricated through a layer-by-layer construction strategy: PANI, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and MnO 2 were deposited on activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) in turn through an electropolymerization process, "dipping and drying" method, and in situ chemical reaction, respectively. In the fabricated ACFC/PANI/CNTs/MnO 2 textile electrodes, the ACFC/CNT hybrid framework serves as a porous and electrically conductive 3D network for the rapid transmission of electrons and electrolyte ions, where ACFC, PANI, and MnO 2 are high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials. In the electrolyte of H 2 SO 4 solution, the textile electrode-based symmetric supercapacitor delivers superior areal capacitance, energy density, and power density of 4615 mF cm -2 (for single electrode), 157 μW h cm -2 , and 10372 μW cm -2 , respectively, whereas asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with the prepared composite textile as the positive electrode and ACFC as the negative electrode exhibits an improved energy density of 413 μW h cm -2 and a power density of 16120 μW cm -2 . On the basis of the ACFC/PANI/CNTs/MnO 2 textile electrodes, symmetric and asymmetric solid-state textile supercapacitors with a PVA/H 2 SO 4 gel electrolyte were also produced. These solid-state textile supercapacitors exhibit good electrochemical performance and high flexibility. Furthermore, flexible solid-state fiber-like supercapacitors were prepared with fiber bundle electrodes dismantled from the above composite textiles. Overall, this work makes a meaningful exploration of the versatile applications of textile electrodes to produce polymorphous supercapacitors.

  20. Polyaniline-Coated Activated Carbon Aerogel/Sulfur Composite for High-performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiwei; Jiang, Jinglin; Liu, Shaohong; Chen, Luyi; Liu, Ruliang; Zheng, Bingna; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2017-12-01

    An activated carbon aerogel (ACA-500) with high surface area (1765 m2 g-1), pore volume (2.04 cm3 g-1), and hierarchical porous nanonetwork structure is prepared through direct activation of organic aerogel (RC-500) with a low potassium hydroxide ratio (1:1). Based on this substrate, a polyaniline (PANi)-coated activated carbon aerogel/sulfur (ACA-500-S@PANi) composite is prepared via a simple two-step procedure, including melt-infiltration of sublimed sulfur into ACA-500, followed by an in situ polymerization of aniline on the surface of ACA-500-S composite. The obtained ACA-500-S@PANi composite delivers a high reversible capacity up to 1208 mAh g-1 at 0.2C and maintains 542 mAh g-1 even at a high rate (3C). Furthermore, this composite exhibits a discharge capacity of 926 mAh g-1 at the initial cycle and 615 mAh g-1 after 700 cycles at 1C rate, revealing an extremely low capacity decay rate (0.48‰ per cycle). The excellent electrochemical performance of ACA-500-S@PANi can be attributed to the synergistic effect of hierarchical porous nanonetwork structure and PANi coating. Activated carbon aerogels with high surface area and unique three-dimensional (3D) interconnected hierarchical porous structure offer an efficient conductive network for sulfur, and a highly conductive PANi-coating layer further enhances conductivity of the electrode and prevents the dissolution of polysulfide species.

  1. Hierarchical composites of polyaniline-graphene nanoribbons-carbon nanotubes as electrode materials in all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Miao, Yue-E.; Zhang, Chao; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-07-01

    A three dimensional (3D) polyaniline (PANI)-graphene nanoribbon (GNR)-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite, PANI-GNR-CNT, has been prepared via in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer on the surface of a GNR-CNT hybrid. Here, the 3D GNR-CNT hybrid has been conveniently prepared by partially unzipping the pristine multi-walled CNTs, while the residual CNTs act as ``bridges'' connecting different GNRs. The morphology and structure of the resulting hybrid materials have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical tests reveal that the hierarchical PANI-GNR-CNT composite based on the two-electrode cell possesses much higher specific capacitance (890 F g-1) than the GNR-CNT hybrid (195 F g-1) and neat PANI (283 F g-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1. At the same time, the PANI-GNR-CNT composite displays good cycling stability with a retention ratio of 89% after 1000 cycles, suggesting that this novel PANI-GNR-CNT composite is a promising candidate for energy storage applications.

  2. Protein Detection with Potentiometric Aptasensors: A Comparative Study between Polyaniline and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Düzgün

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison study on the performance characteristics and surface characterization of two different solid-contact selective potentiometric thrombin aptasensors, one exploiting a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and the other the polyaniline (PANI, both acting as a transducing element, is described in this work. The molecular properties of both SWCNT and PANI surfaces have been modified by covalently linking thrombin binding aptamers as biorecognition elements. The two aptasensors are compared and characterized through potentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS based on the voltammetric response of multiply charged transition metal cations (such as hexaammineruthenium, [Ru(NH36]3+ bound electrostatically to the DNA probes. The surface densities of aptamers were accurately determined by the integration of the peak for the reduction of [Ru(NH36]3+ to [Ru(NH36]2+. The differences and the similarities, as well as the transduction mechanism, are also discussed. The sensitivity is calculated as 2.97 mV/decade and 8.03 mV/decade for the PANI and SWCNTs aptasensors, respectively. These results are in accordance with the higher surface density of the aptamers in the SWCNT potentiometric sensor.

  3. p-toluene sulfonic acid doped polyaniline carbon nanotube composites: synthesis via different routes and modified properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK K. SHARMA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Composites of polyaniline and carbon nanotube (CNT were prepared by in-situ chemical polymerization method using various aniline concentrations in the initial polymerization solution with p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTS as secondary dopant and mechanical mixing of the PANI and CNT using different weight ratios of PANI and CNTs. The structural characterizations of the composites were done by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and Ultra violet visible spectroscopy (UV-Visible. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to characterize the surface morphology of the composites. It was found that the composites prepared by in-situ chemical polymerization had smoother surface morphology in comparison to the composites obtained by mechanical mixing. The capacitive studies reveal that the in-situ composite has synergistic effect and the specific capacitance of the composite calculated from cyclic voltammogram (CV was 385.1 F/g. Thermal studies indicate that the composites are stable as compared to PANI alone showing that the CNT contributes towards thermal stability in the PANI-CNT composites.

  4. Glassy carbon electrode modified by conductive polyaniline coating for determination of trace lead and cadmium ions in acetate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaomeng; Liu Erjia; Zhao Xing

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) coatings were electrodeposited on the surfaces of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) to form new electrodes, i.e. PANI/GCEs. It was found that with increased deposition time, the PANI coatings became more compact while the charge transfer resistance of the coatings became higher. The PANI/GCEs were used to detect Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions contained in 0.1 M acetate buffer solutions using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). It was found that the PANI/GCE had a highest anodic stripping peak current in a solution of pH 5.3. The study of the cleaning performance of the PANI/GCEs indicated that there were less remaining metals on the surfaces of the PANI/GCEs compared to the bare GCEs after cleaning at a potential of 0.4 V, which was probably due to that the PANI coatings could effectively prevent the deposition of the metals into the surface defects of the GCEs. The PANI coatings could also reduce the passivation effect of the GCEs, thus improving the repeatability of the electrodes.

  5. Polyaniline Langmuir-Blodgett film modified glassy carbon electrode as a voltammetric sensor for determination of Ag+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiongyan; Wang Fei; Qiao Yonghui; Zhang Shusheng; Ye Baoxian

    2010-01-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor made of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with a Langmuir-Blodgett film (LB) containing polyaniline (PAn) doped with p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) (LB/PAn-PTSA/GCE) has been used for the detection of trace concentrations of Ag + . UV-vis absorption spectra indicated that the PAn was doped by PTSA. The surface morphology of the PAn LB film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical properties of this LB/PAn-PTSA/GCE were studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry. The LB/PAn-PTSA/GCE was used as a voltammetric sensor for determination of trace Ag + at pH 5.0 using linear scanning stripping voltammetry. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the stripping current was proportional to the Ag + concentration over the range from 6.0 x 10 -10 mol L -1 to 1.0 x 10 -6 mol L -1 , with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10 -10 mol L -1 . The high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of this LB/PAn-PTSA/GCE also demonstrated its practical utility for simple, rapid and economical determination of Ag + in water samples.

  6. The preparation and performance of calcium carbide-derived carbon/polyaniline composite electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liping; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Na; An, Hongfang; Chen, Huajie [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei 430073 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Calcium carbide (CaC{sub 2})-derived carbon (CCDC)/polyaniline (PANI) composite materials are prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed CCDC. The structure and morphology of CCDC/PANI composite are characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. It has been found that PANI was uniformly deposited on the surface and the inner pores of CCDC. The supercapacitive behaviors of the CCDC/PANI composite materials are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and cycle life measurements. The results show that the CCDC/PANI composite electrodes have higher specific capacitances than the as grown CCDC electrodes and higher stability than the conducting polymers. The capacitance of CCDC/PANI composite electrode is as high as 713.4 F g{sup -1} measured by cyclic voltammetry at 1 mV s{sup -1}. Besides, the capacitance retention of coin supercapacitor remained 80.1% after 1000 cycles. (author)

  7. Supercapacitive properties of hybrid films of manganese dioxide and polyaniline based on active carbon in organic electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wu-yuan; Wang, Wei; He, Ben-lin; Sun, Ming-liang; Yin, Yan-sheng [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China)

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report about supercapacitive performance of hybrid film of manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) and polyaniline (PANI) in an organic electrolyte (1.0 M LiClO{sub 4} in acetonitrile). In this work, a high surface area and conductivity of active carbon (AC) electrode is used as a substrate for PANI/MnO{sub 2} film electro-codeposition. The redox properties of the coated PANI/MnO{sub 2} thin film exhibit ideal capacitive behaviour in 1 M LiClO{sub 4}/AN. The specific capacitance (SC) of PANI/MnO{sub 2} hybrid film is as high as 1292 F g{sup -1} and maintains about 82% of the initial capacitance after 1500 cycles at a current density of 4.0 mA cm{sup -2}, and the coulombic efficiency ({eta}) is higher than 95%. An asymmetric capacitor has been developed with the PANI/MnO{sub 2}/AC positive and pure AC negative electrodes, which is able to deliver a specific energy as high as 61 Wh kg{sup -1} at a specific power of 172 W kg{sup -1} in the range of 0-2.0 V. These results indicate that the organic electrolyte is a promising candidate for PANI/MnO{sub 2} material application in supercapacitors. (author)

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and poly (o-toluidine) composite thin films with multi walled carbon nano tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraja, K.K. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Pramodini, S. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Technology, Jain University, Jakkasandra Post, Bengaluru 5621112, Karnataka (India); Poornesh, P., E-mail: poorneshp@gmail.com [Nonlinear Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka (India); Telenkov, M.P. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University Technology, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    We report the improved third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and poly (o-toluidine) with different doping concentrations of multi walled carbon nano tube (MWCNTs) composite thin films investigated using z-scan technique and continuous wave He–Ne laser at 633 nm wavelength was used as source of excitation. Thin films were prepared by spin coating technique on glass substrate. The structural properties of the composite films were analysed by X-ray diffraction studies and the characteristic peaks corresponding to MWCNTs and polymers have been observed. The surface morphology of the deposited films was analysed using scanning electron microscopy and it confirms that the polymer in the composites has been coated on the MWCNTs homogeneously. The z-scan results reveal that the films exhibit reverse saturable absorption and self-defocusing nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} is found to be of the order of 10{sup −3} esu. Also, optical power limiting and clamping experiment was performed. The clamping values increases with increase in concentration and the lowest clamping observed for composite films are 1 mW and 0.7 mW.

  9. Flexible Transparent Films Based on Nanocomposite Networks of Polyaniline and Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Pengbo; Wen, Xuemei; Sun, Chaozheng; Chandran, Bevita K; Zhang, Han; Sun, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-10-28

    A flexible, transparent, chemical gas sensor is assembled from a transparent conducting film of carbon nanotube (CNT) networks that are coated with hierarchically nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) nanorods. The nanocomposite film is synthesized by in-situ, chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in a functional multiwalled CNT (FMWCNT) suspension and is simultaneously deposited onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. An as-prepared flexible transparent chemical gas sensor exhibits excellent transparency of 85.0% at 550 nm using the PANI/FMWCNT nanocomposite film prepared over a reaction time of 8 h. The sensor also shows good flexibility, without any obvious decrease in performance after 500 bending/extending cycles, demonstrating high-performance, portable gas sensing at room temperature. This superior performance could be attributed to the improved electron transport and collection due to the CNTs, resulting in reliable and efficient sensing, as well as the high surface-to-volume ratio of the hierarchically nanostructured composites. The excellent transparency, improved sensing performance, and superior flexibility of the device, may enable the integration of this simple, low-cost, gas sensor into handheld flexible transparent electronic circuitry and optoelectronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Functional polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotube composite as an efficient adsorbent material for removing pharmaceuticals from aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Flávia Viana Avelar; Pires, Bruna Carneiro; Nascimento, Tienne Aparecida; Borges, Keyller Bastos

    2018-09-01

    The composite polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotube (PAni/MWCNT, 1:0.1 w/w) was developed with the intention of binding the adsorbent properties of two materials and using it to adsorb pharmaceuticals from aqueous media. PAni/MWCNT was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, pH at the point of zero charge, and the effect on the surface wettability of the material. As proof of concept, adsorption studies were carried out using meloxicam (MLX) as the pharmaceutical and it was evaluated as a function of pH, temperature, ionic strength, contact time and variation in concentration. Kinetics and isothermal models were applied to evaluate the mechanism of the adsorption process. The best MLX adsorption result was at pH 2 with 6 min of contact with PAni/MWCNT. The kinetics models that fitted the experimental data were pseudo-second order and Elovich and the kinetics model was the dual-site Langmuir-Freundlich. Both models suggest that the adsorption occurs by the chemical nature of the surface and in the pores of the energetically heterogeneous composite. The PAni/MWCNT presented an adsorption capacity of 221.2 mg g -1 , a very good value when compared with the literature and can be used to remove pharmaceuticals from aqueous environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced electrochemical performance of sandwich-structured polyaniline-wrapped silicon oxide/carbon nanotubes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zou, Yongjin; Huang, Liyan; Yin, Hao; Xi, Chengqiao; Chen, Xin; Shentu, Hongwei; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jingjing; Lv, ChunJu; Fan, Meiqiang

    2018-06-01

    Sandwich-structured carbon nanotubes, silicon oxide, and polyaniline (hereafter denoted as CNTs/SiOx/PANI) were prepared by combining a sol-gel method, magnesiothermic reduction at 250 °C, and chemical oxidative polymerization. The CNTs, SiOx and PANI in the composite was 16 wt%, 51 wt% and 33 wt%, respectively. The CNTs/SiOx/PANI electrodes exhibited excellent cycle and high-rate performance as anodes in Li-ion batteries, including charge/discharge capacities of 1156/1178 mAh g-1 after 60 cycles at 0.2 A g-1 current density and 728/725 mAh g-1 at 8 A g-1 current density. The improvement was due to the synergy between CNTs and PANI. The SiOx scattered on the CNTs core and coated by PANI improved its conductivity and accommodated the volume change during repeated lithiation/delithiation cycles. This simple synthesis provided a scalable route for the large-scale production of CNTs/SiOx/PANI nanostructures, with various applications such as in Li-ion batteries.

  12. Hybrid biomaterials based on calcium carbonate and polyaniline nanoparticles for application in photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Yslas, Edith; Marini, Yazmin Amar; Vásquez-Quitral, Patricio; Sánchez, Marianela; Riveros, Ana; Yáñez, Diego; Cavallo, Pablo; Kogan, Marcelo J; Acevedo, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Inorganic materials contain remarkable properties for drug delivery, such as a large surface area and nanoporous structure. Among these materials, CaCO3 microparticles (CMPs) exhibit a high encapsulation efficiency and solubility in acidic media. The extracellular pH of tumor neoplastic tissue is significantly lower than the extracellular pH of normal tissue facilitating the release of drug-encapsulating CMPs in this area. Conducting polyaniline (PANI) absorbs light energy and transforms it into localized heat to produce cell death. This work aimed to generate hybrid CMPs loaded with PANI for photothermal therapy (PTT). The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with CaCO3 and carboxymethyl cellulose in a simple, reproducible manner. The CMP-PANI-Cys particles were developed for the first time and represent a novel type of hybrid biomaterial. Resultant nanoparticles were characterized utilizing scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, UV-vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. In vitro HeLa cells in dark and irradiated conditions showed that CMP-PANI-Cys and PANI-Cys are nontoxic at the assayed concentrations. Hybrid biomaterials displayed high efficiency for potential PTT compared with PANI-Cys. In summary, hierarchical hybrid biomaterials composed of CMPs and PANI-Cys combined with near infrared irradiation represents a useful alternative in PTT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyaniline/MWCNTs/starch modified carbon paste electrode for non-enzymatic detection of cholesterol: application to real sample (cow milk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Vineeta; Singh, Karan P; Yadav, Vijay L

    2018-03-01

    Nanocomposite materials are potentially revolutionizing many technologies, including sensors. In this paper, we described the application of "PANI/MWCNTs/Starch" modified carbon paste electrode (PCS-CPE) as a simple and highly sensitive cholesterol sensor. This novel nano-composite material has integrated nano-morphology, where polyaniline could interact effectively with the additives; pi-pi stacking "MWCNTs," and covalently bonded with starch. Specific binding sites (sugar chains), better electro-catalytic properties and fast electron transfer facilitated the oxidation of cholesterol. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the interaction of cholesterol with the composite material. The sensing response of PCS was measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (0.1 M PBS-5 used as supporting electrolyte). As the amount of cholesterol increased in the test solution, cyclic voltammograms showed a rise of peak current (cathodic and anodic). Under the normal experimental conditions, the developed sensor exhibited wide linear dynamic range (0.032 to 5 mM) (upper limit is due to lack of solubility of cholesterol), high sensitivity (800 μAmM -1  cm -2 ), low detection limit (0.01 mM) and shorter response time (within 4-6 s). Analytical specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity during cholesterol estimation were compared with the response of some other analytes (ascorbic acid, glucose, l-dopa, urea and lactic acid). This novel sensor was successfully applied to estimate cholesterol in cow milk (used as a model real sample). The sensing platform is highly sensitive and shows a linear response towards cholesterol without using any additional redox mediator or enzyme, thus this material is extremely promising for the realization of a low-cost integrated cholesterol sensor device. Graphical abstract Cyclic voltammetric response of cholesterol of composite modified carbon paste capillary electrode.

  14. Oxidative stability of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Exnerová, Milena; Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Hromádková, Jiřina; Prokeš, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2012), s. 1026-1033 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * nanotubes * oxidation stability Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2012

  15. Effect of reaction conditions on film morphology of polyaniline composite membranes for gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Blinova, Natalia V.

    2012-04-21

    Composite membranes combining polyaniline as an active layer with a polypropylene support have been prepared using an in situ deposition technique. The protonated polyaniline layer with a thickness in the range of 90-200 nm was prepared using precipitation, dispersion, or emulsion polymerization of aniline with simultaneous deposition on top of the porous polypropylene support, which was immersed in the reaction mixture. Variables such as temperature, concentration of reagents, presence of steric stabilizers, surfactants, and heteropolyacid were found to control both the formation and the quality of the polyaniline layers. Both morphology and thickness of the layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Selective separation of carbon dioxide from its mixture with methane is used to illustrate potential application of these composite membranes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Three-dimensional cross-linked carbon network wrapped with ordered polyaniline nanowires for high-performance pseudo-supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huan; Liu, Shuwu; Hanif, Muddasir; Chen, Shuiliang; Hou, Haoqing

    2014-12-01

    The polyaniline (PANI)-based pseudo-supercapacitor has been extensively studied due to its good conductivity, ease of synthesis, low-cost monomer, tunable properties and remarkable specific capacitance. In this work, a three-dimensional cross-linked carbon network (3D-CCN) was used as a contact-resistance-free substrate for PANI-based pseudo-supercapacitors. The ordered PANI nanowires (PaNWs) were grown on the 3D-CCN to form PaNWs/3D-CCN composites by in-situ polymerization. The PaNWs/3D-CCN composites exhibited a specific capacitance (Cs) of 1191.8 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 and a superior rate capability with 66.4% capacitance retention at 100.0 A g-1. The high specific capacitance is attributed to the thin PaNW coating and the spaced PANI nanowire array, which ensure a higher utilization of PANI due to the ease of diffusion of protons through/on the PANI nanowires. In addition, the unique 3D-CCN was used as a high-conductivity platform (or skeleton) with no contact resistance for fast electron transfer and facile charge transport within the composites. Therefore, the binder-free composites can process rapid gains or losses of electrons and ions, even at a high current density. As a result, the specific capacitance and rate capability of our composites are remarkably higher than those of other PANI composites.

  17. Carbon a support for sulfide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, J.P.R.; Lensing, T.J.; Mercx, F.P.M.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two types of carbon materials, carbon black composite and carbon covered alumina, were studied for-their use as support for sulfide catalysts. The following parameters were varied: type of carbon black, carbon coverage of the alumina and carbon pretreatment. Pore size distributions were determined

  18. Ternary composites of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, polyaniline, and noble-metal nanoparticles for potential applications in electrocatalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sapurina, I.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2009), s. 579-585 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 847 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * proton conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2009

  19. Explosive hazards in polyaniline chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 387-392 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * oxidation of aniline * safety hazards Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  20. Thin and flexible all-solid supercapacitor prepared from novel single wall carbon nanotubes/polyaniline thin films obtained in liquid-liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Victor Hugo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Marcela Mohallem; Zarbin, Aldo José Gorgatti

    2014-08-01

    The present work describes for the first time the synthesis and characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes/polyaniline (SWNTs/PAni) nanocomposite thin films in a liquid-liquid interface, as well as the subsequent construction of a flexible all-solid supercapacitor. Different SWNTs/PAni nanocomposites were prepared by varying the ratio of SWNT to aniline, and the samples were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pseudo-capacitive behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated by charge/discharge galvanostatic measurements. The presence of the SWNTs affected the electronic and vibrational properties of the polyaniline and also improved the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the conducting polymer. A very thin and flexible all-solid device was manufactured using two electrodes (polyethylene terephthalate-PET covered with the SWNT/PAni nanocomposite separated by a H2SO4-PVA gel electrolyte). The pseudo-capacitive behavior was characterized by a volumetric specific capacitance of approximately 76.7 F cm-3, even under mechanical deformation, indicating that this nanocomposite has considerable potential for application in new-generation energy storage devices.

  1. Polyaniline cryogels supported with poly(vinyl alcohol): soft and conducting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Kovalcik, A.; Hodan, Jiří; Hromádková, Jiřina; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 972-978 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting cryogel * conducting polymer * hydrogels Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  2. The conversion of polyaniline nanotubes to nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes and their comparison with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trchová, Miroslava; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Kovářová, Jana; Ciric-Marjanovic, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2009), s. 929-938 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * carbonization * FTIR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2009

  3. Synthesis and capacitance properties of N-doped porous carbon/NiO nanosheet composites using coal-based polyaniline as carbon and nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Li, Qiaoqin; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Yufei; Cao, Zhi; Xiong, Shanxin

    2018-06-01

    A novel synthesis approach of N-doped porous carbon (NPC)/NiO composites possessing some honeycomb-shaped nanoporous carbon and plentiful NiO nanosheets is exploited. First NPC/Ni composites are achieved with NPC yield of 52.9% through a catalytic pyrolysis method, using coal-based polyaniline particles prepared by an in-situ polymerization method as a carbon and nitrogen source, and nickel particles as a catalyst, respectively. Next NPC/NiO composites are achieved unexpectedly with plentiful NiO nanosheets and N content of 1.00 wt% after a liquid oxidation process. In NPC/NiO composites, porous carbon mainly presents in the amorphous state, while the incorporated nitrogen mainly presents in the form of pyrrolic N (92.9 at.%) and oxidized N (7.1 at.%). Plentiful NiO nanosheets are embedded in the pores or on the NPC surface. 33.3 at.% Ni2O3 components exist in the surface of NiO nanosheets. NPC/NiO composites possess not only rich micropores, but also significant mesopores and nanoscale macropores. The BET specific surface area, BET average pore width and BJH adsorption average pore diameter are 627.5 m2/g, 2.0 nm and 5.1 nm, respectively. NPC/NiO composites demonstrate a high specific capacitance of 404.1 F/g at 1 A/g, and a good cycling stability maintaining high specific capacitance of 212.4 F/g (84.3% of the initial capacitance) at 5 A/g after 5000 cycles of charge and discharge, attributed to some honeycomb-shaped nanopores of carbon and large specific surface area of NiO nanosheets, and the synergistic effects between electric double-layer capacitance of NPC and pseudocapacitance of NiO. This study may provide a novel approach for the value-added applications of low-rank coal.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Pt-loaded carbon nanostructures derived from polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Gong Da; Kim, Pil; Lee, Youn Sik [Div. of Chemical Engineering, Nanomaterials Processing Research Center, Chonbuk NationalUniversity, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are one of the most advanced fuel cells for future energy, owing to their high conversion efficiency, quick start-up, rapid response to variable loading, and relatively low operating temperature, compared with of her conventional energy conversion devices. PANTs were synthesized to have various aspect ratios and inner diameters. As the aniline concentration increased, the PANTs’ inner diameter greatly decreased, but their outer diameters only slightly increased, leading to a decrease in their aspect ratios. Carbonization of PANTs resulted in the formation of corresponding CNSs. Pt nanoparticles were successfully formed on the CNSs under N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} flow. The Pt nanoparticles of the Pt- CNS-N{sub 2} /NH{sub 3} catalysts were smaller in size, less aggregated, and more uniformly dispersed than those of the Pt- CNS-N{sub 2} catalysts. The ECSA values of Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} /NH{sub 3} were larger than those of Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} and Pt/C. The half wave potentials of the Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} catalysts were lower than those of the Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} /NH{sub 3} , and close to those of the Pt/C. The Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} /NH{sub 3} catalysts exhibited better kinetic performance than the Pt-CNS -N{sub 2} catalysts and Pt/C.

  5. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite consisting of molybdenum disulfide intercalated into self-doped polyaniline for the detection of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Huaiyin; Yang, Ruirui; Jiang, Yuhang; Jiao, Kui; Li, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Thin-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) was intercalated, via ultrasonic exfoliation, into self-doped polyaniline (SPAN). This material, when placed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), exhibits excellent electrical conductivity and synergistic catalytic activity with respect to the detection of bisphenol A (BPA). The electrochemical response of the modified GCE to BPA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current (measured best at 446 mV vs. SCE) is related to the concentration of BPA in the range from 1.0 nM to 1.0 μM, and the detection limit is 0.6 nM. (author)

  6. Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium-polymer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pan [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Han, Jia-Jun, E-mail: hanjiajunhitweihai@163.com [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Li-Feng [Dalian Chemical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116011 (China); Li, Zhao-Yu; Cheng, Jin-Ning [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The polyaniline multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures was synthetized via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization, and the materials were characterized by physical and chemical methods. • The PANI/WMCNTs was synthetized via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization with core-shell structures. • The WMCNTs highly enhanced the conductivity of composites. • The comopsites were more conducive to the intercalation and deintercalation of anions and cations. • The much better performance as the cathode for lithium-ion cells was acquired for the composites. • The composites are low cost and eco-friendly which have a good prospect in future. - Abstract: The aniline was polymerized onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in order to obtain a cathode material with core-shell structures for lithium batteries. The structure and morphology of the samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the composite were characterized by the cyclic voltammetry, the charge/discharge property, coulombic efficiency, and ac impedance spectroscopy in detail. At a constant current density of 0.2 C, the first specific discharge capacity of the reduced and oxidized PANI/WMCNTs were 181.8 mAh/g and 135.1 mAh/g separately, and the capacity retention rates were corresponding to 76.75% and 86.04% for 100 cycles with 99% coulombic efficiency. It was confirmed that the CNTs obviously enhanced the conductivity and electrochemical performance of polyaniline, and compared with the pure PANI, the reduced composite possessed a quite good performance for the cathode of lithium batteries.

  7. Pd and polyaniline nanocomposite on carbon fiber paper as an efficient direct formic acid fuel cell anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rakesh K.

    2018-03-01

    Direct formic acid fuel cells are advantageous as portable power generating devices. In the present work, an anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) is presented which has good catalytic activity for formic acid oxidation. The catalyst is composed of Pd and conducting polymer polyaniline (Pd-PANI) nanocomposite. The catalyst was prepared by using a single step galvanostatic electrochemical deposition method. The Pd-PANI catalyst was electrodeposited at different time durations and a comparison of the catalytic activity at each deposition time was carried out and optimized.

  8. Combination of cathodic reduction with adsorption for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) through reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes modified with sulfuric acid–glycine co-doped polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Xi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Zhao-hui, E-mail: yzh@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Song, Pei-pei; Wang, Li-ke [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode was applied as a novel electrode material for accelerated removal of Cr(VI). • Faster reduction kinetics of Cr(VI) was observed by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode when compared with RVC/PANI-SA and RVC electrode. • Cr(VI) removal experienced an adsorption-reduction system built by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode. • The stability of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode was relatively satisfactory. - Abstract: Improving the reduction kinetics is crucial in the electroreduction process of Cr(VI). In this study, we developed a novel adsorption–electroreduction system for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) by employing reticulated vitreous carbon electrode modified with sulfuric acid–glycine co-doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA-GLY). Firstly, response surface methodology confirmed the optimum polymerization condition of co-doped polyaniline for modifying electrodes (Aniline, sulfuric acid and glycine, respectively, of 0.2 mol/L, 0.85 mol/L, 0.93 mol/L) when untraditional dopant glycine was added. Subsequently, RVC/PANI-SA-GLY showed higher Cr(VI) removal percentages in electroreduction experiments over RVC electrode modified with sulfuric acid doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA) and bare RVC electrode. In contrast to RVC/PANI-SA, the improvement by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was more significant and especially obvious at more negative potential, lower initial Cr(VI) concentration, relatively less acidic solution and higher current densities, best achieving 7.84% higher removal efficiency with entire Cr(VI) eliminated after 900 s. Current efficiencies were likewise enhanced by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY under quite negative potentials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis revealed a possible adsorption–reduction mechanism of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY, which greatly contributed to the faster reduction kinetics and was probably relative to the absorption between protonated amine groups of glycine and HCrO{sub 4}{sup −}. Eventually, the

  9. Rod-like polyaniline supported on three-dimensional boron and nitrogen-co-doped graphene frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kexuan; Gao, Jialu; Fan, Jinchen; Mo, Yao; Xu, Qunjie; Min, Yulin

    2017-12-01

    In this work, novel three-dimensional (3D) boron and nitrogen-co-doped three-dimensional (3D) graphene frameworks (BN-GFs) supporting rod-like polyaniline (PANI) are facilely prepared and used as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. The results demonstrated that BN-GFs with tuned electronic structure can not only provide a large surface area for rod-like PANI to anchor but also effectively facilitate the ion transfer and charge storage in the electrode. The PANI/BN-GF composite with wrinkled boron and nitrogen-co-doped graphene sheets interconnected by rod-like PANI exhibits excellent capacitive properties with a maximum specific capacitance of 596 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g. Notably, they also show excellent cycling stability with more than 81% capacitance retention after 5000 charge-discharge cycles.

  10. Influence of ethanol on the chain-ordering of carbonised polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Tomšík, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 919-932 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0911; GA ČR GPP108/11/P763; GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * carbonisation * carbon-like material Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  11. High-Performance Flexible Solid-State Carbon Cloth Supercapacitors Based on Highly Processible N-Graphene Doped Polyacrylic Acid/Polyaniline Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongguang; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Ali Syed, Junaid; Wang, Xiangyu; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-01-01

    Improving the solubility of conductive polymers to facilitate processing usually decreases their conductivity, and they suffer from poor cycling stability due to swelling-shrinking during charging cycles. We circumvent these problems with a novel preparation method for nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) enhanced polyacrylic acid/polyaniline (NG-PAA/PANI) composites, ensuring excellent processibility for scalable production. The content of PANI is maximized under the constraint of still allowing defect-free coatings on filaments of carbon cloth (CC). The NG content is then adjusted to optimize specific capacitance. The optimal CC electrodes have 32 wt.% PANI and 1.3 wt.% NG, thus achieving a high capacitance of 521 F/g at 0.5 F/g. A symmetric supercapacitor made from 20 wt.% PANI CC electrodes has more than four times the capacitance (68 F/g at 1 A/g) of previously reported flexible capacitors based on PANI-carbon nanotube composites, and it retains the full capacitance under large bending angles. The capacitor exhibits high energy and power densities (5.8 Wh/kg at 1.1 kW/kg), a superior rate capability (still 81% of the 1 A/g capacitance at 10 A/g), and long-term electrochemical stability (83.2% retention after 2000 cycles). PMID:26883179

  12. Fabrication of 3D lawn-shaped N-doped porous carbon matrix/polyaniline nanocomposite as the electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuling; Ma, Li; Gan, Mengyu; Fu, Gang; Jin, Meng; Lei, Yao; Yang, Peishu; Yan, Maofa

    2017-02-01

    A facile approach to acquire electrode materials with prominent electrochemical property is pivotal to the progress of supercapacitors. 3D nitrogen-doped porous carbon matrix (PCM), with high specific surface area (SSA) up to 2720 m2 g-1, was obtained from the carbonization and activation of the nitrogen-enriched composite precursor (graphene/polyaniline). Then 3D lawn-shaped PCM/PANI composite was obtained by the simple in-situ polymerization. The morphology and structure of these resulting composites were characterized by combining SEM and TEM measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy analyses and Raman spectroscope. The element content of all samples was evaluated using CHN analysis. The results of electrochemical testing indicated that the PCM/PANI composite displays a higher capacitance value of 527 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 compared to 338 F g-1 for pure PANI, and exhibits appreciable rate capability with a retention of 76% at 20 A g-1 as well as fine long-term cycling performance (with 88% retention of specific capacitance after 1000 cycles at 10 A g-1). Simultaneously, the excellent capacitance performance coupled with the facile synthesis of PCM/PANI indicates it is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  13. Radiation effects on polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takenori; Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Doi, Shuji; Ohnishi, Toshihiro.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on electrical conductivity of polyaniline were investigated. A drastic increase of the conductivity due to radiation-induced doping was observed in combined systems of polyaniline films and halogen-containing polymers. This effect can be applied to measure an integrated radiation dose. (author)

  14. Polyaniline in electrorheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quadrat, Otakar; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2006), s. 352-361 ISSN 1226-086X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : electrorheology * suspensions of polyaniline * polyaniline derivatives Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.957, year: 2006

  15. Green Nanotechnology from Waste Carbon-Polyaniline Composite: Generation of Wavelength-Independent Multiband Photoluminescence for Sensitive Ion Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Goswami, Sumita; Nandy, Suman; Deuermeier, Jonas; Marques, Ana C.; Nunes, Daniela; Patole, Shashikant P.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the qualitative analysis of photoluminescence effect generated from waste carbon of cooking oven by facile cost-effective material engineering. The waste carbon product as a form of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) is incorporated

  16. Preparation and characterization of green-nano-composite material based on polyaniline, multiwalled carbon nano tubes and carboxymethyl cellulose: For electrochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Vineeta; Singh, Karan Pratap; Yadav, Vijay Laxmi

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we are presenting the preparation and characterization of "polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/carboxymethyl cellulose" based novel composite material. It's morphological, thermal, structural, and electrochemical properties were investigated by using different instrumental techniques. During the in-situ chemical polymerization of aniline in the aqueous suspension of CMC and MWCNTs, the particle size change in two different ways "top to bottom" (low molecular weight oligomers grows in size) and "bottom to top" (long fibers of CMC fragmented in the reaction mixture). The combination of these two processes facilitated the fabrication of an integrated green-nano-composite material. In addition, a little amount of conductive nanofillers (MWCNTs) boosts the electrical and electrocatalytic properties of the material. Electron-rich centers of benzenoid rings exhibited π-π stacking with sp 2 carbon of MWCNTs. CMC dominantly impact on the properties of PANI, negatively charged carboxylate group of CMC ionically bonded with protonated amine/imine. FTIR and Raman analysis confirmed that the material has dominated quinoid units and effective charge transfer. Hydroxyl and carboxyl groups and bonded water molecules of CMC results in a network of hydrogen bonds (which induced directional property). PANI/MWCNTs/CMC have nanobead-like structures (TEM analysis), large surface area, large pore volume, small pore diameter (BET and BJH studies) and good dispersion ability in the aqueous phase. Nanostructures of aligned PANI exhibited excellent electrochemical properties have attracted increasing attention. Modified carbon paste electrode was used for electrocatalytic detection of ascorbic acid (as a model analyte). The sensor exhibited a linear range 0.05 mM-5 mM, sensitivity 100.63 μA mM -1  cm -2 , and limit of detection 0.01 mM. PANI/MWCNTs/CMC is suitable nanocomposite material for apply electroactive/conducting ink and membrane (which could be

  17. A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Parajuli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential as dopamine on bare electrodes. Furthermore, the oxidation product of dopamine reacts with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerates dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of the detection. Meanwhile, the product could also form a melanin-like insulating film on the electrode surface, which decreases the sensitivity of the electrode. Various surface modifications on the electrode, new materials for making the electrodes, and new electrochemical techniques have been exploited to solve these problems. Recently we developed a new electrochemical detection method that did not rely on direct oxidation of dopamine on electrodes, which may naturally solve these problems. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The high affinity binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the basis for the transduction mechanism of this non-oxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in a physiologically-relevant buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor show excellent promise toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of this novel detection approach, the new interferences in this detection approach, and how to

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polyaniline/MnO{sub 2} ternary coaxial nanostructures for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiang [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Liu, Jianhua; Zou, Jianhua; Chunder, Anindarupa; Zhai, Lei [NanoScience Technology Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Chen, Yiqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polyaniline (PANI)/MnO{sub 2} (MPM) ternary coaxial structures are fabricated as supercapacitor electrodes via a simple wet chemical method. The electrostatic interaction between negative poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) molecules and positive Mn{sup 2+} ions causes the generation of MnO{sub 2} nanostructures on MWCNT surfaces while the introduction of PANI layers with appropriate thickness on MWCNT surfaces facilitates the formation of MWCNT/PANI/MnO{sub 2} ternary coaxial structures. The thickness of PANI coatings is controlled by tuning the aniline/MWCNT ratio. The effect of PANI thickness on the subsequent MnO{sub 2} nanoflakes attachment onto MWCNTs, and the MPM structures is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results suggest that appropriate thickness of PANI layers is important for building MPM ternary coaxial structures without the agglomeration of MnO{sub 2} nanoflakes. The MPM ternary coaxial structures provide large interaction area between the MnO{sub 2} nanoflakes and electrolyte, and improve the electrochemical utilization of the hydrous MnO{sub 2}, and decrease the contact resistance between MnO{sub 2} and PANI layer coated MWCNTs, leading to intriguing electrochemical properties for the applications in supercapacitors such as a specific capacitance of 330 Fg{sup -1} and good cycle stability. (author)

  19. Layer-by-layer assembled polyaniline nanofiber/multiwall carbon nanotube thin film electrodes for high-power and high-energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Md Nasim; Lee, Seung Woo; Cebeci, Fevzi Ç; Schmidt, Daniel J; Shao-Horn, Yang; Hammond, Paula T

    2011-11-22

    Thin film electrodes of polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers and functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are created by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly for microbatteries or -electrochemical capacitors. Highly stable cationic PANi nanofibers, synthesized from the rapid aqueous phase polymerization of aniline, are assembled with carboxylic acid functionalized MWNT into LbL films. The pH-dependent surface charge of PANi nanofibers and MWNTs allows the system to behave like weak polyelectrolytes with controllable LbL film thickness and morphology by varying the number of bilayers. The LbL-PANi/MWNT films consist of a nanoscale interpenetrating network structure with well developed nanopores that yield excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage applications. These LbL-PANi/MWNT films in lithium cell can store high volumetric capacitance (~238 ± 32 F/cm(3)) and high volumetric capacity (~210 mAh/cm(3)). In addition, rate-dependent galvanostatic tests show LbL-PANi/MWNT films can deliver both high power and high energy density (~220 Wh/L(electrode) at ~100 kW/L(electrode)) and could be promising positive electrode materials for thin film microbatteries or electrochemical capacitors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. In-situ growth of high-performance all-solid-state electrode for flexible supercapacitors based on carbon woven fabric/ polyaniline/ graphene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingxi; Zhang, Haiyan; Deng, Wentao; Zhang, Danfeng; Li, Na; Wu, Qibai; He, Chunhua

    2018-04-01

    For the development of wearable electronic devices, it is crucial to develop energy storage components combining high-capacity and flexibility. Herein, an all-solid-state supercapacitor is prepared through an in-situ "growth and wrapping" method. The electrode contains polyaniline deposited on a carbon woven fabric and wrapped with a graphene-based envelop. The hybrid electrode exhibits excellent mechanical and electrochemical performance. The optimized few layer graphene wrapping layer provides for a conductive network, which effectively enhances the cycling stability as 88.9% of the starting capacitance is maintained after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the assembled device delivers a high areal capacity (of 790 F cm-2) at the current density of 1 A cm-2, a high areal energy (28.21 uWh cm-2) at the power densities of 0.12 mW cm-2 and shows no significant decrease in the performance with a bending angle of 180°. This unique flexible supercapacitor thus exhibits great potential for wearable electronics.

  1. In situ electropolymerization of polyaniline/cobalt sulfide decorated carbon nanotube composite catalyst toward triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaoming; Wang, Wei-Yan; Chou, Shu-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Wu; Lin, Jeng-Yu

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report a composite film composed of the cobalt sulfide (CoS1.097) nanoclusters/multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposites (MWCNT@CoS1.097) embedded polyaniline (PANI) film (denoted as PANI/MWCNT@CoS1.097) by an in situ electropolymerization onto a fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate as a counter electrode (CE) for Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) for the first time. The extensive cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance measurements show the PANI/MWCNT@CoS1.097 CE with an enhanced electrocatalytic activity for I3- reduction compared to PANI and MWCNT@CoS1.097 CEs. Moreover, the peak current densities of the PANI/MWCNT@CoS1.097 CE show no sign of degradation after consecutive 200 CV tests, suggesting its great chemical and electrochemical stability. Furthermore, the DSC based on the in situ electropolymerized PANI/MWCNT@CoS1.097 CE achieves an improved photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 7.02%, which is higher than those of the DSCs with PANI CE (6.06%) and with MWCNT@CoS1.097 CE (5.54%), and is even comparable to that of the DSC using the Pt CE (7.16%). Therefore, the PANI/MWCNT@CoS1.097 CE can be regarded as a promising alternative CE for Pt-free DSCs.

  2. A composite of polyelectrolyte-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes and in situ polymerized polyaniline for the detection of low concentration triethylamine vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Wang Huicai; Cao Xiehong; Yuan Minyong; Yang Mujie

    2008-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grafted with sodium polystyrenesulfonate (NaPSS) were deposited on an interdigitated gold electrode decorated with a layer of positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) by a self-assembly method. Then polyaniline (PANI) was in situ polymerized on the surface of the MWNTs to prepare a composite. The structure and morphology of the composite were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical responses of the composite to triethylamine vapor of low concentrations were measured at room temperature. It was found that the composite exhibited a linear response to the vapor in the range of 0.5-8 ppm with the highest sensitivity of ∼80%, which is much higher than that of MWNTs and PANI separately, and an obvious synergetic effect was observed. In addition, the detection limit was as low as the ppb level, and reversible and relatively fast responses (t 90% ∼200 s and ∼10 min for sensing and recovery, respectively) were observed. The sensing characteristics are highly related to the gas responses of PANI, and a sensing mechanism considering the interaction of MWNTs and PANI was proposed

  3. Electroplating of polyaniline on carbon fiber cloth in a simple two electrode system: Application for the electrochemical filter in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thien Khanh; Tran, Hoai Nam; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Leu, Hoang Jyn

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the pollution of water environment has become a significant problem that really requires a long term solution to deal with. In this study, we provide a simple method to create a capable electrode for electrochemical treatment of wastewater or even can be used as a filter by a physical method. Carbon fiber clothes 300×700 mm were chosen to carry on experiments of Polyaniline (PANI) electrodeposition. Generally, PANI was used to be deposited by three electrodes electrochemical system, however, our samples we obtained here are created by a simple two-electrode electrochemical system. Nevertheless, the product fiber cloth is controlled with a thickness of 0.19 mm and the mass density of 0.44g/cm3, the whole process was carried out under simple lab scale condition at Ton Duc Thang University. To clarify the properties of our products, there was some measurement applied, such as SEM for surface monographic investigation, thermal conductivity by DSC, electrical conductivity by CV and material properties by XRD and EDS measurement. In that manner, we believe that there is still more room for this method to improve in the near future and a bright chance to apply to industrial processes.

  4. A hydrogel-mediated scalable strategy toward core-shell polyaniline/poly(acrylic acid)-modified carbon nanotube hybrids as efficient electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Bai, Zhengyu; Fan, Jingbiao; Sun, Zhipeng; Mi, Hongyu; Zhang, Qing; Qiu, Jieshan

    2018-04-01

    Structural failure of polyaniline (PANI) stemmed from repeated swelling-shrinkage during Faradic process represents an imminent issue hindering the real application of this material for advanced energy storage. Herein, we explore a clean and facile hydrogel-mediated layer-by-layer strategy to conformally coat a layer of oriented PANI nanofibers on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) where a layer of UV-polymerized poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel is first formed in between as electrodes for supercapacitors. Such an intriguing core-shell tri-component structure perfectly alleviates the drawbacks of PANI as well as combines the advantages of MWCNTs. Especially, the hydrogel used increases the adhesion between PANI and MWCNTs, buffers the structural variation of PANI during cycling, and provide extra driving force accelerating electrolyte penetration throughout active materials. Therefore, the well-intergrown hybrids (PANI/P-MWCNT) display high electrochemical performance as compared to PANI and PANI/MWCNT, i.e., an improved capacitance of 612.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, and excellent cycling behavior of 81.5% capacitance retention at 5 A g-1 over 1500 cycles. Also, the maximum energy density of the PANI/P-MWCNT based symmetric configuration reaches 8.2 Wh kg-1. Significantly, such a hydrogel-bridged design concept may find the important application for the synthesis of competitive candidates for energy storage.

  5. Poly(aniline) nanowires in sol-gel coated ITO: A pH-responsive substrate for planar supported lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chenhao; Orosz, Kristina S.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Saavedra, S. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Facilitated ion transport across an artificial lipid bilayer coupled to a solid substrate is a function common to several types of bioelectronic devices based on supported membranes, including biomimetic fuel cells and ion channel biosensors. Described here is fabrication of a pH-sensitive transducer composed of a porous sol-gel layer derivatized with poly(aniline) (PANI) nanowires grown from an underlying planar indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The upper sol-gel surface is hydrophilic, smooth, and compatible with deposition of a planar supported lipid bilayer (PSLB) formed via vesicle fusion. Conducting tip AFM was used to show that the PANI wires are connected to the ITO, which convert this electrode into a potentiometric pH sensor. The response to changes in the pH of the buffer contacting the PANI nanowire/sol-gel/ITO electrode is blocked by the very low ion permeability of the overlying, fluid PSLB. The feasibility of using this assembly to monitor facilitated proton transport across the PSLB was demonstrated by doping the membrane with lipophilic ionophores that respond to a transmembrane pH gradient, which produced an apparent proton permeability several orders of magnitude greater than values measured for undoped lipid bilayers. PMID:21707069

  6. Pd nanoparticles immobilized on carbon nanotubes with a polyaniline coaxial coating for the Heck reaction: coating thickness as the key factor influencing the efficiency and stability of the catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Rui; Deng, Jie; Ran, Maofei; Wang, Ning; Chu, Wei; He, Zhiwei; Du, Zheng; Jiang, Chengfa; Sun, Wenjing

    2018-01-01

    Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on polyaniline (PANI)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized using a low-cost and simple method for application in the Heck reaction. The effects of the PANI/CNT coating weight ratio on the catalytic stability and recyclability of the composite were determined by using a combination of experimental and computational methods. The results show that through coordination of the N-species in PANI with the Pd NPs, the nitrogen-rich PANI@CNT provides a strong support for the Pd NPs. The thickness of the PANI layer is the key in determining the stability of the catalyst. PANI becomes protonated in the presence of CNTs, as electron transfer from the former to the latter creates strong interactions between the two. Thus, PANI becomes more stable in nanocomposites with a higher CNT content, e.g., PANI/CNT = 0.5 : 1. The catalyst with a PANI/CNT ratio of 0.5 : 1 exhibited the best recycling performance, and only a small loss of activity was observed after 10 cycles. However, upon increasing the PANI content (e.g., PANI/CNT = 4 : 1), the PANI units tend to form bulk structures that are less stable than those that wrap around the CNTs. Such a structure is unstable; therefore, the PANI layers can easily deform or break away from the CNT backbones. Hence, these catalysts deactivate during recycling. Thus, our study demonstrates that the assembly of noble-metal NPs on CNTs bearing a thin coaxial PANI coating is a powerful technique to prepare reusable catalysts for the Heck reaction. Coating thickness is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and stability of the catalyst.

  7. Pd nanoparticles immobilized on carbon nanotubes with a polyaniline coaxial coating for the Heck reaction: coating thickness as the key factor influencing the efficiency and stability of the catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Rui

    2018-02-12

    Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on polyaniline (PANI)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized using a low-cost and simple method for application in the Heck reaction. The effects of the PANI/CNT coating weight ratio on the catalytic stability and recyclability of the composite were determined by using a combination of experimental and computational methods. The results show that through coordination of the N-species in PANI with the Pd NPs, the nitrogen-rich PANI@CNT provides a strong support for the Pd NPs. The thickness of the PANI layer is the key in determining the stability of the catalyst. PANI becomes protonated in the presence of CNTs, as electron transfer from the former to the latter creates strong interactions between the two. Thus, PANI becomes more stable in nanocomposites with a higher CNT content, e.g., PANI/CNT = 0.5 : 1. The catalyst with a PANI/CNT ratio of 0.5 : 1 exhibited the best recycling performance, and only a small loss of activity was observed after 10 cycles. However, upon increasing the PANI content (e.g., PANI/CNT = 4 : 1), the PANI units tend to form bulk structures that are less stable than those that wrap around the CNTs. Such a structure is unstable; therefore, the PANI layers can easily deform or break away from the CNT backbones. Hence, these catalysts deactivate during recycling. Thus, our study demonstrates that the assembly of noble-metal NPs on CNTs bearing a thin coaxial PANI coating is a powerful technique to prepare reusable catalysts for the Heck reaction. Coating thickness is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and stability of the catalyst.

  8. Antibacterial properties of polyaniline-silver films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuceková, Z.; Kašpárková, V.; Humpolíček, P.; Ševčíková, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1103-1108 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * silver * antibacterial properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  9. Stem cell differentiation on conducting polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humpolíček, P.; Radaszkiewicz, K. A.; Kašpárková, V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Kuceková, Z.; Vičarová, H.; Pacherník, Jiří; Lehocký, M.; Minařík, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 84 (2015), s. 68796-68805 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * biocompatibility Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; BO - Biophysics (BFU-R) Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  10. Doping of three-dimensional porous carbon nanotube-graphene-ionic liquid composite into polyaniline for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography determination of alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lulu; Wu, Mian; Feng, Yingying; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao, E-mail: bzzeng@whu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    In this work, ionic liquid (IL, i.e. 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), carboxyl multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used to prepare three-dimensional porous material (MWCNTs-rGO-IL) by one-step self-assembly, then it was co-electrodeposited with polyaniline (PANI) on stainless steel wires by cyclic voltammetry. The resulting coating (PANI-MWCNTs-rGO-IL) was characterized by using FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy etc, and it showed porous structure and had high thermal stability. Furthermore, it was found to be very suitable for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of alcohols (i.e. octanol, nonanol, geraniol, decanol, undecanol and dodecanol). By coupling with gas chromatography, wide linear ranges and low limits of detection (i.e. 2.2–28.3 ng L{sup −1}) were obtained for the alcohols. The coating also presented good repeatability and reproducibility; the relative standard deviations for intra-fiber and fiber-to-fiber were less than 5.6% (n = 5) and 7.0% (n = 5) respectively. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of alcohols in tea drinks, and the recoveries for standards added were 85.6–114%. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional porous material (MWCNTs-rGO-IL) was synthesized by self-assembly. • A new PANI-MWCNTs-rGO-IL composite coating was prepared by electrochemical method. • It presented high thermal stability and extraction selectivity for alcohols.

  11. A pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH)-electrode with direct electron transfer based on polyaniline modified carbon nanotubes for biofuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubart, Ivo W.; Göbel, Gero; Lisdat, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this study we present a pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase [(PQQ)-GDH] electrode with direct electron transfer between the enzyme and electrode. Soluble pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is covalently bound to an electropolymerized polyaniline copolymer film on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified gold electrode. The pulsed electropolymerization of 2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid (MASA) and m-aminobenzoic acid (ABA) is optimized with respect to the efficiency of the bioelectrocatalytic conversion of glucose. The glucose oxidation starts at −0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl and current densities up to 500 μA/cm 2 at low potential of +0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl can be achieved. The electrode shows a glucose sensitivity in the range from 0.1 mM to 5 mM at a potential of +0.1 V vs. Ag/Ag/Cl. The dynamic range is extended to 100 mM at +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer mechanism is studied and buffer effects are investigated. The developed enzyme electrode is examined for bioenergetic application by assembling of a membrane-less biofuel cell. For the cathode a bilirubin oxidase (BOD) based MWCNT-modified gold electrode with direct electron transfer (DET) is used. The biofuel cell exhibits a cell potential of 680 ± 20 mV and a maximum power density of up to 65 μW/cm 2 at 350 mV vs. Ag/AgCl.

  12. Doping of three-dimensional porous carbon nanotube-graphene-ionic liquid composite into polyaniline for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography determination of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lulu; Wu, Mian; Feng, Yingying; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-01-01

    In this work, ionic liquid (IL, i.e. 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), carboxyl multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used to prepare three-dimensional porous material (MWCNTs-rGO-IL) by one-step self-assembly, then it was co-electrodeposited with polyaniline (PANI) on stainless steel wires by cyclic voltammetry. The resulting coating (PANI-MWCNTs-rGO-IL) was characterized by using FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy etc, and it showed porous structure and had high thermal stability. Furthermore, it was found to be very suitable for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of alcohols (i.e. octanol, nonanol, geraniol, decanol, undecanol and dodecanol). By coupling with gas chromatography, wide linear ranges and low limits of detection (i.e. 2.2–28.3 ng L"−"1) were obtained for the alcohols. The coating also presented good repeatability and reproducibility; the relative standard deviations for intra-fiber and fiber-to-fiber were less than 5.6% (n = 5) and 7.0% (n = 5) respectively. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of alcohols in tea drinks, and the recoveries for standards added were 85.6–114%. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional porous material (MWCNTs-rGO-IL) was synthesized by self-assembly. • A new PANI-MWCNTs-rGO-IL composite coating was prepared by electrochemical method. • It presented high thermal stability and extraction selectivity for alcohols.

  13. Facile preparation of multifunctional carbon nanotube/magnetite/polyaniline nanocomposite offering a strong option for efficient solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS for the analysis of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Zahra; Azar, Parviz Aberoomand; Tehrani, Mohammad Saber; Husain, Syed Waqif

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this study the synthesis of a highly efficient organic-inorganic nanocomposite. In this research, the carbon nanotube/magnetite/polyaniline nanocomposite was successfully prepared through a facile route. Monodisperse magnetite nanospheres were prepared through the coprecipitation route, and polyaniline nanolayer as a modified shell with a high surface area was synthesized by an in situ growth route and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared nanocomposite was immobilized on a stainless-steel wire for the fabrication of the solid-phase microextraction fiber. The combination of headspace solid-phase microextraction using carbon nanotube/magnetite/polyaniline nanocomposite fiber with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can achieve a low limit of detection and can be applied to determine phenolic compounds in water samples. The effects of the extraction and desorption parameters including extraction temperature and time, ionic strength, stirring rate, pH, and desorption temperature and time have been studied. Under the optimum conditions, the dynamic linear range was 0.01-500 ng mL -1 and the limits of detection of phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol were the lowest (0.008 ng mL -1 ) for three times. The coefficient of determination of all calibration curves was more than 0.990. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon nanofibers: a versatile catalytic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelize Maria de Almeida Coelho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is present an overview of the promising results obtained while using carbon nanofibers based composites as catalyst support for different practical applications: hydrazine decomposition, styrene synthesis, direct oxidation of H2S into elementary sulfur and as fuel-cell electrodes. We have also discussed some prospects of the use of these new materials in total combustion of methane and in ammonia decomposition. The macroscopic carbon nanofibers based composites were prepared by the CVD method (Carbon Vapor Deposition employing a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and ethane. The results showed a high catalytic activity and selectivity in comparison to the traditional catalysts employed in these reactions. The fact was attributed, mainly, to the morphology and the high external surface of the catalyst support.

  15. High electrocatalytic performance of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber-supported nickel oxide nanocomposite for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Enizi, Abdullah M. [Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, PO Box: 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Elzatahry, Ahmed A., E-mail: aelzatahry@ksu.edu.sa [Materials Science and Technology Program, College of Arts and Science, Qatar University, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria 21934 (Egypt); Abdullah, Aboubakr M., E-mail: bakr@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Vinu, Ajayan [Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Building X-X2-09, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes 5095 SA (Australia); Iwai, Hideo [Materials Analysis Station, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0047 (Japan); Al-Deyab, Salem S. [Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, PO Box: 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A mixture of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), graphene and emeraldine base polyaniline (PANi) was electrospun and used as starting materials to prepare a nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (N-CNF). • Nickel oxide was loaded on the N-CNF to form a nanocomposite which was calcined later at different temperatures. • The effect of calcination temperature on the electrocatalytic behavior of the nanocomposite was studied which shows that the nanocomposite calcined at 500 °C was proved to be very high compared to the other calcination temperatures. • The stability of catalyst was excellent and its resistance to the adsorption of the intermediates generated from the methanol oxidation was very high. - Abstract: Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber (N-CNF)–supported NiO composite was prepared by electrospinning a sol-gel mixture of graphene and polyaniline (PANi) with aqueous solutions of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) followed by a high-temperature annealing process. The electrospun was stabilized for 2 h at 280 °C, carbonized for 5 h at 1200 °C then loaded by 10% NiO. The electrocatalytic activities of the produced nanocomposite have been studied using cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. Also, N-CNF was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained N-doped carbon nanofiber was found to have a nitrogen content of 2.6 atomic% with a diameter range of (140–160) nm, and a surface area (393.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). In addition, it showed a high electrocatalytic behavior towards methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline medium and high stability and resistivity to the adsorption of intermediates.

  16. Sensitive stripping voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by a Bi/multi-walled carbon nanotube-emeraldine base polyaniline-Nafion composite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guo; Yin, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A MWCNT-EBP-NA composite film modified GCE was fabricated and characterized. • The GCE modified with the MWCNT-EBP-NA composite film exhibited excellent performance in the analysis of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by SWASV. • The Cd(II) and Pb(II) detection limits of the developed electrode were approximately 0.06 μg/L and 0.08 μg/L, respectively. • Bi/MWCNT-EBP-NA/GCE was successfully used to determine metal ions in soil samples. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-emeraldine base polyaniline (EBP)-Nafion (NA) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT-EBP-NA/GCE) was prepared and used for the sensitive detection of trace Pb(II) and Cd(II), with a detection limit of 0.06 μg/L for Cd(II) and 0.08 μg/L for Pb(II) (S/N = 3), by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). A bismuth film was prepared through the in situ plating of bismuth on the MWCNT-EBP-NA/GCE. The morphologies and electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were characterized by SWASV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The parameters affecting the stripping current response were investigated and optimized. The formed MWCNTs in the composite film enlarged the specific surface area of the electrode and significantly promoted electron transferring, and the formed polyaniline (PANI) enhanced the ion-exchange capacity and prevented the macromolecules in real samples from absorbing onto the surface of the electrode. The presence of NA effectively increased the stability and adhesion of the composite film, enhanced the cation-exchange capacity and improved the ability to preconcentrate metal ions. Under the optimized conditions, a linear range of 1.0 to 50.0 μg/L was achieved for both metal ions, with a detection limit of 0.06 μg/L for Cd(II) and 0.08 μg/L for Pb(II) (S/N = 3), offering good repeatability. Finally, the Bi/MWCNT-EBP-NA/GCE was used for the

  17. Transesterification of triacetin and castor oil with methanol catalyzed by supported polyaniline-sulfate. A role of polymer morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drelinkiewicz, A.; Kalemba-Jaje, Z.; Lalik, E.; Zieba, A.; Mucha, D.; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 455, 30 March (2013), s. 92-106 ISSN 0926-860X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : transesterification * triacetin * castor oil Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2013

  18. Electrospun fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure made of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube suspension for all-solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Junsheng; Su, Shijie; Fang, Xu; Wang, Dazhi; Xu, Shuangchao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun PANI/MWCNT fibrous electrodes for supercapacitor were prepared. • Microstructure of electrodes is tunable by changing the electrospin parameters. • Fiber-diameter dependence of the electrode performance was observed. • High performance and good stability of electrospun electrodes were obtained. - Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to prepare high performance fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure for all-solid-state electrochemical supercapacitor. Symmetrically sandwiched supercapacitors consisting of flexible electrospun polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sulfuric acid (H_2SO_4) gel electrolyte were assembled. Tunable microstructure of the fibrous electrode was obtained by changing the electrospinning parameters including the collector–needle distance (CND) and the suspension flow rate (SFR). Results show that, higher CND combining with lower SFR can result in a smaller average diameter of the electrospun fibers and hence improve the electrode performance. When the CND changes from 80 to 140 mm, the average fiber diameter will decrease from 2.89 to 1.21 μm, and the specific surface area of the electrode can increase from 57 to 83 m"2·g"−"1. The corresponding specific capacitance of the electrospun electrode will therefore increase from 129.5 to 180 F·g"−"1, leading to a synchronous improvement of the energy density of the supercapacitor from 18 to 25 Wh·kg"−"1. On the other hand, the supercapacitors using fibrous electrodes in this work also show good rate capability and cycling stability. Using the electrode with an average fiber diameter of 1.21 μm, the specific capacitances can maintain 131 F·g"−"1 at a current density of 4 A·g"−"1, which is 73% of the specific capacitance of the same sample at a current density of 0.5 A·g"−"1. And the specific capacitance of the electrode can retain 89% after 1500 charge/discharge cycles.

  19. Electrospun fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure made of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube suspension for all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Junsheng; Su, Shijie; Fang, Xu [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Dazhi, E-mail: d.wang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Xu, Shuangchao [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Electrospun PANI/MWCNT fibrous electrodes for supercapacitor were prepared. • Microstructure of electrodes is tunable by changing the electrospin parameters. • Fiber-diameter dependence of the electrode performance was observed. • High performance and good stability of electrospun electrodes were obtained. - Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to prepare high performance fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure for all-solid-state electrochemical supercapacitor. Symmetrically sandwiched supercapacitors consisting of flexible electrospun polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) gel electrolyte were assembled. Tunable microstructure of the fibrous electrode was obtained by changing the electrospinning parameters including the collector–needle distance (CND) and the suspension flow rate (SFR). Results show that, higher CND combining with lower SFR can result in a smaller average diameter of the electrospun fibers and hence improve the electrode performance. When the CND changes from 80 to 140 mm, the average fiber diameter will decrease from 2.89 to 1.21 μm, and the specific surface area of the electrode can increase from 57 to 83 m{sup 2}·g{sup −1}. The corresponding specific capacitance of the electrospun electrode will therefore increase from 129.5 to 180 F·g{sup −1}, leading to a synchronous improvement of the energy density of the supercapacitor from 18 to 25 Wh·kg{sup −1}. On the other hand, the supercapacitors using fibrous electrodes in this work also show good rate capability and cycling stability. Using the electrode with an average fiber diameter of 1.21 μm, the specific capacitances can maintain 131 F·g{sup −1} at a current density of 4 A·g{sup −1}, which is 73% of the specific capacitance of the same sample at a current density of 0.5 A·g{sup −1}. And the specific capacitance of the electrode can retain 89

  20. Effect of different oxidants on polyaniline/single walled carbon nanotubes composites synthesized via ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gull, Nafisa, E-mail: gullchemist@gmail.com [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Khan, Shahzad Maqsood, E-mail: shahzadkhan81@hotmail.com [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Islam, Atif; Zia, Saba; Shafiq, Muhammad; Sabir, Aneela; Munawar, Muhammad Azeem [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Butt, Muhammad Taqi Zahid [College of Engineering and Emerging Technologies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Jamil, Tahir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the effect of different oxidants on properties of polyaniline/single walled carbon nanotubes (PANI/SWCNT) composites and scrutinizing a suitable oxidant to improve the properties of composites. PANI/SWCNT composites were fabricated via ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization technique using four different oxidants; hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), ammonium peroxidisulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}), potassium dichromate (K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and potassium iodate (KIO{sub 3}). Percent yield (97%), molecular weight (45532 g mol{sup −1}) and electrical conductivity (0.835 S cm{sup −1}) were found maximum for composite prepared in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Structural confirmation of PANI and charge transfer complex formation between PANI and SWCNT were confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis verified that the PANI/SWCNT composite synthesized using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had maximum thermal stability with least thermal degradation (∼28%). Minimal thermal transitions of the composite were also observed for same composite by differential scanning calorimetry. Scanning electron microscopic images of PANI/SWCNT composites revealed that SWCNT were properly dispersed in PANI matrix when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used. Above results provide the valuable suggestion that; H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a promising oxidant to enhance structural, thermal, electrical and microscopic properties of composites. - Highlights: • Ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization protocol was devised for synthesis of PANI/SWCNT composites. • SEM micrographs of PANI/SWCNT-1 showed uniform dispersed structure. • Better thermal stability and conductivity was evidenced for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} based PANI/SWCNT composite. • π–π interaction between PANI and SWCNT is confirmed by FTIR and UV

  1. Mechanical properties of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, H.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 7-8 (2010), s. 832-834 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * conducting polymer * conductivity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2010

  2. Biocompatibility of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humpolíček, P.; Kašpárková, V.; Saha, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 162, 7/8 (2012), s. 722-727 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * biocompatibility Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.109, year: 2012

  3. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon from polyaniline with an F127 template for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Guoxiang; Wang, Yanhui; Jia, Shaopei; Tian, Pengfei; Zhou, Shuyu; Zang, Jianbing

    2017-11-01

    N-doped mesoporous carbons (N-MCs) were synthesized via the oxypolymerization of aniline with a Pluronic F127 template, sintering at 850 °C in N2 atmosphere, and activation in a KOH solution. The contrast experiments were carried out without the addition of F127 and the obtained sample was defined as N-Cs. The Brunaner-Emmett-Teller measurement, pore size distribution measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N-MCs and N-Cs were performed. The specific areas of the N-MCs and N-Cs reached 721 and 394 m2 g-1, respectively. The specific capacitances of the N-MCs and N-Cs were as high as 318 and 106 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1. The cycle life of N-MCs at different current densities was above 96% after 5000 cycles of charging and discharging, indicating that the N-MCs had excellent cycle stability.

  4. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum carbide was supported on three types of carbon support—activated carbon; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; and carbon nanofibers—using ammonium molybdate and molybdic acid as Mo precursors. The use of activated carbon as support afforded an X-ray amorphous Mo phase, whereas crystalline molybdenum carbide phases were obtained on carbon nanofibers and, in some cases, on carbon nanotubes. When the resulting catalysts were tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol in dodecane, catechol and phenol were obtained as the main products, although in some instances significant amounts of cyclohexane were produced. The observation of catechol in all reaction mixtures suggests that guaiacol was converted into phenol via sequential demethylation and HDO, although the simultaneous occurrence of a direct demethoxylation pathway cannot be discounted. Catalysts based on carbon nanofibers generally afforded the highest yields of phenol; notably, the only crystalline phase detected in these samples was Mo2C or Mo2C-ζ, suggesting that crystalline Mo2C is particularly selective to phenol. At 350 °C, carbon nanofiber supported Mo2C afforded near quantitative guaiacol conversion, the selectivity to phenol approaching 50%. When guaiacol HDO was performed in the presence of acetic acid and furfural, guaiacol conversion decreased, although the selectivity to both catechol and phenol was increased.

  5. Partially sulfonated polyaniline: conductivity and spectroscopic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Michal; Suchánková, A.; Watzlová, E.; Prokeš, J.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 329-338 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * aniline * orthanilic acid Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  6. Electrochemical and spectroscopic study on thiolation of polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, Maija; Bobacka, Johan; Ivaska, Ari; Levon, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have thiolated and characterized polyaniline films in order to verify that the thiolation process has taken place. ► Such extensive characterization of thiolation of polyaniline has not previously been reported. ► Thiolation alters the electrochemical properties of polyaniline and the process should be understood. ► Through thiolation many reactive groups may covalently be bound to the polymer backbone. ► Possibility of covalent binding makes polyaniline films an attractive substrate for, e.g., biosensors. -- Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) is a conducting polymer, easily synthesized and lucrative for many electrochemical applications like ion-selective sensors and biosensors. Thiolated molecules, including biological ones, can be bound by nucleophilic attachment to the polyaniline backbone. These covalently bound thiols add functionality to PANI, but also cause changes in the electrochemical properties of PANI. Polyaniline studied in this work was electropolymerized on glassy carbon electrodes. 2-Mercaptoethanol (MCE) and 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol (FCHT) were used as the thiols to form functionalized films. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), ex situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The goal of this work was to confirm the thiolation by spectroscopic methods and to study the impact of thiolation on the electrochemical properties of PANI. Our study showed that thiolated PANI has different electrochemical properties than PANI. Although the thiolation partially reduced the PANI backbone it still remained conductive after the thiolation. Detailed understanding of the thiolation process can be very useful for future applications of PANI

  7. Aniline oligomers versus polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2012), s. 240-251 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * anilin e oligomers * anilin e Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2012

  8. Electrical and thermal properties of graphite/polyaniline composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdo, Shawn E., E-mail: sxbourdo@ualr.edu [Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Warford, Brock A.; Viswanathan, Tito [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    A composite of a carbon allotrope (graphite) and an inherently conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI), has been prepared that exhibits an electrical conductivity greater than either of the two components. An almost 2-fold increase in the bulk conductivity occurs when only a small mass fraction of polyaniline exists in the composite (91% graphite/ 9% polyaniline, by mass). This increase in dc electrical conductivity is curious since in most cases a composite material will exhibit a conductivity somewhere between the two individual components, unless a modification to the electronic nature of the material occurs. In order to elucidate the fundamental electrical properties of the composite we have performed variable temperature conductivity measurements to better understand the nature of conduction in these materials. The results from these studies suggest a change in the mechanism of conduction as the amount of polyaniline is increased in the composite. Along with superior electrical properties, the composites exhibit an increase in thermal stability as compared to the graphite. - Graphical abstract: (Left) Room temperature electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at different mass ratios. (Right) Electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at temperatures from 5 K to 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites of graphite and polyaniline have been synthesized with unique electrical and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Certain G-PANI composites are more conductive and more thermally stable than graphite alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-PANI composites exhibit a larger conductivity ratio with respect to temperature than graphite alone.

  9. Doping effect of polyaniline/MWCNT composites on capacitance and cyclic stability of supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, G; Sahoo, S; Nayak, G C; Das, C K

    2012-03-01

    Polyaniline doped by Zn2+ ions was synthesized as nanocomposites with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated as electrode material for supercapacitors. The uniform coating of polyaniline on MWCNT was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The effect of Zn2+ ions on nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), constant current charging/discharging cyclic test (CC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using a three-electrode system. The doped polyaniline composites show higher specific capacitance and better cyclic stability.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of water-soluble and conducting sulfonated polyaniline/para-phenylenediamine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes nano-composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Yao Pei; Li Xuan; He Fei

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble and conducting sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN)/phenylamine groups contained MWNTs (p-MWNTs) nano-composite were synthesized by in situ oxidation polymerization followed by sulfonation and hydrolysis. TEM, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, XPS, TGA and standard four-probe methods were employed to characterize morphology, chemical structure and performance of the nano-composite. The results show that phenylamine groups are grafted on the surface of p-MWNTs via amide bond and oxidized phenylamine groups initiate polyaniline polymerized on the surface of p-MWNTs. SPAN chains covalently attached to p-MWNTs render p-MWNTs compatibility with SPAN matrix and lead to SPAN/p-MWNTs nano-composite highly soluble and stable in water. Improved thermal stability illuminate existence of a new phase in the nano-composite where there is chemical interaction between p-MWNTs and SPAN coatings. Owing to incorporation of p-MWNTs conductivity of the nano-composite at room temperature is increased by about two orders of magnitude over neat SPAN

  11. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a polyaniline doped with silicotungstic acid and carbon nanotubes for the sensitive amperometric determination of ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Lai, G.; Zhang, H.; Yu, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive amperometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA). Aniline containing suspended silicotungstic acid and carbon nanotubes was electropolymerized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode in a single step which provides a simple and controllable method and greatly improves the electrocatalytic oxidation of AA. The effects of scan rate, solution pH and working potential were studied. A linear relationship exists between the current measured and the concentration of AA in the range from 1 μM to 10 μM and 0.01 mM to 9 mM, with a limit of detection as low as 0.51 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor is selective, stable and satisfyingly reliable in real sample experiments. In our eyes, it has a large potential for practical applications. (author)

  12. Enabling fast electron transfer through both bacterial outer-membrane redox centers and endogenous electron mediators by polyaniline hybridized large-mesoporous carbon anode for high-performance microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Long; Qiao, Yan; Zhong, Canyu; Li, Chang Ming

    2017-01-01

    Both physical structure and chemical property of an electrode play critical roles in extracellular electron transfer from microbes to electrodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein a novel polyaniline hybridized large mesoporous carbon (PANI-LMC) anode is fabricated from natural biomass by nanostructured CaCO 3 template-assisted carbonization followed by in situ chemical polymerizing PANI to enable fast extracellular electron transfer, in which the LMC with rich disorder-interconnected large mesopores (∼20−50 nm) and large surface area facilitates a fast mediated electron transfer through electron mediators, while the decorated PANI on LMC surface enables the direct electron transfer via bacterial outer-membrane redox centers. Owing to the unique synergistic effect from both excellent electron transfer paths, the PANI-LMC hybrid anode harvests high power electricity with a maximum output power density of 1280 mW m −2 in Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 MFCs, 10-fold higher than that of conventional carbon cloth. The findings from this work suggest a new insight on design of high-efficient anode according to the multiple and flexible electrochemical process for practical MFC applications.

  13. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes with nitrogen-containing carbon coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomšík, Elena; Morávková, Zuzana; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Šálek, Petr; Kovářová, Jana; Zemek, Josef; Cieslar, M.; Prokeš, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1054-1065 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP108/11/P763; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911; GA ČR GA202/09/0428 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polyaniline coating * carbon ization * multi-wall carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  14. Gravure-printed ammonia sensor based on organic polyaniline colloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syrový, T.; Kuberský, P.; Sapurina, Irina; Pretl, S.; Bober, Patrycja; Syrová, L.; Hamáček, A.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 225, 31 March (2016), s. 510-516 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ammonia gas * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  15. Raman spectroscopy of polyaniline and oligoaniline thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trchová, Miroslava; Morávková, Zuzana; Bláha, Michal; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, 10 March (2014), s. 28-38 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * anilin e oligomers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  16. Application of polyaniline dispersions by means of screen printing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Držková, M.; Peřinka, N.; Hajná, Milena; Kaplanová, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2013 (2013), s. 257-268 ISSN 1211-5541 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * colloids * screen printing Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Polyaniline cryogels: Biocompatibility of novel conducting macroporous material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humpolíček, P.; Radaszkiewicz, K. A.; Capáková, Z.; Pacherník, J.; Bober, Patrycja; Kašpárková, V.; Rejmontová, P.; Lehocký, M.; Ponížil, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, 09 January (2018), s. 1-12, č. článku 135. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05095S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * cryogel * biocompatibility Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. Structure and properties of polyaniline interacting with H-phosphonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Michal; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Zujovic, Z. D.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Prokeš, J.; Pilař, Jan; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 232, October (2017), s. 79-86 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymers * polyaniline * H-phosphonate Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  19. Conductivity, impurity profile, and cytotoxicity of solvent-extracted polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárková, V.; Humpolíček, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Kopecká, J.; Kuceková, Z.; Moučka, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2016), s. 156-161 ISSN 1042-7147 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * Soxhlet extraction * purification Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.907, year: 2016

  20. Thermal analysis of polyaniline poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-stabilized dispersions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřinka, N.; Držková, M.; Hajná, Milena; Jašúrek, B.; Šulcová, P.; Syrový, T.; Kaplanová, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2014), s. 589-595 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) * dispersion Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2014

  1. Blood coagulation and platelet adhesion on polyaniline films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humpolíček, P.; Kuceková, Z.; Kašpárková, V.; Pelková, J.; Modic, M.; Junkar, I.; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Lehocký, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 133, 1 September (2015), s. 278-285 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) * hemocompatibility Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2015

  2. Role of polyaniline morphology in Pd particles dispersion. Hydrogenation of alkynes in the presence of Pd-polyaniline catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosydar, R.; Goral, M.; Drelinkiewicz, A.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1087-1095 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * palladium * hydrogenation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  3. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    1996-01-01

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...... done in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Ferrihydrite is formed and is stable at and below a temperature of 300 C. At 600 C small particles of maghemite is the dominant iron oxide. A transformation reaction is suggested....

  4. Synthesis of nanostructured polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surwade, Sumedh P.

    The organization of my thesis is as follows: (a) Chapter III describes the synthesis of bulk quantities of polyaniline nanofibers in one step using a simple and versatile high ionic strength aqueous system (HCl/NaCl) that permits the use of pure H2O2 as a mild oxidant without any added metal or enzyme catalyst. Polyaniline nanofibers obtained are highly conducting, sigma˜1--5 S/cm, and spectroscopically similar to conventional polyaniline synthesized using stronger oxidants. The synthesis method is further extended to the synthesis of oligoanilines of controlled molecular weight, e.g., aniline tetramer, octamer, and hexadecamer. Microns long tetramer nanofibers are synthesized using this method. (b) Chapter IV describes the mechanism of nanofiber formation in polyaniline. It is proposed that the surfaces such as the walls of the reaction vessel and/or intentionally added surfaces play a dramatic role in the evolution of nanofibrillar morphology. Nucleation sites on surfaces promote the accumulation of aniline dimer that reacts further to yield aniline tetramer, which (surprisingly) is entirely in form of nanofibers and whose morphology is transcribed to the bulk by a double heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. This unexpected phenomenon could form the basis of nanofiber formation in all classes of precipitation polymerization systems. (c) Chapter V is the mechanistic study on the formation of oligoanilines during the chemical oxidation of aniline in weakly acidic, neutral or basic media using peroxydisulfate oxidant. It is proposed that the reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of benzoquinone monoimine that is formed as a result of a Boyland-Sims rearrangement of aniline. The initial role of peroxydisulfate is to provide a pathway for the formation of benzoquinone monoimine intermediate that is followed by a conjugate Michael-type addition reaction with aniline or sulfated anilines. The products isolated in pH 2.5--10.0 buffers are intermediate species at various

  5. Study of different nanostructured carbon supports for fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Giorgi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Renzo; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Montone, Amelia; Bellitto, Serafina; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

    Pt clusters were deposited by an impregnation process on three carbon supports: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), and Vulcan XC-72 carbon black to investigate the effect of the carbon support structure on the possibility of reducing Pt loading on electrodes for direct methanol (DMFC) fuel cells without impairing performance. MWNT and SWNH were in-house synthesised by a DC and an AC arc discharge process between pure graphite electrodes, respectively. UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry measurements were used to characterize the Pt particles deposited on the three carbon supports. A differential yield for Pt deposition, not strictly related to the surface area of the carbon support, was observed. SWNH showed the highest surface chemical activity toward Pt deposition. Pt deposited in different forms depending on the carbon support. Electrochemical characterizations showed that the Pt nanostructures deposited on MWNT are particularly efficient in the methanol oxidation reaction.

  6. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kunugi, T.

    1978-03-01

    An alumina-supported 2% palladium catalyst had higher activity for carbon monoxide hydrogenation than a silica-supported 2% palladium catalyst, at 250/sup 0/-400/sup 0/C and 1 atm. The addition of lanthanum oxide or thorium oxide, but not of potassium oxide, to the silica-supported catalyst increased the conversion at 350/sup 0/C from 1.1% to 81.0% with a selectivity of 56.1% for methane, 1.4% for C/sub 2/ compounds, 0.1% for C/sub 3/ compounds, and 42.5% for carbon dioxide. Temperature-programed desorption of carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream showed that of two desorption peaks observed for carbon monoxide, the one at higher temperature corresponded to the carbon monoxide species which hydrogenates to methane and that the area of this peak increased with increasing thorium content of the catalyst. Graphs, tables, and 12 references.

  7. Comparison of the atmospheric- and reduced-pressure HS-SPME strategies for analysis of residual solvents in commercial antibiotics using a steel fiber coated with a multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Nouriasl, Kolsoum; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    A low-cost, sensitive and reliable reduced-pressure headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) setup was developed and evaluated for direct extraction of residual solvents in commercial antibiotics, followed by determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). A stainless steel narrow wire was made porous and adhesive by platinization by a modified electrophoretic deposition method and coated with a polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite. All experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated for both atmospheric-pressure and reduced-pressure conditions. Comparison of the optimal experimental conditions and the results demonstrated that the reduced-pressure strategy leads to a remarkable increase in the extraction efficiency and reduction of the extraction time and temperature (10 min, 25 °Ϲ vs 20 min, 40 °Ϲ). Additionally, the reduced-pressure strategy showed better analytical performances compared with those obtained by the conventional HS-SPME-GC-FID method. Limit of detections, linear dynamic ranges, and relative standard deviations of the reduced-pressure HS-SPME procedure for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in injectable solid drugs were obtained over the ranges of 20-100 pg g -1 , 0.02-40 μg g -1 , and 2.8-10.2%, respectively. The procedure developed was successful for the analysis of BTEX in commercial containers of penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefazolin. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the developed RP-HS-SPME setup.

  8. Carbon Nanofibers as Catalyst Support for Noble Metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the quest for new and well-defined support materials for heterogeneous catalysts we explored the potential of carbon nanofibers (CNF). CNF belongs to the by now extensive family of synthetic graphite-like carbon materials with advantageous and tunable physico-chemical properties. Aim of the work

  9. Enhanced electricity generation performance and dye wastewater degradation of microbial fuel cell by using a petaline NiO@ polyaniline-carbon felt anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dengjie; Liao, Xinrong; Liu, Yaqi; Zhong, Nianbing; Xu, Yunlan

    2018-06-01

    A new electrode which embedded polyaniline (PANI) in petaline NiO (NiO@PANI-CF) was prepared through in-situ growth and in-situ polymerization. The NiO@PANI-CF integrated the high capacitive character of NiO and the high conductivity of PANI, which effectively increased electricity generation capacity of NiO@PANI-MFC. The maximum output power density and the charge transfer resistance of NiO@PANI-MFC were 1078.8 mW·m -2 and 10.4 Ω respectively, which were 6.6 times and 68% lower than that of CF-MFC respectively. Moreover, NiO@PANI-MFC could effectively biodegrade dye wastewater due to high biocompatibility of NiO@PANI-CF. The color and COD removal efficiencies of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B reached 95.94% and 64.24% at 48 h respectively. The results demonstrate that the NiO@PANI-CF has the advantage of high conductivity, high capacitance, high specific surface area, super hydrophilicity, low polarization performance, low charge transfer resistance, high biocompatibility and high stablity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as a metal catalyst support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabena, LF

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ., which are among the most commonly used heterogeneous catalyst supports (Mart??nez-Me?ndez et al. 2006). Catalyst activity depends on the particle size and appropriate dis- tance between each particle. These catalysts deposited on a support... supported Pt electrodes. Appl Catal B Environ 80:286?295 Maldonado S, Morin S, Stevenson KJ (2006) Structure, composition, and chemical reactivity of carbon nanotubes by selective nitrogen doping. Carbon 44:1429?1437 Mart??nez-Me?ndez S, Henr??quez Y...

  11. Interfacial charge distributions in carbon-supported palladium catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Radhika G.; Blume, Raoul; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the charge transfer between a semiconducting catalyst carrier and the supported transition metal active phase represents an elite strategy for fine turning the electronic structure of the catalytic centers, hence their activity and selectivity. These phenomena have been theoretically...... and experimentally elucidated for oxide supports but remain poorly understood for carbons due to their complex nanoscale structure. Here, we combine advanced spectroscopy and microscopy on model Pd/C samples to decouple the electronic and surface chemistry effects on catalytic performance. Our investigations reveal...... treatments can be used to tune the interfacial charge distribution, hereby providing a strategy to rationally design carbon-supported catalysts.Control over charge transfer in carbon-supported metal nanoparticles is essential for designing new catalysts. Here, the authors show that thermal treatments...

  12. Separation of uranyl ion using polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayshree Ramkumar; Chandramouleeswaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline (Pani) was synthesized by the chemical oxidation of aniline. The use of persulphate instead of dichromate was desired in order to avoid the incorporation of chromium in the polymer matrix. The presence of chromium in the matrix, when dichromate was used as an oxidant, was confirmed by various techniques. The batch mode experiments showed that Pani could be used for separation of different metal ions. These ions were converted into their anionic complexes using suitable complexing agents. It was found that EDTA was used as a suitable reagent for the separation of Cu 2+ from Zn 2+ whereas the uranyl ion uptake could be increased to about 95 % when carbonate was used instead of EDTA as complexing agent. A possible application of the above exchange system to preconcentration of uranyl ion from seawater has also been examined. (author)

  13. Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Li, Wenguang; Bailey, James A.; Gao, Yuan

    2010-08-31

    Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

  14. Sorption of mercury on chemically synthesized polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remya Devi, P.S.; Verma, R.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and methyl mercury, on chemically synthesized polyaniline, in 0.1-10N HCl solutions has been studied. Hg 2+ is strongly sorbed at low acidities and the extent of sorption decreases with increase in acidity. The sorption of methyl mercury is very low in the HCl concentration range studied. Sorption of Hg 2+ on polyaniline in 0.1-10N LiCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions has also been studied. The analysis of the data indicates that the sorption of Hg 2+ depends on the degree of protonation of polyaniline and the nature of mercury(II) chloride complexes in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of polyaniline sorbed with mercury show that mercury is bound as Hg 2+ . Sorbed mercury is quantitatively eluted from polyaniline with 0.5N HNO 3 . Polyaniline can be used for separation and pre-concentration of inorganic mercury from aqueous samples. (author)

  15. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. An improved amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of microbial lactate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Kusum; Pundir, C S

    2017-01-01

    An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The biosensor showed maximum response within 5s at pH 8.0 in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer and 37°C, when operated at 20mVs -1 . The biosensor had a detection limit of 0.25μM with a wide working range between 1μM-2500μM. The biosensor was employed for measurement of l-lactic acid level in plasma of apparently healthy and diseased persons. Analytical recovery of added lactic acid in plasma was 95.5%. Within- and between-batch coefficients of variations were 6.24% and 4.19% respectively. There was a good correlation (R 2 =0.97) between plasma lactate values as measured by standard enzymatic spectrophotometric method and the present biosensor. The working enzyme electrode was used 180 times over a period of 140 days, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of surface treatment of pigment particles with polypyrrole and polyaniline phosphate on their corrosion inhibiting properties in organic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, A.; Veselý, D.; Kohl, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 9 (2014), s. 1465-1483 ISSN 0300-9440 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conductive polymer * polypyrrole * polyaniline phosphate Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.358, year: 2014

  18. Cathode-supported hybrid direct carbon fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Gurauskis, Jonas; Deleebeeck, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The direct conversion of coal to heat and electricity by a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) is a highly efficient and cleaner technology than the conventional combustion power plants. HDCFC is defined as a combination of solid oxide fuel cell and molten carbonate fuel cell. This work...... investigates cathode-supported cells as an alternative configuration for HDCFC, with better catalytic activity and performance. This study aims to define the best processing route to manufacture highly efficient cathode-supported cells based on La0.75Sr0.25MnO3/yttria-stabilized zirconia infiltrated backbones...

  19. Phase transitions of polyaniline induced by electrochemical treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomšík, Elena; Konefal, Magdalena; Kohut, Olena; Ivanko, Iryna; Hromádková, Jiřina; Zhigunov, Alexander; Steinhart, Miloš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 7 (2018), s. 1-5, č. článku 1700627. ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14791S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : pseudocapacitors * polyaniline * high charge-discharge rate Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016

  20. Highly Loaded Carbon Black Supported Pt Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Larsen, M.J.; Zdražil, Miroslav; Gulková, Daniela; Vít, Zdeněk; Šolcová, Olga; Soukup, Karel; Koštejn, Martin; Bonde, J.L.; Maixnerová, Lucie; Odgaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 256, NOV 1 (2015), s. 375-383 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon black * fuell cell * electrocatalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.312, year: 2015

  1. Sulfidation of carbon-supported iron oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramselaar, W.L.T.M.; Hadders, R.H.; Gerkema, E.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Oers, van E.M.; Kraan, van der A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The sulfidation of carbon-supported iron oxide catalysts was studied by means of in-situ Mössbauer spectroscopy at temperatures down to 4.2 K. The catalysts were dried in two different ways and then sulfided in a flow of 10% H2S in H2 at temperatures between 293 and 773 K. Thiophene

  2. An Enzyme Switch Employing Direct Electrochemical Communication between Horseradish Peroxidase and a Poly(aniline) Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, P N; Birkin, P R; Wang, J H; Palmisano, F; De Benedetto, G

    1998-09-01

    An enzyme switch, or microelectrochemical enzyme transistor, responsive to hydrogen peroxide was made by connecting two carbon band electrodes (∼10 μm wide, 4.5 mm long separated by a 20-μm gap) with an anodically grown film of poly(aniline). Horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was either adsorbed onto the poly(aniline) film or immobilized in an insulating poly(1,2-diaminobenzene) polymer grown electrochemically on top of the poly(aniline) film to complete the device. In the completed device, the conductivity of the poly(aniline) film changes from conducting (between - 0.05 and + 0.3 V vs SCE at pH 5) to insulating (>+0.3 V vs SCE at pH 5) on addition of hydrogen peroxide. The change in conductivity is brought about by oxidation of the poly(aniline) film by direct electrochemical communication between the enzyme and the conducting polymer. This was confirmed by measuring the potential of the poly(aniline) film during switching of the conductivity in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The devices can be reused by rereducing the poly(aniline) electrochemically to a potential below +0.3 V vs SCE. A blind test showed that the device can be used to determine unknown concentrations of H(2)O(2) in solution and that, when used with hydrogen peroxide concentrations below 0.5 mmol dm(-)(3), the same device maybe reused several times. The possible development of devices of this type for use in applications requiring the measurement of low levels of hydrogen peroxide or horseradish peroxidase is discussed.

  3. A Conductive Porous Structured Chitosan-grafted Polyaniline Cryogel for use as a Sialic Acid Biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Numnuam, Apon; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel chitosan grafted polyaniline cryogel was used as support for a highly stable and sensitive biosensor. • The use of two enzymes mediated with ferrocene showed a high selectivity for sialic acid. • The biosensor provided a rapid sialic acid detection in blood. - Abstract: A porous conductive supporting material base on chitosan grafted polyaniline (CPANI) cryogel was developed for the fabrication of a sialic acid biosensor. Two enzymes, N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase (NAL) and pyruvate oxidase (PYO), were employed together with an electrochemical detector. The electron transfer was further enhanced by using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and mediated by ferrocene (Fc) entrapped in the cryogel pores wall. A sialic acid derived electroactive product was detected amperometrically in a flow injection system. The fabricated sialic acid biosensor provided excellent analytical performances with a wide linear range of 0.025 to 15.0 mM and a limit of detection of 18 μM. Under the low applied potential of 0.20 V versus a Ag/AgCl, common electroactive interfering compounds such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and pyruvic acid were not detected and they have no effect on the analysis of sialic acid. The fabricated sialic acid biosensor also demonstrated a high stability after up to 100 injections. The reliability of the biosensor to detect sialic acid in blood plasma was in good agreement (P > 0.05) with a standard periodic-resorcinol spectrophotometric method. This easy to prepare conductive and biocompatible porous structure should be a prospective supporting material for biosensor development

  4. Electrochemical and microstructural characterization of platinum supported on glassy carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the electrochemical oxidation of glassy carbon on the deposition of platinum particles and the electrocatalytic activity of platinum supported on oxidized glassy carbon were studied for methanol oxidation in H2SO4 solution. Platinum was potentiostatically deposited from H2SO4 + 6mM H2PtCl6 solution. Glassy carbon was anodically polarized in 1 M NaOH at 1.41 V (SCE for 35 and 95 s and in 0.5 M H2SO4 at 2V (SCE for 35; 95 s and 2.25 V for 35 and 95 s. Electrochemical treatment of the GC support leads to a better distribution of platinum on the substrate and has remarkable effect on the activity. The activity of the Pt/GCox electrode for methanol oxidation is larger than that of polycrystalline Pt and by more than one order of magnitude larger than that of a Pt/GC electrode. This increase in activity indicates the pronounced role of the organic residues of the GC support on the properties of Pt particles deposited on glassy carbon.

  5. Gauging citizen support for a low carbon fuel standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Ekaterina; Axsen, Jonn; Jaccard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, several variations of a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) have been implemented around the world. While emerging research tends to focus on greenhouse gas emission reductions from an LCFS, no studies have assessed the policy's political acceptability—a critical component of implementation. We elicit public support for an existing LCFS in British Columbia and a hypothetical (proposed) LCFS for the rest of Canada using survey data collected from a representative sample of Canadian citizens (n=1306). Specifically, we assess: (1) citizen awareness of British Columbia's LCFS, (2) stated citizen support for the LCFS, and (3) how individual characteristics relate to levels of citizen support. We find that British Columbia's LCFS is almost unknown among British Columbia respondents, but once explained, 90% of respondents support it. We refer to this combination of low knowledge and high support as “passive support.” We find similarly broad support in all other Canadian provinces, implying that citizen opposition is unlikely in jurisdictions considering an LCFS. Statistical analysis identifies some individual characteristics associated with LCFS support, including attitudes, demographics, and contextual factors. Results indicate where policymakers might anticipate opposition if it arises due to increased policy stringency or media coverage. - Highlights: • Most citizens are unaware of British Columbia's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). • We observe passive support: low awareness and high support of the policy. • An LCFS achieves broad support among British Columbia's and Canadian citizens. • Households relying on single occupancy vehicles are less likely to support an LCFS

  6. Electrochemically fabricated polyaniline nanowire-modified electrode for voltammetric detection of DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ningning; Chang Zhu; He Pingang; Fang Yuzhi

    2006-01-01

    A novel and sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on electrochemically fabricated polyaniline nanowire and methylene blue for DNA hybridization detection is presented. Nanowires of conducting polymers were directly synthesized through a three-step electrochemical deposition procedure in an aniline-containing electrolyte solution, by using the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the working electrode. The morphology of the polyaniline films was examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameters of the nanowires range from 80 to 100 nm. The polyaniline nanowires-coated electrode exhibited very good electrochemical conductivity. Oligonucleotides with phosphate groups at the 5' end were covalently linked onto the amino groups of polyaniline nanowires on the electrode. The hybridization events were monitored with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement using methylene blue (MB) as an indicator. The approach described here can effectively discriminate complementary from non-complementary DNA sequence, with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10 -12 mol l -1 of complementary target, suggesting that the polyaniline nanowires hold great promises for sensitive electrochemical biosensor applications

  7. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  8. Physico-chemical effects of supercritical carbon dioxide post polymerization treatment on HCl-doped polyaniline prepared via oxidative chemical polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, J. G.; Vequizo, R. M.; Odarve, M. K. G.; Sambo, B. R. B.; Alguno, A. C.; Malaluan, R. M.; Candidato, R. T., Jr.; Gambe, J. E.; Jabian, M.; Paylaga, G. J.; Bagsican, F. R. G.; Miyata, H.

    2015-06-01

    Polyanilinefilms doped with varying HClconcentrations (0.2 M, 0.6 M and 1.0 M) were synthesized on glass substrates via oxidative polymerization of aniline. The films were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at 30 MPa and 40°C for 30 minutes. Their structural, optical and morphological properties were studied and compared to conventionally prepared polyanilinefilms using FTIR analysis, UVVisspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) could interact with PANI films that consequently altered the bandgapsand changed the film thickness. SC-CO2 treatment also increased the oxidation level of polyanilinefilms and modified the morphology of polyanilinefilm doped with 1M HCl.

  9. Carbon price and wind power support in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavard, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the conditions of wind power deployment in order to infer a carbon price level that would provide wind power with comparable advantage over fossil fuel technologies as effective wind support policies. The analysis is conducted on Denmark after the electricity market liberalization. Probit and tobit techniques are employed to take account of a potential threshold effect. I find that the level and type of the support policy are the dominant drivers of deployment. A feed-in tariff significantly brings more wind power in than a premium policy. The additional capacity installed monthly increases by more than 1 MW for each additional €/MWh of support. This is compared to the effect of the electricity price, investment cost, interest rate and general economic activity. If the policy is a premium, I find that 23€/MWh of support in addition to electricity price is needed to observe the connection of new turbines to the grid with a 0.5 probability. I convert this support level into a carbon price of 27€/ton if wind power competes with coal, and 48€/t if it competes with gas. - Highlights: •I analyze wind power development in Denmark between 2000 and 2010. •I use probit and tobit techniques to assess the determinants of this deployment. •The level and policy type of wind power support are the main drivers. •I deduct the critical level of premium needed to trigger wind power. •I convert this into an equivalent carbon price and I find that it is below 50€/ton.

  10. Carbon fiber microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes as a new support for immobilization of glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.; Nallathambi, V.; Chakraborty, D.; Barton, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylated carbon nanotubes were coated onto carbon microfiber electrodes to create a micron-scale bioelectrode. This material has a high surface area and can serve as a support for immobilization of enzymes such as glucose oxidase. A typical carbon nanotube loading of 13 μg cm -1 yields a coating thickness of 17 μm and a 2000-fold increase in surface capacitance. The modified electrode was further coated with a biocatalytic hydrogel composed of a conductive redox polymer, glucose oxidase, and a crosslinker to create a glucose bioelectrode. The current density on oxidation of glucose is 16.6 mA cm-2 at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in oxygen-free glucose solution. We consider this approach to be useful for designing and characterizing surface treatments for carbon mats and papers by mimicking their local microenvironment. (author)

  11. Self-supported carbon electrodes obtained by tape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio-Marcos, F.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation and electrochemical response of self-supported carbon electrodes prepared by tape casting. The dc electrical conductivity, σ, of the electrodes was determined by four-wire resistance measurements and a relation between the graphite/organic additives ratio and the electrical conductivity was established. The application of these self-supported carbon electrodes as working electrodes in analytical techniques was also evaluated using norepinephrine as electroactive substance in cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results were compared with the traditional electrodes, carbon paste electrodes (CPEs, showing that the new self-supported carbon electrodes had both lower background noise and higher analytical response.

    Este artículo describe la preparación y respuesta electroquímica de electrodos de carbono autosoportados preparados mediante colado en cinta. La conductividad eléctrica en corriente continua de este nuevo tipo de electrodos de carbono se ha determinado usando el método de cuatro puntas y se ha establecido una relación ente la relación grafito/aditivos orgánicos y la conductividad eléctrica. La aplicación de estos electrodos autosoportados como electrodos de trabajo en diversas técnicas electroanalíticas también se ha evaluado, empleando norepinefrina como analito en voltametría cíclica y en cronoamperometría. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos empleando los electrodos de pasta de carbono tradicionales como electrodos de trabajo, viéndose que la señal de los nuevos electrodos autosoportados poseía menor ruido de fondo y mayor respuesta analítica.

  12. Activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles: a hybrid material for carbon dioxide adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruban, Cansu; Esenturk, Emren Nalbant

    2018-03-01

    Activated carbon-supported copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple impregnation method to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of the support. The structural and chemical properties of the hybrid material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (https://www.google.com.tr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.intertek.com%2Fanalytical-laboratories%2Fxrd%2F&ei=-5WZVYSCHISz7Aatqq-IAw&usg=AFQjCNFBlk-9wqy49foh8tskmbD-GGbG9g&sig2=eKrhYjO75rl_Id2sLGpq4w&bvm=bv.96952980,d.bGg) (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The analyses showed that CuO nanoparticles are well-distributed on the activated carbon surface. The CO2 adsorption behavior of the activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles was observed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and BET analyses. The results showed that CuO nanoparticle loading on activated carbon led to about 70% increase in CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K). The main contributor to the observed increase is an improvement in chemical adsorption of CO2 due to the presence of CuO nanoparticles on activated carbon.

  13. Characterization of a surface modified carbon cryogel and a carbon supported Pt catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA M. BABIĆ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A carbon cryogel, synthesized by carbonization of a resorcinol/formaldehyde cryogel and oxidized in nitric acid, was used as catalyst support for Pt nano-particles. The Pt/C catalyst was prepared by a modified polyol synthesis method in an ethylene glycol (EG solution. Characterization by nitrogen adsorption showed that the carbon cryogel support and the Pt/C catalyst were mesoporous materials with high specific surface areas (SBET > 400 m2 g-1 and large mesoporous volumes. X-Ray diffraction of the catalyst demonstrated the successful reduction of the Pt precursor to metallic form. TEM Images of the Pt/C catalyst and Pt particle size distribution showed that the mean Pt particle size was about 3.3 nm. Cyclic voltammetry (CV experiments at various scan rates (from 2 to 200 mV s-1 were performed in 0.5 mol dm-3 HClO4 solution. The large capacitance of the oxidized carbon cryogel electrode, which arises from a combination of the double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, associated with the participation of surface redox-type reactions was demonstrated. For the oxidized carbon cryogel, the total specific capacitance determined by 1/C vs. ν0.5 extrapolation method was found to be 386 F g-1. The hydrogen oxidation reaction at the investigated Pt/C catalyst proceeded as an electrochemically reversible, two-electron direct discharge reaction.

  14. Defluoridation of water via doping of polyanilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, M.; Satheeshkumar, K.K. [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302 (India); Elango, K.P. [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302 (India)], E-mail: drkpelango@rediffmail.com

    2009-04-30

    The potentiality of polyaniline and poly (m-methyl aniline) to remove fluoride from water via doping was investigated. The influence of pH, dosage of polyanilines, initial fluoride concentration and temperature on the amount of fluoride removed by the polyanilines were studied. The amount of fluoride removed at pH 7.0 by 50 mg/50 ml dose was found to be 0.78 mg/g. The data of fluoride removal fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters computed show that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature. FT-IR, X-ray and EDAX patterns of the polyanilines before and after exposure to fluoride ions suggest that the defluoridation occurs via doping of fluoride ions onto these polymers.

  15. Nitrogen: Unraveling the Secret to Stable Carbon-Supported Pt-Alloy Electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. Nitrogen: unraveling the secret to stable carbon-supported Pt- alloy electrocatalysts The views, opinions and/or...Nitrogen: unraveling the secret to stable carbon-supported Pt-alloy electrocatalysts Report Title Nitrogen functionalities significantly improve...design and optimization of next generation high performance catalyst materials. Nitrogen: unraveling the secret to stable carbon-supported Pt-alloy

  16. Polyaniline (PANi based electrode materials for energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANi as one kind of conducting polymers has been playing a great role in the energy storage and conversion devices besides carbonaceous materials and metallic compounds. Due to high specific capacitance, high flexibility and low cost, PANi has shown great potential in supercapacitor. It alone can be used in fabricating an electrode. However, the inferior stability of PANi limits its application. The combination of PANi and other active materials (carbon materials, metal compounds or other polymers can surpass these intrinsic disadvantages of PANi. This review summarizes the recent progress in PANi based composites for energy storage/conversion, like application in supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and water hydrolysis. Besides, PANi derived nitrogen-doped carbon materials, which have been widely employed as carbon based electrodes/catalysts, are also involved in this review. PANi as a promising material for energy storage/conversion is deserved for intensive study and further development.

  17. The effect of material composition of 3-dimensional graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanocomposites on DNA analytical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Huaiyin; Yang, Ruirui; Wang, Xinxing; Nan, Fuxin; Jiao, Kui

    2015-09-01

    Until now, morphology effects of 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional graphene nanocomposites and the effect of material composition on the biosensors have been rarely reported. In this paper, the various nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanofibres for studying the effect of morphology and material composition on DNA sensitivity were directly reported. The isolation and dispersion of graphene oxide were realized via intercalated self-doped polyaniline and ultrasonication, where the ultrasonication prompts the aggregates of graphite oxide to break up and self-doped polyaniline to diffuse into the stacked graphene oxide. Significant electrochemical enhancement has been observed due to the existence of self-doped polyaniline, which bridges the defects for electron transfer and, in the mean time, increases the basal spacing between graphene oxide sheets. Different morphologies can result in different ssDNA surface density, which can further influence the hybridization efficiency. Compared with 2-dimensional graphene oxide, self-doped polyaniline and other morphologies of nanocomposites, 3-dimensional graphene oxide-self-doped polyaniline nanowalls exhibited the highest surface density and hybridization efficiency. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensors presented the broad detection range with the low detection limit due to the specific surface area, a large number of electroactive species, and open accessible space supported by nanowalls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling and Synthesis Support for the North American Carbon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, L.; Cook, R. B.; Thornton, P. E.; Post, W. M.; Wilson, B. E.; Dadi, U.

    2007-12-01

    The Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) supports the North American Carbon Program by providing data products and data management services needed for modeling and synthesis activities. The overall objective of MAST-DC is to provide advanced data management support to NACP investigators doing modeling and synthesis, thereby freeing those investigators from having to perform data management functions. MAST-DC has compiled a number of data products for North America, including sub-pixel land-water content, daily meteorological data, and soil, land cover, and elevation data. In addition, we have developed an internet-based WebGIS system that enables users to browse, query, display, subset, and download spatial data using a standard web browser. For the mid-continent intensive, MAST-DC is working with a group of data assimilation modelers to generate a consistent set of meteorological data to drive bottom-up models.

  19. Synthesis of chiral polyaniline films via chemical vapor phase polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, J.; Winther-Jensen, B.; Pornputtkul, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Electrically and optically active polyaniline films doped with (1)-(-)-10- camphorsulfonic acid were successfully deposited on nonconductive substrates via chemical vapor phase polymerization. The above polyaniline/ R- camphorsulfonate films were characterized by electrochemical and physical...

  20. Structural changes in polyaniline near the middle oxidation peak studied by in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Zuzana; Dmitrieva, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 9 (2017), s. 1229-1234 ISSN 0377-0486 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry * polaron Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2016

  1. Corrosion protection by organic coatings containing polyaniline salts prepared by oxidative polymerization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohl, M.; Kalendová, A.; Černošková, E.; Bláha, Michal; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Erben, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), s. 1397-1410 ISSN 1945-9645 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * oxidative polymerization * organic coatings Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.557, year: 2016

  2. Molybdenum and tungsten disulfides surface-modified with a conducting polymer, polyaniline, for application in electrorheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Mrlík, M.; Plachý, T.; Trchová, Miroslava; Kovářová, Jana; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, November (2017), s. 30-37 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : molybdenum sulfide * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2016

  3. Cell-compatible conducting polyaniline films prepared in colloidal dispersion mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárková, V.; Humpolíček, P.; Capáková, Z.; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Rejmontová, P.; Junkar, I.; Lehocký, M.; Mozetič, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 157, 1 September (2017), s. 309-316 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05095S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * conducting films * colloidal dispersions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  4. Polyaniline: Aniline oxidation with strong and weak oxidants under various acidity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Michal; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Prokeš, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 194, 15 June (2017), s. 206-218 ISSN 0254-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aniline * oxidants * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.084, year: 2016

  5. Detection of aniline oligomers on polyaniline-gold interface using resonance Raman scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trchová, Miroslava; Morávková, Zuzana; Dybal, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2014), s. 942-950 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0911; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * aniline oligomers * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 6.723, year: 2014

  6. In-situ prepared polyaniline-silver composites: single- and two-step strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, 10 March (2014), s. 259-266 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : composites * conducting polymer * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  7. Thin mesoporous polyaniline films manifesting a water-promoted photovoltaic effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gospodinova, Natalia; Tomšík, Elena; Romanova, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 972-978 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * morphology * photovoltaic s Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  8. Enhanced pH stability of conducting polyaniline by reprotonation with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, P.; Lindfors, T.; Pesonen, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 178, 15 August (2013), s. 52-55 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrophobicity * polyaniline * reprotonation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.222, year: 2013

  9. Bi-hybrid coatings: polyaniline-montmorillonite filler in organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Kotek, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1020-1027 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * montmorillonite * organic-inorganic composite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  10. Thermally treated polyaniline/polybenzimidazole blend membranes: structural changes and gas transport properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giel, Verena; Morávková, Zuzana; Peter, Jakub; Trchová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 537, 1 September (2017), s. 315-322 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polybenzimidazole * polyaniline * thermal treatment Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016

  11. Conducting polyaniline based cell culture substrate for embryonic stem cells and embryoid bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Humpolíček, P.; Pacherník, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Lindfors, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 62 (2015), s. 50328-50335 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * biocompatibility Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  12. Nano carbon supported platinum catalyst interaction behavior with perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and their interface structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    2016-01-01

    behavior of Nafion ionomer on platinized carbon nano fibers (CNFs), carbon nano tubes (CNTs) and amorphous carbon (Vulcan). The interaction is affected by the catalyst surface oxygen groups as well as porosity. Comparisons between the carbon supports and platinized equivalents are carried out. It reveals......The interaction between perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and supported platinum catalyst is essential. It directly influences platinum accessibility, stability of carbon support and platinum, proton conductivity and electron conductivity in an electrode. In this study, we compare the adsorption...... that the platinization step modifies the surface nature of the carbon supports in terms of specific surface area, crystallinity and especially porosity; therefore, ionomer adsorption over carbon is not always representative for the ionomer adsorption over carbon supported catalyst, though indicative. Moreover...

  13. Efficient spin transport through polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, J. B. S.; Alves Santos, O.; Gomes, J. P.; Assis, H. S.; Felix, J. F.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2017-01-01

    By using the spin pumping process, we show that it is possible to transport a pure spin current across layers of conducting polyaniline (PANI) with several hundred nanometers sandwiched between a film of the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and a thin layer of platinum. The spin current generated by microwave-driven ferromagnetic resonance of the YIG film, injected through the YIG/PANI interface, crosses the whole PANI layer and then is injected into the Pt layer. By means of the inverse spin Hall effect in the Pt, the spin current is converted into charge current and electrically detected as a dc voltage. We measured a spin diffusion length in PANI of 590 ± 40 nm, which is very large compared with normal metals, demonstrating that PANI can be used as an efficient spin current conductor and poor charge current conductor, opening the path towards spintronics applications based in this very attractive material.

  14. Characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/polyaniline blends as potential antioxidant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nand, Ashveen V.; Ray, Sudip; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Kilmartin, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Successful incorporation of particulate polyaniline, consisting of nanorods, in PET was achieved. ► Interactions between PET and polyaniline in the blends were characterized using FTIR, XPS, DSC and DMTA. ► Polyaniline introduced free radical scavenging capacity in PET. - Abstract: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) blends with a nanorod form of polyaniline (NR-PANI), formed by a falling pH synthesis, were prepared by dispersion in a melt of PET at 265 °C. Blends with 1, 2 and 3 wt% NR-PANI loading were prepared. Optical microscopy revealed an even distribution of NR-PANI particles within the PET matrix. The blends were characterized using FTIR, XPS, DSC and DMTA. Melt flow index values suggested hydrolysis of PET chains to lower molecular weight units when NR-PANI was blended. Some PET hydrolysis was also evident from the increasing oxygen to carbon ratios with an increased NR-PANI content in the blends. While the PET glass transition temperature remained relatively unaffected, the degree of PET crystallinity was increased with the addition of NR-PANI. The electrical conductivity as well as the free radical scavenging capacity of PET increased with greater NR-PANI loading in the matrix. The mechanical properties of PET, however, declined with NR-PANI loading suggesting a lack of adequate interfacial adhesion between the NR-PANI particles and the PET matrix.

  15. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline/zeolite composites and synergetic interaction with CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densakulprasert, Nataporn; Wannatong, Ladawan; Chotpattananont, Datchanee; Hiamtup, Piyanoot; Sirivat, Anuvat; Schwank, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The effects of zeolite content, pore size and ion exchange capacity on electrical conductivity response to carbon monoxide (CO) of polyaniline/zeolite composites were investigated. Zeolite Y, 13X, and synthesized AlMCM41, all having the common cation Cu 2+ , were dry mixed with synthesized maleic acid (MA) doped polyaniline and compressed to form polyaniline (PANI)/zeolite pellet composites. The Y, 13X and AlMCM41 zeolite have the nominal pore sizes of 7, 10, 36 A, and the Cu 2+ exchange capacities of 0.161, 0.087, and 0.044 mol/g, respectively. With an addition of 13X zeolite to pristine polyaniline, the electrical conductivity sensitivity to CO/N 2 gas increases with zeolite content. For the effect of zeolite type, the highest electrical conductivity sensitivity is obtained with the 13X zeolite, followed by the Y zeolite, and the AlMCM41 zeolite, respectively. Poor sensitivity of zeolite AlMCM41 is probably due to its very large pore size and its lowest Cu 2+ exchange capacity. Y zeolite and 13X zeolite have comparable pore sizes but the latter has a greater pore free volume and a more favorable location distribution of the Cu 2+ ions within the pore. The temporal response time increases with the amount of zeolite in the composites but it is inversely related to the amount of ion exchange capacity

  16. Electroreduction of oxygen on carbon-supported gold catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, Heiki; Juermann, Gea; Sarapuu, Ave; Potter, Robert J.; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of oxygen was studied on Au/C catalysts (20 and 30 wt%) in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 and 0.1 M KOH solutions using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. The thickness of the Au/C-Nafion layers was varied between 1.5 and 10 μm. The specific activity of Au was independent of catalyst loading in both solutions, indicating that the transport of reactants through the catalyst layer does not limit the process of oxygen reduction under these conditions. The mass activity of 20 wt% Au/C catalysts was higher due to smaller particle size. The number of electrons involved in the reaction and the Tafel slopes were found; the values of these parameters are similar to that of bulk polycrystalline gold and indicate that the mechanism of O 2 reduction is not affected by carbon support or the catalyst configuration.

  17. Investigation of methanol oxidation on a highly active and stable Pt–Sn electrocatalyst supported on carbon–polyaniline composite for application in a passive direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amani, Mitra [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemeini, Mohammad [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedanian, Mahboobeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pahlavanzadeh, Hassan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharibi, Hussein, E-mail: h.gharibi@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, 122 S Campus Drive, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • PtSn/C-PANI performed superior in the MOR compared with a commercial PtRu/C. • Catalytic activity of PtRu/C was highly reduced during the accelerated durability test. • Anode of the PtSn/C-PANI in a passive DMFC lowered methanol crossover by 30%. - Abstract: Polyaniline fiber (PANI) was synthesized and utilized to fabricate a vulcan–polyaniline (C-PANI) composite. Pt/C-PANI and PtSn/C-PANI electro-catalysts with different Pt:Sn atomic ratios were prepared by the impregnation method. These electro-catalysts, along with commercial PtRu/C (Electrochem), were characterized with respect to their structural and electrochemical properties in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI showed excellent performance in MOR, the obtained maximum current density being about 40% and 50% higher than that for PtRu/C and Pt/C-PANI, respectively. It was also found that the CO tolerance and stability of PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI was considerably higher than that of PtRu/C. Finally, the performance of these two materials was compared in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The DMFC test results demonstrated that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared using PtSn(70:30)/C-PANI anode catalyst performed more satisfactorily in terms of maximum power density and lower methanol crossover.

  18. Methanol and ethanol electrooxidation on Pt and Pd supported on carbon microspheres in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changwei; Cheng, Liqiang; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Shen, Peikang [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Noble metal (Pt, Pd) electrocatalysts supported on carbon microspheres (CMS) are used for methanol and ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The results show that noble metal electrocatalysts supported on carbon microspheres give better performance than that supported on carbon black. It is well known that palladium is not a good electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation, but it shows excellently higher activity and better steady-state electrolysis than Pt for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The results show a synergistic effect by the interaction between Pd and carbon microspheres. The Pd supported on carbon microspheres in this paper possesses excellent electrocatalytic properties and may be of great potential in direct ethanol fuel cells. (author)

  19. Supported porous carbon and carbon-CNT nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, Dimitri; Es-Souni, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Supported porous carbon and porous carbon-MWCNT-nanocomposite films are produced by pyrolysis of porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) or porous PVDF-MWCNT-nanocomposite films on thermally resistant substrates. All films are characterized by SEM, RAMAN and XRD. The application of these films as supercapacitors is explored with outstanding supercapacitance values ranging from 80 to 120 F g-1 (up to 70 mF cm-2) in a three-electrode set-up in 1 M KOH, depending on microstructure. Additionally, the implementation of porous nanocarbon-MWCNT-nanocomposite films as electrodes in a symmetrical supercapacitor device is investigated. In all cases, long-term charge-discharge stability is demonstrated.

  20. Magnetic Carbon Supported Palladium Nanoparticles: An Efficient and Sustainable Catalyst for Hydrogenation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic carbon supported Pd catalyst has been synthesized via in situ generation of nanoferrites and incorporation of carbon from renewable cellulose via calcination; the catalyst can be used for the hydrogenation of alkenes and reduction of aryl nitro compounds.

  1. Detection of aniline oligomers on polyaniline-gold interface using resonance Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trchová, Miroslava; Morávková, Zuzana; Dybal, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-22

    In situ deposited conducting polyaniline films prepared by the oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in aqueous media of various acidities on gold and silicon supports were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman bands were found in the spectra of polyaniline films produced in the solutions of weak acids or in water on gold surface. These bands were weak for the films prepared in solutions of a strong acid on a gold support. The same bands are present in the Raman spectra of the reaction intermediates deposited during aniline oxidation in water or aqueous solutions of weak or strong acids on silicon removed from the reaction mixture at the beginning of the reaction. Such films are formed by aniline oligomers adsorbed on the surface. They were detected on the polyaniline-gold interface using resonance Raman scattering on the final films deposited on gold. The surface resonance Raman spectroscopy of the monolayer of oligomers found in the bulk polyaniline film makes this method advantageous in surface science, with many applications in electrochemistry, catalysis, and biophysical, polymer, or analytical chemistry.

  2. Stretchable Active Matrix Temperature Sensor Array of Polyaniline Nanofibers for Electronic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Yeong; Lee, Yong Hui; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; You, Ilhwan; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-02-03

    A stretchable polyaniline nanofiber temperature sensor array with an active matrix consisting of single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors is demonstrated. The integrated temperature sensor array gives mechanical stability under biaxial stretching of 30%, and the resultant spatial temperature mapping does not show any mechanical or electrical degradation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Preparation of Pt–Ru bimetallic catalyst supported on carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of carbon nanotube (Iijima 1991) was first based on the carbon-arc method, though the carbon nanotube prepared by this method are more graphitic, the low yield and rela- tively small length (< 1 m) make the production cost very high. The template synthesis method (Martin 1994) and catalytic production methods (Jose et ...

  4. Basic metal carbonate supported gold nanoparticles: enhanced performance in aerobic alcohol oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, J.; Guan, Y.; Verhoeven, M.W.G.M.; Santen, van R.A.; Li, Can; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported by basic hydrozincite or bismuth carbonate are excellent catalysts for liquid-phase aerobic alcohol oxidation: the performance of a series of metal (Zn, Bi, Ce, La, Zr) carbonate supported gold catalysts depends strongly on the basicity of the support material.

  5. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  6. Humidity Response of Polyaniline Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta PANDEY

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents hitherto unreported humidity sensing capacity of emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. Humidity plays a major role in different processes in industries ranging from food to electronic goods besides human comfort and therefore its monitoring is an essential requirement during various processes. Polyaniline has a wide use for making sensors as it can be easily synthesized and has long stability. Polyaniline is synthesized here by chemical route and is found to sense humidity as it shows variation in electrical resistance with variation in relative humidity. Results are presented here for a range of 15 to 90 RH%. The resistance falls from 5.8 to 0.72 Giga ohms as RH varies from 15 to 65 % and then falls to 13.9 Mega ohms as RH approaches 90 %. The response and recovery times are also measured.

  7. Functionalized Natural Carbon-Supported Nanoparticles as Excellent Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Guo, Lisheng; Ma, Qingxiang; Gao, Xinhua; Yamane, Noriyuki; Xu, Hengyong; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2017-02-01

    We report a one-pot and eco-friendly synthesis of carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles, achieved by carbonization of waste biomass (rice bran) with a cobalt source. The functionalized biomass provides carbon microspheres as excellent catalyst support, forming a unique interface between hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. The latter, involving hydroxyl and amino groups, can catch much more active cobalt nanoparticles on surface for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis than chemical carbon. The loading amount of cobalt on the final catalyst is much higher than that prepared with a chemical carbon source, such as glucose. The proposed concept of using a functionalized natural carbon source shows great potential compared with conventional carbon sources, and will be meaningful for other fields concerning carbon support, such as heterogeneous catalysis or electrochemical fields. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Metal oxide coating of carbon supports for supercapacitor applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Tribby, Louis, J (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Han, Sang M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lambert, Timothy N.; Fleig, Patrick F. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-01

    The global market for wireless sensor networks in 2010 will be valued close to $10 B, or 200 M units. TPL, Inc. is a small Albuquerque based business that has positioned itself to be a leader in providing uninterruptible power supplies in this growing market with projected revenues expected to exceed $26 M in 5 years. This project focused on improving TPL, Inc.'s patent-pending EnerPak{trademark} device which converts small amounts of energy from the environment (e.g., vibrations, light or temperature differences) into electrical energy that can be used to charge small energy storage devices. A critical component of the EnerPak{trademark} is the supercapacitor that handles high power delivery for wireless communications; however, optimization and miniaturization of this critical component is required. This proposal aimed to produce prototype microsupercapacitors through the integration of novel materials and fabrication processes developed at New Mexico Technology Research Collaborative (NMTRC) member institutions. In particular, we focused on developing novel ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and placed them into carbon supports to significantly increase the energy density of the supercapacitor. These improvements were expected to reduce maintenance costs and expand the utility of the TPL, Inc.'s device, enabling New Mexico to become the leader in the growing global wireless power supply market. By dominating this niche, new customers were expected to be attracted to TPL, Inc. yielding new technical opportunities and increased job opportunities for New Mexico.

  9. Tools to support GHG emissions reduction : a regional effort, part 1 - carbon footprint estimation and decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Tools are proposed for carbon footprint estimation of transportation construction projects and decision support : for construction firms that must make equipment choice and usage decisions that affect profits, project duration : and greenhouse gas em...

  10. High methanol oxidation activity of electrocatalysts supported by directly grown nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes on carbon cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-H.; Shih, H.-C.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Du, H.-Y.; Chen, L.-C.; Chen, K.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and electrochemical activity of the Pt-Ru supported by nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CN x NTs) directly grown on the carbon cloth have been investigated. The CN x NTs directly grown on the carbon cloth (CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode) were synthesized using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition first and then use as the template to support the Pt-Ru nanoclusters subsequently sputtered on. The ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox reaction in cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed a faster electron transfer on the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode than the one with carbon cloth alone. Comparing their methanol oxidation abilities, it is found that the Pt-Ru nanoclusters supported by the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode have considerably higher electrocatalytic activity than the carbon cloth counterpart. This result suggests high performance of the CN x NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode, and demonstrates its suitability for direct methanol fuel cell applications

  11. High methanol oxidation activity of electrocatalysts supported by directly grown nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes on carbon cloth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y.-T. [Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Du, H.-Y. [Institue of Materials Science and Nano Technology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, K.-H. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) and Institue of Atomic and Molecular Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chenkh@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw

    2006-12-01

    The microstructure and electrochemical activity of the Pt-Ru supported by nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CN {sub x} NTs) directly grown on the carbon cloth have been investigated. The CN {sub x} NTs directly grown on the carbon cloth (CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode) were synthesized using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition first and then use as the template to support the Pt-Ru nanoclusters subsequently sputtered on. The ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox reaction in cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements showed a faster electron transfer on the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode than the one with carbon cloth alone. Comparing their methanol oxidation abilities, it is found that the Pt-Ru nanoclusters supported by the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode have considerably higher electrocatalytic activity than the carbon cloth counterpart. This result suggests high performance of the CN {sub x} NTs-carbon cloth composite electrode, and demonstrates its suitability for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  12. Three-dimensional design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite hydrogel electrodes for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Murat; El-Kady, Maher; Kaner, Richard B

    2018-04-27

    Graphene/polyaniline composite hydrogels (GH/PANI) were chemically synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer. Graphene hydrogels were obtained by a hydrothermal method and used in supercapacitors. The graphene/polyaniline composite hydrogel exhibits better electrochemical performance than the pure individual components as determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements. A remarkable specific capacitance (C sp ) of 323.9 F g -1 was measured using CV at a scan rate of 2 mV s -1 at 25 °C. GCD measurements (311.3 F g -1 ) and electrochemical impedance analysis also support these results. The numbers were obtained at extremely high loading masses: 7.14 mg cm -2 for GH and GH/PANI synthesized at 0 °C, and 8.93 mg cm -2 for GH/PANI synthesized at 25 °C. The corresponding areal capacitances are 1.14, 1.75 and 2.78 F cm -2 for GH, and GH/PANI composite hydrogels synthesized at 0 °C and 25 °C, respectively. These values in F cm -2 are 3.80, 5.83 and 9.27 times higher than commercially available activated carbon supercapacitors (∼0.3 F cm -2 for a two electrode system). Moreover, the GH/PANI composite synthesized at 25 °C exhibits excellent stability with 99% initial capacitance retention after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. GH/PANI composites synthesized at 0 °C and 25 °C therefore hold promise for use in supercapacitor device applications.

  13. Three-dimensional design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite hydrogel electrodes for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Murat; El-Kady, Maher; Kaner, Richard B.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene/polyaniline composite hydrogels (GH/PANI) were chemically synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer. Graphene hydrogels were obtained by a hydrothermal method and used in supercapacitors. The graphene/polyaniline composite hydrogel exhibits better electrochemical performance than the pure individual components as determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements. A remarkable specific capacitance (C sp) of 323.9 F g-1 was measured using CV at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 at 25 °C. GCD measurements (311.3 F g-1) and electrochemical impedance analysis also support these results. The numbers were obtained at extremely high loading masses: 7.14 mg cm-2 for GH and GH/PANI synthesized at 0 °C, and 8.93 mg cm-2 for GH/PANI synthesized at 25 °C. The corresponding areal capacitances are 1.14, 1.75 and 2.78 F cm-2 for GH, and GH/PANI composite hydrogels synthesized at 0 °C and 25 °C, respectively. These values in F cm-2 are 3.80, 5.83 and 9.27 times higher than commercially available activated carbon supercapacitors (˜0.3 F cm-2 for a two electrode system). Moreover, the GH/PANI composite synthesized at 25 °C exhibits excellent stability with 99% initial capacitance retention after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. GH/PANI composites synthesized at 0 °C and 25 °C therefore hold promise for use in supercapacitor device applications.

  14. Preparation of Pt–Ru bimetallic catalyst supported on carbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The template carbonization of polyphenyl acetylene yields hollow, uniform cylindrical carbon nanotubes with outer diameter almost equal to pore diameter of the template used. High resolution transmission electron microscopic investigation reveals that Pt–Ru nanoparticles are highly dispersed inside the tube with an ...

  15. Hydrogenation of surface carbon on alumina-supported nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccarthy, J.G.; Wise, H.

    1979-05-01

    The methanation of carbon deposited by CO or ethylene decomposition on Girdler G-65 catalyst (25Vertical Bar3< nickel, 8Vertical Bar3< alkali, mostly CaO, 4Vertical Bar3< C as graphite, on alumina) was studied by temperature-programed desorption and temperature-programed surface reaction. Four types of carbon were identified: ..cap alpha..-carbon consisted of isolated carbon atoms bonded to nickel and reacting with hydrogen at 470/sup 0/ +/- 20/sup 0/K; ..gamma..-carbon was probably a bulk carbide, most likely Ni/sub 3/C, which had a reaction peak at 550/sup 0/K; ..beta..-carbon consisted of amorphous, polymerized carbon, which had a reaction peak at 680/sup 0/K; and an unreactive crystalline graphite-like species. The ..cap alpha..-form was thermally unstable and transformed into the ..beta..-form above 600/sup 0/K. Both ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-forms slowly converted to inert graphite above 600/sup 0/K. The evidence suggested that synthesis gas methanation proceeds by dissociative adsorption of CO as the rate-determining step which forms a very reactive carbon adatom state (..cap alpha..') which converts to the ..cap alpha..-state in the absence of hydrogen and to methane in the presence of hydrogen.

  16. CTAB assisted microwave synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon supported Pt nanoparticles for hydrogen electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jian-Hua; He, Jian-Ping; Ji, Ya-Jun; Dang, Wang-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Gui-Wang; Zhang, Chuan-Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Shuang; Fu, Qing-Bin; Hu, Huo-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Mesoporous carbon with ordered hexagonal structure derived from the co-assembly of triblock copolymer F127 and resol was employed as the carbon support of Pt catalysts for hydrogen electro-oxidation. Structural characterizations revealed that the mesoporous carbon exhibited large surface area and uniform mesopores. The Pt nanoparticles supported on the novel mesoporous carbon were fabricated by a facile CTAB assisted microwave synthesis process, wherein CTAB was expected to improve the wettability of carbon support as well as the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were applied to characterize the Pt catalysts. It was found that the Pt nanoparticles were uniform in size and highly dispersed on the mesoporous carbon supports. The cyclic voltammograms in sulfuric acid demonstrated that the electrochemical active surface area of Pt catalysts prepared with CTAB was two times than that without CTAB

  17. Synthesis, Property Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of the Novel Composite Polymer Polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjun Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 composite polymer was synthesized by chemical oxidation in-situ polymerization method and sol-gel method for the first time. The structural properties of novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry. The lattice parameter of Bi2SnTiO7 was found to be a = 10.52582(8 Å. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was realized under visible light irradiation with the novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 as catalyst. The results showed that novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 possessed higher catalytic activity compared with Bi2InTaO7 or pure TiO2 or N-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with the novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.01504 or 0.00333 min−1. After visible light irradiation for 220 minutes with novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of methylene blue was observed. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO42− and NO3−, and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of methylene blue during the photocatalytic process. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of methylene blue was obtained under visible light irradiation.

  18. Polyaniline prepared in ethylene glycol or glycerol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konyushenko, Elena; Reynaud, S.; Pellerin, V.; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 9 (2011), s. 1900-1907 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.438, year: 2011

  19. Investigation of electrochemical actuation by polyaniline nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraeen, Shayan; Alkan Gürsel, Selmiye; Papila, Melih; Çakmak Cebeci, Fevzi

    2017-09-01

    Polyaniline nanofibers have shown promising electrical and electrochemical properties which make them prominent candidates in the development of smart systems employing sensors and actuators. Their electrochemical actuation potential is demonstrated in this study. A trilayer composite actuator based on polyaniline nanofibers was designed and fabricated. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol was sandwiched between two polyaniline nanofibrous electrodes as ion-containing electrolyte gel. First, electrochemical behavior of a single electrode was studied, showing reversible redox peak pairs in 1 M HCl using a cyclic voltammetry technique. High aspect ratio polyaniline nanofibers create a porous network which facilitates ion diffusion and thus accelerates redox reactions. Bending displacement of the prepared trilayer actuator was then tested and reported under an AC potential stimulation as low as 0.5 V in a variety of frequencies from 50 to 1000 mHz, both inside 1 M HCl solution and in air. Decay of performance of the composite actuator in air is investigated and it is reported that tip displacement in a solution was stable and repeatable for 1000 s in all selected frequencies.

  20. Influence of conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Lithium ion batteries; polyaniline; LiMn1·95Al0·05O4; percolation theory; electrochemical performances. 1. ... (Coal Chemistry Institute, China) and a 34401A type 6 1/2 ... mixing LiMn1·95Al0·05O4 with PAn and AB and binder poly-.

  1. Phosphorus poisoning of molybdenum sulfide hydrodesulfurization catalysts supported on carbon and alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Vissers, J.P.R.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1988-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing Mo sulfide catalysts supported on ¿-Al2O3 and activated carbon were evaluated for their thiophene HDS activities. Phosphorus was added as phosphoric acid to the carrier material prior to the molybdenum component. The thiophene HDS activity of the carbon-supported catalysts was

  2. The fabrication and characterization of inkjet-printed polyaniline nanoparticle films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrin, Aoife; Ngamna, Orawan; O'Malley, Eimer; Kent, Nigel; Moulton, Simon E.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Smyth, Malcolm R.; Killard, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of electrodes modified with conducting polymer nanoparticle films, produced via inkjet printing. The polyaniline nanoparticle formulations were deposited via a desktop inkjet printer onto screen-printed carbon-paste electrodes (SPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and gold-PET and their morphology studied at a range of length scales using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The deposited films were found to form continuous polymer films depending upon film thickness, which was in turn dependent on the number of prints performed. The inkjet-printed films exhibited a smooth morphology on the SPEs at the micro-dimensional scale, as a result of the aggradation and coalescing of the nanoparticles upon deposition. The resulting modified electrodes were both conductive and electroactive, possessing good reversible polyaniline electrochemistry. Such a combination of materials and processing offers the potential of producing a range of low cost, solid state devices such as sensors, actuators and electrochromic devices

  3. N-Doped Carbon Xerogels as Pt Support for the Electro-Reduction of Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Alegre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Durability and limited catalytic activity are key impediments to the commercialization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Carbon materials employed as catalyst support can be doped with different heteroatoms, like nitrogen, to improve both catalytic activity and durability. Carbon xerogels are nanoporous carbons that can be easily synthesized in order to obtain N-doped materials. In the present work, we introduced melamine as a carbon xerogel precursor together with resorcinol for an effective in-situ N doping (3–4 wt % N. Pt nanoparticles were supported on nitrogen-doped carbon xerogels and their activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR was evaluated in acid media along with their stability. Results provide new evidences of the type of N groups aiding the activity of Pt for the ORR and of a remarkable stability for N-doped carbon-supported Pt catalysts, providing appropriate physico-chemical features.

  4. FLEXIBLE PH SENSOR WITH POLYANILINE LAYER BASED ON IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Wu, Hsun-Pei; Chen, Cheng-Ho; Wu, Peng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    A flexible sensor with conducting polyaniline layer for detecting pH value based on the impedance measurement is fabricated and demonstrated in this study. The pH sensor consists of an interdigital electrode array on a flexible printed circuit and a thin-film polyaniline as the sensing layer. As the conductivity of polyaniline depends on the redox state, the impedance change of the polyaniline after it has reacted with different pH value solutions works as the sensing mechanism. In order to o...

  5. synthesis and optical characterization of acid-doped polyaniline thin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    SYNTHESIS AND OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ACID-DOPED. POLYANILINE THIN .... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... Characterization of Se Doped Polyaniline”,Current. Applied ... with Silver Nanoparticles”, Advances in Materials.

  6. Single wall carbon nanotube supports for portable direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girishkumar, G; Hall, Timothy D; Vinodgopal, K; Kamat, Prashant V

    2006-01-12

    Single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes are employed as carbon supports in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The morphology and electrochemical activity of single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes obtained from different sources have been examined to probe the influence of carbon support on the overall performance of DMFC. The improved activity of the Pt-Ru catalyst dispersed on carbon nanotubes toward methanol oxidation is reflected as a shift in the onset potential and a lower charge transfer resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The evaluation of carbon supports in a passive air breathing DMFC indicates that the observed power density depends on the nature and source of carbon nanostructures. The intrinsic property of the nanotubes, dispersion of the electrocatalyst and the electrochemically active surface area collectively influence the performance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). As compared to the commercial carbon black support, single wall carbon nanotubes when employed as the support for anchoring the electrocatalyst particles in the anode and cathode sides of MEA exhibited a approximately 30% enhancement in the power density of a single stack DMFC operating at 70 degrees C.

  7. Allotropic Carbon Nanoforms as Advanced Metal-Free Catalysts or as Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermenegildo Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper summarizes the use of three nanostructured carbon allotropes as metal-free catalysts (“carbocatalysts” or as supports of metal nanoparticles. After an introductory section commenting the interest of developing metal-free catalysts and main features of carbon nanoforms, the main body of this paper is focused on exemplifying the opportunities that carbon nanotubes, graphene, and diamond nanoparticles offer to develop advanced catalysts having active sites based on carbon in the absence of transition metals or as large area supports with special morphology and unique properties. The final section provides my personal view on future developments in this field.

  8. Electrodeposition of composite films of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline in neutral aqueous solution on inert and oxidizable metal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harfouche, N.; Gospodinova, Natalia; Nessark, B.; Perrin, F. X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 786, 1 February (2017), s. 135-144 ISSN 1572-6657 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * graphene oxide * reduced graphene oxide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.012, year: 2016

  9. Preparation of polyaniline in the presence of polymeric sulfonic acids mixtures: the role of intermolecular interactions between polyacids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gribkova, O. L.; Omelchenko, O. D.; Trchová, Miroslava; Nekrasov, A. A.; Ivanov, V. F.; Tverskoy, V. A.; Vannikov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 952-960 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymers * polyaniline * UV-VIS-NIR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  10. Effects of the polymerization temperature on the structure, morphology and conductivity of polyaniline prepared with ammonium peroxodisulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Michal; Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Zhigunov, Alexander; Vohlídal, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 12 (2013), s. 3904-3911 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * conductivity * morphology Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.242, year: 2013

  11. Increasing the high-frequency magnetic permeability of MnZn ferrite in polyaniline composites by incorporating silver

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Sapurina, I.; Moučka, R.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sáha, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 333, May (2013), s. 30-38 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ferrite * polyaniline * silver Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2013

  12. J-like liquid-crystalline and crystalline states of polyaniline revealed by thin, highly crystalline, and strongly oriented films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gospodinova, Natalia; Tomšík, Elena; Omelchenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 29 (2014), s. 8901-8904 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : J-aggregates * organic semiconductors * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  13. Coaxial conducting polymer nanotubes: polypyrrole nanotubes coated with polyaniline or poly(p-phenylenediamine) and products of their carbonisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, Irina; Trchová, Miroslava; Šeděnková, Ivana; Kovářová, Jana; Kopecká, J.; Prokeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2015), s. 1341-1349 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * poly(p-phenylenediamine) * polypyrrole nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2015

  14. Characterization of polyaniline-based ammonia gas sensors prepared by means of spray coating and ink-jet printing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřinka, N.; Držková, M.; Randjelović, D. V.; Bondavalli, P.; Hajná, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Syrový, T.; Bonnassieaux, Y.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2014), s. 1620-1627 ISSN 1546-198X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-05568P Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) * dispersion Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2013

  15. On the electrical conductivity of silver-content-controlled polyaniline-silver composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2013), s. 76-83 ISSN 1790-4439. [International Conference on Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites /7./. Prague, 24.04.2012-27.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer composites * polyaniline * silver Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.jnpn.org/03,09,03,03.html

  16. Synthesis of conductive doubly filled poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-polyaniline-SiO2 hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Depa, Katarzyna; Strachota, Adam; Šlouf, Miroslav; Brus, Jiří; Cimrová, Věra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 244, June (2017), s. 616-634 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14010; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PNIPAm hydrogel * polyaniline * silica Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  17. Adsorption of Chromium from Aqueous Solution Using Polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Riahi Samani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New group of polymers have been synthesized that are conductive of electricity so they are called conducting polymers. One of the most conducting polymers is "polyaniline". In the present study, polyaniline was synthesized by oxidizing aniline monomer under strongly acidic conditions using potassium iodate as an initiator of oxidative polymerization. Synthesized polyaniline as a powder used as an adsorbent to remove chromium from aqueous solution. Experiments were conducted in batch mode with variables such as amount of polyaniline, chromium solution pH and adsorbtion isotherms. Due to presence of Cr (III in solution after using polyaniline, removal mechanism is the combination of surface adsorption and reduction. It seems that polyaniline reduces the Cr(VI to Cr(III and adsorbs the Cr(III and a part of remaining  Cr(VI. It is well known that nitrogen atom in compounds of amine derivative makes co-ordinate bond with positive charge of metals due to the presence of electron in sp3 orbital of nitrogen. The majority of total chromium removal  occurred at 30minute for polyaniline  and the optimum  time for  hexavalent chromium  removal was about 5 min. Polyaniline has the maximum total cheomiume removal at pH, 3-9. The maximum hexavalent chromium removal occurred at acidic pH for polyanilines. The equilibrium adsorption data for polyaniline fitted both Freundlich’s and Langmuir’s isotherms. This research shows that polyaniline can be used as an adsorbent  for removal chromium from aqueous solution.

  18. Conducting polyaniline-wrapped lithium vanadium phosphate nanocomposite as high-rate and cycling stability cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Chen, Weixing; Wu, Xinming; Li, Yongfei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline has been firstly synthesized and investigated. • Conducting polyaniline can remarkably enhance the conductivity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . • Polyaniline-coated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits superior rate capability and cyclability. - Abstract: This work introduces a facile strategy to improve the high-rate capability and cycling stability for carbon-free Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 by coating with conducting polymer polyaniline. Core-shell Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline nanocomposite with typical sizes of 200 nm has been synthesized via a microwave heating assisted sol-gel method followed by a self-assembly process. The highly conductive and uniform polyaniline layer coated on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrochemical performance of the electrode, which exhibits better rate capability and excellent cycling stability compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . The resultant nanocomposite exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 130.7 mAhg −1 at 0.1 C within a voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V. When cycled at a rate of 10 C the capacity can reach up to 101.5 mAhg −1 , and the capacity retention is 87.3% after 500 cycles. The likely contributing factor to the excellent electrochemical performance of core-shell Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline could be related to the uniform conducting polymer layer, which can improve the electrical conductivity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3

  19. Investigation of altenative carbon materials for fuel-cell catalyst support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Juul

    In order to ensure high utilization of the catalyst material in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) it is usually fixed in the form of nanoparticles on a supporting material. The catalyst is platinum or a platinum alloy, and the commonly used support is carbon black (CB). Although...... structured carbon forms such as graphitized CBs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon nanofibres (CNFs). This thesis concerns the investigation of an array of different materials which may prospec-tively replace the conventional materials used in the catalyst. The study comprised 13 carbon samples which...... nanotubes (GMWCNTs), and graphitized carbon nanofibre (CNF), while the Pt/C samples were platinized samples of some of the CNTs and CNFs (Pt/FWCNT, Pt/GMWCNT, and Pt/CNF, respectively) as well as two commercial Pt/CB reference catalysts. Comparative analyses have been performed in order to be able to assess...

  20. Carbon-Based Regenerable Sorbents for the Combined Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia Removal for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Manthina, Venkata; Singh, Prabhakar; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data on TC sorption presented in this paper are limited to ammonia, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Furthermore, the current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using carbon sorbents for the reversible, concurrent sorption of carbon dioxide and ammonia. Several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested, and multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, and also a carbon surface conditioning technique that enhances the combined carbon dioxide and ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration.

  1. Chemical modification of polyaniline by N-grafting of polystyrenic chains synthesized via nitroxide-mediated polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Mahyar, Ali; Jaymand, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore an effective route for the preparation of conductive N-substituted polyaniline (PANI) by the incorporation of brominated poly(styrene-co-p-methylstyrene) onto the emeraldine form of polyaniline. For this purpose, at first, poly(styrene-co-p-methylstyrene) was synthesized via nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), and then, N-bromosuccinimide was used as brominating agent to obtain a copolymer with bromine. Thereafter, deprotonated polyaniline was reacted with brominated poly(styrene-co-p-methylstyrene) to prepare the poly(styrene-co-p-methylstyrene)-graft-polyaniline [(PSt-co-PMSt)-g-PANI] terpolymer through N-grafting reaction. The terpolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Optical properties of (PSt-co-PMSt)-g-PANI in the undoped and doped states were obtained by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and electrical conductivity at room temperature was measured using samples in which the conductive materials was sandwiched between two Ni electrodes. Moreover, electroactivity of the synthesized terpolymer was verified under cyclic voltammetric conditions on the surface of the working glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The solubility of (PSt-co-PMSt)-g-PANI terpolymer was examined in common organic solvents, such as, tetrahydrofuran (THF), chloroform and xylene. (author)

  2. Pt-Ru nanoparticles supported on functionalized carbon as electrocatalysts for the methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, J.R.C.; Fernandes, J.C.S.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Ferraria, A.M.; Duarte, R.G.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The functionalized carbon using acid solutions contains surface oxygenated groups. → Uniform dispersion of PtRu nanoparticles on the carbon surface was achieved. → Physical analysis showed the formation of PtRu alloy catalysts on functionalized carbon. → PtRu alloy catalysts on functionalized carbon enhanced the methanol oxidation rate. - Abstract: Platinum-ruthenium alloy electrocatalysts, for methanol oxidation reaction, were prepared on carbons thermally treated in helium atmosphere or chemically functionalized in H 2 O 2 , or in HNO 3 + H 2 SO 4 or in HNO 3 solutions. The functionalized carbon that is produced using acid solutions contains more surface oxygenated functional groups than carbon treated with H 2 O 2 solution or HeTT. The XRD/HR-TEM analysis have showed the existence of a higher alloying degree for Pt-Ru electrocatalysts supported on functionalized carbon, which present superior electrocatalytic performance, assessed by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as compared to electrocatalysts on unfunctionalized carbon. It also was found that Pt-Ru alloy electrocatalysts on functionalized carbon improve the reaction rate compared to Pt-Ru on carbons treated with H 2 O 2 solution and thermally. A mechanism is discussed, where oxygenated groups generated from acid functionalization of carbon and adsorbed on Pt-Ru electrocatalysts are considered to enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the methanol oxidation reaction.

  3. Synthesis of Mg2Cu nanoparticles on carbon supports with enhanced hydrogen sorption kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Y.S.; Ponthieu, M.; van Zwienen, M.; Zlotea, C.; Cuevas, F.; de Jong, K.P.; de Jongh, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    The reaction kinetics and reversibility for hydrogen sorption were investigated for supported Mg2Cu nanoparticles on carbon. A new preparation method is proposed to synthesize the supported alloy nanoparticles. The motivation of using a support is to separate the nanoparticles to prevent sintering

  4. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gaikwad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport of carbonate ions was explored through fiber supported solid membrane. A novel fiber supported solid membrane was prepared by chemical modification of cellulose fiber with citric acid, 2′2-bipyridine and magnesium carbonate. The factors affecting the permeability of carbonate ions such as immobilization of citric acid-magnesium metal ion -2′2-bipyridine complex (0 to 2.5 mmol/g range over cellulose fiber, carbon-ate ion concentration in source phase and NaOH concentration in receiving phase were investigated. Ki-netic of carbonate, sulfate, and nitrate ions was investigated through fiber supported solid membrane. Transport of carbonate ions with/without bubbling of CO2 (0 to 10 ml/min in source phase was explored from source to receiving phase. The novel idea is to explore the adsorptive transport of CO2 from source to receiving phase through cellulose fiber containing magnesium metal ion organic framework. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 25th November 2011; Revised: 17th December 2011; Accepted: 19th December 2011[How to Cite: A.G. Gaikwad. (2012. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 49– 57.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57 ] | View in 

  5. Influence of conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline is utilized to substitute conductive additive acetylene black in the LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 cathode for lithium ion batteries. Results show that LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 possesses stable structure and good performance. Percolation theory is used to optimize the content of conductive additive ...

  6. UV Light Induces Dedoping of Polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kaitsuka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UV (Ultra-Violet light-driven change in optical absorption of polyaniline (PANI is reported. Irradiation of UV light to PANI/camphor sulfonic acid prepared by electrochemical polymerization allows dedoping of the PANI. Especially, UV light irradiation in the presence of a radical trap agent effectively reduces (dedoping the PANI. The result in this study is quite simple; however, this may be a first report for light-induced dedoping (color change of a conductive polymer.

  7. The reaction of polyaniline with iodine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Blinova, Natalia V.; Konyushenko, Elena; Reynaud, S.; Prokeš, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 180-185 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 847; GA AV ČR IAA4050313; GA AV ČR IAA400500504 Grant - others:Eco-net project(FR) 16256SA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * iodine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2008

  8. Flexible diode of polyaniline/ITO heterojunction on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, A.; Deb, K.; Kathirvel, V.; Bera, T.; Thapa, R.; Saha, B.

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction between polyaniline and ITO film coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate has been prepared through vapor phase polymerization process. Polaron and bipolaron like defect states induced hole transport and exceptional mobility makes polyaniline a noble hole transport layer. Thus a p-n junction has been obtained between the hole transport layer of polyaniline and highly conductive n-type layer of ITO film. The synthesis process was carried out using FeCl3 as polymerizing agent in the oxidative chemical polymerization process. The prepared polyaniline has been found to be crystalline on characterization through X-ray diffraction measurement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements were done for compositional analysis of the prepared film. The UV-vis-NIR absorbance spectra obtained for polyaniline shows the characteristics absorbance as observed for highly conductive polyaniline and confirms the occurrence of partially oxidized emeraldine form of polyaniline. The energy band gap of the polyaniline has been obtained as 2.52 eV, by analyzing the optical transmittance spectra. A rectifying behavior has been observed in the electrical J-V plot, which is of great significance in designing polymer based flexible electronic devices.

  9. Graphitised Carbon Nanofibres as Catalyst Support for PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Rantala, E.; Pasanen, A.; Kauranen, P.

    2011-01-01

    (PANI) precursor. The modified surfaces were studied by FTIR and XPS and the electrochemical characterization, including long-term Pt stability tests, was performed using a low-temperature PEMFC single cell. The performance and stability of the G-CNF supported catalysts were compared with a CB supported...

  10. Carbon capture in vehicles : a review of general support, available mechanisms, and consumer-acceptance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This survey of the feasibility of introducing carbon capture and storage (CCS) into light vehicles : started by reviewing the level of international support for CCS in general. While there have been : encouraging signs that CCS is gaining acceptance ...

  11. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A. E.; Nikolaev, P.; Amama, P. B.; Zakharov, D.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; Stach, E. A.; Maruyama, B.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only in the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. With the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.

  12. Study on Electrochromic Effect of Polyaniline Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienda Handojo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The light transmission factor of an electrochromic film changes reversibly with the application of an electrical voltage. Thereby the transparent film becomes reversibly opaque so that it may be used to control light transmission. In this paper the results of a study on polyaniline film as an electrochromic active material is reported. Polyaniline looks yellow transparent in the reduced state and turns to green-blue at its oxidized state. The electrochromic device considered in this paper was fabricated in planar configuration of ITO glass - polyaniline film - electrolyte - ITO glass which involved 1.0M H2SO4 solution. The measurement of the current density yields voltamograms for several values of the rate of voltage change, while the optical  characteristics were measured with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. To inspect the light control properties, the intensity of solar radiation propagating through the device was derived. It is found that in its reduced state, the device transmits 70% of the incoming radiation, while in the oxidized state only 11% of the radiation is left. The result of recycling test indicated that film is stable over 5,000 cycles.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polyaniline-ferrocene-sulfonic acid-Carbon dots modified pencil graphite electrodes for chiral selective sensing of D-Ascorbic acid and L-Ascorbic acid: A clinical biomarker for preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Indu; Jha, Shashank Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pencil graphite electrode was non-covalently functionalized by C-dots. • Electrochemically synthesized ferrocene-sulfonic acid doped PANI film was used as chiral recognition element. • Electrochemical chiral sensing of L-ascorbic acid and D-ascorbic acid was carried out. • L-ascorbic acid determination was done in aqueous, biological and pharmaceutical samples at nM level. - Abstract: A simple and novel method is proposed for chiral separation of L-ascorbic acid and D-ascorbic acid in human cerebrospinal fluids and blood plasma samples. Electro-polymerized molecularly imprinted poly-aniline ferrocenesulfonic acid-C-dots modified pencil graphite electrodes was successfully applied for separation and quantification of D-/L-ascorbic acid in aqueous and some biological samples. Parameters, important to control the performance of the electrochemical sensor were investigated and optimized, including the effects of pH, monomer- template ratios, electropolymerization cycles and scan rates. The molecularly imprinted film exhibited a high chiral selectivity and sensitivity towards D-ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid respectively. The surface morphologies and electrochemical properties of the proposed sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, difference pulse voltammetry, chrono-amperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. L-ascorbic acid selective sensor shows excellent selectivity towards the L-ascorbic acid in comparison to D- ascorbic acid vice versa for D- ascorbic acid selective sensor. Under optimal conditions the linear range of the calibration curve for L- ascorbic acid and D- ascorbic acid was 6.0–165.0 nM and 6.0–155.0 nM, with the detection limit of 0.001 nM and 0.002 nM. Chiral detection of L-ascorbic acid was successfully carried out in pharmaceuticals and human plasma samples (pregnant women and non pregnant women) via proposed sensor with good selectivity and sensitivity.

  14. Process intensification by combination of activated carbon supported catalysts and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Calvino Casilda, Vanesa; Pérez-Mayoral, E.

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Activated carbons are well known for their catalytic properties and for being used as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalysis. Activated carbons possess most of the desired properties of a catalyst support; inertness towards unwanted reactions, stability under regeneration and reaction conditions, suitable mechanical properties, tunable surface area, porosity, and the possibility of being manufactured in different size and shape. On the other hand, the in...

  15. Fabrication of nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Hao, Q.L.; Wang, X.; Lu, L.D.; Yang, X.J. [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material was prepared using an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process for use as a supercapacitor electrode. Graphene oxide and a single layer of graphite oxide were used as a substrate material for the graphene oxide-polyaniline composite using an in situ polymerization method. The composite was then treated with a hot sodium hydroxide solution in order to produce a reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. The sodium hydroxide was also used as a dedoping reagent for the polyaniline in the composite. A thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product with an unchanged morphology was obtained using the process. Analyses of the material demonstrated that the composite showed an improved electrochemical performance than the pure individual components, with a specific capacitance of 1126 F per g and a retention life of 84 per cent after 1000 cycles. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Free-standing 3D polyaniline-CNT/Ni-fiber hybrid electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Fang, Yuzhu; Liu, Hong; Wu, Xiaoming; Lu, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Free-standing 3D macroscopic polyaniline (PANi)-carbon nanotube (CNT)-nickel fiber hybrids have been developed, and they deliver high specific capacitance (725 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and high energy density at high rates (~22 W h kg-1 at 2000 W kg-1, based on total electrode mass) with good cyclability.Free-standing 3D macroscopic polyaniline (PANi)-carbon nanotube (CNT)-nickel fiber hybrids have been developed, and they deliver high specific capacitance (725 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and high energy density at high rates (~22 W h kg-1 at 2000 W kg-1, based on total electrode mass) with good cyclability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details on preparation, characterization, and electrochemical testing; Fig. S1-S8, Schemes S1 and S2. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30252g

  17. Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene with Carbon Dioxide as Soft Oxidant over Supported Vanadium-Antimony Oxide Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Do Young; Vislovskiy, Vladislav P.; Yoo, Jin S.; Chang, Jong San [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Eon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Min Seok [Mongolia International University, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2005-11-15

    This work presents that carbon dioxide, which is a main contributor to the global warming effect, could be utilized as a selective oxidant in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over alumina-supported vanadium-antimony oxide catalyst has been studied under different atmospheres such as inert nitrogen, steam, oxygen or carbon dioxide as diluent or oxidant. Among them, the addition of carbon dioxide gave the highest styrene yield (up to 82%) and styrene selectivity (up to 97%) along with stable activity. Carbon dioxide could play a beneficial role of a selective oxidant in the improvement of the catalytic behavior through the oxidative pathway.

  18. Palladium and palladium-tin supported on multi wall carbon nanotubes or carbon for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; Furtunato da Silva, Dionisio; Martins da Silva, Júlio César; Antonio de Sá, Osvaldo; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Coelho dos Santos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Pd and PdSn (Pd:Sn atomic ratios of 90:10), supported on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) or Carbon (C), are prepared by an electron beam irradiation reduction method. The obtained materials are characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The activity for ethanol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium, at room temperature, using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in the temperature range of 60-90 °C. CV analysis finds that Pd/MWCNT and PdSn/MWCNT presents onset potentials changing to negative values and high current values, compared to Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts. ATR-FTIR analysis, performed during the CV, identifies acetate and acetaldehyde as principal products formed during the ethanol electro-oxidation, with low conversion to CO2. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 ethanol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalysts supported on MWCNT, also, show higher power densities, compared to the materials supported on carbon: PdSn/MWCNT, presents the best result (36 mW cm-2). The results show that the use of MWCNT, instead of carbon, as support, plus the addition of small amounts of Sn to Pd, improves the electrocatalytic activity for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR).

  19. A Silicon detector system on carbon fiber support at small radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Marvin E.

    2004-01-01

    The design of a silicon detector for a p(bar p) collider experiment will be described. The detector uses a carbon fiber support structure with sensors positioned at small radius with respect to the beam. A brief overview of the mechanical design is given. The emphasis is on the electrical characteristics of the detector. General principles involved in grounding systems with carbon fiber structures will be covered. The electrical characteristics of the carbon fiber support structure will be presented. Test results imply that carbon fiber must be regarded as a conductor for the frequency region of interest of 10 to 100 MHz. No distinction is found between carbon fiber and copper. Performance results on noise due to pick-up through the low mass fine pitch cables carrying the analogue signals and floating metal is discussed

  20. An investigation into carbon nanostructured materials as catalyst support in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veltzé, Sune

    acid treatment on the Vapour Grown Carbon Fibers™ manufactured by Showa Denko K. K. From these fibres, twelve platinised samples were investigated, of which one was platinised by a platinum phtalocyanine impregnation method, two were platinised by the polyol method and the remaining by the Bönnemann......Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are among the key research areas concerning clean cost-effective energy. Carbon nano fibres (CNF), single walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNT), multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) and other related materials are among the possible successors to standard carbon...... black support materials for low platinum containing electrocatalyst. This is partly due to their high electronic conductivity. Partly due to their high surface area needed for the dispersion of nanoparticulate metal-clusters. In addition carbon nano-structures (CNF, SWCNT, MWCNT etc.) are more durable...

  1. Carbon Nitride Materials as Efficient Catalyst Supports for Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Jorge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nitride materials with graphitic to polymeric structures (gCNH were investigated as catalyst supports for the proton exchange membrane (PEM water electrolyzers using IrO2 nanoparticles as oxygen evolution electrocatalyst. Here, the performance of IrO2 nanoparticles formed and deposited in situ onto carbon nitride support for PEM water electrolysis was explored based on previous preliminary studies conducted in related systems. The results revealed that this preparation route catalyzed the decomposition of the carbon nitride to form a material with much lower N content. This resulted in a significant enhancement of the performance of the gCNH-IrO2 (or N-doped C-IrO2 electrocatalyst that was likely attributed to higher electrical conductivity of the N-doped carbon support.

  2. Novel function of polyaniline for biological environments: Cultivation of paramecium in the presence of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    The reduced form of polyaniline (PANI, emeraldine base) functions as water purification to extend the lives of paramecia. The emeraldine base can absorb discharged waste from the planktons such as nitrogenous compounds and salts. This is a new function of π-conjugated polymers for micro-organisms.

  3. Novel function of polyaniline for biological environments: Cultivation of paramecium in the presence of polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-01-01

    The reduced form of polyaniline (PANI, emeraldine base) functions as water purification to extend the lives of paramecia. The emeraldine base can absorb discharged waste from the planktons such as nitrogenous compounds and salts. This is a new function of π-conjugated polymers for micro-organisms

  4. Sea urchin-like mesoporous carbon material grown with carbon nanotubes as a cathode catalyst support for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Ping-Lin; Hsu, Chun-Han; Li, Wan-Ting; Jhan, Jing-Yi; Chen, Wei-Fu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A sea urchin-like carbon (UC) material with high surface area (416 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), adequate electrical conductivity (59.6 S cm{sup -1}) and good chemical stability was prepared by growing carbon nanotubes onto mesoporous carbon hollow spheres. A uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles was then anchored on the UC, where the Pt nanoparticles were prepared using benzylamine as the stabilizer. For this Pt loaded carbon, cyclic voltammogram measurements showed an exceptionally high electrochemically active surface area (EAS) (114.8 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) compared to the commonly used commercial E-TEK catalyst (65.2 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The durability test demonstrates that the carbon used as a support exhibited minor loss in EAS of Pt. Compared to the E-TEK (20 wt%) cathode catalyst, this Pt loaded UC catalyst has greatly enhanced catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, less cathode flooding and considerably improved performance, resulting in an enhancement of ca. 37% in power density compared with that of E-TEK. Based on the results obtained, the UC is an excellent support for Pt nanoparticles used as cathode catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. (author)

  5. Durability of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) & Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Catalyst Support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    a standard polyol method were prepared and fabricated as cathodes of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) for PEMFC. Both the catalysts as such and the MEAs made out of them were evaluated regarding to thermal and electrochemical stability using traditional carbon black (Vulcan XC72) as a reference. Thermal...... gravimetric analysis (TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV), polarization curve and impedance spectroscopy were applied on the samples under accelerated stress conditions. The carbon nano-materials demonstrated better stability as support for nano-sized platinum catalyst under PEMFC related operating conditions. Due...

  6. Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Catalyst Support in Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansor, Noramalina; Miller, Thomas S.; Dedigama, Ishanka; Jorge, Ana Belen; Jia, Jingjing; Brázdová, Veronika; Mattevi, Cecilia; Gibbs, Chris; Hodgson, David; Shearing, Paul R.; Howard, Christopher A.; Corà, Furio; Shaffer, Milo; Brett, Daniel J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphitic carbon nitride (gCN) describes many materials with different structures. • gCNs can exhibit excellent mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance. • A major obstacle for pure gCN catalyst supports is limited electronic conductivity. • Composite/Hybrid gCN structures show excellent performance as catalyst supports. • gCNs have great potential for use in fuel calls and water electrolyzers. - Abstract: Electrochemical power sources, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), require the use of precious metal catalysts which are deposited as nanoparticles onto supports in order to minimize their mass loading and therefore cost. State-of-the-art/commercial supports are based on forms of carbon black. However, carbon supports present disadvantages including corrosion in the operating fuel cell environment and loss of catalyst activity. Here we review recent work examining the potential of different varieties of graphitic carbon nitride (gCN) as catalyst supports, highlighting their likely benefits, as well as the challenges associated with their implementation. The performance of gCN and hybrid gCN-carbon materials as PEMFC electrodes is discussed, as well as their potential for use in alkaline systems and water electrolyzers. We illustrate the discussion with examples taken from our own recent studies.

  7. Hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage for high performance pseudo-capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of novel nanocomposites for pseudo-capacitors with high capacitance and energy density is the spotlight of current energy research. In the present work, hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage of graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been used as carbon support to nanostructured RuO2 and polyaniline for high energy supercapacitors. Maximum specific capacitances of 110, 235 and 440 F g−1 at the voltage sweep rate of 10 mV s−1 and maximum energy densities of 7, 12.5 and 20.5 Wh kg−1 were observed for carbon assemblage and its RuO2 and polyanilne decorated nanocomposites, respectively, with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte.

  8. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures...

  9. Sulfonated Polyaniline Coated Mercury Film Electrodes for Voltammetric Analysis of Metals in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical polymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid with and without aniline has been carried by cyclic potencial sweep in sulfuric acid solution at the glassy carbon electrode. The polymer and copolymer formed have been characterized voltammetrically. The sulfonated polyaniline coated mercury thin-film electrodes have been evaluated for use with anodic stripping voltammetry. The electrodes were tested and compared with a conventional thin-film mercury electrode. Calibration plots showed linearity up to 10-7 mol L-1. Detection limits for zinc, lead and cadmium test species are very similar at around 12 nmol L-1. Applications to analysis of waters samples are demonstrated.

  10. Fuel cell testing of Pt–Ru catalysts supported on differently prepared and pretreated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, Wojciech; Lota, Grzegorz; Frackowiak, Elzbieta; Czerwiński, Andrzej; Piela, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) testing of Pt–Ru catalysts supported on differently prepared multiwall carbon nanotube (MCNT) supports was performed to elucidate the influence of the different supports on the operating characteristics of the catalysts under real direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode and H 2 -PEMFC anode conditions. The MCNTs were either thin, entangled or thick, disentangled. Pretreatment of the MCNTs was also done and it was either high-temperature KOH etching or annealing (graphitization). The performance of the catalysts was compared against the performance of a commercial Pt–Ru catalyst supported on a high-surface-area carbon black. Among the different MCNT supports, the graphitized, entangled support offered the best performance in all tests, which was equal to the performance of the commercial catalyst, despite the MCNT catalyst layer was ca. 2.2 times thicker than the carbon black catalyst layer. Even for an MCNT catalyst layer, which was almost 7 times thicker than the carbon black catalyst layer, the transport limitations were not prohibitive. This confirmed the expected potential of nanotube supports for providing superior reactant transport properties of the PEMFC catalyst layers

  11. A monetary plan for upgrading climate finance and support the low-carbon transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, Jean Charles; Cassen, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how carbon finance can be part of a general reform of the financial system. Climate policies can indeed stimulate a sustainable and inclusive climate finance, in line with the call of the Cancun Agreement for a paradigm shift in climate negotiations. The mechanism described in this article is based on the adoption by Parties to the negotiations of a social value of carbon to trigger a wave of low-carbon investments in the world. Central banks offer credit lines for commercial banks backed by this social value of carbon, which are then used to cut the risk to invest in low- carbon investments. A future agreement in Paris next year should support this type of mechanisms.

  12. Dielectric and conductivity properties of composite polyaniline/polyurethane network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Gest, J.; Leroy, G.; Carru, J.-C.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we present the dielectric characterization of polyaniline/polyurethane composite. The samples consisting of 0.5%, 1%, and 5% of polyaniline were deposited on glass fiber, and the measurements were performed in a frequency range of 20 Hz to 20 GHz. The results showed a dielectric relaxation strongly dependent on the concentration of polyaniline. This phenomenon is explained by a theoretical model. In this model, we assume that the alternative conductivity of the polymer network systems is due to conducting clusters whose lengths followed a Gaussian distribution. Depending on their size and the frequency of the excitation signal, the clusters showed a resistive or capacitive effect.

  13. Electrochemical supercapacitor application of electroless surface polymerization of polyaniline nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarnath, Chellachamy A.; Chang, Jin Ho; Kim, Doyoung; Mane, Rajaram S.; Han, Sung-Hwan; Sohn, Daewon

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitive behaviour of polyaniline nanostructures, i.e., nanorods and nanospheres fabricated on aniline-primed conducting indium-tin oxide substrate via electroless surface polymerization using ammonium persulfate as initiator and selenious acid as efficient dopant is investigated. The self-assembled monolayer of urea derivative in presence of 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate and aniline plays role of aniline-primed substrate. Polyaniline electrode composed of nanorods of excess surface area responsible for large redox reactions has shown 592 F g -1 specific capacitance which is significantly greater than closely compact polyaniline nanospheres, i.e., 214 F g -1

  14. Supercapacitor electrodes based on polyaniline-silicon nanoparticle composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiang; Yau, Siu-Tung [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Nayfeh, Munir H. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A composite material formed by dispersing ultrasmall silicon nanoparticles in polyaniline has been used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterization of the composite indicates that the nanoparticles give rise to double-layer capacitance while polyaniline produces pseudocapacitance. The composite shows significantly improved capacitance compared to that of polyaniline. The enhanced capacitance results in high power (220 kW kg{sup -1}) and energy-storage (30 Wh kg{sup -1}) capabilities of the composite material. A prototype supercapacitor using the composite as the charge storage material has been constructed. The capacitor showed the enhanced capacitance and good device stability during 1000 charging/discharging cycles. (author)

  15. Structure and Reactivity of Zeolite- and Carbon-Supported Catalysts for the Oxidative Carbonylation of Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Daniel Neal

    2010-01-01

    AbstractStructure and Reactivity of Zeolite- and Carbon-Supported Catalysts for the Oxidative Carbonylation of AlcoholsbyDaniel Neal BriggsDoctor of Philosophy in Chemical EngineeringUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Alexis T. Bell, Chair The oxidative carbonylation of alcohols to produce dialkyl carbonates is a process that takes place commercially in a slurry of cuprous chloride in the appropriate alcohol. While this process is chemically efficient, it incurs costs in terms of ene...

  16. Immersion Calorimetry for the Characterization of PD Catalysts Supported on Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons obtained from coconut peel were oxidized using hydrogen peroxide. Superficial characteristics of these carbons were determined through N2 and CO2 isotherms and functional groups were characterized by TPD. Finally, the microcalorimetry technique was used in order to obtain the immersion enthalpies in diverse liquids and established the relation between them and the results obtained by the other characterization techniques. The results suggested that the immersion calorimetry allow establishing the difference between the supports and the catalysts.

  17. Synthesis of gold nano-catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes by using electroless plating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xicheng; Li Xia; Lun Ning; Wen Shulin

    2006-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes were prepared by using electroless plating technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has shown that spherical gold nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of the carbon nanotubes with a distribution of particle sizes sharply at around 3-4 nm in diameter. The results presented in this work will probably provide new catalysts with better performances

  18. Immobilization of Peroxidase onto Magnetite Modified Polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernandes Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP on magnetite-modified polyaniline (PANImG activated with glutaraldehyde. After the optimization of the methodology, the immobilization of HRP on PANImG produced the same yield (25% obtained for PANIG with an efficiency of 100% (active protein. The optimum pH for immobilization was displaced by the effect of the partition of protons produced in the microenvironment by the magnetite. The tests of repeated use have shown that PANImG-HRP can be used for 13 cycles with maintenance of 50% of the initial activity.

  19. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu/ZrO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, Israf Ud; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Subbarao, Duvvuri; Naeem, A.

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu‐ZrO 2 /CNF) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO 3 ). The CNF activated with 5% HNO 3 produced higher surface area which is 155 m 2 /g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N 2 adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO 3 concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst

  20. Film of lignocellulosic carbon material for self-supporting electrodes in electric double-layer capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Funabashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel thin, wood-based carbon material with heterogeneous pores, film of lignocellulosic carbon material (FLCM, was successfully fabricated by carbonizing softwood samples of Picea jezoensis (Jezo spruce. Simultaneous increase in the specific surface area of FLCM and its affinity for electrolyte solvents in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC were achieved by the vacuum ultraviolet/ozone (VUV/O3 treatment. This treatment increased the specific surface area of FLCM by 50% over that of original FLCM. The results obtained in this study confirmed that FLCM is an appropriate self-supporting EDLC electrode material without any warps and cracks.

  1. Reduced graphene oxide supported gold nanoparticles for electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Mohammad; Halder, Aditi

    2018-02-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide is one of the methods which have the capability to recycle CO2 into valuable products for energy and industrial applications. This research article describes about a new electrocatalyst "reduced graphene oxide supported gold nanoparticles" for selective electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. The main aim for conversion of CO2 to CO lies in the fact that the latter is an important component of syn gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), which is then converted into liquid fuel via well-known industrial process called Fischer-Tropsch process. In this work, we have synthesized different composites of the gold nanoparticles supported on defective reduced graphene oxide to evaluate the catalytic activity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-supported gold nanoparticles and the role of defective RGO support towards the electrochemical reduction of CO2. Electrochemical and impedance measurements demonstrate that higher concentration of gold nanoparticles on the graphene support led to remarkable decrease in the onset potential of 240 mV and increase in the current density for CO2 reduction. Lower impedance and Tafel slope values also clearly support our findings for the better performance of RGOAu than bare Au for CO2 reduction.

  2. Ruthenium supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline electrolyte; Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabena, LF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available . Recently, several researchers have shown that nitrogen modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are good electrocatalyst supports and that they enhance the electrocatalytic activity for the ORR. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) prepared via thermal chemical...

  3. Product carbon footprint assessment supporting the green supply chain construction in household appliance manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Sun, Liang; Guo, Huiting

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain carbon emission is one of the factors considered in the green supply chain management. A method was designed to support the green supply chain measures based on the carbon footprint assessment for products. A research for 3 typical household appliances carbon footprint assessment was conducted to explore using product carbon footprint assessment method to guide the green supply chain management of the manufacturers. The result could reflect the differences directions on green supply chain management of manufacturers of washing machine, air conditioner and microwave, respectively That is, the washing machine manufacturer should pay attention to the low carbon activities in upstream suppliers in highest priority, and also the promotion of product energy efficiency. The air conditioner manufacturer should pay attention to the product energy efficiency increasing in highest priority, and the improvement of refrigerant to decrease its GWP. And the microwave manufacture could only focus on the energy efficiency increasing because it contributes most of the carbon emission to its carbon footprint. Besides, the representativeness of product and the applicability of the method were also discussed. As the manufacturer could master the technical information on raw material and components of its products to conduct the product carbon footprint assessment, this method could help the manufacturer to identify the effective green supply chain measures in the preliminary stage.

  4. Simple preparation of tungsten supported carbon nanoreactors for specific applications: Adsorption, catalysis and electrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayani, Vishal J.; Mayani, Suranjana V.; Kim, Sang Wook, E-mail: swkim@dongguk.ac.kr

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Tungsten carbon composites have shown great recognition in catalysis and electrochemistry. • W-carbon composites are prepared by template replication and W-doping on carbon cage. • Nanocomposites offer enormous assurance as adsorbent, electrode and heterogeneous catalyst. - Abstract: Porous carbon supported tungsten carbide nanoreactors, two sizes (∼25 and 170 nm), were designed using economical petroleum pitch residue followed by tungsten (W) doping. X-ray diffractions showed both carbon tungsten composites (CTC-25 and CTC-170) contained tungsten subcarbide (W{sub 2}C) and monocarbide (WC) as the major and minor crystalline phases, respectively. The present study provides a multiple perspective of carbon tungsten composites (CTCs) for methanol oxidation (as an electrode), adsorption (as an adsorbent) and degradation (as a solid catalyst) of methylene blue (MB). The operational electrodes were designed from both CTCs and used as a catalyst in an electrocatalysis process. The electrocatalysts exhibited high and stable catalytic performance (CTCE-25 > CTCE-170) in methanol electro-oxidation. The newly synthesized W-doped carbon nanoreactors were used successfully as an adsorbent for MB and a heterogeneous catalyst for MB oxidation. Ordered CTC-25 and CTC-170 exhibited dynamic MB adsorption within 15 min and complete oxidation of MB in 25–40 min. A synergetic effect between tungsten carbide and the carbon cage framework was noted.

  5. Fabrication variables affecting the structure and properties of supported carbon molecular sieve membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Briceñ o, Kelly; Montané , Daniel; Garcia-Valls, Ricard; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Basile, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    A high molecular weight polyimide (Matrimid) was used as a precursor for fabricating supported carbon molecular sieve membranes without crack formation at 550-700°C pyrolysis temperature. A one-step polymer (polyimide) coating method as precursor of carbon layer was used without needing a prior modification of a TiO 2 macroporous support. The following fabrication variables were optimized and studied to determine their effect on the carbon structure: polymeric solution concentration, solvent extraction, heating rate and pyrolysis temperature. Two techniques (Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy) were used to determine these effects on final carbon structure. Likewise, the effect of the support was also reported as an additional and important variable in the design of supported carbon membranes. Atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry quantified the degree of influence. Pure gas permeation tests were performed using CH 4, CO, CO 2 and H 2. The presence of a molecular sieving mechanism was confirmed after defects were plugged with PDMS solution at 12wt%. Gas selectivities higher than Knudsen theoretical values were reached with membranes obtained over 650°C, showing as best values 4.46, 4.70 and 10.62 for H 2/N 2, H 2/CO and H 2/CH 4 ratio, respectively. Permeance values were over 9.82×10 -9mol/(m 2Pas)during pure hydrogen permeation tests. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fabrication variables affecting the structure and properties of supported carbon molecular sieve membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Briceño, Kelly

    2012-10-01

    A high molecular weight polyimide (Matrimid) was used as a precursor for fabricating supported carbon molecular sieve membranes without crack formation at 550-700°C pyrolysis temperature. A one-step polymer (polyimide) coating method as precursor of carbon layer was used without needing a prior modification of a TiO 2 macroporous support. The following fabrication variables were optimized and studied to determine their effect on the carbon structure: polymeric solution concentration, solvent extraction, heating rate and pyrolysis temperature. Two techniques (Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy) were used to determine these effects on final carbon structure. Likewise, the effect of the support was also reported as an additional and important variable in the design of supported carbon membranes. Atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry quantified the degree of influence. Pure gas permeation tests were performed using CH 4, CO, CO 2 and H 2. The presence of a molecular sieving mechanism was confirmed after defects were plugged with PDMS solution at 12wt%. Gas selectivities higher than Knudsen theoretical values were reached with membranes obtained over 650°C, showing as best values 4.46, 4.70 and 10.62 for H 2/N 2, H 2/CO and H 2/CH 4 ratio, respectively. Permeance values were over 9.82×10 -9mol/(m 2Pas)during pure hydrogen permeation tests. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualan; Hao, Qingli; Yang, Xujie; Lu, Lude; Wang, Xin

    2010-10-01

    A flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material as a supercapacitor electrode was synthesized by an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process. This product was first prepared in an ethylene glycol medium, then treated with hot sodium hydroxide solution to obtain the reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. Sodium hydroxide also acted as a dedoping reagent for polyaniline in the composite. After redoping in an acidic solution, the thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product was obtained with unchanged morphology. The chemical structure of the materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The composite material showed better electrochemical performances than the pure individual components. A high specific capacitance of 1126 F g-1 was obtained with a retention life of 84% after 1000 cycles for supercapacitors. The energy density and power density were also better than those of pure component materials.

  9. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline doped PVC–PMMA polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which has now become one of the hot topics of research. (Radhakrishnan 2001). ... and sensitive methods for studying the polymer structure. (Ferraro and Walkar ... acceptor mixed polymers doped with polyaniline, was measured to identify ...

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyaniline Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Salma; Bilal, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most promising candidates for possible technological applications. PANI has potential applications in batteries, anion exchanger, tissue engineering, inhibition of steel corrosion, fuel cell, sensors and so on. However, its insolubility in common organic solvents limits its range of applications. In the present study an attempt has been made to synthesize soluble polyaniline salt via inverse polymerization pathway using benzoyl peroxide as oxidant and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as dopant as well as a surfactant. A mixture of chloroform and 2-butanol was used as dispersion medium for the first time. The influence of synthesis parameters such as concentration of aniline, benzoyl peroxide and DBSA on the yield and other properties of the resulting PANI salt was studied. The synthesized PANI salt was found to be completely soluble in DMSO, DMF, chloroform and in a mixture of toluene and 2-propanol. The synthesized polymer salt was also characterized with cyclic voltam-metry, SEM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. TGA was used to analyze the thermal properties of synthesized polymer. The extent of doping of the PANI salt was determined from UV-Vis spectra and TGA analysis. The activation energy for the degradation of the polymer was calculated with the help of TGA.

  11. Electrochemical supercapacitors from conducting polyaniline-graphene platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2014-06-18

    Energy storage devices such as electrochemical supercapacitors, with high power and energy densities are required to address the colossal energy requirements against the backdrop of global warming and the looming energy crisis. Nanocarbon, particularly two-dimensional graphene and graphene-based conducting polymer composites are promising electrode materials for such energy storage devices. Owing to their environmental stability, the low cost of polymers with high electroactivity and pseudocapacitance, such composite hybrids are expected to have wide implications in next generation clean and efficient energy systems. In this feature article, an overview of current research and important advances over the past four years on the development of conducting polyaniline (PANI)-graphene based composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors are highlighted. Particular emphasis is made on the design, fabrication and assembly of nanostructured electrode architectures comprising PANI and graphene along with metal oxides/hydroxides and carbon nanotubes. Comments on the challenges and perspectives towards rational design and synthesis of graphene-based conducting polymer composites for energy storage are discussed.

  12. Solid-state 13C NMR characterization of polyanilines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.

    1988-01-01

    13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements are reported for the leucoemeraldine base, emeraldine base, and emeraldine hydrochloride forms of polyaniline in order to characterize the structures of these three distinct polymers. Chemical shift assignments are facilitated by use of the cross-depolarization technique to distinguish carbons with and without directly bonded hydrogens. Comparison of the spectra of emeraldine base with those of leucoemeraldine base and air-oxidized leucoemeraldine (which partially converts to emeraldine base) establishes that emeraldine base is essentially an alternating copolymer of reduced 1A (-(C 6 H 4 )N(H)(C 6 H 4 )N(H)-) and oxidized 2A (-(C 6 H 4 )N double-bond(C 6 H 4 )double-bond N-) repeat units. The 8-12 ppm spectral line widths measured for both emeraldine base and leucoemeraldine base are attributed to local fluctuations in conformational and configurational geometries, a distribution in chain packing, and compositional defects. 13 C spin-echo measurements establish that the 60 ppM wide line from the conducting emeraldine hydrochloride is inhomogeneously broadened. It is postulated that this line width is due to local variations in charge density along the polymer backbone arising from polymer structural heterogeneity. 47 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Carbon isotopic record from Upper Devonian carbonates at Dongcun in Guilin, southern China, supporting the world-wide pattern of carbon isotope excursions during Frasnian-Famennian transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Two positive δ13C excursions are presented in records from the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) marine carbonate sediments in Europe, America, Africa, and Australia, having been considered as a worldwide pattern, and attributed to enhanced organic carbon burial during the F-F biological mass extinction. However, this worldwide pattern has not been revealed from the well-deposited Late Devonian sequences in southern China. In this paper, a detailed investigation has been made on the Late Devonian section at Dongcun, Guilin, southern China to constrain perturbations in δ13C of carbonates in the F-F deposited sequence. The result from this section also indicates two positive δ13C excursions during the F-F transition. The first excursion with an amplitude of 1.5‰ occurred at the bottom of linguiformis Zone, later than the early excursion existing in the Late rhenana Zone of the Late Devonian profiles in other continents, especially, in central Europe. This difference has been expected to be a result as conodont Palmatolepis linguiformis occurred earlier in southern China than other sites. The second excursion with an amplitude of 2.1‰ is located at the F-F boundary, same as the records from other continents. This result strongly supports the view that two carbon isotope positive excursions during the F-F transition are common in carbonate sediments, resulting from worldwide increases of organic carbon burial intensity.

  14. METHANE DRY REFORMING OVER Ni SUPPORTED ON PINE SAWDUST ACTIVATED CARBON: EFFECTS OF SUPPORT SURFACE PROPERTIES AND METAL LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of metal loading and support surface functional groups (SFG on methane dry reforming (MDR over Ni catalysts supported on pine-sawdust derived activated carbon were studied. Using pine sawdust as the catalyst support precursor, the smallest variety and lowest concentration of SFG led to best Ni dispersion and highest catalytic activity, which increased with Ni loading up to 3 Ni atoms nm-2. At higher Ni loading, the formation of large metal aggregates was observed, consistent with a lower "apparen" surface area and a decrease in catalytic activity. The H2/CO ratio rose with increasing reaction temperature, indicating that increasingly important side reactions were taking place in addition to MDR.

  15. Nanostructured Carbon Materials as Supports in the Preparation of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Lázaro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Different advanced nanostructured carbon materials, such as carbon nanocoils, carbon nanofibers, graphitized ordered mesoporous carbons and carbon xerogels, presenting interesting features such as high electrical conductivity and extensively developed porous structure were synthesized and used as supports in the preparation of electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. The main advantage of these supports is that their physical properties and surface chemistry can be tailored to adapt the carbonaceous material to the catalytic requirements. Moreover, all of them present a highly mesoporous structure, diminishing diffusion problems, and both graphitic character and surface area can be conveniently modified. In the present work, the influence of the particular features of each material on the catalytic activity and stability was analyzed. Results have been compared with those obtained for commercial catalysts supported on Vulcan XC-72R, Pt/C and PtRu/C (ETEK. Both a highly ordered graphitic and mesopore-enriched structure of these advanced nanostructured materials resulted in an improved electrochemical performance in comparison to the commercial catalysts assayed, both towards CO and alcohol oxidation.

  16. Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants Using a Hybrid Nanocatalyst: Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Hierarchical Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Vijwani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of a new type of hybrid nanocatalyst material that combines the high surface area of nanoparticles and nanotubes with the structural robustness and ease of handling larger supports. The hybrid material is made by fabricating palladium nanoparticles on two types of carbon supports: as-received microcellular foam (Foam and foam with carbon nanotubes anchored on the pore walls (CNT/Foam. Catalytic reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride with these materials has been investigated using gas chromatography. It is seen that while both palladium-functionalized carbon supports are highly effective in the degradation of carbon tetrachloride, the rate of degradation is significantly increased with palladium on CNT/Foam. However, there is scope to increase this rate further if the wettability of these structures can be enhanced in the future. Microstructural and spectroscopic analyses of the fresh and used catalysts have been compared which indicates that there is no change in density or surface chemical states of the catalyst after prolonged use in dechlorination test. This implies that these materials can be used repeatedly and hence provide a simple, powerful, and cost-effective approach for dechlorination of water.

  17. Studies on the core-support carbon material for VHTR, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Hideto; Saito, Tamotsu; Fukuda, Yasumasa; Sasaki, Yasuichi; Hasegawa, Takashi.

    1979-11-01

    To obtain information of core-support carbon material for VHTR, thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of three domestic carbon blocks were measured. Results indicated the need for development of carbon material with lower thermal conductivity for VHTR. These two were also measured of the samples heat-treated between 1000 0 C and 3040 0 C for one hour. Thermal conductivity increased with heat-treatment above 1200 0 C and resistivity stayed constant between 1500 0 C and 2000 0 C. The results should be useful in choosing the final heat-treatment temperature in carbon material production. The changes of Lorentz number with heat treatment were classified into three heat-treatment temperature regions of below 1500 0 C, 1500 0 C - 2500 0 C, and above 2500 0 C; the results are interpreted with a graphitization model. (author)

  18. Soil, environmental, and watershed measurements in support of carbon cycling studies in northwestern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, T.G.; Harden, J.W.; Dabney, S.M.; Marion, D.A.; Alonso, C.; Sharpe, J.M.; Fries, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements including soil respiration, soil moisture, soil temperature, and carbon export in suspended sediments from small watersheds were recorded at several field sites in northwestern Mississippi in support of hillslope process studies associated with the U.S. Geological Survey's Mississippi Basin Carbon Project (MBCP). These measurements were made to provide information about carbon cycling in agricultural and forest ecosystems to understand the potential role of erosion and deposition in the sequestration of soil organic carbon in upland soils. The question of whether soil erosion and burial constitutes an important net sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide is one hypothesis that the MBCP is evaluating to better understand carbon cycling and climate change. This report contains discussion of methods used and presents data for the period December 1996 through March 1998. Included in the report are ancillary data provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research on rainfall, runoff, sediment yield, forest biomass and grain yield. Together with the data collected by the USGS these data permit the construction of carbon budgets and the calibration of models of soil organic matter dynamics and sediment transport and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established cooperative agreements with the USDA and USFS to facilitate collaborative research at research sites in northwestern Mississippi.

  19. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  20. Synthesis, transport and dielectric properties of polyaniline/Co3O4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Synthesis, transport and dielectric properties of polyaniline/Co3O4 composites ... Initial increment in conductivity is due to extended chain length of polyaniline where polarons possess .... Figure 3 displays the scanning electron micrograph of.

  1. COVALENT IMMOBILIZATION OF INVERTASE ON EPOXY-ACTIVATED POLYANILINE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Vacareanu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in manufacturing and use of biosensors is their rapid and selective detection of the target analyte. The immobilization of the enzymes, onto the appropriate matrix is the key-step in the construction of biosensing devices, considerably affecting its performance. In this study, new polyaniline bearing epoxy groups was synthesized by electrochemical polymerization reactions, as adherent, green film deposited on electrode surface, and was further used as immobilization matrix for invertase enzyme. The immobilization was carried out by condensation reactions between the amino groups of the enzyme molecules and the epoxy groups of polyaniline film. The covalent attachment was achieved by simple immersing the epoxy-activated polyaniline in acetate buffer solution (10 mM, pH 6.0 containing 2mg/mL invertase, for 24 h at 4 ºC, by continuous stirring. The polyaniline films thus obtained were analyzed before and after the invertase attachment, by using FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. The presence of the invertase was evaluated by measuring their activity, using UV-Vis spectroscopy, in the presence of a known amount of sucrose as a substrate. These tests, performed for three times under the same conditions, revealed that even after five washes of the polyaniline /invertase electrode to remove the unbounded enzyme, the enzyme remain attached on the polyaniline film, being able to hydrolyze the sucrose presented in the assay solutions.

  2. Preparation and electrochemical properties of polyaniline nanofibers using ultrasonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, James [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Miso [Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Fapyane, Deby; Chang, In Seop [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan Gwagi-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Nanofibrous structured polyaniline (PANI) was prepared by simple ultrasonication. • PANI nanofibers prepared at 5 °C are uniform with an average diameter of 50 nm. • The conductivity is increased by 2 × 10{sup 8} times after doping with LiClO{sub 4}. • The cell with PANI-LiClO{sub 4} shows good cycle performance at high current densities. - Abstract: Polyaniline nanofibers have been successfully prepared by applying ultrasonic irradiation during oxidative polymerization of aniline in dilute hydrochloric acid and evaluated for suitability in lithium cells after doping with lithium perchlorate salt. Polyaniline nanofibers are confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, and the efficiency of doping is confirmed by DC conductivity measurements at different temperatures. Electrochemical properties of nanofibers are evaluated, of which a remarkable increase in cycle stability is achieved when compared to polyaniline prepared by simple oxidative polymerization of aniline. The cell with nanofibrous polyaniline doped with LiClO{sub 4} delivers an initial discharge capacity value of 86 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C-rate which is about 60% of theoretical capacity, and the capacity is slightly lowered during cycle and reaches 50% of theoretical capacity after 40 cycles. The cell delivers a stable and higher discharge capacity even at 2 C-rate compared to that of the cell prepared with bulk polyaniline doped with LiClO{sub 4}.

  3. Patterned polyaniline encapsulated in titania nanotubes for electrochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haiming; Wang, Yi; Pan, Lei; Zhang, Leipeng; Zhang, Hangchuan; Shang, Lei; Qu, Huiying; Li, Na; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2018-02-21

    In this article, we report the preparation of a TiO 2 nanotube array (TNA) film used as a transparent electrochromic material and a TNA/polyaniline patterned hybrid electrochromic film utilized as an information display material. The TNA film was fabricated by an anodizing process, and a surface patterned TNA with extreme wettability contrast (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) on a TNA surface through self-assembly (SAM) and photocatalytic lithography is fabricated. Then the TNA/polyaniline hybrid film was prepared by electrodeposition of aniline in an aqueous solution. Finally, the electrochromic properties of the TNA film and the TNA/polyaniline hybrid film were investigated. Compared with neat TNA film and polyaniline (PANI) films, the hybrid film shows a much higher optical contrast in the near infrared range. The TNA/polyaniline hybrid film shows higher coloration efficiencies of 24.4 cm 2 C -1 at a wavelength of 700 nm and 17.1 cm 2 C -1 at a wavelength of 1050 nm compared to the TNA coloration efficiency. The color switching time (20.9 s or 22.9 s) of TNA/polyaniline is faster than TNA.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of Au nanoparticles supported on amorphous silica and carbon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, A; Li, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) has been employed to study the three-dimensional structure of gold (Au) nanoparticles deposited by means of thermal evaporation in high vacuum on amorphous silica (a-SiO 2 ) and amorphous carbon (a-C) supports. By performing quantitative analysis on the evolution of the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images, we studied the influence of the nature and the temperature of support on the growth mode of gold nanoparticles.

  5. Carbon Support Surface Effects in the Gold-Catalyzed Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donoeva, Baira; Masoud, Nazila; De Jongh, Petra E.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid is an important transformation for the production of bio-based polymers. Carbon-supported gold catalysts hold great promise for this transformation. Here we demonstrate that the activity, selectivity, and stability of the

  6. The role of Ni in sulfided carbon-supported Ni-Mo hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Barthe-Zahir, N.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1991-01-01

    The thiophene hydrodesulfurization activities of Ni and Ni---Mo sulfide catalysts supported on activated carbon were measured at atmospheric pressure and the catalyst structures were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic oxygen chemisorption, and chemical sulfur analysis. The

  7. Electrochemically controlled winding and unwinding of substrate-supported carbon nanoscrolls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarábková, Hana; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Janda, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 8 (2018), s. 5900-5908 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05167s Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * carbon nanoscrolls * electrical energy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  8. Activated carbon supported CaO for conversion of palm oil to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, activated carbon supported CaO catalyst was used for the transesterification reaction of palm oil. The catalyst was prepared according to the conventional incipient witness impregnation method. Kinetic experiment was performed in a batch reactor in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst for a wide range of ...

  9. Highly Active, Carbon-supported, PdSn Nano-core, Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-supported, Pt partially covered, PdSn alloy nanoparticles (Pt-PdSn/C) were synthesized via a metathetical reaction of PdSn alloy nanoparticles, and a platinum precursor. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by methanol oxidation. The Pt-PdSn/C catalysts were characterized by transmission electron ...

  10. Carbon Nanofiber Supported Transition-Metal Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, A.; Gosselink, R.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bitter, J.H.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) studies over carbon nanofiber-supported (CNF) W2C and Mo2C catalysts were performed on guaiacol, a prototypical substrate to evaluate the potential of a catalyst for valorization of depolymerized lignin streams. Typical reactions were executed at 55 bar hydrogen pressure

  11. Oxygen reduction on carbon supported platinum catalysts in high temperature polymer electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Bergqvist, R. S.; Hjuler, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    Oxygen reduction on carbon supported platinum catalysts has been investigated in H3PO4, H3PO4-doped Nafion and PBI polymer electrolytes in a temperature range from 80 to 190°C. Compared with pure H3PO4, using the H3PO4 doped Nafion and PBI polymer electrolytes can significantly improve the oxygen...

  12. Mobility of holes and polarons in polyaniline films assessed by frequency-dependent impedance and charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Křivka, I.; Hajná, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 234, December (2017), s. 161-165 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * impedance spectroscopy * CELIV Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  13. High-frequency dielectric response of polyaniline pellets as nanocomposites of metallic emeraldine salt and dielectric base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Petzelt, Jan; Rychetský, Ivan; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 209, Nov (2015), s. 561-569 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/0911 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * infrared and THz spectroscopy * optical conductivity * dielectric permittivity * vibrational mode * effective medium approach Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.299, year: 2015

  14. Graphitized Carbon: A Promising Stable Cathode Catalyst Support Material for Long Term PEMFC Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Paritosh Kumar; Regnet, Fabian; Jörissen, Ludwig

    2018-05-28

    Stability of cathode catalyst support material is one of the big challenges of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for long term applications. Traditional carbon black (CB) supports are not stable enough to prevent oxidation to CO₂ under fuel cell operating conditions. The feasibility of a graphitized carbon (GC) as a cathode catalyst support for low temperature PEMFC is investigated herein. GC and CB supported Pt electrocatalysts were prepared via an already developed polyol process. The physical characterization of the prepared catalysts was performed using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis, and their electrochemical characterizations were conducted via cyclic voltammetry(CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and potential cycling, and eventually, the catalysts were processed using membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for single cell performance tests. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SEM) have been used as MEA diagonostic tools. GC showed superior stability over CB in acid electrolyte under potential conditions. Single cell MEA performance of the GC-supported catalyst is comparable with the CB-supported catalyst. A correlation of MEA performance of the supported catalysts of different Brunauer⁻Emmett⁻Teller (BET) surface areas with the ionomer content was also established. GC was identified as a promising candidate for catalyst support in terms of both of the stability and the performance of fuel cell.

  15. Energy and climate hand-in-hand: Financing RES-E support with carbon revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano F.; Pazienza, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In Italy, the cost of support for renewable electricity (RES-E) is largely recovered through the “A3 surcharge”, which weighs heavily on electricity bills. Using household survey data, we show the A3 surcharge is markedly regressive. Carbon taxation in the non-ETS sector is envisaged as a means to reduce CO_2 emissions cost-effectively and generate revenue to lower the A3 surcharge. A non-ETS carbon tax would be less regressive than the A3 surcharge and its cost would be more evenly distributed across households. We calculate the revenue of a €20/tCO_2 non-ETS carbon tax would have allowed a cut in the A3 surcharge of about 68% in 2011, and 39% in 2012. The impact of the carbon tax plus the reduced A3 surcharge would have been less regressive, but the cost higher for most households. The restrictions imposed in the simulations mean the results are only appropriate to render first-round effects of the reform. Policy relevance: In the vast majority of the EU Member States, the cost of RES-E support is largely paid by electricity consumers, most often through specific surcharges. Rising electricity prices are a common concern given the implications for competitiveness and equity. The Member States facing this issue could conveniently address it through environmental tax reforms consistent with the Climate and Energy Package. Replacing RES-E surcharges with carbon taxes in the non-ETS sector would permit cost-effective reduction of CO_2 emissions while allocating the cost of RES-E support more equitably. The difference in regressivity would stem from the different consumption patterns of home fuels (including electricity) and motor fuels across income distribution. A cross-country comparison of energy household budget shares proves the structural nature of this difference between home fuels and motor fuels. Moreover, the notion that electricity consumers should pay for RES-E support is questioned on the grounds that electricity is a basic necessity good and RES

  16. Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Kou, Rong; Wang, Chongmin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Wang, Xiqing; Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    We report a durable electrocatalyst support, highly graphitized mesoporous carbon (GMPC), for oxygen reduction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. GMPC is prepared through graphitizing the self-assembled soft-template mesoporous carbon (MPC) under high temperature. Heat-treatment at 2800 C greatly improves the degree of graphitization while most of the mesoporous structures and the specific surface area of MPC are retained. GMPC is then noncovalently functionalized with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and loaded with Pt nanoparticles by reducing Pt precursor (H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}) in ethylene glycol. Pt nanoparticles of {proportional_to}3.0 nm in diameter are uniformly dispersed on GMPC. Compared to Pt supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black (Pt/XC-72), Pt/GMPC exhibits a higher mass activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the mass activity retention (in percentage) is improved by a factor of {proportional_to}2 after 44 h accelerated degradation test under the potential step (1.4-0.85 V) electrochemical stressing condition which focuses on support corrosion. The enhanced activity and durability of Pt/GMPC are attributed to the graphitic structure of GMPC which is more resistant to corrosion. These findings demonstrate that GMPC is a promising oxygen reduction electrocatalyst support for PEM fuel cells. The approach reported in this work provides a facile, eco-friendly promising strategy for synthesizing stable metal nanoparticles on hydrophobic support materials. (author)

  17. Influence of the Synthesis Method for Pt Catalysts Supported on Highly Mesoporous Carbon Xerogel and Vulcan Carbon Black on the Electro-Oxidation of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Alegre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Platinum catalysts supported on carbon xerogel and carbon black (Vulcan were synthesized with the aim of investigating the influence of the characteristics of the support on the electrochemical performance of the catalysts. Three synthesis methods were compared: an impregnation method with two different reducing agents, sodium borohydride and formic acid, and a microemulsion method, in order to study the effect of the synthesis method on the physico-chemical properties of the catalysts. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were applied. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used for studying carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation. Catalysts supported on carbon xerogel presented higher catalytic activities towards CO and CH3OH oxidation than catalysts supported on Vulcan. The higher mesoporosity of carbon xerogel was responsible for the favored diffusion of reagents towards catalytic centers.

  18. On the mobility of carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles towards unveiling cathode degradation in water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciok, Paul; Schalenbach, Maximilian; Carmo, Marcelo; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) overpotential on the mobility of carbon-supported platinum particles. The migration of the platinum over the carbon support was analyzed by means of identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM). While at potentials of 0.1 and 0 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), no changes to the Pt/C material were observed. With a decrease of the overpotential to -0.1 V vs. RHE, an increase in the quantity of migrating platinum particles took place. At -0.2 V vs. RHE, a further rise in the particle migration was observed. The effect of the overpotential on the migration was explained by a higher hydrogen generation rate, the formation of a hydrogen monolayer on the platinum and the resulting changes of the platinum support distance. The mechanisms revealed in this study could describe a relevant source of degradation of PEM water electrolyzers.

  19. Carbon nanocages: a new support material for Pt catalyst with remarkably high durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Tan, Zhe Hua; Zeng, Min; Wang, Jian Nong

    2014-03-24

    Low durability is the major challenge hindering the large-scale implementation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, and corrosion of carbon support materials of current catalysts is the main cause. Here, we describe the finding of remarkably high durability with the use of a novel support material. This material is based on hollow carbon nanocages developed with a high degree of graphitization and concurrent nitrogen doping for oxidation resistance enhancement, uniform deposition of fine Pt particles, and strong Pt-support interaction. Accelerated degradation testing shows that such designed catalyst possesses a superior electrochemical activity and long-term stability for both hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction relative to industry benchmarks of current catalysts. Further testing under conditions of practical fuel cell operation reveals almost no degradation over long-term cycling. Such a catalyst of high activity, particularly, high durability, opens the door for the next-generation PEMFC for "real world" application.

  20. Copolymerization of carbon monoxide and styrene catalyzed by resin-supported palladium polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyketone was prepared by the copolymerization of carbon monoxide (CO and styrene (ST catalyzed by o-phenylenediamine resin-supported palladium acetate. Effects of each catalytic system component such as 2,2’-bipyridine, 1,4-quinone and p-toluene-sulphonate on the copolymerization were investigated. The resin-supported catalyst and the copolymerization product were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry (TG, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Results indicated that the resin-supported catalyst has excellent catalytic property. Furthermore, partial catalytic activity was maintained after the catalyst was used for five times.

  1. Synthesis of carbon-supported nickel catalysts for the dry reforming of CH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidalgo, B.; Zubizarreta, L.; Bermudez, J.M.; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    A series of carbon-based nickel (Ni) catalysts was prepared in order to investigate the effect of the preparation method on the dispersion of Ni and its final catalytic activity in the dry reforming of methane, i.e. CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2} 2H{sub 2} + 2CO. Three parameters were studied: (i) the influence of the surface chemistry of the carbon used as support; (ii) the method of drying (conventional vs. microwave drying); and, (iii) the temperature of the reduction stage. In order to study the role of the surface chemistry of the commercial activated carbon used as support, the active carbon was tested as received and oxidized. Although a better Ni dispersion was achieved over the oxidized support, the conversions were much lower. It was also found that microwave drying offers various advantages over conventional drying, the main one being that less time is required to prepare the catalyst. Two reduction temperatures were used (300 and 500 C), being found that it is necessary to adjust this parameter to prevent the Ni particles from sintering. (author)

  2. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the

  3. Synthesis of Carbon Nano tubes Using Anadara Granosa Shells as Catalyst Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Salwani Asyikin Zakarya; Siti Halimah Sarijo

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using natural calcite prepared from Anadara granosa shells (CS), as metal catalyst support was studied. Hexane and iron were used as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The as synthesised CNTs was characterized using XRD, TEM and FESEM. From the XRD patterns the CNTs peak can be seen more incisive after purification process and from the FESEM micrographs the CNTs can be seen as a bunch of rope-like structures. (author)

  4. Structure-activity relationships of carbon-supported platinum-bismuth and platinum-antimony oxidation catalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphoru, MV

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Compositional and morphological studies on supported platinum are important for the improvement and expanded use of catalysts for oxidative coupling reactions. Nanocomposites consisting of 5% Pt supported on activated carbon and promoted with 5% Bi...

  5. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  6. Fractal like charge transport in polyaniline nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, A.

    2013-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) doped nanotubes, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) doped nanofibers and nanoparticles of polyaniline have been studied as a function of doping level. The crystallinity increases with doping for all the nanostructures. Electrical transport measurements in the temperature range of 5–300 K show an increase in conductivity with doping for the nanostructures. All the nanostructures exhibit metal to insulator (MIT) transition below 40 K. The metallic behavior is ascribed to the electron–electron interaction effects. In the insulating regime of the nanotubes conduction follows the Mott quasi-1D variable range hopping model, whereas the conduction in the nanofibers and nanoparticles occur by variable range hopping of charge carriers among superlocalized states without and with Coulomb interaction, respectively. The smaller dopant size in case of HCl makes the polymer fractal resulting in superlocalization of electronic wave-functions. The confined morphology of the nanoparticles results in effective Coulomb interaction dominating the intersite hopping

  7. Reinforced Conductive Polyaniline-Paper Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for direct aniline interfacial polymerization on polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE-reinforced paper substrate is introduced in this paper. Cellulose-based papers with and without reinforcement were considered. The polyaniline (PANI-paper composites had surface resistivity lower than 100 Ω/sq after more than 3 polymerizations. Their mechanical strength and thermal stability were analyzed by tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results revealed that there was strong interaction between NH groups in aniline monomers and OH groups in fibers, which did not disappear until after 3 polymerizations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and field emission (FE SEM images showed morphological differences between composites using reinforced and untreated base papers. Conductive composites made with PAE-reinforced base paper had both good thermal stability and good mechanical strength, with high conductivity and a smaller PANI amount.

  8. Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.

  9. Functional polyaniline nanofibre mats for human adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahman, Norizah, E-mail: norizah@science.putra.edu.my [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Chemistry, University of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Feisst, Vaughan [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle E. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Malmström, Jenny [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dunbar, P. Rod [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka, E-mail: j.travas-sejdic@auckland.ac.nz [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2013-02-15

    Conductive polymer poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) (P(ANI-co-m-ABA)) and polyaniline (PANI) were blended with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) and were electrospun into nanofibres to investigate their potential application as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). These polymers, in both conductive and non-conductive form, were electrospun with average fibre diameters of less than 400 nm. Novel nanoindentation results obtained on the individual nanofibres revealed that the elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface (4–10 GPa, h{sub max} <75 nm) than in the inner fibre core (2–4 GPa, h{sub max} >75 nm). The composite nanofibres showed great promise as a scaffold for hASCs as they supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. After 1 week of cell culture hASCs were well spread on the substrates with abundant focal adhesions. The electrospun mats provide the cells with comparably stiff, sub-micron sized fibres as anchoring points on a substrate of high porosity. The conductive nature of these composite nanofibres offers exciting opportunities for electrical stimulation of the cells. - Highlights: ► Polyaniline and its copolymer's nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning. ► The elastic modulus of a single polyaniline composite nanofibres were determined. ► Elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface than the inner core. ► The electrospun mats supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The nanofibres show great promise as a scaffold for adipose derived stem cells.

  10. Functional polyaniline nanofibre mats for human adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahman, Norizah; Feisst, Vaughan; Dickinson, Michelle E.; Malmström, Jenny; Dunbar, P. Rod; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    Conductive polymer poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) (P(ANI-co-m-ABA)) and polyaniline (PANI) were blended with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) and were electrospun into nanofibres to investigate their potential application as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). These polymers, in both conductive and non-conductive form, were electrospun with average fibre diameters of less than 400 nm. Novel nanoindentation results obtained on the individual nanofibres revealed that the elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface (4–10 GPa, h max max >75 nm). The composite nanofibres showed great promise as a scaffold for hASCs as they supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. After 1 week of cell culture hASCs were well spread on the substrates with abundant focal adhesions. The electrospun mats provide the cells with comparably stiff, sub-micron sized fibres as anchoring points on a substrate of high porosity. The conductive nature of these composite nanofibres offers exciting opportunities for electrical stimulation of the cells. - Highlights: ► Polyaniline and its copolymer's nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning. ► The elastic modulus of a single polyaniline composite nanofibres were determined. ► Elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface than the inner core. ► The electrospun mats supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The nanofibres show great promise as a scaffold for adipose derived stem cells

  11. Self-supporting activated carbon/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide flexible electrode for high performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Yao; Song, Junhua; Yang, Wei; Wang, Mingshan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Zhao, Wengao; Zheng, Jianming; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-04-30

    A self-supporting and flexible activated carbon/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide (AC/CNT/RGO) film has been rationally designed for constructing high- performance supercapacitor. The AC/CNT/RGO film is prepared by anchoring the AC particles with a 3D and porous framework built by hierarchically weaving the 1 D CNT and 2D RGO using their intrinsic van der Waals force. The CNT network is beneficial for improving the electronic conductivity of the electrode, while the AC particles could effectively suppress the aggregation of RGO and CNT due to their blocking effect. The synergistic effects among the AC, CNT and RGO validate the AC/CNT/RGO as a promising electrode for supercapacitor, exhibiting greatly enhanced electrochemical performances in comparison with the pure RGO film, pure CNT film and AC electrode. The AC/CNT/RGO electrode delivers a high specific capacitance of 101 F g-1 at the current density of 0.2 A g-1, offering a maximum energy density of 30.0 W h kg-1 in organic electrolyte at the cut-off voltage range of 0.001~3.0 V. The findings of this work open a new avenue for the design of self-supporting electrodes for the development of flexible and light weight energy storage supercapacitor.

  12. thesis of high-purity carbon nanotubes over alumina and silica supported bimetallic catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Ratković

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs were synthesized by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD of ethylene over alumina and silica supported bimetallic catalysts based on Fe, Co and Ni. The catalysts were prepared by a precipitation method, calcined at 600 °C and in situ reduced in hydrogen flow at 700 °C. The CNTs growth was carried out by a flow the mixture of C2H4 and nitrogen over the catalyst powder in a horizontal oven. The structure and morphology of as-synthesized CNTs were characterized using SEM. The as-synthesized nanotubes were purified by acid and basic treatments in order to remove impurities such as amorphous carbon, graphite nanoparticles and metal catalysts. XRD and DTA/TG analyses showed that the amounts of by-products in the purified CNTs samples were reduced significantly. According to the observed results, ethylene is an active carbon source for growing high-density CNTs with high yield but more on alumina-supported catalysts than on their silica- supported counterparts. The last might be explained by SMSI formed in the case of alumina-supported catalysts, resulting in higher active phase dispersion.

  13. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, Israf Ud, E-mail: drisraf@yahoo.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S., E-mail: drisraf@yahoo.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Naeem, A., E-mail: naeeem64@yahoo.com [National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-10-24

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu‐ZrO{sub 2}/CNF) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The CNF activated with 5% HNO{sub 3} produced higher surface area which is 155 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO{sub 3} concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst.

  14. Recent progress in solution plasma-synthesized-carbon-supported catalysts for energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun Li, Oi; Lee, Hoonseung; Ishizaki, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely utilized as the electrode materials in energy conversion and storage technologies, such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. In these systems, the oxygen reduction reaction is an important step that determines the overall performance. A novel synthesis route, named the solution plasma process, has been recently utilized to synthesize various types of metal-based and heteroatom-doped carbon catalysts. In this review, we summarize cutting-edge technologies involving the synthesis and modeling of carbon-supported catalysts synthesized via solution plasma process, followed by current progress on the electrocatalytic performance of these catalysts. This review provides the fundamental and state-of-the-art performance of solution-plasma-synthesized electrode materials, as well as the remaining scientific and technological challenges for this process.

  15. Low temperature synthesis of polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Wang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-15

    A series of one-dimensional polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with different mass ratio of polyaniline to TiO2 are facilely prepared by employing the low-temperature synthesis of crystalline TiO2 on halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotubes can adsorb TiO2/polyaniline precursors and induce TiO2 nanocrystals/polyaniline to grow on the support in situ simultaneously. By simply adjusting the acidity of reaction system, PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA composite nanotubes composed of anatase, a mixed phase TiO2 and different PANI redox state are obtained. The XRD and UV-vis results show that the surface polyaniline sensitization has no effect on the crystalline structure of halloysite and TiO2 and the light response of TiO2 is extended to visible-light regions. Photocatalysis test results reveal the photocatalytic activity will be affected by the pH value and the volume ratio of ANI to TTIP. The highest photocatalytic activity is achieved with the composite photocatalysts prepared at pH 0.5 and 1% volume ratio of ANI and TTIP owing to the sensitizing effect of polyaniline and the charge transfer from the photoexcited PANI sensitizer to TiO2. Moreover, the PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes synthesized by one-step at pH 0.5 with 1% volume ratio of ANI to TTIP exhibit higher visible light photocatalytic activity than those synthesized by the two-step. Heterogeneous PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes prepared at pH 0.5 exhibit a higher degradation activity than that prepared at pH 1.5. The redoped experiment proves that the PANI redox state plays the main contribution to the enhanced visible light catalytic degradation efficiency of PANI-TiO2-HA prepared at pH 0.5. Furthermore, the heterogeneous PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA nanotubes have good photocatalytic stability and can be reused four times with only gradual loss of activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly active carbon supported Pd cathode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A., E-mail: amikolajczuk@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Mierzwa, B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, Warsaw (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, Warsaw (Poland); Ciecierska, E. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Zimoch, A.; Opałło, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Palladium catalyst used on the cathode DFAFC is comparable to commercial platinum catalyst. • The treatment of carbon supports in nitric acid(V) increases the electrochemically available metal surface area and the catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction of catalysts. - Abstract: One of the drawbacks of low-temperature fuel cells is high price of platinum-based catalysts used for the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of the fuel cell. The aim of this work is to develop the palladium catalyst that will replace commonly used platinum cathode catalysts. A series of palladium catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared and tested on the cathode of Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC). Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon black (Vulcan) and on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface by reduction of palladium(II) acetate dissolved in ethanol. Hydrazine was used as a reducing agent. The effect of functionalization of the carbon supports on the catalysts physicochemical properties and the ORR catalytic activity on the cathode of DFAFC was studied. The supports were functionalized by treatment in nitric acid for 4 h at 80 °C. The structure of the prepared catalysts has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hydrophilicity of the catalytic layers was determined by measuring contact angles of water droplets. The performance of the prepared catalysts has been compared with that of the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C (Premetek) catalyst. The maximum power density obtained for the best palladium catalyst, deposited on the surface of functionalized carbon black, is the same as that for the commercial Pt/C (Premetek). Palladium is cheaper than platinum, therefore the developed cathode catalyst is promising for future applications.

  17. Highly active carbon supported Pd cathode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Mierzwa, B.; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M.; Stobinski, L.; Ciecierska, E.; Zimoch, A.; Opałło, M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the drawbacks of low-temperature fuel cells is high price of platinum-based catalysts used for the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of the fuel cell. The aim of this work is to develop the palladium catalyst that will replace commonly used platinum cathode catalysts. A series of palladium catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared and tested on the cathode of Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC). Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon black (Vulcan) and on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface by reduction of palladium(II) acetate dissolved in ethanol. Hydrazine was used as a reducing agent. The effect of functionalization of the carbon supports on the catalysts physicochemical properties and the ORR catalytic activity on the cathode of DFAFC was studied. The supports were functionalized by treatment in nitric acid for 4 h at 80 °C. The structure of the prepared catalysts has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hydrophilicity of the catalytic layers was determined by measuring contact angles of water droplets. The performance of the prepared catalysts has been compared with that of the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C (Premetek) catalyst. The maximum power density obtained for the best palladium catalyst, deposited on the surface of functionalized carbon black, is the same as that for the commercial Pt/C (Premetek). Palladium is cheaper than platinum, therefore the developed cathode catalyst is promising for future applications.

  18. Pd nanoparticles supported on ultrahigh surface area honeycomb-like carbon for alcohol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zaoxue; He, Guoqiang; Zhang, Guanghui; Meng, Hui; Shen, Pei Kang [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The honeycomb-like porous carbon was prepared using glucose as carbon source and solid core mesoporous shell (SCMS) silica as templates. The material was characterized by physical and electrochemical methods. The results showed that the honeycomb-like porous carbon was consisted of hollow porous carbon (HPC) which gave an ultrahigh BET surface area of 1012.97 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and pore volume of 2.19 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. The porous walls of the HPC were formed in the mesoporous shells of the silica templates. The HPC was used as the support to load Pd nanoparticles (Pd/HPC) for alcohol electrooxidation. It was highly active for methanol, ethanol and isopropanol electrooxidation. The peak current density for ethanol electrooxidation on Pd/HPC electrode was five times higher than that on Pd/C electrode at the same Pd loadings. The mass activity for ethanol electrooxidation was 4000 A g{sup -1} which is much higher compared to the data reported in the literature. The highly porous structure of such HPC can be widely used as support for uniform dispersing metal nanoparticles to increase their utilization as electrocatalysts. (author)

  19. The structure of nano-palladium deposited on carbon-based supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikna, Ľubomír; Milkovič, Ondrej; Saksl, Karel; Heželová, Mária; Smrčová, Miroslava; Puliš, Pavel; Michalik, Štefan; Gamcová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Nano-palladium catalysts, prepared using the same procedure with the same metal content (3 wt%) and two different supports, activated carbon (Pd/C) and activated carbon—multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd/C/CNT), are discussed. The simple technique of deposition reduction was applied in the preparation of these two types of Pd catalysts. TEM, XRD analysis, EXAFS signal analysis, and XANES were used for sample characterization. In both samples, transmission electron microscopy identified nanosized Pd particles with nearly spherical morphology but different sizes. The mean diameters of the particles on Pd/C and Pd/C/CNT were estimated to be 5.4 nm and 7.8 nm, respectively. The EXAFS signal analysis showed that Pd atoms on the particle surfaces were coordinated by 4 oxygens to form a PdO monolayer covering a metallic core. The XANES signal analysis indicated a smaller particle size for Pd/C (∅ 5 nm) than for Pd/C/CNT (∅ 10 nm), in good agreement with the TEM observations. - Graphical abstract: Visualization of metallic core (left), oxide monolayer (middle) and nanoparticle of diameter 5 nm (right). - Highlights: • Pd catalysts were prepared on two types of supports: carbon and carbon nanotubes. • BET, TEM, XRD characterization of prepared catalysts. • XAFS: Concentration of Pd in samples Pd/C and Pd/C/CNT. • EXAFS and XANES signal analysis of catalysts. • Visualisation of atoms arrangement at the Pd nanoparticle surface

  20. Carbon price instead of support schemes: wind power investments by the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie; Finon, Dominique; Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study the development of wind power by the electricity market without any usual support scheme which is aimed at subsidizing non mature renewables, with the sole incentive of a significant carbon price. Long term electricity market and investment decisions simulation by system dynamics modelling is used to trace the electricity generation mix evolution over a 20-year period in a pure thermal system. A range of stable carbon price, as a tax could be, is tested in order to determine the value above which wind power development by market forces becomes economically possible. Not only economic competitiveness in terms of cost price, but also profitability against traditional fossil fuel technologies are necessary for a market-driven development of wind power. Results stress that wind power is really profitable for investors only if the carbon price is very significantly higher than the price required for making wind power MWh's cost price competitive with CCGT and coal-fired plants on the simplistic basis of levelized costs. In this context, the market-driven development of wind power seems only possible if there is a strong commitment to climate policy, reflected by the preference for a stable and high carbon price rather than a fuzzy price of an emission trading scheme. Besides, results show that market-driven development of wind power would require a sky-rocketing carbon price if the initial technology mix includes a share of nuclear plants even with a moratorium on new nuclear development. (authors)

  1. In situ TEM study of the coarsening of carbon black supported Pt nanoparticles in hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wang, Yan; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2017-01-01

    The control of sizes and shapes of nanostructures is of tremendous importance for the catalytic activity in electrochemistry and in catalysis more generally. However, due to relatively large surface free energies, nanostructures often sinter to form coarser and more stable structures that may...... not have the intended physicochemical properties. Pt is known to be a very active catalyst in several chemical reactions and for example as carbon supported nanoparticles in fuel cells. The presentation focusses on coarsening mechanisms of Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon black during exposure...... to hydrogen. By means of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Pt nanoparticle coarsening was monitored in 6 mbar 20 % H2/Ar while ramping up the temperature to ca. 900 °C. Time-resolved TEM images directly reveal that separated ca. 3 nm sized Pt nanoparticles in the pure hydrogen environment...

  2. Turbostratic carbon supported palladium as an efficient catalyst for reductive purification of water from trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kowalewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the catalytic properties of turbostratic carbon supported Pd catalyst in hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE HDC in aqueous phase. 1.57 wt% Pd/C was thoroughly characterized by BET, TPHD, CO chemisorption, PXRD, STEM, XPS and used as the catalyst in removal of trichloroethylene from drinking water in batch and continuous-flow reactors. The studies showed that catalytic performance of Pd/C depended on the hydrophobicity and textural properties of carbon support, which influenced noble metal dispersion and increased catalyst tolerance against deactivation by chlorination. Palladium in the form of uniformly dispersed small (~3.5 nm nanoparticles was found to be very active and stable in purification of water from TCE both in batch and continuous-flow operation.

  3. Surface tailored single walled carbon nanotubes as catalyst support for direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeti, Kota V. M. K.; Jha, Neetu

    2017-10-01

    A strategy for tuning the surface property of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) for enhanced methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) along with methanol tolerance is presented. The surface functionality is tailored using controlled acid and base treatment. Acid treatment leads to the attachment of carboxylic carbon (CC) fragments to SWNT making it hydrophilic (P3-SWNT). Base treatment of P3-SWNT with 0.05 M NaOH reduces the CCs and makes it hydrophobic (P33-SWNT). Pt catalyst supported on the P3-SWNT possesses enhanced MOR whereas that supported on P33-SWNT not only enhances ORR kinetics but also possess good tolerance towards methanol oxidation as verified by the electrochemical technique.

  4. Nickel-functionalized reduced graphene oxide with polyaniline for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing; He, Yu; Liu, Bingqian; Tang, Dianping

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new class of organic–inorganic hybrid nanostructures based on the use of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), polyaniline, and a nickel metal nanostructure. It was applied to efficient non-enzymatic sensing of glucose based on its electrocatalytic oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-Ray were employed to characterize the material. It is shown that the doped polyaniline plays an important role in the formation of the hybrid nanostructures. Improved analytical performance is found when the hybrid nanostructures were placed on a glassy carbon electrode and used for non-enzymatic sensing of glucose at a typical working potential of +450 mV and a pH value of 13. Features include a fast response (∼2 s), high sensitivity (6,050 μA mM −1 cm −2 ), a linear range from 0.1 μM to 1.0 mM, and a low detection limit (0.08 μM). The response to glucose follows a Michaelis-Menten kinetic behavior, and the K M value was determined to be 0.241 μM. Reproducibility and specificity are acceptable. Fructose and maltose do not interfere significantly. Importantly, the methodology was validated and evaluated for the analysis of 15 spiked human serum specimens, receiving in a good accordance with the results obtained by the non-enzymatic glucose sensing and the commercialized personal glucose meter. (author)

  5. Carbon dioxide capture using Sodium bicarbonate/Sodium carbonate supported on nanoporous Iron(III) oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Bryce

    Strong evidence exists suggesting that anthropogenic emissions of CO 2, primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, have been contributing to global climate change, including warming of the atmosphere and acidification of the oceans. These, in turn, lead to other effects such as melting of ice and snow cover, rising sea levels, severe weather patterns, and extinction of life forms. With these detrimental shifts in ecosystems already being observed, it becomes imperative to mitigate anthropogenic CO2. CO2 capture is typically a costly operation, usually due to the energy required for regeneration of the capture medium. Na2CO3 is one potential capture medium with the potential to decrease this energy requirement. Extensively researched as a potential sorbent for CO2, Na2CO3 is well known for its theoretically low energy requirement, due largely to its relatively low heat of reaction compared to other capture technologies. Its primary pitfalls, however, are its extremely low reaction rate during sorption and slow regeneration of Na2CO 3. Before Na2CO3 can be used as a CO2 sorbent, then, it is critical to increase its reaction rate. In order to do so, this project studied nanoporous FeOOH as a potential supporting material for Na2CO3. Because regeneration of the sorbent is the most energy-intensive step when using Na2CO3 for CO 2 sorption, this project focused on the decomposition of NaHCO 3, which is equivalent to CO2 desorption. Using BET, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, magnetic susceptibility tests, and Mossbauer spectroscopy, we show FeOOH to be thermally stable both with and without the presence of NaHCO3 at temperatures necessary for sorption and regeneration, up to about 200°C. More significantly, we observe that FeOOH not only increases the surface area of NaHCO3, but also has a catalytic effect on the decomposition of NaHCO3, reducing activation energy from 80 kJ/mol to 44 kJ/mol. This reduction in activation energy leads to a significant increase in the

  6. Synthesis and electrical properties of polyaniline/iota-carrageenan biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rios, Alejandro; Olmedo-Martínez, Jorge L; Farías-Mancilla, Bárbara; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A; Zaragoza-Contreras, E Armando

    2014-09-22

    Polyaniline/iota-carrageenan (ι-CGN) biocomposites were synthesized via in situ methodology using ammonium persulfate as the oxidizing agent. Both ionic (band at 1131 cm(-1)) and hydrogen bond (bands at 2500 and 3500 cm(-1)) interactions between polyaniline and ι-CGN were determined by infrared spectroscopy. Such intermolecular interactions provided the biocomposites with a cross-linked structure that provided the materials with hydrogel behavior. Biocomposite electro-conductivity, determined by the 4-probe technique, was in the range of semiconductors (10(-3) to 10(-2) S cm(-1)); whereas electro-activity, assessed by cyclic voltammetry, showed the oxidation-reduction transitions typical of polyaniline. Based on the properties of polyaniline and ι-CGN, some applications for the new materials in the field of biosensor design, electrochemical capacitors, or tissue engineering scaffolds are possible. It is worth saying that both electro-conductive and electro-active properties of polyaniline/ι-CGN biocomposites are reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microspherical polyaniline/graphene nanocomposites for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailiang; Zhou, Xufeng; Zhang, Yiming; Chen, Liang; Liu, Zhaoping

    2013-12-01

    Polyaniline/graphene nanocomposites with microspherical morphology and porous structure are prepared as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Using few-layer graphene obtained by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite as the raw material, porous graphene microspheres are produced by spray drying, and are then employed as the substrates for the growth of polyaniline nanowire arrays by in situ polymerization. In the composite, interconnected graphene sheets with few structural defects constitute a high-efficient conductive network to improve the electrical conductivity of polyaniline. Furthermore, the microspherical architecture prevents restacking of polyaniline/graphene composite nanosheets, thus facilitates fast diffusion of electrolytes. Consequently, the nanocomposite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. A specific capacitance of 338 F g-1 is reached in 1 M H2SO4 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, and a high capacity retention rate of 87.4% after 10,000 cycles at a current density of 3 A g-1 can be achieved, which suggests that the polyaniline/graphene composite with such kind of 3D architecture is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  8. Hybrid polyaniline/bentonite-vanadium(V) oxide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaissi, F.J.; Demets, G.J.-F.; Timm, R.A.; Toma, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on the preparation and properties of novel ternary composites generated from the redox polymerization of aniline inside the lamellar bentonite-vanadium(V) oxide (BV) matrix. These materials are stable in water and usual organic solvents, and their good electrical conductivity ensures potential applications as electrode modifiers, for analytical and sensor purposes. The incorporation of polyaniline (pani) into the BV matrices, leads to the decay of the charge transfer band at 450 nm and to the rise of a strong band around 650 nm, reflecting the reduction of V V sites, concomitant with the formation of polyaniline, in the emeraldine form. The modest expansion (∼2.5 A) observed in the pani intercalated composites, is consistent with the orientation of the polyaniline chains parallel with the interlamellar planes. On the other hand, the presence of intercalated polymer seems to stabilize the BV framework, minimizing the structural reorganization usually required for the insertion of lithium ions into the matrix. Interestingly, in small amounts, e.g. in BV(pani) 0.7 , polyaniline dramatically increases the conductivity and charge-capacity of the BV matrix; while, increasing amounts of polyaniline lead to an opposing effect

  9. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polyaniline 5-sulfosalicylate nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janosevic, Aleksandra; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Marjanovic, Budimir; Holler, Petr; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Conducting polyaniline 5-sulfosalicylate nanotubes and nanorods were synthesized by the template-free oxidative polymerization of aniline in aqueous solution of 5-sulfosalicylic acid, using ammonium peroxydisulfate as an oxidant. The effect of the molar ratio of 5-sulfosalicylic acid to aniline on the molecular structure, molecular weight distribution, morphology, and conductivity of polyaniline 5-sulfosalicylate was investigated. The nanotubes, which have a typical outer diameter of 100-250 nm, with an inner diameter of 10-60 nm, and a length extending from 0.4 to 1.5 μm, and the nanorods, with a diameter of 80-110 nm and a length of 0.5-0.7 μm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The presence of branched structures and phenazine units besides the ordinary polyaniline structural features was revealed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The stacking of low-molecular-weight substituted phenazines appears to play a major role in the formation of polyaniline nanorods. The precipitation-dissolution of oligoaniline templates as a key element in the formation of polyaniline nanotubes is proposed to explain the crucial influence of the initial pH of the reaction mixture and its decrease during the course of polymerization

  10. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polyaniline 5-sulfosalicylate nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janosevic, Aleksandra; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski Trg 12-16, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Marjanovic, Budimir [Centrohem, Vuka Karadzica bb, 22300 Stara Pazova (Serbia); Holler, Petr; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.yu

    2008-04-02

    Conducting polyaniline 5-sulfosalicylate nanotubes and nanorods were synthesized by the template-free oxidative polymerization of aniline in aqueous solution of 5-sulfosalicylic acid, using ammonium peroxydisulfate as an oxidant. The effect of the molar ratio of 5-sulfosalicylic acid to aniline on the molecular structure, molecular weight distribution, morphology, and conductivity of polyaniline 5-sulfosalicylate was investigated. The nanotubes, which have a typical outer diameter of 100-250 nm, with an inner diameter of 10-60 nm, and a length extending from 0.4 to 1.5 {mu}m, and the nanorods, with a diameter of 80-110 nm and a length of 0.5-0.7 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The presence of branched structures and phenazine units besides the ordinary polyaniline structural features was revealed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The stacking of low-molecular-weight substituted phenazines appears to play a major role in the formation of polyaniline nanorods. The precipitation-dissolution of oligoaniline templates as a key element in the formation of polyaniline nanotubes is proposed to explain the crucial influence of the initial pH of the reaction mixture and its decrease during the course of polymerization.

  11. A comparison of alumina, carbon and carbon-covered alumina as support for Ni-Mo-F additives: gas oil hydroprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorman, P.M.; Kydd, R.A.; Sorensen, T.S.; Chong, K.; Lewis, J.M.; Bell, W.S. (University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Catalysts with 3 wt% NiO, 15 wt% MoO{sub 3} and 0-6.9 nominal wt% fluoride supported on alumina, carbon and carbon-covered alumina were studied to examine the role of fluoride and the influence of the support on hydroprocessing on Alberta gas oil. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at 410{degree}C and 6.9 MPa initial H{sub 2} pressure. It was found that fluoride promotion enhances cracking and hydrogenation reactions resulting in decreased aromatic and sulphur contents in the gas oil. The promotion is dependent on the type of support and is related to the strength of the fluoride-support interaction and the accessibility of the fluoride to the surface hydroxyl groups on the support. A maximum in activity at 3.6 wt% fluoride was observed for the alumina-supported catalysts whereas higher loadings of fluoride were required for carbon-covered alumina-supported catalysts to see an improvement over their carbon-supported counterparts. However, the carbon-covered alumina-supported catalysts seem to have a lower propensity for coke deposition than their alumina counterparts. 27 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. A comparison of alumina, carbon and carbon-covered alumina as supports for Ni-Mo-F additives: gas oil hydroprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorman, P.M.; Kydd, R.A.; Sorensen, T.S.; Chong, K.; Lewis, J.M.; Bell, W.S. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01

    Catalysts with 3 wt% NiO, 15 wt% MoO{sub 3} and 0-6.9 nominal wt% fluoride supported on alumina, carbon and carbon-covered alumina were studied to examine the role of fluoride and the influence of the support on hydroprocessing on Alberta gas oil. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at 410{sup o}C and 6.9 MPa initial H{sub 2} pressure. It was found that fluoride promotion enhances cracking and hydrogenation reactions resulting in decreased aromatic and sulphur contents in the gas oil. The promotion is dependent on the type of support and is related to the strength of the fluoride-support interaction and the accessibility of the fluoride to the surface hydroxyl groups on the support. A maximum in activity at 3.6 wt% fluoride was observed for the alumina-supported catalysts whereas higher loadings of fluoride were required for carbon-covered alumina-supported catalysts to see an improvement over their carbon supported counterparts. However, the carbon-covered alumina supported catalysts seem to have a lower propensity for coke deposition than their alumina counterparts. (author).

  13. Carbon supported ultrafine gold phosphorus nanoparticles as highly efficient electrocatalyst for alkaline ethanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tongfei; Fu, Gengtao; Su, Jiahui; Wang, Yi; Lv, Yinjie; Zou, Xiuyong; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Xu, Lin; Sun, Dongmei; Tang, Yawen

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We develop a new kind of carbon supported gold-phosphorus (Au-P/C) electrocatalyst by a facile and novel phosphorus reduction method, and demonstrate the Au-P/C is a highly active and stable electrocatalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction. - Highlights: • Au-P/C catalyst is synthesized by a facile and novel white-phosphorus reduce method. • AuP particles with ultrafine particle-size are uniformly dispersed on carbon support. • Au-P/C catalyst exhibits much higher content of P 0 than reported metal/P catalysts. • Au-P/C catalysts show excellent catalytic properties for ethanol oxidation reaction. - Abstract: Herein, we develop a new kind of carbon supported gold-phosphorus (Au-P/C) electrocatalyst for the alkaline ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The Au-P/C catalysts with different Au/P ratio (i.e., AuP/C, Au 3 P 2 /C and Au 4 P 3 /C) can be obtained by a facile and novel hot-reflux method with white phosphorus (P 4 ) as reductant and ethanol as solvent. The crystal structure, composition and particle-size of the Au-P/C catalysts are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), etc. The results demonstrate that Au-P/C catalysts present an alloy phase with the high content of P, ultrafine particle-size and high dispersity on carbon support, which results in excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the EOR compared with that of the free-phosphorus Au/C catalyst. In addition, among the various Au-P/C catalysts with different Au/P ratio, the AuP/C sample exhibits the best electrocatalytic performance in comparison with other Au 3 P 2 /C and Au 4 P 3 /C samples.

  14. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarz, Anna; Maier-Komor, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 μg/cm 2, coated with approximately 4 μg/cm 2 MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm 2. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  15. Bacterial biofilm supported on granular activated carbon and on natural zeolites- an application to wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lameiras, Sandra Raquel de Vasconcelos; Quintelas, C.; Tavares, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of many heavy metals from industrial wastewater is one of the most important environmental problems to be solved today. The retention of this contaminants by a biofilm supported on granular activated carbon or on natural zeolites is one of the promising technologies for the reduction of this problem, because it is cheap and it removes a broad range of substances, heavy metals and organic compounds. This study aims the development of a system of two mini-columns in series ...

  16. Oxygen reduction on carbon supported platinum catalysts in high temperature polymer electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen reduction on carbon supported platinum catalysts has been investigated in H3PO4, H3PO4-doped Nafion and polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer electrolytes in a temperature range up to 190 degrees C. Compared with pure H3PO4, the combination of H3PO4 and polymer electrolytes can significantly...... membrane fuel cell based on H3PO4-doped PBI for operation at temperatures between 150 and 200 degrees C. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. One-step electrochemically-codeposited polyaniline-platinum for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiangkaew, Anongnad; Keothongkham, Khamsone; Maiaugree, Wasan; Jarernboon, Wirat [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Kamwanna, Teerasak; Pimanpang, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen (Thailand)

    2014-05-15

    Platinum, polyaniline and composite polyaniline-platinum films were coated on conductive glass by using electrochemical deposition. They were then used as dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes. The efficiencies of platinum, polyaniline and composite polyaniline-platinum cells were 2.47, 4.47 and 6.62%, respectively. The improvement of composite polyaniline-platinum solar cell efficiency over pure polyaniline and platinum cells is because of an increase in the film's catalytic activity and a decrease in charge-transfer resistance between its counter electrode and electrolyte, as observed by using cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, respectively. Co-deposition of polyaniline and Pt catalysts was confirmed by the presence of Pt and N peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum.

  18. Carbon-Supported PtRuMo Electrocatalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L.G. Fierro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The review article discusses the current status and recent findings of our investigations on the synthesis and characterization of carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In particular, the effect of the carbon support and the composition on the structure, stability and the activity of the PtRuMo nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of CO, methanol and ethanol have been studied. Different physicochemical techniques have been employed for the analysis of the catalysts structures: X-ray analytical methods (XRD, XPS, TXRF, thermogravimetry (TGA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, as well as a number of electrochemical techniques like CO adsorption studies, current-time curves and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Furthermore, spectroscopic methods adapted to the electrochemical systems for in situ studies, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS, have been used to evaluate the oxidation process of CO, methanol and ethanol over the carbon-supported PtRuMo electrocatalysts.

  19. Supported zirconium sulfate on carbon nanotubes as water-tolerant solid acid catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Joon Ching; Jiang Yajie; Meng Xiujuan; Cao Weiliang; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Zhang Jingchang

    2007-01-01

    A new solid acid of zirconium sulfate (CZ) was successfully supported on carbon nanotube (CNT) for esterification reaction. Preparation conditions of the supported CZ have been investigated, to obtain highest catalytic activity for esterification reaction. XRD, TEM, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and in situ FTIR analysis has also been carried out to understand the characteristics of the catalyst. In the esterification of acrylic acid with n-octanol, the supported CZ exhibited high catalytic activity and stability. The catalytic activity was nearly unchanged during four times of reuse. XRD and TEM analysis indicated that CZ was finely dispersed on CNT. XPS analysis shows that the CZ species was preserved and the chemical environment of the CZ has changed after loaded on CNT. This finding show that CNT as CZ support is an efficient water-tolerant solid acid

  20. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber paper composite to support Pt nanoparticles for direct methanol fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yi, Xi-bin; Liu, Shuo; Fan, Hui-Li; Ju, Wei; Wang, Qi-Chun; Ma, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is introduced as a catalyst support material for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Well dispersed Pt nanoparticles on VACNTs surface are prepared by impregnation-reduction method. The VACNTs on CFP possess well-maintained alignment, large surface area and good electrical conductivity, which leading to the formation of Pt particles with a smaller size and enhance the Pt utilization rate. The structure and nature of resulting Pt/VACNTs/CFP catalysts for methanol oxidation are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). With the aid of VACNTs, well-dispersed Pt catalysts enable the reversibly rapid redox kinetic since electron transport efficiently passes through a one-dimensional pathway, which leads to enhance the catalytic activity and Pt utilization rate. Compared with the Pt/XC-72/CFP electrode, the electrochemical measurements results display that the Pt/VACNTs/CFP catalyst shows much higher electrocatalytic activity and better stability for methanol oxidation. In addition, the oxidation current from 200 to 1200 s decayed more slowly for the Pt/VACNTs/CFP than that of the Pt/XC-72/CFP catalysts, indicating less accumulation of adsorbed CO species. All those results imply that the Pt/VACNTs/CFP has a great potential for applications in DMFCs.

  1. N, P-codoped Mesoporous Carbon Supported PtCox Nanoparticles and Their Superior Electrochemical toward Methanol Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hangjun; Li, Yueming; Liu, Shimin

    2018-03-01

    In this report, a novel strategy by using the N, P co-doped mesoporous carbon structure as catalyst support to enhance the electrochemical catalytic activity of Pt-based catalysts is proposed. The as-synthesized PtCox@N, P-doped mesoporous carbon nanocomposties have been studied as an anode catalyst toward methanol oxidation, exhibiting greatly improved electrochemical activity and stability compared with Pt@mesoporous carbon. The synergistic effects of N, P dual-doping and porous carbon structure help to achieve better electron transport at the electrode surface, which eventually leads to greatly enhanced catalytic activity compared to the pristine Pt/mesoporous carbon.…

  2. The hydrogen and oxygen content of self-supporting carbon foils prepared by dc glow discharge in ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, N.R.S.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; John, P.; Odeh, I.M.; Thomas, M.J.K.; Tricker, M.J.; Wilson, J.J.B.; England, J.B.A.; Newton, D.

    1980-01-01

    The hydrogen and oxygen content of self-supporting carbon films produced by dc glow discharge have been determined using a precise method involving the elastic scattering of 25 MeV α-particles. The number of carbon-hydrogen bonds has been determined for similar samples using infrared spectroscopy. The results are compared with those for samples made by the carbon arc process. Assuming that the glow discharge carbon contains graphitic regions surrounded by amorphous tetrahedrally bonded material to which hydrogen can attach, a simple estimate is made of the relative numbers of carbon atoms in the two forms. (orig.)

  3. Structural and electrical properties of polyaniline/silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Asma B; Akhtar, M J; Nadeem, M; Ahmad, M [Physics Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hassan, M M; Yasin, T [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, PIEAS, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mehmood, M [National Centre for Nanotechnology, PIEAS, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)], E-mail: javeda@pinstech.org.pk, E-mail: javed06@yahoo.com

    2009-01-07

    Polyaniline (PANI)/Ag nanocomposites were prepared by separate synthesis of silver nanoparticles by inert gas condensation, incorporating in the 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solution of polyaniline emeraldine base (PANIEB) and then cast into films at 120 deg. C. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of {approx}67 nm silver nanoparticles in the polyaniline matrix. From the thermogravimetric analysis it is observed that the nanocomposite films have a higher degradation temperature than the pure PANI film. Scanning electron microscopy showed a uniform distribution, with spherical and granular morphology for low concentration of Ag nanoparticles, whereas for higher concentration (1.0% Ag) nanorods are formed. The impedance spectroscopic studies of NMP plasticized nanocomposite films suggest microphase separation into reduced and oxidized repeat units. Incorporation of silver nanoparticles in PANI reduces the charge trapping centres and increases the conducting channels, which causes a tenfold decrease in the real part of impedance.

  4. Structural and electrical properties of polyaniline/silver nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, Asma B; Akhtar, M J; Nadeem, M; Ahmad, M; Hassan, M M; Yasin, T; Mehmood, M

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/Ag nanocomposites were prepared by separate synthesis of silver nanoparticles by inert gas condensation, incorporating in the 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solution of polyaniline emeraldine base (PANIEB) and then cast into films at 120 deg. C. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of ∼67 nm silver nanoparticles in the polyaniline matrix. From the thermogravimetric analysis it is observed that the nanocomposite films have a higher degradation temperature than the pure PANI film. Scanning electron microscopy showed a uniform distribution, with spherical and granular morphology for low concentration of Ag nanoparticles, whereas for higher concentration (1.0% Ag) nanorods are formed. The impedance spectroscopic studies of NMP plasticized nanocomposite films suggest microphase separation into reduced and oxidized repeat units. Incorporation of silver nanoparticles in PANI reduces the charge trapping centres and increases the conducting channels, which causes a tenfold decrease in the real part of impedance.

  5. Conductive cotton prepared by polyaniline in situ polymerization using laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Dong, Aixue; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Zhang, Ying

    2014-09-01

    The high-redox-potential catalyst laccase, isolated from Aspergillus, was first used as a biocatalyst in the oxidative polymerization of water-soluble conductive polyaniline, and then conductive cotton was prepared by in situ polymerization under the same conditions. The polymerization of aniline was performed in a water dispersion of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) micellar solution with atmospheric oxygen serving as the oxidizing agent. This method is ecologically clean and permits a greater degree of control over the kinetics of the reaction. The conditions for polyaniline synthesis were optimized. Characterizations of the conducting polyaniline and cotton were carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, the fabric induction electrostatic tester, and the far-field EMC shielding effectiveness test fixture.

  6. Ruthenium oxide/carbon composites with microporous or mesoporous carbon as support and prepared by two procedures. A comparative study as supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pico, F.; Morales, E.; Fernandez, J.A.; Centeno, T.A.; Ibanez, J.; Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M.; Rojo, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Composites are prepared by deposition of nanoparticles of RuO 2 .xH 2 O (1-4 nm) on two carbons: microporous carbon (1.3 nm of average micropore size) and mesoporous carbon (11 nm of average mesopore size). Two-preparation procedures are used: (i) procedure A consisting of repetitive impregnations of the carbons with RuCl 3 .0.5H 2 O solutions, and (ii) procedure B based on impregnation of the carbons with Ru(acac) 3 vapour. The procedure B leads to supported RuO 2 .xH 2 O particles that appear more crystalline than those obtained by the procedure A. Specific capacitance and specific surface area of the composites are discussed as functions of the RuO 2 content, and different dependences for the composites derived from the two carbons are found. Mesoporous carbon is better support than microporous carbon. Procedure A leads to supported RuO 2 .xH 2 O particles with higher specific capacitance than the particles deposited by procedure B

  7. Ruthenium oxide/carbon composites with microporous or mesoporous carbon as support and prepared by two procedures. A comparative study as supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Morales, E. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (ICTP), CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, E-28006-Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, J.A.; Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), CSIC, Francisco Pintado Fe 26, E-33011-Oviedo (Spain); Ibanez, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040-Madrid (Spain); Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Rojo, J.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jmrojo@icmm.csic.es

    2009-03-01

    Composites are prepared by deposition of nanoparticles of RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O (1-4 nm) on two carbons: microporous carbon (1.3 nm of average micropore size) and mesoporous carbon (11 nm of average mesopore size). Two-preparation procedures are used: (i) procedure A consisting of repetitive impregnations of the carbons with RuCl{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O solutions, and (ii) procedure B based on impregnation of the carbons with Ru(acac){sub 3} vapour. The procedure B leads to supported RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O particles that appear more crystalline than those obtained by the procedure A. Specific capacitance and specific surface area of the composites are discussed as functions of the RuO{sub 2} content, and different dependences for the composites derived from the two carbons are found. Mesoporous carbon is better support than microporous carbon. Procedure A leads to supported RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O particles with higher specific capacitance than the particles deposited by procedure B.

  8. Baseline map of organic carbon in Australian soil to support national carbon accounting and monitoring under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A; Webster, Richard; Bui, Elisabeth N; Baldock, Jeff A

    2014-09-01

    We can effectively monitor soil condition-and develop sound policies to offset the emissions of greenhouse gases-only with accurate data from which to define baselines. Currently, estimates of soil organic C for countries or continents are either unavailable or largely uncertain because they are derived from sparse data, with large gaps over many areas of the Earth. Here, we derive spatially explicit estimates, and their uncertainty, of the distribution and stock of organic C in the soil of Australia. We assembled and harmonized data from several sources to produce the most comprehensive set of data on the current stock of organic C in soil of the continent. Using them, we have produced a fine spatial resolution baseline map of organic C at the continental scale. We describe how we made it by combining the bootstrap, a decision tree with piecewise regression on environmental variables and geostatistical modelling of residuals. Values of stock were predicted at the nodes of a 3-arc-sec (approximately 90 m) grid and mapped together with their uncertainties. We then calculated baselines of soil organic C storage over the whole of Australia, its states and territories, and regions that define bioclimatic zones, vegetation classes and land use. The average amount of organic C in Australian topsoil is estimated to be 29.7 t ha(-1) with 95% confidence limits of 22.6 and 37.9 t ha(-1) . The total stock of organic C in the 0-30 cm layer of soil for the continent is 24.97 Gt with 95% confidence limits of 19.04 and 31.83 Gt. This represents approximately 3.5% of the total stock in the upper 30 cm of soil worldwide. Australia occupies 5.2% of the global land area, so the total organic C stock of Australian soil makes an important contribution to the global carbon cycle, and it provides a significant potential for sequestration. As the most reliable approximation of the stock of organic C in Australian soil in 2010, our estimates have important applications. They could support

  9. Optical and transport properties of polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzamalis, Georgios

    2002-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a comprehensive study on the transport and optical properties of polyaniline (PANI) films. The films are derived by protonation (doping) of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline, as synthesized in Durham, with either 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) or 10-camphorsulfonic acid. Thus, two distinct PANI systems are obtained: PANI-CSA and PANI-AMPSA. The variation of the doping level can affect the metallic properties of the final system, so that samples close to the boundary as well as samples at either side of a disorder induced metal-insulator can be obtained. The relation between the doping level and the degree of disorder, along with the existence of an inherently metallic behaviour in PANI, are investigated through a series of experiments. Temperature dependent dc conductivity measurements ranging from 10-295 K are performed using a closed loop helium cryostat under dynamic vacuum (∼10 -5 mbar). From the conductivity data curves, typical fingerprints of the metallic behaviour are detected for certain samples and an initial estimate of the degree of disorder is implicitly attained. More specific information regarding the microscopic contributions to the transport mechanisms is obtained via low temperature (down to 1.5 K) magnetoconductance measurements on selected samples. The magnetic field dependence of conductivity for fields up to 14 T is measured and the suitability of the localization-interaction model for the understanding of the transport mechanism in PANI is examined. Infrared reflectivity (20-9000 cm -1 ) measurements on samples of both PANI systems are performed. The experimental configuration permits the determination of the sample's absolute reflectivity. The optical constants are deduced from Kramers-Kronig analysis of the reflectivity data. Typical features of metallic behaviour are examined and analysed in the context of the localization modified Drude model. The results are shown to be

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of caffeine using polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monlinong, Jason Paul C.; Portilla, Ma. Cristina B.; Agustin, Katrina Jane D.; Pascual, Cherrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) films were fabricated by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers using ammonium persulfate (APS). The effects of varying oxidant concentration, oxidant solvent and washing solution in the PANI film deposition were first evaluated. 0.250 M APS in 0.200 M HCl and 0.200 M aniline in 0.200 M HCl were used to produce the emeraldine PANI (green) films which were deposited onto commercially available acctate films. The fabricated PANI film acts as an optical sensor baed on its redox-dependent switching of polyaniline from emeraldine (green) to pernigranilline (blue) form. The change in absorbance of blue PANI films immerse in caffeine-containing solution vs green fabricated PANI films were utilized in analysis of caffeine at 829 nm using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Repeatable results were obtained in intra-branch and inter-branch repeatability studies, with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging rom 9.8-13.9% and 5.1-14.5%, respectively. Linear response was obtained over the concentration of 10.0-50.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were determined to be 2.5 and 8.5μg/mL, respectively. The obtained % recovery values of caffeine spiked in aqueous solution ranged from 84.9-107%. Three pharmaceutical formulations containing 20.0 or 25.0 μg/Ml caffeine where analyzed using PANI films by external calibration method. The obtained average caffeine values were 25.2 mg/tablet, 22.4 mg/tablet and 15.4 mg/capsule for Fevadol®, Fevergan® and Alaxan®FR, respectively. These values were 77.0% to 101% of the label claims. Human urine samples spiked with caffeine were also analyzed, after sample pre-treatment. Obtained percent recovery values ranged from 79.1 to 105%. This method demonstrated the potential of laboratory-fabricated PANI films as a low-cost rapid, reliable, simple and accurate method for caffeine quantification in pharmaceutical and clinical specimens. (author)

  11. NiMo-sulfide supported on activated carbon to produce renewable diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Y Acelas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak polarity and large surface area, activated carbon supports have the potential to enhance the dispersion of metal-sulfides. It is expected that the absence of a strong metal-support interaction can result in the formation of a very active and stable Ni-Mo-S phase. In this study, catalysts with different amounts of nickel and molybdenum supported on a commercial activated carbon were prepared by a co-impregnation method and characterized by BET, XRF, and SEM techniques. The catalytic activity for hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated in a batch reactor, and the composition of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. Results showed that gaseous products are mainly composed of high amounts of propane and small amounts of other light hydrocarbons (C1 to C5. Liquid hydrocarbon products consisted of a mixture containing mainly n-paraffins of C15-C18 and some oxygenated compounds. The catalysts with a mass fraction of 3 % Ni, 15 % Mo (Ni3Mo15/AC presented the highest selectivity toward C17-C18 hydrocarbons, with a product distribution similar to a commercial alumina-supported Ni-Mo-S catalyst.

  12. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on WO/sub 3/-Supported ruthenium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomohiro; Suganuma, Fujio; Sera, Chikara

    1988-01-01

    In this study, a WO/sub 3/-supported catalyst was prepared to conduct hydrogenation of CO for examining the product distribution and composition of hydrocarbons, using a gamma-alumina-supported catalyst for comparison. These catalysts were used under pressure to conduct a distributive reaction and the desorbing behavior of CO or H/sub 2/ at elevated temperature was measured to examine the influence of the type of carrier or the method of preparation on the activity and the distribution of products formed. The WO/sub 3/-supported catalyst gave a carbon chain length distribution that did not comply with the rule of Schulz-Flory, giving a composition richer in the isomers. Carbon number distribution is affected by Ru-dispersion, and the selectivity of isomers depends on the acidity of the carrier. Formed products distribution of the WO/sub 3/-supported reaction is attributable to the secondary reaction, which relates to the acidic point of the carrier, of the primary product formed on the metal. (7 figs, 4 tabs, 18 refs)

  13. Synthesis of carbon-supported copper catalyst and its catalytic performance in methanol dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelepova, Ekaterina V. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, pr. Ac. Lavrentieva, 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin av., 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Vedyagin, Aleksey A., E-mail: vedyagin@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, pr. Ac. Lavrentieva, 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin av., 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Ilina, Ludmila Yu.; Nizovskii, Alexander I. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, pr. Ac. Lavrentieva, 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Tsyrulnikov, Pavel G. [Institute of Hydrocarbon Processing SB RAS, Neftezavodskaya st., 54, Omsk, 644040 (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-supported copper catalyst was studied in dehydrogenation of methanol. • Reduction temperature affected size of Cu particles and Cu{sup 0}/Cu{sup 2+} ratio. • Reduction at 400 °C was required to obtain high methyl formate yield. - Abstract: Carbon-supported copper catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of Sibunit with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate. Copper loading was 5 wt.%. Temperature of reductive pretreatment was varied within a range of 200–400 °C. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Catalytic activity of the samples was studied in a reaction of methanol dehydrogenation. Silica-based catalyst with similar copper loading was used as a reference. It was found that copper is distributed over the surface of support in the form of metallic and partially oxidized particles of about 12–17 nm in size. Diminished interaction of copper with support was supposed to be responsible for high catalytic activity.

  14. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays as Efficient Supports for Faradaic Capacitive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoye, Moses; Holleran, Mary-Kate; Roberts, Katherine; Pesika, Noshir

    Supercapacitors are notable for their ability to deliver energy at higher power (compared to batteries) and store energy at higher density (compared to capacitors) as well as exhibit a long cycle life. In our efforts to further the development of supercapacitors, our focus is on using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) as supports for faradaic capacitive electrode materials. The objective is to develop electrodes functioning in an inexpensive aqueous environment with small potential windows, that store energy at a higher density than carbon materials alone. We describe the different approaches explored to overcome the challenges of non-uniform deposition, poor wetting and array collapse. Materials that are electrochemically anchored to VACNT supports include NiCo2O4, VOx, Fe2O3 and Co-Mn mixed oxides. In each case, the specific capacitance obtained using the VACNT arrays as supports is significantly more than that obtained by direct deposition onto current collectors or by using VACNT alone. The ease of VACNT growth and the degree of coating control achievable using electrodeposition means there is much potential in exploring them as supports for capacitive electrode materials.

  15. Methanol Electro-Oxidation on Pt-Ru Alloy Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangchuan Xing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been investigated in recent years as a catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Improved catalyst activities were observed and attributed to metal-support interactions. We report a study on the kinetics of methanol electro-oxidation on CNT supported Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles. Alloy catalysts with different compositions, Pt53Ru47/CNT, Pt69Ru31/CNT and Pt77Ru23/CNT, were prepared and investigated in detail. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures, electrode potentials, and methanol concentrations. It was found that the reaction order of methanol electro-oxidation on the PtRu/CNT catalysts was consistent with what has been reported for PtRu alloys with a value of 0.5 in methanol concentrations. However, the electro-oxidation reaction on the PtRu/CNT catalysts displayed much lower activation energies than that on the Pt-Ru alloy catalysts unsupported or supported on carbon black (PtRu/CB. This study provides an overall kinetic evaluation of the PtRu/CNT catalysts and further demonstrates the beneficial role of CNTs.

  16. 3D Analysis of Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Degradation on Alternate Carbon Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Brian T; Cullen, David A; Reeves, Kimberly S; Dyck, Ondrej E; Langlois, David A; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; More, Karren L

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the mechanisms associated with Pt/C electrocatalyst degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes is critical for the future development of higher-performing materials; however, there is a lack of information regarding Pt coarsening under PEMFC operating conditions within the cathode catalyst layer. We report a direct and quantitative 3D study of Pt dispersions on carbon supports (high surface area carbon (HSAC), Vulcan XC-72, and graphitized carbon) with varied surface areas, graphitic character, and Pt loadings ranging from 5 to 40 wt %. This is accomplished both before and after catalyst-cycling accelerated stress tests (ASTs) through observations of the cathode catalyst layer of membrane electrode assemblies. Electron tomography results show Pt nanoparticle agglomeration occurs predominantly at junctions and edges of aggregated graphitized carbon particles, leading to poor Pt dispersion in the as-prepared catalysts and increased coalescence during ASTs. Tomographic reconstructions of Pt/HSAC show much better initial Pt dispersions, less agglomeration, and less coarsening during ASTs in the cathode. However, a large loss of the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) is still observed and is attributed to accelerated Pt dissolution and nanoparticle coalescence. Furthermore, a strong correlation between Pt particle/agglomerate size and measured ECSA is established and is proposed as a more useful metric than average crystallite size in predicting degradation behavior across different catalyst systems.

  17. Preparation and characterization of exfoliated polyaniline/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Binitha N.; Koodathil, Ranjana; Gangadharan, Tripti; Yaakob, Zahira; Saidu, Femina K.; Chandralayam, Soumini

    2010-01-01

    Transition metal ions were exchanged with the interlamellar cations of montmorillonite clays and polymerization of aniline was done within the layers. The delaminated clay layers upon ion exchange resulted in exfoliated polyaniline/clay nanocomposite formation which has profound effects on polymer structure, properties and electrical conduction mechanisms. Here we offer polyaniline (PANI)/montmorillonite exfoliated nanocomposite synthesized through a simple, cheap route which need not require complicated and less economical organophilic modification. The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and TG/DTA to prove exfoliation.

  18. Preparation and characterization of exfoliated polyaniline/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Binitha N., E-mail: binithann@yahoo.co.i [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Koodathil, Ranjana; Gangadharan, Tripti [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India); Yaakob, Zahira [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Saidu, Femina K.; Chandralayam, Soumini [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India)

    2010-04-15

    Transition metal ions were exchanged with the interlamellar cations of montmorillonite clays and polymerization of aniline was done within the layers. The delaminated clay layers upon ion exchange resulted in exfoliated polyaniline/clay nanocomposite formation which has profound effects on polymer structure, properties and electrical conduction mechanisms. Here we offer polyaniline (PANI)/montmorillonite exfoliated nanocomposite synthesized through a simple, cheap route which need not require complicated and less economical organophilic modification. The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and TG/DTA to prove exfoliation.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the polyaniline dopant Schiff base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Y. Matsumoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff base, N-salicilidenoanilina was used as dopant to induce polymerization of aniline and thus preparing polyaniline (PAni. The different conditions of preparation, including Schiff base structure, and the dosage of acidity reaction medium, were investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions relative conductivity of the resulting samples. The products were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE. The results showed the synthesis conditions play an important in the formation and the final properties of the polyaniline

  20. Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Channu, V.S.; Holze, Rudolf; Yeo, In-Hyeong; Mho, Sun-il; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV 6 O 16 .4H 2 O and Na 1.1 V 3 O 7.9 . The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

  1. Effect of chemical functionalization on the electrochemical properties of conducting polymers. Modification of polyaniline by diazonium ion coupling and subsequent reductive degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Diego F.; Rivarola, Claudia R.; Miras, Maria C. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Ruta Nacional 8, Km 601, X5804ZAB, Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Barbero, Cesar A., E-mail: cbarbero@exa.unrc.edu.a [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Ruta Nacional 8, Km 601, X5804ZAB, Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-04-01

    The electrochemical properties of polyaniline (PANI) can be altered by coupling the polymer with aryldiazonium ions. The ions are synthesized by diazotization of aromatic primary amines (1-aminoanthraquinone, sulphadiazine and 4-cyanoaniline) bearing functional groups which are then linked to the polyaniline backbone. All materials produced are electroactive, suggesting that the reaction involves coupling of the diazonium ion with the aromatic rings and not nucleophilic substitution by the aminic nitrogen of PANI on the aryl cations. The electrochemical properties of the modified polymers are different to those of PANI, likely due to electronic and steric effects of the attached groups. Reductive degradation of the azo linkages, using dithionite ion, removes the attached moieties leaving primary amino groups attached to the polyaniline backbone. In that way, the effect of the attached groups on the electrochemical properties of PANI is eliminated. FTIR spectroscopy measurement of the different polymers supports the proposed mechanism. Using the method a polymer containing redox (anthraquinone) groups, which could be used for charge storage, is obtained. Additionally a material containing sulphadiazine moieties, which can be released in vivo by bacterial activity, is also produced. The molecule is a well-known sulfa drug with bacteriostatic activity. The reaction sequence seems to be of general application to modify polyanilines, by attaching functional groups, and then to produce a PANI backbone bearing primary amino groups. Evidence is presented on the kinetic control of attached group removal.

  2. Effect of chemical functionalization on the electrochemical properties of conducting polymers. Modification of polyaniline by diazonium ion coupling and subsequent reductive degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, Diego F.; Rivarola, Claudia R.; Miras, Maria C.; Barbero, Cesar A.

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of polyaniline (PANI) can be altered by coupling the polymer with aryldiazonium ions. The ions are synthesized by diazotization of aromatic primary amines (1-aminoanthraquinone, sulphadiazine and 4-cyanoaniline) bearing functional groups which are then linked to the polyaniline backbone. All materials produced are electroactive, suggesting that the reaction involves coupling of the diazonium ion with the aromatic rings and not nucleophilic substitution by the aminic nitrogen of PANI on the aryl cations. The electrochemical properties of the modified polymers are different to those of PANI, likely due to electronic and steric effects of the attached groups. Reductive degradation of the azo linkages, using dithionite ion, removes the attached moieties leaving primary amino groups attached to the polyaniline backbone. In that way, the effect of the attached groups on the electrochemical properties of PANI is eliminated. FTIR spectroscopy measurement of the different polymers supports the proposed mechanism. Using the method a polymer containing redox (anthraquinone) groups, which could be used for charge storage, is obtained. Additionally a material containing sulphadiazine moieties, which can be released in vivo by bacterial activity, is also produced. The molecule is a well-known sulfa drug with bacteriostatic activity. The reaction sequence seems to be of general application to modify polyanilines, by attaching functional groups, and then to produce a PANI backbone bearing primary amino groups. Evidence is presented on the kinetic control of attached group removal.

  3. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yslas, Edith I., E-mail: eyslas@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F.; Barbero, César A. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Rivarola, Viviana A. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina)

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines.

  4. Improved hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution using cobalt catalysts supported on modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie; Yue, Xuehai [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Dai, Ping [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Hydrogen production from alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution via hydrolysis process over activated carbon supported cobalt catalysts is studied. Activated carbons are used in their original form and after liquid phase oxidation with HNO{sub 3}. The changes in surface functional groups of the activated carbon are detected by FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of HNO{sub 3} oxidation on the properties of the activated carbon and the resulting catalyst performance are investigated. FTIR analysis reveals that the oxidative treatment leads to the formation of various functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon. Cobalt catalysts supported on the modified activated carbon are found to exhibit higher activity and stability. (author)

  5. Carbon nanostructures as catalyst support for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, S.K.; Hamelin, J. [Quebec Univ., Trois Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Inst. de recherche sur l' hydrogene

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated potential alternatives to Vulcan XC-72 as a catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). These included carbon nanostructures (CNS) prepared by high energy ball milling of graphite and transition metal catalysts, followed by heat treatment. Among the key factors discussed were the graphitic content, high surface area, microporous structure, good electrical conductivity and the ability of the material to attach functional groups. Some graphic results supporting the usage of CNS as catalyst support for PEMFCs were presented. Upon chemical oxidation, surface functional groups such as carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl were populated on the surface of CNS. Nanosized platinum particles with particle size distribution between 3 nm and 5 nm were reduced on the functionalized sites of CNS in a colloidal medium. The paper also presented cyclic voltammograms, XPS, HRTEM and PSD results. 3 refs.

  6. Microwave heated polyol synthesis of carbon supported PtAuSn/C nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hong; Han, Kefei [School of Science, State key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu, Yingli; Chang, Zhaorong [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan (China); Shen, Liangbo [Beijing No.4 High School, Beijing (China); Wei, Yongsheng; Guo, Zhijun (School of Science Beijing Jiaotong University Beijing P. R. China); Wang, Haijiang [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Carbon-supported PtAuSn/C nanoparticle catalyst was synthesized by a microwave-assisted polyol process. The process is a quick process that only requires a few minutes to complete. The catalyst thus obtained was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical performance of the catalyst, for the ethanol oxidation reaction, was also investigated. The results indicated that the PtAuSn/C catalyst was uniformly dispersed on carbon and was in the nano-size range. The electrochemical measurements indicated that PtAuSn/C nanoparticle catalyst synthesized by the microwave-assisted polyol method demonstrated a significantly higher electrochemically active area and higher catalytic activity than Pt/C for the ethanol oxidation reaction. (author)

  7. Electro-catalytic oxidation of ethanol on platinum-iridium mixtures supported on glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Henry; Hoyos Bibian

    2004-01-01

    Electro-catalytic oxidation of ethanol on platinum-iridium mixtures supported on glassy carbon was studied, in acid media at different temperatures and concentrations. During the maturation time of deposited iridium, the surface is covered by an irreversible oxide formation, which affects the behavior of the catalytic mixture. The Pt 7 0 Ir 3 0 and Pt 9 0 Ir 1 0 mixtures seem to be a little more active than the Pt/C electrode at potentials below 800 mV (vs. HRE). In all electrodes appears two reactions: partial ethanol oxidation to produce acetaldehyde (main path of reaction at low temperatures and high electrode coverage with ethanol adsorption residues) and the total oxidation to carbon dioxide which is considerable at potential above 800 mV and it is increased with increasing temperature

  8. Preparation of Polyaniline-Doped Fullerene Whiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhe Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene C60 whiskers (FWs doped with polyaniline emeraldine base (PANI-EB were synthesized by mixing PANI-EB/N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP colloid and FWs suspension based on the nature of the electron acceptor of C60 and electron donor of PANI-EB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectra characterized the morphology and molecular structure of the FWs doped with PANI-EB. SEM observation showed that the smooth surface of FWs was changed to worm-like surface morphology after being doped with PANI-EB. The UV-Vis spectra suggested that charge-transfer (CT complex of C60 and PANI-EB was formed as PANI-EBδ+-C60δ-. PANI-EB-doped FWs might be useful as a new type of antibacterial and self-cleaning agent as well as multifunctional material to improve the human health and living environment.

  9. Silver electrocrystallization at polyaniline-coated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.; Tsakova, V.

    2004-01-01

    The initial stage of silver electrocrystallization is studied at polyaniline (PANI)-coated platinum electrodes by means of potentiostatic current transients and electron microscopic observations. Data for the nucleation frequency and the number of active sites for nucleation are obtained by interpreting of current transients according to the theory for nucleation and 3D growth under diffusion limitations. It is found that depending on the PANI layers thickness, d, two different regimes for silver nucleation and growth exist. For thin PANI coatings (d 0.3 μm), silver nucleation occurs with a two orders of magnitude lower nucleation frequency at active sites located most probably at the polymer surface, their number remaining constant for thicknesses up to 1.4 μm. It is established that reduction of the PANI layer occurring in parallel with the silver electrodeposition does not influence the number of active sites for nucleation. The results obtained by interpretation of current transients are in good agreement with results for the number of crystals obtained by microscopic observation

  10. Catalytic transformation of carbon dioxide and methane into syngas over ruthenium and platinum supported hydroxyapatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rêgo De Vasconcelos, Bruna; Zhao, Lulu; Sharrock, Patrick; Nzihou, Ange; Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: doan.phamminh@mines-albi.fr

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Formation of nanoparticles of Pt and Ru on hydroxyapatite surface support (HAP). • Pt catalyst more active and stable than Ru catalyst in dry reforming of methane (DRM). • Low carbon deposition on the surface of Pt catalyst after reaction. • Quantification of water as by-product of the reaction for the first time. • Good mass balance of the reaction. - Abstract: This work focused on the catalytic transformation of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into syngas (mixture of CO and H{sub 2}). Ruthenium- and platinum-based catalysts were prepared using hydroxyapatite (HAP) as catalyst support. Different methods for metal deposition were used including incipient wetness impregnation (IWI), excess liquid phase impregnation (LIM), and cationic exchange (CEX). Metal particle size varied in large range from less than 1 nm to dozens nm. All catalysts were active at 400–700 °C but only Pt catalyst prepared by IWI method (Pt/HAP IWI) was found stable. The catalytic performance of Pt/HAP IWI could be comparable with the literature data on noble metal-based catalysts, prepared on metal oxide supports. For the first time, water was experimentally quantified as a by-product of the reaction. This helped to correctly buckle the mass balance of the process.

  11. Catalytic transformation of carbon dioxide and methane into syngas over ruthenium and platinum supported hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rêgo De Vasconcelos, Bruna; Zhao, Lulu; Sharrock, Patrick; Nzihou, Ange; Pham Minh, Doan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation of nanoparticles of Pt and Ru on hydroxyapatite surface support (HAP). • Pt catalyst more active and stable than Ru catalyst in dry reforming of methane (DRM). • Low carbon deposition on the surface of Pt catalyst after reaction. • Quantification of water as by-product of the reaction for the first time. • Good mass balance of the reaction. - Abstract: This work focused on the catalytic transformation of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into syngas (mixture of CO and H 2 ). Ruthenium- and platinum-based catalysts were prepared using hydroxyapatite (HAP) as catalyst support. Different methods for metal deposition were used including incipient wetness impregnation (IWI), excess liquid phase impregnation (LIM), and cationic exchange (CEX). Metal particle size varied in large range from less than 1 nm to dozens nm. All catalysts were active at 400–700 °C but only Pt catalyst prepared by IWI method (Pt/HAP IWI) was found stable. The catalytic performance of Pt/HAP IWI could be comparable with the literature data on noble metal-based catalysts, prepared on metal oxide supports. For the first time, water was experimentally quantified as a by-product of the reaction. This helped to correctly buckle the mass balance of the process.

  12. Hydrodeoxygenation of phenols as lignin models under acid-free conditions with carbon-supported platinum catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Hara, Kenji; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2011-11-28

    Carbon-supported Pt catalysts are highly active and reusable for the aqueous-phase hydrodeoxygenation of phenols as lignin models without adding any acids. It is suggested that Pt/carbon facilitates the hydrogenation of phenols and the hydrogenolysis of the resulting cyclohexanols.

  13. O2 electrocatalysis in acid media on iron naphthalocyanine impregnations. Effect of nitric acid treatment on different carbon black supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coowar, F.; Contamin, O.; Savy, M.; Scarbeck, G.; van den Ham, D.; Riga, J.; Verbist, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    O2 electrocatalysis on (2,3)FeNPc impregnations on different carbon blacks was investigated in H2SO4 medium. The effect of nitric acid treatment on the carbon black support is to enhance both the activity and stability of the catalyst. Moreover, as seen by XPS, the dissolution of iron is impeded by

  14. Carbon/H-ZSM-5 composites as supports for bi-functional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero-Romero, M.J.; Sartipi, S.; Sun, X.; Rodríguez-Mirasol, J.; Cordero, T.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous H-ZSM-5–carbon composites, prepared via tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) post treatment of H-ZSM-5 followed by deposition of pyrolytic carbon, have been used as the support for the preparation of Co-based Fischer–Tropsch catalysts. The resulting catalysts display an improved

  15. Nanostructured carbon-supported Pd electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacutan, E M; Tongol, B J; Climaco, M I; Telan, G J; Malijan, F; Hsu, H Y; Garcia, J; Fulo, H

    2012-01-01

    The need to lower the construction cost of fuel cells calls for the development of non-Pt based electrocatalysts. Among others, Pd has emerged as a promising alternative to Pt for fuel cell catalysis. This research aims to investigate the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Pd-based catalysts dispersed on carbon support as anode materials in direct ethanol fuel cells. For the preparation of the first Pd-based electrocatalyst, palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via oleylamine (OAm)-mediated synthesis and precursor method with a mean particle size of 3.63 ± 0.59 nm as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon black was used as a supporting matrix for the OAm-capped Pd NPs. Thermal annealing and acetic acid washing were used to remove the OAm capping agent. To evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation, cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed using 1.0 M ethanol in basic medium. The CV data revealed the highest peak current density of 11.05 mA cm −2 for the acetic acid-washed Pd/C electrocatalyst. Meanwhile, the fabrication of the second Pd-based electrocatalyst was done by functionalization of the carbon black support using 3:1 (v/v) H 2 SO 4 :HNO 3 . The metal oxide, NiO, was deposited using precipitation method while polyol method was used for the deposition of Pd NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the estimated particle size of the synthesized catalysts was at around 9.0–15.0 nm. CV results demonstrated a 36.7% increase in the catalytic activity of Pd–NiO/C (functionalized) catalyst towards ethanol oxidation compared to the non-functionalized catalyst. (paper)

  16. Nanostructured carbon-supported Pd electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacutan, E. M.; Climaco, M. I.; Telan, G. J.; Malijan, F.; Hsu, H. Y.; Garcia, J.; Fulo, H.; Tongol, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The need to lower the construction cost of fuel cells calls for the development of non-Pt based electrocatalysts. Among others, Pd has emerged as a promising alternative to Pt for fuel cell catalysis. This research aims to investigate the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Pd-based catalysts dispersed on carbon support as anode materials in direct ethanol fuel cells. For the preparation of the first Pd-based electrocatalyst, palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via oleylamine (OAm)-mediated synthesis and precursor method with a mean particle size of 3.63 ± 0.59 nm as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon black was used as a supporting matrix for the OAm-capped Pd NPs. Thermal annealing and acetic acid washing were used to remove the OAm capping agent. To evaluate the electrocatalytic activity of the prepared electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation, cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies were performed using 1.0 M ethanol in basic medium. The CV data revealed the highest peak current density of 11.05 mA cm-2 for the acetic acid-washed Pd/C electrocatalyst. Meanwhile, the fabrication of the second Pd-based electrocatalyst was done by functionalization of the carbon black support using 3:1 (v/v) H2SO4:HNO3. The metal oxide, NiO, was deposited using precipitation method while polyol method was used for the deposition of Pd NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the estimated particle size of the synthesized catalysts was at around 9.0-15.0 nm. CV results demonstrated a 36.7% increase in the catalytic activity of Pd-NiO/C (functionalized) catalyst towards ethanol oxidation compared to the non-functionalized catalyst.

  17. Carbon fiber cloth supported interwoven WS{sub 2} nanosplates with highly enhanced performances for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Xiao; Chi, Jing-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Lu, Shan-Shan [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Gou, Jian-Xia [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Dong, Bin, E-mail: dongbin@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, Xiao; Liu, Yan-Ru; Yan, Kai-Li; Chai, Yong-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liu, Chen-Guang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • WS{sub 2} nanoplates supported on carbon fiber cloth (WS{sub 2}/CFC) have been synthesized. • WS{sub 2}/CFC has the good dispersion and interwoven structure of WS{sub 2}. • CFC as substrate contributes to enhanced conductivity and close combination. • WS{sub 2}/CFC exhibits ultra-high activity and stability owing to CFC as support. - Abstract: The interwoven WS{sub 2} nanoplates supported on carbon fiber cloth (WS{sub 2}/CFC) have been successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal process. XRD and XPS confirm the formation of WS{sub 2}/CFC. SEM images show the good dispersion of WS{sub 2} nanoplates with interwoven structures on the surface of CFC. Thanks to the 3D framework of CFC, WS{sub 2} nanoplates realize overall excellent-dispersion interwoven on the surface of CFC compared with pristine bulk WS{sub 2} with severe aggregation. Moreover, CFC not only serves as excellent conductive substrate to accelerate electron transport rate, but also contributes to the close combination between WS{sub 2} and CFC for long-term stability. The electrochemical measurements show that WS{sub 2}/CFC exhibit a high specific capacitance of 399 F g{sup −1} at 1.0 A g{sup −1}, demonstrating the obviously enhanced capability compared with pristine bulk WS{sub 2}. Furthermore, WS{sub 2}/CFC realizes ultra-stable cycling stability with 99% of retention of capacitance after 500 charge-discharge cycles. It may provide novel access of designing carbon-based transition metal disulfides composites for excellent super capacitive properties.

  18. Relationships between structure and activity of carbon as a multifunctional support for electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Sanja I; Panić, Vladimir V; Dekanski, Aleksandar B; Tripković, Amalija V; Jovanović, Vladislava M

    2012-07-14

    We report on new insights into the relationships between structure and activity of glassy carbon (GC), as a model material for electrocatalyst support, during its anodization in acid solution. Our investigation strongly confirms the role of CFGs in promotion of Pt activity by the "spill-over" effect related to CO(ads) for methanol electrooxidation (MEO) on a carbon-supported Pt catalyst. Combined analysis of voltammetric and impedance behaviour as well as changes in GC surface morphology induced by intensification of anodizing conditions reveal an intrinsic influence of the carbon functionalization and the structure of a graphene oxide (GO) layer on the electrical and electrocatalytic properties of activated GC. Although GO continuously grows during anodization, it structurally changes from being a graphite inter-layer within graphite ribbons toward a continuous GO surface layer that deteriorates the native structure of GC. As a consequence of the increased distance between GO-spaced graphite layers, the GC conductivity decreases until the case of profound GO exfoliation under drastic anodizing conditions. This exposes the native, yet abundantly functionalized, GC texture. While GC capacitance continuously increases with intensification of anodizing conditions, the surface nano-roughness and GO resistance reach the highest values at modest anodizing conditions, and then decrease upon drastic anodization due to the onset of GO exfoliation. We found for the first time that the activity of a GC-supported Pt catalyst in MEO, as one of the promising half-reactions in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, strictly follows the changes in GC nano-roughness and GO-induced GC resistance. The highest GC/Pt MEO activity is reached when optimal distance between graphite layers and optimal degree of GC functionalization bring the highest amount of CFGs into intimate contact with the Pt surface. This confirms the promoting role of CFGs in MEO catalysis.

  19. Stability, carbon resistance, and reactivity toward autothermal reforming of nickel on ceria-based supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutthisripok, W.; Laosiripojana, N.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) normally requires a reformer unit, where the fuel such as natural gas, methane, methanol, or ethanol can be reformed to hydrogen before introducing to the main part of fuel cell. Nickel on commercial supports such as Al2O3, MgO, ZrO2 has been widely reported to be used as the reforming catalyst commercially. Carbon formation and catalyst deactivation are always the main problems of using this type of catalyst. It is well established that CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 have been applied as the catalysts in a wide variety of reactions involving oxidation or partial oxidation of hydrocarbons (e.g. automotive catalysis). In order to quantify the performance of nickel on CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports for reformer application, the stabilities toward methane steam reforming and the carbon formation resistance were studied. After 18 hours, nickel on CeO2-ZrO2 with the Ce/Zr ratio of 3/1 presented the best performance in term of stability and activity. It also provided excellent resistance toward carbon formation compared to commercial Ni/Al2O3. The autothermal reforming of methane over Ni catalyst on CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports were also investigated. Ni/Ce-ZrO2 with the Ce/ Zr ratio of 3/1 also showed the best performance. The kinetics of this reaction was also studied. In the temperature range of 750-900C, the reaction order in methane was always closed to 1. The catalyst showed a slight positive effect of hydrogen and a negative effect of steam on the steam reforming rate. The addition of oxygen increased the steam reforming rate. However, the productions of CO and H2 decreased with increasing oxygen partial pressure. (author)

  20. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed

  1. Synergistic Enhancement of Microwave Absorption Using Hybridized Polyaniline@helical CNTs with Dual Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xin; Meng, Fanbin; Meng, Fanchen; Chen, Xiangnan; Guo, Yifan; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhou, Zuowan

    2017-05-10

    In this study, we designed a dual-chirality hierarchical structure to achieve a synergistically enhanced effect in microwave absorption via the hybridization of nanomaterials. Herein, polyaniline (PANi) nanorods with tunable chirality are grown on helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs), a typical nanoscale chiral structure, through in situ polymerization. The experimental results show that the hierarchical hybrids (PANi@HCNTs) exhibit distinctly dual chirality and a significant enhancement in electromagnetic (EM) losses compared to those of either pure PANi or HCNTs. The maximum reflection loss of the as-prepared hybrids can reach -32.5 dB at 8.9 GHz. Further analysis demonstrates that combinations of chiral acid-doped PANi and coiled HCNTs with molecular and nanoscale chirality lead to synergistic effects resulting from the dual chirality. The so-called cross-polarization may result in additional interactions with induced EM waves in addition to multiscaled relaxations from functional groups and interfacial polarizations, which can benefit EM absorption.

  2. Tungsten Oxide and Polyaniline Composite Fabricated by Surfactant-Templated Electrodeposition and Its Use in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxue Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of tungsten oxide and polyaniline (PANI were fabricated on carbon electrode by electrocodeposition using sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS as the template. The morphology of the composite can be controlled by changing SDBS surfactant and aniline monomer concentrations in solution. With increasing concentration of aniline in surfactant solution, the morphological change from nanoparticles to nanofibers was observed. The nanostructured WO3/PANI composite exhibited enhanced capacitive charge storage with the specific capacitance of 201 F g−1 at 1.28 mA cm−2 in large potential window of -0.5~ 0.65 V versus SCE compared to the bulk composite film. The capacitance retained about 78% when the sweeping potential rate increased from 10 to 150 mV/s.

  3. Room temperature humidity sensor based on polyaniline-tungsten disulfide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S.; Chethan, B.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Machappa, T.

    2018-05-01

    Polyaniline-tungsten disulfide (PANI-WS2) composite was synthesized using in situ polymerization technique by adding finely grinded powder of WS2 during the polymerization of aniline. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed the granular morphology with porous nature. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the presence of carbon, nitrogen, chlorine of PANI, tungsten and sulfur elements of WS2. Humidity sensing property of the composite was investigated by plotting change in its resistance with different relative humidity environments ranging from 10 to 97% RH. Decrease in resistance of the composite was observed with increase in relative humidity. Maximum sensing response of the composite was found to be 88.46%. Response and recovery times of the composite at 97%RH were fair enough to fabricate a sensor based on it. Stability of the composite with respect to the humidity sensing behavior was observed to be unchanged even after two months.

  4. Flexible, all-organic ammonia sensor based on dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, G.; Arena, A.; Donato, N.; Latino, M.; Saitta, G.; Bonavita, A.; Neri, G.

    2010-01-01

    A stable chlorobenzene dispersion of conducting polyaniline (PANI) has been obtained by doping emeraldine base with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and studied by spectrophotometric measurements in the UV-vis-IR range. The electrical properties of PANI: DBSA films obtained from the above dispersion have been investigated under different temperature and relative humidity conditions. All-organic chemoresistive devices have been developed by spin-coating the PANI: DBSA dispersion on flexible substrates, and then by depositing electrodes on the top, from a carbon nanotube conducting ink. Sensing tests performed under exposition to calibrated amounts of ammonia reveal that these simple and inexpensive sensors are able to detect ammonia at room temperature in a reliable way, with a sensitivity linearly related to concentration in the range between 5 ppm and 70 ppm.

  5. In-situ decorated gold nanoparticles on polyaniline with enhanced electrocatalysis toward dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.-J.; Feng, J.-J.; Xi, J.-L.; Dong, W.-J.; Li, Y.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were in-situ decorated on top of a polyaniline film (GNPs-PANI) via the direct electroreduction of the adsorbed AuCl 4 - ions on a glassy carbon electrode that previously was coated with PANI by electropolymerization. The GNPs-PANI composite and the performance of the resultant sensors were investigated in some detail. The sensor was applied to the oxidation of dopamine (DA) with improved catalytic activity. Its catalytic current showed wide linear response toward dopamine ranging from 3 to 115 μM, with a low detection limit of 0. 8 μM (S/N=3). In addition, the sensor exhibits easy-operation, fast response to dopamine, as well as excellent reproducibility and stability. (author)

  6. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Rakhi, R. B.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-05-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles).We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supporting figures including SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, CV and CD curves and a summary table of capacitance. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00773a

  7. High Performance Nanocatalysts Supported on Micro/Nano Carbon Structures Using Ethanol Immersion Pretreatment for Micro DMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Liang-You; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Chang, Chaun; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, highly dense platinum (Pt) nanocatalysts were successfully deposited on the hydrophilically-treated nano/micro carbon supports with an ethanol (EtOH) immersion pretreatment and an acidic treatment for the performance improvement of methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In order to thoroughly immerse the three-dimensional, interwoven structures of the carbon cloth fibers with a 6 M sulfuric acid surface modification, which increasing more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surfaces of the carbon supports, the EtOH immersion pretreatment of the carbon supports was utilized prior to the sulfuric acid treatment. Subsequently, Pt catalysts were reduced on the modified carbon supports by a homemade open-loop reduction system (OLRS) [1] For comparisons, carbon cloth (CC) and carbon nanotube on CC (CNT/CC) supports were employed with and without EtOH immersion pretreatments before Pt catalyst reduction. In the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves, the electrosorption charges of hydrogen ion (Q H ) and the peak current density (I P ) of the fabricated Pt/CC and Pt/CNT/CC electrodes with the EtOH immersion pretreatments can efficiently be enhanced due to more active Pt sites for electrocatalytic reactions

  8. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarz, A

    2002-01-01

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 mu g/cm sup 2 , coated with approximately 4 mu g/cm sup 2 MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm sup 2. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  9. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarz, Anna E-mail: anna@slcj.uw.edu.pl; Maier-Komor, Peter

    2002-03-11

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}, coated with approximately 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm{sup 2}. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  10. Rapid Reduction of Alkenes and Alkynes over Pd Nanoparticles Supported on Sulfonated Porous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Shokrolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been introduced for rapid reduction of alkenes and alkynes, which may be attractive for chemical industries. This method has some advantages such as simplicity and low cost of reactants. Pd supported on sulfonated porous carbon (SPC was used as a new catalyst for reduction of alkenes and alkynes to the corresponding alkanes using sodium borohydride. The heterogeneous reaction was conducted in open air at room temperature to produce the desired saturated compounds in high yields (over 96% and in short reaction time (15 minutes.

  11. Palaeoecology of a 3-kyr biosedimentary record of a coral reef-supporting carbonate shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carine M.; Barbosa, Catia Fernandes; Cordeiro, Renato C.; Seoane, José Carlos S.; Fermino, Gerson M.; Silva, Patricia O.; Turcq, Bruno J.

    2013-11-01

    This study assesses the 3-kyr paleoecology and sedimentary evolution of the Abrolhos carbonate shelf, Bahia, Brazil, using a two-meter-long core collected in a carbonate muddy sediment. The paleoecology was based on the distribution of benthic foraminifer functional groups associated with grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N and δ13C. The results identified three biosedimentary units showing that symbiont-bearing foraminifers (Peneroplis and Archaias) decrease in abundance. However, other small taxa (Miliolinella and Cornuspira) and stress-tolerant genera (Bolivina, Elphidium and Ammonia) increase in abundance toward the core top. Grain size decreases toward the top of the core, suggesting a weakening of hydrodynamic winnowing toward recent time. The TOC and TN concentrations increase, and the C/N ratios decrease, suggesting an increase of marine productivity from nearby goblet-shaped structures called "chapeirões". Changes in the benthic foraminifer community can be linked to the sedimentological and organic matter input, which are the result of climatic and oceanographic variations at different spatial and time scales, thus illustrating reduced potential to support symbiont-bearing foraminifer communities to the end of the Holocene.

  12. Characterization of conducting polyaniline blends by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose E. Pereira da; Temperini, Marcia L.A.; Torresi, Susana I. Cordoba de

    2005-01-01

    Raman and optical microscopy were used to investigate possible interactions between polyaniline (PANI) and different insulating polymers in conducting blends. Resonance Raman and optical micrographs were used to study the physical interaction in materials. Analysis Raman spectra was done investigating the relative intensity of bands at 574 and 607 cm -1 . A relationship between Raman bands and conductivity was also proposed. (author)

  13. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline-hexaferrite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khursheed, Tooba [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U., E-mail: dr.misbahulislam@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Asif Iqbal, M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); College of E & ME, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad, E-mail: irshadalibzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Shakoor, Abdul [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Awan, M.S. [Center for Micro and Nano Devices Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iftikhar, Aisha [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Azhar Khan, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2015-11-01

    Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical polymerization using aniline as monomer, and Y-type hexaferrite with composition (Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}Sr{sub 1.66}Nd{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 22}) was prepared by co-precipitation assisted by surfactant. Three composites of Polyaniline with different ferrite ratios were prepared by mechanical blending. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The XRD analysis reveals that no second phase was observed in Y-type hexagonal ferrite. In PANI-Ferrite composites, significant changes in resistivity, real and imaginary part of complex permittivity were observed with the increase of ferrite in the polyaniline matrix. At low frequencies the magnitude of dielectric constant and complex permittivity is high with few relaxation peaks. AC conductivity of PANI-Ferrite composites increase with the increase of frequency following Jonscher law. The resistivity and activation energy were found to show similar behavior. - Highlights: • Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}Sr{sub 1.66}Nd{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 22} was prepared by co-precipitation. • Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical polymerization. • AC conductivity increase with the increase of frequency. • The resistivity and activation energy were found to show similar behavior.

  14. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites: Cluster size and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites; structural properties; magnetic properties. 1. Introduction ... The powder obtained was ground in a motor and pestle, sonicated in ... Figure 1. XRD of (a) iron oxide nanoparticles and (b) iron oxide/PANI (1 : 0⋅4) composite. .... shape of the particles and the anisotropy energy, as also.

  15. The influence of compression pressure on transport properties of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokeš, J.; Varga, M.; Křivka, I.; Rudajevová, A.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 13 (2011), s. 5038-5045 ISSN 0959-9428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.968, year: 2011

  16. Size variation of polyaniline nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    From SEM picture it is seen that the particle sizes vary from 100–20 nm. Also with increase ... report synthesis of polyaniline nano in PVA matrix for three different molar ..... research (eds) P N Prasad and J K Nigam (New York: Plenum) p. 419.

  17. Structural and conductivity changes during the pyrolysis of polyaniline base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trchová, Miroslava; Matějka, P.; Brodinová, J.; Kalendová, A.; Prokeš, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2006), s. 114-121 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050313; GA AV ČR IAA400500504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * conducting polymer * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  18. Preparation of intercalated polyaniline/clay nanocomposite and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intercalated composite of polyaniline and clay has been reported. The composite was prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline within the layers of `illite' clay. The composite was characterized for its structural, spectral, and microscopic properties. At higher level of loading the layered structure of composite breaks ...

  19. Nanocomposites of natural rubber and polyaniline-modified cellulose nanofibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were isolated from cotton microfibrils (CM) by acid hydrolysis and coated with polyaniline (PANI) by in situ polymerization of aniline onto CNF in the presence of hydrochloride acid and ammonium peroxydisulfate to produce CNF/PANI. Nanocomposites of natural rubber (NR) re...

  20. Polypyrrole and polyaniline prepared with cerium(IV) sulfate oxidant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omastová, M.; Mosnáčková, K.; Trchová, Miroslava; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Fedorko, P.; Prokeš, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 7-8 (2010), s. 701-707 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polypyrrole * polypyrrole base * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2010

  1. BF3-doped polyaniline: A novel conducting polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the past two decades, both fundamental and applied research in conducting polymers has grown enormously [1]. Polyaniline (PANI) owing to its ease of synthe- sis, remarkable environmental stability, and high conductivity in the doped form, has remained one of the most thoroughly studied conducting polymers.

  2. Self assembled polyaniline 12-tungstophosphate micro/nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciric-Marjanovic, G.; Holclajtner-Antunovic, I.; Mentus, S.; Bajuk-Bogdanovic, D.; Jesic, D.; Manojlovic, D.; Trifunovic, S.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 13/14 (2010), s. 1463-1473 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * 12-Tungstophosphoric acid * nanorods Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2010

  3. Photo-catalytic Removal of Methyl Orange Dye by Polyaniline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photo-catalytic Removal of Methyl Orange Dye by Polyaniline Modified ZnO using Visible Radiation. ... The as-synthesized nano-ZnO, PANI and PANI/ZnO nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The UV–visible spectroscopy studies showed that the absorption peak ...

  4. Synthesis of polyaniline/ZrO 2 nanocomposites and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 3. Synthesis of polyaniline/ZrO 2 nanocomposites and their performance in AC conductivity and electrochemical supercapacitance. B P PRASANNA D N AVADHANI H B MURALIDHARA K CHAITRA VINNY ROSE THOMAS M REVANASIDDAPPA N ...

  5. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Robertson, John; Oliver, Rachel A.; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 °C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 μm and a mass density of 1.6 g cm −3 . This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ∼22 kΩ), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors

  6. Wet catalyst-support films for production of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Noe T; Hamilton, Christopher E; Pint, Cary L; Orbaek, Alvin; Yao, Jun; Frosinini, Aldo L; Barron, Andrew R; Tour, James M; Hauge, Robert H

    2010-07-01

    A procedure for vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) production has been developed through liquid-phase deposition of alumoxanes (aluminum oxide hydroxides, boehmite) as a catalyst support. Through a simple spin-coating of alumoxane nanoparticles, uniform centimer-square thin film surfaces were coated and used as supports for subsequent deposition of metal catalyst. Uniform VA-CNTs are observed to grow from this film following deposition of both conventional evaporated Fe catalyst, as well as premade Fe nanoparticles drop-dried from the liquid phase. The quality and uniformity of the VA-CNTs are comparable to growth from conventional evaporated layers of Al(2)O(3). The combined use of alumoxane and Fe nanoparticles to coat surfaces represents an inexpensive and scalable approach to large-scale VA-CNT production that makes chemical vapor deposition significantly more competitive when compared to other CNT production techniques.

  7. The effect of promoters on the electronic structure of ruthenium catalysts supported on carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guraya, Monica; Sprenger, Susanne; Rarog-Pilecka, Wioletta; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Kowalczyk, Zbigniew; Muhler, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Alkali- and earth-alkali-promoted ruthenium catalysts supported on graphitized carbon were investigated by means of X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) in order to study the effect of promoters on the electronic structure of this metal-support system. Samples were measured as prepared and after thorough reduction in hydrogen. The C 1s spectra of reduced alkali-promoted catalysts showed a shift towards higher binding energies and an asymmetric broadening. Neither non-promoted nor Ba-promoted Ru/C samples exhibited such a behaviour after similar treatments. The most important feature in the UP spectra of the reduced alkali-promoted catalysts was the appearance of a well defined Fermi edge absent in the semimetal-like electronic structure of graphite. No significant effects appeared in the case of non-promoted or Ba-promoted catalysts. The increase in the density of occupied states at the Fermi energy indicates a shift of this level into the conduction band, due to a charge transfer from the promoter to the support. This interpretation also provides an explanation for the observed higher C 1s binding energy and asymmetric broadening, due to the off-set introduced in the binding energy scale and the increasing probability of inelastic excitations near the Fermi level. In addition to photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy ion scattering (ISS) was used to obtain information about the localisation of the promoters. Based on the mild sputtering effect during prolonged series of spectra, it was possible to conclude that potassium covers both the carbon support and the Ru metal particles

  8. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R.; Werth, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Ameliorated Austenite Carbon Content Control in Austempered Ductile Irons by Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Yun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron has emerged as a notable material in several engineering fields, including marine applications. The initial austenite carbon content after austenization transform but before austempering process for generating bainite matrix proved critical in controlling the resulted microstructure and thus mechanical properties. In this paper, support vector regression is employed in order to establish a relationship between the initial carbon concentration in the austenite with austenization temperature and alloy contents, thereby exercising improved control in the mechanical properties of the austempered ductile irons. Particularly, the paper emphasizes a methodology tailored to deal with a limited amount of available data with intrinsically contracted and skewed distribution. The collected information from a variety of data sources presents another challenge of highly uncertain variance. The authors present a hybrid model consisting of a procedure of a histogram equalizer and a procedure of a support-vector-machine (SVM- based regression to gain a more robust relationship to respond to the challenges. The results show greatly improved accuracy of the proposed model in comparison to two former established methodologies. The sum squared error of the present model is less than one fifth of that of the two previous models.

  10. Influence of surface morphology on methanol oxidation at a glassy carbon-supported Pt catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STEVANOVIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Platinum supported on glassy carbon (GC was used as a model system for studying the influence of the surface morphology of a Pt catalyst on methanol oxidation in alkaline and acidic solutions. Platinum was deposited by the potential step method on GC samples from H2SO4 + H2PtCl6 solution under the same conditions with loadings from 10 to 80 mg cm-2. AFM and STM images of the GC/Pt electrodes showed that the Pt was deposited in the form of 3D agglomerates composed of spherical particles. Longer deposition times resulted in increased growth of Pt forms and a decrease in the specific area of the Pt. The real surface area of Pt increased with loading but the changes were almost negligible at higher loadings. Nevertheless, both the specific and mass activity of platinum supported on glassy carbon for methanol oxidation in acidic and in alkaline solutions exhibit a volcanic dependence with respect to the platinum loading. The increase in the activity can be explained by the increasing the particle size with the loading and thus an increase in the contiguous Pt sites available for adsorption and decomposition of methanol. However, the decrease in the activity of the catalyst with further increase of loading and particle size after reaching the maximum is related to the decrease of active sites available for methanol adsorption and their accessibility as a result of more close proximity and pronounced coalescence of the Pt particles.

  11. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water with carbon nanotube supported manganese oxides as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Minghao, E-mail: suiminghao.sui@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing, Sichu; Sheng, Li; Huang, Shuhang; Guo, Hongguang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin in water was degraded by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx were supported on MWCNTs to serve as catalyst for ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT exhibited highly catalytic activity on ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT resulted in effective antibacterial activity inhibition on ciprofloxacin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-supported manganese oxides (MnOx/MWCNT) were used as catalysts to assist ozone in degrading ciprofloxacin in water. Manganese oxides were successfully loaded on multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces by simply impregnating the carbon nanotube with permanganate solution. The catalytic activities of MnOx/MWCNT in ciprofloxacin ozonation, including degradation, mineralization effectiveness, and antibacterial activity change, were investigated. The presence of MnOx/MWCNT significantly elevated the degradation and mineralization efficiency of ozone on ciprofloxacin. The microbiological assay with a reference Escherichia coli strain indicated that ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT results in more effective antibacterial activity inhibition of ciprofloxacin than that in ozonation alone. The effects of catalyst dose, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, and initial pH conditions on ciprofloxacin ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT were surveyed. Electron spin resonance trapping was applied to assess the role of MnOx/MWCNT in generating hydroxyl radicals (HO{center_dot}) during ozonation. Stronger 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide-OH signals were observed in the ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT compared with those in ozonation alone, indicating that MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The degradation of ciprofloxacin was studied in drinking water and wastewater process samples to gauge the potential effects of water background matrix on

  13. Electrocatalytic activity of self-doped polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Yeong-Tarng; Jung, Jeng-Ji; Lin, Rong-Hsien; Yang, Chien-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu

    2012-01-01

    Self-doped conducting polyaniline-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were prepared by cyclic voltammetry on ITO substrates in aniline (AN) and o-aminobenzene sulfonic acid (OSA) mixed monomer solutions with AN/OSA mole ratios of 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25, followed by investigations on electrocatalytic activities of the copolymers to redox reactions of Fe(CN) 6 3−/4− as a probe in aqueous solutions of different pH using cyclic voltammetry. For a given pH, the P(25AN-co-75OSA)-modified ITO electrode demonstrated the highest current density, followed by the P(50AN-co-50OSA)- and by the P(75AN-co-25OSA)-modified ITO electrodes. It can be concluded that a higher content of OSA (sulfonate) in the copolymer exhibited a higher extent of self-doping in the copolymer, leading to a higher electrocatalytic activity to redox reactions of the probe. The electrocatalytic activities of the copolymers decreased with increasing pH. The P(25AN-co-75OSA)-modified ITO electrode was electroactive for sensing the redox reactions of the probe in aqueous solutions of up to pH 7, the P(50AN-co-50OSA)-modified ITO electrode was electroactive for up to only pH 5, but the P(75AN-co-25OSA)-modified ITO electrode was not electroactive in aqueous solution of pH even as low as 2.

  14. Irradiation effects on transport properties of polyaniline and polyaniline/bentonite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilki, T., E-mail: tahirtilki@sdu.edu.tr [Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Karabulut, O. [Pamukkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Denizli (Turkey); Yavuz, M. [Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Kaplan, A. [Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Isparta (Turkey); Cabuk, M. [Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Mus (Turkey); Takanoglu, D. [Pamukkale University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Denizli (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    In this study, the effects of irradiation on pure polyaniline and polyaniline/bentonite composites synthesized chemically were investigated by means of thermogravimetric measurements, UV, SEM, XRD, absorption and temperature dependent electrical conductivity in the temperature range of 85-400 K. The irradiation process was carried out in air in a conventional gamma chamber, which uses a {sup 60}Co source and the samples were exposed to dose 40 kGy. The initial decomposition and first degradation temperatures of PAni/Bnt and Irradiated PAni/Bnt composites obtained from thermogravimetric measurements were higher than those of PAni and irradiated PAni. This could have been caused by the treatment with bentonite during aniline polymerization. The XRD patterns revealed that the peak positions of the as-prepared and irradiated samples were the same but the intensities of the peaks decreased with irradiation due to breaking of the polymer chain, which induces more amorphous regions in the polymer structure. It was found from temperature dependent conductivity measurements that the radiation significantly influenced the conductivity of PAni and PAni/Bnt composites. The conductivity results show that the dominant conduction mechanisms were hopping for all samples due to wide range of localized states present near the Fermi level. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of irradiation on PAni and PAni/Bnt composites were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed that irradiation increases the homogeneity of the samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band edge is shifted toward lower photon energies in the irradiated samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conductivity of PAni and PAni/Bnt composites were changed by the irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dominant conduction mechanism was found to be Mott's variable range hopping.

  15. Phase-Separated Polyaniline/Graphene Composite Electrodes for High-Rate Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qin'e; Zhou, An'an; Huang, Zhifeng; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Polyaniline/graphene hydrogel composites with a macroscopically phase-separated structure are prepared. The composites show high specific capacitance and excellent rate performance. Further investigation demonstrates that polyaniline inside the graphene hydrogel has low rate performance, thus a phase-separated structure, in which polyaniline is mainly outside the graphene hydrogel matrix, can enhance the rate performance of the composites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Novel carbon nanosheets as support for ultrahigh-resolution structural analysis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottbohm, Christoph T.; Beyer, Andre; Sologubenko, Alla S.; Ennen, Inga; Huetten, Andreas; Roesner, Harald; Eck, Wolfgang; Mayer, Joachim; Goelzhaeuser, Armin

    2008-01-01

    The resolution in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has reached values as low as 0.08 nm. However, these values are not accessible for very small objects in the size range of a few nanometers or lower, as they have to be placed on some support, which contributes to the overall electron-scattering signal, thereby blurring the contrast. Here, we report on the use of nanosheets made from cross-linked aromatic self-assembled monolayers as TEM sample supports. When transferred onto a copper grid, a single 1.6-nm-thick nanosheet can cover the grid and is free standing within the micron-sized openings. Despite its thinness, the sheet is stable under the impact of the electron beam. Micrographs taken from nanoclusters onto these nanosheets show highly increased contrast in comparison to the images taken from amorphous carbon supports. In scanning transmission electron microscopy with nanosheet support, a size analysis of sub-nanometer Au clusters was performed and single Au atoms were resolved

  17. KOH-activated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as platinum supports for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chaoxiong; Song, Shuqin; Liu, Jinchao; Maragou, Vasiliki; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis

    In the present investigation, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thermally treated by KOH were adopted as the platinum supporting material for the oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts. FTIR and Raman spectra were used to investigate the surface state of MWCNTs treated by KOH at different temperatures (700, 800, and 900 °C) and showed MWCNTs can be successfully functionalized. The structural properties of KOH-activated MWCNTs supported Pt were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their electrochemical performance was evaluated by the aid of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry. According to the experimental findings of the present work, the surrface of MWCNTs can be successfully functionalized with oxygen-containing groups after activation by KOH, favoring the good dispersion of Pt nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The as-prepared Pt catalysts supported on KOH treated MWCNTs at higher temperature, possess higher electrochemical surface area and exhibit desirable activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). More precisely, it has been found that the electrochemical active area of Pt/MWCNTs-900 is approximately two times higher than that of Pt/MWCNTs. It can be concluded that KOH activation is an effective way to decorate MWCNTs' surface with oxygen-containing groups and bigger surface area, which makes them more suitable as electrocatalyst support materials.

  18. Ultrasound-assisted oxidation of dibenzothiophene with phosphotungstic acid supported on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Phosphotungstic acid (HPW) supported on activated carbon (AC) was applied to catalyze deep oxidation desulfurization of fuel oil with the assist of ultrasound. The sulfur-conversion rate was evaluated by measuring the concentration of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in n-octane before and after the oxidation. Supporting HPW on AC has been verified to play a positive role in UAOD process by a series of contrast tests, where only HPW, AC or a mixture of free HPW and AC was used. The influences of catalyst dose, ultrasound power, reaction temperature, H2O2:oil volume ratio and the reuse of catalyst on the catalytic oxidation desulfurization kinetics were investigated. The DBT conversion rate of the reaction catalyzed by supported HPW under ultrasound irradiation was higher than the summation of the reactions with HPW only and AC only as catalyst. With the increase of loading amount of HPW on AC, ultrasound power, H2O2:oil volume ratio and reaction temperature, the catalytic oxidation reactivity of DBT would be enhanced. The optimum loading amount of HPW was 10%, exceed which DBT conversion would no longer increase obviously. DBT could be completely converted under the optimized conditions (volume ratio of H2O2 to model oil: 1:10, mass ratio of the supported HPW to model oil: 1.25%, temperature: 70°C) after 9 min of ultrasound irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Temperature dependent electrical properties of polyaniline film grown on paper through aniline vapor polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, K.; Bera, A.; Saha, B.; Bhowmik, K. L.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Polyaniline thin film has been prepared on paper by aniline vapor deposition technique. Ferric chloride has been used as polymerizing agent in this approach. The prepared films were studied through electrical resistivity and optical properties measurements. The electrical resistivity of the polyaniline film shows significant temperature dependence. The resistance sharply falls with the increase in temperature. The optical absorbance measurements shows characteristics absorbance peak indicating the formation of conducting emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. The optical energy band gap of the film was calculated from the transmittance spectra. The optical energy band gap and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline film is well suited for their applications in electronic devices.

  20. Temperature dependent electrical properties of polyaniline film grown on paper through aniline vapor polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, K.; Bera, A.; Saha, B., E-mail: biswajit.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Bhowmik, K. L. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Department of Chemistry, Bir Bikram Memorial College, Agartala, West Tripura 799004 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline thin film has been prepared on paper by aniline vapor deposition technique. Ferric chloride has been used as polymerizing agent in this approach. The prepared films were studied through electrical resistivity and optical properties measurements. The electrical resistivity of the polyaniline film shows significant temperature dependence. The resistance sharply falls with the increase in temperature. The optical absorbance measurements shows characteristics absorbance peak indicating the formation of conducting emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. The optical energy band gap of the film was calculated from the transmittance spectra. The optical energy band gap and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline film is well suited for their applications in electronic devices.