WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon stripper foils

  1. Carbon stripper foils for high current heavy ion operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the proposed new heavy ion linac'at'GSI the installation of a carbon foil stripper section is under discussion. High duty factor as well as high current (but low duty factor) heavy ion beams were used for machine experiments. Long term tests were performed to check the carbon foil durability. Relevant beam parameters have been measured in three measurement campaigns. After beam testing stripper foils were analyzed with different offline methods. Additionally promising results of high current beam irradiation of rotating target wheels will be presented. In the transfer line to the SIS 18 the heavy ion beam is stripped to higher charge states in a thick carbon foil. The stripper foil is loaded with 3 % of the beam power. To avoid evaporation in a single beam pulse, the beam is rapidly swept over its width. Experiences collected during the last decade of foil stripper operation at GSI will be presented. (author)

  2. Simple production method for making 3 μg/cm2 cracked slacked carbon accelerator stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for making thin 3 μg/cm2 carbon stripper foils for heavy ion bombardment and accelerator radiochronology is described along with a simple method for stripper foil thickness determination

  3. Production of thin carbon stripper foils using heated-substrates in a cathodic arc deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetime of carbon stripper foil can have a marked impact on the successful running of a beam line. Standard techniques for production of carbon stripper foils include evaporation of carbon (ec) and laser-pulsed ablation (Ipa). Recent work by a using Ipa has been successful in substantially increasing the lifetime of a very thin foil. The suspected mechanism for the increased lifetime of the foil is that the amorphous carbon foil is density-matched to that of graphite (around 2.26g/cc). In this work, we attempt to reproduce this result by producing carbon stripper foils with a mass-density similar to graphite using a cathodic arc deposition system. The cathodic arc is well known for the production of tetrahedral amorphous carbon: a high density, high stress form of carbon with over 90% sp3-like bonds; to reduce the density of the carbon and promote more graphitic structure, a high bias was initially attempted but this proved unsuccessful. Another method is to use a heated-substrate holder to reduce compressive stress within the deposited film. The performance of the density-matched carbon stripper foils and the implications for future production of high-quality carbon stripper foils in our laboratory will be discussed. (authors)

  4. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ∼5μg/cm2 in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ∼4μg/cm2 in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine–saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ∼1μg/cm2 in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4 for the 197Au− (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) and 63Cu− (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp3 bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (ID/IG) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is 0.78

  5. Intense heavy ion beam-induced temperature effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the future FAIR facility, reliably working solid carbon stripper foils are desired for providing intermediate charge states to SIS18. With the expected high beam intensities, the foils experience enhanced degradation and limited lifetime due to severe radiation damage, stress waves, and thermal effects. This work presents systematic measurements of the temperature of different carbon-based stripper foils (amorphous, diamond-like, and carbon-nanotube based) exposed to 4.8 MeV/u U, Bi, and Au beams of different pulse intensities. Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed by means of infrared thermography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting temperature depends on the foil thickness and strongly increases with increasing pulse intensity and repetition rate. (author)

  6. Surface treatment of glass substrates for the preparation of long-lived carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass substrates having uniformly distributed microscopic grains on the surfaces are useful to make long-lived carbon stripper foils for heavy ions. A method of surface treatment of glass substrates to form the surface structure is described. This method consists of precipitation of glass components, such as soda, onto the surfaces in a hot and humid atmosphere and a fogging treatment of forming microscopic grains of the precipitated substances. Some results of studies on the treatment conditions are also presented. (author)

  7. Development of long-lived cluster and hybrid carbon stripper foils for high energy, high intensity ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed thin and thick long-lived carbon stripper foils for high energy, high intensity ion beams. The foil thicknesses are about 10 μg/cm2 (cluster foil) and 200 μg/cm2 (hybrid foil) for thin and thick, respectively. The thin foil is made by a controlled DC-arc discharge (CDAD) method, by using the size effect of the carbon particles. The size effect was the difference between the carbon particle sizes emitted from the cathode and the anode electrodes in the DC arc discharge, in which the particle size from the cathode is large (0.3 μmφ) and the other is small (0.003 μmφ). The thin foils composed of large particle size are not mechanically strong, but long-lived under low energy ion bombardment with a 3.2 MeV, 2-3 μA Ne+ beam. The mean lifetime is 900 mC/cm2 in average which corresponds to 25 times longer than that of commercially available standard foils. In this method, the key point in producing long-lived foils is to control the amount of carbon particles ablated from the cathode by adjusting temperature at the cathode emission spot. The thick hybrid carbon foils (multi-layer thickness about 200 μg/cm2) have been developed for use in 800 MeV, H+ ion beam at the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The thick foils are prepared by means of the controlled ACDC arc discharge (CADAD) method, and are mechanically strong. The lifetime measurements of thick foils made by various methods were carried out using 800 MeV, 85-100 μA proton beams in the PSR. The foils made by the CADAD method showed very long lifetime, compared to other foils tested. (author)

  8. Performance characteristics of HBC stripper foils irradiated by 650 keV H− and high intensity DC ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly developed Hybrid type Boron mixed Carbon (HBC) stripper foils are extensively used not only for the RCS of J-PARC and PSR of LANL, but also for other low energy, high intensity proton accelerators in medical applications. We had before tested HBC stripper foils with 3.2 MeV Ne+ and DC heavy ion beams. In order to further understand characteristics of HBC stripper foils, we measured the following parameters using the KEK-650 keV H− and light ion Cockcroft Walton DC accelerator: foil lifetime, thickness reduction, uniformity before and after beam irradiation, and foil deformation. Energy deposition in the present experiment was adjusted to a similar level to that of the HBC foil used in the RCS of J-PARC’. In addition, to understand the reason why the HBC stripper foils have high durability against high intensity beam irradiation, we investigated various physical properties, and compared them between the HBC foils and other tested carbon stripper foils. The sizes of the carbon particles in the HBC foil were found to play a vital role in the lifetime

  9. Analysis of thermal effect for China spallation neutron source primary stripper foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary stripper foil device is one of the most important devices in rapid cycling synchrotron of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). In normal operation conditions, the high temperature and other thermal effects on foil are the main factors which influence the foil's lifetime. In order to predict the foil's working conditions and choose an appropriate design scheme, the finite element analysis software was utilized to calculate the foil's temperature, thermal stress and deformation in different working conditions of CSNS-Ⅰ. The simulation result shows that the highest temperature on foil is 1450 K, and the mounting mode would hardly affect the thermal stress and deformation. Based on the simulation result, the final spare foil's number is designed to be 20, and the two-edge fixed method is utilized as the foil's mounting scheme. (authors)

  10. Advances in targetry with thin diamond-like carbon foils

    CERN Document Server

    Liechtenstein, V K; Olshanski, E D; Repnow, R; Levin, J; Hellborg, R; Persson, P; Schenkel, T

    2002-01-01

    Thin and stable diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils, which were fabricated at the Kurchatov Institute by sputter deposition, have proved recently to be advantageous for stripping and secondary electron timing of high energy heavy ions in a number of accelerator experiments. This resulted in expanding applications of these DLC foils which necessitated further development efforts directed toward the following applications of DLC targetry: (i) thin stripper foils for lower energy tandem accelerators, (ii) enlarged (up to 66 mm in diameter) stop foils for improved time-of-flight elastic recoil detection ion beam analysis, and (iii) ultra-thin (about 0.6 mu g/cm sup 2) DLC foils for some fundamental and applied physics experiments. Along with the fabrication of thin DLC stripper foils for tandem accelerators, much thicker (up to 200 mu g/cm sup 2) foils for post-stripping of heavy-ion beams in higher energy linacs, are within reach.

  11. Maintenance of radio-activated stripper foils in the 3 GeV RCS of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan proton accelerator research complex, we adopted the multi-turn charge exchange injection scheme using the stripper foils. After the fine beam tuning in the RCS, most of the beam losses occur at the foil only. However, the high residual doses were detected around the stripper foil, which cannot be explained by the direct scattering of the injected H- and circulating proton beams with the stripper foil. From the measurements and simulations, it is identified that secondary particles produced in the nuclear reactions with the foil had caused the high residual activity around there. The radio-activation of the foil itself and the high residual dose around the foil are intrinsic problems for all high power beam accelerators with stripping foil. A safe and efficient maintenance in the high radiation and narrow space in these accelerators is important. The foil maintenance under such an environment is required to keep staff radiation exposure as low as possible to reduce the risk of radioactive foil breakup or dispersion and to retrieve the foil without breaking for its analysis. We achieved a safe and efficient maintenance method to retrieve the radioactivated stripper foils. (author)

  12. Stripper foil failure modes and cures at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum, M. A.; Cousineau, S. M.; Galambos, J.; Kim, S. H.; Ladd, P.; Luck, C. F.; Peters, C. C.; Polsky, Y.; Shaw, R. W.; Macek, R. J.; Raparia, D.

    2011-03-01

    The Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.5 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H- charge-exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H- beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  13. Structure studies of carbon foils with the aim to improve the ability for heavy-ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slackened carbon stripper foils of 3 to 5 μg/cm2 produced by vacuum evaporation-condensation were graphitized by annealing at about 3300 K with a pulsed laser beam (1.06 μm). An average crystal size of 10 nm was measured by electron diffraction. The texture of the 002-plane is parallel to the surface of the foil as known from slightly annealed carbon foils. Radiation damages caused by high doses of heavy ions dramatically change the crystal structure. Electron diffraction patterns reveal newly formed graphite crystals with their 002-plane perpendicular to the texture. Compared to carbon foils of the same kind, but not graphitized, a lifetime prolongation of a factor of two was achieved for such foils tested in the terminal of the Munich MP tandem. The slope of the curve for heavy-ion transmission through carbon stripper foils varies for foils of the same kind and for different ion-beam conditions. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of continuous degradation of a stripper foil during ths operation with 300 kW beam power in the 3-GeV RCS of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, we have clearly measured a continuous degradation of a stripper foil during more than 6 months operation with a beam power of 300 kW. A hybrid-type boron doped carbon stripper foil of 200 μg/cm2 was used for 181 MeV H- stripping injection. In order to know an absolute change of the foil thickness as well as information on the pinhole formation, we precisely measured an absolute change of the partially-stripped H0 and the un-stripped H- waste beams. Two absolutely independent monitor systems were used and the results were found to be very consistent with each other. The foil thickness at the injected beam spot was measured to be gradually thickening and it was more than 10 % thicker at the end compared to the initial thickness, where the measurement accuracy was obtained to be better than 2 %. The missing un-stripped H- were also measured to be gradually increasing due to foil deformation and curling but there was however no clear indication of foil thinning or pinhole formation. (author)

  15. Application of carbon stripping foil to HIRFL-CSR and measurement of charge state distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged ions may be injected into the CSRm by means of the charge stripping injection or the multiple multi-turn injection. The charge state distribution of the ions passing through the carbon foil has great influence on the performance of the accelerator and thus plays a key role in the charge stripping injection. It's found that the charge state distribution is dependent on the thicknesses of the carbon foil and the energy of the ions. In present work, the carbon stripper was applied to HIRFL-CSR and the best optional charge state distribution was measured. (authors)

  16. Carbon foils for space plasma instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, F.; Ebert, R. W.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon foils have been successfully used for several decades in space plasma instruments to detect ions and neutral atoms. These instruments take advantage of two properties of the particle-foil interaction: charge conversion of neutral atoms and/or secondary electron emission. This interaction also creates several adverse effects for the projectile exiting the foil, such as angular scattering and energy straggling, which usually act to reduce the sensitivity and overall performance of an instrument. The magnitude of these effects mainly varies with the incident angle, energy, and mass of the incoming projectile and the foil thickness. In this paper, we describe these effects and the properties of the interaction. We also summarize results from recent studies with graphene foils, which can be made thinner than carbon foils due to their superior strength. Graphene foils may soon replace carbon foils in space plasma instruments and open new opportunities for space research in the future.

  17. Development of stripper options for FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, F.; Hershcovitch, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2010-09-12

    The US Department of Energy Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University includes a heavy ion superconducting linac capable of accelerating all ions up to uranium with energies higher than 200 MeV/u and beam power up to 400 kW. To achieve these goals with present ion source performance it is necessary to accelerate simultaneously two charge states of uranium from the ion source in the first section of the linac. At an energy of approximately 16.5 MeV/u it is planned to strip the uranium beam to reduce the voltage needed in the rest of the linac to achieve the final energy. Up to five different charge states are planned to be accelerated simultaneously after the stripper. The design of the stripper is a challenging problem due to the high power deposited (approximately 0.7 kW) in the stripper media by the beam in a small spot. To assure success of the project we have established a research and development program that includes several options: carbon or diamond foils, liquid lithium films, gas strippers and plasma strippers. We present in this paper the status of the different options.

  18. Relativistic Electron Transport Through Carbon Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, M.; Takasi, K.; Reinhold, C. O.; Takabayashi, Y.; Ito, T.; Komaki, K.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.

    We present a theoretical study of convoy electron emission resulting from transmission of relativistic 390 MeV/amu Ar17+ ions through carbon foils of various thicknesses. Our approach is based on a Langevin equation describing the random walk of the electron initially bound to the argon nucleus and later in the continuum. The calculated spectra of ejected electrons in the forward direction exhibit clear signatures of multiple scattering and are found to be in good agreement with recent experimental data.

  19. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Kim, V.; Schlitt, B.; Barth, W.; Groening, L.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Piriz, A. R.; Stöhlker, Th.; Vormann, H.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4 MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy-ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy-ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  20. Gaseous stripper for 51-MeV/U very heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RIKEN RI beam factory pursues powerful and energetic very-heavy-ion beams such as U and Xe to produce a thousand of new isotopes. The lifetime problem of carbon-foil strippers due to the high energy deposition of beams was a principal bottleneck for the intensity upgrade. Our group has pursued gas strippers as an alternative to carbon foils. Recently, the second gas stripper with air dedicated for 51-MeV/nucleon 124Xe beams was developed. We confined a very thick gas target, up to 20 mg/cm2 of air, in a 0.5-m target chamber. One good feature of using air is that it can be inexhaustible for our use. The stripper was stably operated in user runs performed in June 2013. The maximum beam intensity reached 37.5 pnA and the average intensity provided to users becomes approximately four times higher than it was in 2012. The down time-free gas strippers substantially contributed to the successful intensity upgrade. (author)

  1. Carbon nanotube thermal interfaces on gadolinium foil

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Patrick T.; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the thermal behavior of gadolinium foils to be used in magneto thermoelectric generator cells. Magneto thermoelectric generator cell technology exploits the ferromagnetic phase transition of gadolinium to drive the movement of a diaphragm 'shuttle' whose mechanical energy is converted to electrical form and which enhances heat transfer through both conduction and convection. Efficient heat transfer at mechanical interfaces is critical to increase shuttle speed and the commensurate r...

  2. Transmission of fast H3+ molecules through thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observed for the first time is the transmission of H3+ molecules (2.4 MeV) through carbon foils (2 - 7μg/cm2). The thickness dependence of the yield follows a single decreasing exponential function with a unity coefficient which is expected for H3+ transmitted with their original electrons

  3. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  4. Charge stripping of U238 ion beam by helium gas stripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imao, H.; Okuno, H.; Kuboki, H.; Yokouchi, S.; Fukunishi, N.; Kamigaito, O.; Hasebe, H.; Watanabe, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kase, M.; Yano, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a nondestructive, efficient electric-charge-stripping method is a key requirement for next-generation high-intensity heavy-ion accelerators such as the RIKEN Radioactive-Isotope Beam Factory. A charge stripper employing a low-Z gas is an important candidate applicable to high-intensity uranium beams for replacing carbon-foil strippers. In this study, a high-beam-transmission charge-stripping system employing helium gas for U238 beams injected at 10.8MeV/u was developed and demonstrated for the first time. The charge-state evolution measured using helium in a thickness range of 0.24-1.83mg/cm2 is compared with theoretical predictions. Energy attenuation and energy spread due to the helium stripper are also investigated.

  5. ALUMINUM FOIL REINFORCED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Alekseev; PREDTECHENSKIY M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In our research, the method of manufacturing an Al-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite by hot pressing and cold rolling was attempted. The addition of one percent of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by OCSiAl provides a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength of aluminum. The tensile strength of the obtained composite material is at the tensile strength level of medium-strength aluminum alloys.

  6. Simulation of swift boron clusters traversing amorphous carbon foils

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Ávalos, Santiago; Abril Sánchez, Isabel; Denton Zanello, Cristian D.; García Molina, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    We use a simulation code to study the interaction of swift boron clusters (Bn+, n=2–6, 14) with amorphous carbon foils. We analyze different aspects of this interaction, such as the evolution of the cluster structure inside the target, the energy and angle distributions at the detector or the stopping power ratio. Our simulation code follows in detail the motion of the cluster fragments through the target and in the vacuum until reaching a detector, taking into account the following interacti...

  7. Fabrication of isotopic and natural carbon foils by thermal cracking method and some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic and natural carbon foils made by thermal cracking method are used for various purposes in nuclear physics experiments. An apparatus equipped with an oil free vacuum pumping system has been constructed to produce such foils on a resistively heated metallic Ta filament by the thermal cracking method. Properties of the foils such as accessible thickness and area, uniformity, purity and yield in the foil preparation were investigated. We also investigated the following issue during the foil production; when the Ta filament temperature was decreased after the cracking process, the cracked layer sometimes broke into pieces from the filament. Eventually, we could successfully fabricate enriched isotopic 12C foils and natural carbon foils with thicknesses from 0.2 to 5 mg/cm2 and with a dimension of 20 × 20 mm2 or even larger. (author)

  8. All-Carbon Electrode Consisting of Carbon Nanotubes on Graphite Foil for Flexible Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Hwang Ryu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the fabrication of an all-carbon electrode by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use in flexible electrochemical applications. The electrode is composed of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes that are grown directly on a flexible graphite foil. Being all-carbon, the simple fabrication process and the excellent electrochemical characteristics present an approach through which high-performance, highly-stable and cost-effective electrochemical applications can be achieved.

  9. Optical transition radiation from a thin carbon foil: a beam profile monitor for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This memo considers placement of an ultra thin carbon foil into the SLC beam. Transition radiation light would be emitted from the surface of the foil. The optical spot from the foil could be viewed with a microscope objective lens and registered with an image detector. Multiple scattering for the foil thicknesses necessary will not affect the beam emittance. Calculations show that a thin carbon foil can withstand the electron beam if the electron beam is larger than 10 μm in size. There are many possible radiation mechanisms from a foil - bremsstrahlung, black body temperature radiation, Cerenkov light, scintillation light, and transition radiation. Transition radiation is apparently dominant. It is proposed to use thin carbon foils, 75 to 150 A thick. Calculations indicate that 5 x 1010 beam electrons will radiate a useable number of optical photons. Specifically with 150 A foils the fractional yield of useful optical photons is 10-3 photons per incident electron 5 x 10+7 optical photons imaged upon an image plane. Spread these photons over a 32 x 32 pixel CCD and one has the readout system of a monitor

  10. Carbon/graphene foils: a critical subsystem for plasma instruments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, F.; Ebert, R. W.; Fuselier, S. A.; Bedworth, P.; Sinton, S.

    2015-12-01

    Thin carbon foils play a critical role in the time-of-flight (TOF) and charge conversion subsystems used in many of the plasma sensors developed for space. These instruments take advantage of properties of the particle-foil interaction: charge conversion of neutral atoms and/or secondary electron emission. This interaction also creates several adverse effects for the projectile exiting the foil, such as angular scattering and energy straggling, that usually act to reduce the sensitivity and overall performance of an instrument. The magnitude of these effects varies with the incident angle, energy, and mass of the incoming projectile and the foil thickness. The thinnest foils flown typically have a nominal thickness (as specified by the manufacturer) of ~0.5 - 1 µg cm-2. In this presentation, we will summarize several studies that have quantified the properties of ions exiting the thin carbon foil and discuss recent work on graphene foils, a promising new technology that may be capable of mitigating the undesirable effects associated with these interactions.

  11. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on aluminum foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itir Bakis Dogru; Mete Batuhan Durukan; Onur Turel; Husnu Emrah Unalan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) grown on aluminum foils were used as flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Aluminum foils were used as readily available, cheap and conductive substrates, and VACNTs were grown directly on these foils through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Solution based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method was used for the deposition of the CNT catalyst. Direct growth of VACNTs on aluminum foils ruled out both the internal resistance of the su-percapacitor electrodes and the charge transfer resistance between the electrode and electrolyte. A specific capacitance of 2.61 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 800 mV/s was obtained from the fabricated elec-trodes, which is further improved through the bending cycles.

  12. Gas Gain Measurement Of GEM-Foil In Argon-Carbon Dioxide Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reaction measurement with radioactive beam at low energy plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. The trajectory of particle beams can be obtained by using an active gas target, multiple-sampling and tracking proportional chamber (MSTPC), as a proportional counter. Because of intensity of low energy radioactive beam, in the stellar reaction such as (α, p), (p, α), it is necessary to increase the gain for the counter. In this case, a gas electrons multiplier (GEM) foil will be used, so the proportional counter is called GEM-MSTPC. The efficient gas gain of GEM foils which relates to foil thickness and operating pressure was investigated with two type of the foils, 400 μm and 200 μm, in Argon (70%) + Carbon dioxide (30%) mixture. (author)

  13. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on aluminum foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itir Bakis Dogru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs grown on aluminum foils were used as flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Aluminum foils were used as readily available, cheap and conductive substrates, and VACNTs were grown directly on these foils through chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Solution based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP method was used for the deposition of the CNT catalyst. Direct growth of VACNTs on aluminum foils ruled out both the internal resistance of the supercapacitor electrodes and the charge transfer resistance between the electrode and electrolyte. A specific capacitance of 2.61 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 800 mV/s was obtained from the fabricated electrodes, which is further improved through the bending cycles.

  14. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarz, A

    2002-01-01

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 mu g/cm sup 2 , coated with approximately 4 mu g/cm sup 2 MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm sup 2. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  15. Laser Wire Stripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  16. Preparation of graphene on Cu foils by ion implantation with negative carbon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on few-layer graphene synthesized on Cu foils by ion implantation using negative carbon cluster ions, followed by annealing at 950 °C in vacuum. Raman spectroscopy reveals IG/I2D values varying from 1.55 to 2.38 depending on energy and dose of the cluster ions, indicating formation of multilayer graphene. The measurements show that the samples with more graphene layers have fewer defects. This is interpreted by graphene growth seeded by the first layers formed via outward diffusion of C from the Cu foil, though nonlinear damage and smoothing effects also play a role. Cluster ion implantation overcomes the solubility limit of carbon in Cu, providing a technique for multilayer graphene synthesis. (paper)

  17. Charge fraction of 6.0 MeV/n heavy ions with a carbon foil: Dependence on the foil thickness and projectile atomic number

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Y; Muramatsu, M; Murakami, T; Yamada, S; Kobayashi, C; Kageyama, Y; Miyoshi, T; Ogawa, H; Nakabushi, H; Fujimoto, T; Miyata, T; Sano, Y

    2003-01-01

    We measured the charge fraction of 6.0 MeV/n heavy ions (C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe and Cu) with a carbon foil at the NIRS-HIMAC injector. At this energy they are stripped with a carbon foil before being injected into two synchrotron rings with a maximum energy of 800 MeV/n. In order to find the foil thickness (D sub E) at which an equilibrium charge state distribution occurs, and to study the dependence of the D sub E -values on the projectile atomic number, we measured the exit charge fractions for foil thicknesses of between 10 and 350 mu g/cm sup 2. The results showed that the D sub E -values are 21.5, 62.0, 162, 346, 121, 143 mu g/cm sup 2 for C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe, Cu, respectively. The fraction of Ar sup 1 sup 8 sup + ions was actually improved to 33% at 320 mu g/cm sup 2 from approx 15% at 100 mu g/cm sup 2. For Fe and Cu ions, the D sub E -values were found to be only 121 and 143 mu g/cm sup 2; there is a large gap between Ar and Fe, which is related to the differences in the ratio of the binding energy of the K-...

  18. Equilibrium charge-state distributions of highly stripped ions in carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetric equilibrium charge-state distributions observed for heavy ions (Z approx. >= 7) in carbon foils at high velocities (v > 3.6 x 108 Z0sup(.)45 cm s-1) are closely approximated by a simple statistical distribution: the reduced chi-squared model. The dependences of the mean charge and of the standard deviation of the charge on the projectile velocity are obtained by a previously-known and a newly-proposed relation, respectively. Finally charge-state fractions may be easily predicted using a simple formula depending only on the atomic number and on the velocity of the projectile. (orig.)

  19. Spectrolog microprocessor stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma spectrum measurement signals received from a downhole instrument containing a scintillation counter are coupled into a multi-channel analyzer, which converts them to pulses in separate channels according to signal energy levels. The analyzer energy channels are coupled to digital decoders set up for energy level windows for preselected elements, and for the total occurrence count. These outputs are coupled into a microprocessor stripper which includes storage comparison registers sized in accordance with the logging rate and crystal utilized in the scintillation counter. These registers permit filtering in addition to stripping the various energy channels of the influence radiation caused by the elements having an energy band centered around a higher energy level. After the stripping occurs, the outputs for each of the selected energy channels may be coupled into a digital recorder or into count rate meters for conversion to analog voltages for driving a chart recorder. (author)

  20. Measurements of Wake-Riding Electrons in Antiproton-Carbon-Foil Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    When a charged particle passes through dielectric media, e.g. a thin carbon foil, a ``wake'' is induced. The characteristic wake-potential shows an oscillatory behaviour, with a wavelength of about $ 2 \\pi v _{p} / \\omega _{p} _{l} $ where $ v _{p} $ is the projectile velocity and $ \\omega _{p} _{l} $ the plasmon energy of the target. This induced wake potential is superimposed on the Coulomb potential of the projectile, the latter leading to a pronounced ``cusp'' of electrons leaving the solid at $ v _{e} app v _{p} $ for positively charged projectiles in the MeV region. Correspondingly, an ``anti-cusp'' is expected for antiprotons. \\\\ \\\\ In the solid, the wake-potential leads to an attractive force on electrons, and a dynamic electronic state is predicted both for proton and antiproton projectiles. In the solid, the wake-riding electrons are travelling with the projectile speed $ v _{p} $ Upon exit of the foil, the electron released from the wake-riding state of an antiproton will suddenly find itself in th...

  1. Measurements of electron spectra in the forward direction in slow-antiproton carbon-foil collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of electrons emitted in the forward direction from antiproton and proton bombardments on carbon foils have been studied for projectile energies from 500 to 750 keV. Our main observation is that at the electron energy where the well-known convoy peak is observed for proton impact, the spectrum for equivelocity antiprotons is smooth, showing no indication of a deep anticusp. However, around 50 eV below the electron energy where the cusp is observed for proton impact, we have observed a small peak for antiproton impact. The energy and the relative intensity of the bump are found to be consistent with those predicted for electrons released from a wakeriding state. (author)

  2. Study of energy deposition and stripper temperature for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Su-Min; ZHANG Tian-Jue; AN Shi-zhong; BI Yuan-Jie

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high intensity proton accelerators are extensively applied,and this paper gives particular emphasis on CYCIAE-100,a 100 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron being constructed at CIAE.For accelerators of this type,the study is focused on how to improve the beam intensity.As for CYCIAE-100,the charge-exchange extraction is used to get protons.So it is crucial to enhance the lifetime of the stripping foil,which is largely determined by the energy deposition on it.For this cyclotron,due to the influence of the magnetic field.the electrons will spin near the foil and lose energy each time when they cross the foil.The energy deposition refers to all the energy deposition of protons and electrons.This paper stresses the stripper study of CYCIAE-100,in which the particle distribution on the foil is simulated and the energy deposition of calculated as a main reference for the foil design.

  3. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumers are choosing to complete do-it-yourself (DIY) projects in their homes. Using paint strippers in ... chance of flammable paint stripper fumes catching fire. DIY use of methylene chloride-based paint strippers has ...

  4. High power cladding light strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Alexandre; Faucher, Mathieu; Sévigny, Benoit

    2008-02-01

    The ability to strip cladding light from double clad fiber (DCF) fibers is required for many different reasons, one example is to strip unwanted cladding light in fiber lasers and amplifiers. When removing residual pump light for example, this light is characterized by a large numerical aperture distribution and can reach power levels into the hundreds of watts. By locally changing the numerical aperture (N.A.) of the light to be stripped, it is possible to achieve significant attenuation even for the low N.A. rays such as escaped core modes in the same device. In order to test the power-handling capability of this device, one hundred watts of pump and signal light is launched from a tapered fusedbundle (TFB) 6+1x1 combiner into a high power-cladding stripper. In this case, the fiber used in the cladding stripper and the output fiber of the TFB was a 20/400 0.06/0.46 N.A. double clad fiber. Attenuation of over 20dB in the cladding was measured without signal loss. By spreading out the heat load generated by the unwanted light that is stripped, the package remained safely below the maximum operating temperature internally and externally. This is achieved by uniformly stripping the energy along the length of the fiber within the stripper. Different adhesive and heat sinking techniques are used to achieve this uniform removal of the light. This suggests that these cladding strippers can be used to strip hundreds of watts of light in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  5. Angular scattering of 1–50 keV ions through graphene and thin carbon foils: Potential applications for space plasma instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Robert W., E-mail: rebert@swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, P. O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, Texas 78228-0510 (United States); Allegrini, Frédéric; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Nicolaou, Georgios [Southwest Research Institute, P. O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, Texas 78228-0510 (United States); Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249 (United States); Bedworth, Peter; Sinton, Steve [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Trattner, Karlheinz J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We present experimental results for the angular scattering of ∼1–50 keV H, He, C, O, N, Ne, and Ar ions transiting through graphene foils and compare them with scattering through nominal ∼0.5 μg cm{sup −2} carbon foils. Thin carbon foils play a critical role in time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers and energetic neutral atom sensors in space. These instruments take advantage of the charge exchange and secondary electron emission produced as ions or neutral atoms transit these foils. This interaction also produces angular scattering and energy straggling for the incident ion or neutral atom that acts to decrease the performance of a given instrument. Our results show that the angular scattering of ions through graphene is less pronounced than through the state-of-the-art 0.5 μg cm{sup −2} carbon foils used in space-based particle detectors. At energies less than 50 keV, the scattering angle half width at half maximum, ψ{sub 1/2}, for ∼3–5 atoms thick graphene is up to a factor of 3.5 smaller than for 0.5 μg cm{sup −2} (∼20 atoms thick) carbon foils. Thus, graphene foils have the potential to improve the performance of space-based plasma instruments for energies below ∼50 keV.

  6. Angular scattering of 1–50 keV ions through graphene and thin carbon foils: Potential applications for space plasma instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present experimental results for the angular scattering of ∼1–50 keV H, He, C, O, N, Ne, and Ar ions transiting through graphene foils and compare them with scattering through nominal ∼0.5 μg cm−2 carbon foils. Thin carbon foils play a critical role in time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers and energetic neutral atom sensors in space. These instruments take advantage of the charge exchange and secondary electron emission produced as ions or neutral atoms transit these foils. This interaction also produces angular scattering and energy straggling for the incident ion or neutral atom that acts to decrease the performance of a given instrument. Our results show that the angular scattering of ions through graphene is less pronounced than through the state-of-the-art 0.5 μg cm−2 carbon foils used in space-based particle detectors. At energies less than 50 keV, the scattering angle half width at half maximum, ψ1/2, for ∼3–5 atoms thick graphene is up to a factor of 3.5 smaller than for 0.5 μg cm−2 (∼20 atoms thick) carbon foils. Thus, graphene foils have the potential to improve the performance of space-based plasma instruments for energies below ∼50 keV

  7. Electrochemical Stability of Carbon Fibers Compared to Metal Foils as Current Collectors for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of highly conductive, fully-graphitic, semi-graphitic and non-graphitic carbon fibers were studied as the cathode current collectors of lithium batteries in standard electrolyte (alkyl carbonate/LiPF6) solutions and compared to bare aluminum (Al). All of these current collectors demonstrate a stable electrochemical behavior within the potential range of 2.5 to 5 V, due to passivation by surface films. Carbon fibers have comparable electrochemical stability of Al and may be used in place Al foil. While the carbon fibers do not contribute any irreversible or extra capacity when they are cycled below 4.5 V, for fully-graphitic and semi-graphitic fibers PF6 intercalation and deintercalation into the carbon fiber may occur when they are cycled at high potentials >4.5 V.

  8. Semi-empirical relationships for the energy loss and straggling of 1–50 keV hydrogen ions passing through thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy loss and straggling of keV H+ passing through carbon foil thicknesses. • Angular scattering constant and foil thickness. • Semi-empirical relationships of energy loss and straggling. - Abstract: Thin carbon foils are used in many fields of physics, including for the detection of keV particles in space plasma instrumentation. The interaction of ions or neutral atoms with these foils results in different effects: electron emission, charge exchange, angular scattering, and energy loss and straggling. We report measurements of the energy loss and straggling and angular scattering of 1–50 keV protons for different foil thicknesses (nominal 0.5–2.0 μg/cm2). We derive simple semi-empirical relationships for the energy loss and straggling as a function of incident energy and foil thickness. We also derive a semi-empirical relationship between the derived thickness and the scattering constant. This provides a simple and straightforward tool to estimate the energy loss by measuring the angular scattering of protons for a particular foil

  9. Sulphur hexafluoride as a stripper gas for tandem accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkis, M.A.C., E-mail: mah@ansto.gov.au; Child, D.; Fink, D.; Garton, D.; Levchenko, V.; Wilcken, K.

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: •Sulphur hexafluoride is investigated as a stripper gas in tandem accelerators. •For heavy ions at low terminal voltage, mean charge states are found to be up to 1 charge unit higher than with argon gas. •Charge state distributions are found to be broader than with argon gas. •For charge states above the mean charge state, yields are typically doubled using SF{sub 6}. •Using SF{sub 6} stripper gas, the efficiency of actinides AMS analysis is doubled. -- Abstract: We have investigated sulphur hexafluoride as a stripper gas in tandem accelerators by using the ANTARES accelerator system at ANSTO to measure charge state distributions for this gas. Results are reported at 4 MV terminal voltage for injected negative ions ranging from carbon to uranium oxide. For iodine and thorium the distributions are extended across a range of energies of practical use for accelerator mass spectrometry, ion beam analysis and other accelerator applications. Charge state distributions using sulphur hexafluoride are found to have mean charge states up to 1 charge unit higher than, and to be broader than, corresponding distributions for argon gas, except in the case of carbon beams. As a result, SF{sub 6} is shown to provide significantly higher yields for charge states of heavy ions above the mean charge state. We now perform actinide AMS measurements with 9% yield to the 5+ charge state, compared to 4–5% achieved previously with argon gas.

  10. Carbon footprint of a reflective foil and comparison with other solutions for thermal insulation in building envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Environmental and energy assessment of thermal insulating materials in building envelope. ► Carbon footprint of a reflective foil, conceived and produced by an Italian company. ► Study conducted according to principles of LCA – Life Cycle Assessment. ► Identification of main impacting processes and measures for reducing emissions. ► Comparison with traditional insulating materials (EPS and rockwool). - Abstract: The present study aims at assessing environmental and energy compatibility of different solutions of thermal insulation in building envelope. In fact a good insulation results in a reduction of heating/cooling energy consumptions; on the other hand construction materials undergo production, transformation and transport processes, whose energy and resources consumptions may lead to a significant decrease of the environmental benefits. The paper presents a detailed carbon footprint of a product (CFP, defined as the sum of greenhouse gas emissions and removals of a product system, expressed in CO2 equivalents), which is a reflective foil conceived and produced by an Italian company. CFP can be seen as a Life Cycle Assessment with climate change as the single impact category; it does not assess other potential social, economic and environmental impacts arising from the provision of products. The analysis considers all stages of the life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials to the product’s disposal, i.e. “from cradle to grave”; it was carried out according to UNI EN ISO 14040 and 14044, and LCA modelling was performed using SimaPro software tool. On the basis of obtained results, different measures have been proposed in order to reduce emissions in the life cycle and neutralize residual carbon footprint. The results allowed to make an important comparison concerning the environmental performance of the reflective foil in comparison with other types of insulating materials

  11. Energy loss of high velocity 6Li2+ ions in carbon foils in charge state non-equilibrium region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mean energy losses of high velocity H-like Li ions in thin carbon foils were measured in the charge state non-equilibrium region. Owing to the screening effect of the bound electron, the fixed-charge stopping power for 6Li2+ was smaller than that for 6Li3+. The projectile atomic number dependence of the fixed-charge stopping powers for H-like ions is discussed including our previous data of He, C and O ions with the same velocity. The present result is also compared with the theoretical prediction. (orig.)

  12. Catalyst-assisted vertical growth of carbon nanotubes on Inconel coated commercial copper foil substrates versus sputtered copper films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have compared the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on two types of substrates, copper foils and sputtered copper films. In both cases an initial 12 nm thin film of Inconel is first deposited on the Cu before growing the nanotubes. The Inconel thin film can act as both a catalyst for nanotube growth as well as a support for the additional Fe catalyst that is supplied in the form of ferrocene during CVD growth. The surfaces of the underlying copper substrates are very different and play a role in the resulting carbon nanotube density. A quantitative analysis of the density and alignment of the resulting carbon nanotubes using scanning electron microscopy shows that the smooth surface of the sputtered copper substrate leads to improvement in vertical growth and density of nanotubes as opposed to the much rougher electropolished Cu foil. We show that this is related to the differences in catalyst islands distributions and graphitic crystallinity seen on the surfaces of the two types of substrates after heating the samples in the CVD chamber. This demonstrates that the surface of the starting substrate plays an important role in the subsequent catalyst surface distribution and therefore the resulting nanotube density.

  13. Investigation of the influence of surface composition on the charge state distribution of ∼keV hydrogen exiting thin carbon foils for space plasma instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Frédéric; Coulter, Kent; Ebert, Robert W.; Nicolaou, Georgios; Poenitzsch, Vasiliki Zorbas

    2016-06-01

    Energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging techniques have become a powerful tool for remotely probing plasma environments in space. ENA imagers cover energies from 0.01 keV up to a few MeV, and they use different techniques to cover such a broad energy range. Most of them convert the ENA into a charged particle to remove the converted ENA from the initial neutral direction. In the >∼0.2 keV/nuc to 10's of keV/nuc range, the conversion subsystem is usually an ultra-thin carbon foil. The sensitivity of ENA imagers based on charge conversion by carbon foils is driven by the ability of these foils to convert a neutral atom into an ion. The charge state distribution after the carbon foils is a strong function of the chemical and physical properties of the exit surface. In this study, we analyze the composition and structure of the surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface is roughly 88% carbon and 12% oxygen, forming strong Csbnd O bonds. Annealing the foil lowers the oxygen content to about 9%. We coat the surface of the foils with Au, Al2O3, or MgO. We compare the exit charge state distributions of hydrogen prior to and post coatings. While no significant difference is observed in the exit charge state for the Au and Al2O3 coatings, there is a slight decrease of the positive fraction after MgO. The annealing of the foil has the benefit of reducing the angular scattering of hydrogen by a factor of ∼1.2. This is a significant improvement that has the potential to increase sensitivity of ENA imagers.

  14. Nonadditivity of convoy- and secondary-electron yields in the forward-electron emission from thin carbon foils under irradiation of fast carbon-cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, S.; Yoda, S.; Uchiyama, R.; Ishii, S.; Sasa, K.; Kaneko, T.; Kudo, H.

    2006-06-01

    We have measured energy spectra of secondary electrons produced by fast-carbon-cluster Cn+ (n=1-4) bombardment of thin carbon foils (3.2, 7.3, 11.9, and 20.3μg/cm2 ). For clusters of identical velocity, the convoy-electron yield is enhanced with increasing cluster size n , while the yield of secondary electrons is reduced. The yield of convoy electrons normalized to the number of injected atoms increases proportionally with cluster size n . This proportionality suggests that there is only a weak vicinage effect on the number of primary electrons scattered by the projectile. The vicinage effect observed in low-energy secondary electrons must therefore arise from either transport or transmission through the surface.

  15. Energy loss of swift H3+-molecule ions in carbon foils

    OpenAIRE

    Denton Zanello, Cristian D.; Pérez Pérez, F. Javier; Abril Sánchez, Isabel; García Molina, Rafael; Arista, Néstor R.

    1996-01-01

    The energy loss of H3+-molecule beams interacting with amorphous carbon targets has been calculated, both as a function of the target thickness and the projectile velocity. We have considered the spatial changes, due to Coulomb repulsion, of the initial molecular configuration after the H3+ ion enters the target and then used a dielectric formalism to evaluate the stopping power of the correlated protons. The ratio between the stopping power of the H3+ molecule and that of its constituents co...

  16. Hydrogen in carbon foils made by DC glow discharge in ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal desorption has been studied from thin films of carbon prepared by dc glow discharge in ethylene. The only gases released in significant quantities are hydrogen and methane. Both releases can be characterised by a continuum of activation energies but the methane release peaks at a lower temperature than that from hydrogen. The estimated total hydrogen release is compared with the hydrogen content determined by nuclear scattering experiments. Infra red studies suggest that the majority of CH2 and CH3 bonds can be ruptured by annealing at 3000C, a temperature well below the hydrogen and methane release rate maxima. Possible hydrogen bonding modes and desorption mechanisms are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2 MeV/u sulfur ions passing through carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions for 2.0 MeV/u sulfur ions after passing through carbon foils were studied experimentally. For the equilibrium charge-state distribution, incident ions of S7+, S12+, S14+ and S16+ were injected into carbon foils 54, 98, 150 and 200 μg/cm2 in thickness, whereas for the non-equilibrium distributions, new measurements for S15+ and S16+ incidences were made through carbon foils of 0.9-10 μg/cm2 to supplement our previous experiments regarding S6+-S14+ incidences [M. Imai, M. Sataka, K. Kawatsura, K. Takahiro, K. Komaki, H. Shibata, H. Sugai, K. Nishio, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 230 (2005) 63; M. Imai, M. Sataka, K. Kawatsura, K. Takahiro, K. Komaki, H. Shibata, H. Sugai, K. Nishio, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 256 (2007) 11]. Mean charge states for S6+-S14+ incidences as functions of the penetration thickness merged at 6.9 μg/cm2 and changed together until reaching equilibrium at around 100 μg/cm2, while those for S15+ and S16+ incidences took different paths to equilibrium, which was also the case for distribution widths for S6+-S14+, S15+ and S16+ incidences. An equilibrium mean charge state of 12.68 and distribution width of 1.11 were attained with equilibrium charge distributions between 6+ and 16+.

  18. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  19. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden and Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft(trademark) Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process this well data and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway

  20. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions passing through carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions were studied experimentally for 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions after passing through carbon foils. Measured charge-state distribution established the equilibrium at a target thickness of 10 μg/cm2 and this remained unchanged until a maximum target thickness of 98 μg/cm2. The equilibrium charge-state distribution, the equilibrium mean charge-state, and the width and skewness of the equilibrium distribution were compared with predictions using existing semi-empirical formulae as well as simulation results, including the ETACHA code. It was found that charge-state distributions, mean charge states, and distribution widths for C2+, C3+, and C4+ incident ions merged into quasi-equilibrium values at a target thickness of 5.7 μg/cm2 in the pre-equilibrium region and evolved simultaneously to the ‘real equilibrium’ values for all of the initial charge states, including C5+ and C6+ ions, as previously demonstrated for sulfur projectile ions at the same velocity (Imai et al., 2009). Two kinds of simulation, ETACHA and solution of rate equations taking only single electron transfers into account, were used, and both of them reproduced the measured charge evolution qualitatively. The quasi-equilibrium behavior could be reproduced with the ETACHA code, but not with solution of elementary rate equations

  1. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  2. Delayed emission of 2p-1s and 3p-1s X-rays from 40 MeV neon ions ionized in a thin carbon foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous study of the He- and H-like lines of 40 MeV Ne projectiles excited by a thin carbon foil showed that the x-ray spectrum contains only He-like and H-like lines and that the intensities of these lines are sufficient to employ a high resolution curved crystal spectrometer to study the decay curves for individual transitions. Presented are Ne K x-ray spectra excited by passing a beam of 40 MeV ions through a 50 μg/cm2 carbon foil. They were taken at 0, 2.3, and 9.1 mm behind the foil and are normalized to the same total integrated charge in the carbon foil. The 1s2p(23P1)-1s2(11S0) transition is a spin-forbidden, metastable, intercombination line and has a lifetime of 1.85 x 10-10 sec8, whereas the He-like 1s2p(1P)-1s2(1S), H-like 2p(2P)-1s(2S), and H-like 3p(2P)-1s(2s) transitions are dipole-allowed with lifetimes of 1.13 x 10-13 sec8, 1.59 x 10-13 sec9, and 5.98 x 10-13 sec 10, respectively. It is apparent that even at 1 cm (i.e. 0.5 ns) behind the foil, considerable intensity is still detected for the short lifetime transitions indicating that electrons are cascading from very high n levels. Previous measurements and calculations have shown that the decay curves can be described by a power law of the form I = ct/sup -b/, where c and b are constants for a given line. It has been found that b depends on the initial n,l distribution. The measured decay curves for the delayed He-Like 1s2p(1P)-1s2(1S), H-like 2p-1s and H-like 3p-1s transitions are shown fitted to this power law

  3. The effects of carbon foil on beams in stripping-accumulation of a heavy-ion synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripping-injection scheme is adopted in the synchrotron of an accelerator complex named as HITFiL. HITFIL is dedicated to cancer therapy. High intensity can be reached by using the stripping-injection as the limit of Liouville's theorem is broken due to charge-exchange. But unavoidable traversals of the circulating beams through the foil may cause beam-losses and deteriorations of beam quality, including: 1) beam-losses caused by an alteration of the particles' charge state; 2) emittance growth caused by Multiple Coulomb Scattering; and 3) decrease of mean-momentum and growth of momentum spread induced by energy loss and energy loss straggling. In this paper, the model of particle-foil interaction is established by Monte Carlo processes. The effects of the stripping foil on beams are studied based on an improvement of the ACCSIM code. (authors)

  4. Lithium ion batteries made of electrodes with 99 wt% active materials and 1 wt% carbon nanotubes without binder or metal foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kei; Noda, Suguru

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we propose lithium ion batteries (LIBs) without binder or metal foils, based on a three-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT) current collector. Because metal foils occupy 20-30 wt% of conventional LIBs and the polymer binder has no electrical conductivity, replacing such non-capacitive materials is a valid approach for improving the energy and power density of LIBs. Adding only 1 wt% of few-wall CNTs to the active material enables flexible freestanding sheets to be fabricated by simple dispersion and filtration processes. Coin cell tests are conducted on full cells fabricated from a 99 wt% LiCoO2-1 wt% CNT cathode and 99 wt% graphite-1 wt% CNT anode. Discharge capacities of 353 and 306 mAh ggraphite-1 are obtained at charge-discharge rates of 37.2 and 372 mA ggraphite-1, respectively, with a capacity retention of 65% at the 500th cycle. The suitability of the 1 wt% CNT-based composite electrodes for practical scale devices is demonstrated with laminate cells containing 50 × 50 mm2 electrodes. Use of metal combs instead of metal foils enables charge-discharge operation of the laminate cell without considerable IR drop. Such electrodes will minimize the amount of metal and maximize the amount of active materials contained in LIBs.

  5. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H0, H2+ and H3+ projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H2+ and H3+ polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  6. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2 MeV/u sulfur ions passing through carbon foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: imai@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sataka, M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawatsura, K.; Takahiro, K. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Komaki, K. [National Center for University Entrance Examinations, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8501 (Japan); Shibata, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugai, H.; Nishio, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions for 2.0 MeV/u sulfur ions after passing through carbon foils were studied experimentally. For the equilibrium charge-state distribution, incident ions of S{sup 7+}, S{sup 12+}, S{sup 14+} and S{sup 16+} were injected into carbon foils 54, 98, 150 and 200 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} in thickness, whereas for the non-equilibrium distributions, new measurements for S{sup 15+} and S{sup 16+} incidences were made through carbon foils of 0.9-10 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} to supplement our previous experiments regarding S{sup 6+}-S{sup 14+} incidences [M. Imai, M. Sataka, K. Kawatsura, K. Takahiro, K. Komaki, H. Shibata, H. Sugai, K. Nishio, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 230 (2005) 63; M. Imai, M. Sataka, K. Kawatsura, K. Takahiro, K. Komaki, H. Shibata, H. Sugai, K. Nishio, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 256 (2007) 11]. Mean charge states for S{sup 6+}-S{sup 14+} incidences as functions of the penetration thickness merged at 6.9 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} and changed together until reaching equilibrium at around 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}, while those for S{sup 15+} and S{sup 16+} incidences took different paths to equilibrium, which was also the case for distribution widths for S{sup 6+}-S{sup 14+}, S{sup 15+} and S{sup 16+} incidences. An equilibrium mean charge state of 12.68 and distribution width of 1.11 were attained with equilibrium charge distributions between 6+ and 16+.

  7. Penetration of Hydrogen clusters from 10 to 120 kev/u in carbon foils. Study of their slowing-down and charge distribution of emerging fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the experimental study of the interaction between fast (10 to 120 keV/p) hydrogen clusters with thin solid targets. First, we have studied the slowing-down of Hn+(2≤n≤21) clusters through carbon foils. Up to date this had been made only with molecular ions. We obtain evidence for vicinage effects on the energy loss of proton-clusters. We show that for projectile energies larger than 50 keV/p, the energy loss of a proton in a cluster is enhanced when compared to that of an isolated proton of the same velocity. At lower incident energies, it is a decrease of the energy loss which is observed. The same effect is also observed in the energy lost in the entrance window of a surface barrier detector bombarded by clusters. This phenomenon is interpreted in terms of interferences between individual polarisation wakes induced by each proton of the cluster. In the second part, we propose an accurate method to study the charge state of the atomic fragments resulting from the dissociation of fast Hn+ (2≤n≤15) clusters through a carbon foil. This method gives also the distribution of the neutral atoms among the emerging fragments. These distributions are finally compared with binomial laws expected from independent particles

  8. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

  9. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden and Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft(trademark) Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process the information and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway. During this quarter, we have presented our project and discussed the software to numerous Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) workshops located in various regions of the United States

  10. U2 8 + -intensity record applying a H2 -gas stripper cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Winfried; Adonin, Aleksey; Düllmann, Christoph E.; Heilmann, Manuel; Hollinger, Ralph; Jäger, Egon; Khuyagbaatar, Jadambaa; Krier, Joerg; Scharrer, Paul; Vormann, Hartmut; Yakushev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    To meet the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research science requirements higher beam intensity has to be achieved in the present GSI-accelerator complex. For this an advanced upgrade program for the UNILAC is ongoing. Stripping is a key technology for all heavy ion accelerators. For this an extensive research and development program was carried out to optimize for high brilliance heavy ion operation. After upgrade of the supersonic N2 -gas jet (2007), implementation of high current foil stripping (2011) and preliminary investigation of H2 -gas jet operation (2012), recently (2014) a new H2 -gas cell using a pulsed gas regime synchronized with arrival of the beam pulse has been developed. An obviously enhanced stripper gas density as well as a simultaneously reduced gas load for the pumping system result in an increased stripping efficiency, while the beam emittance remains the same. A new record intensity (7.8 emA) for 238U2 8 + beams at 1.4 MeV /u has been achieved applying the pulsed high density H2 stripper target to a high intensity 238U4 + beam from the VARIS ion source with a newly developed extraction system. The experimental results are presented in detail.

  11. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinnell, J. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Klein, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  12. Oscillating foil propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady foil theory is discussed and applied on several cases of an oscillating foil. The oscillating foil is meant as a propulsion system for a platform supply vessel.Four case studies of foil oscillation have been performed. A thrust coefficient of 0.1 was achieved at an efficiency of 0.75. A thrust coefficient of minimum 0.184 is necessary to overcome the calm water resistance of the foil.Issues connected to coupled vessel-foil models are discussed.

  13. A gaseous stripper proposal based on hadrontherapy facility HIMM

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xiucui; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2013-01-01

    Multi-turn Injection scheme with gaseous stripper is usually used in high intensity and super heavy ion injection process. With its advantage of long lifetime and uniformity, a gaseous stripper is proposed based on the under construction hadrontherapy facility HIMM (Heavy Ion Medical Machine). In this paper, the physical process between the injecting beam and the gaseous target is studied, and a simulation work is conducted based on the former developed code.

  14. The charge state distributions of 0.5-2.9 MeV Be, Al, Cl, Ti and Ni ions measured after carbon foil stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state distributions have been measured for Be, Al, Cl, Ti and Ni ions stripped in the high-voltage terminal of an electrostatic tandem accelerator using a 2 μg/cm2 carbon foil. The series of measurements were made with a terminal voltage ranging from typically 1.5 to 2.9 MV. The charge state distributions were measured on the high-energy side of the accelerator, just in front of the analysing magnet, in order to take charge state-dependent transmission through the high-energy side of the accelerator into account. The obtained charge state distributions will be used for accelerator mass spectrometry measurements to find the optimum terminal voltage of the accelerator. (orig.)

  15. Simulation of ion beam scattering in a gas stripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxeiner, Sascha; Suter, Martin; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-01

    Ion beam scattering in the gas stripper of an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) enlarges the beam phase space and broadens its energy distribution. As the size of the injected beam depends on the acceleration voltage through phase space compression, the stripper becomes a limiting factor of the overall system transmission especially for low energy AMS system in the sub MV region. The spatial beam broadening and collisions with the accelerator tube walls are a possible source for machine background and energy loss fluctuations influence the mass resolution and thus isotope separation. To investigate the physical processes responsible for these effects, a computer simulation approach was chosen. Monte Carlo simulation methods are applied to simulate elastic two body scattering processes in screened Coulomb potentials in a (gas) stripper and formulas are derived to correctly determine random collision parameters and free path lengths for arbitrary (and non-homogeneous) gas densities. A simple parametric form for the underlying scattering cross sections is discussed which features important scaling behaviors. An implementation of the simulation was able to correctly model the data gained with the TANDY AMS system at ETH Zurich. The experiment covered transmission measurements of uranium ions in helium and beam profile measurements after the ion beam passed through the He-stripper. Beam profiles measured up to very high stripper densities could be understood in full system simulations including the relevant ion optics. The presented model therefore simulates the fundamental physics of the interaction between an ion beam and a gas stripper reliably. It provides a powerful and flexible tool for optimizing existing AMS stripper geometries and for designing new, state of the art low energy AMS systems.

  16. Forward-backward correlation in secondary electron emission from a thin carbon foil by frozen-charged H{sup +} and H{sup 0} penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nara Women' s Univ., Nara 630-8506 (Japan)], E-mail: ogawa@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp; Sonoda, M.; Inoue, Y. [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women' s Univ., Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Ishii, K. [Department of Physics, Nara Women' s Univ., Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Graduate School of Science, Okayama Univ. of Science, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    The statistical distributions of the number of simultaneously emitted secondary electrons (SE's) from a thin carbon foil have been measured with frozen-charged H{sup 0} and H{sup +} projectiles of 2.5-3.5 MeV. In this experiment, the forward- and backward-emitted electrons have been measured simultaneously together with foil-transmitted particles using a list-mode data taking system in order to investigate their correlation. From the two-dimensional spectra of the emitted SE's, we have derived the probability distributions of the SE emission, P(n{sub f},n{sub b}), where n{sub f} and n{sub b} represent the number of SE's emitted simultaneously in the forward and backward directions, respectively. Compared with those for the H{sup +} penetration, the emission probabilities for the H{sup 0} penetration exhibit quite different n{sub f}- and n{sub b}-dependence. Firstly, P(n{sub f}=0,n{sub b}=0) takes a remarkably large value. Secondly, among P(n{sub f},n{sub b})'s with n{sub f}+n{sub b}=(constant), P(n{sub f}{ne}0,n{sub b}=0) and P(n{sub f}=0,n{sub b}{ne}0) become the largest and the second largest probabilities. In contrast, such events that SE's are emitted in both of the forward and backward directions happen with significantly smaller probabilities. These trends are common to all projectile energies measured and seem to be explained by the predominance of the high energy internal SE production for the H{sup 0} penetration due to the screening effect of its bound electron.

  17. Tilted foils polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Tornqvist, H; Yordanov, D T; Imai, N; Heinz, A; Nilsson, T; Sotty, C; Hass, M; Georgiev, G; Johansson, H; Dhal, A; Stuchbery, A; Wenander, F; Hirayama, Y; Kusoglu, A; Balabanski, D

    2013-01-01

    The tilted-foils nuclear-spin polarization method has been evaluated using the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. A beam of Li-8 delivered with an energy of 300 keV/u traversed through one Mylar foil to degrade the beam energy to 200 keV/u and consequently through 10 thin diamond-like carbon foils to polarize the nuclear spin. The attained nuclear spin polarization of 3.6 +/- 0.3% was measured with a beta-NMR setup. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poore, A. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  19. Titanium erosion in urea strippers and emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Pressure Urea Stripper is the heart of a Urea Plant. The process fluids in the high pressure streams are generally very corrosive in nature. This is basically a falling film type exchanger/ evaporator and high pressure and temperatures here make the process fluid most corrosive compared to other regions in Urea Plant. The equipment design takes into account a trade off between cost and corrosion resistance against the aggressive process media. This paper explains erosion phenomenon/ counter measures in Titanium strippers as experienced by FFC at its plants and emerging technologies to improve life and reliability of this equipment. (author)

  20. Uniformity of aluminium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially produced rolled and beaten Al foils and evaporated Al foils have been examined for thickness uniformity with an areal resolution of about 5 x 10-6 cm2 by measurements of proton backscattering yield using the Harwell microbeam facility. The evaporated Al foils were found to be uniform to better than 1% but the rolled foils were found to have non-uniformities of as much as 5-10% of their mean thickness. This is sufficient to contribute significantly to systematic errors in measurement of fast heavy ion energy straggling. (Auth.)

  1. Vapor-phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on commercial carbon coated aluminum foil as enhanced electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Linyue; Skorenko, Kenneth H.; Faucett, Austin C.; Boyer, Steven M.; Liu, Jian; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.; Bernier, William E.; Jones, Wayne E.

    2015-11-01

    Laminar composite electrodes are prepared for application in supercapacitors using a catalyzed vapor-phase polymerization (VPP) of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on the surface of commercial carbon coated aluminum foil. These highly electrically conducting polymer films provide for rapid and stable power storage per gram at room temperature. The chemical composition, surface morphology and electrical properties are characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). A series of electrical measurements including cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge (CD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are also used to evaluate electrical performance. The processing temperature of VPP shows a significant effect on PEDOT morphology, the degree of orientation and its electrical properties. The relatively high temperature leads to high specific area and large conductive domains of PEDOT layer which benefits the capacitive behavior greatly according to the data presented. Since the substrate is already highly conductive, the PEDOT based composite can be used as electrode materials directly without adding current collector. By this simple and efficient process, PEDOT based composites exhibit specific capacitance up to 134 F g-1 with the polymerization temperature of 110 °C.

  2. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions

  3. What Do You Really Know About Floor Finishes & Strippers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    An independent testing laboratory reveals the results of comparative studies done on vinyl flooring and the question of to wax or not to wax'' and which waxes work best with what flooring; and provides six evaluation tips on floor strippers. (EA)

  4. Mechanical properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate foils by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films have been deposited on polyethylene terephthalate by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. The influence of deposition parameters such as gas pressure, bias voltage, and nitrogen incorporation on the mechanical properties of the a-C:H films are investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the ratio of sp3 to sp2 is 0.24 indicating that the film is mainly composed of graphitelike carbon. Nanoindentation tests disclose enhanced surface hardness of ∼6 GPa. The friction coefficient of the film deposited at higher gas pressure, for instance, 2.0 Pa, is lower than that of the film deposited at a lower pressure such as 0.5 Pa. The films deposited using a low bias voltage tend to fail easily in the friction tests and nitrogen incorporation into the a-C:H films decreases the friction coefficient. Mechanical folding tests show that deformation failure is worse on a thinner a-C:H film

  5. Foil Face Seal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  6. Commercial Application of Novel FDFCC Grid Packing Type Stripper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenqian; Tian Geng; Lei Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The novel FDFCC grid packing stripper is used to raise the stripping efficiency of the equipment.This technology aims to increase the gas-solid contact area and improve the gas-solid contact efficiency.This technology has been applied in the revamped 1.05 Mt/a No.1 FCC unit at the SINOPEC Changling Branch Company.The outcome on application of this equipment has revealed that the fluidization of the stripper was stable coupled with smooth operation.At a steam stripping load of less than 50%of the design value the spent catalyst had a lower H/C ratio,and the hydrogen content in the coke after revamp of the FCC unit decreased by 8.1%compared to the case before the equipment revamp.The spent catalyst had higher activity with the dry gasand coke yields reduced by over 0.5%.resulting in good economic benefits.

  7. The Large-Scale Sugarcane Stripper with Automatic Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaxiang Lin; Wenjie Yan; Jiaping Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study mainly introduce the large-scale sugarcane stripper with automatic feeding, which including the automatic feeding module, cleaning leaves module, collecting module and control module. The machine is an important part of the segmental type sugarcane harvester, using to solve the highest labor intensity problem of cleaning leaves. Collecting the hilly areas sugarcane and cleaning their leaves, can greatly improve the labor productivity and changing the current mode of sugarcane harvest.

  8. Charge Stripper Effects on Beam Optics in 180-degree Bending Section of RISP Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Song, Jeong Seog

    2016-01-01

    The RAON, a superconducting linear accelerator for RISP (Rare Isotope Science Project), will use a charge stripper in order to increase the charge states of the heavy ions for effective acceleration in the higher energy part of the linac. The charge stripper affects the beam qualities by scattering when the heavy ions go through the charge stripper. Moreover we have to select and accelerate proper charge states between 77+ and 81+ for uranium beam case in order to satisfy the beam power requirement at an IF (Inflight Fragmentation) target. This work focuses on the beam optics affected by the charge stripper in the 180-dgree bending section.

  9. Transmission of cluster ions through a tandem accelerator of several stripper gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmissions of carbon cluster ion beams through a tandem accelerator using several stripper gases (He, N2, CO2, and SF6) with a terminal voltage of 2.5 MV were measured as a function of the gas pressure in investigating the most suitable gas for cluster ion acceleration. This resulted in it being demonstrated that the highest transmission could be obtained using the smaller size gas, i.e., helium displayed the best performance of the four gases used. In addition, the ratio of transmissions of Cn with helium and nitrogen increased with increases in the n, thus revealing that helium gas should prove the most effective in larger cluster ion acceleration using the same energy.

  10. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 800 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  11. Investigation of Nanodiamond and Silicon Carbide Foils Product for H-Stripping to Support Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gary; Griffin, James; Vispute, Rd; CIQM Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Diamond and silicon carbide (SiC) is an ideal material as an H- stripper foil for spallation neutron source (SNS) applications due to their high thermal conductivity, low molecular weight, and strength. Cubic silicon carbide grown on silicon is a material tension stress and the foil does not curl. Polycrystalline diamond is characterized by a high degree of internal stress, which causes the foil to curl when not supported by the substrate. the sic is grown using a RF CVD system. Hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used to grow diamond on a silicon substrate. In both cases a 1.2 cm diameter window was etched in the silicon using a 1:1:3 solution of hydrofluoric, nitric, and acetic acids so that the diamond of SiC foil would be suspended while being supported on all sides by the silicon. Wax and or photoresist were used as masks to protect the outer silicon from etching. Raman spectroscopy verified the quality of the grown material. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the diamond foil originally against the substrate had an average roughness of cracks in the suspended foil. NSF-STC CIQM.

  12. Foil electrode sper light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous laser transitions in the visible and near-infrared in four metal vapors (Li, Al, Ca, and Cu) have been observed in the recombination phase of the expanding plasmas produced by a segmented plasma device employing foil electrodes. Also described is a segmented vapor plasma discharge in using Ni foil electrodes

  13. Stripper harvesting of energy grain; Ribbehoest af energikorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, N.P.; Soerensen, K.

    2001-05-01

    A two-year study of the applicability of stripper harvesters for harvesting of energy grain (triticale) has been made. Consisting of a front-mounted wind-rower and a trailed stripper harvester, the stripper harvesting system was easy to operate in standing crops. However, quite severe problems often occurred in cases of severely lodged crops. Like other harvesting machines, wind-rowers require even fields with a minimum occurrence of stones in order to obtain a reliable and constant operation at an acceptable capacity. As a part of the project, the capacity of a newly developed chip transporting system for handling of the stripped fraction was studied. The transport system included a semi-trailer equipped with a suction system for loading and a chain conveyor-suction system for direct unloading into storage silos at the combined heat and power (CHP) stations. The loading capacity was very insufficient, and unloading was nearly impossible, due to frequent interruptions in the flow. For heating stations and other consumer facilities to be able to handle the stripped fraction, it became necessary to produce pellets from the material. The stripped fraction was transported to the pellet factory in open containers. It was no problem for the CHP stations to handle the big baled straw fraction, as CHP stations usually have the needed equipment. Both years the weather conditions were unfavourable. What combustion is concerned, however, improvements in the straw quality could already be seen after 30 mm of rainfall. Great reductions in the contents of potassium, chloride and ash were observed, whether or not stripping had occurred. As the weight of a stripped fraction will mainly depend on the content of seeds, only slight reductions in the contents of potassium, chloride and ash will occur as a result of rainfall. As desired, great reductions in the corrosion of CHP station boilers will be obtained during the leaching of straw. If the crops are left in the field, a

  14. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  15. Mechanical properties of polyethylene foils

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomír KUBÍK; Stanislav Zeman

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the mechanical properties of the polyethylene foils such as the stress, strain, modulus of elasticity and stress and strain in the moment of breaking. The thin foils (50 mm) which contained 91 % of polyethylene Bralen RA 2–63 and 9 % colored concentrate Maxithen were studied. Four sorts of foils were examined: Maxithen HP 1510 – white, Maxithen HP 231111 – yellow, Maxithen HP 533031 – blue and Maxithen HP 533 041 – violet. Longitudinal and transversal te...

  16. Shielding effect of foil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For neutron spectrum determinations one often irradiates activation detectors in boxes of cadmium, or of another material. Several models for the neutron attenuation in such foil covers are being studied. Preliminary experience is presented. (author)

  17. A novel energy-efficient batch stripper: Thermodynamic feasibility, cost analysis and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing energy demand, depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns have stimulated intensive research in improving the energetic potential of well-established process units through process intensification route. In this contribution, a novel internal heat integration scheme is introduced for batch stripping. Aiming to improve the thermodynamic efficiency of this transient distillation column, the tower is proposed to primarily divide into two diabatic sections. The upper section (top stripper) is operated at elevated pressures (heat source) keeping the lower part (bottom stripper) at normal state (heat sink) so that there exists a thermal driving force between them. With this goal, the proposed heat integrated batch stripper (HIBS) additionally requires a couple of internal heat exchangers, a compressor and a pressure reducing throttling valve. To quantify the benefits achieved by this novel scheme over a conventional standalone column, we use three performance indexes, namely energy savings, total annualized cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, the proposed HIBS configuration is demonstrated by simulating a binary system of cyclohexane and toluene. - Highlights: • A novel energy-efficient batch stripper is introduced. • Stripper is proposed to divide into two diabatic sections. • Two divided sections are thermally integrated by a couple of heat exchangers. • The mechanism is illustrated by the batch processing of a binary system

  18. Hydrogen permeation through metallic foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of electrolytic permeation of hydrogen through metallic foils is studied. A double electrolytic cell, in glass, in which the two compartments of reaction are separated by a metallic foil to be studied, was built. As direct result, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the metal is obtained. The hydrogen diffusion coefficients in the palladium and, in austenitic stainless steels 304 and 304 L, used in the Angra-1 reactor, were obtained. Samples of stainless steels with and without welding, were used. (Author)

  19. Interaction of low energy protons, deuterons, H{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +} with carbon foils: energy-angle distributions and velocity dependence of the energy loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantero, E.D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 S.C. Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Technicas (Argentina); Lantschner, G.H.; Arista, N.R. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 S.C. Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We have performed measurements of energy-angle distributions for low energy (E < 10 keV) hydrogen ions transmitted through thin amorphous carbon foils. The applicability of standard potentials for the description of the multiple scattering is tested by making comparisons of the experimental results with theoretical calculations using the model of Sigmund and Winterbon on a broad angular scale. The angular dependence of the energy loss for protons and deuterons is analyzed using the three-components model of Fama et al., that separately considers the contribution of elastic and inelastic mechanisms and the roughness effect. Additionally, the velocity dependence of the stopping power and the possible existence of isotopic and molecular effects in the energy loss is investigated by measurements with H{sup +}, D{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +} beams of velocities between 0.15 and 0.6 a.u. Among other things the results show first that the angular distributions can be very well described with the multiple scattering formalism of Sigmund and Winterbon, secondly that the multiple scattering process follows the energy-angle scaling law: E*{Theta} equals constant, and thirdly that no isotopic effect (H{sup +} vs D{sup +}) is observed in the stopping cross-sections measured in the forward direction, which corresponds to inelastic energy loss

  20. Stripper, shut-in and orphan wells in joint operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low productivity wells, stripper wells, can be an excellent source of income to independent operators or small companies, but a serious financial burden for larger companies. Shut-in wells, for most companies, are either waiting on a market and production facilities, or represent deferred abandonment liabilities. Orphan wells also reflect financial distress. The firm, Cord Oil and Gas Management Ltd., was formed in 1986 to specifically assist oil and gas companies, sophisticated investors and financial institutions with the management, enhancement and disposition of non-core or low productivity assets. This type of production, depending on the number of wells and cumulative production, can be the life blood of a small organization or a serious drain on the administrative personnel and financial resources of larger organizations. Philosophically, industry and/or government needs to manage the eventuality of abandonments by establishing financial criteria. Some suggestions for industry include: (1) establish provisions within joint operating agreements to set aside an abandonment and environmental cleanup fund; (2) minimize the inventory of abandonment candidates by an ongoing program of reclamation; (3) offset abandonment costs with salvage value of tangible equipment under AFE approval; and (4) voluntarily restrict transfer abandonment liabilities with producing assets on a selective basis. Some suggestions for governments include: (1) fund the orphan well by a deposit for every well drilled; (2) restrict the transfer of liabilities for abandoned and inactive wells by ensuring that the transferee is financially capable; and (3) access the chain of title to ensure non-operators remain responsible for the proportionate shares of abandonment and cleanup costs

  1. Integrated chemical/biological treatment of paint stripper mixed waste: Metals toxicity and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE complex has generated vast quantities of complex heterogeneous mixed wastes. Paint stripper waste (PSW) is a complex waste that arose from decontamination and decommissioning activities. It contains paint stripper, cheesecloth, cellulose-based paints with Pb and Cr, and suspect Pu. Los Alamos National Laboratory has 150--200 barrels of PSW and other national laboratories such as Rocky Flats Plant have many more barrels of heterogeneous waste. Few technologies exist that can treat this complex waste. Our approach to solving this problem is the integration of two established technologies: biodegradation and metals chelation

  2. Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Knighton, Gaven C.; Clark, Curtis R.

    2006-09-05

    A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

  3. Interaction of relativistic H- ions with thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of relativistic H- ions to thin carbon foils was investigated for beam energies ranging from 226 MeV to 800 MeV. For the foil thicknesses we have studied, ranging from 15 to 300 μg/cm2, an appreciable fraction of the H- beam survives intact, some H- ions are stripped down to protons, and the remainder is distributed over the states of H0. This experiment is different from the low energy studies in that the projectile velocity is comparable to the speed of light, leading to an interaction time of typically less than a femtosecond. The present results challenge the theoretical understanding of the interaction mechanisms. An electron spectrometer was used to selectively field-ionize the Rydberg states, 9 < n < 17, at beam energies of 581 MeV and 800 MeV. The yield of low-lying states were measured by Doppler tuning a Nd:YAG laser to excite transitions to a Rydberg state which was then field-ionized and detected. A simple model is developed to fit the yield of each state as a function of foil thickness. The simple model is successful in predicting the general features of the yield data. However, the data are suggestive of a more complex structure in the yield curves. The yield of a given state depends strongly on the foil thickness, demonstrating that the excited states are formed during the passage of the ions through a foil. The optimum thickness to produce a given state increases with the principal quantum number of the state suggesting an excitation process which is at least pratially stepwise. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation are compared with the experimental data to estimate the distribution of the excited states coming out of a foil. The distributions of the excited states and their dependence on foil thickness are discussed

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  5. Foil dissociation of fast molecular ions into atomic excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensity and polarizations of light emitted from atomic excited states of dissociated molecular ions were measured. The dissociations are induced when fast molecular ions (50 to 500 keV/amu) are transmitted through thin carbon foils. A calculation of multiple scattering and the Coulomb explosion gives the average internuclear separation of the projectile at the foil surface. Experimentally, the foil thickness is varied to give varying internuclear separations at the foil surface and observe the consequent variation in light yield and optical polarization. Using HeH+ projectiles, factors of 1 to 5 enhancements of the light yields from n = 3, 13P,D states of He I and some He II and H I emissions were observed. The results can be explained in terms of molecular level crossings which provide mixings of the various final states during dissociation of the molecular ions at the exit surface. They suggest a short range surface interaction of the electron pick-up followed by a slow molecular dissociation. Alignment measurements confirm the essential features of the model. Observations of Lyman α emission after dissociation of H2+ amd H3+ show rapid variations in light yield for small internuclear separations at the foil surface

  6. Numerical analysis of air-foil shaped fin performance in printed circuit heat exchanger in a supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jin Gyu [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sung Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Staggered arrangement affects the pressure drop but does not significantly affect to the heat transfer. • The total pressure drop is reduced, but the amount of acceleration pressure drop increases while that of frictional pressure drop decreases as the horizontal number increases. • For the vertical number, the total pressure drop decreases more largely than the horizontal number. • The objective function shows that the fully staggered arrangement shows best performance. - Abstract: One of the key issues of the PCHE technology in the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is to achieve an efficient and compact designs to be able to enhance heat transfer and reduce pressure drop. The issue is challenging due to the complex configuration of micro-channels in the PCHE. In this study, an innovative micro-channel equipped with an array of airfoil fins is analyzed to evaluate its performance. In so doing, sensitivity analysis with various design parameters is performed to configure the optimal arrangement of airfoil fins by using CFD analysis for Supercritical Carbon dioxide Integral Experimental Loop (SCIEL) in Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Dominant geometric parameters of the fin arrangement that affects to the thermal and hydraulic performances are the horizontal, vertical and staggered pitches. ANSYS ICEM CFD and ANSYS CFX are used for the grid generation and the computational calculation. CO{sub 2} properties are used by using REFPROF software database. The inlet temperature of the hot side is 618 K and that of the cold side is 585 K. The reference mass flow rate is set as 1.2 g/s for the vertical number of 2.0, which is the Reynolds number of about 30,000. The mass flow rate changes from 0.4 to 4.8 g/s in order to investigate the Reynolds number effect. The k-ε model is selected as the turbulence model. In conclusions, the results show that the optimal arrangement of airfoil fins can be examined in terms of an objective

  7. Numerical analysis of air-foil shaped fin performance in printed circuit heat exchanger in a supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Staggered arrangement affects the pressure drop but does not significantly affect to the heat transfer. • The total pressure drop is reduced, but the amount of acceleration pressure drop increases while that of frictional pressure drop decreases as the horizontal number increases. • For the vertical number, the total pressure drop decreases more largely than the horizontal number. • The objective function shows that the fully staggered arrangement shows best performance. - Abstract: One of the key issues of the PCHE technology in the supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle is to achieve an efficient and compact designs to be able to enhance heat transfer and reduce pressure drop. The issue is challenging due to the complex configuration of micro-channels in the PCHE. In this study, an innovative micro-channel equipped with an array of airfoil fins is analyzed to evaluate its performance. In so doing, sensitivity analysis with various design parameters is performed to configure the optimal arrangement of airfoil fins by using CFD analysis for Supercritical Carbon dioxide Integral Experimental Loop (SCIEL) in Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Dominant geometric parameters of the fin arrangement that affects to the thermal and hydraulic performances are the horizontal, vertical and staggered pitches. ANSYS ICEM CFD and ANSYS CFX are used for the grid generation and the computational calculation. CO2 properties are used by using REFPROF software database. The inlet temperature of the hot side is 618 K and that of the cold side is 585 K. The reference mass flow rate is set as 1.2 g/s for the vertical number of 2.0, which is the Reynolds number of about 30,000. The mass flow rate changes from 0.4 to 4.8 g/s in order to investigate the Reynolds number effect. The k-ε model is selected as the turbulence model. In conclusions, the results show that the optimal arrangement of airfoil fins can be examined in terms of an objective function and it

  8. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building.

  9. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building

  10. Agglomeration in Stripper Ash Coolers and Its Possible Remedial Solutions: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi Inder

    2016-04-01

    The bottom ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler contains large amounts of physical heat. When low quality coals are used in these types of boilers, the ash content is normally more than 40 % and the physical heat loss is approximately 3 % if the bottom ash is discharged without cooling. Bottom ash cooler (BAC) is often used to treat the high temperature bottom ash to reclaim heat, and to facilitate the easily handling and transportation of ash. The CFB boiler at BLA Power, Newari, MP (India) is facing problems of clinker formation in strip ash coolers of plant since the installation of unit. These clinkers are basically agglomerates, which leads to defluidization of stripper ash cooler (BAC) units. There are two strip ash coolers in unit. Each strip ash cooler is capable of working independently. The proper functioning of both strip coolers is very important as it is going to increase the combustion efficiency of boiler by stripping of fine unburnt coal particles from ash, which are injected into the furnace. In this paper causes, characterization of agglomerates, thermo gravimetric analysis of fuel used, particular size distribution of coal and sand and possible remedial solution to overcome these agglomerates in strip ash coolers has also been presented. High temperature in compact separators, non uniform supply of coal and not removing small agglomerates from stripper ash cooler are among main causes of agglomeration in stripper ash cooler. Control of compact separator temperature, replacing 10-12 % of bed material and cleaning stripper ash cooler periodically will decrease agglomeration in stripper ash cooler of unit.

  11. Application of an Active Foil Propeller

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Christian Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this master thesis the author has investigated the potential benefits from an active foil propeller. Foils are mounted on the hull and take advantage of the heaving and pitching motion of the vessel travelling and produce thrust, similarly to the tail find of aquatic mammals. Active foil means that the angle of the foil has been controlled to constantly maximise the thrust.The author has investigated the potential fuel savings for three vessels, an offshore supply vessel, a coastal tanker ...

  12. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  13. The Field Repair of the Seal Face of the Manhole Flange in the Stripper%E101汽提塔人孔法兰密封面的现场修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜善军; 崔广才

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the field repair condition of the seal face of manhole flange in the stripper,And transforming lens type gasket seal into flat metal gasket seal,and checking the loading of the main studs.

  14. Characterization of the GEM foil materials

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; Saviano, G; Muhammad, S; Piccolo, D; Raffone, G; Caponero, M; Passamonti, L; Pierluigi, D; Russo, A; Primavera, F; Cerbelli, S; Lalli, A; Valente, M; Ferrini, M; Teissandier, B; Taborelli, M; Parvis, M; Grassini, S; Tirilló, J; Sarasini, F; Franchi, A V

    2015-01-01

    Systematic studies on the GEM foil material are performed to measure the moisture diffusion rate and saturation level. These studies are important because the presence of this compound inside the detector's foil can possibly change its mechanical and electrical properties and, in such a way, the detector performance can be affected. To understand this phenomenon, a model is developed with COMSOL Multhiphysics v. 4.3, which described the adsorption and diffusion within the geometry of GEM foil, the concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the foil. The COMSOL model is verified by experimental observations on a GEM foil sample. This note will describe the model and its experimental verification results.

  15. The development of a cryopump for stripper gas pumping in a 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a cryopump is described for a 30 MV tandem Van de Graaf accelerator to control the vacuum pressure in the beam tube at the centre terminal when a gas stripper is in use. The system has been fully assembled and has been mechanically tested, the cryo pumps have been cooled to 180K and the insulation tested electrically to +- 20 kV between the pump elements and the biased stripper canal. (UK)

  16. The electron capture of H+ ions in solid foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨百方; 缪竞威; 师勉恭; 唐阿友; 杨朝文; 刘晓东

    2002-01-01

    The negative ion yields φ (H-)and the neutral atom yields φ (H) of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.6 and1.8 MeV H+ projectiles traversing various carbon foils have been measured. The experimental re-sults showed that neither φ (H-) nor φ (H) varies with the dwell time td at the same energy. φ (H) islarger than φ (H-) by about 3-4 orders of magnitude. The charge exchanging between H+ ionsand carbon foils was analyzed. It can be seen that the charge exchange is the most basic proc-ess.The experience formula of σc/σ/has been gotten.

  17. Selective removal of nickel from iron substrate by non-cyanide strippers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-liang(李德良); WU Xiao-fu(吴晓芙); WANG Dian-zuo(王淀佐); J.A.Finch

    2004-01-01

    A novel nickel stripper using ammonia as the key component was developed to substitute cyanide for removing nickel film from iron substrates. Its compositions are: ammonia 150 g/L, hydrogen peroxide 50 g/L, ammonium chloride 100 g/L, EDTA 7.5 g/L, copper chloride 15 g/L and glucopyrone 1.2 g/L. The optimum operating conditions are: pH 9.5 - 11, temperature 40 - 50 ℃ and stripping time 1 h. It shows many advantages over the traditional cyanide stripper including no toxicity, mild operation, lower cost, larger holding capacity, faster stripping rate and good protection for the base metal, and can meet the technical requirements in industry.

  18. A Unique Method of Retention for Gum Stripper- A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Doddamani, Santosh S.; T.S., Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Successful restoration of partially edentulous situations, especially kennedy’s class-I, II &IV requires lot of contemporary and conventional treatment approaches. Semi precision attachments play a major role in retention of clinically challenging partially edentulous situation. Attachment retained partial dentures can be one of the successful treatment option in prosthdontics. This article presents a unique technique of retaining gum stripper using semi precision attachments.

  19. Beam dynamics studies in the driver LINAC pre-stripper section of the RIA facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E S Lessner; P N Ostroumov

    2002-12-01

    The RIA facility driver LINAC consists of about 400 superconducting (SC) independently phased rf cavities. The LINAC is designed to accelerate simultaneously several charge-state beams to generate as much as 400 kW of uranium beam power. The LINAC beam dynamics is most sensitive to the focusing and accelerating structure parameters of the pre-stripper section, where the uranium beam is accelerated from 0.17 keV/u to 9.4 MeV/u. This section is designed to accept and accelerate two charge states (28 and 29) of uranium beam from an ECR ion source. The pre-stripper section must be designed to minimize the beam emittance distortion of this two-charge-state beam. In particular, the inter-cryostat spaces must be minimized and beam parameters near transitions of the accelerating and focusing lattices must be matched carefully. Several sources of possible effective emittance growth are considered in the design of the pre-stripper section and a tolerance budget is established. Numerical beam dynamics studies include realistic electric and magnetic three-dimensional field distributions in the SC rf cavities and SC solenoids. Error effects in the longitudinal beam parameters are studied.

  20. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells PART 2 OF 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industrydriven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  1. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells PART 3 OF 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industrydriven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  2. Temperature dependence of the beam-foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam energy dependence between 50 and 200 keV of the linear polarization fraction (M/I) of the 2s 1S--3p 1P, 5016 A transition in He I on temperature was measured. The thin carbon exciter foils were heated externally by nichrome resistance elements. The measurements of Hight et al. are duplicated; the energy and current dependences are the same for corresponding between beam heating and external heating. It was also observed that γ, the number of slow secondary electrons produced per incident ion, decreases with increasing foil temperature. These two effects, in conjunction, offer a plausible explanation for the variation of polarization with beam current density. 5 figures

  3. Hot foil transducer skin friction sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranas, T. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The device utilizes foil transducers with only one edge exposed to the fluid flow. The surfaces are polished producing a foil transducer that does not generate turbulence while sufficiently thick to carry the required electrical current for high temperature fluid flow. The assembly utilizes a precut layered metal sandwich with attached electrodes eliminating a need for welding and individual sensor calibration.

  4. Nuclear Propulsion using Thin Foiled Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.

    1998-11-01

    A new way to produce plasma for nuclear propulsion is proposed. A thin foiled fuel can be used for converting fission energy to propulsion energy efficiently. The fission products coming out of the thin foil directly ionize the hydrogen molecules which are used for propulsion. Thus very small portion of fission energy deposited in the thin foil, and integrity of the thin foiled fuel can be maintained even in high nuclear power. Fuel material with large thermal fission cross-section is preferable to make thin foiled fuel and the heat deposition in the foil can be reduced. To get high power from the foiled fuel assembly, thermal neutrons which are created out from the assembly can be supplied, or the assembly itself can create the high intensity thermal neutrons by self-multiplication. A flexible design of a highly efficient nuclear propulsion system can be made. The thickness of the foil and the maintenance of the thermo-mechanical integrity can be determined from the fission cross-section and the slowing down power for fission products. The talk discusses the issues related to heat removal from the assembly.

  5. Chromic acid anodizing of aluminum foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursch, H.

    1988-01-01

    The success of the Space Station graphite/epoxy truss structure depends on its ability to endure long-term exposure to the LEO environment, primarily the effects of atomic oxygen and the temperture cycling resulting from the 94 minute orbit. This report describes the development and evaluation of chromic acid anodized (CAA) aluminum foil as protective coatings for these composite tubes. Included are: development of solar absorptance and thermal emittance properties required of Al foil and development of CAA parameters to achieve these optical properties; developing techniques to CAA 25 ft lengths of Al foil; developing bonding processes for wrapping the Al foil to graphite/epoxy tubes; and atomic oxygen testing of the CAA Al foil. Two specifications were developed and are included in the report: Chromic Acid Anodizing of Aluminum Foil Process Specification and Bonding of Anodized Aluminum Foil to Graphite/Epoxy Tubes. Results show that CAA Al foil provides and excellent protective and thermal control coating for the Space Station truss structure.

  6. Dress Images on Gold-foil Figures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Andersson Strand, Eva Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    From the Late Iron Age settlement Sorte Muld on Bornholm both gold foil figures with depictions of costumes and textile tools can tell about textile production.......From the Late Iron Age settlement Sorte Muld on Bornholm both gold foil figures with depictions of costumes and textile tools can tell about textile production....

  7. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  8. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2003-04-08

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the ninth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) organizing and hosting two fall technology transfer meetings, (2) SWC membership class expansion, and (3) planning the SWC 2003 Spring meeting. In addition, a literature search that focuses on the use of lasers, microwaves, and acoustics for potential stripper well applications continued.

  9. CO2 laser-fabricated cladding light strippers for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Keiron; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Daniel, Jae; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Rees, Simon; Andrew Clarkson, W; Haub, John

    2016-04-10

    We present and characterize a simple CO2 laser processing technique for the fabrication of compact all-glass optical fiber cladding light strippers. We investigate the cladding light loss as a function of radiation angle of incidence and demonstrate devices in a 400 μm diameter fiber with cladding losses of greater than 20 dB for a 7 cm device length. The core losses are also measured giving a loss of laser diode with minimal heating of the fiber coating and packaging adhesives. PMID:27139854

  10. Hyaluronan-lecithin foils and their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BiaIopiotrowicz, Tomasz [Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-SkIodowska University, Maria Curie-SkIodowska Square 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Janczuk, BronisIaw [Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-SkIodowska University, Maria Curie-SkIodowska Square 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Fiedorowicz, Maciej [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland); Khachatryan, Gohar [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland); Tomasik, Piotr [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: rrtomasi@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Bakos, Dusan [Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, Radlinskeho 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-01-10

    Thin, elastic foils of good resistance to the air exposure, patented as wound healing aids, were prepared by evaporation of a blend of lecithin (L) and sodium hyaluronan (H) taken under varying proportions. The contact angle for water, glycerol, formamide, ethylene glycol and diiodomethane, was determined for these foils. The contact angle was correlated against the H:L foil composition. For all liquids but formamide the highest contact angle was noted for the H:L = 2:1 (g g{sup -1}) ratio. The contact angles provided estimation of the work of adhesion. At the same L:H ratio the work of adhesion was the lowest. It was suggested that lecithin cross-linked hyaluronan. Since the work of adhesion of the studied liquids was similar to that of diiodomethane, it could be concluded that almost all functional groups on the foil surface were completely blocked. Perhaps, at H:L = 2:1 (g g{sup -1}) a stoichiometric complex of hyaluronic acid with lecithin was formed, and polar functional groups from both reagents were involved. Foils seem to be electrostatic complexes of H with L. Foils with the H:L equal to 2:1 exhibited specific properties confirmed by the IR reflectance spectra of the foils. The thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) also revealed unique thermal behaviour confirming other specific properties of the foil of this composition. For the same ratio a thorough inspection of the scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed few irregularly distributed perforations of 1-2 {mu}m in diameter seen as black points, which can be recognized as pores. Properties of the foils determined in the contact angle measurements are nicely backed by the results from thermogravimetric and scanning electron microscopic studies.

  11. Hyaluronan-lecithin foils and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin, elastic foils of good resistance to the air exposure, patented as wound healing aids, were prepared by evaporation of a blend of lecithin (L) and sodium hyaluronan (H) taken under varying proportions. The contact angle for water, glycerol, formamide, ethylene glycol and diiodomethane, was determined for these foils. The contact angle was correlated against the H:L foil composition. For all liquids but formamide the highest contact angle was noted for the H:L = 2:1 (g g-1) ratio. The contact angles provided estimation of the work of adhesion. At the same L:H ratio the work of adhesion was the lowest. It was suggested that lecithin cross-linked hyaluronan. Since the work of adhesion of the studied liquids was similar to that of diiodomethane, it could be concluded that almost all functional groups on the foil surface were completely blocked. Perhaps, at H:L = 2:1 (g g-1) a stoichiometric complex of hyaluronic acid with lecithin was formed, and polar functional groups from both reagents were involved. Foils seem to be electrostatic complexes of H with L. Foils with the H:L equal to 2:1 exhibited specific properties confirmed by the IR reflectance spectra of the foils. The thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) also revealed unique thermal behaviour confirming other specific properties of the foil of this composition. For the same ratio a thorough inspection of the scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed few irregularly distributed perforations of 1-2 μm in diameter seen as black points, which can be recognized as pores. Properties of the foils determined in the contact angle measurements are nicely backed by the results from thermogravimetric and scanning electron microscopic studies

  12. Analysis of Mechanical Properties for GEM Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Yuk Ming

    2016-01-01

    In view of new assembly technique of the GEM detector; in which three foils stack is stretched to get the uniform gaps among the foils. We studied the mechanical properties of the foil material. We conditioned the samples in different environments to make them extra dry and wet. As holes are the major source of the charge amplification their deformation can effect the detector performance. Therefore in our studies we also studied at which level of the stress the holes deformation is seen. These tensile and holes deformation studies can help to optimize the stress during detector assembly.

  13. Chemical problems in the waste stripper tower of a heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to understand the deposition problem encountered in the waste stripper tower of a heavy water plant based on the water-hydrogen sulphide exchange process. Brucite and chrysotile have been found to account for about 55% of the total amount of deposits with the rest being pyrite. Deposit characterisation when looked in conjunction with the plant's process feed water chemistry has thrown light on the cause for this deposition. Based on this analysis, a recommendation to use only deionised water as process feed water has been implemented in the plant. Computation on the speciation of H2S (a) at high temperature, pH 4-7 (which corresponds to the actual situation in the waste stripper), and (b) at ambient temperature, pH8-9(which corresponds to the situation when the effluent water gets mixed with lake water) have shown that HS- existing at the lower outlet has no chance of getting converted to H2S. (author). 13 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  14. An overview of the Noncyanide Metal Stripper program conducted at Kelly Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyle, M.D.; Cowan, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Noncyanide Metal Stripper Program was a waste minimization effort aimed at identifying and testing suitable noncyanide stripping solutions that could replace the cyanide stripping solutions found in the United States Air Force (USAF) Air Logistics Centers (ALC). The program started with laboratory testing of commercial stripping solutions. The performance of these solutions was compared with the cyanide process solutions C-101 and C-106 targeted for replacement. Plate metal stripping rate, basis metal corrosion, and compatibility with masking materials and biodegradability were all used to determine the performance of each product. Those products that passed the acceptance criteria were field tested using 25 to 50-gallon solutions to determine optimum operating conditions, stripper maintenance requirements, and maximum solution loading and longevity. The program included investigating any adverse effects these new products might have on existing chemical and biological waste treatment processes. All cyanide stripping solutions at the San Antonio Air Logistics Command Center have been successfully replaced with commercial noncyanide products. Generally, these replacements were less toxic and generated less waste and had longer lifetimes than their cyanide counterparts.

  15. BEAM-FOIL SPECTROSCOPY OF CHLORINE AND SULFUR IONS

    OpenAIRE

    Frot, D.; Barchewitz, R.; Cukier, M.; Dei-Cas, R.; Bruneau, J

    1987-01-01

    We report on the measurement of spectra of highly stripped chlorine and sulfur ions in the energy ranges of, respectively, 2900 - 3500 eV and 2300 - 2600 eV. The spectra have been obtained after excitation of ions travelling through a thin carbon foil . X-rays emitted by the emerging beam are analyzed with a Johanntype bent crystal spectrometer. The observation angle with respect to the beam axis is 54°. The interpretation of the spectra is performed by comparing experimental results with Mul...

  16. Synthetic Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ting Fung; Shen, Tian; Cao, Helin; Jauregui, Luis A.; Wu, Wei; Yu, Qingkai; Newell, David; Chen, Yong P.

    2013-04-01

    The discovery of graphene, a single layer of covalently bonded carbon atoms, has attracted intense interest. Initial studies using mechanically exfoliated graphene unveiled its remarkable electronic, mechanical and thermal properties. There has been a growing need and rapid development in large-area deposition of graphene film and its applications. Chemical vapor deposition on copper has emerged as one of the most promising methods in obtaining large-scale graphene films with quality comparable to exfoliated graphene. In this paper, we review the synthesis and characterizations of graphene grown on copper foil substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. We also discuss potential applications of such large-scale synthetic graphene.

  17. Accident analysis for the NCSC foil experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident analysis has been performed for the nuclear criticality safety class (NCSC) foil experiment. The Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) performs this experiment regularly during its 2-, 3-, and 5-day nuclear criticality safety classes. This accident analysis is part of an effort to modify the NCSC foil experiment plan so that the experiment may be operated at delayed critical. Currently, the NCSC foil experiment may only be operated up to a neutron multiplication of 100. The purpose of the accident analysis is to ensure that any accidental nuclear excursion does not exceed the boundary of the safety envelope described in the LACEF safety analysis report (SAR). The experiment consists of very thin, highly enriched (93% 235U) uranium metal foils (23 X 23 X 0.008 cm) interleaved between Lucite plates (36 X 36 X 1.27 cm). The fuel foils and Lucite plates are stacked vertically to form a critical assembly. Extra Lucite plates placed at the top and bottom of the assembly act as vertical reflectors. The assembly is operated remotely with the use of a general-purpose vertical-lift platform machine. The accident scenario consists of one additional fuel foil being added to an existing critical or nearly critical stack. The reactivity insertion rate is 0.05 $/s, based on the speed of the vertical-lift platform. It is assumed that none of the safety systems will function properly during the accident and that the operating crew is unable to mitigate the accident

  18. Simulations of stable compact proton beam acceleration from a two-ion-species ultrathin foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report stable laser-driven proton beam acceleration from ultrathin foils consisting of two ion species: heavier carbon ions and lighter protons. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the radiation pressure leads to very fast and complete spatial separation of the species. The laser pulse does not penetrate the carbon ion layer, avoiding the proton Rayleigh-Taylor (RT)-like instability. Ultimately, the carbon ions are heated and spread extensively in space. In contrast, protons always ride on the front of the carbon ion cloud, forming a compact high quality bunch. We introduce a simple three-interface model to interpret the instability suppression in the proton layer. The model is backed by simulations of various compound foils such as carbon-deuterium and carbon-tritium foils. The effects of the carbon ions' charge state on proton acceleration are also investigated. It is shown that with the decrease of the carbon ion charge state, both the RT-like instability and the Coulomb explosion degrade the energy spectrum of the protons. Finally, full 3D simulations are performed to demonstrate the robustness of the stable two-ion-species regime.

  19. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications – Analyses and characterisation of tungsten foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been attempted for several years to synthesise a tungsten material with a low brittle-to-ductile transition temperature and a high fracture toughness that can be used for structural parts. It was shown in our previous work that tungsten foil is ductile at room temperature and that this ductility can be transformed to bulk by synthesising a tungsten laminate. In this work we want to focus on tungsten foil and assess the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties of the foil. The assessment of the microstructure of 0.1 mm tungsten foil will be performed using electron microscopy. It will be shown that the grains of the tungsten foil have a dimension of 0.5 μm × 3 μm × 15 μm and a clear texture in (1 0 0) 〈0 1 1〉. This texture becomes even more pronounced by annealing. Three-point-bending tests with tungsten foil, as-received, will define the barriers: ductile at room temperature and brittle in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C). This shows that the ductility is a thermally activated process. Recrystallised tungsten foil (annealed for 1 h/2700 °C) shows ductile material behaviour at 200 °C. The paper closes with a discussion on the reasons of the ductility of 0.1 mm tungsten foil. These might be the ultra fine grained (UFG) microstructure or, in other words, a nano microstructure (see tungsten foil as-received), the high amount of mobile edge dislocations, and/or the foil effect, which means that dislocations can move to the surface and are annihilated (see tungsten foil recrystallised).

  20. Polycarbosilazane passivation on graphite foil used as gasket seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasket seals are often used in industry and laboratories where a leak-proof installation is needed in order to avoid loss of products or dangerous materials. Many of products transported inside tubes are at relatively high temperatures excluding polymeric gaskets. In the same line, many of transported materials contain solvents which can attack polymer sealings, therefore limiting their use. An alternative is to use graphite joints as sealings. These joints are a sandwich of graphite foil and stainless steel mesh as forming core. The problem that raises using graphite in contact with steel is that at temperatures of about 500 °C an interdiffusion of carbon on the steel structure occurs which produces adhesion of the graphite gasket on the metallic flange. Therefore this adhesion increases the time to change each gasket, since rests of previously adhered graphite has to be removed from the flange. In order to avoid the adhesion of the graphite on the flange, polycarbosilazane precursor was used as protective finishing on the graphite foil surface. After thermal transformation of the polymer into the corresponding PDC finishing, it acts in two manners: It avoids the direct contact between the carbon and the steel and it allows the sealing of liquids and gases. Adhesion tests were done and showed that the foils passivated with PDCs did not adhere to the steel flange. Moreover, the production methods and products are compatible to industrial environment and processes. The results found here show that the time to change the gasket in industry can be clearly reduced by using the PDC finishing on graphite gasket

  1. Orientation and alignment effects in beam foil experiments with tilted foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general density matrix theory is formulated to account for recently observed orientation and alignment effects in beam foil experiments with tilted foils. Various simplified models for the interaction between the atomic and ionic excited states and the beam surface are considered and comparison with the present experimental data leads to some direct conclusions. Further experimental tests of the proposed mechanism are suggested. (author)

  2. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amornvadee Veawab

    2006-09-30

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Ethylenediamine was detected in a degraded solution of MEA/PZ solution, suggesting that piperazine is subject to oxidation. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that vacuum strippers will be more energy efficient if constructed short and fat rather than tall and skinny. The matrix stripper has been identified as a configuration that will significantly reduce energy use. Extensive measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60 C have confirmed the work by Jou and Mather. Corrosion of carbon steel without inhibitors increases from 19 to 181 mpy in lean solutions of 6.2 m MEA/PZ as piperazine increases from 0 to 3.1 m.

  3. Data processing code system for foil experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A code system has been developed for an efficient measurement of reaction rates in foil irradiation experiments. The code system consists of four codes, namely of, (i) setting up experimental parameters and collecting γ-ray spectrum data, (ii) analysing γ-ray spectrum, (iii) calculating reaction rate distributions, and (iv) furnishing utility programs. This code system provides a useful tool of data processing of irradiated foil to obtain the γ-ray spectrum and the reaction rate distribution. These procedures can be executed automatically. The routine for processing foil counting data covers the following functions : the data smoothing, the peak searching by means of the first and second derivative methods, and the determination of the photo peak area and its error with use of a functional fitted by a non-linear least squares method. The code for reaction rate calculation has the following functions : the determination of decay constants of each isotope by using decay data of foil counting and the calculation of reaction rates after correcting irradiation time and weight of a foil. These codes are written by FORTRAN-77 for mini-computer PDP-11/44 (DEC), of which the maximum program memory size is limited to 32k bytes. (author)

  4. Mass-spectrometric measurements of enhanced methanation activity over cobalt and nickel foils. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.L.; Vroom, D.A.

    1976-12-20

    The kinetics of methane synthesis from H/sub 2//CO mixtures has been studied over Ni, Co, and Fe foils. The gas composition of a flowing reaction cell was analyzed using a differentially pumped, modulated mass-spectrometer. Ni and Co foils that have been previously oxidized, and then reduced in H/sub 2/ at 525-600/sup 0/K show a surprisingly high and specific catalytic activity for methane formation. No unusual activity was observed over iron for any of the surface treatments tried here. Evidence is also presented to support a mechanism for this highly specific reaction involving a labile surface carbon atom intermediate.

  5. Mass-spectrometric measurements of enhanced methanation activity over cobalt and nickel foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.L.; Vroom, D.A.

    1977-11-01

    The kinetics of methane synthesis from H/sub 2//CO mixtures has been studied over Ni, Co, and Fe foils. The gas composition of a flow reaction cell was analyzed using a differentially pumped, modulated mass spectrometer. Ni and Co foils that have been previously oxidized and then reduced in H/sub 2/ at 525 to 600/sup 0/CK show a surprisingly high and specific catalytic activity for methane formation. No unusual activity was observed over iron for any of the surface treatments tried here. Evidence is also presented to support a mechanism for this highly specific reaction involving a labile surface carbon atom intermediate.

  6. Multiple shock compression of diamond foils with a shaped laser pulse over 1 TPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on shock compression of diamond foils with intense laser are reported. In order to explore high-pressure and low-temperature region of the carbon phase-diagram, we irradiate single-crystal (Type-Ib) crystal foils with a shaped (ramp) pulse at the pressure of over 1TPa. We observed time-resolved reflectivity from the rear surface of the diamond during the shock compression with velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). Simultaneous observation of optical measurements and x-ray diffraction has been tested. Preliminary results on decompression of the diamond crystal due to x-ray heating were observed

  7. Update on uranium-molybdenum fuel foil fabrication development activities at the Y-12 National Security Complex in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the RERTR Program, efforts are underway at Y-12 to develop and validate a production oriented, monolithic uranium molybdenum (U-Mo) foil fabrication process adaptable for potential implementation in a manufacturing environment. These efforts include providing full-scale prototype depleted and enriched U-Mo foils in support of fuel qualification testing. The work has three areas of focus; develop and demonstrate a feasible foil fabrication process utilizing depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) source material, transition these production techniques to enriched uranium (EU-Mo) source material, and evaluate full-scale implementation of the developed production techniques. In 2006, Y-12 demonstrated successful fabrication of full-size DU-10Mo foils. In 2007, Y-12 activities were expanded to include continued DU-Mo foil fabrication with a focus on process refinement, source material impurity effects (specifically carbon), and the feasibility of physical vapor deposition (PVD) on DU-10Mo mini-foils. FY2007 activities also included a transition to EU-Mo and fabrication of full-size enriched foils. The purpose of this report is to update the RERTR audience on Y-12 efforts in 2007 that support the overall RERTR Program goals. (author)

  8. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G.; McCabe, Niall; Gee, Mark

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  9. Making environmental sensors on plastic foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danick Briand

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the printed electronics industry, the development of sensing technologies on non conventional substrates such as plastic foils is on-going. In this article, we review the work performed and the trends in the development of environmental sensors on plastic and flexible foils. Our main focus is on the integration of temperature, humidity, and gas sensors on plastic substrates targeting low-power operation for wireless applications. Some perspectives in this dynamic field are also provided showing the potential for the realization of several types of transducers on substrates of different natures and their combination with other components to realize smart systems.

  10. Thrust augmentation in tandem flapping foils by foil-wake interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik; Lauder, George

    2006-11-01

    Propulsion by pitching and heaving airfoils and hydrofoils has been a focus of much research in the field of biologically inspired propulsion. Organisms that use this sort of propulsion are self-propelled, so it is difficult to use standard experimental metrics such as thrust and drag to characterize performance. We have constructed a flapping foil robot mounted in a flume on air-bearings that allows for the determination of self-propelled speed as a metric of performance. We have used a pair of these robots to examine the impact of an upstream flapping foil on a downstream flapping foil as might apply to tandem fins of a swimming organism or in-line swimming of schooling organisms. Self-propelled speed and a force transducer confirmed significant thrust augmentation for particular foil-to-foil spacings, phase differences, and flapping frequencies. Flow visualization shows the mechanism to be related to the effective angle of attack of the downstream foil due to the structure of the wake of the upstream foil. This confirms recent computational work and the hypotheses by early investigators of fish fluid dynamics.

  11. Energy Loss of High Intensity Focused Proton Beams Penetrating Metal Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Evans, M.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Stephens, R. B.; Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J.; Nilson, P. M.; Canning, D.; Mastrosimone, D.; Foord, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    Shortpulse-laser-driven intense ion beams are appealing for applications in probing and creating high energy density plasmas. Such a beam isochorically heats and rapidly ionizes any target it enters into warm dense matter with uncertain transport and stopping properties. Here we present experimental measurements taken with the 1.25 kJ, 10 ps OMEGA EP BL shortpulse laser of the proton and carbon spectra after passing through metal foils. The laser irradiated spherically curved C targets with intensity 4×1018 W/cm2, producing proton beams with 3 MeV slope temperature and a sharp low energy cutoff at 5 MeV which has not been observed on lower energy, shorter pulse intense lasers. The beam either diverged freely or was focused to estimated 1016 p +/cm2 ps by a surrounding structure before entering the metal foils (Al or Ag and a Cu tracer layer). The proton and ion spectra were altered by the foil depending on material and whether or not the beam was focused. Transverse proton radiography probed the target with ps temporal and 10 micron spatial resolution, indicating an electrostatic field on the foil may also have affected the beam. We present complementary particle-in-cell simulations of the beam generation and transport to the foils. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA National Laser User Facility program, Contract DE-SC0001265.

  12. Thermal characteristics of foils for an imaging bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IR imaging video bolometer is an imaging bolometer which provides the intensity and distribution of plasma radiation. The sensitivity of the IR imaging bolometer is dependent on the properties of the bolometer foil. An evaluation of the thermal characteristics of various materials and thicknesses of the bolometer foil provides information on the sensitivity which is useful to choose the best foil material. We irradiated foils of various materials and thicknesses with a He-Ne laser (wavelength 633 nm), and measured the change in temperature distribution with an IR camera. As for foil materials,W, Ta, Au and Pt were employed. The foils were blackened either on both sides or on one side by graphite. For the same material foil, the temperature rise in the singleside blackened foil was always greater than the double-side blackened foil. For the double blacken foil, Ta had the largest temperature rise among foils with the same thickness. Pt had the shortest time constant for the temperature rise/decayamong foils except Au. In consideration of the attenuation thickness versus photon energy of each material, the Pt foil was the most suitable for the bolometer among the evaluated materials. (author)

  13. Tight, Flat, Smooth, Ultrathin Metal Foils for Locating Synchrotron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is often desired to locate a synchrotron x-ray beam precisely in space with minimal disturbance of its spatial profile and spectral content. This can be done by passing the beam through an ultrathin, flat, smooth metal foil having well-defined composition, preferably a single chemical element such as chromium, titanium or aluminum. Localized fluorescence of the foil at characteristic x-ray lines where the x-ray beam passes through the foil serves to locate the beam in two dimensions. Use of two such foils along the beam direction locates the x-ray beam spatially and identifies precisely its direction. The accuracy of determining these parameters depends in part upon high uniformity in the thickness of the foil(s), good planarity, and smoothness of the foil(s). In practice, several manufacturing steps to produce a foil must be carried out with precision. The foil must be produced on a smooth removable substrate in such a way that its thickness (or areal density) is as uniform as possible. The foil must be fastened to a support ring that maintains the foil's surface quality, and it must be then stretched onto a frame that produces the desired mirror flatness. These steps are illustrated and some of the parameters specifying the quality of the resulting foils are identified

  14. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-12-23

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) hosting the SWC spring proposal meeting in Golden Colorado, (2) planning of the upcoming SWC fall technology transfer meetings, and (3) recruiting the SWC base membership.

  15. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-12-28

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the first quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) hosting the SWC spring proposal meeting in Golden Colorado, (2) planning of the upcoming SWC fall technology transfer meetings, and (3) recruiting the SWC base membership.

  16. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momozaki, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-03-06

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed.

  17. Research proposal for development of an electron stripper using a thin liquid lithium film for rare isotope accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrodynamic instability phenomena in a thin liquid lithium film, which has been proposed for the first stripper in the driver linac of Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), were discussed. Since it was considered that film instability could significantly impair the feasibility of the liquid lithium film stripper concept, potential issues and research tasks in the RIA project due to these instability phenomena were raised. In order to investigate these instability phenomena, a research proposal plan was developed. In the theoretical part of this research proposal, a use of the linear stability theory was suggested. In the experimental part, it was pointed out that the concept of Reynolds number and Weber number scaling may allow conducting a preliminary experiment using inert simulants, hence reducing technical difficulty, complexity, and cost of the experiments. After confirming the thin film formation in the preliminary experiment using simulants, demonstration experiments using liquid lithium were proposed

  18. 6Li foil thermal neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macarthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design of a multilayer thermal neutron detector based on {sup 6}Li reactive foil and thin film plastic scintillators. The {sup 6}Li foils have about twice the intrinsic efficiency of {sup 10}B films and about four times higher light output due to a unique combination of high energy of reaction particles, low self absorption, and low ionization density of tritons. The design configuration provides for double sided readout of the lithium foil resulting in a doubling of the efficiency relative to a classical reactive film detector and generating a pulse height distribution with a valley between neutron and gamma signals similar to {sup 3}He tubes. The tens of microns thickness of plastic scintillator limits the energy deposited by gamma rays, which provides the necessary neutron/gamma discrimination. We used MCNPX to model a multilayer Li foil detector design and compared it with the standard HLNCC-II (18 {sup 3}He tubes operated at 4 atm). The preliminary results of the {sup 6}Li configuration show higher efficiency and one third of the die-away time. These properties, combined with the very short dead time of the plastic scintillator, offer the potential of a very high performance detector.

  19. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  20. Hot rolling of gamma titanium aluminide foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal flow and microstructure evolution during the thermomechanical processing of thin-gage foil of a near-gamma titanium aluminide alloy, Ti-45.5Al-2Cr-2Nb, with an equiaxed-gamma microstructure was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Foils of thickness of 200-250 μm were fabricated via hot rolling of sheet in a can of proprietary design. The variation in gage of the rolled foils was ±15 μm except in very sporadic (local) areas, with variations of approximately 60 μm relative to the mean. Metallography revealed that the larger thickness variations were associated with large remnant colonies lying in a hard orientation for deformation. To rationalize these observations, a self-consistent model was used to estimate the strain partitioning between the softer (equiaxed-gamma) matrix and the remnant colonies. Furthermore, the efficacy of pre- or post-rolling heat treatment in eliminating remnant colonies was demonstrated and quantified using a static-spheroidization model. The elimination of remnant colonies via spheroidization prior to foil rolling gave rise to improved gage control.

  1. Hydrogen and Palladium Foil: Two Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In these two classroom demonstrations, students observe the reaction between H[subscript 2] gas and Pd foil. In the first demonstration, hydrogen and palladium combine within one minute at 1 atm and room temperature to yield the non-stoichiometric, interstitial hydride with formula close to the maximum known value, PdH[subscript 0.7]. In the…

  2. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  3. Single crystalline graphene synthesized by thermal annealing of humic acid over copper foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Gary W.; Duraia, El-Shazly M.; Yu, Q.; Liu, Z.

    2014-02-01

    Production of graphene by thermal annealing on copper foil substrates has been studied with different sources of carbon. The three carbon sources include humic acid derived from leonardite, graphenol, and activated charcoal. Hexagonal single crystalline graphene has been synthesized over the copper foil substrates by thermal annealing of humic acid, derived from leonardite, in argon and hydrogen atmosphere (Ar/H2=20). The annealing temperature was varied between 1050 °C and 1100 °C at atmospheric pressure. Samples have been investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. At lower temperatures the thermal annealing of the three carbon sources used in this study produces pristine graphene nanosheets which cover almost the whole substrate. However when the annealing temperature has been increased up to 1100 °C, hexagonal single crystalline graphene have been observed only in the case of the humic acid. Raman analysis showed the existence of 2D band around 2690 cm-1.

  4. Structured nanocarbon on various metal foils by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a versatile process for the engineering of nanostructures made of crystalline carbon on metal foils. The single step process by microwave plasma-enhance chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated for various substrate materials, such as Ni or Cu. Either carbon nanotubes (CNT) or carbon nanowalls (CNW) are obtained under same growth conditions and without the need of additional catalyst. The use of spacer and insulator implies a certain control over the kind of allotropes that are obtained. High density and large surface area are morphological characteristics of the thus obtained C products. The possibility of application on many metals, and in the alloy composition, on as-delivered commercially available foils indicates that this strategy can be adapted to a bunch of specific applications, while the production of C nanostructures is of remarkable simplicity.

  5. Beryllium foils for windows in counter of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the optimization of the main structural characteristics (grain structure, texture, dislocation substructure) are defined modes of deformation and heat treatment of beryllium foils (purity > 99.95%), providing their excellent mechanical properties and optimized modes of deformation and heat treatment. Analyzed various technological methods rolling foils to their rational use for the practical implementation of the results of the study. It is shown that the strength and plastic properties of the foils beryllium higher than that of similar foils foreign manufacture

  6. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2001-09-12

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. the consortium creates a partnership with the US petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the third quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. During this reporting period the SWC entered into a co-funding arrangement with the New York State Energy Development Authority (NYSERDA) to provide an additional $100,000 in co-funding for stripper well production-orientated projects.The SWC hosted its first meeting in which members proposed research projects to the SWC membership. The meeting was held on April 9-10, 2001 in State College, Pennsylvania. Twenty three proposals were submitted to the SWC for funding consideration. Investigators of the proposed projects provided the SWC membership with a 20 minute (15 minute technical discussion, 5 minute question and answer session) presentation. Of the 23 proposals, the Executive Council approved $921,000 in funding for 13 projects. Penn State then immediately started the process of issuing subcontracts to the various projects approved for funding.

  7. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2002-08-27

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the sixth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) release of 2002 SWC request-for-proposal, (2) organized and hosted the Spring SWC meeting in Columbus, Ohio for membership proposal presentations and review; (3) tentatively scheduled the 2002 fall technology transfer meeting sites, and (4) continued to recruit additional Consortium members. In addition, a literature search that focuses on the use of lasers, microwaves, and acoustics for potential stripper well applications continued.

  8. Research and Development of GEM Foil at CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiao-mei; ZHOU; Jing; HU; Shou-yang; SHAN; Chao; JIAN; Si-yu; YE; Li; BAI; Xin-zhan; ZHOU; Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>China Institute of Atomic Energy has signed the "License Agreement for Manufacturing and Commercialisation of Gem Foils and Gem Based Products Licensee" with CERN, and got the technical assistance from CERN. The base material of GEM foil is ultrathin, non-adhesive copper on polyimide substrate, which can be purchased from CERN and other companies. The manufacture of GEM foil is

  9. A Numerical Calculation Model of Multi Wound Foil Bearing with the Effect of Foil Local Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai; Kaneko, Shigehiko

    Foil bearings are supposed to be one of the best candidates of supporting component for turbo-machineries because of their design simplicity, reduced weight and size, high speed and temperature capability, and easy maintenance. Among various types of foil bearings, multi wound foil bearing (MWFB), which had been designed and fabricated in our lab, is easy to analyze static characteristics even though load capability of which is small compared with other types of foil bearings. In this study, a theoretical model of MWFB taking account of the effect of the foil deformation is developed to predict its static performance. Reynolds equation is solved using Finite Difference Method (FDM) to yield air pressure distribution, while the elastic deformation equation is solved by Finite Element Method (FEM) to predict the deformation of the foil. Then, the above two equations are coupled by several iterations until the convergence criterion is reached. Based on such calculations, static characteristics of MWFB such as load capacity, torque are presented.

  10. Nuclear target foil fabrication for the Romano Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vacuum Processes Lab, of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division, was requested to provide 250 coated Parylene target foils for a nuclear physics experiment titled the ROMANO Event. Due to the developmental nature of some of the fabrication procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were produced to satisfy the event's needs. The foils were used in the experiment as subkilovolt x-ray, narrow band pass filters, and wide band ultraviolet filters. This paper is divided into three sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, and (3) foil and substrate inspections

  11. Collodion-reinforcement and plasma-cleaning of target foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of evaporated target foils can often be facilitated by use of collodion coatings either on the substrate sides or on the exterior surfaces of the foils. Later, such coatings must usually be removed. Cleaning of a foil is necessary if thin layers of adhesives have crept onto the foil. Removal and/or cleaning can often be done satisfactorily with an oxygen plasma. Apparatus and procedures used for this are described. Foils that were cleaned successfully, and some that were incompatible with the cleaning process are listed

  12. Porn star/stripper/escort: economic and sexual dynamics in a sex work career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffier, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the career dynamics of performers in the gay male pornography industry, by focusing on a common career path- from porn star to stripper to escort. Between 1995 and 2005, most men performing in gay porn films, unlike contract actresses in the straight porn industry, have been unable to earn enough income to work exclusively as performers in front of the camera. The industry's constant search for new faces and fresh performers creates what sociologist Paul Cressey has called "the retrogressive dynamic": The longer a person works in a sexual occupation, the less one is paid, and the lower the status of the work venue. In the porn industry, one aspect of this process is referred to as "overexposure," during which the performer experiences a diminishing "fantasy potential" as fans lose erotic interest in the porn star who has appeared too frequently in too many movies. Performers attempt to confront the retrogressive dynamic by limiting the number of adult films in which they appear in a year, diversifying their sexual repertoire, or shifting into other roles within the industry (behind the camera, marketing, production, etc.). One common option is to pursue work in economically complementary forms of sex work such as stripping and escorting. PMID:18019074

  13. Amine Solvent Regeneration for CO2 Capture Using Geothermal Energy with Advanced Stripper Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption/stripping using alkanol-amine solvents for removing CO2 from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants requires a substantial amount of energy. Typical designs anticipate the use of steam extraction between the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and Low Pressure (LP) turbines to provide heat for the re-boiler. Geothermal energy in the form of hot brine offers an alternative to this large parasitic load on the power generation cycle. We investigate the requirements (number and spacing of extraction/injection well pairs) to provide heat at 150 deg. C for a pilot scale (60 MWe) and a full scale (900 MWe) capture process for thirty years. The calculations are based on properties of a geopressured/geothermal aquifer near the Texas Gulf Coast. In the vicinity of a large coal-fired power plant in South Texas, this aquifer lies between 3 050 and 3 350 m (10 000 and 11 000 ft) below the surface. We present a novel design of the stripper/regenerator process based on heat exchange with the brine, discharging the brine at 100 deg. C. The results indicate that the overall process is feasible and that costs are of similar magnitude to standard designs. (authors)

  14. Amine Solvent Regeneration for CO2 Capture Using Geothermal Energy with Advanced Stripper Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Wagener D.H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Absorption/stripping using alkanolamine solvents for removing CO2 from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants requires a substantial amount of energy. Typical designs anticipate the use of steam extraction between the Intermediate Pressure (IP and Low Pressure (LP turbines to provide heat for the reboiler. Geothermal energy in the form of hot brine offers an alternative to this large parasitic load on the power generation cycle. We investigate the requirements (number and spacing of extraction/injection well pairs to provide heat at 150°C for a pilot scale (60 MWe and a full scale (900 MWe capture process for thirty years. The calculations are based on properties of a geopressured/geothermal aquifer near the Texas Gulf Coast. In the vicinity of a large coal-fired power plant in South Texas, this aquifer lies between 3 050 and 3 350 m (10 000 and 11 000 ft below the surface. We present a novel design of the stripper/regenerator process based on heat exchange with the brine, discharging the brine at 100°C. The results indicate that the overall process is feasible and that costs are of similar magnitude to standard designs.

  15. Impact of GEM foil hole geometry on GEM detector gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadzhinova, A.; Nolvi, A.; Veenhof, R.; Tuominen, E.; Hæggström, E.; Kassamakov, I.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed 3D imaging of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil hole geometry was realized. Scanning White Light Interferometry was used to examine six topological parameters of GEM foil holes from both sides of the foil. To study the effect of the hole geometry on detector gain, the ANSYS and Garfield ++ software were employed to simulate the GEM detector gain on the basis of SWLI data. In particular, the effective gain in a GEM foil with equally shaped holes was studied. The real GEM foil holes exhibited a 4% lower effective gain and 6% more electrons produced near the exit electrode of the GEM foil than the design anticipated. Our results indicate that the GEM foil hole geometry affects the gain performance of GEM detectors.

  16. Expectations for the Laguna foil implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building on the results achieved in the Pioneer shot series, the Los Alamos Trailmaster project is embarking on the Laguna foil implosion experiments. In this series a Mark-IX helical generator will be coupled to an explosively formed fuse opening switch, a surface-tracking closing switch, and a vacuum power flow and load chamber. In this paper the system design will be discussed and results from zero-, one-, and two-dimensional MHD simulations will be presented. It is anticipated that the generator will provide more than 10 MA of which ∼5.5 MA will be switched to the 5-cm-radius, 2-cm-high, 250-nm-thick aluminum foil load. This should give rise to a 1 μs implosion with more than 100 kJ of kinetic energy

  17. Electrodeposition of Plutonium on Rhenium Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jin-ling; YANG; Chun-li; DING; You-qian; SUN; Hong-qing

    2013-01-01

    Applying for LRIMS analysis,one of the main requirements is the production of an atomic beam(or molecular beam)with the atoms in one well defined state,i.e.,the ground state,and then the efficient excitation and ionization of the atoms.Therefore,the target nuclides must be transferred to the rhenium foil quantitatively.So the study on electrodeposistion was applied:first is the designation of electroplate

  18. Transport in a laser irradiated thin foil

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, H

    2001-01-01

    Three dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations describing the interaction of a short intense laser pulse with thin foils are presented. It is observed that the laser generated electron current decays into magnetically isolated filaments. The filaments grow in scale and magnitude by reconnection. Two different laser wavelengths are considered. The spatial separation of the filaments varies for the two wavelengths. Many current filaments carry net electric currents exceeding the Alfven current considerably.

  19. Optical quality assurance of GEM foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis software was developed for the high aspect ratio optical scanning system in the Detector Laboratory of the University of Helsinki and the Helsinki Institute of Physics. The system is used e.g. in the quality assurance of the GEM-TPC detectors being developed for the beam diagnostics system of the SuperFRS at future FAIR facility. The software was tested by analyzing five CERN standard GEM foils scanned with the optical scanning system. The measurement uncertainty of the diameter of the GEM holes and the pitch of the hole pattern was found to be 0.5μm and 0.3μm, respectively. The software design and the performance are discussed. The correlation between the GEM hole size distribution and the corresponding gain variation was studied by comparing them against a detailed gain mapping of a foil and a set of six lower precision control measurements. It can be seen that a qualitative estimation of the behavior of the local variation in gain across the GEM foil can be made based on the measured sizes of the outer and inner holes

  20. The calculation program for activity correction by neutron incident on the edges of the foil in the foil activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer program with FORTRAN has been made for calculating activity correction by neutron incident on the edge of the foil. The calculation based on single on collision theory with the assumption of monoenergetic neutron and isotopic distributed. the combination of simpson rule 1/3 and gauss quadrature were chosen to solve the problems and discrete summation was used as approximation of integration to the whole of energy groups (640 groups). the inputs are dimension and mass of the foil and activation cross-section and spectrum neutron. the output are foil activity and activation correction by neutron incident on the edge of the foil. the calculation results of activity correction by neutron incident on the edges of the gold foils of 0.05383 mm and 1.27 mm thick are about 0.2% and 7.8% and for cobalt foils of 0.1128 mm and 1.128 mm thick are about 0.58% and 6.7% respectively. the discrepancy of foil activation between experiment and calculation are about 1.6% for gold foil of 0.05383 mm thick and 1% for cobalt foil of 0.1128 mm thick. from that results can be concluded that the calculation result quit close to the experiment one and the thicker foil give bigger activation correction by neutrons incident on the edges of the foil

  1. Allotropic effects on the energy loss of swift H+ and He+ ion beams through thin foils

    OpenAIRE

    García Molina, Rafael; Abril Sánchez, Isabel; Denton Zanello, Cristian D.; Heredia Ávalos, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a theoretical treatment and a simulation code to study the energy loss of swift H+ and He+ ion beams interacting with thin foils of different carbon allotropes. The former is based on the dielectric formalism, and the latter combines Monte Carlo with the numerical solution of the motion equation for each projectile to describe its trajectory and interactions through the target. The capabilities of both methods are assessed by the reasonably good agreement between their predi...

  2. Monitoring the degradation of partly decomposable plastic foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rétháti Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have monitored the behaviour of different polyethylene foils including virgin medium density polyethylene (MDPE, MDPE containing pro-oxydative additives (238, 242 and MDPE with pro-oxydative additives and thermoplastic starch (297 in the soil for a period of one year. A foil based on a blend of polyester and polylactic acid (BASF Ecovio served as degradable control. The experiment was carried out by weekly measurements of conductivity and capacity of the soil, since the setup was analogous to a condenser, of which the insulating layer was the foil itself. The twelve replications allowed monthly sampling; the specimen taken out from the soil each month were tested visually for thickness, mechanical properties, morphological and structural changes, and molecular mass. Based on the obtained capacity values, we found that among the polyethylene foils, the one that contained thermoplastic starch extenuated the most. This foil had the greatest decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break due to the presence of thermoplastic starch. The starch can completely degrade in the soil; thus, the foil had cracks and pores. The polyethylene foils that contained pro-oxydant additives showed smaller external change compared to the virgin foil, since there was no available UV radiation and oxygen for their degradation. The smallest change occurred in the virgin polyethylene foil. Among the five examined samples, the commercially available BASF foil showed the largest extenuation and external change, and it deteriorated the most in the soil.

  3. Electron stripping of Bi ions using a modified 1.4 MeV/u gas stripper with pulsed gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GSI UNILAC will serve as an injector system for the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) facility. To meet the high demands for high-intensity heavy-ion beams, an upgrade of the existing 1.4 MeV/u gas stripper is envisaged with the aim of increasing the stripping efficiency for the required charge state. For this, an increase of the stripping gas density is pursued. Since FAIR will use pulsed beams with a very small duty cycle, a new stripper setup with a pulsed gas injection was implemented to minimize the gas load and thereby enables an increase of the gas pressure. The setup was tested using a bismuth ion beam with a nitrogen gas target. The performance is compared with that of the existing nitrogen gas-jet stripper. The charge stripping of bismuth ions into the same average charge state (26+) was achieved. (author)

  4. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2002-09-30

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the second topical report. The SWC has grown and diversified its membership during its first 24 months of existence. The Consortium is now focused on building strategic alliances with additional industrial, state, and federal entities to expand further the SWC membership base and transfer technologies as they are developed. In addition, the Consortium has successfully worked to attract state support to co-fund SWC projects. Penn State has entered a co-funding arrangement with the New York State Energy Development Authority (NYSERDA) which has provided $200,000 over the last two years to co-fund stripper well production-orientated projects that have relevance to New York state producers. During this reporting period, the Executive Council approved co-funding for 14 projects that have a total project value of $2,116,897. Since its inception, the SWC has approved cofunding for 27 projects that have a total project value of $3,632,109.84. The SWC has provided $2,242,701 in co-funding for these projects and programmatically maintains a cost share of 39%.

  5. Comparison of Au and Pt foils for an imaging bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging bolometer is a fusion reactor relevant diagnostic for the measurement of radiated power. Essential to its ability to make accurate temporally and spatially resolved measurements of radiated power is the detailed calibration of the thin metal foil that converts the radiated power to infrared radiation measured by an infrared camera. The choice of the foil material is critical to optimizing the sensitivity of the imaging bolometer. Calibration of the foil provides information on the actual sensitivity of the foil which can help in selecting the best foil material. In this work thermal properties of the 0.63 micron thick Au and 0.87 micron thick Pt foils are investigated by heating the foils with a chopped 25 mW HeNe laser and observing the temperature change, ΔT, of the foil and the rise/decay times, τrise/decay, of the foil temperature. For a foil in which the cooling is dominated by diffusion, since the sensitivity of the foils is proportional to the ratio of the thermal diffusivity to the thermal conductivity of the foil, κ/k, which is proportional ΔT/τ, where τ is the average of the decay and rise times, we can compare the relative sensitivities of the foils by comparing these ratios for Pt and Au foils. The results surprisingly indicate that Pt is more than 9 times more sensitive than Au even though standard thermal properties indicate that Au should be 14% more sensitive than Pt. This inconsistency is largely due to a slightly smaller decay time, τ, which is inconsistent with a 5 times smaller κ, in the case of the Pt compared to Au. While the 5 -6 times larger temperature rise, ΔT, is somewhat consistent with 3.2 times smaller kt for the Pt foil compared to Au foil. This inconsistency in the thermal times, along with observed differences between the rise and decay times, indicate that the IR radiation is dominant over diffusion in the cooling of the foil. In that case the sensitivity should be evaluated by 1/k - ΔT which indicates that Pt

  6. Microfabricated Segmented-Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    An involute-foil regenerator was designed, microfabricated, and tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. The concept consists of stacked involute-foil nickel disks (see figure) microfabricated via a lithographic process. Test results yielded a performance of about twice that of the 90-percent random-fiber currently used in small Stirling converters. The segmented nature of the involute- foil in both the axial and radial directions increases the strength of the structure relative to wrapped foils. In addition, relative to random-fiber regenerators, the involute-foil has a reduced pressure drop, and is expected to be less susceptible to the release of metal fragments into the working space, thus increasing reliability. The prototype nickel involute-foil regenerator was adequate for testing in an engine with a 650 C hot-end temperature. This is lower than that required by larger engines, and high-temperature alloys are not suited for the lithographic microfabrication approach.

  7. Effects of Aluminum Foil Packaging on Elemental Analysis of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lyniece; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Burned skeletal material is often very fragile and at high risk for fragmentation during packaging and transportation. One method that has been suggested to protect bones in these cases is to carefully wrap them in aluminum foil. Traces of aluminum, however, are known to transfer from foil packaging materials to food products. If such transfer occurs between aluminum foil and bones, it could interfere with subsequent chemical, elemental and isotopic analyses, which are becoming more common in forensic anthropological investigations. This study examined aluminum levels in bones prior to and following the use of aluminum foil packaging and storage for a 6-week period. Results indicate no significant change in the detected levels of aluminum (p > 0.05), even when packaged in compromised foil and exposed to elevated temperatures. Aluminum foil can therefore continue to be recommended as a packaging medium without affecting subsequent chemical examinations. PMID:27404616

  8. Optofluidic dye laser in a foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Mappes, Timo; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    First order distributed feedback optofluidic dye lasers embedded in a 350 mu m thick TOPAS (R) foil are demonstrated. They are designed in order to give high output pulse energies. Microfluidic channels and first order distributed feedback gratings are fabricated in parallel by thermal nanoimprint...... a large gain volume. Two grating periods of 185 nm and 190 nm yield single mode laser light emission at 566 nm and 581 nm respectively. High emitted pulse energies of more than 1 mu J are reported. Stable operation for more than 25 min at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate is achieved....

  9. Foil Diffuser Investigation with GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Fabritius, Joseph M; Walstrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An investigation into the appropriate materials for use as a diffuser foil in electron radiography was undertaken in GEANT4. Simulations were run using various refractory materials to determine a material of appropriate Z number such that energy loss is minimal. The plotted results of angular spread and energy spread are shown. It is concluded that higher Z number materials such as tungsten, tantalum, platinum or uranium could be used as diffuser materials. Also, an investigation into the handling of bremsstrahlung, multiple coulomb scattering, and ionization in GEANT4 was performed.

  10. The Los Alamos foil implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Los Alamos foil implosion project is to produce an intense (>100 TW), multi-megajoule, laboratory soft x-ray source for material studies and fusion experiments. The concept involves the implosion of annular, current-carrying, cylindrical metallic plasmas via their self-magnetic forces. The project features inductive storage systems using both capacitor banks and high explosive-driven flux compression generators as prime energy sources. Fast opening switches are employed to shorten the electrical pulses. The program will be described and activities to date will be summarized

  11. Characterization of U-Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Danny J.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Henager, Charles H.; Burkes, Douglas; Senor, David J.

    2012-11-07

    Twelve AFIP in-process foil samples, fabricated by either Y-12 or LANL, were shipped from LANL to PNNL for potential characterization using optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Of these twelve, nine different conditions were examined to one degree or another using both techniques. For this report a complete description of the results are provided for one archive foil from each source of material, and one unirradiated piece of a foil of each source that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Additional data from two other LANL conditions are summarized in very brief form in an appendix. The characterization revealed that all four characterized conditions contained a cold worked microstructure to different degrees. The Y-12 foils exhibited a higher degree of cold working compared to the LANL foils, as evidenced by the highly elongated and obscure U-Mo grain structure present in each foil. The longitudinal orientations for both of the Y-12 foils possesses a highly laminar appearance with such a distorted grain structure that it was very difficult to even offer a range of grain sizes. The U-Mo grain structure of the LANL foils, by comparison, consisted of a more easily discernible grain structure with a mix of equiaxed and elongated grains. Both materials have an inhomogenous grain structure in that all of the characterized foils possess abnormally coarse grains.

  12. Fast-Neutron Surveys Using Indium-Foil Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Lloyd D.; Smith, Alan R.

    1958-08-13

    Activation of indium foils by thermal neutrons has been applied to measurement of fast-neutron fluxes. Foils are encased in paraffin spheres placed in cadmium boxes. The high-energy neutrons that penetrate the cadmium become thermal neutrons; the thermal-neutron flux is proportional to the incident fast-neutron flux over a range of about 20 kev to 20 Mev. The foils are removed from the boxes and counted on a methane-flow proportional counter. High instantaneous neutron fluxes are easily detected and counted by use of these foils. Many simultaneous measurements have been made easily by this method.

  13. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  14. Actinide Foil Production for MPACT Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Denis

    2012-10-30

    Sensitive fast-neutron detectors are required for use in lead slowing down spectrometry (LSDS), an active interrogation technique for used nuclear fuel assay for Materials Protection, Accounting, and Controls Technologies (MPACT). During the past several years UNLV sponsored a research project at RPI to investigate LSDS; began development of fission chamber detectors for use in LSDS experiments in collaboration with INL, LANL, and Oregon State U.; and participated in a LSDS experiment at LANL. In the LSDS technique, research has demonstrated that these fission chamber detectors must be sensitive to fission energy neutrons but insensitive to thermal-energy neutrons. Because most systems are highly sensitive to large thermal neutron populations due to the well-known large thermal cross section of 235U, even a miniscule amount of this isotope in a fission chamber will overwhelm the small population of higher-energy neutrons. Thus, fast-fission chamber detectors must be fabricated with highly depleted uranium (DU) or ultra-pure thorium (Th), which is about half as efficient as DU. Previous research conducted at RPI demonstrated that the required purity of DU for assay of used nuclear fuel using LSDS is less than 4 ppm 235U, material that until recently was not available in the U.S. In 2009 the PI purchased 3 grams of ultra-depleted uranium (uDU, 99.99998% 238U with just 0.2 ± 0.1 ppm 235U) from VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. We received the material in the form of U3O8 powder in August of 2009, and verified its purity and depletion in a FY10 MPACT collaboration project. In addition, chemical processing for use in FC R&D was initiated, fission chamber detectors and a scanning alpha-particle spectrometer were developed, and foils were used in a preliminary LSDS experiment at a LANL/LANSCE in Sept. of 2010. The as-received U3O8 powder must be chemically processed to convert it to another chemical form while maintaining its purity, which then must be used to electro-deposit U

  15. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the US petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the first quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. The SWC is in its infancy; however, interest from the petroleum and natural gas industry has grown substantially during this reporting period. As of December 31, 2000, nineteen members have joined the consortium and several other companies have expressed interest. During the last three months, efforts were focused on the development of the necessary infrastructure and membership base to begin the consortium technology development activities. These efforts included: (1) preparing a draft constitution and bylaws, (2) developing draft membership application forms, (3) developing an intellectual property statement, (4) providing overview presentations to trade association meetings, and (5) marketing the consortium individually to potential members. These activities are discussed in further detail in this first quarterly technical progress report

  16. Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the eighth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in State College, PA to review and select projects for SWC co-funding; (2) Participation in the 2006 PA CleanEnergy Expo Energy Theater to air the DVD on ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; (3) New member additions; (4) Improving communications; and (5) Planning of the fall technology meetings.

  17. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-Tank Precipitation is a process for removing radioactivity from the salt stored in the Waste Management Tank Farm at Savannah River. The process involves precipitation of cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) and adsorption of strontium and actinides on insoluble sodium titanate (ST) particles. The purpose of this report is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs Program. The primary objective of the filter-stripper test runs and quiet time runs program is to ensure that the facility will fulfill its design basis function prior to the introduction of radioactive feed. Risks associated with the program are identified and include hazards, both personnel and environmental, associated with handling the chemical simulants; the presence of flammable materials; the potential for damage to the permanenet ITP and Tank Farm facilities. The risks, potential accident scenarios, and safeguards either in place or planned are discussed at length

  18. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-05-10

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) organizing and hosting the Spring SWC meeting in Pearl River, New York, (2) working with successful applicants and Penn State's Office of Sponsored Research to get subcontracts in place, and (3) planning three SWC technology transfer meetings to take place in the fall of 2003. During this reporting period, the efforts were focused primarily on the organizing and hosting the SWC Spring proposal meeting and organizing the fall technology transfer meetings.

  19. Stable Laser-Driven Proton Beam Acceleration from a Two-Ion-Species Ultrathin Foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we present a new regime of stable proton beam acceleration which takes place when a two-ion-species shaped foil is illuminated by a circularly polarized laser pulse. In the simulations, the lighter protons are nearly instantaneously separated from the heavier carbon ions due to the charge-to-mass ratio difference. The heavy ion layer expands in space and acts to buffer the proton layer from the Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT) instability that would have otherwise degraded the proton beam acceleration. A simple three-interface model is formulated to explain qualitatively the stable acceleration of the light ions. In the absence of the RT instability, the high quality monoenergetic proton bunch persists even after the laser-foil interaction ends.

  20. Gas amplification properties of GEM foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the detector concept International Linear Detector for the future accelerator project International Linear Collider, in which electrons and positrons at c. m. energies of 500 GeV are brought to collision, a time projection chamber shall be applied as central track detector. By the application of such a chamber as track detector a three-dimensional reconstruction of the track points is possible. If a particle passes the gas volume within the chamber it ionizises single gas atoms and the arising electrons move after the amplification in the GEM arrangement to the anode, so that a two-dimensional projection of the particle track is possible. The third dimension is calculated from the drift time of the electrons. The advances of this readout system consist therein that a better position resolution than by a multiwire proportional chamber is reached and the back-drifting ions can be strongly suppressed. Aim of this thesis are studies for a GEM module, which shall be used in a large TPC prototype. Concerning different requirements it is valid to compare different GEMs in order to can meet an optimal choice. In a small prototype present at DESY measurements for the acquisition of GEM-describing parameters were performed. The taking into operation of the test TPC was part of this thesis. Tracks were generated by a radioactive source, by means of which the gas amplification was determined. With the measurement arrangement gas-amplifier foils of different kind were compared in view of their amplification properties and their energy resolution power and systematically studied. Five different GEM performances were studied in the test TPC. These foils differ in their geometrical classification parameters, the fabrication process, or the materials. The GEMs produced at CERN possess in comparison with GEMs of the Japanese firm SciEnergy and a GEM of the US-American firm Tech-Etch the best amplification and resolution properties. Furthermore a new GEM framing

  1. Lithographic patterning of metals on flexible plastic foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Furthner, F.; Deen, J.; Laat, W.J.M.de; Meinders, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the challenges of patterning electrodes with separations in the micron and sub-micron range onto thin polyethylene naphthalate foils for use in biochips are discussed. It was found that it was necessary to improve the adhesion of the metal electrodes to the foil by using plasma treatme

  2. Foil level packaging of a chemical gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generic method for the packaging of transducers at the foil level is proposed and was demonstrated on chemical gas sensors made on a plastic foil. The processing was based on the lamination of pre-patterned polymeric structures on the fabricated devices and covered by a gas permeable membrane. This polymeric packaging can be either applied on plastic foils or on conventional substrates such as silicon or glass. It can be used when standard packaging techniques might not be applied or when they can represent a significant cost. Using the lamination of a foil, the dry process presented here is compatible with large-scale fabrication techniques, such as roll-to-roll processing, and aims at reducing the global fabrication cost of sensing devices made on a plastic foil. It can further lead to the fabrication of all polymeric devices. This generic processing can be used for a wide range of applications in the field of microsystems, especially for which the foil level is required and where standard techniques at the wafer level are not applicable. The foil level packaging (FLP) was implemented here for the encapsulation of gas sensors on a plastic foil and validated through gas measurements.

  3. Foil fabrication for the ROMANO event. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vacuum Processes Lab (VPL), of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division (MFD), conducted various vacuum related support activities for the ROMANO nuclear physics experiment. This report focuses on the foil fabrication activities carried out between July and November 1983 for the ROMANO event. Other vacuum related activities for ROMANO, such as outgassing tests of materials, are covered in separate documentation. VPL was asked to provide 270 coated Parylene foils for the ROMANO event. However, due to the developmental nature of some of the procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were processed. In addition, VPL interacted with MFD's Plastics Shop to help supply Parylene substrates to other organizations (i.e., LBL and commercial vendors) which had also been asked to provide coated foils for ROMANO. The purposes of this report are (A) to document the processes developed and the techniques used to produce the foils, and (B) to suggest future directions. The report is divided into four sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, (3) calibration foil fabrication, and (4) foil and substrate inspections

  4. On the forced flow around a flapping foil

    CERN Document Server

    Mandujano, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The two dimensional incompressible viscous flow past a flapping foil immersed in a uniform stream is studied numerically. Numerical simulations were performed using a Lattice-Boltzmann model for moderate Reynolds numbers. The computation of the hydrodynamic force on the foil is related to the the wake structure. In particular, when the foil's centre of mass is fixed in space, numerical results suggest a relation between drag coefficient behaviour and the flapping frequency which determines the transition from the von K\\'arm\\'an (vKm) to the inverted von K\\'arm\\'an wake. Beyond the inverted vKm transition the foil was released. Upstream swimming was observed at high enough flapping frequencies. Computed hydrodynamic forces suggest the propulsion mechanism for the swimming foil.

  5. Numerical and experimental investigation of bump foil mechanical behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    Corrugated foils are utilized in air foil bearings to introduce compliance and damping thus accurate mathematical predictions are important. A corrugated foil behaviour is investigated experimentally as well as theoretically. The experimental investigation is performed by compressing the foil......, between two parallel surfaces, both statically and dynamically to obtain hysteresis curves. The theoretical analysis is based on a two dimensional quasi static FE model, including geometrical non-linearities and Coulomb friction in the contact points and neglects the foil mass. A method for implementing...... the friction is suggested. Hysteresis curves obtained via the FE model are compared to the experimental results obtained. Good agreement is observed in the low frequency range and discrepancies for higher frequencies are thoroughly discussed....

  6. Compliant Foil Journal Bearings - Investigation of Dynamic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    compliant foil bearings, and the understanding of their dynamic behaviour is growing. However, practical design involving these bearings are still associated with a large degree of trial and error. This study aims at establishing an accurate mathematical model, to calculate the pressure, film height and...... dynamic coefficients, of the compliant foil bearing together with an efficient solution method, which can be easily adopted and implemented by mechanical engineers. A theoretical model of a radial compliant foil bearing that incorporates compressibility of the lubricating gas and flexibility/compliance of...... the foil structure is presented. The compliance of the foil structure is incorporated implicitly in the Reynolds equation which is accomplished through a modification of the film gap function [8]. The resulting non-linear equation is perturbed and solved by use of the finite element method following a...

  7. Numerical analysis of bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; XU Huai-jin; ZHANG Guang-hui

    2008-01-01

    Bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance were analyzed. An air film thickness model and a bearing theoretical analytical model were developed accounting for air compressibility and foil deformation. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of bump foil beatings with different operating eccentricities, the air film thickness equation and Reynolds equation were coupled through pressure and solved by Newton-Raphson Method(NRM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM). The characteristics of an bump foil bearing model were dis-cussed including load carrying capacity, film thickness and pressure distributions. The results of simulation show that bump foil beating without nominal radial clearance can provide better stability and greater load capaci-ty. This numerical analytical method also reveals a good convergence in numerical calculation.

  8. Freezing enhancement around a horizontal tube using copper foil disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Beer, H.

    2011-12-01

    Freezing of water saturated in circumferentially arranged copper foils around a cooling tube is studied experimentally and numerically. The copper foils need not to be welded to the cooling tube but are merely placed around the tube so that the freezing system is easily arranged. Copper foils greatly enhance freezing compared with that of a bare tube, even with a small copper volume fraction in the freezing system. Numerical calculations by means of a continuum model predict well freezing enhancement. The effect of the copper foils is also considered numerically for the melting process in order to compare with freezing. It is seen that copper foils contribute more to the melting enhancement than to the increase of the freezing rate.

  9. Foil calibration for IR imaging bolometer by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IR imaging video bolometer (IRVB) provides the power distribution of plasma radiation. The radiation distribution is obtained from the temperature distribution on the bolometer foil. It is necessary to calibrate between the temperature distribution and the incident radiation power on the bolometer foil. This paper describes a new calibration technique for the foil which we have developed. The bolometer foil was irradiated with a He-Ne laser and the temperature distribution was measured by an IR camera while changing the irradiation position. The temperature distribution measured was analyzed by the comparison with the results calculated by FEM. We repeated this comparison while changing the parameters such as effective foil thickness and effective emissivity in the calculation until the calculated distribution converged to the measured one. The temperature distribution calculated by the FEM agreed well with the measured one, so the calibration between the radiation power and the temperature profile can be suitably conducted by this technique. (author)

  10. Infrared imaging video bolometer with a double layer absorbing foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present paper is an infrared video bolometer with a bolometer foil consisting of two layers: the first layer is constructed of radiation absorbing blocks and the second layer is a thermal isolating base. The absorbing blocks made of a material with a high photon attenuation coefficient (gold) were spatially separated from each other while the base should be made of a material having high tensile strength and low thermal conductance (stainless steel). Such a foil has been manufactured in St. Petersburg and calibrated in NIFS using a vacuum test chamber and a laser beam as an incident power source. A finite element method (FEM) code was applied to simulate the thermal response of the foil. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental calibration data. The temperature response of the double layer foil is a factor of two higher than that of a single foil IR video bolometer using the same absorber material and thickness. (author)

  11. Fluorocarbon stripping of low beta heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state distributions were measured for Kr, Xe, Ho and Pb ions at energies from 25 to 160 keV/amu passing through a high molecular weight fluorocarbon vapor, as well as air and carbon foil strippers. Measured charge state distributions are given which show that the fluorocarbon distributions are intermediate between those of air and foil strippers, becoming closer to foil values as velocity is decreased. At all energies substantial asymmetry in the fluorocarbon distributions towards higher charge states were observed. These favorable distributions, coupled with very high beam handling capability, low maintenance and indefinite lifetime clearly indicate the value of fluorocarbon stripping for many accelerator applications. 5 refs

  12. Quality Of Electrophotographic Prints On Foil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrophotographic printing uses many types of substrates, our study focuses on plastic substrates. Six types ofregular and self-adhesive foil substrates were chosen to be printed using two electrophotographic presses: XeroxColour 1000 Press and Canon imagePress C7000VP. A test chart containing tone value scales and a set of samplesfor profiling was created, spectrophotomety and densitometry was applied to obtain the optical and colorimetricproperties of the substrates investigated. Xerox Color 1000 Press produced larger densities and tone value increaseon every type of substrate. The largest TVI values and reproducible colour gamut was observed on the smoothestfoil in case of both presses. Large colour differences were found between patches of full tone process colors on thedifferent substrates investigated.

  13. Bombarding insulating foils with highly energetic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzanò, G.; de Filippo, E.; Hagmann, S.; Rothard, H.; Volant, C.

    Insulating (MYLAR), semi-insulating (MYLAR-Au) and conducting foils have been bombarded by very energetic 64 MeV u-1 78Kr32+ ions. The velocity spectra of fast electrons emitted in the backward and forward directions have been measured and analyzed as a function of the elapsed time in the run. A shift of binary encounter and convoy electrons emitted in the forward direction toward lower velocities has been observed with insulating targets. No such shift occurs with metallic targets. The surface potential evolves with time (i.e. ion fluence) both at forward and backward emission angle. It is shown that strong bulk charging of insulating targets leads to a positive potential as high as 9 kV before charge breakdown.

  14. Design considerations for foil windows for PET radioisotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a study performed at SRL to develop analytical and computational techniques for optimizing the design of conduction-cooled foil windows for PET targets. Single foil conduction cooled windows have been found to be good target entrance windows for both low energy accelerators and medium energy cyclotrons. Detailed thermal analysis has given an approximate analytical expression for the maximum temperature reached in a foil window under conditions of realistic ion beam bombardment. The effects of 'hot spots' in the beam density profile were investigated. It was shown that a factor of two safety margin in window design should be adequate to compensate for any possible beam hot spots. In addition, the reduction of foil stress by slack mounting was verified by experiments. The properties of conventional and novel foil materials were investigated for use in conduction cooled windows. Novel foil materials include two-component Al/Ti and Al/Havar foil. Results on the testing of candidate foil materials for thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at elevated temperature were presented. Two optimum foil window geometries were analyzed: a high aspect ratio window and a multiply slotted window. The multiply slotted window combines the advantages of a high aspect ratio foil window with a circular beam strike and is a promising window design for both TCA and cyclotron targets. A multiply slotted window for a N2 gas target for 15O production was designed using the methodologies discussed above. This prototype target was successfully tested using the TCA beam at SRL. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  15. Foil Gas Thrust Bearings for High-Speed Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Brian; DellaCorte, Christopher; Dykas, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the design and construction of simple foil thrust bearings intended for parametric performance testing and low marginal costs, supporting continued development of oil-free turbomachinery. A bearing backing plate is first machined and surface-ground to produce flat and parallel faces. Partial-arc slots needed to retain the foil components are then machined into the plate by wire electrical discharge machining. Slot thicknesses achievable by a single wire pass are appropriate to accommodate the practical range of foil thicknesses, leaving a small clearance in this hinged joint to permit limited motion. The backing plate is constructed from a nickel-based superalloy (Inconel 718) to allow heat treatment of the entire assembled bearing, as well as to permit hightemperature operation. However, other dimensionally stable materials, such as precipitation-hardened stainless steel, can also be used for this component depending on application. The top and bump foil blanks are cut from stacks of annealed Inconel X-750 foil by the same EDM process. The bump foil has several azimuthal slits separating it into five individual bump strips. This configuration allows for variable bump spacing, which helps to accommodate the effects of the varying surface velocity, thermal crowning, centrifugal dishing, and misalignment. Rectangular tabs on the foil blanks fit into the backing plate slots. For this application, a rather traditional set of conventionally machined dies is selected, and bump foil blanks are pressed into the dies for forming. This arrangement produces a set of bump foil dies for foil thrust bearings that provide for relatively inexpensive fabrication of various bump configurations, and employing methods and features from the public domain.

  16. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  17. Compliant Foil Journal Bearing Performance at Alternate Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Puleo, Bernadette J.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental test program has been conducted to determine the highly loaded performance of current generation gas foil bearings at alternate pressures and temperatures. Typically foil bearing performance has been reported at temperatures relevant to turbomachinery applications but only at an ambient pressure of one atmosphere. This dearth of data at alternate pressures has motivated the current test program. Two facilities were used in the test program, the ambient pressure rig and the high pressure rig. The test program utilized a 35 mm diameter by 27 mm long foil journal bearing having an uncoated Inconel X-750 top foil running against a shaft with a PS304 coated journal. Load capacity tests were conducted at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 krpm at temperatures from 25 to 500 C and at pressures from 0.1 to 2.5 atmospheres. Results show an increase in load capacity with increased ambient pressure and a reduction in load capacity with increased ambient temperature. Below one-half atmosphere of ambient pressure a dramatic loss of load capacity is experienced. Additional lightly loaded foil bearing performance in nitrogen at 25 C and up to 48 atmospheres of ambient pressure has also been reported. In the lightly loaded region of operation the power loss increases for increasing pressure at a fixed load. Knowledge of foil bearing performance at operating conditions found within potential machine applications will reduce program development risk of future foil bearing supported turbomachines.

  18. Experimental evidence of beam-foil plasma creation during ion-solid interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-08-01

    Charge state evolution of the energetic projectile ions during the passage through thin carbon foils has been revisited using the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Contributions from the bulk and the solid surface in the charge changing processes have been segregated by measuring the charge state distribution of the projectile ions in the bulk of the target during the ion-solid interaction. Interestingly, the charge state distribution measured in the bulk exhibits Lorentzian profile in contrast to the well-known Gaussian structure observed using the electromagnetic methods and the theoretical predictions. The occurrence of such behavior is a direct consequence of the imbalance between charge changing processes, which has been seen in various cases of the laboratory plasma. It suggests that the ion-solid collisions constitute high-density, localized plasma in the bulk of the solid target, called the beam-foil plasma. This condensed beam-foil plasma is similar to the high-density solar and stellar plasma which may have practical implementations in various fields, in particular, plasma physics and nuclear astrophysics. The present work suggests further modification in the theoretical charge state distribution calculations by incorporating the plasma coupling effects during the ion-solid interactions. Moreover, the multi-electron capture from the target exit surface has been confirmed through comparison between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted values of the mean charge state of the projectile ions.

  19. Experimental study of relative level populations in beam-foil excited Ar+7 and Kr+7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative level populations in beam-foil excited sodium-like argon (Ar VIII) and copper-like krypton (Kr VIII) have been studied at 2 MeV projectile energy. In Ar VIII, the 3p and the 3d terms are strongly excited. The level population decreases rapidly with increasing value of the principal quantum number n, reaches a minimum for levels with n = 5 or 6, but increases then and reaches a strong maximum for levels with n approximately 11. Also the Kr VIII data show a population maximum for levels with n = 11. The strong 3p and 3d level excitations in Ar VIII are explained as selective inner-shell processes which can be understood in the molecular-orbital electron-promotion picture. The preferential population of high-flying Rydberg states is explained as resulting from a near-resonance electron transfer from the valence band of the carbon foil to the projectile. This process takes place when the projectile leaves the back of the foil. (Auth.)

  20. X-ray source production in foil implosion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of two-dimensional radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic foil implosion calculations are discussed which explore ways of producing warm x-ray sources (∼60 eV) in a reproducible manner and which would permit close-in access to the source. The discussions include the effects of contoured electrodes on the foil implosion and source output, and of tapering the average mass distribution along the length of the foil. Primarily, source evaluation by jet formation and stagnation against a dense stopping block is treated

  1. Mechanical properties of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodes, M A; Kachold, F S; Rosiwal, S M

    2015-03-28

    Diamond coating of suitable template materials and subsequent delamination allows for the manufacturing of free-standing diamond foil. The evolution of the microstructure can be influenced by secondary nucleation via control of process conditions in the hot-filament chemical vapour deposition process. Bending tests show extraordinarily high strength (more than 8 GPa), especially for diamond foils with nanocrystalline structure. A detailed fractographic analysis is conducted in order to correlate measured strength values with crack-initiating defects. The size of the failure causing flaw can vary from tens of micrometres to tens of nanometres, depending on the diamond foil microstructure as well as the loading conditions. PMID:25713455

  2. Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Free-Standing Cu Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiyun Dai; Xiaofei Zhu; Guangping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Tensile and fatigue properties of free-standing as-rolled Cu foils were investigated by means of uniaxial tensile and dynamic bending tests. A special testing system was established to evaluate fatigue behavior of a mi-croscale material subjected to dynamic bending load. The experimental results show that the yield strength increases, but the fracture strain and fatigue resistance decrease with decreasing foil thickness. Deformation and fatigue damage behavior was characterized. The size effect on tensile and fatigue properties of the Cu foils are evaluated to get further understanding of the mechanical behavior of the micrometer-scale metallic materials.

  3. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  4. Synchronization and Phase Dynamics of Oscillating Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Cyndee L.

    In this work, a two-dimensional model representing the vortices that animals produce, when they are ying/swimming, was constructed. A D{shaped cylinder and an oscillating airfoil were used to mimic these body{shed and wing{generated vortices, respectively. The parameters chosen are based on the Reynolds numbers similar to that which is observed in nature (˜10 4). In order to imitate the motion of ying/swimming, the entire system was suspended into a water channel from frictionless air{bearings. The position of the apparatus in the channel was regulated with a linear, closed loop PI controller. Thrust/drag forces were measured with strain gauges and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to examine the wake structure that develops. The Strouhal number of the oscillating airfoil was compared to the values observed in nature as the system transitions between the accelerated and steady states. The results suggest that self-regulation restricts the values of the Strouhal number to a certain range where no other external sensory input is necessary. As suggested by previous work, this self-regulation is a result of a limit cycle process that stems from nonlinear periodic oscillations. The limit cycles were used to examine the synchronous conditions due to the coupling of the foil and wake vortices. Noise is a factor that can mask details of the synchronization. In order to control its effect, we study the locking conditions using an analytic technique that only considers the phases. Our results show that the phase locking indices are dependent on the Strouhal value as it converges to a frequency locking ratio of ≃0:5. This indicates that synchronization occurs during cruising between the motion of the foil and the measured thrust/drag response of the uid forces. The results suggest that Strouhal number selection in steady forward natural swimming and ying is the result of a limit cycle process and not actively controlled by an organism. An implication of this is

  5. International 235U fission foil mass intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the measurement of neutron fission cross sections, one of the larger uncertainties is associated with the mass determination of the fissionable deposit. Inconsistencies in determinations of the fission cross sections may be a result of systematic errors associated with the measurement of the deposit mass. As part of a study to check the consistency of mass scales at a number of laboratories throughout the world, two 235U deposits from the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) in Leningrad, USSR, were made available through the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency for measurements at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). These deposits are directly traceable to foils used in very precise measurements of the 235U(n,f) cross section made in a collaborative effort by KRI and the Technical University of Dresden (TUD), GDR. The study undertaken at the NBS consisted of two parts. One part was the measurement of the alpha-decay rates of the two 235U samples (KRI VI and KRI-XV) with a low-geometry-counting spectrometry facility. The other was the measurement of the total alpha disintegration rate of the samples employing a 2II alpha counter

  6. Foil dissociation of 40-120 keV/p hydrogen clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on measurements of angular and charge state distributions of hydrogen fragments resulting from the dissociation of fast Hn+ clusters (n ≤ 13) in a carbon foil. The proximity effects on the fragment neutralization has been investigated for beam velocities above and around the Bohr velocity. At a given velocity the angular width and the yield of neutral atoms are observed to saturate at n ≥ 5 and n ≥ 7, respectively. The interpretation of these behaviours provides some insight on the collective aspects of the collisions and on the structure of hydrogen clusters

  7. Foil Gas Bearing Supported Quiet Fan for Spacecraft Ventilation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a quiet fan for Environmental Control and Life Support systems to enhance the livable environment within the spacecraft has been a challenge. A Foil Gas...

  8. Decontamination with pasty pickling agents forming a strippable foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of an in-situ decontamination procedure by applying onto the contaminated surface (in an one-step or multi-step process) pasty, chemically aggressive agents causing dilution and adsorption of the contaminant and then hardening to form a strippable foil. The use of such a foil will result in following advantages, with respect to usual techniques: - sensibly shorter operation duration resulting in lower personnel doses; - reduction of the arising secondary waste volume because there is no need for washing; the volume of the spent strippable foil is much smaller than currently used water volumes; - optimal conditioning of the radioactive waste due to its fixation in a solid (foil); - an accidental contamination in a controlled area can easily be fixed and covered avoiding its propagation

  9. Stratification in Al and Cu foils exploded in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksht, R. B. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Artyomov, A. P. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, V. I. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    An experiment with exploding foils was carried out at a current density of 0.7 × 10{sup 8} A/cm{sup 2} through the foil with a current density rise rate of about 10{sup 15} A/cm{sup 2} s. To record the strata arising during the foil explosions, a two-frame radiographic system was used that allowed tracing the dynamics of strata formation within one shot. The original striation wavelength was 20–26 μm. It was observed that as the energy deposition to a foil stopped, the striation wavelength increased at a rate of ∼(5–9) × 10{sup 3} cm/s. It is supposed that the most probable reason for the stratification is the thermal instability that develops due to an increase in the resistivity of the metal with temperature.

  10. Controlled electropolishing of copper foils at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gi Duk; Kim, Young Woo; Moyen, Eric; Keum, Dong Hoon [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hee [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); IBS Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute of Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nano-technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Seunghyun [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); IBS Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute of Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pribat, Didier, E-mail: didier53@skku.edu [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the electrochemical polishing of copper foils at elevated temperature, in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolytes of various concentrations. Atomic force microscopy, surface reflectance measurements as well as optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (including electron backscattering diffraction) have been used throughout this study to characterize the surface of the electropolished foils. We have found that copper foils electropolished at 65 °C in 2.17 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, exhibited a lower surface roughness and a higher percent specular reflection, comparing with values obtained after classical electropolishing in concentrated H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at room temperature or comparing with values obtained after chemical-mechanical polishing. This work could open up new prospects for the preparation of copper foils before the growth of high quality graphene layers.

  11. Method of stabilizing Nb3Sn superconducting foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stabilization of niobium-tin Nb3Sn superconducting foils with copper is carried out by deposition or by diffusion in pure copper or in a tin bath containing different copper levels, with the surface etched or unetched. The foils are covered with a copper film at a temperature of 300 to 5O0 degC using a tin solder, spread on a copper, silver or nickel layer deposited on the foil surface from solutions for electroless plating. The bond between the surface of the superconducting foil and the electroless plated metal layer is annealed in a controlled atmosphere or in a vacuum at a temperature of 200 to 500 degC for over 20 to 60 minutes. The copper stabilization layer can also be produced electrolytically. (J.B.)

  12. Design of foil implosion system for Pioneer I experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A foil implosion system is described that integrates an explosive flux-compression generator, a flat plate feed section with power conditioning switches, and a vacuum electrode region containing a cylindrical foil/plasma load. Power conditioning, obtained with an explosive-driven plasma compression opening switch and explosive-actuated closing switches, provides a submicrosecond multimegampere pulse for the implosion of an aluminum plasma. The flat plate section is configured for bidirectional feed to the coaxial vacuum electrodes. Important considerations in the design of the vacuum power flow region include gap failure, feed symmetry, and radial diagnostic access. The system presently accommodates a foil radius of 3 cm. Innovative foil insertion and clamping techniques are also described

  13. Material Properties of Laser-Welded Thin Silicon Foils

    OpenAIRE

    Brabec, C.J.; Auer, R.; A. Bochmann; Christiansen, S.; Schmidt, M.; K. Cvecek; Voigt, M.; Hessmann, M. T.; Kunz, T.

    2013-01-01

    An extended monocrystalline silicon base foil offers a great opportunity to combine low-cost production with high efficiency silicon solar cells on a large scale. By overcoming the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafer production, costs could be decreased to thin film solar cell range. The extended monocrystalline silicon base foil consists of several individual thin silicon wafers which are welded together. A comparison of three different approaches to weld 50 μm thin...

  14. Practical and research aspects of beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a heavy-ion accelerator to research in beam-foil spectroscopy requires certain capital equipment which is somewhat unorthodox when viewed from the standpoint of conventional, low-energy nuclear physics. It is necessary that people who wish to expand their accelerator work to include beam-foil studies understand the nature and cost of such major apparatus. We will survey the equipment needs, starting with the particle analyzer at the output of the accelerator and including the equipment used in a variety of beam-foil experiments. Electronic and computer devices will not be discussed since they are essentially identical with those employed in nuclear studies. Considerable attention will be given to optical spectrometers and spectographs including simple instruments which might be used by a laboratory just getting started in beam-foil research, or which has limited financial resources. Attention will be given to the production and use of the exciter foils. We will then discuss some typical beam-foil experiments having to do with the excitation, detection, and analysis of spectral lines from electronic levels in multiply-ionized atoms, and also with the measurement of the mean lives of such levels. Finally, we will review some of the special properties of the beam-foil light source as regards the population of the magnetic sub-states of a given level. Recent work on the character of the emitted light will be presented. That work will deal specifically with the origin of the polarization of the light. The relevant experiments involve varying the angle between the plane of the exciter foil and the particle velocity. (author)

  15. Analysis of the Caudal Vortices Evolvement around Flapping Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-dong; Zhang Xiao-qing; Su Yu-min; Xu Yu-ru

    2005-01-01

    The viscous flow field around two-dimensional flapping (heaving and pitching) foils was numerically computed. The structural characteristics of caudal vortices were investigated and the contour curves at different phase angles were obtained.The relationships between the structural characteristics of the vortices and the force acting on the foil and between the widths of the caudal vortex street and of the caudal flow field were analyzed. A method to determine the shedding frequency of the vortices was proposed.

  16. D-Cluster Converter Foil for Laser-Accelerated Deuteron Beams: Towards Deuteron-Beam-Driven Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, George H.

    2012-10-24

    Fast Ignition (FI) uses Petawatt laser generated particle beam pulse to ignite a small volume called a pre-compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target, and is the favored method to achieve the high energy gain per target burn needed for an attractive ICF power plant. Ion beams such as protons, deuterons or heavier carbon ions are especially appealing for FI as they have relative straight trajectory, and easier to focus on the fuel capsule. But current experiments have encountered problems with the 'converter-foil' which is irradiated by the Petawatt laser to produce the ion beams. The problems include depletion of the available ions in the convertor foils, and poor energy efficiency (ion beam energy/ input laser energy). We proposed to develop a volumetrically-loaded ultra-high-density deuteron deuterium cluster material as the basis for converter-foil for deuteron beam generation. The deuterons will fuse with the ICF DT while they slow down, providing an extra 'bonus' energy gain in addition to heating the hot spot. Also, due to the volumetric loading, the foil will provide sufficient energetic deuteron beam flux for 'hot spot' ignition, while avoiding the depletion problem encountered by current proton-driven FI foils. After extensive comparative studies, in Phase I, high purity PdO/Pd/PdO foils were selected for the high packing fraction D-Cluster converter foils. An optimized loading process has been developed to increase the cluster packing fraction in this type of foil. As a result, the packing fraction has been increased from 0.1% to 10% - meeting the original Phase I goal and representing a significant progress towards the beam intensities needed for both FI and pulsed neutron applications. Fast Ignition provides a promising approach to achieve high energy gain target performance needed for commercial Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This is now a realistic goal for near term in view of the anticipated ICF target burn

  17. Globally shed wakes for three distinct retracting foil geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Stephanie; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In quickly retracting foils at an angle of attack, the boundary layer vorticity along with the added mass energy is immediately and globally shed from the body into the surrounding fluid. The deposited vorticity quickly reforms into lasting vortex structures, which could be used for purposes such as manipulating or exploiting the produced flow structures by additional bodies in the fluid. The globally shed wake thus entrains the added mass energy provided by the initially moving body, reflected by the value of the circulation left in the wake. In studying experimentally as well as numerically this phenomenon, we find that the three different tested geometries leave behind distinct wakes. Retracting a square-ended foil is undesirable because the deposited wake is complicated by three-dimensional ring vorticity effects. Retracting a tapered, streamlined-tipped foil is also undesirable because the shape-changing aspect of the foil geometry actually induces energy recovery back to the retracting foil, leaving a less energetic globally shed wake. Finally, a retracting hollow foil geometry avoids both of these detrimental effects, leaving relatively simple, yet energetic, vortex structures in the wake.

  18. Propulsion of a flexible foil in a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Kartik; Chaithanya, Ravi

    2008-11-01

    The dynamic properties such as time dependent pressure loading, free stream velocity, and local acceleration of the hydrofoil determine the instantaneous deformation of a flexible foil. The present work is concerned with the effect of structural dynamic terms and inertia loads on a flexible foil undergoing large amplitude rigid body harmonic wave-like motion in an unsteady potential flow. The hydrofoil structural dynamics is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam finite element. The unsteady fluid dynamic force is evaluated using a numerical discrete vortex implementation of an unsteady incompressible potential flow model. The hydrofoil is fixed at its leading edge and it moves with velocity parallel to its length in the undeformed state. The propulsion of the hydro-elastic system is studied in terms of the mass ratio of the foil and the fluid, as well as its structural flexibility. It is shown that the thrust coefficient and propulsive efficiency of the flexible foil decreases with increase in structural flexibility. We made a comparison of the effect of structural flexibility on the thrust coefficient and propulsive efficiency considering models of the oscillating foil with inertia and without inertia effects present. Detailed parametric studies of the effect of different parameters on propulsion of the foil were made. Including inertia loads and structural dynamic terms significantly affect the propulsive efficiency and thrust coefficient.

  19. Research and Development of Commercially Manufactured Large GEM Foils

    CERN Document Server

    Posik, M

    2014-01-01

    The recently completed Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) of the STAR experiment at RHIC took advantage of commercially produced GEM foils based on double-mask chemical etching techniques. With future experiments proposing detectors that utilize very large-area GEM foils, there is a need for commercially available GEM foils. Double-mask etching techniques pose a clear limitation in the maximum size. In contrast, single-mask techniques developed at CERN would allow one to overcome those limitations. We report on results obtained using 10 $\\times$ 10 cm$^2$ and 40$\\times$40 cm$^2$ GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch Inc. of Plymouth, MA, USA using single-mask techniques and thus the beginning for large GEM foil production on a commercial basis. A quality assurance procedure has been established through electrical and optical analyses via leakage current measurements and an automated high-resolution CCD scanner. The Tech-Etch foils show excellent electrical properties with leakage currents typically measured below 1 nA. The ...

  20. Aluminum clad ferritic stainless steel foil for metallic catalytic converter substrate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.S.; Pandey, A.; Jha, B.

    1996-09-01

    A roll bonding process was developed to produce Al clad ferritic stainless steel foil for the metallic catalytic converter substrate application. Clad foils with different chemistry were produced and their properties were evaluated. Heat treatment conditions for the homogenization of clad foils were identified. This article includes results from oxidation tests and mechanical tests on as-rolled and heat treated clad foil. Results from commercial ingot metallurgy foil were also included for comparison. The oxidation weight gain study indicates that the Al content in the foils is directly related to the usable life of the foil. However, rare earth addition is necessary to improve the oxidation resistance of this material for the high temperature applications by slowing down the weight gain kinetics and thus extend the usable life of foils. The heat treated clad foil also exhibit excellent tensile ductility when compared to the ingot metallurgy foil.

  1. Evaluation of the Brinecell{reg_sign} electrochemical oxidation unit for destruction of noncyanide strippers and other colored compounds in wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikoff, P.M.; Suciu, D.F.

    1994-08-01

    The noncyanide strippers used in the plating operations at Kelly Air Force Base, in San Antonio, Texas, develop an intense red color during use. Currently, the spent strippers cannot be treated in the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant because, even after biological treatment, the color remains too high for discharge. The Brinecell{reg_sign} process was evaluated for its application in treating the spent stripping solutions. The Brinecell{reg_sign} produces strong oxidizing agents that could treat the color causing compounds. The Brinecell{reg_sign} process was used to treat a 1 to 400 dilution of spent Clepo 204-T at 50 C and 60 g/L salt. After 8 hours of treatment, the color remaining was 8 units and the solution appeared colorless. Treatment of the Metalx B-9 reduced the color to 60 units. The effect of salt concentration, solution temperature, and solution pH was evaluated on the Brinecell{reg_sign} treatment process.

  2. Measurement of H zero excited states produced by foil stripping of 800-MeV H- ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foil stripping of H- directly to H+ is being considered for proton injection in the next generation of high-current proton storage rings. This technique can result in significant losses because excited states of HO, which are also produced in the foil, are field stripped in the downstream bending magnets. Without due care in the injection system design, many of the resulting protons will be outside the acceptance of the storage ring and will be quickly lost. We measured the production of such H0 excited states at the LAMPF High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility. An 800-MeV H- beam was passed through carbon foils of thicknesses 70, 100, 200, and 300 μg/cm2, and the excited states were analyzed by a special magnet downstream of the foil. The magnet had a linear field gradient so that the trajectories of the outgoing protons could be used to reconstruct the field values at which the various H0 stripped. We found that about 1% of the H0 emerge in excited states which can be stripped to protons by ring-bending magnets

  3. Woodgrain defect on tinned steel Flandres foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin electrocoated steel strip, also referred to as Flandres foil, is largely used for manufacturing food containers. Tinplates must have good corrosion resistance, workability, weldability, as well as a bright appearance. The woodgrain defect, a not yet fully understood defect that occurs on tinplates and accounts for their high scrap rate, consists of alternate bands of bright/dull reflectivity and resembles longitudinally cut wood. Observations of the woodgrain defect by scanning electron microscopy showed that the molten tin spreads irregularly during both the melting and solidification stages. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the metallic tin tended to crystallize in the (200) direction for coupons with and without the woodgrain defect. Nevertheless, the preferential orientation degree decreased for coupons with the woodgrain defect. The rocking curves, also known as omega-scan, showed that the tin grains were uniformly aligned parallel to the strip surface for coupons with no defects, whereas for tinplates with woodgrain, the tin grains were not uniformly oriented, probably due to the misalignment of the grains in relation to the surface. - Graphical abstract: The woodgrain defect occurs on Flandres tinplates and consists in the formation of alternate bands of different reflectivity (bright/dull), which looks like longitudinally cut wood. X-ray diffractometry showed that the typical bright surface of tinplate is associated to the uniform distribution of aligned (200) Sn grains, whereas in tinplate with the woodgrain defect, the Sn grains were not uniformly oriented, due to the misalignment of the (200) Sn planes relative to the surface. Research highlights: → The bright surface of tinplate is associated to the uniform distribution of aligned (200) Sn grains. → The woodgrain defect on tinplate consists in alternate bands of bright/dull appearance. → In tinplate with the woodgrain defect, the Sn grains were not uniformly oriented, due to the

  4. Status of the installation of the AMS system at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina. Design of a new stripper system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) system is under installation at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, in Argentina. Its injection spectrometer is already operative, the electrostatic FN tandem accelerator is under high voltage test and the post accelerator spectrometer is been installed at present. A brief account on the status of the facility is presented. Results from preliminary test, for the design of a new terminal gas stripper system are presented. (author)

  5. Performance of Simple Gas Foil Thrust Bearings in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Foil bearings are self-acting hydrodynamics devices used to support high speed rotating machinery. The advantages that they offer to process fluid lubricated machines include: high rotational speed capability, no auxiliary lubrication system, non-contacting high speed operation, and improved damping as compared to rigid hydrodynamic bearings. NASA has had a sporadic research program in this technology for almost 6 decades. Advances in the technology and understanding of foil journal bearings have enabled several new commercial products in recent years. These products include oil-free turbochargers for both heavy trucks and automobiles, high speed electric motors, microturbines for distributed power generation, and turbojet engines. However, the foil thrust bearing has not received a complimentary level of research and therefore has become the weak link of oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to both provide machine designers with basic performance parameters and to elucidate the underlying physics of foil thrust bearings, NASA Glenn Research Center has completed an effort to experimentally measure the performance of simple gas foil thrust bearing in air. The database includes simple bump foil supported thrust bearings with full geometry and manufacturing techniques available to the user. Test conditions consist of air at ambient pressure and temperatures up to 500 C and rotational speeds to 55,000 rpm. A complete set of axial load, frictional torque, and rotational speed is presented for two different compliant sub-structures and inter-pad gaps. Data obtained from commercially available foil thrust bearings both with and without active cooling is presented for comparison. A significant observation made possible by this data set is the speed-load capacity characteristic of foil thrust bearings. Whereas for the foil journal bearing the load capacity increases linearly with rotational speed, the foil thrust bearing operates in the hydrodynamic high speed limit. In

  6. A Microfabricated Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy; Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey; Qiu, Songgang

    2007-01-01

    A segmented involute-foil regenerator has been designed, microfabricated and tested in an oscillating-flow rig with excellent results. During the Phase I effort, several approximations of parallel-plate regenerator geometry were chosen as potential candidates for a new microfabrication concept. Potential manufacturers and processes were surveyed. The selected concept consisted of stacked segmented-involute-foil disks (or annular portions of disks), originally to be microfabricated from stainless-steel via the LiGA (lithography, electroplating, and molding) process and EDM. During Phase II, re-planning of the effort led to test plans based on nickel disks, microfabricated via the LiGA process, only. A stack of nickel segmented-involute-foil disks was tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. These test results yielded a performance figure of merit (roughly the ratio of heat transfer to pressure drop) of about twice that of the 90 percent random fiber currently used in small approx.100 W Stirling space-power convertors-in the Reynolds Number range of interest (50 to 100). A Phase III effort is now underway to fabricate and test a segmented-involute-foil regenerator in a Stirling convertor. Though funding limitations prevent optimization of the Stirling engine geometry for use with this regenerator, the Sage computer code will be used to help evaluate the engine test results. Previous Sage Stirling model projections have indicated that a segmented-involute-foil regenerator is capable of improving the performance of an optimized involute-foil engine by 6 to 9 percent; it is also anticipated that such involute-foil geometries will be more reliable and easier to manufacture with tight-tolerance characteristics, than random-fiber or wire-screen regenerators. Beyond the near-term Phase III regenerator fabrication and engine testing, other goals are (1) fabrication from a material suitable for high temperature Stirling operation (up to 850 C for current engines; up to 1200 C

  7. Gas Foil Bearings for Space Propulsion Nuclear Electric Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The choice of power conversion technology is critical in directing the design of a space vehicle for the future NASA mission to Mars. One candidate design consists of a foil bearing supported turbo alternator driven by a helium-xenon gas mixture heated by a nuclear reactor. The system is a closed-loop, meaning there is a constant volume of process fluid that is sealed from the environment. Therefore, foil bearings are proposed due to their ability to use the process gas as a lubricant. As such, the rotor dynamics of a foil bearing supported rotor is an important factor in the eventual design. The current work describes a rotor dynamic analysis to assess the viability of such a system. A brief technology background, assumptions, analyses, and conclusions are discussed in this report. The results indicate that a foil bearing supported turbo alternator is possible, although more work will be needed to gain knowledge about foil bearing behavior in helium-xenon gas.

  8. Foil implosion studies with a plasma flow switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma flow switch has been developed for the 1.5 MJ Pegasus capacitor bank to efficiently utilize the bank energy to drive a foil implosion. The object of this activity is to generate an intense burst of soft x-rays when the foil stagnates and thermalizes on axis. The peak current of the Pegasus bank, determined from the charge voltage divided by the characteristic impedance of the capacitor bank is -- 10 MA. When used to perform direct-drive, foil implosion experiments, the foil collapses to the axis when the current has risen to only -- 3 MA. The kinetic energy of the imploding foil for the direct-drive configuration cannot exceed -- 25% of the bank energy (lossless calculation). The plasma flow switch has been designed to have a conduction time of -- 4 μsec and a commutation time of -- 0.2 μsec. This permits flow implosion experiments to be performed at peak current. The soft x-ray output, as determined by volometry and by an array of filtered x-ray diodes, is compared for the two modes of operation

  9. Design and optimization of vertex detector foils by superplastic forming

    CERN Document Server

    Snippe, Quirin Hendrik Catherin; Meinders, V T

    2011-01-01

    The production of one of the parts in a particle detector, called the RF Foil, has been a very intensive process in the past. The design and production process, which had a trial and error character, led eventually to an RF Foil that met the most important requirement: a sufficient leak tightness value. Since these kinds of foils have to be produced in the future, it is desirable to shorten the development stage with a view to cost reduction. This research project investigates how this part can be optimized with respect to the radiation length. An important limiting factor within this optimization process is the leak tightness of the foil. The intended production method this research will investigate is superplastic forming (SPF). On the one hand, the goal is to use finite element calculations to predict the forming behavior. The leak tightness of the formed foil must also be predicted within these calculations. On the other hand, an optimization strategy is necessary to reduce the radiation length of the RF ...

  10. Development of Tracking Detectors with industrially produced GEM Foils

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, F; Becker, U; Burns, L; Crary, D; Kearney, K; Keeler, G; Majka, R; Paton, K; Saini, G; Smirnov, N; Surrow, B; Woody, C

    2007-01-01

    The planned tracking upgrade of the STAR experiment at RHIC includes a large-area GEM tracker used to determine the charge sign of electrons and positrons produced from W+(-) decays. For such a large-scale project commercial availability of GEM foils is necessary. We report first results obtained with a triple GEM detector using GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch Inc. of Plymouth, MA, USA. Measurements of gain uniformity, long-term stability as well as measurements of the energy resolution for X-Rays are compared to results obtained with an identical detector using GEM foils produced at CERN. A quality assurance procedure based on optical tests using an automated high-resolution scanner has been established, allowing a study of the correlation of the observed behavior of the detector and the geometrical properties of the GEM foils. Detectors based on Tech-Etch and CERN produced foils both show good uniformity of the gain over the active area and stable gain after an initial charge-up period, making them well sui...

  11. Laser-driven electron acceleration from ultra-thin DLC foils - towards an ultra-compact coherent X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the acceleration of electrons from ultra-thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils by an ultrahigh-intensity laser pulse. While thick targets show maxwellian shaped electron spectra, a distinct quasi-monoenergetic characteristic peaked at 31 MeV is observed at a target thickness as thin as 5nm. At the same time, a substantial drop in laser-accelerated ion energies is observed. The experimental findings give first indication that laser-driven relativistic electron mirrors can be generated from ultra-thin foils, which in future may be used to generate brilliant X-ray beams by the coherent reflection of a second laser

  12. Dosimetric response of united, commercially available CTA foils for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of two kinds of untinted CTA foils: Fuji CTR-125 dosimetric foil and technical CTA-T foil, produced by 'Zaklady Chemiczne, 'Gorzow Wielkopolski' as support for light-sensitive layers of amateur photo-films, for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma ray dosimetry was investigated. In spite of rather bad physical parameters of the technical foil (spread of foil thickness, high and different initial absorbance) the dosimetric response of both foils for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays was similar. The CTA-T foil can be used for routine dosimetry providing that dosimetric signals have to be calculated exactly as recommended by the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard, i.e. as the difference of absorbance of irradiated and (the same) non-irradiated foil. Any other approach may lead to high errors of dose evaluation. The last is true also for other CTA foils, especially after long self-life.

  13. Dosimetric response of united, commercially available CTA foils for 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of two kinds of untinted CTA foils: Fuji CTR-125 dosimetric foil and technical CTA-T foil, produced by 'Zaklady Chemiczne, 'Gorzow Wielkopolski' as support for light-sensitive layers of amateur photo-films, for 60Co gamma ray dosimetry was investigated. In spite of rather bad physical parameters of the technical foil (spread of foil thickness, high and different initial absorbance) the dosimetric response of both foils for 60Co gamma rays was similar. The CTA-T foil can be used for routine dosimetry providing that dosimetric signals have to be calculated exactly as recommended by the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard, i.e. as the difference of absorbance of irradiated and (the same) non-irradiated foil. Any other approach may lead to high errors of dose evaluation. The last is true also for other CTA foils, especially after long self-life. (author)

  14. Flapping Instability of Two Tandem Flexible Foils in Uniform Axial Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli, Pardha Saradhi; Jaiman, Rajeev Kumar; Chua, Cassey

    2015-11-01

    We present a numerical analysis on the stability and coupled dynamics of two tandem flexible foils clamped at their leading edges in a uniform axial flow. The flexible foils considered for this study correspond to the fixed-point stable regime of the single flexible foil where the flexible foil aligns itself in the flow direction with no significant trailing edge oscillations. A high-order nonlinear coupled solver based on the variational formulation has been considered for analyzing the effects of gap between the foils on the stability and coupled behaviour of both the upstream and downstream foils. As a function of decreasing gap, it is observed that the tandem foil configuration is more prone to flapping instability than its single flexible foil counterpart. The evolution of the instability for the downstream foil shows two distinct dynamical scenarios: (i) only the downstream foil exhibits flapping motion and (ii) both the upstream and the downstream foils perform flapping. With the aid of a rigid foil in the upstream of a flexible foil, we further present a detailed analysis on the effects of the upstream wake and vortex shedding on the stability and flapping dynamics of the downstream foil.

  15. Highly sensitive urea sensing with ion-irradiated polymer foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently we prepared urea-sensors by attaching urease to the inner walls of etched ion tracks within thin polymer foil. Here, alternative track-based sensor configurations are examined where the enzyme remained in solution. The conductivities of systems consisting of two parallel irradiated polymer foils and confining different urea/urease mixtures in between were examined. The correlations between conductivity and urea concentration differed strongly for foils with unetched and etched tracks, which points at different sensing mechanisms – tentatively attributed to the adsorption of enzymatic reaction products on the latent track entrances and to the enhanced conductivity of reaction product-filled etched tracks, respectively. All examined systems enable in principle, urea sensing. They point at the possibility of sensor cascade construction for more sensitive or selective sensor systems.

  16. Development of single mask GEM foils in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various techniques available around the globe for making punch through holes for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs), such as Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). The GEM foils consists of 5 μm of Cu clad on both the sides of 50 μm polymide (PMMA/kapton) (5/50/5). At present these foils are developed in South Korea without having any adhesive between the Cu and polymide. The available techniques range from chemical etching, reactive plasma etching and laser etching. However, for GEM detectors, having an active area upto 5000 cm2, the chemical etching process using a Single Mask has been developed at CERN which is faster from the viewpoint of mass production of such foils for the upgrades which are foreseen in a couple of years with the Large Hadron Collider facility at CERN

  17. Analysis of texture of niobium thin wire and foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of texture components in 0.5 mm cold-worked wire and 40 μm foil (ε = 90 and 95% respectively) is investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Inhomogeneity of the product deformation texture is revealed. Textures of internal wire and foil metal volumes are traditionals ones as in similar products of bcc metals while for surface layers of metal with 5-10 μm thickness specific material textures are found. Shear texture (110) (001) of foil metal surface layer at annealing is enforced at the expense of prevailing growth in a matrix with rolling plane deformation. Removal of the metal layer with shear texture prior before annaling using etching leads to recrystallization in situ with the preservation of plane rolling deformation texture (001)-(112) (100)+(554) (225)

  18. Thermoelectric power of multilayer compositions of aluminium and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changing the thermoelectric power monolayer and multilayer aluminium foil and multilayer foils compositions of aluminium and carbon nanotubes is the deformation ε < 60% due to the scattering of conduction electrons at dislocations and ε=(70 ...96)% - due to their scattering on the boundaries between the layers (thermoelectric size effect)

  19. Fabrication of antiferroelectric PLZT films on metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of high-dielectric-strength antiferroelectric (AFE) films on metallic foils is technically important for advanced power electronics. To that end, we have deposited crack-free Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 (PLZT 8/95/5) films on nickel foils by chemical solution deposition. To eliminate the parasitic effect caused by the formation of a low-permittivity interfacial oxide, a conductive buffer layer of lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) was coated by chemical solution deposition on the nickel foil before the deposition of PLZT. Use of the LNO buffer allowed high-quality film-on-foil capacitors to be processed in air. With the PLZT 8/95/5 deposited on LNO-buffered Ni foils, we observed field- and thermal-induced phase transformations of AFE to ferroelectric (FE). The AFE-to-FE phase transition field, EAF = 225 kV/cm, and the reverse phase transition field, EFA = 190 kV/cm, were measured at room temperature on a ∼1.15 μm-thick PLZT 8/95/5 film grown on LNO-buffered Ni foils. The relative permittivities of the AFE and FE states were ∼600 and ∼730, respectively, with dielectric loss ∼0.04 at room temperature. The Curie temperature was ∼210 deg. C. The thermal-induced transition of AFE-to-FE phase occurred at ∼175 deg. C. Breakdown field strength of 1.2 MV/cm was measured at room temperature

  20. Method and apparatus for tensile testing of metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, O. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method for obtaining accurate and reproducible results in the tensile testing of metal foils in tensile testing machines is described. Before the test specimen are placed in the machine, foil side edges are worked until they are parallel and flaw free. The specimen are also aligned between and secured to grip end members. An aligning apparatus employed in the method is comprised of an alignment box with a longitudinal bottom wall and two upright side walls, first and second removable grip end members at each end of the box, and a means for securing the grip end members within the box.

  1. Electrochemically replicated smooth aluminum foils for anodic alumina nanochannel arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biring, Sajal; Tsai, Kun-Tong; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2008-01-01

    A fast electrochemical replication technique has been developed to fabricate large-scale ultra-smooth aluminum foils by exploiting readily available large-scale smooth silicon wafers as the masters. Since the adhesion of aluminum on silicon depends on the time of surface pretreatment in water, it is possible to either detach the replicated aluminum from the silicon master without damaging the replicated aluminum and master or integrate the aluminum film to the silicon substrate. Replicated ultra-smooth aluminum foils are used for the growth of both self-organized and lithographically guided long-range ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels without any polishing pretreatment. PMID:21730530

  2. Modeling the registration efficiency of thermal neutrons by gadolinium foils

    CERN Document Server

    Abdushukurov, D A; Bondarenko, D V; Chistyakov, D Y; Muminov, K K; Toshov, T A; Muminov, Kh.Kh.

    2007-01-01

    In the paper we present the results of mathematical modeling of the registration efficiency of thermal neutrons for the converters made of natural Gd and its 157 isotope plane-parallel foils. In the performed calculations four fixed energies of neutrons with the corresponding wavelengths of 1, 1.8, 3 and 4 $A^0$ are taken into account. We calculate the efficiencies of the converter for electron escapes to frontward and backward hemispheres and their sum, depending on thickness of converting foils. Results of comparison of our calculations with the experimental data are presented.

  3. Spectral content of buried Ag foils at 10(16) W/cm(2) laser illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, C M; Maddox, B R; Park, H-S; Prisbrey, S; Remington, B A

    2014-11-01

    Sources of 5-12 keV thermal Heα x-rays are readily generated by laser irradiation of mid-Z foils at intensities >10(14) W/cm(2), and are widely used as probes for inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density experiments. Higher energy 17-50 keV x-ray sources are efficiently produced from "cold" Kα emission using short pulse, petawatt lasers at intensities >10(18) W/cm(2) [H.-S. Park, B. R. Maddox et al., "High-resolution 17-75 keV backlighters for high energy density experiments," Phys. Plasmas 15(7), 072705 (2008); B. R. Maddox, H. S. Park, B. A. Remington et al., "Absolute measurements of x-ray backlighter sources at energies above 10 keV," Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 056709 (2011)]. However, when long pulse (>1 ns) lasers are used with Z > 30 elements, the spectrum contains contributions from both K shell transitions and from ionized atomic states. Here we show that by sandwiching a silver foil between layers of high-density carbon, the ratio of Kα:Heα in the x-ray spectrum is significant increased over directly illuminated Ag foils, with narrower lines from K-shell transitions. Additionally, the emission volume is more localized for the sandwiched target, producing a more planar x-ray sheet. This technique may be useful for generating probes requiring spectral purity and a limited spatial extent, for example, in incoherent x-ray Thomson scattering experiments. PMID:25430207

  4. Preparation of the charge stripping foil in J-PARC RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the J-PARC 3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), the H-charge exchange injection scheme using striping foils is adopted. The 1st stripping foil is mounted on a C-shaped holder. One edge of the foil is supported by the holders and the other edge is sandwiched by 10 μm diameter SiC fibers. The holders with not only operation foil but also spare foils were stored on the holder storage rack. The 1st stripping foil is one of the key elements deciding the beam performance in the RCS. Thus the foil preparation is very important issue. The foil preparation includes many work process as follows: a foil separation from glass substrates, salvaging the foil from the water, foil annealing, SiC fibers glueing and foil mount on the holder, and foil holders storing in the holder storage rack. In order to improve its reproducibility and increase the efficiency of work, attachment devices or support jigs are developed. (author)

  5. Mirror symmetric optics design for charge-stripping section in Rare Isotope Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Jeon, Dong-O.; Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Kim, Eun-San

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of the Rare Isotope Science Project is to construct a high power heavy-ion accelerator based on the superconducting linear accelerator (SCL). The heavy ion accelerator is a key research facility that will allow ground-breaking research into numerous facets of basic science, such as nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic physics, life science, medicine and material science. The machine will provide a beam power of 400 kW with a 238U79+ beam of 8 pμA and 200 MeV/u. One of the critical components in the SCL is the charge stripper between the two segments, SCL1 and SCL2, of the SCL. The charge stripper removes electrons from the ion beams to enhance the acceleration efficiency in the subsequent SCL2. To improve the efficiency of acceleration and power in SCL2, the optimal energy of stripped ions in a solid carbon foil stripper was estimated using the code LISE++. The thickness of the solid carbon foil was 300 μg/m2. The charge stripping efficiency of the solid carbon stripper in the present study was approximately 87%. For charge selection from the ions produced by the solid carbon stripper, a dispersive section is needed down-stream of the foil. The designed optics for the dispersive section is based on the mirror-symmetric optics to minimize the effect of high-order aberrations.

  6. Material Properties of Laser-Welded Thin Silicon Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Hessmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended monocrystalline silicon base foil offers a great opportunity to combine low-cost production with high efficiency silicon solar cells on a large scale. By overcoming the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafer production, costs could be decreased to thin film solar cell range. The extended monocrystalline silicon base foil consists of several individual thin silicon wafers which are welded together. A comparison of three different approaches to weld 50 μm thin silicon foils is investigated here: (1 laser spot welding with low constant feed speed, (2 laser line welding, and (3 keyhole welding. Cross-sections are prepared and analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD to reveal changes in the crystal structure at the welding side after laser irradiation. The treatment leads to the appearance of new grains and boundaries. The induced internal stress, using the three different laser welding processes, was investigated by micro-Raman analysis. We conclude that the keyhole welding process is the most favorable to produce thin silicon foils.

  7. An 8b organic microprocessor on plastic foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Veenendaal, E. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a microprocessor made by organic thin-film transistors processed directly onto flexible plastic foil. This is a direct realization of a microprocessor by thin-film technology, i.e., without transfer, on plastic. It paves the way to equip mundane supports and objects with low-cost comput

  8. Foil Bearing Starting Considerations and Requirements for Rotorcraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin C.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Foil gas bearings under development for rotorcraft-sized, hot core engine applications have been susceptible to damage from the slow acceleration and rates typically encountered during the pre-ignition stage in conventional engines. Recent laboratory failures have been assumed to be directly linked to operating foil bearings below their lift-off speed while following conventional startup procedures for the engines. In each instance, the continuous sliding contact between the foils and shaft was believed to thermally overload the bearing and cause the engines to fail. These failures highlight the need to characterize required acceleration rates and minimum operating speeds for these applications. In this report, startup experiments were conducted with a large, rotorcraft engine sized foil bearing under moderate load and acceleration rates to identify the proper start procedures needed to avoid bearing failure. The results showed that a bearing under a 39.4 kPa static load can withstand a modest acceleration rate of 500 rpm/s and excessive loitering below the bearing lift-off speed provided an adequate solid lubricant is present.

  9. Characteristic Differences Between Wire and Foil X-pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gilbert; Valenzuela, Julio; Krasheninnikov, Igor; Beg, Farhat; Wei, Mingsheng

    2015-11-01

    We conducted X-pinch experiments using laser-cut Ni and Cu foils on the 250kA GenASIS current driver at UC San Diego. General Atomics' Laser Micro-Machining (LMM) Center manufactured the X's. To characterize the foil X-pinches, we measured and compared the evolution, emission spectra, yield, and source size of these new arrays to that of comparably massed wire X-pinches on the same driver. Diagnostics included Si PN diodes and diamond PCDs, optical probing, X-ray spectroscopy, an XUV framing camera, a slit-wire camera, and current probes. We used novel structures machined into the crosspoint in an effort to better understand the effects of the initial geometry on the final pinch and to spatially confine the source location. Some designs entirely prohibited pinching. In other designs, when pinching occurred, the sources were comparable to ideal wire shots on GenASIS both in size (at or less than five microns) and X-ray flux (5-10 MW @ 1-10 keV). The data collected here also show considerable differences between successful foil and wire pinches. The X-ray spectra are not identical, and we find that the foil X's produce a single >2.5 keV emission pulse with none of the additional later and longer-lasting hard emission pulses found in wire X-pinches.

  10. Absolute neutronic performance of SNS from gold foil application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of absolute neutron fluxes by white beam activation of thick gold foils in conjuction with spectral analysis by time-of-flight monitors is described. A numerical integration procedure is presented and the method applied to determining the absolute performance of SNS from data obtained during the initial commissioning run in December 1984. (author)

  11. The use of fission foils for plasma neutron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commonly used fission foil materials have been examined for their application to plasma diagnostics as activation foils. Such foils have been used extensively in the past for fission reactor dosiemetry. They have very well known fission cross sections, and in most cases the fission yields are reasonably well known. The materials included in this study are 226Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 231Pa, 233U, 235U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, and 239Pu. Of these materials 232Th, 235U, and 238U are considered to be very good candidates for this application. The others have been eliminated because of high background radioactivity, impurities which present high backgrounds, or lack of knowledge about yield distribution of fission products. Production cross sections for fission products in the vicinity of the yield maxima (A = 85 - 101, 133 143) have been calculated from known fission cross sections and independent or cumulative yields at thermal energies (where applicable) and 14 MeV. Recent measurements at 2.5 MeV are also included. For one foil (232Th) results for 3 MeV and 11 MeV are also available. The decay schemes of the more prominent fission products have been thoroughly studied and good measurement precision should result from their use

  12. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  13. Grafting of polyethylene foils by vinyltrimethoxysilane using radiofrequency plasma discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupa, I.; Nedelčev, T.; Novák, I.; Kleinová, A.; Špírková, Milena

    Bratislava: Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2006. s. 173-174. ISBN 80-968433-3-8. [Bratislava International Conference on Macromolecules: Advanced Polymeric Materials /20./. 11.06.2006-15.06.2006, Bratislava] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : grafting * polyethylene foils Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  14. Effect of sheet thickness on deep drawing of metal foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marumo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present work is to study the influence of sheet thickness on blank holding forceand limiting drawing ratio.Design/methodology/approach: Variation in blankholding force and limiting drawing ratio in deep drawing ofmetal foils were evaluated by calculation.Findings: The paper shows variation in the blankholding force required for the elimination of wrinkling and thelimiting drawing ratio with sheet thickness. The blankholding force required for the elimination of wrinklingincreased rapidly as the sheet thickness decreased. When the sheet thickness was very thin, the blankholdingforce was strongly influenced by the coefficient of friction. The limiting drawing ratio decreased as sheetthickness decreased and it decreased rapidly below 0.04 mm thickness. When the sheet thickness was very thin,the limiting drawing ratio was strongly influenced by the coefficient of friction.Research limitations/implications: The control of the loading path of blankholding force will be an effectiveway to prevent the formation of defects including fractures and wrinkles in deep drawing of metal foils.Practical implications: When deep drawing of metal foils is carried out, the control of loading path of blankholdingforce during deep drawing operation can be very effective for improving the limiting drawing ratio.Originality/value: The contribution of the conducted research is observed in a possible view of improvementof deep drawability of metal foils.

  15. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a rigid rotor supported by air foil bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Hansen, Asger J. T.; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of compressors utilizing foil bearings is increasing. Their mechanical design is challenging, and an accurate prediction of the bearing coefficients is important. A mathematical model taking into account the foil structure, and the detailed geometry of a three pad foil bearing are...

  16. Satellite and Opacity Effects on Resonance Line Shapes Produced from Short-Pulse Laser Heated Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, R; Audebert, P; Chen, H-K; Fournier, K B; Peyreusse, O; Moon, S; Lee, R W; Price, D; Klein, L; Gauthier, J C; Springer, P

    2002-12-03

    We measure the He-like, time-resolved emission from thin foils consisting of 250 {angstrom} of carbon-250 {angstrom} of aluminum and 500 {angstrom} aluminum illuminated with a 150 fs laser pulse at an intensity of 1 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Dielectronic satellite contributions to the 1s{sup 2}-1s2p({sup 1}P), 1s{sup 2}-1s3p({sup 1}P), and 1s{sup 2}1s4p({sup 1}P) line intensities are modeled using the configuration averaged code AVERROES and is found to be significant for all three resonance lines. The contribution of opacity broadening is inferred from the data and found to be significant only in the 1s{sup 2}-1s2p({sup 1}P).

  17. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, K K; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Hogstrom, K R

    2005-03-01

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  18. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  19. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included. (WHK)

  20. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included

  1. Fabrication and Heat Treatment of Uranium Foil for Mo-99 Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium foil for Mo-99 production is a thin metal sheet, which is produced by fabrication of low enriched uranium (LEU) ingot. In the experiment, ingot fabrication into foil form was done by rolling, started with hot rolling at 615 0C and ended by cold rolling at room temperature. The first hot rolling is applied to uranium ingot of 6,25 mm thickness; the rolling was done in 11 passes with 8% thickness reduction for each pass, and resulted in a foil of 2.6 mm thickness. The second hot rolling is applied to the foil resulted from the first rolling and 26 rolling passes with 8-10% thickness reduction resulted in a foil of 0.26 mm thickness. This foil was subsequently shaped into rectangle and put in an open can for the next process, I.e. both-side cold rolling. The cold rolling process reduced the foil thickness into 0.130 mm and formed preferred orientation grain structure. This foil, which was of 50% thickness reduction, was subsequently subjected to a double heat treatment as to obtain a foil a fine randomly oriented gain structure. The optical metallographic examination of the foil produced by cold rolling series showed that theoptimum condition to produce a foil of a fine randomly oriented grain structure was observed during the double heat treatment

  2. Non-uniformity effects of the inter-foil distance on GEM detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huang; Han, YI; Zhi-Gang, Xiao; Zhao, Zhang; Wen-Jing, Cheng; Li-Ming, Lü; Wei-Hua, Yan; Ren-Sheng, Wang; Hong-Jie, Li; Yan, Zhang; Li-Min, Duan; Rong-Jiang, Hu; Chen-Gui, Lu; He-Run, Yang; Peng, Ma; Hai-Yan, Gao

    2016-04-01

    The non-uniformity effect of the inter-foil distance has been studied using a gaseous electron multiplication (GEM) detector with sensitive area of 50mm × 50mm. A gradient of the inter-foil distance is introduced by using spacers with different heights at the two ends of the foil gap. While the cluster size and the intrinsic spatial resolution show insignificant dependence on the inter-foil distance, the gain exhibits an approximately linear dependence on the inter-foil distance. From the slope, a quantitative relationship between the change of the inter-foil distance and the change of the gain is derived, which can be used as a method to evaluate the non-uniformity of the foil gap in the application of large-area GEM detectors. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375094, U1332207, 11120101004), and by Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program

  3. Gas Foil Bearing Technology Advancements for Closed Brayton Cycle Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbine systems are under consideration for future space electric power generation. CBC turbines convert thermal energy from a nuclear reactor, or other heat source, to electrical power using a closed-loop cycle. The operating fluid in the closed-loop is commonly a high pressure inert gas mixture that cannot tolerate contamination. One source of potential contamination in a system such as this is the lubricant used in the turbomachine bearings. Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) represent a bearing technology that eliminates the possibility of contamination by using the working fluid as the lubricant. Thus, foil bearings are well suited to application in space power CBC turbine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center is actively researching GFB technology for use in these CBC power turbines. A power loss model has been developed, and the effects of a very high ambient pressure, start-up torque, and misalignment, have been observed and are reported here.

  4. Wavelength shifting reflector foils for liquid Ar scintillation light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Manuel [Physik Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Liquid argon is used as a scintillator in several present and upcoming experiments. In Gerda it is used as a coolant, shielding and will be instrumented to become an active veto in Phase II. Its scintillation light has a wavelength of 128 nm, that gets absorbed by quartz. In order to measure the light using photo multiplier tubes (PMT) for cryogenic temperatures which have a quartz window, it is converted to longer wavelength by coated reflector foils. The conversion efficiency and stability of several such coatings was optimized using VM2000 and Tetratex separately as reflector foils. The efficiency has been measured in a liquid Ar set up build especially for this purpose. It employs a 3'' low radioactivity PMT of type R11065-10 from Hamamatsu, the favorite photo sensor candidate to be used in Gerda.

  5. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), foil holes deformation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Suhaj, Adam; CERN. Geneva. PH Department

    2015-01-01

    GEM detectors play an important role in the upcoming high-luminosity LHC upgrade in 2018 where they will be exposed to high doses of radiation in the muon endcap region. A series of tensile tests were performed on neutron irradiated and non-irradiated GEM foils where the shape of the holes was thoroughly examined. It was found that the GEM foil does not deform much at lower loads but the deformation gets exponentially bigger after applying more than a 60 N force. Both sets of samples behaved similarly at lower loads up to 40 N after which the holes of the irradiated samples started to deform more rapidly than the non-irradiated ones. The failure point of the non-irradiated samples occurred consistently at around 135 N while the irradiated samples experienced failure at around 85 N with two outliers failing at 120 and 135 N.

  6. PERFORMANCE OF LUBRICATING OIL FILM IN ALUMINIUM FOIL ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The surface of the aluminum foil rolled has been observed with microscope on the basis of industrial experiments, and the structure of the surface adsorption film has been analyzed by means of low angle X-ray diffraction. It is advanced that the lubrication in aluminum foil rolling is in the state of thin film lubrication, surface adsorption film is an ordered multi-layered molecule film with more than 7 layers; and the layers of the ordered molecule film is influenced by the concentration of the additive in certain range; the concentration of the additive in oil is the main factor affecting the stability of rolling, controling the concentration of the additive can control the ratio of fluid friction, boundary friction, and local holding-on in deformation zone,thus obtaining good rolling deformation conditions.

  7. Plasma flow switch for foil-implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma-Flow-Switch (PFS) experiments have been conducted on the 1.5 MJ Pegasus capacitor bank as a part of the opening switch development for the Los Alamos Trailmaster program. The goal of this experiment is an inductive-store, opening switch (for use with an explosive-pulsed-power generator) to drive very high energy foil implosions and generate soft x-ray pulses of ≥ 1 MJ. A shot series is underway to: (1) optimize the PFS for use on Pegasus to study foil-implosion physics issues at drive currents as high as ∼ 10 MA; (2) provide scaling and benchmarking information for the simulations used to design the PFS for explosive generators at much higher energy levels

  8. Plasma flow switch and foil implosion experiments on Pegasus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegasus II is the upgraded version of Pegasus, a pulsed power machine used in the Los Alamos AGEX (Above Ground EXperiments) program. A goal of the program is to produce an intense (> 100 TW) source of soft x-rays from the thermalization of the kinetic energy of a 1 to 10 MJ plasma implosion. The radiation pulse should have a maximum duration of several 10's of nanoseconds and will be used in the study of fusion conditions and material properties. The radiating plasma source will be generated by the thermalization of the kinetic energy of an imploding cylindrical, thin, metallic foil. This paper addresses experiments done on a capacitor bank to develop a switch (plasma flow switch) to switch the bank current into the load at peak current. This allows efficient coupling of bank energy into foil kinetic energy

  9. Optical scanning system for quality control of GEM-foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical scanning system was commissioned and further developed in the Detector Laboratory of Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Helsinki. It was designed to automatically scan, perform on-line analysis and to classify the overall quality of GEM-foils especially of the GEM-TPC detectors for Super-FRS at FAIR. The optical scanning system consists of precision positioning table, lighting, optics and operating system with analysis software. It has active scanning area of 95×95 cm2 and it can study this area with the minimum resolution of 128 lp/mm. Performance of the system and first results from the GEM-foil uniformity and quality analysis are presented.

  10. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide

    2013-08-08

    This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...

  11. Evolution of recrystallization textures in high voltage aluminum capacitor foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楚明; 张新明; 周鸿章; 陈志永; 邓运来; 周卓平

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of recrystallization textures in high voltage aluminum capacitor foils which are produced with a high level of cold reduction was tracked by analysis of microstructure and crystallographic texture. The results show that the deformation textures are mainly composed of S-orientation, Cu-orientation and a little Bs-orientation. During the low temperature stages of final annealing, the iron precipitates first along the sub-grain boundaries, and the Fe concentration in the matrix becomes low. Then, the cube grains nucleate preferably into the sub-grains. At high temperature stages, the cube nuclei can grow preferably because of their 40°〈111〉 orientation relationship to the S orientation, the main component of the rolling texture. Finally, the cube texture is sharply strong and the R orientation is very weak in the foils.

  12. Laser spot welding of cobalt-based amorphous metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results concerning weldability of amorphous alloy (VAC 6025F) in shape of foils and the quality of laser-spot welded joints are presented in this paper. The aim of the research was the production of a high quality welding joint, by preserving the amorphous structure. The quality of the joint was tested by shear strength analysis and microhardness measuring. The metallographic studies were made by using optical microscope and SEM. The results show that (1) overlapped Co based amorphous metals foils can be welded with high-quality by a pulsed Nd: YAG-Laser, but only within a very narrow laser parameter window; (2) the laser welded spots show comparably high strength as the basic material; (3) the structure of the welded spot remains amorphous, so that the same characteristics as the base material can be achieved. (author)

  13. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  14. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Gustavo F.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Silva, Tiago F.; Moro, Marcos V.; Added, Nemitala; Tabacniks, Manfredo H., E-mail: g.ferraz@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Delgado, Adriana O. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Cunha, Tatiana F. [Biosintesis P and D do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  15. Multiple electron capture from thin C-foils into 46 MeV/u U{sup 91+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuning, H. E-mail: harald.braeuning@strz.uni-giessen.de; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Bednarz, G.; Bosch, F.; Cai, X.; Cohen, C.; Dauvergne, D.; Gumberidze, A.; Kirsch, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Mokler, P.H.; Rozet, J.-P.; Stachura, Z.; Stoehlker, Th.; Terasawa, M.; Toleikis, S.; Warczak, A

    2003-05-01

    Absolute yields for multiple electron capture as well as projectile ionization have been measured for 46 MeV/u U{sup 91+} ions traversing thin carbon foils with different surface topologies. Multiple electron capture yields vary strongly, depending on the target manufacturer. The samples including the one with the smoothest surface show a deviation of the yield from the expected scaling based on subsequent single capture for decreasing target thickness. This indicates a strong contribution of the surface, whose nature cannot be identified by the current data.

  16. Effect of phototherapy with alumunium foil reflectors on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ijong Dachlan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH is one of the most common problems in neonates, but it can be treated with blue light phototherapy. Developing countries with limited medical equipment and funds have difficulty providing effective phototherapy to treat NH, leading to increased risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Phototherapy with white reflecting curtains can decrease the duration of phototherapy needed to reduce bilirubin levels. Objective To compare the duration of phototherapy needed in neonates with NH who underwent phototherapy with and without aluminum foil reflectors. Methods This open clinical trial was conducted from July to August 2013 at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were term neonates with uncomplicated NH presenting in their first week of life. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those who received phototherapy with or without aluminum foil reflectors. Serum bilirubin is taken at 12th, 24th, 48th hours, then every 24 hours if needed until phototherapy can be stopped according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The outcome measured was the duration of phototherapy using survival analysis. The difference between the two groups was tested by Gehan method. Results Seventy newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar characteristics were randomized into two groups. The duration of phototherapy needed was significantly less in the group with aluminum foil reflectors than in the group without reflectors [72 vs. 96 hours, respectively, (P<0.01]. Conclusion The required duration of phototherapy with aluminum foil reflectors is significantly less than that of phototherapy without reflectors, in neonates with NH.

  17. Effect of phototherapy with alumunium foil reflectors on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ijong Dachlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH is one of the most common problems in neonates, but it can be treated with blue light phototherapy. Developing countries with limited medical equipment and funds have difficulty providing effective phototherapy to treat NH, leading to increased risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Phototherapy with white reflecting curtains can decrease the duration of phototherapy needed to reduce bilirubin levels. Objective To compare the duration of phototherapy needed in neonates with NH who underwent phototherapy with and without aluminum foil reflectors. Methods This open clinical trial was conducted from July to August 2013 at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were term neonates with uncomplicated NH presenting in their first week of life. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those who received phototherapy with or without aluminum foil reflectors. Serum bilirubin is taken at 12th, 24th, 48th hours, then every 24 hours if needed until phototherapy can be stopped according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The outcome measured was the duration of phototherapy using survival analysis. The difference between the two groups was tested by Gehan method. Results Seventy newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar characteristics were randomized into two groups. The duration of phototherapy needed was significantly less in the group with aluminum foil reflectors than in the group without reflectors [72 vs. 96 hours, respectively, (P<0.01]. Conclusion The required duration of phototherapy with aluminum foil reflectors is significantly less than that of phototherapy without reflectors, in neonates with NH. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:18-22.].

  18. Central tracking chamber with inflated cathode-strip foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new cylindrical low-mass central drift chamber has been constructed for the K+ → π+νν experiment at BNL (E787). The chamber consists of 12 layers of axial wire cells and 6 layers of thin cathode-strip foils, four of which are supported by differential gas pressure. The momentum resolution (RMS) for muons and pions in the range 150 to 250 MeV is found to be about 0.9%. (authors)

  19. Optical observations of molecular dissociation in thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the intensity and polarizations of light emitted from atomic excited states of dissociated molecular ions. Using HeH+ projectiles, we have observed factors of 1 to 5 enhancements of the light from n=3, 13P,D states of He I and some He II and H I emissions. Observations of Lyman-α emission after dissociation of H2+ and H3+ show rapid variations in light yield for small internuclear separations at the foil surface

  20. Interaction of positron beams with thin silver foils and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations of positron interactions with solid silver and the necessary platform to analyse the data have been presented. The main objective was to study Ps formation at a Ag(100) surface. The different ingredients of the scenario, including thermalization and diffusion of positrons and emission of Ps, were analysed and quantified in whatever way appropriate. The scattering and possible thermalization were described. The parametrization of Monte-Carlo simulated implantation profiles for semi-infinite materials were presented and the applicability of such profiles to thin foils assessed. The latter was done in conjunction with an analysis of experimental data on thermalization and diffusion in 1900 Aa Ag(100) foils. The necessity for MC simulated rather than parametrized implantation profiles was argued. The velocity of thermally desorbed Ps from a Ag(100) surface at ∼800 K appeared to obey and one-dimensional Maxwell Boltzmann distribution multiplied by a velocity dependent factor. More experimental investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be made on the nature of the emission process. The velocity distribution, though, was found to be near-thermal and indicative of the sample temperature. It has been shown that positrons can be converted into Ps atoms in the transmission geometry of a thin 1900 Aa Ag(100) foil with a high efficiency. Furthermore, 61% of the emitted Ps will have a mean velocity of vz=1.2x105 m/sec and 39% will have a maximum kinetic energy of 1.5 eV (vz=5.1x105 m/sec) at a foil temperature of 800 K, all velocities that are suitable for producing a 'dense' Ps gas target. (EG) 12 refs

  1. Comparison of EXAFS Foil Spectra from Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EXAFS spectra of Cu and Pd foil from many different beamlines and synchrotrons are compared to address the dependence of the amplitude reduction factor (S02) on beamline specific parameters. Even though S02 is the same parameter as the EXAFS coordination number, the value for S02 is given little attention, and is often unreported. The S02 often differs for the same material due to beamline and sample attributes, such that no importance is given to S02-values within a general range of 0.7 to 1.1. EXAFS beamlines have evolved such that it should now be feasible to use standard S02 values for all EXAFS measurements of a specific elemental environment. This would allow for the determination of the imaginary energy (Ei) to account for broadening of the EXAFS signal rather than folding these errors into an effective S02-value. To test this concept, we model 11 Cu-foil and 6 Pd-foil EXAFS spectra from around the world to compare the difference in S02- and Ei-values.

  2. Design of organic complementary circuits and systems on foil

    CERN Document Server

    Abdinia, Sahel; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    This book describes new approaches to fabricate complementary organic electronics, and focuses on the design of circuits and practical systems created using these manufacturing approaches. The authors describe two state-of-the-art, complementary organic technologies, characteristics and modeling of their transistors and their capability to implement circuits and systems on foil. Readers will benefit from the valuable overview of the challenges and opportunities that these extremely innovative technologies provide. ·         Demonstrates first circuits implemented using specific complementary organic technologies, including first printed analog to digital converter, first dynamic logic on foil and largest complementary organic circuit ·         Includes step-by-step design from single transistor level to complete systems on foil ·         Provides a platform for comparing state-of-the-art complementary organic technologies and for comparing these with other similar technologies, spec...

  3. Production of large screen-mounted aluminium neutralizer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, John O.

    1989-10-01

    In order to convert large-diameter beams of H - to neutral H atoms, aluminum foils having a diameter of 90 cm or more and an areal density of typically 8-12 μg/cm 2 have been proposed. Production of such foils, uniform in thickness to ±20% or better and mounted on thin wire grids, has been accomplished by careful control of substrate preparation, parting-agent application, spatial location of coating filaments, floating speed and temperature, and pickup procedure. Lexan (TM) polycarbonate substrates have been used, because of their uniformity of surface quality. Evaporated NaCl has been used as the parting agent, and an alloy containing 1% silicon rather than pure aluminum has been used as the foil material for greater strength and reliability. To obtain coated areas sufficiently large and uniform, substrates having dimensions of 1.2 m × 1.2 m have been used. A specially configured water tank having a volume of 3.2 m 3 has been built to accept such large substrates. Floating has been done in chilled water to improve its stability, minimize variations in surface tension, and to prevent the development of air bubbles on immersed surfaces. Fractional coverage of better than 95% on meshes having unsupported diameters of greater than 90 cm can now be obtained on a routine basis.

  4. The investigation of electrolytic surface roughening for PCB copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Liu, Chao-Kai

    2013-10-01

    This study is the application of the principle of electrochemical. The anodic dissolution has no concentration polarization. Hence, electrolyte life is substantially increased. The waste copper is high in ion concentration with a recovery value. As compared with the current PCB chemical pre-treatment method, it may have advantages of cost-saving, improvement of overall efficiency, reduction of production costs and reduction of the amount of waste generated. In the development of the copper foil for electrochemical roughening process, the use of electrolysis reaction affects the copper surface dissolution to form a unique bump coarsening. It will increase in the surface area of the copper foil to improve dry film solder mask and the adhesion between the copper surfaces. Four electrolytes, two neutral salts and two acids, were selected to explore the best of the electrolytic roughening parameters of temperature, time and voltage. The surface roughness and the surface morphology of the copper foil were measured before and after the electrolytic surface roughening. Finally, after repeated experiments, electrolytes A and B copper generates obvious inter-granular corrosion, resulting in a rough surface similar to the chemical pre-treatment. On the other hands, the surface morphology resulted from electrolytes C and D appears more like pitting. Both electrolytic could generate surface roughness of Ra 0.3 um roughened copper surface higher than industrial standard.

  5. Element segregation on the surfaces of pure aluminum foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface segregation trend of trace elements in pure aluminum foils was investigated by density functional theory. The model of nine-layer Al(1 0 0) slab substituted partially by trace element atoms was proposed for calculating surface segregation energy. The calculating results show that (i) B, Mg, Si, Ga, Ge, Y, In, Sn, Sb, Pb and Bi exhibit negative segregation energy and possibly move to the surface, while Be, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zr exhibit positive segregation energies and migrated into the bulk; (ii) the segregation energy was found to be related with the covalent radius, the relaxed position at the surface of the substituting atom and the surface energy; (iii) the segregation behavior of trace element generates lots of defects and dislocation, which can increase the initial pitting nucleation sites in the surface of aluminum foils; (iv) the impurity atom concentration was tested with Pb-doped surfaces, the calculated negative segregation energies in all coverage increases rapidly with the Pb coverage. These conclusions are helpful for designing of the chemical composition and to advance the tunnel etching of aluminum foils.

  6. Electroplating of Uranium -Foil Target With Ni And Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium foil target, which was produced by rolling, was subjected to preparation treatment prior to the electroplating. The electroplating produced certain plate thickness on the foil surface. The electroplating was applied to the uranium foil of 71 mm long and 46 mm wide using plating materials of Ni and Zn. The plating is intended to serve as barrier for fission fragment recoils, which are produced during irradiation. The plate thickness produced by the electroplating was measured by a micrometer and an analytical balance. The electroplating with Ni produced plate-thickness of 8,9 mm when measured by the micrometer, or 11.4 mm when measured by the analytical balance, while the Zn electroplating produced greater plate-thickness, i.e. 16.2 mm by the micrometer measurement or 13.7 mm by the analytical balance measurement. The current efficiency of the electroplating was 62 % for Ni and 80 % for Zn. It was observed that the optimum condition for the electroplating depended on the plating materials, plating time, and current density. The plate-thickness produced under the optimum condition was 7-15 mm at 15 mA/cm2 for Ni and ]0 mA/cm2 for Zn with plating time of 60 minutes

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AA1235 Aluminum Foil Stocks Produced Directly from Electrolytic Aluminum Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hanqing; Yu, Kun; Wen, Li; Yao, Sujuan; Dai, Yilong; Wang, Zhifeng

    2016-02-01

    A new process is developed to obtain high-quality AA1235 aluminum foil stocks and to replace the traditional manufacture process. During the new manufacture process, AA1235 aluminum sheets are twin-roll casted directly through electrolytic aluminum melt (EAM), and subsequently the sheets are processed into aluminum foil stocks by cold rolling and annealing. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the AA1235 aluminum sheets produced through such new process are investigated in each state by optimal microscope, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, orientation imaging microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, etc. The results show that compared with the traditional AA1235 aluminum foil stocks produced through re-melted aluminum melt (RAM), the amount of impurities is decreased in the EAM aluminum foil stocks. The EAM aluminum foil stock obtains less β-FeSiAl5 phases, but more α-Fe2SiAl8 phases. The elongation of EAM aluminum foil stocks is improved significantly owing to more cubic orientation. Especially, the elongation value of the EAM aluminum foil stocks is approximately 25 pct higher than that of the RAM aluminum foil stocks. As a result, the EAM aluminum foil stocks are at an advantage in increasing the processing performance for the aluminum foils during subsequent processes.

  8. Number distribution of multiply emitted secondary electrons (MUSE) produced by atomic and molecular ion impacts on thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number distribution of secondary electrons emitted through energetic ion impact on a thin carbon foil was measured. Projectile ions of 1-MeV/u He2+ or He+ passed through a carbon foil with thickness of 1 μ g/cm2 in a direction of 45o to its surface. Electrons emitted in the forward and backward directions were accelerated by a potential applied to the foil and detected by two solid state detectors (SSDs) in which pulses proportional to the electron number were formed. Transmitted ions were charge analyzed by an electrostatic deflector and detected by the third SSD. The measurement was performed in coincidence with transmitted He2+ ions and in the event-recording mode. For molecular ions, Coulomb explosion fragments, i.e., two He2+ ions were detected after passing an annular slit or conventional circular slit which selects incident molecules with molecular axes perpendicular to or parallel to the ion velocity. The average numbers of electrons emitted in the forward direction are about 1.5 times as large as those in the backward direction for atomic and molecular ions with both orientations. The width of the number distribution is generally wider than that of Poisson distribution with the same average number. Orientation dependence is not recognized in the backward direction but a slight enhancement is found for parallel orientation in the forward direction. The fact that the vicinage effect is observed only for the parallel orientation seems consistent with the density enhancement of the target electrons behind the leading ion. A negative correlation between numbers of electrons emitted in the forward and backward directions is found. (Author)

  9. Measurement of the radon diffusion through a nylon foil for different air humidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependency of the radon penetration through a nylon foil on air humidity was measured. Such information is needed for the tracking part of the SuperNEMO detector, which is planned to be shielded against radon by nylon foil and in which the air humidity is not negligible. The long term measurements of radon penetration through nylon foils for different air humidities were performed with the radon diffusion setup constructed at the IEAP, CTU in Prague. The setup consists of two stainless steel hemispheres with Si detector in each of them. Both hemispheres are separated by the tested foil. While the left hemisphere contains high Rn activity, the right part contains only activity caused by the radon penetration through the tested foil. Obtained results of this study with a nylon foil with the thickness of 50 µm are presented

  10. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 160 MeV H- beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H- charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H- into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters. (author)

  11. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; van Trappen, P

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H− beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H− charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H− into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters.

  12. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs. Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs. The equations of motion of the foil include hydrodynamic lift and moment based on linear, unsteady, aerodynamic theory. A control law is derived for the lateral and rotational sinusoidal oscillation of the foil. In the closed-loop system, the lateral displacement and the rotational angle of the foil asymptotically follow sinusoidal trajectories of distinct frequencies and amplitudes independently. Simulation results are presented to show the trajectory tracking performance of the foil for different freestream velocities and sinusoidal command trajectories.

  13. Stabilizing effect of flexibility in the wake of a flapping foil

    CERN Document Server

    Marais, Catherine; Wesfreid, José Eduardo; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    The wake of a flexible foil undergoing pitching oscillations in a low-speed hydrodynamic tunnel is used to examine the effect of chord-wise foil flexibility in the dynamical features of flapping-based propulsion. We compare the regime transitions in the wake with respect to the case of a rigid foil and show that foil flexibility inhibits the symmetry breaking of the reverse B\\'enard-von K\\'arm\\'an wake reported in the literature. A momentum balance calculation shows the average thrust to be up to three times greater for the flexible foil than for the rigid foil. We explain both of these observations by analyzing the vortex dynamics in the very near wake.

  14. A generalized solution of elasto-aerodynamic lubrication for aerodynamic compliant foil bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lie; QI Shemiao; GENG Haipeng

    2005-01-01

    Although aerodynamic compliant foil bearings are successfully applied in a number of turbo-machineries, theoretical researches on the modeling, performance prediction of compliant foil bearings and the dynamic analysis of the related rotor system seem still far behind the experimental investigation because of structural complexity of the foil bearings. A generalized solution of the elasto-aerodynamic lubrication is presented in this paper by introducing both static and dynamic deformations of foils and solving gas-lubricated Reynolds equations with deformation equations simultaneously. The solution can be used for the calculation of dynamic stiffness and damping, as well as the prediction of static performances of foil bearings. Systematical theories and methods are also presented for the purpose of the prediction of dynamic behavior of a rotor system equipped with foil bearings.

  15. Secondary electron emission from a C-foil resulting from the passage of orientation selected He2+ molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the effect of the orientation of the molecular axis on average numbers and number distributions of multiply emitted secondary electrons (MUSE) from a very thin (∝50 A) carbon foil both in the forward and backward directions resulting from the passage of 1 MeV/u He2+ molecular ions. MUSE was observed in coincidence with a pair of outgoing He2+ ions detected 3.5 m downstream from the carbon foil. Average numbers of MUSE in the forward and backward directions per incident projectile are 11.5 and 7.5, respectively, when the orientation of the molecular axis is disregarded. Number distributions of MUSE are much wider than the Poisson distribution in any case. They are compared with those which are calculated from the data for 1 MeV/u He+ ions. A negative correlation of the number distributions of MUSE in the forward and backward directions was observed. The average number of MUSE in the forward direction is larger when the molecular axis is parallel to the beam direction than when it is perpendicular, but no orientation dependence was observed in the backward direction. (orig.)

  16. Experimental research of the fine foil explosion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is devoted to studying of substances properties at high specific deposit energy using double-frame pulsed backlighting system. The high specific deposit energy was reached at electrical conductor explosion (ECE). Fast mode of ECE was investigated. Fine foils of aluminum, copper, titanium and nickel were used as conductors. Experiments were carried out on the experimental complex consisting of three current generators. The first generator WEG-' was used for explosion of the fine conductors. This generator represents fast capacitor with capacity 250 nF, which was charged to voltage 10 to 30 kV. The investigated conductor was mounted in special holder and the foil contacts with the electrodes were soldered. Two other generators - radiographs XPG-1 and G2 with x-pinch load were used two frame X-ray backlighting imaging. The generators current pulses had amplitude 300 kA and rising time 180 ns with a low inductance load. Four crossed molybdenum wires with diameter of 25 μm were used to form an x-pinch. Using of the x-pinches soft x-ray radiation the images of exploded foil were registered with temporal resolution of 2 ns. The images were detected by a photo film located behind the filter. The x-ray imaging, together with the measurements of the current flowing through a conductor and voltage on the exploded conductor had allowed inferring of the energy deposited into the conductor, delay time of the bubbles formation relative to the moment of current- cutoff and the time dependence of the vapor bubbles quantity

  17. Short-pulse high intensity laser thin foil interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Patrick

    2003-10-01

    The technology of ultrashort pulse laser generation has progressed to the point that optical pulses larger than 10 J, 300 fs duration or shorter are routinely produced. Such pulses can be focused to intensities exceeding 10^18 W/cm^2. With high contrast pulses, these focused intensities can be used to heat solid matter to high temperatures with minimal hydrodynamic expansion, producing an extremely high energy-density state of matter for a short period of time. This high density, high temperature plasma can be studied by x-ray spectroscopy. We have performed experiments on thin foils of different elements under well controlled conditions at the 100 Terawatt laser at LULI to study the characteristics X-ray emission of laser heated solids. To suppress the ASE effect, the laser was frequency doubled. S-polarized light with a peak intensity of 10^19W/cm^2 was used to minimize resonance absorption. To decrease the effect of longitudinal temperature gradients very thin (800 μ) aluminum foil targets were used. We have also studied the effect of radial gradient by limiting the measured x-ray emission zone using 50μ or 100μ pinhole on target. The spectra, in the range 7-8Å, were recorded using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to a 800 fs resolution streak camera. A Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI) of the back of the foil was also performed providing a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion as function of time for each shot. To simulate the experiment, we used the 1D hydrodynamic code FILM with a given set of plasma parameter (ρ, Te) as initial conditions. The X-ray emission was calculated by post processing hydrodynamic results with a collisional-radiative model which uses super-configuration average atomic data. The simulation reproduces the main features of the experimental time resolved spectrum.

  18. Analysis of cartilage-polydioxanone foil composite grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James H; Wong, Brian

    2013-12-01

    This study presents an analytical investigation into the mechanical behavior of a cartilage-polydioxanone (PDS) plate composite grafts. Numerical methods are used to provide a first-order, numerical model of the flexural stiffness of a cartilage-PDS graft. Flexural stiffness is a measure of resistance to bending and is inversely related to the amount of deformation a structure may experience when subjected to bending forces. The cartilage-PDS graft was modeled as a single composite beam. Using Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, a closed form equation for the theoretical flexural stiffness of the composite graft was developed. A parametric analysis was performed to see how the flexural properties of the composite model changed with varying thicknesses of PDS foil. The stiffness of the cartilage-PDS composite using 0.15-mm-thick PDS was four times higher than cartilage alone. The composite with a 0.5-mm-thick PDS graft was only 1.7 times stiffer than the composite with the 0.15-mm-thick PDS graft. Although a thicker graft material will yield higher flexural stiffness for the composite, the relationship between composite stiffness and PDS thickness is nonlinear. After a critical point, increments in graft thickness produce gradually smaller improvements in flexural stiffness. The small increase in stiffness when using the thicker PDS foils versus the 0.15 mm PDS foil may not be worth the potential complications (prolonged foreign body reaction, reduction in nutrient diffusion to cartilage) of using thicker artificial grafts. PMID:24327249

  19. Microcutting and forming of thin aluminium foils for MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Mortensen, Dennis; Rombach, Pirmin;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple procedure for simultaneous cutting and forming of thin Al foils for use in MEMS components. The procedure makes use of scaled down macroscopic sheet forming and cutting techniques by using a hydraulic press, a soft counterpart, and a microfabricated stamp tool. The...... lines. Using the procedure presented in this paper scaled to full 4-8 in. silicon wafer stamp tools, a fast and adequate method for high volume production of MEMS components is obtained. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  20. Micro-forming of Al-Si foil

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; Inoue, K.; H. Watari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is as below. The investigation of the ability of the cold micro-forming of non-metallic glass was purpose. The grain of the rapidly solidified aluminium alloy became fine. The aluminium alloy foil with fine grain was used, and the investigation of the micro-formability of this alloy was investigated. Moreover, increase of the forming speed was investigated. The increase of the forming speed was purpose of this study, too.Design/methodology/approach: The nozzle pressing ...

  1. Acceleration region influence on beam parameters on stripping foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some formulas describing the beam parameters on the stripping foil (SF) as a function of the radial amplitude of betatron oscillations and energy gain are derived. The results computed by these formulas are in good agreement with the results of the numerical calculations. Obtained results show that between the radial emittance and the energy spread exists parametric dependence via amplitude of radial betatron oscillations. This conclusion allows one to create a working diagram of expected beam parameters on SF. This diagram may be particularly useful for the extraction system designers since it gives relationship between parameters considered as the extraction system input parameters. (author)

  2. Laser Proton acceleration from mass limited silicon foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeil, K.; Kraft, S.; Richter, T.; Metzkes, J.; Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T. E.; Fuchs, J.; Buffechoux, S.

    2009-11-01

    We present recent studies on laser proton acceleration experiments using mass limited silicon targets. Small micro machined silicon foils with 2 μm thickness and 20x20 μm2 to 100x100μm2 size mounted on very tiny stalks were shot with the 100 TW LULI Laser (long pulse 150 fs) and with the new 150 TW DRACO Laser facility (short pulse 30 fs) of the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf. The experiments were carried out using high contrast levels. Proton spectra have been measured with magnetic spectrometers and radio chromic film stacks.

  3. Central tracking chamber with inflated cathode-strip foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Kuno, Y.; Lim, C.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Redlinger, G.; Soluk, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McPherson, R.A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    1998-02-21

    A new cylindrical low-mass central drift chamber has been constructed for the K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu} anti {nu} experiment at BNL (E787). The chamber consists of twelve layers of axial wire cells and six layers of thin cathode-strip foils, four of which are supported by differential gas pressure. The momentum resolution (RMS) for muons and pions in the range 150-250 MeV/c is found to be about 0.9%. (orig.). 16 refs.

  4. Optical and scanning electron microscopies in examination of ultrathin foils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalina, Ivo; Hovorka, Miloš; Fořt, Tomáš; Müllerová, Ilona

    Brno : Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i, 2010 - (Mika, F.), s. 23-24 ISBN 978-80-254-6842-5. [International Seminar on Recent Trends in Charged Particle Optics and Surface Physics Instrumentation /12./. Skalský dvůr (CZ), 31.05.2010-04.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : very low energy scanning transmission electron microscopy * ultrathin foils * laser confocal microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Effect of cerium addition on microstructure and texture of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 李文学; 任慧平; 黄丽颖; 王向阳

    2010-01-01

    Anode foil of aluminum electrolytic capacitor,which requires large surface area for high capacitance,were prepared by rolling,annealing and electrochemical etching.Effects of cerium addition on the capacitance of aluminum electrolytic capacitors were investigated.Microstructure of the aluminum foil surface was observed by optical microscopy(OM) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Electron back scattered diffraction(EBSD) was also employed to reveal texture evolvement of cold-rolled aluminum foil after ann...

  6. Report on Analysis of China’s Aluminum Foil Market in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    1.China’s domestic production of aluminum foil China is a big country in terms of aluminum foil production,as it owns the highest number of most advanced 2000mm grade foil rolling mills in the world,with about 35 sets(with production capacity of about 400,000 t/a),12more than the combined sum total of all other countries worldwide.According to Antaike’s data,in 2014 China’s

  7. A novel clear foil cushion construction incorporating an additional water layer

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Pneumatic clear foil cushion systems, notably as ETFE foil cushions have been developed as an alternative technology to large-scale glass glazing systems for wide-span buildings. The systems display better thermal performance and have advantages of extremely low dead-weight constructions compared to conventional glazing systems, and thereby the increasing popularity of foil cushion cladding systems have been witnessed in the last decades. However due to their lightweight and thinness, the the...

  8. Instability of a Thin Conducting Foil Accelerated by a Finite Wavelength Intense Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT)-like instability for a thin foil accelerated by an intense laser, taking into account finite wavelength effects in the laser wave field. The latter leads to the diffraction of the electromagnetic wave off the periodic structures arising from the instability of the foil, which significantly modifies the growth rate of the RT-like instability when the perturbations on the foil have wavenumbers comparable to or larger than the laser wave...

  9. Properties of transition radiation emitted from multiple thin-foil targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition Radiation(TR) is expected to be a high brilliant X-ray source because TR X-rays can be produced by low energy electrons compared to synchrotron radiation(SR) in the X-ray region. We measured energy spectra of resonance transition radiation emitted from thin-foil stacks passed by a 130MeV dc electron beam. The results discriminate between intra-foil and inter-foil resonances. (author)

  10. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding. PMID:27431039

  11. Role of induced vortex interaction in a semi-active flapping foil based energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Chen, Y. L.; Zhao, N.

    2015-09-01

    The role of induced vortex interaction in a semi-active flapping foil based energy harvester is numerically examined in this work. A NACA0015 airfoil, which acts as an energy harvester, is placed in a two-dimensional laminar flow. It performs an imposed pitching motion that subsequently leads to a plunging motion. Two auxiliary smaller foils, which rotate about their centers, are arranged above and below the flapping foil, respectively. As a consequence, the vortex interaction between the flapping foil and the rotating foil is induced. At a Reynolds number of 1100 and the position of the pitching axis at one-third chord, the effects of the distance between two auxiliary foils, the phase difference between the rotating motion and the pitching motion as well as the frequency of pitching motion on the power extraction performance are systematically investigated. It is found that compared to the single flapping foil, the efficiency improvement of overall power extraction for the flapping foil with two auxiliary foils can be achieved. Based on the numerical analysis, it is indicated that the enhanced power extraction, which is caused by the increased lift force, thanks to the induced vortex interaction, directly benefits the efficiency enhancement.

  12. Nanostructured Pt–CeO2 thin film catalyst grown on graphite foil by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layers of different thickness of CeO2 doped by Pt were prepared by magnetron sputtering on different substrates: Si (1 0 0) and a graphite foil. The structure and chemical composition of the Pt–CeO2 catalysts have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). SEM showed that the layers prepared on different substrates had very different morphology. XPS and HAXPES studies demonstrated that Pt was dispersed only in Pt2+ and Pt4+ oxidation states in CeO2. Intensity of Pt2+- and Pt4+-peaks was affected by the plasma substrate interaction effects showing that carbon substrate played an active role by determining the film structure. The Pt2+/Pt4+ and Ce3+/Ce4+ ratios depend on the layer thickness and increases in the case of the graphite substrate. The reduced character of porous layer was explained by a general effect of formation of defects and oxygen vacancies at oxide edges and steps, and oxygen reaction with carbon which is responsible of formation of oxygen deficient cerium oxide at the interface.

  13. Fission fragment assisted reactor concept for space propulsion: Foil reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is to fabricate a reactor using thin films or foils of uranium, uranium oxide and then to coat them on substrates. These coatings would be made so thin as to allow the escaping fission fragments to directly heat a hydrogen propellant. The idea was studied of direct gas heating and direct gas pumping in a nuclear pumped laser program. Fission fragments were used to pump lasers. In this concept two substrates are placed opposite each other. The internal faces are coated with thin foil of uranium oxide. A few of the advantages of this technology are listed. In general, however, it is felt that if one look at all solid core nuclear thermal rockets or nuclear thermal propulsion methods, one is going to find that they all pretty much look the same. It is felt that this reactor has higher potential reliability. It has low structural operating temperatures, very short burn times, with graceful failure modes, and it has reduced potential for energetic accidents. Going to a design like this would take the NTP community part way to some of the very advanced engine designs, such as the gas core reactor, but with reduced risk because of the much lower temperatures.

  14. Fission fragment assisted reactor concept for space propulsion: Foil reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept is to fabricate a reactor using thin films or foils of uranium, uranium oxide and then to coat them on substrates. These coatings would be made so thin as to allow the escaping fission fragments to directly heat a hydrogen propellant. The idea was studied of direct gas heating and direct gas pumping in a nuclear pumped laser program. Fission fragments were used to pump lasers. In this concept two substrates are placed opposite each other. The internal faces are coated with thin foil of uranium oxide. A few of the advantages of this technology are listed. In general, however, it is felt that if one look at all solid core nuclear thermal rockets or nuclear thermal propulsion methods, one is going to find that they all pretty much look the same. It is felt that this reactor has higher potential reliability. It has low structural operating temperatures, very short burn times, with graceful failure modes, and it has reduced potential for energetic accidents. Going to a design like this would take the NTP community part way to some of the very advanced engine designs, such as the gas core reactor, but with reduced risk because of the much lower temperatures

  15. Personnel neutron dosimetry using electrochemically etched CR-39 foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A personnel neutron dosimetry system has been developed based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This Cr-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. The dosimetry system employs an electrochemical etch procedure that be used to process large numbers of Cr-39 dosimeters. The etch procedure is suitable for operations where the number of personnel requires that many CR-39 dosimeters be processed. Experience shows that one full-time technician can etch and evaluate 2000 foils per month. The energy response to neutrons is fairly flat from about 80 keV to 3.5 MeV, but drops by about a factor of three in the 13 to 16 MeV range. The sensitivity of the dosimetry system is about 7 tracks/cm2/mrem, with a background equivalent to about 8 mrem for new CR-39 foils. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 10 mrem. The dosimeter has a significant variation in directional dependence, dropping to about 20% at 900. This dosimeter has been used for personnel neutron dosimetry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for more tha 18 months. 6 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs

  16. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to 'bubble-wrap'. Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a 'primary method' and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408

  17. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballico, M. J.; Ham, E. W. M. van der [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2013-09-11

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to 'bubble-wrap'. Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a 'primary method' and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408.

  18. Magnetic moments of mirror nuclei with tilted-foil polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, M; Broude, C; Goldring, G; Haas, H; Hass, M; Muellere, L; Pearson, M R; Weissman, L

    2000-01-01

    We report here on an ongoing experimental program initiated at the ISOLDE facility at CERN for the measurement of magnetic moments of short-lived radionuclides, with the emphasis on magnetic moments of mirror nuclei in far-from-stability regions. The nuclei are polarized by the tilted foil technique and the resulting 0-180 degrees beta asymmetry is monitored as a function of RF frequency applied in an NMR setup. In order to achieve sufficiently high energy for transmission through the foils, the experimental setup is mounted on a high voltage platform. The first experiment in this program was the measurement of the beta asymmetry and the NMR resonance for the ground state of /sup 23/Mg (I=3/2, T/sub 1/2 /=11 3 S), yielding mu =-0.533(6) nm. Improvements to the experimental setup are presently being designed, to be used in conjunction with the new developments at ISOLDE for obtaining high charge-state ions from the EBIS (REX- ISOLDE) ion source. This will help pave the way for measurements of magnetic moments ...

  19. Large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Pt foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jin Cheol; Yun, Seok Joon; Kim, Hyun; Luong, Dinh Hoa; Kim, Soo Min; Choi, Soo Ho; Yang, Woochul; Kong, Jing; Kim, Ki Kang; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-08-26

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has recently been in the spotlight due to its numerous applications including its being an ideal substrate for two-dimensional electronics, a tunneling material for vertical tunneling devices, and a growth template for heterostructures. However, to obtain a large area of h-BN film while maintaining uniform thickness is still challenging and has not been realized. Here, we report the systematical study of h-BN growth on Pt foil by using low pressure chemical vapor deposition with a borazine source. The monolayer h-BN film was obtained over the whole Pt foil (2 × 5 cm(2)) under film. The total pressure and orientation of the Pt lattice plane are crucial parameters for thickness control. At high pressure (∼0.5 Torr), thick film was grown on Pt (111), and in contrast, thin film was grown on Pt (001). Our advances in monolayer h-BN growth will play an important role to further develop a high quality h-BN film that can be used for vertical tunneling, optoelectronic devices and growth templates for a variety of heterostructures. PMID:25094030

  20. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization and Measurement with Coulomb Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans; Kowalska, M; Wenander, F

    2012-01-01

    Developing new experimental tools is essential to expand the possibilities of probing the structure of atomic nuclei. The better the currently known properties of nuclei can be manipulated, the more information can be extracted from data collected in nuclear reaction experiments. One property that has been controlled for many years is the nuclear spin, but this has only been viable for a certain set of isotopes with restrictions on for example specific atomic excitation schemes or half-lives. This thesis will provide details on an evaluation project using thin tilted foils after the REX-ISOLDE linac at the CERN-ISOLDE experimental facility, to polarize the spin of nuclei in-flight. The nuclear polarization is then measured with a technique based on Coulomb excitation, which is a flexible and readily available experimental method at ISOLDE with the MINIBALL spectrometer. The tilted foils technique may be beneficial to polarize the nuclear spin of short-lived radioactive beams that can be difficult by other mea...

  1. Flexible foils with electrochromic coatings: science, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers a number of aspects of a novel flexible electrochromic foil capable of varying its optical transmittance. The foil includes thin films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide and an intervening polymer electrolyte serving as lamination material. Concerning scientific aspects, we discuss the prevalent defects in amorphous tungsten oxide and how they lead to a consistent picture of the optical properties of tungsten oxide films as a function of non-stoichiometry and ion intercalation. We also present a refined model for the coloration/bleaching due to proton extraction/insertion in surface sheaths of nano-crystallites of nickel oxide. We then turn to aspects of technology and treat ways to enhance the bleached-state transmittance by mixing the nickel oxide with another oxide having a wide band gap, pre-assembly charge insertion/extraction by facile gas treatments of the films and practical device manufacturing. The final part covers some applications with emphasis on architectural 'smart windows' capable of achieving improved indoor comfort together with significant energy savings due to lowered demands for space cooling. We also touch upon applications concerning eyewear

  2. Spectral content of buried Ag foils at 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, C. M., E-mail: huntington4@llnl.gov; Maddox, B. R.; Park, H.-S.; Prisbrey, S.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Sources of 5–12 keV thermal Heα x-rays are readily generated by laser irradiation of mid-Z foils at intensities >10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, and are widely used as probes for inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density experiments. Higher energy 17–50 keV x-ray sources are efficiently produced from “cold” Kα emission using short pulse, petawatt lasers at intensities >10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} [H.-S. Park, B. R. Maddox et al., “High-resolution 17–75 keV backlighters for high energy density experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 15(7), 072705 (2008); B. R. Maddox, H. S. Park, B. A. Remington et al., “Absolute measurements of x-ray backlighter sources at energies above 10 keV,” Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 056709 (2011)]. However, when long pulse (>1 ns) lasers are used with Z > 30 elements, the spectrum contains contributions from both K shell transitions and from ionized atomic states. Here we show that by sandwiching a silver foil between layers of high-density carbon, the ratio of Kα:Heα in the x-ray spectrum is significant increased over directly illuminated Ag foils, with narrower lines from K-shell transitions. Additionally, the emission volume is more localized for the sandwiched target, producing a more planar x-ray sheet. This technique may be useful for generating probes requiring spectral purity and a limited spatial extent, for example, in incoherent x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.

  3. Porous carbon-coated graphite electrodes for energy production from salinity gradient using reverse electrodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yoon; Jeong, Ye-Jin; Chae, So-Ryong; Yeon, Kyeong-Ho; Lee, Yunkyu; Kim, Chan-Soo; Jeong, Nam-Jo; Park, Jin-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Performance of graphite foil electrodes coated by porous carbon black (i.e., Vulcan) was investigated in comparison with metal electrodes for reverse electrodialysis (RED) application. The electrode slurry that was used for fabrication of the porous carbon-coated graphite foil is composed of 7.2 wt% of carbon black (Vulcan X-72), 0.8 wt% of a polymer binder (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVdF), and 92.0 wt% of a mixing solvent (dimethylacetamide, DMAc). Cyclic voltammograms of both the porous carbon (i.e., Vulcan)-coated graphite foil electrode and the graphite foil electrode without Vulcan showed good reversibility in the hexacyanoferrate(III) (i.e., Fe(CN)63-) and hexacyanoferrate(II) (i.e., Fe(CN)64-) redox couple and 1 M Na2SO4 at room temperature. However, anodic and cathodic current of the Vulcan-coated graphite foil electrode was much higher than those of the graphite foil electrode. Using a bench-scale RED stack, the current-voltage polarization curve of the Vulcan-coated graphite electrode was compared to that of metal electrodes such as iridium (Ir) and platinum (Pt). From the results, it was confirmed that resistance of four different electrodes increased with the following order: the Vulcan-coated graphite foilfoil. Moreover, the Vulcan-coated graphite foil showed 5-10% higher power density than the metal mesh electrodes. From the polarization curve of the Vulcan-coated graphite foil electrode, it was found that total resistance decreased as thickness and geometric surface area of the electrode increased.

  4. Bonding bare die LEDs on PET foils for lighting applications: Thermal design modeling and bonding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2012-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and flexible photonic devices. A matrix of LEDs on a foil combined with a diffuser can be a potential alternative for flexible OLED lighting devices. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated in an unpackag

  5. Large area flexible lighting foils using distributed bare LED dies on polyester substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and for backlights for flexible displays. Such a large area lighting device can be made by integrating a matrix of closely spaced LEDs on a flexible foil substrate. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated

  6. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  7. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  8. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan;

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...

  9. Current Situation and Development Tendency of China’s Electronic Copper Foil Industry-Part Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2011, in despite of production expansion slowdown of China’s electronic copper foil industry due to global economic downturn, European debt crisis and global inflation, China’s production capacity of copper foil rose through extensive construction of new and extension projects.

  10. Ultrasmooth metallic foils for growth of high quality graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Pavel; Mach, Jindřich; Bischoff, Dominik; Lišková, Zuzana; Dvořák, Petr; Vaňatka, Marek; Simonet, Pauline; Varlet, Anastasia; Hemzal, Dušan; Petrenec, Martin; Kalina, Lukáš; Bartošík, Miroslav; Ensslin, Klaus; Varga, Peter; Čechal, Jan; Šikola, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of graphene by chemical vapor deposition is a promising route for manufacturing large-scale high-quality graphene for electronic applications. The quality of the employed substrates plays a crucial role, since the surface roughness and defects alter the graphene growth and cause difficulties in the subsequent graphene transfer. Here, we report on ultrasmooth high-purity copper foils prepared by sputter deposition of Cu thin film on a SiO2/Si template, and the subsequent peeling off of the metallic layer from the template. The surface displays a low level of oxidation and contamination, and the roughness of the foil surface is generally defined by the template, and was below 0.6 nm even on a large scale. The roughness and grain size increase occurred during both the annealing of the foils, and catalytic growth of graphene from methane (≈1000 °C), but on the large scale still remained far below the roughness typical for commercial foils. The micro-Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements proved the high quality of graphene grown on such foils, and the room temperature mobility of the graphene grown on the template stripped foil was three times higher compared to that of one grown on the commercial copper foil. The presented high-quality copper foils are expected to provide large-area substrates for the production of graphene suitable for electronic applications.

  11. Foil Cooling for the Rep-Rated Electron Beam Pumped Electra Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Hegeler, F.; Wolford, M. F.; Abdel-Khalik, S.

    2005-10-01

    The Electra program at the Naval Research Laboratory is developing the science and technologies for implementation of krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers in inertial fusion energy. Large aperture KrF lasers are pumped by electron beams which transit a foil separating the gas target at >=1 atm pressure from the vacuum diode. A fraction of the beam energy is deposited in the foil and thus long term (>=10^8 shots), rep-rated (5 Hz) operation requires active cooling of the foil to prevent thermal yield relaxation and cycling fatigue. This paper will report on experimental data and theoretical analysis of two diverse approaches to foil thermal management: convective and conductive cooling. Convective turbulent cooling has been operational on the Electra main amp through the use of oscillating louvers within a gas recirculator containing the pumped lasing region. At 5 Hz the foil temperature (Tf) can be maintained at ˜400 ^oC for a 1 mil SS foil. Conduction cooling provides the simplest configuration with only the need for water channels in the ribs of the hibachi. For a 1 mil Al foil, Tf is predicted to be ˜140 ^oC at 5 Hz. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results and advanced foil materials will be discussed.

  12. Effect of microstructure on specific capacitance of AA3003 aluminum alloy foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新明; 靳丽; 肖亚庆; 蹇雄

    2003-01-01

    By means of OM, EDS, SEM and TEM, the effect of microstructures of AA3003 aluminum alloy foils on specific capacitance was investigated . The results show that the specific capacitance of the cathode aluminum foils depends on the microstructures of the foils, including intermetallic compound (Mn,Fe)Al6 and Al matrix, tangled dislocations in the regions adjacent to the intermetallic particles, and smaller and dispersed particles. Because the dislocation interaction with larger particles gives rise to high local lattice curvature in the matrix, which can be preferentially dissolved when etched, which results in serious remnant metal powders on the foil surface. Solid solution at 630 ℃, quenching in water and aging at 60 ℃ may increase the number of the second phase particles, and reduce the large particles, so that the capacitance of the cathode foils becomes higher and almost no powders remain on the surface of the foil. By means of aging after quenching, the precipitated particles and etch-pit density in the foil increase obviously, therefore the favourable microstructures can be produced to improve the specific capacitance of the foils.

  13. Flexible AMOLED display on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) foil with metal-oxide TFT backplane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripathi, A.K.; Putten, B. van der; Steen, J.L. van der; Tempelaars, K.; Cobb, B.; Ameys, M.; Ke, T.H.; Myny, K.; Steudel, S.; Nag, M.; Schols, S.; Vicca, P.; Smout, S.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Yakimets, I.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a top emitting monochrome AMOLED display with 85dpi resolution using an amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (IGZO) TFT backplane on PEN-foil. Maximum processing temperature was limited to 150 °C in order to ensure an overlay accuracy < 3μm on PEN foil. The backplane process flow is based

  14. On the preparation of self-supporting zinc target foils of separated isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second report on the practical method of preparation of targets for nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-TL-121 (in Japanese)). In this report, a method is described for the preparation of self-supporting zinc foils from ZnO. The thicknesses of target foils and their uniformity were measured with an α-ray thickness gauge. (auth.)

  15. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films

  16. Instability of a Thin Conducting Foil Accelerated by a Finite Wavelength Intense Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Eliasson, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT)-like instability for a thin foil accelerated by an intense laser, taking into account finite wavelength effects in the laser wave field. The latter leads to the diffraction of the electromagnetic wave off the periodic structures arising from the instability of the foil, which significantly modifies the growth rate of the RT-like instability when the perturbations on the foil have wavenumbers comparable to or larger than the laser wavenumber. In particular, the growth rate has a local maximum at a perturbation wavenumber approximately equal to the laser wavenumber. The standard RT instability, arising from a pressure difference between the two sides of a foil, is approximately recovered for perturbation wavenumbers smaller than the laser wavenumber. Differences in the results for circular and linear polarization of the laser light are pointed out. The model has significance to radiation pressure acceleration of thin foils and to laser-driven inertial c...

  17. Foil assisted replica molding for fabrication of microfluidic devices and their application in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal, Issac J; Vidyasagar, Aditya J; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Mekala, Naveen Kumar; Asthana, Amit; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple, rapid, benchtop, Foil Assisted Rapid Molding (FARM) method for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. This novel technique involves the use of aluminium foil, pen and an X-Y plotter to create semi-circular or plano-concave, shallow microchannels. It is an easy do-it-yourself (DIY) technique for creating a microfluidic device in three simple steps: (1) create a channel design using the CAD software, (2) plot the patterns on aluminium foil and (3) use the reverse of the engraved foil as a mold to create microfluidic devices. In this report, we present a detailed study of the proposed method by varying a range of parameters such as foil thickness, tip material, and tip sizes and by investigating their effect on the creation of channels with varying geometry. Furthermore, we demonstrated the cytocompatibility of these devices in vitro. PMID:25102283

  18. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hönnicke, M.G., E-mail: marcelo.honnicke@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil); Delben, G.J. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Tupy, Curitiba (Brazil); Godoi, W.C. [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil); Swinka-Filho, V. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento – LACTEC, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films.

  19. Standard test methods of tension testing of metallic foil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1993-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the tension testing of metallic foil at room temperature in thicknesses less than 0.006 in. (0.150 mm). Note 1—Exception to these methods may be necessary in individual specifications or test methods for a particular material. 1.2 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Underwater explosive welding of thin tungsten foils and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Underwater explosive welding was used to clad tungsten and copper. → The preset inclination was varied and the microstructure was observed. → Microstructure reveals a clear wavy interface for higher preset inclination. → High pressure and high strain rate leads to plastic flow of tungsten. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the ability to clad pure tungsten foils on copper plate using underwater shock waves generated by the detonation of explosive. Microstructural characterization revealed that a higher preset inclination results in wavy morphology. Weld formed at lower inclination exhibit a planar interfacial layer comprising fine grained particles of both components. The plastic flow of tungsten is ascribed to the synergistic influence of high pressure and high strain rate at the collision point.

  1. Silver-Rutile Schottky Diode Fabricated on Oxidized Titanium Foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication and characterization of a gas sensing Ag-TiO2 Schottky diode are reported. The fabricated Ag-TiO2-Ti structure, formed by sintering silver nanoparticles on the thermally oxidized titanium foil, demonstrated I-V characteristics of a typical Schottky diode at elevated temperatures up to 500 deg. C. The I-V characteristics of these devices strongly depended on the concentration level of the reducing gas contaminants in the surrounding atmosphere. The samples performed like high-barrier Schottky diodes in clean air, while behaved as ohmic contacts in highly reducing atmospheres. Different concentration levels of the examined alcohol vapours could increase the reverse current of the diodes up to 5 orders of magnitude. The measured electronic features of the device were described via an energy band diagram model.

  2. Underwater explosive welding of thin tungsten foils and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, P., E-mail: manikandan_exp@yahoo.com [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Lee, J.O.; Mizumachi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mori, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Raghukandan, K. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu 608 002 (India); Hokamoto, K. [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Underwater explosive welding was used to clad tungsten and copper. > The preset inclination was varied and the microstructure was observed. > Microstructure reveals a clear wavy interface for higher preset inclination. > High pressure and high strain rate leads to plastic flow of tungsten. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the ability to clad pure tungsten foils on copper plate using underwater shock waves generated by the detonation of explosive. Microstructural characterization revealed that a higher preset inclination results in wavy morphology. Weld formed at lower inclination exhibit a planar interfacial layer comprising fine grained particles of both components. The plastic flow of tungsten is ascribed to the synergistic influence of high pressure and high strain rate at the collision point.

  3. Aerodynamic analysis of flapping foils using volume grid deformation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jin Hwan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Woong; Park, Soo Hyung; Byun, Do Young [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Nature-inspired flapping foils have attracted interest for their high thrust efficiency, but the large motions of their boundaries need to be considered. It is challenging to develop robust, efficient grid deformation algorithms appropriate for the large motions in three dimensions. In this paper, a volume grid deformation code is developed based on finite macro-element and transfinite interpolation, which successfully interfaces to a structured multi-block Navier-Stokes code. A suitable condition that generates the macro-elements with efficiency and improves the robustness of grid regularity is presented as well. As demonstrated by an airfoil with various motions related to flapping, the numerical results of aerodynamic forces by the developed method are shown to be in good agreement with those of an experimental data or a previous numerical solution

  4. Foil-like manganin gauges for dynamic high pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhuoping; Liu, Yan; Pi, Aiguo; Huang, Fenglei

    2011-07-01

    Foil-like manganin gauges with a variety of shapes used in different ranges of pressure for the one-dimensional strain mode and axisymmetric strain mode were designed for measuring the detonation pressures of explosives and high shock pressure in materials. In the stress range of 0-53.5 GPa, the pressure-piezoresistance relationships of the manganin gauges were calibrated by the light gas gun and the planar lens of explosive. The piezoresistance coefficients were obtained in different ranges of pressure. To verify the coefficients, the detonation pressure (CJ pressure) of TNT explosive was measured by the manganin gauges, which give similar CJ pressure values to those reported by Zhang et al (2009 Detonation Physics (Beijing: Ordnance Industry Press)) with the maximum relative deviation being less than 3%.

  5. Foil-like manganin gauges for dynamic high pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foil-like manganin gauges with a variety of shapes used in different ranges of pressure for the one-dimensional strain mode and axisymmetric strain mode were designed for measuring the detonation pressures of explosives and high shock pressure in materials. In the stress range of 0–53.5 GPa, the pressure–piezoresistance relationships of the manganin gauges were calibrated by the light gas gun and the planar lens of explosive. The piezoresistance coefficients were obtained in different ranges of pressure. To verify the coefficients, the detonation pressure (CJ pressure) of TNT explosive was measured by the manganin gauges, which give similar CJ pressure values to those reported by Zhang et al (2009 Detonation Physics (Beijing: Ordnance Industry Press)) with the maximum relative deviation being less than 3%

  6. Flow structures in the wake of heaving and pitching foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdzin, Derek; Pardo, Enrique; Leftwich, Megan C.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2012-11-01

    A 10-bar mechanism drives a cambering hydrofoil in an oscillatory heaving and pitching motion that replicates the flapping motion of a dolphin tail. The mechanism sits on a force-balance with six strain gages that together measure the forces and moments experienced by the fin during an oscillation. Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence is used to image the flow structures created downstream of the cambering fin for a range of Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. The images are taken in the mid-plane, parallel to the bottom of the water tunnel. These results are compared to a rigid foil at matching conditions to investigate the role of camber changes during the flapping cycle.

  7. Electron microscope observation of single - crystalline beryllium thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin foils prepared from single crystalline beryllium simples deformed at room temperature, have been observed by transmission electron microscopy. The various deformation modes have been investigated separately, from their early stages and their characteristic dislocation configurations have been observed. Basal slip is characterized at is outset by the presence of numerous dipoles and elongated prismatic loops. More pronounced cold work leads to the formation of dislocation tangles and bundles which eventually give a cellular structure. Prismatic slip begins by the cross-slip of dislocations from the basal plane into the prismatic plane. A cellular structure is equally observed in heavily deformed samples. Sessile dislocations have been observed in twin boundaries; they are produced by reactions between slip dislocations and twin dislocations. Finally, the study of samples quenched from 1100 deg. C and annealed at 200 deg. C has shown that the observed loops lie in prismatic planes and have a Burgers vector b 1/3. (authors)

  8. New membranes obtained by grafted irradiated PVDF foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R. [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camporotondi, D.E., E-mail: camporotondi@cae.cnea.gov.ar [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arbeitman, C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2012-09-15

    The present work describes a new method to produce membranes of poly(Acrylic-acid-Xmonomer) using the grafting procedure. PVDF foils irradiated with Ar{sup +} beam with energies between 30 and 150 keV were employed as substratum. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-GMA); acrylic acid-styrene (AAc-S), acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc-NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm-GMA). A large percentage of grafting results for specific values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc and sulfuric acid concentration, and different substrata PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta). At a particular time of the grafting process, the poly(AAc-Xmonomer) membranes detach from the substratum and continue their grafting in the solution. This method is useful to produce increased replicated membranes of the irradiated original surface.

  9. Transmission and Reflection of Neutrons Using Foil Activation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new neutron irradiation facility has been designed, constructed .and located at the Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, NRC, AEA, cairo. The neutrons were obtained from CNIF2 (Second Cairo Neutron Irradiation Facility) that is based on one 241 Am-Be(α, n) isotopic neutron source with a present activity of about 175 GBq results in a neutron yield of about 1.04 x107 n/s. The geometrical arrangements of the facility consider the safety and protection rules aspects. MCNP5 code is used to estimate radiation doses and neutron fluxes. This new irradiation facility provides fast and epithermal neutrons that can be used in basic research and industrial applications. The aim of the present work is to study the characteristics of this new irradiation facility and to develop methods able to use fast and epithermal neutron in some different applications. Experimental measurements for the transmission and reflection of neutrons were carried out via a number of hydrogenous materials using the activation foil technique. A comparison of the experimental results with that calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation method is presented Using the neutron transmission technique in combination with foil activation method, our arrangement is used to measure the total neutron microscopic cross-sections for some compounds. The facility is calibrated and suitable to estimate the hydrogen content H (wt %) and the weight ratios C/H in hydrocarbon materials and was used to measure these ratios for some Egyptian crude oil samples. A brief overview of the neutron activation analysis methods for elemental concentrations in bulk samples in natural conditions is presented.

  10. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  11. Thick backed carbon targets via mechanical rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For targets requiring thick backing foils, the straight-forward and usual method is to deposit the target material directly on the backing by thermal evaporation. In some instances the reverse is more desirable, adding a backing to an already existing target foil, for example. A recent study involving measurement of the lifetime of the first 2+ excited state in 36Ar by the Doppler shift attenuation method required 0.5 mg/cm2 natural carbon targets on thick (18 mg/cm2) gold and lead backings. Problems of delamination had arisen after beam irradiation using thick gold backings for these experiments. Carbon target foils were then prepared by mechanical rolling in direct contact with a thick lead backing using an intermediate layer of indium to assure good adhesion of the layers. Details of the method will be discussed. (author)

  12. Relative and absolute level populations of beam-foil excited neutral helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative and absolute populations of excited levels in neutral helium have been measured. An experimental system was built and calibrated with a tungsten ribbon standard lamp. Helium was accelerated to 0.275 MeV by a Van de Graaff generator and passed through a carbon foil. Transitions in the spectral region between lambda 2829 A and lambda 5875 A were observed and the relative and absolute level populations per emergent neutral atom were calculated for the upper levels of the transitions. Beam geometry, polarization, cascading, and normalization were taken into account. The populations showed a dependence roughly proportional to the inverse cube of the principal quantum number, with no preferential populations of the ground state. Level populations with the same principal quantum number but different orbital angular momentum and spin were not proportional to the statistical weights of the levels. However, they showed a tendency to approach statistical behavior with increasing principal quantum number. The triplet and singlet spin level populations also differ from purely statistical population ratios. Further, these ratios exhibit a slight dependence on incident particle energy in the range 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. A measurement of excitation functions for the levels 4s 1S, 4s 3S, 3p1P, 3p3P, 4d1D, 4d3D in this same energy range shows that the number of these levels per emergent atom is increasing, although the total number of neutral atoms is decreasing

  13. Flexible Field Emitter for X-ray Generation by Implanting CNTs into Nickel Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Wang, Yan; Ding, Guifu

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a novel implanting micromachining technology. By using this method, for the first time, we could implant nano-scale materials into milli-scale metal substrates at room temperature. Ni-based flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters were fabricated by the novel micromachining method. By embedding CNT roots into Ni foil using polymer matrix as transfer media, effective direct contact between Ni and CNTs was achieved. As a result, our novel emitter shows relatively good field emission properties such as low turn-on field and good stability. Moreover, the emitter was highly flexible with preservation of the field emission properties. The excellent field emission characteristics attributed to the direct contact and the strong interactions between CNTs and the substrate. To check the practical application of the novel emitter, a simple X-ray imaging system was set up by modifying a traditional tube. The gray shadow that appears on the sensitive film after being exposed to the radiation confirms the successful generation of X-ray.

  14. Flexible Field Emitter for X-ray Generation by Implanting CNTs into Nickel Foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Wang, Yan; Ding, Guifu

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a novel implanting micromachining technology. By using this method, for the first time, we could implant nano-scale materials into milli-scale metal substrates at room temperature. Ni-based flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters were fabricated by the novel micromachining method. By embedding CNT roots into Ni foil using polymer matrix as transfer media, effective direct contact between Ni and CNTs was achieved. As a result, our novel emitter shows relatively good field emission properties such as low turn-on field and good stability. Moreover, the emitter was highly flexible with preservation of the field emission properties. The excellent field emission characteristics attributed to the direct contact and the strong interactions between CNTs and the substrate. To check the practical application of the novel emitter, a simple X-ray imaging system was set up by modifying a traditional tube. The gray shadow that appears on the sensitive film after being exposed to the radiation confirms the successful generation of X-ray. PMID:27401089

  15. Application of injection of spent caustic sludge into sour water stripper%酸性水汽提塔注废碱渣工艺技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静翔; 黄占修; 耿庆光; 孙宁飞

    2013-01-01

    中国石油化工股份有限公司洛阳分公司液态烃脱硫醇装置废碱渣年产量超过1 kt,原采用碱渣湿式氧化装置脱硫、浓硫酸中和、酸性水限流排放至炼油污水处理场处理工艺.该工艺存在浓硫酸中和碱渣作业风险大、酸性水低温盐结晶堵塞管线,作业过程恶臭气体环境污染大等问题.通过实施酸性水汽提塔注废碱渣技术改造,停用了碱渣湿式氧化装置,不再进行碱渣酸化处理.工业实践表明:废碱渣注入汽提塔后,净化水中约70%的固定铵可去除,酸性水汽提塔蒸汽单耗下降约10 kg/t,对总外排水水质几乎没有影响,取得了良好的经济效益和社会效益.%The liquid hydrocarbon sweetening unit in Sinopec Luoyang Company produced more than 1000 tons of caustic sludge each year.In the original design,the process of wet oxidation desulfurization,sulfuric acid neutralization and controlled sour water drainage to refinery waste water plant for treatment was applied to treat the caustic sludge.This process had the problems of higher operating risk in neutralization of caustic sludge by sulfuric acid and easy plugging of pipelines by low-temperature salt crystallization of sour water and air pollution by foul gas from operation,etc.To solve these problems,the injection of spent caustic sludge was implemented,caustic sludge wet oxidation unit was shutdown and caustic sludge acidification operation was stopped.The above practices in commercial operation show that,after injection of spent caustic sludge into the sour water stripper,70% of fixed ammonium is removed,steam consumption of sour water stripper is reduced by 10 kg/t,there is no impact on the quality of discharge water,and good economic and social benefits have been achieved.

  16. Ultrasonic-assisted ac etching of aluminum foils for electrolytic capacitor electrodes with enhanced capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ac etching of high-purity aluminum foils in hybrid acids including hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and oxalic acid was investigated and the effects of ultrasonic-assisted stirring on the performances of the etched foils were investigated in this work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for observation of the etched foils. Compared with the classically used mechanical stirring (magnetic stirring), the assistance of ultrasonic increased the performance of the etched foil. With 20 V forming voltage, the static capacitance and bending strength of the foils etched with ultrasonic stirring reached 76.5 μF cm-2 and 98 times compared with 71.2 μF cm-2 and 85 times respectively for the foils fabricated with magnetic stirring using 100 μm aluminum foils. The performance enhancement with the assistance of ultrasonic is probably due to the cavitation effects which are beneficial for the remove of protective layer and the dispersion effects which reduce concentration polarization in the bulk etchant solutions.

  17. Gas Electron Multiplier foil holes: a study of mechanical and deformation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Saviano, G.; Muhammad, S.; Piccolo, D.; Suhaj, A.; Sharma, A.; Caponero, M.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Russo, A.; Lalli, A.; Valente, M.; Ferrini, M.; Langeslag, S. A. E.; Sgobba, S.; Aviles, I.; Magnani, A.; Vai, I.

    2016-08-01

    The GEM detectors will be installed at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Long Shutdown II of the LHC in 2018. The GEM foil is a basic part of the detector which consists of a composite material, i.e. polyimide coated with copper and perforated with a high density of micro holes. In this paper the results of the GEM foil material characterization are reported, and a campaign of tensile and holes deformation tests is performed. During the tests, the complex radiation environment at CMS is taken into account and samples are prepared accordingly to see the impacts of the radiation on the GEM foil, i.e. non-irradiated samples are used as the reference and compared with neutrons- and gamma- irradiated. These studies provide the information necessary to optimize the stress level without damaging the foil and holes during the detector assembly in which the GEM foils stack is stretched simultaneously to maintain the uniform gap among the foils in order to get the designed performance of the detector. Finally, an estimate of the Young's modulus of the GEM foil is provided by using the tensile test data.

  18. DuraFoil{sup TM} ICR-a new material for catalytic converter substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukonnik, I.M.; Chang, S.; Jha, B. [Texas Instruments, Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A new type of FeCrAl material for catalytic converter substrate applications, DuraFoil{sup TM} ICR, has been developed by solid state bonding of strip layers of steel and aluminum. Such clad material is further rolled to intermediate gauge and then subjected to a thermal in situ reaction to form a solid solution material. Such monolithic material is subsequently thermomechanically processed to foil gauges. The combination of roll bonding followed by thermo-mechanical processing to produce FeCrAl foil for metallic catalytic converter substrate offers many metallurgical and economic advantages over conventional ingot metallurgy practice. The fact that thermal diffusion was performed at the intermediate gauge prior to reaching the final foil thickness gives material properties for use in the wider design range of catalytic converters. In its simplest form, the requirements for a catalytic converter substrate (foil material) are dictated by four major factors: oxidation resistance; shape stability; formability (applicable ductility); and compatibility with typical substrate processing technologies such as brazing and washcoating. To this end, the microstructures, mechanical properties, chemical homogeneity, surface chemistry and morphology of two DuraFoil{sup TM} new grades foil materials, i.e., ICR-H (hard) and ICR-F (soft), were characterized. This study has shown those superior properties, desirable formability can be achieved from diffusion-made material. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of chromic acid anodized aluminum foil coated composite tubes for the Space Station truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursch, Harry W.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of chromic acid anodized (CAA) Al foil as a protective and thermal control coating for graphite/epoxy tubes designed for the Space Station truss structure. Special consideration is given to the development of solar-absorptance and thermal-emittance properties required of Al foil, the development of CAA parameters necessary to achieve these optical properties, and the atomic oxygen and UV testing of CAA Al foil. Results showed that 0.003-in CAA Al foil cocured or secondary bonded to graphite/epoxy tubes with thin epoxy film adhesive retains excellent bond strength and provides a superior protective and thermal control coating to the LEO environment. Processes were developed for CAA Al foils long enough to continuously wrap the 23-ft-long diagonal struts of the Space Station truss structure. Specifications are presented for the processes of chromic acid anodizing of Al foil and for the bonding of anodized Al foil to graphite/epoxy tubes.

  20. Improvement of the accuracy of the imaging bolometer foil laser calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An imaging bolometer with a single graphite-coated metal foil is a diagnostic tool for diagnosing plasma radiation from magnetic fusion plasmas. We could obtain the local foil properties (the thermal diffusivity, κ, and the product of the thermal conductivity, k, and the thickness, tf) of the metal imaging bolometer foil by analyzing the calibration data. For improving the IRVB a Tantalum (Ta) foil is offered due to strength, low neutron cross-section, and high sensitivity, however there is a large discrepancy between the value of the foil thickness from the experimental value and the nominal value. For calibrating of the foil the He-Ne laser beam is focused on 63 various locations which are determined by using the marks on the frame. The parameters of the foil are determined by comparing the measured thermal radiation data from an IR camera (FLIR/SC500) (60 Hz, 320x240 pixels, 7.5-13 μm) with the corresponding results of a finite element model. (author)

  1. Life cycle Analysis of Aluminum Foil Packaging Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaie, Olfat; Ahmed, Manal; Hussein, Ahmed; El Sharkawy, Fahmay; Samy, Manal

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental tent of life cycle analysis (LCA) is that every material product must become a waste. To choose the greener products, it is necessary to take into account their environmental impacts from cradle to grave. LCA is the tool used to measure environmental improvements. Aluminum (Al) is the third most common element found in the earth's crust, after oxygen and silicon. Al packaging foil was chosen as the material for the study with its life cycle perspective at Alexandria. The Al packaging produced from virgin and recycled Al was investigated through life cycle stages in these two production processes; primary and secondary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of aluminum packaging process by using life cycle analysis of its product from two different starting raw materials (virgin and recycled aluminum). The input and output materials, energy, water, natural gas consumptions, and solid waste uses in the foil industry had been analyzed in order to identify those with significant contribution to the total environmental impacts. From the survey done on the two life cycles, it was found that in environmental terms, the most important emissions from the primary process are the emission of CO(2) and perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, which produce the greenhouse effect, and SO(2) as well as the emission of fluorides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds), which are toxic to humans and the environment. On over all material balance, it was found that the ingot shares by 45% of the feed to the casthouse furnaces at Egyptian Copper Work (ECW), net production of the casthouse is 43.76% and the yield of rotary dross furnace (RDF) is 28.8%. The net production of the foil unit represents 35% of the total input to the unit. By comparing the two life cycles, it is obvious that, for water consumption, 93.5% is used in the primary cycle, while 6.5% is used in the secondary cycle. For electricity consumption, 99.3% is used in the primary cycle

  2. Development of Thick-foil and Fine-pitch GEMs with a Laser Etching Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Tamagawa, T.; Asami, F.; Abe, K.; Iwamoto, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hayato, A.; Iwahashi, T.; Konami, S.; Hamagaki, H.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Tawara, H.; Makishima, K.

    2009-01-01

    We have produced thick-foil and fine-pitch gas electron multipliers (GEMs) using a laser etching technique. To improve production yield we have employed a new material, Liquid Crystal Polymer, instead of polyimide as an insulator layer. The effective gain of the thick-foil GEM with a hole pitch of 140 um, a hole diameter of 70 um, and a thickness of 100 um reached a value of 10^4 at an applied voltage of 720 V. The measured effective gain of the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM (80 um pitch, 40 ...

  3. Optimizing dc-resistance of a foil wounded toroidal inductor combining matlab and comsol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    An optimization routine is presented to optimize the shape of a foil winding of a toroid inductor in terms of the DC resistance. MATLAB was used to define the geometry of the foil winding and COMSOL was used to import the geometry and create a 3D finite element model. The initial parameters, the...... execution and the results of the optimization routine were all managed from a graphical user interface and the feedback from COMSOL in terms of DC resistance was used to find and plot the optimal shape of the foil. The DC resistance was improvement by 31 % compared with previous work for a 10 turn toroidal...

  4. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter

  5. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability

  6. Suppression of instability by double ablation in tungsten doped polyvinyl alcohol foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Inertial fusion Energy (IFE) research stable acceleration of fusion targets is a significant problem due to hydrodynamic instabilities. This paper presents the results of the experiments done to investigate the effects of doping 20% of Tungsten (W) (by weight) in Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) polymer foils for suppression of instability during laser ablative acceleration. A 20J, 1.060μm, 900ps, Nd: Glass laser system with a focusable intensity of 3 to 9.6×1013W/cm2 was used in the experiment. It is observed that the doped PVA targets yielded stable and enhanced foil acceleration as compared to the undoped PVA foils.

  7. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P. V., E-mail: kpv@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Vlasov, I. V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability.

  8. Large white organic light-emitting diode lighting panel on metal foils

    OpenAIRE

    Guaino, Philippe; Mazeri, Fabrizo; Hofmann, Michael; Birnstock, Jan; Avril, Ludovic; Viville, Pascal; Kanaan, Hani; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Loicq, Jerôme; Rotheudt, Frank; Pans, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large-area top-emitting PIN structure (highly p- and n- type doped transport layers for electrons and holes and an undoped emitter layer)–organic light-emitting diode (OLED) on advanced metal foils were fabricated for lighting applications. ArcelorMittal has developed a new surface treatment on metal foils, suitable for roll-to-roll production and dedicated to large-area device integration. Both monochromatic and white devices are realized on advanced metal foils. Power efficiencies at 1000 c...

  9. Shock compression response of highly reactive Ni + Al multilayered thin foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean C.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2016-03-01

    The shock-compression response of Ni + Al multilayered thin foils is investigated using laser-accelerated thin-foil plate-impact experiments over the pressure range of 2 to 11 GPa. The foils contain alternating Ni and Al layers (parallel but not flat) of nominally 50 nm bilayer spacing. The goal is to determine the equation of state and shock-induced reactivity of these highly reactive fully dense thin-foil materials. The laser-accelerated thin-foil impact set-up involved combined use of photon-doppler-velocimetry to monitor the acceleration and impact velocity of an aluminum flyer, and VISAR interferometry was used to monitor the back free-surface velocity of the impacted Ni + Al multilayered target. The shock-compression response of the Ni + Al target foils was determined using experimentally measured parameters and impedance matching approach, with error bars identified considering systematic and experimental errors. Meso-scale CTH shock simulations were performed using real imported microstructures of the cross-sections of the multilayered Ni + Al foils to compute the Hugoniot response (assuming no reaction) for correlation with their experimentally determined equation of state. It was observed that at particle velocities below ˜150 m/s, the experimentally determined equation of state trend matches the CTH-predicted inert response and is consistent with the observed unreacted state of the recovered Ni + Al target foils from this velocity regime. At higher particle velocities, the experimentally determined equation of state deviates from the CTH-predicted inert response. A complete and self-sustained reaction is also seen in targets recovered from experiments performed at these higher particle velocities. The deviation in the measured equation of state, to higher shock speeds and expanded volumes, combined with the observation of complete reaction in the recovered multilayered foils, confirmed via microstructure characterization, is indicative of the occurrence

  10. Full size U-10Mo monolithic fuel foil and fuel plate fabrication-technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-size U-10Mo foils are being developed for use in high density LEU monolithic fuel plates. The application of a zirconium barrier layer to the foil is performed using a hot co-rolling process. Aluminium clad fuel plates are fabricated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or a Friction Bonding (FB) process. An overview is provided of ongoing technology development activities, including: the co-rolling process, foil shearing/slitting and polishing, cladding bonding processes, plate forming, plate-assembly swaging, and fuel plate characterization. Characterization techniques being employed include, Ultrasonic Testing (UT), radiography, and microscopy. (author)

  11. A small and compact AMS facility for tritium depth profiling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Friedrich; W Pilz; N Bekris; M Glugla; M Kiisk; V Liechtenstein

    2002-12-01

    Depth profiling measurements of tritium in carbon samples have been performed during the past seven years at the AMS facility installed at the Rossendorf 3 MV Tandetron. The samples have been cut from the inner walls of the fusion experiments ASDEX-upgrade/Garching and JET/Culham. The tritium content of the samples from JET required a dedicated AMS facility to prevent any contamination of the versatile 3 MV Tandetron. On the basis of an air-insulated 100 kV tandem accelerator equipped with a gas stripper an AMS facility exclusively devoted to tritium depth profiling was installed, tested and used for routine measurements. After additional successful tests employing diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils at this accelerator, another small and compact 100 kV tandem accelerator with SF6 insulation and a DLC stripper has been installed at the AMS facility. Results obtained with the different tandem accelerators are presented.

  12. Development of the fabrication technology of wide uranium foils for Mo-99 irradiation target by cooling-roll casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative fabrication method for polycrystalline uranium foils has been investigated using a cooling-roll casting method at KAERI since 2001, in order to produce a medical isotope 99Mo, the parent nuclide of 99mTc. The fabrication method of wide uranium foils produced by a cooling-roll casting was recently developed to improve the quality of the uranium foils and the economic efficiency of the foil fabrication with modifications of the casting apparatus and adjustments of the process parameters. A continuous polycrystalline LEU foil with a thickness range of 100 to 150 μm. and a width of about 50 mm, exceeding 5m in length for a batch procedure, could be fabricated with a better quality of the uranium foil and a higher yield of the foil fabrication, through improvements of the casting apparatus and variations of the process parameters. (author)

  13. Use of STIM for morphological studies of microstructured polymer foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, morphological characterization of microstructures produced by focused 3 MeV H+ beams and chemical etching on poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils was investigated by on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). STIM images were obtained from different energy regions of the transmitted energy spectra. STIM performance was compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used as a reference. STIM and SEM images provided similar morphological information. The deviations observed between the measured dimensions obtained from both techniques were within the uncertainties of the experiment. Moreover, the scaling of the structures’ size versus etching time (i.e. the etching rates) extracted from STIM and SEM data were equivalent. Prolonged etching times of up to 60 min were performed to check the effect of the irradiation on the non-bombarded vicinity of the structured lines. STIM images clearly revealed a distribution of cavities and porosity along the structured walls for etching times above 20 min. This is attributed to thermal effects and outgassing during the proton beam writing, which probably create voids that are enlarged by the long exposure to the etching solution

  14. Foil-less plasma-filled diode for HPM generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltchaninov, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kurkan, I. K.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    Plasma-filled diode regarded as perspective source of electron beam feeding HPM generator of GW power level, comparing to conventional explosive emission vacuum diode. Electron beam generation occurs in plasma double layer, where plasma boundary plays as an anode. It allows cancelling the usage of anode foils or grids in HPM generators with the virtual cathode, which could limit its life time to few shots. The presence of ions in the e-beam drift space could raise the limiting current for a drift space, but it could affect to microwave generation also. Sectioned plasma-filled diode with beam current of about 100 kA, electron beam energy of about 0.5 MV and beam current density of 1-10 kA/cm2 was realized. Cylindrical transport channel with the diameter of 200 mm and the length of about 30 cm was attached to the diode. Beam current measurements in a drift space were performed. Computer simulations of electron beam transport with the presence of ions were carried out with the 2.5D axisymmetric version of PiC-code KARAT. Obtained results would help optimizing electrodynamic system of HPM generator subjected to the presence of ions.

  15. Foil-less plasma-filled diode for HPM generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma-filled diode regarded as perspective source of electron beam feeding HPM generator of GW power level, comparing to conventional explosive emission vacuum diode. Electron beam generation occurs in plasma double layer, where plasma boundary plays as an anode. It allows cancelling the usage of anode foils or grids in HPM generators with the virtual cathode, which could limit its life time to few shots. The presence of ions in the e-beam drift space could raise the limiting current for a drift space, but it could affect to microwave generation also. Sectioned plasma-filled diode with beam current of about 100 kA, electron beam energy of about 0.5 MV and beam current density of 1-10 kA/cm2 was realized. Cylindrical transport channel with the diameter of 200 mm and the length of about 30 cm was attached to the diode. Beam current measurements in a drift space were performed. Computer simulations of electron beam transport with the presence of ions were carried out with the 2.5D axisymmetric version of PiC-code KARAT. Obtained results would help optimizing electrodynamic system of HPM generator subjected to the presence of ions

  16. Optical fiber sensors embedded in flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoe, Bram; van Steenberge, Geert; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Webb, David; van Daele, Peter

    2010-04-01

    In traditional electrical sensing applications, multiplexing and interconnecting the different sensing elements is a major challenge. Recently, many optical alternatives have been investigated including optical fiber sensors of which the sensing elements consist of fiber Bragg gratings. Different sensing points can be integrated in one optical fiber solving the interconnection problem and avoiding any electromagnetical interference (EMI). Many new sensing applications also require flexible or stretchable sensing foils which can be attached to or wrapped around irregularly shaped objects such as robot fingers and car bumpers or which can even be applied in biomedical applications where a sensor is fixed on a human body. The use of these optical sensors however always implies the use of a light-source, detectors and electronic circuitry to be coupled and integrated with these sensors. The coupling of these fibers with these light sources and detectors is a critical packaging problem and as it is well-known the costs for packaging, especially with optoelectronic components and fiber alignment issues are huge. The end goal of this embedded sensor is to create a flexible optical sensor integrated with (opto)electronic modules and control circuitry. To obtain this flexibility, one can embed the optical sensors and the driving optoelectronics in a stretchable polymer host material. In this article different embedding techniques for optical fiber sensors are described and characterized. Initial tests based on standard manufacturing processes such as molding and laser structuring are reported as well as a more advanced embedding technique based on soft lithography processing.

  17. Feasibility of Batch Reactive Distillation with Equilibrium-Limited Consecutive Reactions in Rectifier, Stripper, or Middle-Vessel Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lukács

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general overall feasibility methodology of batch reactive distillation of multireaction systems is developed to study all the possible configurations of batch reactive distillation. The general model equations are derived for multireaction system with any number of chemical equilibrium-limited reactions and for any number of components. The present methodology is demonstrated with the detailed study of the transesterification of dimethyl carbonate in two reversible cascade reactions in batch reactive distillation process. Pure methanol is produced as distillate, and pure diethyl carbonate is produced at the bottom simultaneously in middle-vessel column; in each section, continuous feeding of ethanol is necessary. The results of feasibility study are successfully validated by rigorous simulations.

  18. Non-contact thickness measurement for ultra-thin metal foils with differential white light interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Du(杜艳丽); Huimin Yan(严惠民); Yong Wu(吴勇); Xiaoqiang Yao(姚晓强); Yongjun Nie(聂永军); Baixuan Shi(施柏煊)

    2004-01-01

    A new differential white light interference technique for the thickness measurements of metal foil is presented. In this work, the differential white light system consists of two Michelson interferometers in tandem,and the measured reflective surfaces are the corresponding surfaces of metal foil. Therefore, the measuring result is only relative to the thickness but not the position of metal foil. The method is non-contact and non-destructive, it has the advantages of high accuracy, fast detection, and compact structure. Theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental verifications have shown that the technique can be used to measure the thickness of foil in the range of 1 to 80 μm with accuracy better than 0.08 μm.

  19. Electrophoretically applied dielectrics for amorphous metal foils used in pulsed power saturable reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous metal foil-wound inductors have been tested as ferromagnetic saturable inductive elements for pulse-power (multi-terawatt) switching nodules. Saturation switching may provide large 100 ns current bursts necessary to accelerate ion beams for the fusion fuel pellet implosion required, for example, in PBFA (particle beam fusion accelerator) operation. In simulated capacitor testing premature dielectric breakdown of thin polyethylene terephthalate film insulation in the inductor windings occurs at considerably below 2500 V. This appears to be due to inadvertent dielectric damage from micro-spikes on the amorphous foil surface. Electron micrographs and dielectric breakdown data illustrate that electrophoretically-applied dielectric coatings, deposited from organic aqueous colloid dispersions, can be used to provide insulating coatings on the foil which provide a 240% improvement (6000 V) in the breakdown strength of wound amorphous foil inductors. The theory and operation of a dedicated electrophoretic continuous coating system is described

  20. A study of neutron fluence rates of the BNCT beam at THOR using foil activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron fluence rates of the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR were measured by using double-foil activation method free-in-air and in a water phantom. Foil sets consisting of gold, copper and manganese were used for measurements. Copper was used as an extra detector for quality check. Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNP4C code were conducted to support and compare with the measurement results. It was found that the calculation of reaction rates of foils free-in-air based on a neutron source with a coarse group energy structure is inadequate. The meetness of the assumptions on the neutron energy distribution made in the double-foil formulation for the determination of neutron fluence rates must be estimated in order to compare with the calculation. (author)

  1. LANL Experience Rolling Zr-Clad LEU-10Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammon, Duncan L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kennedy, Patrick K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Edwards, Randall L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duffield, Andrew N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The cleaning, canning, rolling and final trimming of Low Enriched Uranium-10 wt. pct. Molybdenum (LEU-10Mo) foils for ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) fuel plates to be used in the AFIP-7 (ATR Full Size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position) experiments are summarized. Six Zr-clad foils were produced from two LEU-10Mo castings supplied to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Y-12 National Security Complex. Details of cleaning and canning procedures are provided. Hot- and cold-rolling results are presented, including rolling schedules, images of foils in-process, metallography and local compositions of regions of interest, and details of final foil dimensions and process yield. This report was compiled from the slides for the presentation of the same name given by Duncan Hammon on May 12, 2011 at the AFIP-7 Lessons Learned meeting in Salt Lake City, UT, with Los Alamos National Laboratory document number LA-UR 11-02898.

  2. Effect of Trace Sn on Pitting Behaviors of High Voltage Anode Aluminum Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo SONG; Weimin MAO; Hong YANG; Huiping FENG

    2008-01-01

    The effect of trace Sn on the pitting morphology of high voltage anode aluminum foils was investigated. The distributions of microelement Sn, Fe, Si, Cu and Mg in the surface layer of aluminum foils with different Sn content were determined by using a secondary ion mass spectrometer. It was found that the micro-alloyed Sn is enriched at the external surface. The mechanism of pitting behavior of trace Sn on aluminum surface is similar with that of lead. Enrichment of Sn in the surface layer provides large numbers of sites for initiation of pitting corrosion, while pitting sites appeared relatively inhomogenously in the foils without Sn. Sn, as an eco-friendly microelement, can be applied to replace Pb in improving the homogenous pitting behaviors of high voltage aluminum foils, in which the volume fraction of cube texture is not reduced.

  3. Self-propelled swimming of a flexible plunging foil near a solid wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longzhen; He, Guowei; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influences of a solid wall on the self-propelled swimming of a flexible plunging foil. It is found that the presence of a solid wall enhances the cruising speed, with the cost of increasing input power. Rigid foil can achieve high percentage increase in cruising speed when swimming near a solid wall, but the propulsive efficiency may be reduced. Foils with some flexibility can enjoy the enhancements in both cruising speed and propulsive efficiency. Another advantage of the flexible foils in near-wall swimming is that smaller averaged lateral forces are produced. The effects of wall confinement on the wake structure and the vortex dynamics are also studied in this paper. The results obtained in this study shed some light on the unsteady wall effect experienced by aquatic animals and also inform the design of bio-mimetic underwater vehicles which are capable of exploiting the wall effect. PMID:27377880

  4. Structure and corrosion resistance of nickel foils deposited in a vertical gravity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of vertical gravity fields on the structural characteristics of electrodeposited Ni foils were investigated in a centrifuge. Analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the surface roughness of Ni foils reduces from 37.6 nm to 8.1 nm with the increase of gravity coefficient (G) from 1 to 354. Furthermore, the roughness of Ni foils deposited at G = 62 evolves much more slowly than that deposited at G = 1. The study of the textural perfection by X-ray diffractiometry (XRD) reveals that the degree of (2 0 0) preferred orientation parallel to the substrate plane is lowered by the vertical gravity field. Randomly oriented deposits are obtained in the vertical gravity field while deposits with uniaxial texture are obtained in the natural gravity field. Due to these variations in the structure, the Ni foils obtained in the vertical gravity field exhibit improved corrosion resistance.

  5. Method to Increase Performance of Foil Bearings Through Passive Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a new approach to designing foil bearings to increase their load capacity and improve their reliability through passive thermal management. In the present case, the bearing is designed in such a way as to prevent the carryover of lubricant from the exit of one sector to the inlet of the ensuing sector of the foil bearing. When such passive thermal management techniques are used, bearing load capacity is improved by multiples, and reliability is enhanced when compared to current foil bearings. This concept has recently been tested and validated, and shows that load capacity performance of foil bearings can be improved by a factor of two at relatively low speeds with potentially greater relative improvements at higher speeds. Such improvements in performance with respect to speed are typical of foil bearings. Additionally, operation of these newly conceived bearings shows much more reliability and repeatable performance. This trait can be exploited in machine design to enhance safety, reliability, and overall performance. Finally, lower frictional torque has been demonstrated when operating at lower (non-load capacity) loads, thus providing another improvement above the current state of the art. The objective of the invention is to incorporate features into a foil bearing that both enhance passive thermal management and temperature control, while at the same time improve the hydrodynamic (load capacity) performance of the foil bearing. Foil bearings are unique antifriction devices that can utilize the working fluid of a machine as a lubricant (typically air for turbines and motors, liquids for pumps), and as a coolant to remove excess energy due to frictional heating. The current state of the art of foil bearings utilizes forced cooling of the bearing and shaft, which represents poor efficiency and poor reliability. This invention embodies features that utilize the bearing geometry in such a manner as to both support load and provide an inherent and

  6. Growth of bridging carbon nanofibers in cracks formed by heat-treating iron oxide thin sheets in acetylene gas

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Hikata; Soichiro Okubo; Yugo Higashi; Teruaki Matsuba; Risa Utsunomiya; Sadahiro Tsurekawa; Katsuhisa Murakami; Jun-ichi Fujita

    2013-01-01

    We produced novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by oxidizing high-purity iron foil and then carburizing it in acetylene gas flow. This formed cracks in the heat-treated iron foil with CNFs bridging the two walls of each crack. The CNFs were drawn out from the walls as the crack opened during heat treatment. This will be a new method to grow and arrange carbon nanotubes and nanosheets without using metal nanoparticles or template substrates.

  7. Growth of bridging carbon nanofibers in cracks formed by heat-treating iron oxide thin sheets in acetylene gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hikata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We produced novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs by oxidizing high-purity iron foil and then carburizing it in acetylene gas flow. This formed cracks in the heat-treated iron foil with CNFs bridging the two walls of each crack. The CNFs were drawn out from the walls as the crack opened during heat treatment. This will be a new method to grow and arrange carbon nanotubes and nanosheets without using metal nanoparticles or template substrates.

  8. Bonding bare die LEDs on PET foils for lighting applications: thermal design modeling and bonding experiments

    OpenAIRE

    van den Ende, Daan; Kusters, Roel; Cauwe, Maarten; A de Waal; van den Brand, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and flexible photonic devices. A matrix of LEDs on a foil combined with a diffuser can be a potential alternative for flexible OLED lighting devices. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated in an unpackaged, bare die form as it reduces cost, footprint and thickness. As a substrate, preferably low cost materials like polyesters (PET) are being used, especially for large area devices. However, the us...

  9. A review of progress and challenges in flapping foil power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Platzer, Max F.

    2014-05-01

    Power may be extracted from a flowing fluid in a variety of ways. Turbines using one or more oscillating foils are under increasingly active investigation, as an alternative to rotary wind turbines and river, oceanic and tidal current water turbines, although industrial development is at a very nascent stage. Such flapping foil turbines promise some key potential advantages, including lower foil velocities (and hence lower noise and wildlife impact), and more effective small-scale and shallow water operation. The role of a number of parameters is investigated, including foil kinematics (modes, frequencies, amplitudes and time histories of motion), foil and system geometry (shape, configuration and structural flexibility), and flow physics effects (Reynolds number and turbulence, shear flows and ground effect). Details of the kinematics are shown to have the single largest influence on power output and efficiency (measured as the ratio of power output to that available and accessible in the fluid stream). The highest levels of power and efficiency are associated with very large foil pitch angles (upwards of 70°) and angles of attack (30-40°), such that the flow is massively separated for much of the flapping cycle, in contrast to rotary turbines which rely on attached flow over as much of the rotor disk as possible. This leads to leading edge vortices comparable in size to the foil chord, and the evolution and interaction of these vortices with the foil as it moves play a central role in determining performance. The other parameters also influence the vortex behaviour, but in general to a lesser degree. Numerous gaps in the research literature and outstanding issues are highlighted.

  10. Gas-Dynamic Foil Bearings Application in High-Speed Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Giemza Bolesław; Nowiński Emil; Domański Marek

    2015-01-01

    Authors present the general characteristics of the gas-dynamic foil bearings in the paper. The short analysis of the application and possibilities of using gas-dynamic bearings in turbo machinery, especially in the aspect of aviation technology were described. Authors also pointed out possible directions of development and gas-dynamic foil bearings application in high-speed turbines, especially working in high temperature.

  11. Analysis of a flapping foil system for energy harvesting at low Reynolds number

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hunkee

    2011-01-01

    The new type of power generation system which mimics the flapping motion of insects or fish has been studied in recent years. The biological flapping foil is capable of harvesting energy from incoming wind or current. A non- sinusoidal trajectory profile and linear shear inlet profile are proposed for the flapping foil in the energy harvesters instead of conventional sinusoidal plunging and pitching motions to get better energy harvesting performance. In this study we create a numerical model...

  12. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S. N.; Mani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic) autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs). Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control...

  13. Study of the strata formation during the explosion of foils in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigalin, A. S.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Baksht, R. B.

    2015-11-01

    The formation of the strata during fast explosion of metal foils at current densities of 0.1 GA/cm2 has been studied experimentally. To observe the strata, the soft x-ray radiation generated by an X-pinch was used. The study of the process of stratification during the foil explosion was carried out with a setup consisting of three generators. One of the generators (WEG-2), was operated to initiate the explosion of the foils, while the others (XPG radiographs) were used for diagnostics. The generator WEG-2 has the capacitance of 250 nF, the charge voltage of 20 kV, and the current rate of 16 A/ns. The radiographs XPG have the capacitance of 1 μF, the charge voltage of 43 kV, the current of 300 kA, and the current rise time of 180 ns. X-pinch produced by four Mo wires was a load for the radiographs. The delay between the operation of the WEG-2 and XPG generators was set using a DPG trigger pulse generator. We performed the experiments with the Al and Cu foils. The length of foil was 2 cm, the foil width was 1 mm, and the foil thickness was 6 μm. It has been revealed that strata were formed early in the explosion, i.e. at the stage when the metal melted. Analysis of the experimental results suggests that the most probable reason for the stratification is the thermal instability developing because of the increase in resistivity of the foil metal with temperature.

  14. Foil fatigue sensor for «Structural Health Monitoring» systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Карускевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of foil fatigue sensor is presented. The deformation relief of the sensor surface is considered as an indicator of the fatigue damage. The quantitative parameter of the deformation relief intensity determined by the computer aided method is applied.   The possibility to monitor fatigue damage of metal structures by the application of foil fatigue sensor is proved. The method  to control sensitivity of the sensors is shown

  15. Foil fatigue sensor for «Structural Health Monitoring» systems

    OpenAIRE

    М.В. Карускевич; О.Ю. Корчук; М. В. Лісовська

    2013-01-01

    The concept of foil fatigue sensor is presented. The deformation relief of the sensor surface is considered as an indicator of the fatigue damage. The quantitative parameter of the deformation relief intensity determined by the computer aided method is applied.   The possibility to monitor fatigue damage of metal structures by the application of foil fatigue sensor is proved. The method  to control sensitivity of the sensors is shown

  16. Simultaneous Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis of H and Other Elements in Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiu-Qin; ZHOU Ping; GUO Ji-Yu; ZHANG Xin; ZHAO Kui; NI Mei-Nan; SUI Li; MEI Jun-Ping; LIU Jian-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Hydrogen and other elements in SixNyHz foils have been simultaneously measured by using a single E(gas)- E(PSD) telescope and heavy 127I ion beam in elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Hydrogen is measuredin the non-coincidence spectrum of E(PSD), and other elements from the △E - E coincidence spectrum. Thecomposition and depth profiling of the foils are obtained from the simulated spectra.

  17. Modeling the transmission of beta rays through thin foils in planar geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ionescu, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of the transmission of beta rays through thin foils in planar geometry based on the plane source concept, using Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport and least squares fitting. Applications of modeling results for calculating the efficiency of large-area beta sources, transmission coefficient of beta rays through thin foils and the beta detection efficiency of large-area detectors used in surface contamination measurements are also presented. PMID:26524407

  18. Conceptual Design and Feasibility of Foil Bearings for Rotorcraft Engines: Hot Core Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in gas foil bearing technology have led to numerous advanced high-speed rotating system concepts, many of which have become either commercial products or experimental test articles. Examples include oil-free microturbines, motors, generators and turbochargers. The driving forces for integrating gas foil bearings into these high-speed systems are the benefits promised by removing the oil lubrication system. Elimination of the oil system leads to reduced emissions, increased reliability, and decreased maintenance costs. Another benefit is reduced power plant weight. For rotorcraft applications, this would be a major advantage, as every pound removed from the propulsion system results in a payload benefit.. Implementing foil gas bearings throughout a rotorcraft gas turbine engine is an important long-term goal that requires overcoming numerous technological hurdles. Adequate thrust bearing load capacity and potentially large gearbox applied radial loads are among them. However, by replacing the turbine end, or hot section, rolling element bearing with a gas foil bearing many of the above benefits can be realized. To this end, engine manufacturers are beginning to explore the possibilities of hot section gas foil bearings in propulsion engines. This overview presents a logical follow-on activity by analyzing a conceptual rotorcraft engine to determine the feasibility of a foil bearing supported core. Using a combination of rotordynamic analyses and a load capacity model, it is shown to be reasonable to consider a gas foil bearing core section. In addition, system level foil bearing testing capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented along with analysis work being conducted under NRA Cooperative Agreements.

  19. Dynamics of laser mass-limited foil interaction at ultra-high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T. P., E-mail: tongpu@nudt.edu.cn [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Sheng, Z. M. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Yin, Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pukhov, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    By using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with synchrotron radiation damping incorporated, dynamics of ultra-intense laser driven mass-limited foils is presented. When a circularly polarized laser pulse with a peak intensity of ∼10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} irradiates a mass-limited nanofoil, electrons are pushed forward collectively and a strong charge separation field forms which acts as a “light sail” and accelerates the protons. When the laser wing parts overtake the foil from the foil boundaries, electrons do a betatron-like oscillation around the center proton bunch. Under some conditions, betatron-like resonance takes place, resulting in energetic circulating electrons. Finally, bright femto-second x rays are emitted in a small cone. It is also shown that the radiation damping does not alter the foil dynamics radically at considered laser intensities. The effects of the transverse foil size and laser polarization on x-ray emission and foil dynamics are also discussed.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN FOIL NACA SERI 2412 SEBAGAI SISTEM PENYELAMAN MODEL KAPAL SELAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Munazid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bentuk  foil menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift force ketika foil dilewati oleh aliran fluida  karena adanya pengaruh interaksi antara aliran fluida dengan permukaan foil yang mengakibatkan tekanan permukaan atas lebih kecil dari permukaan bawah. Bagaimana mengaplikasikan teori foil pada hydroplane kapal selam sebagai  system penyelaman, dengan membalik foil maka lift force tersebut menjadi gaya ke bawah, dengan demikian memungkinkan kapal selam dapat menyelam, melayang dan bermanouver di bawah air, seperti halnya gerak pesawat terbang yang terbang dan melayang dengan menggunakan sayap. Dilakukan penelitian dan pengamatan terhadap kemampuan penyelaman (diving plan dari foil NACA seri 2412 pada model kapal selam, dengan mencari nilai Cl (coefisien lift di Laboratorium, serta mendesain bentuk badan kapal selam dan analisa gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada model kapal selam, jumlah gaya-gaya yang bekerja keatas lebih rendah dari gaya-gaya ke bawah maka kapal selam mampu menyelam. Penerapan Hydroplane sebagai diving plane dapat diterapkan, kemampuan penyelaman dipengaruhi oleh sudut flip  Hydroplane dan kecepatan model, semakin besar kecepatan dan sudut flip maka semakin besar kedalaman penyelaman yang dapat dilakukan.

  1. Deformation Behaviors of HIPped Foil Compared with Those of Sheet Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Micromechanics-based modeling of composite material behaviors requires an accurate assessment of the constituent properties and behaviors. For the specific case of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) manufactured from a foil/fiber/foil process, much emphasis has been placed on characterizing foil-based matrix materials that have been fabricated in the same way as the composite. Such materials are believed to yield mechanical properties and behaviors that are representative of the matrix constituent within the composite (in situ matrix). Therefore, these materials are desired for micromechanics modeling input. Unfortunately, such foils are extremely expensive to fabricate and procure because of the labor-intensive rolling process needed to produce them. As a potential solution to this problem that would maintain appropriately representative in situ properties, the matrix constituent could be characterized with sheet-based materials, which are considerably less expensive to manufacture than foils, are more readily procured, and result in fewer plies to obtain a desired panel thickness. The critical question is, however, does the consolidated sheet material exhibit the same properties and behaviors as do the consolidated foils? Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center's Life Prediction Branch completed a detailed experimental investigation to answer this question for three titanium alloys commonly used in metal matrix composite form.

  2. Flapping Dynamics of an Inverted Flexible Foil in a Uniform Axial Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli Venkata, Pardha Saradhi; Jaiman, Rajeev K.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a numerical study on self-induced flapping dynamics of an inverted flexible foil in uniform flow. The inverted foil considered in this study is clamped at the trailing edge and the leading edge is allowed to oscillate. A high-order coupled FSI solver based on CFEI formulation has been used to present the flapping response results for a wide range of nondimensional bending rigidity using a fixed Reynolds number of 1000 and a mass-ratio of 0.1. As a function of bending rigidity four flapping regimes have been discovered: fixed point, inverted limit-cycle oscillation, deflected flapping, and flipped flapping. The inverted foil configuration undergoes flapping motion more readily and experiences very large amplitude oscillations than the conventional foil. A wide variety of vortex wakes with a maximum of 14 vortices per oscillation cycle have been observed. The inverted limit-cycle flapping generate novel 4P +6S (14 vortices) and 2P +6S (10 vortices) wakes. On the other hand, the flipped flapping regime is characterized by a von Kármán wake. We also observe that inverted foil can extract 1000 times more energy from the surrounding fluid compared to the conventional foil.

  3. Characteristics of flow over traveling wavy foils in a side-by-side arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gen-Jin; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2007-05-01

    Flow over traveling wavy foils in a side-by-side arrangement has been numerically investigated using the space-time finite element method to solve the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The midline of each foil undergoes lateral motion in the form of a streamwise traveling wave, which is similar to the backbone undulation of swimming fish. Based on the phase difference between the adjacent undulating foils, two typical cases, i.e., in-phase and anti-phase traveling wavy movements, are considered in the present study. The effects of lateral interference among the foils on the forces, power consumption, propeller efficiency, and flow structures are analyzed. It is revealed that the lateral interference is of benefit to saving the swimming power in the in-phase case and enhancing the forces in the anti-phase case. Some typical vortex structures, e.g., vortex-pair row, single vortex row, and in-phase and anti-phase synchronized vortex-street, are observed in the wake of the traveling wavy foils. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of hydrodynamics and flow structures for flow over the traveling wavy foils and swimming mechanisms relevant to fish schooling.

  4. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAlx alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or HEU foils. Uranium and uranium alloy foils are fabricated through twin-roll casting of a uranium melt without a hot-rolling process and heat-treatment process. An improvement in productivity and process economics due to process simplification and better quality from the absence of any residual stress on the foil are expected through this research project

  5. Spin-polarized radioactive isotope beam produced by tilted-foil technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Yoshikazu, E-mail: yoshikazu.hirayama@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mihara, Mototsugu [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Watanabe, Yutaka; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Miyatake, Hiroari [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Momota, Sadao [Kochi University of Technology, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takashi; Imai, Nobuaki [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuta, Kensaku [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ishiyama, Hironobu [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Tetsuro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Izumikawa, Takuji [Radioisotope Center, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8510 (Japan); Katayama, Ichiro; Kawakami, Hirokane [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kawamura, Hirokazu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Nishinaka, Ichiro; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Makii, Hiroyuki; Mitsuoka, Shin-ichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Detail study for tilted foil technique. • New equation for estimating nuclear polarization dependence on the beam energy. • Production of nuclear polarization for heaviest nucleus {sup 123}In in ground state. -- Abstract: The tilted-foil method for producing spin-polarized radioactive isotope beams has been studied using the re-accelerated radioactive {sup 8}Li and {sup 123}In beams produced at Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC) facility. We successfully produced polarization in a {sup 8}Li beam of 7.3(5)% using thin polystyrene foils (4.2 μg/cm{sup 2}). The systematic study of the nuclear polarization as a function of the number of foils and beam energy has been performed, confirming the features of the tilted-foil technique experimentally. After the study, a spin-polarized radioactive {sup 123}In beam, which is the heaviest ever polarized in its ground state by this method, has been successfully generated by the tilted-foil method, for the nuclear spectroscopy around the doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn.

  6. Development of a twin-flapping-foils unit to generate hydroelectric power from a water current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiru, H.; Yoshitake, A.; Nishi, M.

    2014-03-01

    Most of the conventional hydraulic turbines have been used for those sites having the static head larger than around 1 m. To extensively utilize not only large hydro-power but small one, which is one of renewable energy resources, development of an energy conversion system being operable under an extremely low head stream is crucial. A twin-flapping-foils unit which works based on the lift acting on the flapping foils in a stream is proposed. The foils oscillate in the transverse direction of the flow due to the lift. The pitching motion of the foils is caused by their own transverse movement through the mechanism consisting of crankshafts and con-rods. In the unit, each foil is supported vertically with a shaft in a manner of a cantilever so that no other parts need to be submerged in a water current. An experimental model with symmetric foils of 100 mm chord and 300 mm span was designed to generate average power output of 10 W at a flow velocity of 1 m/s. Through the tests carried out in the circulating water channel, the performance of the unit was verified to satisfy the design specifications. Further, the demonstration tests by using an irrigation stream performed for over a half year clarified the performance equivalent to that in the in-door water channel and the durability to a certain extent, and showed the applicability to the practical use of lighting a LED street lamp during night even at this scale model.

  7. Development of a twin-flapping-foils unit to generate hydroelectric power from a water current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the conventional hydraulic turbines have been used for those sites having the static head larger than around 1 m. To extensively utilize not only large hydro-power but small one, which is one of renewable energy resources, development of an energy conversion system being operable under an extremely low head stream is crucial. A twin-flapping-foils unit which works based on the lift acting on the flapping foils in a stream is proposed. The foils oscillate in the transverse direction of the flow due to the lift. The pitching motion of the foils is caused by their own transverse movement through the mechanism consisting of crankshafts and con-rods. In the unit, each foil is supported vertically with a shaft in a manner of a cantilever so that no other parts need to be submerged in a water current. An experimental model with symmetric foils of 100 mm chord and 300 mm span was designed to generate average power output of 10 W at a flow velocity of 1 m/s. Through the tests carried out in the circulating water channel, the performance of the unit was verified to satisfy the design specifications. Further, the demonstration tests by using an irrigation stream performed for over a half year clarified the performance equivalent to that in the in-door water channel and the durability to a certain extent, and showed the applicability to the practical use of lighting a LED street lamp during night even at this scale model

  8. Micro-forming of Al-Si foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is as below. The investigation of the ability of the cold micro-forming of non-metallic glass was purpose. The grain of the rapidly solidified aluminium alloy became fine. The aluminium alloy foil with fine grain was used, and the investigation of the micro-formability of this alloy was investigated. Moreover, increase of the forming speed was investigated. The increase of the forming speed was purpose of this study, too.Design/methodology/approach: The nozzle pressing melt spinning method was used to attain the rapid solidification of the non-metallic grass. The Al-14mass%Si, which is hyper eutectic but is close to eutectic, was used. The roll contact surface was formed by V-groove. The cold rolling was adopted for forming. The V-groove was machined at the roll surface. The micro-forming was operated at the cold work. Findings: Micro-forming of the crystal aluminium alloy was able by the cold work. The forming speed was 0.04S to form 10 μm height. The forming speed could be drastically increased. Research limitations/implications: The angle of the V-groove, which was used in the present study, was only 60 degrees. The effect of the groove angle on the protrusion-height was not clear. The used material was only the Al-14mass%Si. Relationship between the material and protrusion-height was not clear.Practical implications: The die for the micro-forming of the resin could be made from economy material by the conventional cold rolling process at short time. Therefore, the mass production of the economy die for resin may be obtained.Originality/value: The micro-forming of the rapidly solidified non-metallic glass by cold work was original.

  9. Mirror symmetric optics design for charge-stripping section in Rare Isotope Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Optics design of charge stripping section which is key component in high power heavy ion machine. • Charge selection section is designed based on mirror symmetry to reduce the high order aberration. • The optics design is confirmed by the tracking simulation of uranium ion beam using code TRACK. -- Abstract: The main aim of the Rare Isotope Science Project is to construct a high power heavy-ion accelerator based on the superconducting linear accelerator (SCL). The heavy ion accelerator is a key research facility that will allow ground-breaking research into numerous facets of basic science, such as nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic physics, life science, medicine and material science. The machine will provide a beam power of 400 kW with a 238U79+ beam of 8 pμA and 200 MeV/u. One of the critical components in the SCL is the charge stripper between the two segments, SCL1 and SCL2, of the SCL. The charge stripper removes electrons from the ion beams to enhance the acceleration efficiency in the subsequent SCL2. To improve the efficiency of acceleration and power in SCL2, the optimal energy of stripped ions in a solid carbon foil stripper was estimated using the code LISE++. The thickness of the solid carbon foil was 300 μg/m2. The charge stripping efficiency of the solid carbon stripper in the present study was approximately 87%. For charge selection from the ions produced by the solid carbon stripper, a dispersive section is needed down-stream of the foil. The designed optics for the dispersive section is based on the mirror-symmetric optics to minimize the effect of high-order aberrations

  10. Carbon stripping - a critical process step in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramp, M.; Thon, A.; Hartge, E.U.; Heinrich, S.; Werther, J. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Solids Process Engineering and Particle Technology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In chemical looping combustion of solid fuels the well-mixed solids flow from the fuel reactor consisting of char, ash, and oxygen carrier particles cannot be completely separated into its constituents before it enters the air reactor. The slip of carbon will thus lead to char oxidation in the wrong reactor. Process simulation was applied to investigate the carbon stripping process in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels. Depending on the fuel choice, without carbon stripping CO{sub 2} capture rates below 50 % are calculated for 4 min of solids residence time in the fuel reactor. In a process with carbon stripper, however, CO{sub 2} capture rates exceeding 90 % can be achieved for both fuels investigated in this work. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Prediction and characterization of heat-affected zone formation due to neighboring nickel-aluminum multilayer foil reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hirschfeld, Deidre A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hooper, Ryan J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manuel, Michelle V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Reactive multilayer foils have the potential to be used as local high intensity heat sources for a variety of applications. Much of the past research effort concerning these materials have focused on understanding the structure-property relationships of the foils that govern the energy released during a reaction. To enhance the ability of researchers to more rapidly develop technologies based on reactive multilayer foils, a deeper and more predictive understanding of the relationship between the heat released from the foil and microstructural evolution in the neighboring materials is needed. This work describes the development of a numerical model for the purpose of evaluating new foil-substrate combinations for screening and optimization. The model is experimentally validated using a commercially available Ni-Al multilayer foils and different alloys.

  12. Visible light photoinactivation of bacteria by tungsten oxide nanostructures formed on a tungsten foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthesis of tungsten oxide nano/micro-structures on W foils using KOH as a catalyst. • Strong antibacterial activity of tungsten oxide nanorods under visible light irradiation. • Decrease in photoinactivation of bacteria on tungsten oxide nano/micro-rods doped by potassium. - Abstract: Antibacterial activity of tungsten oxide nanorods/microrods were studied against Escherichia coli bacteria under visible light irradiation and in dark. A two-step annealing process at temperatures up to 390 °C and 400–800 °C was applied to synthesize the tungsten oxide nanorods/microrods on tungsten foils using KOH as a catalyst. Annealing the foils at 400 °C in the presence of catalyst resulted in formation of tungsten oxide nanorods (with diameters of 50–90 nm and crystalline phase of WO3) on surface of tungsten foils. By increasing the annealing temperature up to 800 °C, tungsten oxide microrods with K2W6O19 crystalline phase were formed on the foils. The WO3 nanorods showed a strong antibacterial property under visible light irradiation, corresponding to >92% bacterial inactivation within 24 h irradiation at room temperature, while the K2W6O19 microrods formed at 800 °C could inactivate only ∼45% of the bacteria at the same conditions

  13. Visible light photoinactivation of bacteria by tungsten oxide nanostructures formed on a tungsten foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasempour, Fariba [Plasma Physics Research Centre, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 147789-3855, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimirad, Rouhollah [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Abbas [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Kingswood, NSW 2751 (Australia); Akhavan, Omid, E-mail: oakhavan@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Synthesis of tungsten oxide nano/micro-structures on W foils using KOH as a catalyst. • Strong antibacterial activity of tungsten oxide nanorods under visible light irradiation. • Decrease in photoinactivation of bacteria on tungsten oxide nano/micro-rods doped by potassium. - Abstract: Antibacterial activity of tungsten oxide nanorods/microrods were studied against Escherichia coli bacteria under visible light irradiation and in dark. A two-step annealing process at temperatures up to 390 °C and 400–800 °C was applied to synthesize the tungsten oxide nanorods/microrods on tungsten foils using KOH as a catalyst. Annealing the foils at 400 °C in the presence of catalyst resulted in formation of tungsten oxide nanorods (with diameters of 50–90 nm and crystalline phase of WO{sub 3}) on surface of tungsten foils. By increasing the annealing temperature up to 800 °C, tungsten oxide microrods with K{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} crystalline phase were formed on the foils. The WO{sub 3} nanorods showed a strong antibacterial property under visible light irradiation, corresponding to >92% bacterial inactivation within 24 h irradiation at room temperature, while the K{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} microrods formed at 800 °C could inactivate only ∼45% of the bacteria at the same conditions.

  14. Structural stiffness and Coulomb damping in compliant foil journal bearings: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, C.-P. Roger; Heshmat, Hooshang

    1994-07-01

    Compliant foil bearings operate on either gas or liquid, which makes them very attractive for use in extreme environments such as in high-temperature aircraft turbine engines and cryogenic turbopumps. However, a lack of analytical models to predict the dynamic characteristics of foil bearings forces the bearing designer to rely on prototype testing, which is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper, the authors present a theoretical model to predict the structural stiffness and damping coefficients of the bump foil strip in a journal bearing or damper. Stiffness is calculated based on the perturbation of the journal center with respect to its static equilibrium position. The equivalent viscous damping coefficients are determined based on the area of a closed hysteresis loop of the journal center motion. The authors found, theoretically, that the energy dissipated from this loop was mostly contributed by the frictional motion between contact surfaces. In addition, the source and mechanism of the nonlinear behavior of the bump foil strips were examined. With the introduction of this enhanced model, the analytical tools are now available for the design of compliant foil bearings.

  15. Development of Thick-foil and Fine-pitch GEMs with a Laser Etching Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Tamagawa, T; Asami, F; Abe, K; Iwamoto, S; Nakamura, S; Hayato, A; Iwahashi, T; Konami, S; Hamagaki, H; Yamaguchi, Y L; Tawara, H; Makishima, K; 10.1016/j.nima.2009.07.014

    2009-01-01

    We have produced thick-foil and fine-pitch gas electron multipliers (GEMs) using a laser etching technique. To improve production yield we have employed a new material, Liquid Crystal Polymer, instead of polyimide as an insulator layer. The effective gain of the thick-foil GEM with a hole pitch of 140 um, a hole diameter of 70 um, and a thickness of 100 um reached a value of 10^4 at an applied voltage of 720 V. The measured effective gain of the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM (80 um pitch, 40 um diameter, and 100 um thick) was similar to that of the thick-foil GEM. The gain stability was measured for the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM, showing no significant increase or decrease as a function of elapsed time from applying the high voltage. The gain stability over 3 h of operation was about 0.5%. Gain mapping across the GEM showed a good uniformity with a standard deviation of about 4%. The distribution of hole diameters across the GEM was homogeneous with a standard deviation of about 3%. There was no clear cor...

  16. A New Analysis Tool Assessment for Rotordynamic Modeling of Gas Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; SanAndres, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Gas foil bearings offer several advantages over traditional bearing types that make them attractive for use in high-speed turbomachinery. They can operate at very high temperatures, require no lubrication supply (oil pumps, seals, etc.), exhibit very long life with no maintenance, and once operating airborne, have very low power loss. The use of gas foil bearings in high-speed turbomachinery has been accelerating in recent years, although the pace has been slow. One of the contributing factors to the slow growth has been a lack of analysis tools, benchmarked to measurements, to predict gas foil bearing behavior in rotating machinery. To address this shortcoming, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has supported the development of analytical tools to predict gas foil bearing performance. One of the codes has the capability to predict rotordynamic coefficients, power loss, film thickness, structural deformation, and more. The current paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of the code, named XLGFBTH (Texas A&M University). A test rig at GRC is used as a simulated case study to compare rotordynamic analysis using output from the code to actual rotor response as measured in the test rig. The test rig rotor is supported on two gas foil journal bearings manufactured at GRC, with all pertinent geometry disclosed. The resulting comparison shows that the rotordynamic coefficients calculated using XLGFBTH represent the dynamics of the system reasonably well, especially as they pertain to predicting critical speeds.

  17. Characterisation of mixed radiation field produced in medical linear accelerators using foil activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon spectrum produced in medical linear accelerators and used for tumour therapy was measured using foil activation techniques in this work. The machine employed is the linear medical accelerator SL-25, Philips, installed at the Walsgrave Hospital Radiotherapy Centre in Coventry, U.K. A number of foil sets, with different energy thresholds were irradiated at different points inside a 400 mm by 400 mm treatment field at a nominal dose rate of 400 MU (∼4 Gy/min), and photon energy of 25 MV at the machine's isocentre. The induced activity of each foil was measured using a NaI(Tl) detector and a PC-based multichannel analyzer. The spectrum of the photons was unfolded using the computer code LOUHI82. The relative changes in the spectrum across the treatment field, were also measured using foils placed at 2.5deg, 5deg, 10deg and 13deg on both sides of the central axis of the treatment field. In order to estimate the extra dose received by the patient due to the neutron component, the neutron flux distribution at different points across the treatment field was measured using gold foils. The results and implications are discussed. (author)

  18. Gas permeability of thin polyimide foils prepared by in-situ polymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entrance windows to the gas detector chambers as well as to the target containers used in high-energy and high-intensity accelerators must be as thin as possible to minimise energy losses of the particles used in astrophysics and nuclear physics studies. Because of their good physical properties, polyimide foils are often considered as suitable material for such windows, but commercially available foils, having a thickness greater than 7-8 μm (>1 mg/cm2), would cause energy losses of particles significant for some nuclear reactions studied. Foils prepared by in-situ polymerisation can, however, be as thin as 0.07 μm (∼10 μg/cm2). The permeability of 4 μm foils produced by in-situ polymerisation has been measured at room temperature for He and Ar. For He measurements were performed in the pressure range of 4-70 mbar and for Ar in the range of 20-140 mbar and the permeability was found to be in good agreement with the values published for the thicker commercial foils

  19. UV Ink-Jet printability and durability of stone and foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Muck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available he use of ultraviolet (UV printing technology has impacted printing industry in last years due to its applicability on many different »absorptive« as well as »non-absorptive« printing materials. The printability of building materials and recycled foils is relatively unknown. For primary building materials like stones, functionality can be explored with the use of UV printing technology; increased visual, informative effect or even “creative printing” of buildings. Also several aspects of recycled foils reusability as a printing material could be find (printed packaging material or also like secondary building materials. In the present study, printability of the stone and recycled foil and durability of UV prints was explored by means of macroscopically and microscopically characterization. Results indicate that higher print quality can be achieved on polished stone and on coated foil, which surfaces have higher smoothness. Durability of UV prints at freezing is higher at unpolished stone and coated foil that is at materials with the higher surface energy.

  20. Protection of aluminium foil AA8021 by molybdate-based conversion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quick method for surface treatment of aluminium foil with environment-friendly and effective molybdate-based coating was developed in this study. Aluminium foil samples were treated with molybdate-based solution. The microstructure and composition of the resulting molybdate-based conversion coatings were explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS). We found that the molybdate-based conversion coating was composed mainly of MoO3, (MoO3)x(P2O5)y and Al2(MoO4)3 compounds. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of the treated aluminium foil was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. Our results show that all of the aluminium foils with molybdate-based conversion coatings have much better corrosion resistance than bare aluminium foil. Notably, the sample treated at 40 °C exhibited the best corrosion resistance. The new method is very suitable for continuous processing.

  1. Protection of aluminium foil AA8021 by molybdate-based conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chang-Sheng; Lv, Zhong-Fei; Zhu, Ye-Ling [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xu, Shi-Ai, E-mail: saxu@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Hong [Daoming Optics and Chemical Co. Ltd (China)

    2014-01-01

    A quick method for surface treatment of aluminium foil with environment-friendly and effective molybdate-based coating was developed in this study. Aluminium foil samples were treated with molybdate-based solution. The microstructure and composition of the resulting molybdate-based conversion coatings were explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS). We found that the molybdate-based conversion coating was composed mainly of MoO{sub 3}, (MoO{sub 3}){sub x}(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub y} and Al{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} compounds. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of the treated aluminium foil was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. Our results show that all of the aluminium foils with molybdate-based conversion coatings have much better corrosion resistance than bare aluminium foil. Notably, the sample treated at 40 °C exhibited the best corrosion resistance. The new method is very suitable for continuous processing.

  2. The Chevron Foil Thrust Bearing: Improved Performance Through Passive Thermal Management and Effective Lubricant Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An improved foil thrust bearing is described that eliminates or reduces the need for forced cooling of the bearing foils while at the same time improves the load capacity of the bearing, enhances damping, provides overload tolerance, and eliminates the high speed load capacity drop-off that plagues the current state of the art. The performance improvement demonstrated by the chevron foil thrust bearing stems from a novel trailing edge shape that splays the hot lubricant in the thin film radially, thus preventing hot lubricant carry-over into the ensuing bearing sector. Additionally, the chevron shaped trailing edge induces vortical mixing of the hot lubricant with the gas that is naturally resident within the inter-pad region of a foil thrust bearing. The elimination of hot gas carry-over in combination with the enhanced mixing has enabled a completely passive thermally managed foil bearing design. Laboratory testing at NASA has confirmed the original analysis and reduced this concept to practice.

  3. Al current collector surface treatment and carbon nano tubes influences on Carbon / Carbon super-capacitors performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portet, C.; Taberna, P.L.; Simon, P. [Universite Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT-LCMIE, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2004-07-01

    Performances of 4 cm{sup 2} carbon/carbon super-capacitors cells using Al current collectors foils in organic electrolyte are presented; the improvement of electrode material has been investigated. In a first part, a surface treatment of the Al current collector is proposed in order to improve contact surface between the current collector and the active material leading to an internal resistance decrease. The process consists in an etching of the Al foil and is followed by a carbonaceous sol-gel deposit. Galvano-static cycling and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements of super-capacitors all assembled with treated Al foil were tested over 10,000 cycles: an ESR of 0.5 {omega} cm{sup 2} and a capacitance of 95 F g{sup -1} of activated carbon are obtained and performances remain stable during cycling. The second part is devoted to the study of Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) adding into the active material on the performances of super-capacitors. A content of 15% of CNTs appears to be the best composition; the ESR is 0.4 {omega} cm{sup 2} (20% lowered as compared to a cell using activated carbon based electrode) and the capacitance remain high 93 F g{sup -1} of carbonaceous active material. (authors)

  4. Measurement of thermal, epithermal and fast neutron flux in the IEA-R1 reactor by the foil activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical details of the foil activation method applied to neutrons flux measurements at the IEA-R1 reactor are presented. The thermal - and epithermal - neutron flux were determined form activation measurements of gold, cobalt and manganese foils; and for the fast neutron flux determination, aluminum, iron and nickel foils were used. The measurements of the activity induced in the metal foils were performed using a Ge-Li gamma spectrometry system. In each energy range of the reactor neutron spectrum, the agreement among the experimental flux values obtained using the three kind of materials, indicates the consistency of the theoretical approach and of the nuclear parameters selected. (Author)

  5. Spatial distribution of the neutron flux in the IEA-R1 reactor core obtained by means of foil activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional distribution of the neutron flux in IEA-R1 reactor, obtained by activating gold foils, is presented. The foils of diameter 8mm and thickness 0,013mm were mounted on lucite plates and located between the fuel element plates. Foil activities were measured using a 3x3 inches Nal(Tl) scintilation detector calibrated against a 4πβγ coincidence detector. Foil positions were chosen to minimize the errors of measurement; the overall estimated error on the measured flux is 5%. (Author)

  6. The anomalous currents in the front foils of the JET lost alpha diagnostic KA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the observed currents in the front foils of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2. In particular, we have sought to understand the currents during Ohmic plasmas for which the ion flux at the detectors was initially assumed to be negligible. We have considered two sources of this current: plasma ions (both deuterium and impurity) in the vicinity of the detector (including charge exchange neutrals) and photoemission from scattered UV radiation. Based upon modeling and empirical observation, the latter source appears most likely and, moreover, seems to be applicable to the currents in the front foil during ELMy H-mode plasmas. A very thin gold or nickel foil attached to the present detector aperture is proposed as a solution to this problem, and realistic calculations of expected fluxes of lost energetic neutral beam ions during TF ripple experiments are presented as justification of this proposed solution.

  7. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  8. Automated image analyzer for batch processing of CR-39 foils for fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated image analysis system has been developed for counting of tracks generated in CR-39 detectors after processing by Electro-chemical etching (ECE). The tracks are caused by exposure to fast neutron, and is used for measuring the neutron dose received by the radiation workers. The system is capable of batch processing a group of 20 foils in a single cycle, rendering the measurement process elegant and efficient. Thus, the system provides a marked improvement over the earlier one, which has provision of handling one foil at a time. The image analysis software of this system is empowered with the capability to resolve the overlapping tracks, which are commonly found in foils exposed to higher levels of neutron dose. The algorithm employed to resolve the tracks is an enhancement over that utilized in the earlier system. This results in improved accuracy of dosimetry. (author)

  9. Effect of trace Sn on corrosion behaviors of high voltage anode aluminum foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jing-bo; MAO Wei-min; YANG Hong; FENG Hui-ping

    2008-01-01

    The cube texture and the surface corrosion structure of aluminum anode foil for high voltage electrolytic capacitor containing trace Sn were investigated based on quantitative texture analysis and microstructure observation under SEM. High volume fraction of cube texture over 95% and obviously higher specific capacity are obtained in the foils with less than 0.002% Sn. It is indicated that the corrosion behavior of trace Sn on aluminum surface is similar with that of Pb. Higher content of Sn over 0.002% reduces the cube texture component and therefore the specific capacity. Sn, as an eco-friendly microelement, can be applied to replace Pb in improving the homogenous pitting behaviors of high voltage aluminum foils.

  10. VO₂/Si-Al gel nanocomposite thermochromic smart foils: largely enhanced luminous transmittance and solar modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Cao, X; Kamyshny, A; Law, J Y; Magdassi, S; Long, Y

    2014-08-01

    VO2 nanoparticles with a dimension of approximately 20 nm were obtained by simple mechanical bead-milling method, which were well dispersed in transparent silica-alumina (Si-Al) gel matrix to form nanocomposites. The VO2/Si-Al gel thermochromic nanocomposite foils were fabricated with various VO2 solid contents and foil thickness. With 10% VO2 loading and 3 μm foil thickness, high luminous transmittance (T(lum(20°C))=63.7% and T(lum(90°C))=54.4%), and large solar modulation ability (ΔTsol=12%) can be obtained which surpasses the best reported results (nanoporous films:T(lum(20°C))=43.3%, T(lum(90°C))=39.9% and ΔTsol=14.1%). This current approach provided a simple and scalable preparation method with the best combined thermochromic performance. PMID:24360313

  11. Effects of rolling technical factors on microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛大恒; 温勇明

    2003-01-01

    The effects of rolling driving methods and technical factors on the microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum foils based on the industrial trials were studied by TEM, tensile test and texture analysis. The results show that there exist obvious dynamic recovery and primary location re-crystallization phenomena in the aluminum foils during high-speed rolling. Meanwhile the phenomena become more obvious as the rolling speed or the reduction increases, especially in the asymmetrical rolling process with single-roller driving, the dynamic primary location recrystallization is more likely to come into being. The effects of the dynamic recovery phenomena and the dynamic primary location recrystallization on the comprehensive final product ratio and the quality of aluminum foils were discussed.

  12. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan;

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  13. Laser shaping of a relativistic circularly polarized pulse by laser foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser shaping of a relativistic circularly polarized laser pulse in ultra-intense laser thin-foil interaction is investigated by theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the plasma foil as a nonlinear optical shutter has an obvious cut-out effect on the laser temporal and spatial profiles. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the high intensity part of a Gaussian laser pulse can be well extracted from the whole pulse. The transmitted pulse with longitudinal steep rise front and transverse super-Gaussian profile is thus obtained which would be beneficial for the radiation pressure acceleration regime. The Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability is observed in the simulations, which destroys the foil and results in the cut-out effect of the pulse in the rise front of a circularly polarized laser

  14. Resonance effects of transition radiation emitted from thin foil stacks using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Takaaki; Yajima, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Transition Radiation(TR) X rays are expected to be a high brilliant X-ray source because the interference among TR X rays emitted from many thin foils placed periodically in vacuum can increase their intensity and make them quasi-monochromatic. In order to study the interference (resonance) effects of TR, we measured the energy spectra of TR for several sets of thin-foil stacks at various emission angles. It was found that the resonance effects of TR are classified into intrafoil and interfoil resonances and the intensity of TR X rays increases nonlinearly with increasing foil number, attributing to the interfoil resonance. It became evident that the brilliance of TR is as high as that of SR. (author)

  15. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface on copper foil based on ammonium bicarbonate and paraffin wax coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and low cost approach was developed to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface on copper foil. The oxidation and etching of the copper foil surface were promoted in NH4HCO3 solution using a water and ethanol admixture as a component solvent. After 28 h in this solution, a hydrophilic rough surface structure was obtained on the copper foil surface. With modification using a paraffin wax coating, the hydrophilic rough copper surface changed to become hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. The surface morphology and wettability were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements, respectively. When the optimum concentration of paraffin wax was about 2 g L−1, its water contact angle could reach about 152 ± 1.5° and its sliding angle was around 7°. The formation mechanism of the rough copper surface was also explored in detail. Both the experimental process and the material are environmentally friendly. (paper)

  16. Measurement of XUV-absorption spectra of ZnS radiatively heated foils

    CERN Document Server

    Kontogiannopoulmos, Nikolaos; Thais, Frédéric; Chenais-Popovics, Claude; Sauvan, Pascal; Schott, R; Fölsner, Wolfgang; Arnault, Philippe; Poirier, Michel; Blenski, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved absorption of zinc sulfide (ZnS) and aluminum in the XUV-range has been measured. Thin foils in conditions close to local thermodynamic equilibrium were heated by radiation from laser-irradiated gold spherical cavities. Analysis of the aluminum foil radiative hydrodynamic expansion, based on the detailed atomic calculations of its absorption spectra, showed that the cavity emitted flux that heated the absorption foils corresponds to a radiation temperature in the range 55 60 eV. Comparison of the ZnS absorption spectra with calculations based on a superconfiguration approach identified the presence of species Zn6+ - Zn8+ and S5+ - S6+. Based on the validation of the radiative source simulations, experimental spectra were then compared to calculations performed by post-processing the radiative hydrodynamic simulations of ZnS. Satisfying agreement is found when temperature gradients are accounted for.

  17. A Blowdown Cryogenic Cavitation Tunnel and CFD Treatment for Flow Visualization around a Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka ITO; Kazuya SAWASAKI; Naoki TANI; Takao NAGASAKI; Toshio NAGASHIMA

    2005-01-01

    Cavitation is one of the major problems in the development of rocket engines. There have been few experimental studies to visualize cryogenic foil cavitation. Therefore a new cryogenic cavitation tunnel of blowdown type was built. The foil shape is "plano-convex". This profile was chosen because of simplicity, but also of being similar to the one for a rocket inducer impeller. Working fluids were water at room temperature,hot water and liquid nitrogen. In case of Angle of Attack (AOA)=8°, periodical cavity departure was observed in the experiments of both water at 90℃ and nitrogen at -190℃ under the same velocity 10 m/sec and the same cavitation number 0.7. The frequencies were observed to be 110 and 90 Hz, respectively, and almost coincided with those of vortex shedding from the foil. Temperature depression due to the thermodynamic effect was confirmed in both experiment and simulation especially in the cryogenic cavitation.

  18. Local deposition of Copper on Aluminum based MWT Back Contact Foil using Cold Spray Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    MWT cell and module technology has been shown to result in modules with up to 5% higher power output than H-pattern modules and to be suitable for use with thin and fragile cells. In this study, the use of a low cost conductive back-sheet with aluminium as the current carrier in combination with locally applied copper (5 to 30 {mu}m) using the cold spray method is benchmarked against a standard PVF-PET-copper foil in 2 x 2 cell modules. Cell to module losses and reliability during climate chamber tests according to IEC61215 ed. 2, are comparable to module made with the standard foil. Optimizing the cold spray process can result in a cost reduction of more than a factor 10 of the current carrying component, when compared to a full copper conductive back-sheet foil.

  19. The Synthesis of Highly Aligned Cupric Oxide Nanowires by Heating Copper Foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of grain size and orientation of copper substrates for the growth of cupric oxide nanowires by thermal oxidation method. Long, less-roughness, high-density, and aligned cupric oxide nanowires have been synthesized by heating (200 oriented copper foils with small grain size in air gas. Long and aligned nanowires of diameter around 80 nm can only be formed within a short temperature range from 400 to 700°C. On the other hand, uniform, smooth-surface, and aligned nanowires were not formed in the case of larger crystallite size of copper foils with (111 and (200 orientation. Smaller grain size of copper foil with (200 orientation is favorable for the growth of highly aligned, smooth surface, and larger-diameter nanowires by thermal oxidation method.

  20. Production and dynamics of positrons in ultrahigh intensity laser-foil interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kostyukov, I Yu

    2016-01-01

    The electron-positron pair production accompanying interaction of a circularly polarized laser pulse with a foil is studied for laser intensities higher than $10^{24}$W cm$^{-2}$. The laser energy penetrates into the foil due to the effect of the relativistic hole-boring. It is demonstrated that the electron-positron plasma is produced as a result of quantum-electrodynamical cascading in the field of the incident and reflected laser light in front of the foil. The incident and reflected laser light makes up the circularly polarized standing wave in the reference frame of the hole-boring front and the pair density peaks near the nodes and antinodes of the wave. A model based on the particle dynamics with radiation reaction effect near the magnetic nodes is developed. The model predictions are verified by 3D PIC-MC simulations.

  1. Synthetic Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper Foils

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ting Fung; Shen, Tian; Cao, Helin; Jauregui, Luis A.; Wu, Wei; Yu, Qingkai; Newell, David; Chen, Yong P.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of graphene, a single layer of covalently bonded carbon atoms, has attracted intense interests. Initial studies using mechanically exfoliated graphene unveiled its remarkable electronic, mechanical and thermal properties. There has been a growing need and rapid development in large-area deposition of graphene film and its applications. Chemical vapour deposition on copper has emerged as one of the most promising methods in obtaining large-scale graphene films with quality compar...

  2. MUPLEX: a compact multi-layered polymer foil collector for micrometeoroids and orbital debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearsley, A T; Graham, G A; Burchell, M J; Taylor, E A; Drolshagen, G; Chater, R J; McPhail, D

    2004-10-04

    Detailed studies of preserved hypervelocity impact residues on spacecraft multi-layer insulation foils have yielded important information about the flux of small particles from different sources in low-Earth orbit. We have extended our earlier research on impacts occurring in LEO to design and testing of a compact capture device. MULPEX (MUlti-Layer Polymer EXperiment) is simple, cheap to build, lightweight, of no power demand, easy to deploy, and optimized for the efficient collection of impact residue for analysis on return to Earth. The capture medium is a stack of very thin (8 micron and 40 micron) polyimide foils, supported on poly-tetrafluoroethylene sheet frames, surrounded by a protective aluminum casing. The uppermost foil has a very thin metallic coating for thermal protection and resistance to atomic oxygen and ultra-violet exposure. The casing provides a simple detachable interface for deployment on the spacecraft, facing into the desired direction for particle collection. On return to the laboratory, the stacked foils are separated for examination in a variable pressure scanning electron microscope, without need for surface coating. Analysis of impact residue is performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers. Our laboratory experiments, utilizing buck-shot firings of analogues to micrometeoroids (35-38 micron olivine) and space debris (4 micron alumina and 1mm stainless steel) in a light gas gun, have shown that impact residue is abundant within the foil layers, and preserves a record of the impacting particle, whether of micrometer or millimeter dimensions. Penetrations of the top foil are easily recognized, and act as a proxy for dimensions of the penetrating particle. Impact may cause disruption and melting, but some residue retains sufficient crystallographic structure to show clear Raman lines, diagnostic of the original mineral.

  3. Development of the fabrication technology of wide uranium foils for Mo-99 irradiation target by cooling-roll casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An alternative fabrication method for polycrystalline uranium foils has been investigated using a cooling-roll casting method in KAERI since 2001, in order to produce a medical isotope 99Mo, the parent nuclide of 99mTc. The fabrication method of wide uranium foils produced by cooling-roll casting has been optimized to improve the quality of uranium foils and the economic efficiency of the foil fabrication with the modifications of the casting apparatus and the variations of the various process parameters. The injection control device of the uranium melt was applied to cooling-roll casting apparatus, in order to stabilize the fabrication process and to increase the yield of uranium foils through the prevention of the melt leakage. As the uranium has a low thermal conductivity, the collection apparatus was modified to fabricate the uranium foils without great defects soundly, leaded to improve the quality and the yield of the uranium foils. The dimension and the surface state of the uranium foils were also adjusted with the revolution speed of cooling roll, the ejection pressure of melt, the gap distance between nozzle slot and cooling roll, the superheat of the metal, and the atmosphere of melting and casting. Then, continuous polycrystalline uranium foils with a thickness range of 100 to 150? and a width of about 50 mm were fabricated with a better quality of uranium foils and a higher economic efficiency of the foil fabrication, through the modifications of the casting apparatus and the variations of the various process parameters. (author)

  4. Charge-state-distributions of foil-excited heavy Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of foil-excited fast (MeV/amu) heavy ions have demonstrated large yields of high Rydberg atoms formed in such beams. Further experiments have suggested a strong target-thickness dependence of the yields of such atoms. These results have been puzzling in view of the supposed short mean free paths of such atoms in solids. In an effort to better understand these results, the authors have measured the yields of Rydberg atoms (napprox.100-200) in foil-excited 32S ions at an incident energy of 125 MeV

  5. Comparison of ENDF/B-V and VI cross sections for dosimetry foil reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare calculations of pressure vessel surveillance dosimetry foil reaction rates computed using the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI cross-section libraries. Reaction rates for dosimetry foils irradiated in the cavity surrounding the pressure vessel of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) were determined using the MCNP4A code with ENDF/B-V and -VI cross sections. The computed reaction rates were compared to measured ones obtained during three fuel cycles of the Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1)

  6. Study on lift-up speed of aerodynamic compliant foil thrust bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The gas bearing is a newtype of bearing whichuses gas as thelubricant.Since they appearedin19thcentury,manyscholars researchedthembytheoreti-cal and experi mental methods.In order to i mprovethe capabilities of the gas bearing,manytypes of gasbearings of different structures were presented,forexample,tilting-pad gas bearing,spiral groove gasbearing,compliant foil gas bearing,andso on[1].Inthese types of gas bearings,the aerodynamic compli-ant foil bearings are more attractive and have beenwidely used in man...

  7. Distribution of Microelements and Their Influence on the Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin MAO; Heng JIANG; Ping YANG; Huiping FENG; Yongning YU

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of microelement Fe, Si, Cu and Mg in the surface layer of aluminum foil annealed at 300℃ and 500℃ were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometer. The corrosion structure produced by electrochemical etching was also observed. It was found that the Mg concentration at external surface was increased exponentially over the fourth degree and promoted by higher annealing temperature, which will increase the number of corrosion pits inside the large grains, and therefore the specific capacity of the foils for electrolytic capacitors. The similar effects of microelement Fe, Si and Cu were not so strong.

  8. Nuclear reactions in copper induced by protons from a petawatt laser-foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-intensity (>1019 W cm-2) laser-plasma interactions have been shown to produce large quantities of protons with energies up to several tens of MeV. A range of laser-driven proton-induced reactions in copper have been investigated and the observed reactions quantified. The energy spectrum of the accelerated protons was determined from the reactions in a single thin copper foil and found to be in agreement with that deduced from (p,n) reactions measured in a stack of copper foils. The potential applications of this diagnostic technique are discussed

  9. The physical basis of the release curve for RIB foil targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both diffusion and effusion in radioactive ion beam foil targets can be described mathematically by Fick's Law of diffusion. An approximate solution to the equation with the appropriate boundary conditions is presented for the RIST geometry target. This solution is expressed in terms of the physical and geometrical properties of the target and ioniser: the diffusion constant of the foil material, the conductance and the dimensions of the target and ioniser. The results of fitting the equation to measured data are shown. The equation can be used to optimize the design of targets for different radioactive ion beams

  10. Quality assurance of GEM foils in the framework of the TPC upgrade in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcelik, Melih Arslan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the TPC upgrade of the ALICE Experiment, new readout chambers will be installed during the LHC long shutdown 2, which is scheduled to start in July 2018. The current MWPCs (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers) will be replaced by readout chambers consisting of GEM (Gas Electron Multipliers) foils in order to meet the increasing readout rate requirements. QA (Quality Assurance) tests on the GEMs are performed to classify the foils. In this report we present the work done during the CERN Summer Student Programme 2016.

  11. Shock-Accelerated Flying Foil Diagnostic with a Chirped Pulse Spectral Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 李儒新; 曾志男; 王兴涛; 程传福; 徐至展

    2003-01-01

    A shock-accelerated flying foil is diagnosed with a chirped pulse spectral interferometry. The shock is pumped by a 1.2ps chirped laser pulse with a power of~1014 W/cm2 at 785nm irradiating on a 500nm aluminium film and detected by a probe pulse split from the pump based on a Michelson spectral interferometry. A flying foil of~5.595×10-6 g in~400 μm diameter was accelerated to~165 nm away from the initial target rear surface at~1.83 km/s before ablation.

  12. Influence of recrystallization annealing on the cube texture in high-purity aluminum foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.M.; Tang, J.G.; Du, Y.X.; Zhou, Z.P.; Chen, Z.Y.; Liu, C.M. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South Univ., HN (China)

    2001-07-01

    The cube texture in high-purity aluminum foils under different annealing conditions was investigated by means of orientation distribution function (ODF) and microscopy. It was shown that low recrystallization temperature was favorable to the nucleation of cube orientation and to the growth of the cube nuclei, and that stronger cube texture was obtained by multistage annealing than by single one. The strongest cube texture in high purity aluminum foils annealed in two-stage in the vacuum was obtained. It demonstrated that the recrystallization behavior was controlled by the existing state of Fe in aluminum. A model of multistage annealing was proposed for development of strong cube texture with temperature. (orig.)

  13. Windage Power Loss in Gas Foil Bearings and the Rotor-Stator Clearance of High Speed Generators Operating in High Pressure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) and Closed Supercritical Cycle (CSC) engines are prime candidates to convert heat from a reactor into electric power for robotic space exploration and habitation. These engine concepts incorporate a permanent magnet starter/generator mounted on the engine shaft along with the requisite turbomachinery. Successful completion of the long-duration missions currently anticipated for these engines will require designs that adequately address all losses within the machine. The preliminary thermal management concept for these engine types is to use the cycle working fluid to provide the required cooling. In addition to providing cooling, the working fluid will also serve as the bearing lubricant. Additional requirements, due to the unique application of these microturbines, are zero contamination of the working fluid and entirely maintenance-free operation for many years. Losses in the gas foil bearings and within the rotor-stator gap of the generator become increasingly important as both rotational speed and mean operating pressure are increased. This paper presents the results of an experimental study, which obtained direct torque measurements on gas foil bearings and generator rotor-stator gaps. Test conditions for these measurements included rotational speeds up to 42,000 revolutions per minute, pressures up to 45 atmospheres, and test gases of nitrogen, helium, and carbon dioxide. These conditions provided a maximum test Taylor number of nearly one million. The results show an exponential rise in power loss as mean operating density is increased for both the gas foil bearing and generator windage. These typical "secondary" losses can become larger than the total system output power if conventional design paradigms are followed. A nondimensional analysis is presented to extend the experimental results into the CSC range for the generator windage.

  14. Deposition techniques for the preparation of thin film nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review commences with a brief description of the basic principles that regulate vacuum evaporation and the physical processes involved in thin film formation, followed by a description of the experimental methods used. The principle methods of heating the evaporant are detailed and the means of measuring and controlling the film thickness are elucidated. Types of thin film nuclear targets are considered and various film release agents are listed. Thin film nuclear target behaviour under ion-bombardment is described and the dependence of nuclear experimental results upon target thickness and uniformity is outlined. Special problems associated with preparing suitable targets for lifetime measurements are discussed. The causes of stripper-foil thickening and breaking under heavy-ion bombardment are considered. A comparison is made between foils manufactured by a glow discharge process and those produced by vacuum sublimation. Consideration is given to the methods of carbon stripper-foil manufacture and to the characteristics of stripper-foil lifetimes are considered. Techniques are described that have been developed for the fabrication of special targets, both from natural and isotopically enriched material, and also of elements that are either chemically unstable, or thermally unstable under irradiation. The reduction of metal oxides by the use of hydrogen or by utilising a metallothermic technique, and the simultaneous evaporation of reduced rare earth elements is described. A comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  15. The Influence of Carburizing Parameters on Carbon Transfer Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadeusz Sobusiak

    2004-01-01

    Definition of coefficient of carbon transfer in European Standard (EN 10052) is presented as: "Mass of carbon transferred from carburizing medium into the steel, per unit surface area per second for a unit difference between the carbon potential, and actual surface carbon content".In this paper, a model is presented of carbon transfer from endothermic atmospheres to carbon steel. The carbon transfer coefficient values were determined experimentally by the foil technique and on specimens, taking into account the following parameters: chemical composition of atmospheres, carbon potential, temperature and time of the carburizing process. Some examples of the variation of the carbon transfer coefficient for two steps of the carburizing process,including soaking before quenching, are given, based on results obtained. The effect of carbon transfer coefficient on carbon content at the steel surface is given.

  16. Dynamic imaging and hydrodynamics study of high velocity, laser-accelerated thin foil targets using multiframe optical shadowgraphy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Tripathi; S Chaurasia; P Leshma; L J Dhareshwar

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the study of thin target foil–laser interaction experiments is to understand the physics of hydrodynamics of the foil acceleration, which is highly relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This paper discusses a simple, inexpensive multiframe optical shadow-graphy diagnostics developed for dynamic imaging of high velocity laser-accelerated target foils of different thicknesses. The diagnostic has a spatial and temporal resolution of 12 m and 500 ps respectively in the measurements. The target velocity is in the range of 106 - 107 cm/s. Hydrodynamic efficiency of such targets was measured by energy balance experiments together with the measurement of kinetic energy of the laser-driven targets. Effect of target foil thickness on the hydrodynamics of aluminum foils was studied for determining the optimum conditions for obtaining a directed kinetic energy transfer of the accelerated foil. The diagnostics has also been successfully used to study ablatively accelerated targets of other novel materials.

  17. Optimal foil material and thickness for the charge stripping of heavy ions of around 100 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to seek an optimal charge stripping material and its thickness for the charge stripping of heavy ions of around 100 MeV, the transmission of highly charged ions after passage through charge stripping foils has been measured using 95 MeV Cl ions. Tested foils are Be and C foils of various thicknesses. As a result, Be foils with several tens of μg/cm2 are most efficient for the obtainment of highly charged ions whose charge states are higher than the most probable charge state. On the other hand, for the use of ions with the most probable charge state, there is no noticeable difference between the use of C and Be foils provided that their thicknesses are a few tends of μg/cm2. (orig.)

  18. Lattice expansion of carbon-stabilized expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice parameter of expanded austenite was determined as a function of the content of interstitially dissolved carbon in homogeneous, carburized thin stainless steel foils. For the first time this expansion of the face-centered cubic lattice is determined on unstrained austenite. It is found...

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The pilot plant data have been reconciled using 17% inlet CO{sub 2}. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast transfer resistance, with kinetics at vacuum and diffusion of reactants and products at normal pressure. An additional major unknown ion, probably glyoxylate, has been observed in MEA degradation. Precipitation of gypsum may be a feasible approach to removing sulphate from amine solutions and providing for simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Corrosion of carbon steel in uninhibited MEA solution is increased by increased amine concentration, by addition of piperazine, and by greater CO{sub 2} loading.

  20. Gamma-ray generation in ultrahigh-intensity laser-foil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerush, E. N., E-mail: nerush@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Kostyukov, I. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ji, L. [Heinrich-Heine-Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf 40225 (Germany); Pukhov, A. [University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Heinrich-Heine-Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf 40225 (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Incoherent photon emission by ultrarelativistic electrons in the normal incidence of a laser pulse on a foil is investigated by means of three-dimensional numerical simulations in the range of intensities 2 × 10{sup 21}–2 × 10{sup 25} W cm{sup −2} and electron densities 2 × 10{sup 22}–1 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −3}. We focus on properties of the resulting synchrotron radiation, such as its overall energy, directivity of the radiation pattern, and slope of the energy spectrum. Regimes of laser-foil interactions are studied in the framework of a simple analytical model. The laser-plasma parameters for efficient gamma-ray generation are found and revealed to be close to the parameters for relativistic foil motion. It is shown that in the case of oblique incidence of a 3 PW, 10 fs laser pulse on a thin foil about 10{sup 8} photons/0.1% bandwidth are produced at the energy level of 1 MeV that significantly exceeds performance of the modern Compton gamma-ray sources. Various applications of the gamma-ray bunches are discussed.

  1. Gamma-ray generation in ultrahigh-intensity laser-foil interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incoherent photon emission by ultrarelativistic electrons in the normal incidence of a laser pulse on a foil is investigated by means of three-dimensional numerical simulations in the range of intensities 2 × 1021–2 × 1025 W cm−2 and electron densities 2 × 1022–1 × 1024 cm−3. We focus on properties of the resulting synchrotron radiation, such as its overall energy, directivity of the radiation pattern, and slope of the energy spectrum. Regimes of laser-foil interactions are studied in the framework of a simple analytical model. The laser-plasma parameters for efficient gamma-ray generation are found and revealed to be close to the parameters for relativistic foil motion. It is shown that in the case of oblique incidence of a 3 PW, 10 fs laser pulse on a thin foil about 108 photons/0.1% bandwidth are produced at the energy level of 1 MeV that significantly exceeds performance of the modern Compton gamma-ray sources. Various applications of the gamma-ray bunches are discussed

  2. EBSD analysis of plastic deformation of copper foils by flexible pad laser shock forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexible pad laser shock forming (FPLSF) is a new mold-free microforming process that induces high-strain-rate plastic deformation in thin metallic foils using laser-induced shock pressure and a hyperelastic flexible pad. This paper studies the plastic deformation behavior of copper foils formed through FPLSF by investigating surface hardness and microstructure. The microstructure of the foil surface before and after FPLSF is analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction technique using grain size distribution and grain boundary misorientation angle as analysis parameters. The surface hardness of the craters experienced a significant improvement after FPLSF; the top crater surface being harder than the bottom surface. The microstructure of the copper foil surface after FPLSF was found to be dominated by grain elongation, along with minor occurrences of subgrain formation, grain refinement, and high dislocation density regions. The results indicate that the prominent plastic deformation mechanism in FPLSF is strain hardening behavior rather than the typical adiabatic softening effect known to be occurring at high-strain-rates for processes such as electromagnetic forming, explosive forming, and laser shock forming. This significant difference in FPLSF is attributed to the concurrent reduction in plastic strain, strain rate, and the inertia effects, resulting from the FPLSF process configuration. Correspondingly, different deformation behaviors are experienced at top and bottom surfaces of the deformation craters, inducing the change in surface hardness and microstructure profiles. (orig.)

  3. Preparation of high-strength nanometer scale twinned coating and foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghang; Misra, Amit; Nastasi, Michael A.; Hoagland, Richard G.

    2006-07-18

    Very high strength single phase stainless steel coating has been prepared by magnetron sputtering onto a substrate. The coating has a unique microstructure of nanometer spaced twins that are parallel to each other and to the substrate surface. For cases where the coating and substrate do not bind strongly, the coating can be peeled off to provide foil.

  4. Study on the measurement technique of Fe foil's activated γ spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article it is comparatively systematically studied on the related measurement technique of Fe foil's activated γ spectrum and resolving-spectrum under specifical conditions, including high-threshold-energy detectors, self-absorption, self-shielding and perturbation and so on. The experimental results and the calculated results with MCNP code are analyzed and also discussed. (authors)

  5. EBSD analysis of plastic deformation of copper foils by flexible pad laser shock forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie; Wang, Zhongke; Zheng, H. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Flexible pad laser shock forming (FPLSF) is a new mold-free microforming process that induces high-strain-rate plastic deformation in thin metallic foils using laser-induced shock pressure and a hyperelastic flexible pad. This paper studies the plastic deformation behavior of copper foils formed through FPLSF by investigating surface hardness and microstructure. The microstructure of the foil surface before and after FPLSF is analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction technique using grain size distribution and grain boundary misorientation angle as analysis parameters. The surface hardness of the craters experienced a significant improvement after FPLSF; the top crater surface being harder than the bottom surface. The microstructure of the copper foil surface after FPLSF was found to be dominated by grain elongation, along with minor occurrences of subgrain formation, grain refinement, and high dislocation density regions. The results indicate that the prominent plastic deformation mechanism in FPLSF is strain hardening behavior rather than the typical adiabatic softening effect known to be occurring at high-strain-rates for processes such as electromagnetic forming, explosive forming, and laser shock forming. This significant difference in FPLSF is attributed to the concurrent reduction in plastic strain, strain rate, and the inertia effects, resulting from the FPLSF process configuration. Correspondingly, different deformation behaviors are experienced at top and bottom surfaces of the deformation craters, inducing the change in surface hardness and microstructure profiles.

  6. (001) Oriented piezoelectric films prepared by chemical solution deposition on Ni foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Hong Goo, E-mail: hxy162@psu.edu; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Flexible metal foil substrates are useful in some microelectromechanical systems applications including wearable piezoelectric sensors or energy harvesters based on Pb(Zr,Ti)O₃ (PZT) thin films. Full utilization of the potential of piezoelectrics on metal foils requires control of the film crystallographic texture. In this study, (001) oriented PZT thin films were grown by chemical solution deposition (CSD) on Ni foil and Si substrates. Ni foils were passivated using HfO₂ grown by atomic layer deposition in order to suppress substrate oxidation during subsequent thermal treatment. To obtain the desired orientation of PZT film, strongly (100) oriented LaNiO₃ films were integrated by CSD on the HfO₂ coated substrates. A high level of (001) LaNiO₃ and PZT film orientation were confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. Before poling, the low field dielectric permittivity and loss tangents of (001) oriented PZT films on Ni are near 780 and 0.04 at 1 kHz; the permittivity drops significantly on poling due to in-plane to out-of-plane domain switching. (001) oriented PZT film on Ni displayed a well-saturated hysteresis loop with a large remanent polarization ~36 μC/cm², while (100) oriented PZT on Si showed slanted P-E hysteresis loops with much lower remanent polarizations. The |e{sub 31,f}| piezoelectric coefficient was around 10.6 C/m² for hot-poled (001) oriented PZT film on Ni.

  7. Simple collectors for cathodoluminescence in the SEM made from aluminium foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, A; Reid, S A

    1983-11-01

    Inexpensive cathodoluminescence collectors for scanning electron microscopes can easily be made from aluminium foil fashioned as tubes which abut against the window of the photomultiplier at one end and shroud the specimen at the other. Their use in the study of fluorescent labelled mineralized tissues is illustrated. PMID:6644803

  8. Synthesization of the Ar VIII 3s-3p beam-foil decay curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam-foil decay curve for the 3s-3p transition in Ar VIII has been simulated from experimentally determined relative initial level populations and transition probabilities calculated in the numerical Coulomb approximation. Good agreement is observed between simulated and measured decay curves. A discussion of the simulation is given. (Auth.)

  9. Flow over a traveling wavy foil with a passively flapping flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nansheng; Peng, Yan; Liang, Youwen; Lu, Xiyun

    2012-05-01

    Flow over a traveling wavy foil with a passively flapping flat plate has been investigated using a multiblock lattice Boltzmann equation and the immersed boundary method. The foil undergoes prescribed undulations in the lateral direction and the rigid flat plate has passive motion determined by the fluid structure interaction. This simplified model is used to study the effect of the fish caudal fin and its flexibility on the locomotion of swimming animals. The flexibility of the caudal fin is modeled by a torsion spring acting about the pivot at the conjuncture of the wavy foil and the flat plate. The study reveals that the passively oscillating flat plate contributes half of the propulsive force. The flexibility, represented by the nondimensional natural frequency F, plays a very important role in the movement and propulsive force generation of the whole body. When the plate is too flexible, the drag force is observed. As the flat plate becomes more rigid, the propulsive force that is generated when the undulation is confined to last part of the wavy foil becomes larger. The steady movement occurs at F=5. These results are consistent with the observations of some swimming animals in nature.

  10. Spanwise visualization of the flow around a three-dimensional foil with leading edge protuberances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, M. J.; Techet, A. H.

    2006-11-01

    Studies of model humpback whale fins have shown that leading edge protuberances, or tubercles, can lead to delayed stall and increased lift at higher angles of attack, compared to foils with geometrically smooth leading edges. Such enhanced performance characteristics could prove highly useful in underwater vehicles such as gliders or long range AUVs (autonomous underwater vehicles). In this work, Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is performed on two static wings in a water tunnel over a range of angles of attack. These three- dimensional, finite-aspect ratio wings are modeled after a humpback whale flipper and are identical in shape, tapered from root to tip, except for the leading edge. In one of the foils the leading edge is smooth, whereas in the other, regularly spaced leading edge bumps are machined to simulate the whale’s fin tubercles. Results from these PIV tests reveal distinct cells where coherent flow structures are destroyed as a result of the leading edge perturbations. Tests are performed at Reynolds numbers Re ˜ O(10^5), based on chordlength, in a recirculating water tunnel. An inline six-axis load cell is mounted to measure the forces on the foil over a range of static pitch angles. It is hypothesized that this spanwise breakup of coherent vortical structures is responsible for the delayed angle of stall. These quantitative experiments complement exiting qualitative studies with two dimensional foils.

  11. Thinning procedures and strains in the zones near crack tips of thin foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红旗; 陈奇志; 褚武扬

    1999-01-01

    Thinning procedures were observed by TEM in 310 stainless steel and pure aluminum. Foils thinned through shearing of mode Ⅲ crack or through tearing of mode I crack. Using micro-beam electron diffraction, the strains in the areas right ahead of crack tips of pure aluminum and TiAI alloy were measured to be 0.05 or more.

  12. Effects study on the thermal stresses in a LEU metal foil annular target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fission gas pressure, uranium swelling and thermal contact conductance on the thermal–mechanical behavior of an annular target containing a low-enriched uranium foil (LEU) encapsulated in a nickel foil have been presented in this paper. The draw-plug assembly method is simulated to obtain the residual stresses, which are applied to the irradiation model as initial inputs, and the integrated assembly-irradiation process is simulated as an axisymmetric problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. Parametric studies were performed on the LEU heat generation rate and the results indicate satisfactory irradiation performance of the annular target. The temperature and stress margins have been provided along with a discussion of the results. - Highlights: • Analyzed the thermal stresses in a low-enriched uranium foil based annular target. • Included fission gas, uranium swelling, and thermal contact conductance effects. • Worst case scenarios for temperature and stresses were found to be different. • Sensitivity studies on the foil heat generation rates were performed. • Temperature and stress were found to be within acceptable limits

  13. Electronic behavior of micro-structured polymer foils immersed in electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of impurities in polymers makes them electroactive. When immersed in electrolytes, polymers can incorporate additional ions, thus changing their electronic properties. The aim of the present work is to characterize the electronic behavior of polymers with microstructures obtained from proton irradiation and etching. To that end, polyethylene terephthalate foils were irradiated with a 2.0 × 2.0 μm2 proton beam of 3 MeV. Subsequently, the foils were submitted to an etching procedure with NaOH, leading to microstructures of the order of 1000 μm2. Finally, the polymers were immersed in a solution of NaCl and submitted to an AC voltage from a function generator. The results show that the etching procedure after proton irradiation leads to buried structures in the polymers. Pristine and microstructured foils show an Ohmic behavior for frequencies below 1 kHz and a capacitive behavior above this frequency up to 1 MHz. This behavior is independent of the foil thickness and the area of the structures

  14. Ablation of polymer foils for backside opening of thin film layered flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For increasing the packing density of electronic devices and enabling 3D wiring, new concepts of interconnection for flexible circuit boards are required. The backside wiring is one innovative concept which, however, requires interconnections from the back to the front side by means of vias. Results on backside opening of polymer foils for exposing a thin metal film deposited at the front side are presented. For the experiments, a thin polyimide foil covered with a thin molybdenum metal film was used. By using mask projection of a pulsed UV-laser beam (248 nm, 20 ns) polymer foil was ablated. The laser ablation process must be adjusted in the manner to avoid damage of the thin metal film, to prevent cones formation at laser ablation, but still enabling the clean ablation of the polymer. The influence of process parameters on the backside opening is discussed and compared with theoretical estimations of the laser-induced temperatures. Using a two-step ablation process applying first high fluences to ablate the main part of the foil and finishing with low laser fluence turns out to be advantageous. This backside opening (BSO) can be used to perform an electrical contact from the backside.

  15. Conformable wearable systems comprising organic electronics on foil for well being and healthcare (presentation video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, Margreet M.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of electronics into materials and objects that have not been functionalized with electronics before, open up extensive possibilities to support mankind. By adding intelligence and/or operating power to materials in close skin contact like clothing, furniture or bandages the health of people can be monitored or even improved. Foil based electronics are interesting components to be integrated as they are thin, large area and cost effective available components Our developed technology of printed electronic structures to which components are reliably bonded, fulfills the promise. We have integrated these components into textiles and built wearable encapsulated products with foil based electronics. Foil components with organic and inorganic LEDs are interconnected and laminated onto electronic textiles by using conductive adhesives to bond the contact pads of the component to conductive yarns in the textile. Modelling and reliability testing under dynamic circumstances provided important insights in order to optimise the technology. The design of the interconnection and choice of conductive adhesive / underfill and lamination contributed to the durability of the system. Transition zones from laminated foil to textile are engineered to withstand dynamic use. As an example of a product, we have realized an electronic wristband that is encapsulated in rubber and has a number of sensor functionalities integrated on stretchable electronic circuits based on Cu and Ag. The encapsulation with silicone or polyurethanes was performed such, that charging and sensor/skin contacts are possible while simultaneously protecting the electronics from mechanical and environmental stresses.

  16. EBSD analysis of plastic deformation of copper foils by flexible pad laser shock forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie [Nanyang Technological University, SIMTech-NTU Joint Laboratory (Precision Machining), Singapore (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Zhongke; Zheng, H.Y. [Nanyang Technological University, SIMTech-NTU Joint Laboratory (Precision Machining), Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Machining Technology Group, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-11-15

    Flexible pad laser shock forming (FPLSF) is a new mold-free microforming process that induces high-strain-rate plastic deformation in thin metallic foils using laser-induced shock pressure and a hyperelastic flexible pad. This paper studies the plastic deformation behavior of copper foils formed through FPLSF by investigating surface hardness and microstructure. The microstructure of the foil surface before and after FPLSF is analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction technique using grain size distribution and grain boundary misorientation angle as analysis parameters. The surface hardness of the craters experienced a significant improvement after FPLSF; the top crater surface being harder than the bottom surface. The microstructure of the copper foil surface after FPLSF was found to be dominated by grain elongation, along with minor occurrences of subgrain formation, grain refinement, and high dislocation density regions. The results indicate that the prominent plastic deformation mechanism in FPLSF is strain hardening behavior rather than the typical adiabatic softening effect known to be occurring at high-strain-rates for processes such as electromagnetic forming, explosive forming, and laser shock forming. This significant difference in FPLSF is attributed to the concurrent reduction in plastic strain, strain rate, and the inertia effects, resulting from the FPLSF process configuration. Correspondingly, different deformation behaviors are experienced at top and bottom surfaces of the deformation craters, inducing the change in surface hardness and microstructure profiles. (orig.)

  17. Properties of high ν/γ diodes using thin foil anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of high ν/γ diodes using thin anode foils have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. It has been demonstrated that these diodes are very useful in accelerating the pinch formation, in production of intense ion beams from the pinch area and in enhanced energy deposition in the focal area of the electron beam

  18. Comparision of numerical simulation and flow field visualisation using heating foil

    OpenAIRE

    Matejka Milan; Hyhlik Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Paper deals with comparison of numerical and experimental solution of the flow field of hump. Synthetic jet actuators were used to influence flow field of the hump. Visualization using heating foil was done and compared with data from numerical simulation. The hump is located in closed measurement area of Eiffel type wind tunnel. Commercial code Fluent was used to perform numerical solution.

  19. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189.301 Section 189.301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD Substances Prohibited From Indirect Addition...

  20. Stopping powers for MeV Ge ions in Al foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Stopping powers for Ge ions (3.5MeV~8.0MeV) in Al foil were measured with RBS (Rutherford backscattering) technique and determined with a new method. Our results are much smaller than the values predicted by the TRIM code and LSS theory.