WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon steel pipe

  1. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986). The... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube products (welded pipe and tube)...

  2. 75 FR 16439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Steel Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). On March 2, 2009, the Department... Administrative Review: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November 7...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 73 FR 12080 (March 6, 2008). To calculate the...

  3. Effect of heat treatment on carbon steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat treatment to improve the altered properties of carbon steel pipe welds is described. Pipe critical components in oil, gasification and nuclear reactor plants require adequate room temperature toughness and high strength at both room and moderately elevated temperatures. Microstructure and microhardness across the welds were changed markedly by the welding process and heat treatment. The presentation of hardness fluctuation in the welds can produce premature failure. A number of heat treatments are suggested to improve the properties of the welds. (author) 8 figs., 5 refs

  4. Acceptance criteria for corroded carbon steel piping containing weld defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance criteria for corroded low temperature, low pressure carbon steel piping containing weld defects is presented along with a typical application of these criteria. They are intended to preclude gross rupture or rapidly propagating failure due to uniform wall thinning, local wall thinning, pitting corrosion and weld defects. The minimum allowable uniform wail thickness is based on the code-of-record allowable stress and fracture criteria. Weld defects are postulated as potential sites for fracture initiation. CEGB/R6 failure assessment diagram is used as the fracture criteria to determine the minimum allowable wall thickness. Design of a large portion of the low temperature, low pressure piping is dominated by axial stresses. Existing local wall thinning acceptance criteria address high pressure piping where hoop stress dominates the design. The existing criteria is over conservative, in some cases, when used on low pressure piping. Local wall thinning criteria is developed to limit the axial stress on the locally thinned section, based on a reduced average thickness. Limits on pit density are also developed to provide acceptance criteria for pitted piping

  5. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on May 11, 2010 (75 FR 26273). The hearing was... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings...

  6. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY... pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7301.19.10, 7304.19.50, 7304.31.60, 7304.39... China of seamless SLP pipe, and that such products are being sold in the United States at less than...

  7. 75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). On April 1...: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 16439 (April 1, 2010) (Preliminary...) was rescinded. See Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Rescission...

  8. 77 FR 19623 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). \\2\\ See Antidumping or Countervailing... Administrative Review, in Part, 76 FR 78886 (December 20, 2011). \\12\\ See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standare...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November 7, 2007) (Turkey...

  9. 78 FR 49255 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Request for Revocation in Part, 78 FR 38924 (June 28, 2013). On July 25, 2013, Petitioner withdrew its... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial... certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The period of review (POR) is May...

  10. 75 FR 22372 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... determines that certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's... imports of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless...

  11. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless... seamless pipe from the PRC. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  12. 76 FR 64900 - Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Final Results of Expedited...) initiated a sunset review of the countervailing duty order (CVD) on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from... CVD order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey was published in the Federal Register...

  13. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Antidumping Duty Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 17784, 17784... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube...

  14. 77 FR 64468 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR 27296, 27323 (May 19, 1997), and Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From... Countervailing Duty Determination: Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From Argentina, 66 FR 37007... Concrete Steel Wire Strand From India, 68 FR 68356 (December 8, 2003). We determine the...

  15. 78 FR 34335 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Cash Deposit Requirements The following cash... Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order, 49 FR 19369 (May 7, 1984). These cash deposit... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan:...

  16. 75 FR 36635 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... FR 9162 (March 1, 2010). On March 31, 2010, we received a timely request from Saha Thai Steel Pipe... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review The... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Rescission...

  17. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... FR 19711) and determined on July 6, 2012, that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 42763... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation...

  18. 75 FR 2487 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Court Decision Not in Harmony with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Court Decision... results of the administrative review of the antidumping order on circular welded carbon steel pipes...

  19. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ..., 75 FR 69626, 69627 (November 15, 2010). Thailand--Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (A-549-502) The.... See Scope Rulings, 58 FR 27542, (May 10, 1993). Turkey--Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (A-489-501... Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12, 1986); Antidumping Duty Order; Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  20. 76 FR 33204 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986... goods, boiler tubing, cold- drawn or cold-rolled mechanical tubing, pipe and tube hollows for redraws... Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey, 71 FR 26043 (May 3, 2006), unchanged in Notice of Final...

  1. 77 FR 32539 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Than Fair Value: Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Indonesia, Poland and Ukraine, 66 FR 18752, 18753... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates...: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Germany, 60 FR 39704 (August...\\ \\3\\ See Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line,...

  3. Ductile fracture behavior of 3-inch diameter carbon steel piping with a circumferential through-wall crack under bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to introduce Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept into the piping design criteria of the LWR pressure boundary pipings, it is necessary to investigate the pipe fracture behaviors, such as fracture condition and crack opening area, etc. At JAERI, pipe fracture tests of stainless steel and STS42 carbon steel pipes under bending load have been conducted as a part of the LBB research program. This report summarizes the four-point bending test results of 3-inch diameter STS42 carbon steel pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack. Tests were carried out at room temperature. In the tests, the fracture behavior of pipes was investigated to evolute the validity of Net-section collapse criterion, J-R curve and crack opening area. It is shown that the Net-section collapse criterion gives a conservative evaluation for the fracture load of 3-inch diameter carbon steel pipes. (author)

  4. 75 FR 13255 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74 FR... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe..., line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') with...

  5. 77 FR 21968 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... countervailing duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  6. 75 FR 29972 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Determination, 75 FR 22372 (April 28, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination''). On May 3, 2010, Tianjin Pipe (Group... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... antidumping duty investigation of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure...

  7. 75 FR 6183 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... investigation on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74 FR 52744 (October 14,...

  8. 75 FR 57449 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... determined that certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's..., in Part, and Postponement of Final Determination, 75 FR 22372 (April 28, 2010)...

  9. 75 FR 64696 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Bangkok, Thailand, from July 12, 2010 through July 23, 2010. See ``Verification'' section below. On August... Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 51 FR... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results...

  10. 76 FR 57020 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial... welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The review covers eight firms. Based on a withdrawal...

  11. 75 FR 3896 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Extension of Time... and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 30052 (June... initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel pipe...

  12. 76 FR 71938 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 23545, 23546 (April 27, 2011). This review covers two producers/exporters of the... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand for...

  13. 77 FR 32562 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... FR at 72164-5. On December 9, 2011, we received comments from a UAE producer named Universal Tube and...: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970 (June 5, 2008... Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12,...

  14. 77 FR 2511 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey... Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011)....

  15. 76 FR 3083 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey... Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010)....

  16. 76 FR 63902 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan, 76 FR 33210 (June 8, 2011) (Preliminary Results). This... Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order, 49 FR 19369 (May 7, 1984... section 773(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Preliminary Results, 76 FR at...

  17. 77 FR 6542 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey for... FR 11197 (March 1, 2011). On March 30, 2011, we received a letter from Erbosan Erciyas Boru Sanayi...

  18. 77 FR 55807 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 40565 (July 10, 2012). On August 15, 2012, the... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial... welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The review covers four respondents. Based on...

  19. 76 FR 78886 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To Rescind Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To... the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey. See... Administrative Review, 76 FR 11197 (March 1, 2011). On March 30, 2011, we received a letter from Erbosan...

  20. 75 FR 68327 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Based on various requests for review... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission... certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India. The period of review is May 1,...

  1. 75 FR 33262 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... and Tube From Turkey, 74 FR 6368 (February 9, 2009), unchanged in Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 22883 (May... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of...

  2. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec....

  3. Effect of Cr content, hardness and micro structure on flow-accelerated corrosion in carbon steel pipes. Examination of replaced carbon steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    68 replaced carbon steel piping in secondary system of pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been investigated by visual examination for checking thinning conditions. It is well known that the flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) was inhibited by traces of Cr in steel. Therefore, the chemical compositions of those steels have been measured. In addition, the micro structure and hardness of those steels have been investigated. And the relationship between those material variables and FAC rate was considered. As the results, (1) The Cr contents in those steels were below 0.1 wt% except one sample. Minute quantities of chromium increase the resistance against FAC. But the water velocity was thought to be the dominant factor rather than chemical composition in steel, at least such as below 0.1%Cr. (2) Hardness of all piping has been satisfied the specifications of each materials. The hardness of steels was not correlated with wall thinning rate. (3) The micro structure was also not correlated with FAC rate. (author)

  4. Localized Corrosion of Zn-Plated Carbon Steel Used as a Fire Sprinkler Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hee [SK Engineering and Construction Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, You Kee [Ui duk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Hwan [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Kyu; Lee, Sung Gun; Lee, Sang Hwa; Kim, In Soo [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The failure of a Zn-plated carbon steel pipe that served as a fire sprinkler was investigated in terms of the pope's corrosion products. The pipes leaked through holes formed beneath the tubercles. The formation of oxygen concentration cell involves colonization of metal surface by aerobic bacteria or other slime formers, and anodic reaction beneath tubercle is accelerated by the presence of SRB, leading to the formation of hole beneath tubercle.

  5. 78 FR 70069 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... in these reviews. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on June 3, 2013 (78 FR 33108) and determined on September 6, 2013 that it would conduct expedited reviews (78 FR 59371, September 26... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From China Determination On the basis of the record...

  6. 77 FR 19192 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 31970 (June 5, 2008) and.... Provision of Captive Mining Rights for Coal and Iron Ore; the Provision of High-Grade Ore for LTAR. Programs... Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 72173 (November 22,...

  7. 78 FR 21105 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ..., available in Antidumping Duty Order: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand, 51 FR 8341... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 26922, 26923 (May 13, 2010), unchanged in Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 56989 (September...

  8. 75 FR 33578 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... FR 20278 (May 1, 2009). On June 24, 2009, in response to a request from the Wheatland Tube Company... Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12... Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12, 1986). On May 1, 2009, the Department published in the...

  9. 75 FR 18788 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... functions, the freight functions, technical services/warranties functions, and inventory management... functions, the freight functions, technical services/warranties functions, and inventory management...: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand, 51 FR 8341 (March 11, 1986). On March 2,...

  10. 77 FR 43806 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268 (December 30, 2011). The review covers 32... Charging Development Co., Ltd.; Wuxi Resources Steel Making Co., Ltd.; Wuxi Seamless Special Pipe Co.,...

  11. 77 FR 46713 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Steel Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). \\5\\ See Preliminary Results, 77 FR... Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 19623 (April 2, 2012) (Preliminary Results... Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Notice of Rescission of Countervailing...

  12. Internal corrosion of carbon steel piping in hot aquifers service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simičić Miloš V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal corrosion of carbon steel pipelines is a major problem encountered in water service. In terms of prediction of the remaining lifetime for water pipelines based on the corrosion allowance, the three main approaches are corrosion modelling, corrosion inhibitor availability, and corrosion monitoring. In this study we used two theoretical corrosion models, CASSANDRA and NORSOK M-506 of quite different origin in order to predict uniform corrosivity of hot aquifers in eight different pipelines. Because of the varying calculation criteria for the different models, these can give very different corrosion rate predictions for the same data input. This is especially true under conditions where the formation of protective films may occur, such as at elevated temperatures. The evaluation of models was conducted by comparison using weight-loss coupons and three corrosion inhibitors were obtained from commercial suppliers. The tests were performed during the 60-day period. Even though inhibitors’ efficiencies of 98% had been achieved in laboratory testing, inhibitors’ availabilities of 85% have been used due to logistics problems and other issues. The results, given in mmpy, i.e. millimeter per year, are very consistent with NORSOK M-506 prediction. This is presumably because the model considers the effect of the formation of a passive iron carbonate film at temperatures above 80 °C and significant reduction in corrosion rate. Corrosion inhibitor A showed a better performance than inhibitors B and C in all cases but the target corrosion rates of less than 0.1 mmpy were achieved for all inhibitors. The chemical type of corrosion inhibitor A is based on quaternary amines mixed with methanol, isopropyl alcohol, xylene and ethylbenzene. Based on the obtained results the carbon steel lifetime of 30 years, provided proper inhibitors are present and 3mm corrosion allowance, can be achieved for hot aquifers service with presented water compositions.

  13. Fatigue testing of steel pipes repaired with carbon/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jeffrey M.; Kessler, Michael R. [University of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Walker, Roger H.; Duell, Joshua M. [Citadel Technologies (CTI Services LLC), Tulsa, OK (United States); Kadakia, Dixit; Sousa, Nuno [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Fatigue tests were performed on pressure vessels to determine the effectiveness of repairs made using a carbon/epoxy composite material system. The carbon/epoxy system is intended to repair externally damaged or corroded steel pipe where blunt defects are present. 6.0 inch (15.2 cm) nominal diameter by 5.0 feet (1.52 m) long pressure vessels were constructed from A-106 Grade B steel for test purposes. Defects were machined into the outer surface of each vessel to determine limitations of the carbon/epoxy repair system. Two test plans were used in this work. The vessels of the first test plan contained relatively sharp defects and were subjected to internal pressure fluctuations between 13 and 113% of MAOP. The vessels of the second test plan contained more blunt-like defects and were cyclically pressurized from 55 to 100% of the pipe MAOP. Results indicate there is substantial increase in the performance of pipes repaired with the carbon/epoxy composite compared to those with no repairs. At the conclusion of the cyclical pressurization, the pipes with the carbon/epoxy repair were pressurized monotonically until rupture occurred. From the second test plan, the monotonic rupture data after fatigue showed no degradation in failure pressures compared with rupture data of non-fatigued vessels. (author)

  14. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki [and others

    1997-04-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program.

  15. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China, 74 FR 57521 (November 6, 2009) and Certain Seamless Carbon... export restraints, the GOC is providing inputs to downstream producers of seamless pipe. \\8\\ See 75 FR at... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  16. Characterization of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer repair system for structurally deficient steel piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey M.

    This Dissertation investigates a carbon fiber reinforced polymer repair system for structurally deficient steel piping. Numerous techniques exist for the repair of high-pressure steel piping. One repair technology that is widely gaining acceptance is composite over-wraps. Thermal analytical evaluations of the epoxy matrix material produced glass transition temperature results, a cure kinetic model, and a workability chart. These results indicate a maximum glass transition temperature of 80°C (176°F) when cured in ambient conditions. Post-curing the epoxy, however, resulted in higher glass-transition temperatures. The accuracy of cure kinetic model presented is temperature dependent; its accuracy improves with increased cure temperatures. Cathodic disbondment evaluations of the composite over-wrap show the epoxy does not breakdown when subjected to a constant voltage of -1.5V and the epoxy does not allow corrosion to form under the wrap from permeation. Combustion analysis of the composite over-wrap system revealed the epoxy is flammable when in direct contact with fire. To prevent combustion, an intumescent coating was developed to be applied on the composite over-wrap. Results indicate that damaged pipes repaired with the carbon fiber composite over-wrap withstand substantially higher static pressures and exhibit better fatigue characteristics than pipes lacking repair. For loss up to 80 percent of the original pipe wall thickness, the composite over-wrap achieved failure pressures above the pipe's specified minimum yield stress during monotonic evaluations and reached the pipe's practical fatigue limit during cyclical pressure testing. Numerous repairs were made to circular, thru-wall defects and monotonic pressure tests revealed containment up to the pipe's specified minimum yield strength for small diameter defects. The energy release rate of the composite over-wrap/steel interface was obtained from these full-scale, leaking pipe evaluations and results

  17. 78 FR 33809 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...In response to a request from an interested party, United States Steel Corporation (``U.S. Steel''), the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review is November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. Based on......

  18. Fatigue crack initiation and crack growth studies for pipes made of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB), a fail-safe design philosophy, is based on fatigue/fracture mechanics concepts and requires rigorous integrity assessment of piping component with postulated part through thickness flaw. It is required to be demonstrated that the unstable tearing will never occur before the crack penetrates through thickness and gives easily detectable leakage. This requires investigation on fatigue crack initiation followed by fatigue crack growth (FCG) of piping components with different postulated part through flaws for the qualification of LBB design criterion. In view of it, six numbers of tests were carried out on 8-inches Sch.100 straight pipes having circumferential part through wall notch and made of SA333Gr6 carbon steel and subjected to pure alternating bending moment using four point bend setup. The material is similar to that used in primary heat transport (PHT) piping of Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)

  19. Detection of wall thinning of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation using Pulsed Eddy Current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test sample is a ferromagnetic carbon steel pipe having different thickness, covered with a 10 cm plastic insulation laminated by 0.4 mm Al plate to simulate the pipelines in NPPs. The PEC Probe used for the wall thinning detection consists of an excitation coil and a Hall sensor. The excitation coils in the probe is driven by a rectangular bipolar current pulse and the Hall-sensor will detects the resultant field. The Hall sensor output is considered as PEC signal. Results shows that the PEC system can detect wall thinning in an insulated pipeline of the NPPs. Local wall thinning in pipelines affects the structural integrity of industries like nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the present study a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology to detect the wall thing of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation is developed

  20. 75 FR 63439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 33578 (June 14, 2010). The review covers the... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel standard...

  1. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  2. Cyclic deformation characteristics of carbon steel pipe with local thin area. Effect of internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitness-For-Service (FFS) assessment is a quantitative engineering approach that is used to determine the equipment with a flaw or damage is fit to continue operation. It can be used to make run-repair-replace decisions to help determine if pressured equipment containing flaw can continue to operate safety for some desired future period. This paper provides a FFS assessment method on carbon steel pipe which contained a LTA (Local Thin Area) against seismic load and internal pressure load by FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. Abaqus Ver. 6.14, which provides the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model, is used to simulate the LTA contained carbon steel pipe against seismic load and internal pressure load. Material parameters in the hardening model are identified by a symmetric strain cycle experiment based on ASTM E606. Isotropic hardening component is introduced by specifying the equivalent stress defining the size of the yield surface, as a tabular function of the equivalent plastic strain. Kinematic hardening component is obtained from the stabilized cycle of a specimen that is subjected to symmetric stain cycles. The authors calculated up to 100 cycles on carbon steel pipe which contained a Local Thin Area against seismic load and internal pressure at room temperature. The results comparison between FEM analysis and experiment shows that delta-strain for one cycle and number of cycles to failure is predicted accurately. Safety margin of ratcheting assessment also was discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. A Novel Carbon Steel Pipe Protection Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A. Ajeel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The cost due to corrosion Damage have estimated to be 3-4% of their gross national product which significantly Countries problem around the world. Approach: In this study, a novel carbon steel pipe protection based on RBFNN was proposed. The RBFNN used to predict the minimum current density required in impressed current cathodic protection to protect low carbon steel pipe. Learning data was performed by using a 30 samples test with different concentration C%, temperature T, distance D and pH. The RBFNN model has four input nodes representing the (concentration C%, temperature T, distance D and pH, eight nodes at hidden layer and one output node representing the min. current density. Results: Generalization test used 5 data samples taken from the experimental results other than those data samples used in the learning process to check the performance of the neural network on these data. Conclusion: In addition, the experimental results indicate that proposed system can be used successfully to obtain minimum cathodic protection current density to protect low carbon steel pipes.

  4. 75 FR 64250 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Tube ] from Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR... Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986). Notification to Importers This... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of...

  5. 75 FR 60814 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... butt- 731-TA-309 52 FR 4167. weld pipe fittings/ Japan. 7/6/92 Carbon steel butt- 731-TA-520 57 FR...-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand (65 FR 753). Following second five... from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand (70 FR 70059). The Commission is now conducting...

  6. Detection of Signals of Mock-up Pipes of Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel using Guided Ultrasonic Waves due to Magnetostrictive Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A piping mock-up with a diameter of 6 inch and schedule number 80 of carbon steel and stainless steel were fabricated. The signals of weldments of these pipes were detected with a torsional vibration mode of frequency of 32 kHz using sensors, such as a pure Ni or a 49Fe-49Co-2V alloy strip. The signals from the 49Fe-49Co-2V alloy strip sensor were more detectable than those from the Ni strip sensor. The signals of 49Fe-49Co-2V alloy strip sensor of tile stainless steel piping mock-up were more detectable than those of 49Fe-49Co-2V alloy strip sensor of the carbon steel piping mock-up.

  7. 76 FR 56395 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Extension of... and tube from Turkey for the period May 1, 2009, through April 30, 2010. See Certain Welded Carbon..., 76 FR 33204 (June 8, 2011). The final results are currently due no later than October 6,...

  8. Residual stress distribution in carbon steel pipe welded joint measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate crack growth behavior of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in pipes, the residual stress distribution near the pipe weld region has to be measured through the wall thickness. Since the penetration depth of neutron is deep enough to pass through the thick pipe wall, the neutron diffraction technique for the residual stress measurement is effective for this purpose. At the first step the residual stress distribution near the weld region in a butt-welded carbon steel pipe was measured by the neutron diffraction. Significant stresses extended only to a distance of 30 mm from the center of the weld. The major tensile stresses occurred in the hoop direction in the fusion and heat affected zones of the weldment, and they attained a level greater than 200 MPa through the thickness. While the axial residual stress at the inside surface was 50 MPa, the stress at the outside surface was -100 MPa. The comparison of residual stress distributions measured by the neutron diffraction, the X-ray diffraction and the strain gauge method reveals that the neutron diffraction is the most effective for measuring the residual stress inside the structural components. (author)

  9. Mechanism of selective corrosion in electrical resistance seam welded carbon steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Fajardo, Pedro; Godinez Salcedo, Jesus; Gonzalez Velasquez, Jorge L. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F., (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas. Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    In this investigation the studies of the mechanism of selective corrosion in electrical resistance welded (ERW) carbon steel pipe was started. Metallographic characterizations and evaluations for inclusions were performed. The susceptibility of ERW pipe to selective corrosion in sea water (NACE 1D182, with O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}S) was studied by the stepped potential Potentiostatic electrochemical test method in samples of 1 cm{sup 3} (ASTM G5) internal surface of the pipe (metal base-weld). The tests were looking for means for predicting the susceptibility of ERW pipe to selective corrosion, prior to placing the pipeline in service. Manganese sulfide inclusions are observed deformed by the welding process and they are close to the weld centerline. A slight decarburization at the weld line is observed, and a distinct out bent fiber pattern remains despite the post-weld seam annealing. The microstructure of the weld region consists of primarily polygonal ferrite grains mixed with small islands of pearlite. It is possible to observe the differences of sizes of grain of the present phases in the different zones. Finally, scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the corrosion initiates with the dissolution of MnS inclusions and with small crack between the base metal and ZAC. (author)

  10. Verification of online monitoring method on FAC test for carbon steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, in the power piping, the wall-thinning problem by high temperature water and a two-phase flow (high temperature water and steam) attracts attention. Since the wall-thinning mechanism was not clarified, it is the purpose which understanding the mechanism of wall-thinning in plant, installed the piping corrosion test facility in which a long-term continuous test is possible, and started the wall-thinning examination of carbon steel piping. In addition, the ultrasonic sensor for high temperature, which can be measured in the state of the high temperature, was installed, and monitored wall thickness change during an examination period. For about two months, as a result of performing monitoring, the measured piping thickness was falling uniformly and checked that this monitoring system had caught the tendency of wall thinning. The difference of a monitoring result and the thickness measurement result after an examination was small. It identified that this monitoring system could accuracy monitoring also in high temperature. (author)

  11. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey (Preliminary Decision Memorandum) from Edward C. Yang, Senior Director... 5084: Allocation of Free Land and Purchase of Land for less than Adequate Remuneration (LTAR) F....

  12. 75 FR 16071 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ....) invoice price on all shipments of subject merchandise from the Huludao Companies entered or withdrawn from... 36.53 percent of the f.o.b. invoice price on all shipments of subject merchandise from companies... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe from the People's Republic...

  13. 76 FR 78612 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011) (Notice of Initiation...'' with a lowercase ``s'' instead of an uppercase ``s.'' See Notice of Initiation, 76 FR at 37783... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India:...

  14. 75 FR 28557 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 18788 (April 13, 2010) (Preliminary Results). This administrative... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of...

  15. 77 FR 61738 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand, 51 FR 8341 (January 27... FR 20782 (April 6, 2012). DATES: Effective Date: October 11, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Cash Deposit Requirements...

  16. 75 FR 1335 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 30052 (June 24, 2009). The current deadline for... Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). We intend to issue the... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of...

  17. 75 FR 62366 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Welded Carbon Steel ] Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan, 75 FR 32911 (June 10, 2010) (Preliminary Results...) of the Act. See Preliminary Results, 75 FR at 32913. Those results apply to these final results... accordance with section 773(a)(4) of the Act. See Preliminary Results, 75 FR 32913. Analysis of...

  18. 76 FR 3612 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759... Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 70723 (November 18... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of...

  19. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... determined on January 4, 2011 that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 5205). The Commission... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand... fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation...

  20. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 37711). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on October 17, 2012, and all persons who... countervailing duty determination with respect to circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from Vietnam (77 FR 64471, October 22, 2012), the Commission terminated investigation No. 701-TA-485 (77 FR 65712,...

  1. 77 FR 37711 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... detailed scope language, see 77 FR 19635, April 2, 2012. For further information concerning the conduct of... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...-fair-value imports from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded...

  2. Guided Wave Sensing In a Carbon Steel Pipe Using a Laser Vibrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Toledo, Abelardo; Salazar Soler, Jordi; Chávez Domínguez, Juan Antonio; García Hernández, Miguel Jesús; Turó Peroy, Antoni

    2010-05-01

    Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques have achieved a great development during the last decades as a valuable tool for material characterization, manufacturing control and structural integrity tests. Among these tools, the guided wave technology has been rapidly extended because it reduces inspection time and costs compared to the ordinary point by point testing in large structures, as well as because of the possibility of inspecting under insulation and coating conditions. This fast development has motivated the creation of several inspection and material characterization systems including different technologies which can be combined with this technique. Different measurements systems based on laser techniques have been presented in order to inspect pipes, plates and diverse structures. Many of them are experimental systems of high cost and complexity which combine the employment of a laser for generation of waves in the structure and an interferometer for detection. Some of them employ air-coupled ultrasound generation transducers, with high losses in air and which demand high energy for exciting waves in materials of high stiffness. The combined employment of a commercial vibrometer system for Lamb wave sensing in plates has been successfully shown in the literature. In this paper we present a measurement system based on the combined employment of a piezoelectric wedge transducer and a laser vibrometer to sense guided acoustic waves in carbon steel pipes. The measurement system here presented is mainly compounded of an angular wedge transducer, employed to generate the guided wave and a commercial laser vibrometer used in the detection process. The wedge transducer is excited by means of a signal function generator whose output signal has been amplified with a power signal amplifier. A high precision positioning system is employed to place the laser beam at different points through the pipe surface. The signal detected by the laser vibrometer system is

  3. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  4. Analysis of flow on grooving corrosion at the weld of a carbon steel pipe made by electrical resistance welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lots of researches were gone already about grooving corrosion mechanism of ERW carbon steel pipe. But there is seldom study for water hammer happened by fluid and acceleration of corrosion rate by increased flow velocity. Therefore, in this study carried out the analysis based on hydrodynamic and fracture mechanics. Analyzed stress that act on a pipe using ANSYS as a program, and also FLUENT and STAR-CD were used for flow phenomenon confirmation. As the result, fatigue failure is happened by water hammer and corrosion rate was increased because of turbulent flow

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of Defects in Carbon Steel Pipes Using Laser-Generated Guided Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is the development of non-destructive evaluation technique of defect sizing using laser-generated guided waves. For this aim, 6 mm-thick carbon steel pipes with ellipse-shaped defects of varying depth or width were used as specimens and a non-contacting hybrid system of laser/generation and air-coupled transducer/detection as the inspection system. In addition, linear slit array was employed to generate and receive the specific mode of guided waves selectively and to enhance the directivity of waves generated by laser. The specific modes from the response obtained by the above system were identified by time-frequency analysis and the amplitude of each node was measured. The obtained results shows that the ratio between the amplitudes of specific modes after the defects is proportional to the depth and the width of the defect and the trends of these characteristics can be utilized for evaluating defect sizing quantitatively.

  6. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backfish, Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  7. 75 FR 4529 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 74 FR.... The Department conducted a verification of Pacific Pipe in Bangkok, Thailand in October 2009 and... verification of Pacific Pipe's questionnaire responses at the company's offices in Bangkok, Thailand...

  8. Microstructure and Properties of Carbon Steel/Stainless Steel Composite Pipe%不锈钢复合钢管组织及其性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉和; 苟淑云; 邓刚

    2011-01-01

    Composite hollow pipe billet was successfully manufactured by centrifugally pouring 10 type steel on the outer layer firstly and then pouring lCrl8Ni9Ti stainless steel on the inner layer. The pipe billet with inner and outer surface treated, was prepared to the carbon steel /stainless steel composite pipe with 47 mm in diameter and 4. 5 mm in length by hot extrusion and cold rolling, and composite pipe manufactured with stainless steel by centrifugal casting was described. The microstructure, properties and bonding layer of the composite pipe were investigated. The results show that inner and outer layer exhibit desirable metallurgical bonding effects, and grain size is greatly refined. Grain size in the pipe after final rolling is transformed from 3. 0~3. 5 grade at as-cast state into 7. 0~8. 0 grade. Grain-boundary corrosion meets the requirements after bending, flattening and heat treatment.%采取外层先离心浇注10号钢,再浇注内层1Cr18Ni9Ti得到离心复合空心管坯,管坯内外表面加工后进行热挤压和冷轧,试制出了φ47 mm×4.5 mm的碳钢/不锈钢复合钢管,对不锈钢离心复合管坯生产复合钢管工艺路线进行研究,并对复合管金相组织、性能及结合层质量等方面进行分析.结果表明,复合管内外层冶金结合良好,晶粒明显细化,终轧后晶粒由铸态时3.0~3.5级变为7.0~8.0级,复合管压扁、弯曲及热处理后晶界腐蚀检验合格.

  9. Development of Wall Thinning Distinction Method using the Multi-inspecting UT Data of Carbon Steel Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyeong Mo; Yun, Hun; Lee, Chan Kyoo [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    To manage the wall thinning of carbon steel piping in nuclear power plants, the utility of Korea has performed thickness inspection for some quantity of pipe components during refueling outages and determined whether repair or replacement after evaluating UT (Ultrasonic Test) data. When the existing UT data evaluation methods, such as Band, Blanket, PTP (Point to Point) Methods, are applied to a certain pipe component, unnecessary re-inspecting situations may be generated even though the component does not thinned. In those cases, economical loss caused by repeated inspection and problems of maintaining the pipe integrity followed by decreasing of newly inspected components may be generated. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) in USA has suggested several statistical methods, TPM (Total Point Method), LSS (Least Square Slope) Method, etc. to distinguish whether multiple inspecting components have thinned or not. This paper presents the analysis results for multiple inspecting components over three times based on both NAM (Near Area of Minimum) Method developed by KEPCO-E and C and the other methods suggested by EPRI.

  10. Technology Based on Wall-Thinning Prediction and Numerical Analysis Techniques for Wall-Thinning Analysis of Small-Bore Carbon Steel Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In approximately fifty utilities, including KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power), CHECWORKS is used as a tool for predicting and managing the wall thinning of carbon steel piping; this wall thinning is caused by flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). It is known that CHECWORKS is only applicable to predict the wall thinning of piping with large bores. When dealing with small-bore steel piping, FAC engineers measure the thickness of the susceptible area that is selected on the basis of the experience and judgment of the engineer. This paper proposes the application of CHECWORKS for the management of wall thinning of small-bore piping. Four small-bore pipelines of a domestic nuclear power plant were analyzed from the viewpoints of FAC and fluid dynamics by using CHECWORKS and FLUENT code. Depending on the engineer's skill, CHECWORKS can also be used for the management of wall thinning of small-bore piping

  11. Effect of Induction Heat Bending Process on the Properties of ASME SA106 Gr. C Carbon Steel Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Oh, Young Jin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [R and D Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Recently, the bending process is greatly applied to fabricate the pipe line. Bending process can reduce welding joints and then decrease the number of inspection. Thus, the maintenance cost will be reduced. Induction heat bending process is composed of bending deformation by repeated local heat and cooling. By this thermal process, corrosion properties and microstructure can be affected. This work focused on the effect of induction heating bending process on the properties of ASME SA106 Gr. C low carbon steel pipes. Microstructure analysis, hardness measurements, and immersion corrosion test were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. Hardness was measured using a Rockwell B scale. Induction heat bending process has influenced upon the size and distribution of ferrite and pearlite phases which were transformed into finer structure than those of base metal. Even though the fine microstructure, every bent area showed a little lower hardness than that of base metal. It is considered that softening by the bending process may be arisen. Except of I2, intrados area, the others showed a similar corrosion rate to that of base metal. But even relatively high rate of intrados area was very low and acceptable. Therefore, it is judged that induction heat bending process didn't affect boric acid corrosion behaviour of carbon steel.

  12. EMAT Technology for a Wall Thickness Measurement of an Oxide Scaled Carbon Steel Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EMAT(Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) uses a combination of static and dynamic magnetic fields to convert electrical energy into acoustic energy. The static magnetic field is induced by permanent magnet and the dynamic magnetic field is produced by the electrical coil. There are two contributions from an EMAT transducer that generate an ultrasonic signal. The first contribution is the Lorentz Force which is the most commonly utilized contribution within the NDT industry. The second contribution from an EMAT transducer utilizes the magnetostrictive force, which is less well-known. The sample that will be examined within this paper involves the presence of a high temperature oxide scale that is commonly found on the external walls of boiler tubes. The high temperatures, in excess of 500 .deg. C or 1000 .deg. F, can cause the steam and flue gas constituents to react with steel to form a brittle iron oxide called magnetite on the inside and outside surfaces of a steel boiler tubing. The magnetostrictive EMAT can produce ultrasonic signals under a specific condition, such as, the presence of magnetic conductive materials. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a magnetostrictive EMAT for an effective inspection of material loss for a nuclear power piping system

  13. Development of on-line thickness monitoring system for carbon steel piping in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeder pipes of CANDU plant have been thinning due to the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) as the operation years increased. Accurate measurement of pipe thickness is needed to estimate the thinning rate and to evaluate the remaining life. But measuring the piping thickness manually with portable equipment during power operation is impossible because of high radiation and high temperature. So KEPRI designed on-line remote thickness monitoring equipment (FACOM-F) using personal computer and ultrasonic wave. We can detect signal in bent area of the piping. The equipment was installed at Wolsong-1 NPP and validated to be used at the actual plant operation condition.

  14. 77 FR 20782 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Pacific Pipe Preliminary Cost Memorandum. We revised Pacific Pipe's financial expense ratio calculation to... Saha Thai's G&A expense ratio to exclude profit from galvanizing services, duty refunds for hot-rolled... revised the denominator of the G&A expense ratio to include the cost of sales and services less...

  15. 78 FR 286 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 76939..., 77 FR 72818 (December 6, 2012) (Final Results). \\2\\ The Borusan Group includes the following entities...., Borusan Ithicat ve Dagitim A.S., and Tubeco Pipe and Steel Corporation. See Final Results, 77 FR at...

  16. 77 FR 19711 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Germany (60 FR 39704). Following the first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective... from Germany (66 FR 37004). Following the second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... pipe from Germany (72 FR 28026). The Commission is now conducting a third review to determine...

  17. Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from pressurized heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed investigation of a number of feeder pipes received from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Unit 2 (RAPS no. 2) after en-masse feeder pipe replacement after 15.67 Effective Full Power Years (EFPYs) was carried out. Investigations included ultrasonic thickness measurement by ultrasonic testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results showed that maximum thickness reduction of the feeder had occurred downstream and close to the weld in 32 NB (1.25″/32.75 mm ID) elbows. Rate of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) was measured to be higher in the lower diameter feeder pipes due to high flow velocity and turbulence. Weld regions had thinned to a lower extent than the parent material due to higher chromium content in the weld. A weld protrusion has been shown to add to the thinning due to FAC and lead to faster thinning rate at localized regions. Surface morphology of inner surface of feeder had shown different size scallop pattern over the weld and parent material. Inter-granular cracks were also observed along the weld fusion line and in the parent material in 32 NB outlet feeder elbow.

  18. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is qualified for use under this part if: (1) It was manufactured in accordance with a listed specification; (2... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  19. Microstructural investigation on operated carbon steel feeder pipes of Indian reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-masse feeder replacement was done at RAPS-2 after detecting a pinhole leak in one of the outlet feeder elbow during inspection at reactor site. Some of the feeders, removed after a service of 15.67 EFPY were received for detailed investigation. Ultrasonic thickness measurement of the feeders was carried out to ascertain the loss in wall thickness due to Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Detailed microscopic investigations have been carried out on a few representative samples. The sample location was chosen such that it included the weld region, parent metal and the overlayed material deposited on the pipe to compensate for thickness reduction. Noticeable variation in microstructure over weld pool, HAZ, and parent metal were observed. Maximum FAC is occurring in the heat- affected zone of the weld in 32 NB elbows which shows the decisive role played by microstructure. Weld metal is affected to a lower extent than the parent metal due to FAC. Scanning electron microscopy of FAC affected areas reveal that degradation is affected by mechanical, thermal and chemical factors acting simultaneously. Dissolution of protecting magnetite layer during reactor operation was studied by SEM, XRD, stereo and optical microscopy. Different regions were observed in the overlayed feeder pipe sample with parent metal and deposited metal appearing as distinct layers. A lack of fusion cavity with oxide layer embedded inside was also observed after polishing and etching. Variation in grain morphology was noted inner to outer surface of the pipe. Detailed mapping of microstructure shows magnetite scallops of variable thickness in HAZ and weld pool region. This paper presents some of the microstructural observations and findings on FAC to explain the mechanism of degradation of feeders. (author)

  20. Flow accelerated corrosion of carbon steel feeder pipes from Indian reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-masse feeder replacement was done at RAPS-2 after occurrence of a pinhole leak in B12 (S) outlet feeder elbow. Some of the feeders, removed after a service of 15.67 EFPY were received for detailed investigation. Ultrasonic thickness measurement of the feeders was carried out to ascertain the loss in wall thickness due to Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and marking the region of interest from outside. Surface morphology of inner surface of a number of feeder samples were carried out by SEM near the HAZ and adjoining area. Maximum FAC had occurred in the heat-affected zone of the weld in 32 NB elbows. Weld was affected to a lower extent than the parent metal due to higher chromium content. IGSCC cracks were also observed in parent metal portion of the middle elbow in 32 NB outlet feeder pipe due to bending residual stresses. There are two life limiting reasons to curtail the useful life in the reactors namely FAC and IGSCC. The problem of FAC can be reduced by increasing chromium content and reducing the flow velocity by opting for higher diameter feeder pipes. The welding defects and residual stresses in HAZ and surrounding areas are detrimental for FAC and IGSCC in the elbow region. This paper presents some of the microstructural observations and findings on FAC to explain the mechanism of degradation of feeders. (author)

  1. Plasma coating used to evaluate resistance against flow accelerated corrosion on carbon steel feeder pipe material for pressurized heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaborative study on plasma nitriding was initiated by Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, with FCIPT, a division of Institute of Plasma Research. In order to control the influence of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) on feeder pipe of PHWR reactor, coating by plasma nitriding process was carried out inside the pipe as a remedy.This is one of the methods to control the wall thickness reduction of carbon steel feeder pipe and the influence of FAC in PHWR (Pressurized heavy water reactor). Specimen of 15 mm NB Sch 80 straight pipe length of 100 mm pipe module section of low carbon steel ASTM 106 Gr. B were plasma nitrided at FCIPT, IPR for optimization of the process parameters. The wall thickness of the sample was measured axially and circumferentially by Ultrasonic thickness gauge with specific marking with templates before carrying out plasma nitriding process. During plasma nitriding the temperature was maintained at 520 °C for 24 hours. The samples after coating were checked for thickness variation by Raman spectroscopy as well as microscopy, and it was found that the coating was uniform and coating consisted of iron nitrides only. For functional test, to check the corrosion resistance, a specimen holder was designed and fabricated for the treated specimen such that it can withstand a velocity of 7 m/s. The holder was mounted in SIM loop outlet of heater. The SIM loop was maintained at 120 °C and 7 m/s for about 30 days with less than 20 ppb dissolved oxygen condition. Preliminary experiments on plasma nitriding have been carried out and checked in SIM loop in order to check the resistance to FAC under neutral pH condition. (author)

  2. Energy Industry:Hunger for Steel Pipe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berry Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ After the ups and downs of Chinese steel pipe market in 2008, industry structure changes are taking place quietly. Some enterprises with high-end oil and natural gas pipes and high-pressure boiler tubes have not been much offected in this storm, and won good market demand, while others with low-end products have been eliminated.

  3. Application of in-service temperature lowering to reduce radioactivity corrosion product deposition on carbon steel piping of BWR residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of plant data and experiments on deposition of ion species on carbon steel were carried out in order to develop suitable countermeasures to reduce RHR (residual heat removal) piping dose rate. It was thought that radioactivity deposits on the RHR piping were mainly from radioactive ion species in the coolant and they were enhanced by the dehydration reaction of corrosion products on the piping. From an evaluation for temperature dependence of the dehydration reaction, it was proposed to lower the start-up temperature of RHR operation as a way to reduce radioactivity deposition. Feasibility studies of improved RHR operation were conducted and test operations were carried out in the Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit 1. Application of the improved RHR operation resulted in a temperature reduction from 150degC to 110degC, and a radioactivity deposition reduction on the RHR piping to one-fifth of that in conventional RHR operation. The improved RHR operation has now been applied to more than fifteen Japanese BWRs and significant suppression effects of radioactivity deposition have been observed. (author)

  4. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the...

  5. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  6. Ultimate Bending Capacity of Strain Hardening Steel Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈严飞; 张娟; 张宏; 李昕; 周晶; 曹静

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hencky’s total strain theory of plasticity, ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes can be determined analytically assuming an elastic-linear strain hardening material, the simplified analytical solution is proposed as well. Good agreement is observed when ultimate bending capacities obtained from analytical solutions are compared with experimental results from full-size tests of steel pipes. Parametric study conducted as part of this paper indicates that the strain hardening effect has significant influence on the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. It is shown that pipe considering strain hardening yields higher bending capacity than that of pipe assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material. Thus, the ignorance of strain hardening effect, as commonly assumed in current codes, may underestimate the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. The solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in the design of offshore/onshore steel pipes, supports of offshore platforms and other tubular structural steel members.

  7. MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PRIMARY COOLANT PIPE STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M; Bentley, J.

    1986-01-01

    Atom probe field-ion microscopy, analytical electron microscopy, and optical microscopy have been used to investigate the changes that occur in the microstructure of cast CF 8 primary coolant pipe stainless steel long term thermal aging. The cast duplex microstructure consisted of austenite with 15% δ-ferrite. Investigation of the aged material revealed that the ferrite spinodally decomposed into a fine scaled network of α and α'. A fine G-phase precipitate was also observed in the ferrite. T...

  8. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 30 percent, or more, of SMYS. (b)...

  9. Investigations on strength of piping for non-condensable gas combustion. Part 3. Estimation of fracture strain of steel pipes subjected to hydrogen-oxygen detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the integrity of piping under the detonation pressure of accumulated hydrogen-oxygen, the fracture strain of the pipe material must be identified. In carbon steel pipe specimens that had been experimentally ruptured by hydrogen-oxygen detonation, the strain rate of the measured hoop strains was around 2000 s-1. To obtain fracture strains at such a high strain rate, tensile tests were conducted at strain rates of up to 5000 s-1 using specimens cut from carbon steel pipes, low alloy steel pipes, and weld metals. For all the different strain rates and materials, elongation was over 24% and dimple patterns were found in the fracture surfaces. From this, it is apparent that the fracture mode of piping material subjected to a high-speed tensile load is ductile fracture. We had previously measured the strain history of the carbon steel pipe specimens ruptured by hydrogen-oxygen detonation, but we had not measured a strain higher than about 14% because of the limitations of strain gauge measurement. FEM analyses of the ruptured pipe specimens were conducted to estimate the fracture strain at pipe rupture. We estimated that the strain at the pipe rupture was 20 - 22%. The results of the material tensile tests and the estimated fracture strains of the pipe specimens revealed that steel pipes have sufficient ductility even if they are subjected to detonation pressure. Because pipe rupture is accompanied by large strains, we propose a method for assessing the integrity of a pipe subjected to detonation pressure by comparing the strain on a pipe estimated by FEM and the limiting strain of the pipe material. We propose a limiting strain of 8%, which is reduced to one-third of the minimum elongation in material tensile tests in order to ensure a sufficient safety margin. (author)

  10. 75 FR 9163 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... not controlled by the government, e.g., that the private, minority shareholder(s) controls of the... Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 74 FR 52945... From China, 74 FR 57521 (November 6, 2009). On November 9, 2009, we issued a questionnaire to...

  11. 75 FR 23672 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Pipes and Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12, 1986). On June 24, 2009, the Department published a..., 74 FR 30052 (June 24, 2009). The period of review is May 1, 2008, through April 30, 2009. On December... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68586 (December 28, 2009). In accordance ]...

  12. 77 FR 32508 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... pressure conveyance of water, steam, natural gas, air, and other liquids and gases in plumbing and heating systems, air conditioner units, automatic sprinkler systems, and other related uses. Standard pipe may... Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011)...

  13. Burst limit state reliability for fiber-wrapped steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Markus R. [University of Calgary (Canada); Maes, Marc A. [Blade Energy Partners Ltd. (Canada); Salama, Mamdouh M. [ConocoPhillips Company (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In the oil and gas sector, due to the increase in demand, pipeline projects are being developed in remote areas with harsh environments. High strength steel pipelines have been developed but due to their high cost and to low production capacity, the focus is now on dry fiber augmented steel technology pipelines (FAST-Pipe). The aim of this paper is to present a probabilistic mechanical burst limit state for such fiber wrapped pipelines. This model has been developed based on a large strain Cauchy stress formulation and has been used to perform a reliability comparison between an X80 pipe and an X70 FAST-Pipe. Results showed that the FAST-Pipe has more uncertainties than the high strength steel pipe and thus lower factors should be used in their design. This paper provided a probabilistic limit state model which can be used for both steel pipes and FAST-Pipe.

  14. Mechanical characteristics of fused cast basalt tube encased in steel pipe for protecting steel surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jee-Seok WANG; Jong-Do KIM; Hee-Jong YOON

    2009-01-01

    Because of the various excellent characteristics of cast basalt materials, such as, anti-corrosion, anti-wearing, good hardness, high chemical stability, of which steel may not possess, the steel-basalt composite pipes are used in severe environments for compensating the defects of steel. The limit of bending moment with which steel-basalt composite pipe may safely endure was calculated and the limit curvature of the composite pipe in the safe range was presented. The application temperature of steel-basalt pipe was examined due to a different coefficient among basalt, mortar and mild steel.

  15. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609... Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). In a letter dated November 22... Zhongyou TIPO''), Sichuan YNJ Industries Co., Ltd. (``Sichuan YNJ''), SteelFORCE Far East Ltd....

  16. Austenitic steel piping testing exercises in PISC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper capability and reliability studies of NDT procedures for the inspection of wrought and cast stainless steel piping used in nuclear power plants will be presented. The capability study was designed to identify procedures that have the potential to detect and size defects and to discriminate between flawed and unflawed material. The reliability study was undertaken to quantify on real and realistic flaws in-service inspection performance (detection and false call capability) under realistic field conditions. Furthermore parametric studes were performed to complement the capability and reliability studies by evaluating the effect of important material and flaw variables.The specimens used in these studies were cast-to-cast, cast-to-wrought, and wrought-to-wrought pipework welds. The evaluation methods used to quantify the inspection performance were selected to be as comparable as possible to the PISC II methods. These were adapted to allow also the evaluation of the effect of false calls. During the PISC II screening exercise for the cast-to-cast stainless steel round robin test and other piping round robin studies, it was indeed found that false call probabilities were large and could not be ignored in the evaluation of the inspection performance. The matrix of samples has also been designed to allow the implementation of specific statistical analysis procedures for the evaluation of results such as for example the relative operative characteristics analysis. (orig.)

  17. Amorphous diffusion bonding of steel pipe and its impact toughness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuegang; YAN Fengjie; YAN Qian; LI Xingeng

    2007-01-01

    An iron-based amorphous foil (FeNiCrSiB) was used as an interlayer for the amorphous diffusion bonding of low carbon steel pipes under argon flux. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint were analyzed using an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), tensile test, bending test and impact test. The results show that the joint micro-structure resembles that of the base metal and no precipitates form at the joint. Melting point depressants 03, Si) diffuse far away from the joint and the base metal element is homoge-nous across the joint. The joint impact toughness is greater than the base metal toughness and the mechanical properties of the joint are similar around the pipe.

  18. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  19. EXTRUSION DIE CAE OF THE STEEL REINFORCED PLASTIC PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Q. Ma; H.Y. Sun; D.C. Kang; K.D. Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The steel reinforced plastic pipe is a new kind of pressure pipe. It is made up with steel wires and plastic. Because reinforced skeleton of the steel wire increase the complexity of plastic flow during the extrusion phase, the traditional design criteria of extrusion die is not suitable. The study on extrusion die of the kind of pipe is very important step in produce development. Using finite element (FE) method in this paper, the flow rule of molten plastic inside the die has been predicted and a group of optimal structural parameters was obtained. These results are helpful for reducing the design cycle and improve the quality of the final product.

  20. 49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.109 Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not...

  1. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Finite element thermal analysis of the fusion welding of a P92 steel pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghi, A. H.; Tanner, D. W. J.; Hyde, T.H.; A. A. Becker; Sun, W.

    2012-01-01

    Fusion welding is common in steel pipeline construction in fossil-fuel power generation plants. Steel pipes in service carry steam at high temperature and pressure, undergoing creep during years of service; their integrity is critical for the safe operation of a plant. The high-grade martensitic P92 steel is suitable for plant pipes for its enhanced creep strength. P92 steel pipes are usually joined together with a similar weld metal. Martensitic pipes are sometimes joined to austenitic steel...

  3. Thermoplastic liners for carbon steel pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, Mauyed S.; AlDossary, Abdullah K. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Materials selection for pipe and fittings used to convey corrosive fluids has often been a challenge. Traditionally, exotic Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) have been used in corrosive environments despite their high cost. Plastic lined carbon steel piping offers a cost effective alternative to the use of CRAs by eliminating corrosion, significantly reducing the use of toxic chemicals and the heavy metal usually present in CRAs. Thermoplastic Liners offer the combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical strength, which are unachievable with singular materials. Under pressure conditions, the liner is fully supported by the metalwork, while under vacuum conditions, the liner must be thick enough along with venting system to withstand the collapsing forces created by the negative pressure. Plastic liners have been used successfully to line and protect metallic pipelines for many years and have become an indispensable requirement of the oil and gas industry particularly with water injection and hydrocarbon services. In the case of internally corroded pipes, the use of thermoplastic liners for rehabilitation is an option to extend the lifetime of companies' assets, reduce maintenance cost and increase intervals between T and Is. For new construction, plastic liners in carbon steel pipes can compete technically and economically with pipelines of CRA materials and other corrosion inhibition systems. This paper describes various design features, installations of thermoplastic liners in comparison to other corrosion inhibition methods. (author)

  4. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, R.M.; Wichman, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials.

  5. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials

  6. Analyses of magnetic field in spiral steel pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Xinjing; Chen, Shili; Guo, Shixu; Jin, Shijiu

    2015-02-01

    In order to confirm the feasibility of identifying the girth welds using the magnetic field in spiral pipelines, the distributions of the magnetic field in spiral steel pipes with different sizes and different magnetizations were analyzed using the equivalent magnetic charge method, and were verified experimentally. The magnetic field inside spiral steel pipes is generally uniform with very small magnetic sudden changes at the spiral welds, whereas the magnetic field near the pipe ends has very big local changes. The size of spiral pipes, including its wall thickness, length, diameter, and the lift-off, has various influences on the local magnetic sudden changes at the spiral welds (LMASW) and the magnetic incremental near the pipe ends (MINPE), whereas the difference between LMASW and MINPE is always quite considerable. The bigger the radial magnetization component is, the bigger the difference between LMASW and MINPE is. When the radial magnetization component is small, changes of the circumferential and axial magnetization components can reduce this difference. Since the magnetizations of each pipe are seldom identical, the magnetic field inside each pipe is usually quite different. Thus there will be a big local magnetic sudden change at the girth weld inside the spiral pipeline, and this sudden change is much stronger than LMASW. Therefore, we can still consider identifying the girth welds using the magnetic field in spiral pipelines to improve the positioning accuracy of the in-pipe detector.

  7. Development of cryogenic thermal control heat pipes. [of stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The development of thermal control heat pipes that are applicable to the low temperature to cryogenic range was investigated. A previous effort demonstrated that stainless steel axially grooved tubing which met performance requirements could be fabricated. Three heat pipe designs utilizing stainless steel axially grooved tubing were fabricated and tested. One is a liquid trap diode heat pipe which conforms to the configuration and performance requirements of the Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP). The HEPP is scheduled for flight aboard the Long Duration Flight Exposure Facility (LDEF). Another is a thermal switch heat pipe which is designed to permit energy transfer at the cooler of the two identical legs. The third thermal component is a hybrid variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP). The design incorporates both a conventional VCHP system and a liquid trap diode. The design, fabrication and thermal testing of these heat pipes is described. The demonstrated heat pipe behavior including start-up, forward mode transport, recovery after evaporator dry-out, diode performance and variable conductance control are discussed.

  8. The thermal and mechanical behaviour of structural steel piping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, E.M.M.; F. J. M. Q. de Melo; Oliveira, C.A.M de

    2005-01-01

    The temperature, the deformation and the stress field in thermo-mechanical problems play a very important role in engineering applications. This paper presents a finite element algorithm developed to perform the thermal and mechanical analysis of structural steel piping systems subjected to elevated temperatures. The new pipe element with 22 degrees of freedom has a displacement field that results from the superposition of a beam displacement, with the displacement field associated w...

  9. Denting of coated and uncoated offshore steel pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Nicolay Line; Røshol, Eivind Torgunrud

    2015-01-01

    In the present thesis, numerical and experimental investigations of coated offshore pipelines were conducted. The objective was to investigate how the polypropylene coating affected the global response of the pipes. The present work was a continuation of previous theses done on X65 steel pipes without coating, and part of an ongoing research program between SIMLab (NTNU) and Statoil. The experimental work consisted of material testing and component tests. A tensile test of the X6...

  10. Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively

  11. 49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. 192.107 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.107 Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. (a) For pipe that is manufactured in accordance with a specification listed...

  12. Bending of X65 Offshore Steel Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Lofthaug, Kristoffer; Digerud, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing research program between SIMLab and Statoil about impact loads on X65 offshore pipelines and it is a continuation of previous work.Offshore pipelines are frequently impacted by accidental loads, e.g. trawl gear or anchors. Such loads may cause severe damage to the pipe and a complex stress-strain history locally in the impacted area.Fracture have previously been found in pipes dynamically impacted. Quasi-static bending of similar pipes with the same boundary ...

  13. Low carbon manganese-nickel-niobium steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental heats of a low carbon-manganese-0.5% nickel-0.15% niobium steel have been rolled to plates between 13.5 and 50 mm thickness and to a 16 mm hot strip. Various combinations of soaking temperatures form 11000C to 13000C and of finish rolling temperatures between 7100C and 9300C have been investigated. From mechanical properties obtained, one can conclude that the investigated steel composition provides very good properties e.g. for pipe steels X65 to X75. In particular, the toughness at low temperature is outstanding despite relaxed rolling conditions. Metalographic and special investigations such as electron microscopy, texture evaluation and chemical extraction, correlated with applied rolling schedules and the mechanical properties obtained resulted in a comprehensive understanding about the benefits of high niobium metallurgy combined with nickel addition. All practically applied welding processes generated mechanical properties, in particular toughness of the weldment, that meet arctic specifications.(Author)

  14. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  15. Fracture behavior evaluations for ferritic steel piping with circumferential double flaws on the inner surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for assessing the structural integrity of nuclear components having some flaws are provided in the Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants of the JSME code (JSME FFS code). Although the JSME FFS code provides such methods for piping with a single flaw, it does not describe any method for fracture assessment of piping with multiple flaws including flaw coalescence criteria. Some investigations on the fracture behavior of mainly austenitic stainless steel piping with multiple flaws, whose fracture mode is plastic collapse, have recently been reported and fracture assessment methods have been proposed. In the present study, fracture tests and analyses of carbon steel piping with a single and two circumferential flaw(s) on the inner surface were conducted to investigate a method for fracture assessment of ferritic steel piping with multiple flaws. It was found that fracture assessment based on the twice elastic slope method and the plastic collapse mechanism gave inadequate results for a large single flaw. Including this case, two kinds of elastic–plastic fracture assessment method, one using the Z-factor in the JSME FFS code and the other by ductile instability analysis, gave conservative estimates of fracture strength even when the structural factor SF was not considered (i.e. SF = 1)

  16. Visual alignment technology for seamless steel pipe linearity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Xue, Ting; Zhu, Jigui; Ye, Shenghua

    2006-06-01

    Linearity measurement is the key problem in seamless steel pipe industry. For the modern industry of seamless steel pipe production, the traditional method cannot meet the needs of on-line and real-time measurement performance. Recently, visual inspection has developed rapidly and has the advantages of high speed, high precision, non-contact, automation and high manoeuvrability. So a novel approach to on-line and real-time linearity measurement of seamless steel pipe based on visual alignment technology is presented in this paper. Firstly the theory of visual alignment measuring is introduced. And then an on-line and real-time linearity measuring system, which consists of multistructured light sensor for seamless steel pipe factory of Tianjin, is invented with the technology of visual alignment. And key technologies for a visual alignment, such as the optimum design of high precision light-structured sensor, coordinates integration of multisensor, the mathematical model of visual measurement, and algorithm for ellipse center computations with high precision are studied in detail. Measurement results show that the measuring system is reasonable and can measure not only the linearity but also the coaxiality of large-scale parts.

  17. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of stainless steel tubing and piping in the service water system at North Anna Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since original plant construction in the 1970's, the carbon steel piping of the service water system (SWS) of Virginia Power's North Anna Nuclear Power Station has experienced general corrosion and pitting due to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Corrosion of the carbon steel piping was combatted by the implementation of chemical treatment of the SWS and by repair/replacement of portions of the piping utilizing type 316L stainless steel (SS) on 10 in. and smaller piping and 100% solids epoxy coating on the rest of the piping. Only recently, in early 1994, MIC was discovered on the 18 gage 304 S welded tubes in the Component Cooling Heat Exchangers (CCHXs). Earlier, MIC was discovered on 316L SS pipe base metal adjacent to several socket weld locations on small diameter piping. This paper will concentrate on the Virginia Power action plan to combat further degradation due to MIC and to maintain operable SS piping and equipment with SS tubing which is exposed to service water

  18. Loading rate effects on strength and fracture toughness of pipe steels used in Task 1 of the IPIRG program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Material characterization tests were conducted on laboratory specimens machined from pipes to determine the effect of dynamic loading (i.e., rates comparable to those for high amplitude seismic events) on tensile properties and fracture resistance at 288 C (550 F). Specimens were fabricated from seven different pipes, including carbon steels and stainless steels (both base metal and weld metal), which were to be subjected to full-scale pipe tests in IPIRG Task 1.0. For the stainless steels tested at 288 C (550 F), tensile strength was unchanged, while yield strength and fracture resistance were increased. The increase in fracture resistance was modest for the wrought base metals and substantial for the weld metal and the cast base metal. The carbon steels tested were sensitive to dynamic strain aging, and hence the strength and toughness was affected by both temperature and strain rate effects. The carbon steel base metal and welds exhibited ultimate tensile strength values at 288 C (550 F) that were greater than at room temperature. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength at 288 C (550 F) was lowered significantly by increased strain rate and, in the carbon steel base metals, increased strain rate also lowered the fracture resistance, substantially in the base metal of one pipe. In comparing these results to the IPIRG pipe test results to date, it was found that the trends of these tests agree well with the Subtask 1.2 quasi-static and dynamic pipe fracture experiments. Loads measured in the Subtask 1.1 pipe experiments were, however, somewhat higher than would have been expected by the trends observed in the laboratory tests

  19. The current situation and prospect of oil steel pipe in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; He-lin; JI; Ling-kang; XIE; Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    The oil steel pipe in the petroleum industry is very important for its high price, large consumption volume and great effect on thedevelopment of petroleum industry. The oil steel pipe mainly includes oil well pipe (drill pipe, drill collar, casing and tubing etc. ) and oil-gas transportation pipe. This paper is an attempt to make a comprehensive review on the current situation and prospect of the oil steel pipe in China, presenting the past , today and future of the China oil pipe.The first section is a historical review of the China oil pipe. The developing course and progress of the oil steel pipe products are presented. The second section is about the current situation of the China oil pipe. The general situation of the China's steel pipe corporation and their products types,capability, etc. is introduced. The third section is about the prospect of the China oil pipe. This part mainly describes the new product research and development in China steel pipe corporations,which are facing more and more strict technical requirements of the petroleum industry in oil pipe,and reveals the prosperity of China's steel pipe corporations.

  20. Pressure and bending tests on fibreglass augmented steel technology pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qishi; Ozkan, Istemi F. [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, Alberta, (Canada); Salama, Mamdouh M. [ConocoPhillips Company, Houston, Texas, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The economic manufacture of large diameter high pressure pipelines is a challenge. The FAST-PipeTM concept is fabricated from a steel liner hoop-wound with non-impregnated fibreglass stands. This report presents the qualification results of the FAST-PipeTM concept. The qualification testing program studied the effects of external environment (frozen/thawed cycle), load duration and the wrap thickness on the burst and bending capacity of the FAST-PipeTM concept. Burst and pressure-bend tests were performed under different conditions and for different thickness of fibreglass. The values obtained were compared to those from unwrapped pipes. It also established FAST-PipeTM behaviour in several loading scenarios using the FEA model. The burst tests results showed that freezing temperatures do not have an impact on the pressure capacity of FAST-PipeTM. The results of the tests showed the effectiveness of dry fibreglass wrap in increasing the internal pressure capacity of the pipe.

  1. Collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Steel pipes under external pressure plus bending may reach their load carrying capacity due to two failure modes: (i)global buckling: in this case the pipe structure buckles in a 'column mode'; (ii) localized collapse: in this case the pipe structure collapses with its sections loosing their round shape. In many engineering applications such as the design of pressure vessels or the design of marine pipe lines it is very important to be able to determine the collapse pressure of steel pipes subjected to external pressure and bending; besides it is very important to also be able to quantify the effect of imperfections such as ovality, eccentricity or residual stresses on the collapse pressure. The determination of the post-collapse equilibrium paths is also very important in order to be able to assess on the stability of the post-collapse regime; that is to say in order to assess if a collapse will be localized in a section or will propagate along the tubular structure. It is also important in this case to analyze the effect of the imperfections on the post-collapse regime. In a previous publication we presented finite element models that we developed for studying the influence of the above described imperfections on the collapse behavior of steel pipes under external pressure; in that publication we also presented the experimental qualification of the numerical models. Our purpose in the present paper is to extend the study to the post-collapse regime and to the loading case of external pressure plus bending. We present the finite element models developed using shell elements, we discuss the validation of those models and then we use the validated models to perform parametric studies in order to investigate the significance of the different imperfections in load cases that combine external pressure with different degrees of bending. Refs. 3 (author)

  2. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design factor (F) for steel pipe. 192.111 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.111 Design factor (F) for steel pipe. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section,...

  3. Research & Development of Grade X70 LSAW Steel Pipes for West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiaoxiang; SunQi

    2004-01-01

    In this article the research and development of X70 large diameter longitudinal seam submerged arc welded (LSAW) steel pipes for West-East Gas Transportation Pipeline project (WEGTP) in China are introduced, including the key technique, fabrication of pipe production line, mass production and the latest progress of LSAW steel pipe technique.

  4. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  5. Corrosion performance of martensitic stainless steel seamless pipe for linepipe application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Mitsuo; Miyata, Yukio; Toyooka, Takaaki; Murase, Fumio [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Handa, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion performance of two types of weldable martensitic stainless steel seamless pipe for pipeline application is investigated. 11Cr steel pipe developed for sweet environment gives better resistance to CO{sub 2} corrosion than the 13Cr martensitic stainless steel for OCTG. 12Cr steel pipe developed for light sour environment shows good SSC resistance in a mild sour environment and superior CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance at high temperature and high CO{sub 2} partial pressure condition. The suitable condition for the 11Cr steel pipe and the 12Cr steel pipe in sweet environment, and the critical pH and H{sub 2}S partial pressure for the 12Cr steel pipe welded joint in sour environment are clarified. Both welded joints have superior resistance to hydrogen embrittlement under the cathodic protection condition in sea water.

  6. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  7. Study on Domestication of Ultra-Supercritical P92 Steel Pipe Fittings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong Xiangzhou; Xu Guangxin; Wei Xiao; An Jinping; Peng Xiankuan; Hui Na; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ P92 steel pipe fittings are key components for domestic ultra-supercritical power units.Although under booming development in some countries,presently only a few foreign units under commercial operation are using P92 steel and the experience on fabrication and operation of P92 steel pipe fittings is insufficient.

  8. Throughput for steel pipes manufacturing process design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fafandjel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional approach to pipe manufacturing process design is using capacity to satisfy maximal load for each process. In the new approach, throughput is suggested as a basic determinant aiming at finding dynamic balance among following and previous process phases. Throughput is defined by the interval of time between product exiting from the preceding process phase and its entry to the next one. Interval of time for the product delivery from the preceding phase must be less or equal as the amount of time necessary for activating the next phase. Knowing the performances of the next phase one can impact to the characteristics of the preceding phase. Throughput can be also used as a more precise way for observed process productivity measurement. Such approach is suggested and for other complex technological processes.

  9. Fracture toughness evaluations of TP304 stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the IPIRG-1 program, the J-R curve calculated for a 16-inch nominal diameter, Schedule 100 TP304 stainless steel (DP2-A8) surface-cracked pipe experiment (Experiment 1.3-3) was considerably lower than the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve calculated from a C(T) specimen (A8-12a). The results from several related investigations conducted to determine the cause of the observed toughness difference are: (1) chemical analyses on sections of Pipe DP2-A8 from several surface-cracked pipe and material property specimen fracture surfaces indicate that there are two distinct heats of material within Pipe DP2-A8 that differ in chemical composition; (2) SEN(T) specimen experimental results indicate that the toughness of a surface-cracked specimen is highly dependent on the depth of the initial crack, in addition, the J-R curves from the SEN(T) specimens closely match the J-R curve from the surface-cracked pipe experiment; (3) C(T) experimental results suggest that there is a large difference in the quasi-static, monotonic toughness between the two heats of DP2-A8, as well as a toughness degradation in the lower toughness heat of material (DP2-A8II) when loaded with a dynamic, cyclic (R = -0.3) loading history

  10. Eddy current testing of longitudinal welds in austenitic steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing steel-iron test sheet 1914 'Nondestructive Testing of Fusion Welded Joints in Tubes of Stainless Steels' (SEP 1914) had to be revised. The physical correlation between test frequency, phase position, amplitude and defect size for different pipe dimensions were pointed out and discussed on the basis of numerous measurement series. The influence of coil-specific parameters, filtration and electromagnetic magnetization on the eddy current signal were clarified. Additionally, the transferability of the amplitude and phase behaviour of simulated defects on naturally occurring defects was investigated in order to guarantee that the determined test parameters for the revision of existing test regulations are practice-oriented. As the most important result, it is stated that the definition of the test sensitivity in the steel-iron test sheet 1914 is too insensitive for a great number of pipe dimensions. Therefore, the existing steel-iron test sheet 1914 was revised with regard to the definition of the test sensitivity on the basis of the required detection sensitivity of a 20% internal groove. (orig./HP)

  11. Latest developments in mechanical properties and metallurgical features of high strength line pipe steels

    OpenAIRE

    Belato Rosado, Diego; De Waele, Wim; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Hertelé, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    In response to the increasing demand to improve both transportation efficiency and performance, the steel pipe industry has conducted extensive efforts to develop line pipe steel grades with superior metallurgical and mechanical (strength, toughness and ductility) properties in order to allow exploitation in hostile environments. This paper aims to give an overview of recent developments of high strength pipe steel grades as API 5L X70 and beyond, providing a detailed understanding of the con...

  12. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, L.; Camitz, G. [Swerea KIMAB AB, Box 55970, SE-102 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Peultier, J.; Jacques, S.; Baudu, V.; Barrau, F.; Chareyre, B. [Industeel and ArcelorMittal R and D, 56 rue Clemenceau, BP19, FR-71201 le Creusot, Cedex (France); Bergquist, A. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, P.O. Box 74, SE-774 22 Avesta (Sweden); Pourbaix, A.; Carpentiers, P. [Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study, Avenue des Petits-Champs 4A, BE 1410 Waterloo (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    To be able to give safe recommendations concerning the choice of suitable stainless steel grades for pipelines to be buried in various soil environments, a large research programme, including field exposures of test specimens buried in soil in Sweden and in France, has been performed. Resistance against external corrosion of austenitic, super austenitic, lean duplex, duplex and super duplex steel grades in soil has been investigated by laboratory tests and field exposures. The grades included have been screened according to their critical pitting-corrosion temperature and according to their time-to-re-passivation after the passive layer has been destroyed locally by scratching. The field exposures programme, being the core of the investigation, uses large specimens: 2 m pipes and plates, of different grades. The exposure has been performed to reveal effects of aeration cells, deposits or confined areas, welds and burial depth. Additionally, investigations of the tendency of stainless steel to corrode under the influence of alternating current (AC) have been performed, both in the laboratory and in the field. Recommendations for use of stainless steels under different soil conditions are given based on experimental results and on operating experiences of existing stainless steel pipelines in soil. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Corrosion of carbon steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the parent, and the presence of low-temperature transformation products in the heat-affected zone of the weld. These factors should be minimized or eliminated as appropriate so that the corrosion allowances determined for carbon steel waste drums is also adequate for the welds. An experimental/theoretical approach is recommended to evaluate the relative corrosion resistance of welds prepared from BS 4360 grade 43A steel to that of the parent material. (author)

  14. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... party responded to the sunset review notice of initiation by the applicable deadline * * *'' (75 FR... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  15. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan (53 FR 9787). On February 23, 1993, Commerce... on imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (65 FR 11766... Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (70 FR 61119). The Commission is now conducting third reviews to...

  16. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used in the design formula in § 192.105 is determined as follows: Gas temperature in degrees...

  17. Mechanical Response of Steel Wire Wound Reinforced Rubber Flexible Pipe under Internal Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Fan; HUANG Cheng-kui; ZHOU Jing; LI Lin-pu

    2009-01-01

    Steel wire wound reinforced flexible pipe in this study mainly consists of multiple anisotropic steel wire wound reinforcement layers and multiple isotropic rubber layers. Based on 3D anisotropic elastic theory, the analytic solutions of stresses and elastic deformations of steel wire wound reinforced rubber flexible pipe under internal pressure are presented. As the adjacent reinforcement layers with wound angle have different radii, the single reinforcement layer shows the effect of tensile-shear coupling. Moreover, the static loading test results of steel wire wound reinforced rubber flexible pipe under internal pressure are basically coincided with the calculated values by present method.

  18. Carbon Segregation of Bearing Steel Concasting Billet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The formation mechanism of “white band” and central carbon segregation of high-carbon Cr bearing steel concasting billets are discussed in this paper. The maximum oxygen content in the steel produced by concasting process was 13x10-6 with an average oxygen content of 9.3x 10-6.Comparison of metallurgical quality and fatigue property between the concasting steel (CC) andingot casting steel (IC) showed that the carbon segregation (C/C0) in former steel was 0.92~1.10and its fatigue life was equal to that of the latter steel.

  19. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LONGITUDINAL SUBMERGED ARC WELDED STEEL PIPES USED FOR GAS PIPELINE OF OFFSHORE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z. Yang; W. Tian; Q.R. Ma; Y.L. Li; J.K. Li; J.Z. Gao; H.B. Zhang; Y.H. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Since the development of offshore oil and gas, increased submarine oil and gas pipelines were installed. All the early steel pipes of submarine pipelines depended on importing because of the strict requirements of comprehensive properties, such as,anti-corrosion, resistance to pressure and so on. To research and develop domestic steel pipes used for the submarine pipeline, the Longitudinal-seam Submerged Arc Welded (LSAW) pipes were made of steel plates cut from leveled hot rolled coils by both the JCOE and UOE (the forming process in which the plate like the letter "J", "C", "O" or "U" shape, then expansion) forming processes. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the pipe base metal and weld metal were tested, and the results were in accordance with the corresponding pipe specification API SPEC 5L or DNV-OS-F101, which showed that domestic LSAW pipes could be used for submarine oil and gas pipelines.

  20. 76 FR 38691 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon steel pipe 701-TA-253 51 FR 7984 and tube/Turkey. 3/11/86 Welded carbon steel pipe 731-TA-252 51.../15/86 Welded carbon steel pipe 731-TA-273 51 FR 17784 and tube/Turkey. 3/27/89 Light-walled... imports of welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey (65 FR 50960) and the antidumping duty orders...

  1. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe is mechanically fitted inside a carbon steel outer pipe through a thermo-hydraulic manufacturing process. Reeling is a fast method of offshore pipeline installation where a pipe is spooled on a reel...

  2. Online machine vision method for measuring the diameter and straightness of seamless steel pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changku; You, Qiang; Qiu, Yu; Ye, Shenghua

    2001-11-01

    We present a novel method to measure the diameter and straightness of seamless steel pipes. A pair of line-structured lasers, which locate on different sides of the pipe but are in a common plane, cast on the pipe to create two elliptical arcs. Two CCD cameras capture these two arcs. Major and minor axis radii and spatial 3D coordinates of every corresponding elliptical cross-section center can be calculated through ellipse fitting. A pair of line-structured laser sensors, each of which includes a line-structured laser and a CCD camera, are placed at every sampling cross section of the pipe, and thus the pipe's cross-section diameter and furthermore the straightness of the pipe can be solved. We provide an on-line machine vision method for measuring a seamless steel pipe's diameter and straightness, including the design of the system, the deduction of the mathematical model, and the research of the experimental results.

  3. Digitized system for the inspection of steel pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comuzzi, Daniel; Monti, Fernando; Nicolini, Alberto; Stickar, Pablo

    2000-05-01

    We present an industrial software system named Cerbero, the main goal of which is to take advantage of the superior capabilities of digital signal processing techniques. Cerbero collects the signals generated by the transducers (coils), digitalizes them, and performs temporal and spectral analysis in order to identify defects in the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection of seamless steel pipes. Faulty operating conditions are also identified. A friendly graphic user interface allows the users to tune the system to inspect the products in agreement with the clients' specifications. Currently, the system has been implemented in five units at the Siderca manufacturing plant, three of them aimed at the detection of longitudinal cracks, and two used for transverse cracks. In this paper we describe how the system was conceived, designed, and implemented. The system opens new challenges in signal processing applied to automated manufacturing that are also discussed.

  4. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  5. The precision cutting control research of automotive stainless steel thin wall pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel thin-walled tube are widely used in automobile industry at present, but as a result of thin wall pipe is poor strength and poor rigidity,which lead to deformation, shaped differencer and other problems in the process, it is hard to ensure the processing quality of parts. This paper proposes a method of thin stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting process in vehicle, greatly improved the problems and technical difficulties in the traditional process, the main research is about the cutting system and the hydraulic fixture design, obtained under low cost circumstances, it can realize high precision stainless steel pipes, high degree of automation to automatic cutting,simplified operation steps at the same time, increased the applicability of the system, provided a kind of advanced stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting device for the small and medium-sized enterprises.

  6. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 67412 (November 1, 2011... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the... duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings (butt-weld pipe fittings) from Italy,...

  7. Curtailing noncondensables in steel heat pipes using a NaCr solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.; Al-Rabghi, O.M. [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Experiments were performed for investigation of the long term performance of mild-steel heat pipes. Working fluids were a NaCr solution in water, as well as water. The test period covered approximately 15,000 h. It is concluded that both types of heat pipes perform well; the performance of the heat pipe containing the NaCr solution, however, is superior. (author)

  8. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management program at all mills involved in producing steel, plate, coil, skelp, and/or rolling pipe to be... under this section. (b) Fracture control (1) The toughness properties for pipe must address the... specification level 2 or ASME B31.8 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). (2) Fracture control must:...

  9. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  10. 78 FR 25253 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is rescinding the administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period January 1, 2011, through December 31,...

  11. 77 FR 5240 - Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011) and Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil... Order; Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan, 54 FR 12467 (March 27, 1989). As... within a reasonably foreseeable time. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan, 77 FR...

  12. 76 FR 76369 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Less Than Fair Value: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2...: Light- Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico, 73 FR 5515, 5522 (January 30, 2008) (``LWR Pipe... Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, 73 FR 35649 (June 24, 2008). In particular, we analyze...

  13. Extreme value statistical analysis for wall thickness of elbow part of carbon steel tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relating to the resent accident occurred in Mihama Nuclear Power Plant, the estimation method of the minimum value of the wall thickness of carbon steel pipes is concerned, because the minimum wall thickness value is required to decide the exact replacement time of the pipe. Currently in the nuclear power plants, the wall thickness is measured by the ultra-sonic method and the minimum value of the wall thickness decided from the smallest value among 8 values which are obtained at 8 points set around the circumference of the pipes. The minimum value thus determined, however, is not true minimum value and the exact minimum value could be determined by the Extreme Value Statistical Analysis applying for 8 measurement values. This study aims to analyze the field data on the elbow part of carbon steel pipes in order to demonstrate the usefulness of the Extreme Value Statistical Analysis. (author)

  14. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of May 24, 2013 (78 FR 31574... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the... injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure...

  15. Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe to a stainless steel flange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Hoffmann, Ernst

    2008-02-05

    Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) to a stainless steel flange (12, 16), in which the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) is accommodated in a ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) in the flange (12, 16), the groove conforming to the dimensions of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18), where the gap remaining between the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) and the ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) is filled with a sealant (19).

  16. The influence of gouge defects on failure pressure of steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure pressure of API X42 steel pipes with gouge defects was estimated through a nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis. The effect of gouge length on failure pressure of different pipe diameters was investigated. Stress modified critical strain (SMCS) model was applied as in predicting the failure of the pipe. The model uses strain based criteria to predict the failure. For validation of the model, the FE results were compared to experimental data in literature showing overall good agreement. The results show that the gouge length has significant influence on failure pressure. A smaller pipe diameter gives highest value of failure pressure

  17. Investigations on strength of piping for non-condensable gas combustion. Part 2. FEM analysis of steel pipes with a valve or an elbow subjected to hydrogen-oxygen detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon steel pipe specimens, which had been experimentally ruptured or deformed by hydrogen-oxygen detonation, were analysed by dynamic analysis using a finite element method (FEM). Pressure load histories induced by detonation were estimated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These pressures were applied to the inner surface of finite element models of pipe specimens. The relationship between stress and strain for piping material was obtained by performing a tensile test at a high strain rate of up to 5000 s-1. The thickness of the pipe specimens measured by an ultra sonic thickness meter was used for the FEM model geometry. In the case of the straight pipe specimens with a closed valve, FEM analyses estimated larger deformation caused by a detonation pressure than that of the test specimens. For the ruptured elbow specimen, the rate of increase in circumferential strain calculated by FEM was as high as or higher than that of the experiment. In the case of an elbow specimen deformed by detonation pressure, CFD predicted that the peak pressure at the extrados of the elbow was increased by reflection off the pipe wall. However, it did not deform the extrados of the elbow by a large amount in both the experiment and FEM analysis. In all cases, analyses of the strains caused by detonation pressure showed that they were as high as or higher than those of the measured results in the pipe specimens. Therefore, piping design using the proposed analysis method conservatively estimates the strength of piping against detonation pressure. (author)

  18. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New pipe. 195.112 Section 195.112 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.112 New pipe. Any new pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or...

  19. Ultrahigh Ductility, High-Carbon Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua; Chen, Nailu

    2016-10-01

    Based on the proposed design idea of the anti-transformation-induced plasticity effect, both the additions of the Nb element and pretreatment of the normalization process as a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) were designed for Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb hot-rolled steel. This high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel exhibits a tensile strength of 1890 MPa and elongation of 29 pct accompanied by the excellent product of tensile and elongation of 55 GPa pct. The origin of ultrahigh ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel is revealed from two aspects: one is the softening of martensitic matrix due to both the depletion of carbon in the matensitic matrix during the Q-P-T process by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to retained austenite and the reduction of the dislocation density in a martensitic matrix by dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect during deformation, which significantly enhances the deformation ability of martensitic matrix; another is the high mechanical stability of considerable carbon-enriched retained austenite, which effectively reduces the formation of brittle twin-type martensite. This work verifies the correctness of the design idea of the anti-TRIP effect and makes the third-generation advanced high-strength steels extend to the field of high-carbon steels from low- and medium-carbon steels.

  20. Finite element thermal analysis of the fusion welding of a P92 steel pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Yaghi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusion welding is common in steel pipeline construction in fossil-fuel power generation plants. Steel pipes in service carry steam at high temperature and pressure, undergoing creep during years of service; their integrity is critical for the safe operation of a plant. The high-grade martensitic P92 steel is suitable for plant pipes for its enhanced creep strength. P92 steel pipes are usually joined together with a similar weld metal. Martensitic pipes are sometimes joined to austenitic steel pipes using nickel based weld consumables. Welding involves severe thermal cycles, inducing residual stresses in the welded structure, which, without post weld heat treatment (PWHT, can be detrimental to the integrity of the pipes. Welding residual stresses can be numerically simulated by applying the finite element (FE method in Abaqus. The simulation consists of a thermal analysis, determining the temperature history of the FE model, followed by a sequentially-coupled structural analysis, predicting residual stresses from the temperature history.

    In this paper, the FE thermal analysis of the arc welding of a typical P92 pipe is presented. The two parts of the P92 steel pipe are joined together using a dissimilar material, made of Inconel weld consumables, producing a multi-pass butt weld from 36 circumferential weld beads. Following the generation of the FE model, the FE mesh is controlled using Model Change in Abaqus to activate the weld elements for each bead at a time corresponding to weld deposition. The thermal analysis is simulated by applying a distributed heat flux to the model, the accuracy of which is judged by considering the fusion zones in both the parent pipe as well as the deposited weld metal. For realistic fusion zones, the heat flux must be prescribed in the deposited weld pass and also the adjacent pipe elements. The FE thermal results are validated by comparing experimental temperatures measured by five thermocouples on the

  1. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals.

  2. Test and Research of Effects of Flame Cutting and Normal Heat Treatment to Properties of 20+Cr Carbon Steel Pipe%火焰切割及正火热处理对20控Cr碳钢管性能影响试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕智敏; 邹平国; 那永新

    2015-01-01

    20+Cr carbon steel pipes are widely used in the pipeline of the nuclear power plant and the pipeline, which is eroded by steam, of chemical industrial furnace. The highly efficient and convenient flame cutting technology is often used in pipe matching and machining. By comparing the chemical compositions, mechanical properties and metallurgical constitution for both flame cutting and sawing on 20+Cr carbon steel pipes, it had been revealed that flame cutting will bring in several problems, such as unqualified-20 ℃impact energy, coarse grains and the segregation of ferrite and pearlite. The heat-affected zone by flame cutting will be as large as 30mm. The heat treatment experiment of normalization under temperature of 890~930℃indicated that after normalizing heat treatment,-20℃impact energy of the steel had been recovered to the normal level. In addition, the coarse grains would be refined to grain size of grade 8-9 and carbides homogeneously distributed.%20控Cr优质碳钢管广泛应用于核电站管路系统和化学工业炉上有蒸汽冲刷的管道系统,在管件加工、配管过程中不可避免地采用了高效、便捷的火焰切割方法。通过对20控Cr碳钢管在火焰切割与锯切后的化学成分、力学性能、金相试样对比发现,火焰切割将带来-20℃冲击功不满足技术要求、晶粒长大、铁素体与珠光体偏析等系列问题,火焰切割影响范围超过30 mm。正火(890~930℃)热处理校正工艺工程应用试验表明,经过正火热处理校正后,可将受到火焰切割影响的-20℃冲击功数值恢复到正常水平;同时,粗大的晶粒得以细化,晶粒度在8~9之间,碳化物分布均匀化。

  3. A study of ceramic-lined composite steel pipes prepared by SHS centrifugal-thermite process

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuxin; Jiang Letao; Lu Qing; Bai Peikang; Liu Bin; Wang Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Al2O3 ceramic-lined steel pipe was produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis centrifugal thermite process (SHS C-T process) from Fe2O3 and Al as the raw materials. The composition, phase separation and microstructures were investigated. The result showed the ceramic lined pipe is composed of the three main layers of various compositions, which were subsequently determined to be Fe layer, the transition layer and the ceramic layer. Fe layer is ...

  4. Surface coatings on carbon steel for prevention of flow accelerated corrosion under two phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Kyung Mo; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to prevent FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were suggested as a corrosion inhibitor. A platinum decoration was applied as another prevention strategy of carbon steel thinning. The severe FAC-damaged carbon steel pipings were replaced by tolerant materials such as SA335 Gr.P22. However, some components such as the piping materials between moisture separator and turbine have still suffered from the FAC degradation. This work provides a coating method to prevent the FAC degradation of the SA106 Gr.B, which is a piping material between moisture separator and high-pressure turbine, under two-phase flow. We suggested the coating materials to prevent FAC of SA106Gr.B under two-phase water-vapor flow. The FAC resistance of SA106Gr.B was improved with 5 times by electroless-deposited Ni-P protective layer. Other coating materials also enhanced the tolerance up to 5 times for the FAC in a condition of 150 .deg. C and 3.8 bar at 9.5 compared to non-coated SA106Gr.B.

  5. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Orders: Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines, 66 FR 11257 (February 23, 2001). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 67412 (November 1, 2011... Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines, 77 FR 39735 (July 5, 2012),...

  6. 75 FR 34980 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube From Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61 FR... Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453... Korea: Preliminary Results and Rescission in Part of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74...

  7. 76 FR 36089 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube From Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61 FR... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992). These deposit requirements shall... Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative ] Review, 75 FR...

  8. 76 FR 49437 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 75 FR 82374 (December 30, 2010... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary...

  9. 77 FR 73617 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Value: Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 57 FR 42953 (September 17, 1992). Notification... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary...

  10. 78 FR 79664 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of the 2011-2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 57 FR 42953 (September 17, 1992... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results...

  11. 76 FR 66899 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube from Mexico, 74 FR 41681 (August 18, 2009). \\3\\ The Department found that Yieh... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico,...

  12. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  13. Determination of vibration strain limits of A106B piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam pipes and other piping components in generating stations may be subjected to low amplitude high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibration and high frequency thermal fatigue. Fatigue design curves extending to 108 cycles do not exist for A106B piping steel. Therefore, a fracture mechanics approach which uses the concept of threshold stress intensity factor was utilized to determine a limit of fatigue strain amplitude for a fatigue life exceeding 108 cycles. Threshold stress intensity factors were determined for parent material and weld material in room temperature air and 1000C wet steam environment. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of residual stress distribution in austenitic stainless steel pipe butt-welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports measured and estimated results of residual stress distributions of butt-welded austenitic stainless steel pipe in order to improve estimation accuracy of welding residual stress. Neutron diffraction and strain gauge method were employed for the measurement of the welding residual stress and its detailed distributions on inner and outer surface of the pipe as well as the distributions within the pipe wall were obtained. Finite element method was employed for the estimation. Transient and residual stresses in 3D butt-welded joint model were computed by employing Iterative Substructure Method and also commercial FEM code ABAQUS for a reference. The measured and estimated distributions presented typical characteristic of straight butt-welded pipe which had decreasing trend along the axial direction and bending type distributions through wall of the pipe. Both results were compared and the accuracy of measurement and estimation was discussed. (author)

  15. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave propagation and extreme pressures are simulated and compared by the method of characteristics (MOC for reinforced PE pipes with various steel-mesh densities. Results show that a steel mesh can significantly increase the shock wave speed in a PE pipe and thus can cause severe peak pressure and hydraulic surges in a water supply pipeline system. The proposed wave speed formula can more reasonably evaluate the wave speed and improve the transient simulation of steel-mesh-reinforced PE pipes.

  16. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless...

  17. Recommended practices for welding of chromium-molybdenum steel piping and tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains recommendations for welding chromium-molybdenum steel pipe and tubing to itself and to various other materials. Subjects covered in detail are filler metal selection, joint design, preheating, and postheating. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of maintaining interpass temperature and dangers inherent in interrupted heating cycles

  18. STUDY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC STIRRING REFINING MICRO- STRUCTURES OF PIPE-LINE STEEL SAW DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Zhang; B.N. Qian; X.M. Guo

    2002-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic stirring on the microstructures of pipe-line steel SAWdeposited metal were investigated. The results showed that electromagnetic stirringincreased the number density of inclusions with 0.2-0.6μm in diameter and promotedthe formation and refining of acicular ferrite within austenite grains. The low tem-perature toughness of deposited metal was improved.

  19. Deformation and Recrystallisation in Low Carbon Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Almojil, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    The annealing behaviour, including studies of recrystallisation kinetics anddevelopment of crystallographic texture, of two low carbon steels after different coldrolling reductions have been investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM), ElectronBack-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).The primary recrystallisation behaviour of 20, 50, 70 and 90% cold rolled InterstitialFree (IF) and High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels was studied. The HSLA wasinitially proces...

  20. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Alcántara, Jenifer; Díaz, Iván; Chico, Belén; Simancas, Joaquín; de la Fuente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products...

  1. Comparison of two modeling approaches of eddy current industrial non-destructive testing of steel pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillon, Adrien; Deneuville, François; Reboud, Christophe; Foucher, Fabrice; Lesselier, Dominique; Maurice, Lea

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the COFREND working group "Eddy current modeling", a benchmark has been proposed by the Vallourec research center. This case corresponds to the modeling of an industrial online testing of seamless steel pipes by eddy current method with encircling coils. The centering of the steel pipe in the coil is not considered as perfect and a shift is imposed to the pipe. For this benchmark, the Vallourec research center (VRA, Vallourec Research Aulnoye) has compared two solutions with different approaches: the first one is based on semi-analytical methods through the CIVA software developed by the CEA, the second one on finite element method through the software Flux. Results for these two approaches are very similar between them and coherent to experimental data. It proves that these two simulations methods are valid and could be used as a complementary approach.

  2. Superfluid helium testing of a stainless steel to titanium piping transition joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyars, W.; /Fermilab; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Budagov, J.; /Dubna, JINR; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Klebaner, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab; Sabirov, B.; Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    Stainless steel-to-titanium bimetallic transitions have been fabricated with an explosively bonded joint. This novel joining technique was conducted by the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, working under contract for the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These bimetallic transitions are being considered for use in future superconducting radio-frequency cavity cryomodule assemblies. This application requires cryogenic testing to demonstrate that this transition joint remains leak-tight when sealing superfluid helium. To simulate a titanium cavity vessel connection to a stainless steel service pipe, bimetallic transition joints were paired together to fabricate piping assemblies. These piping assemblies were then tested in superfluid helium conditions at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory test facilities. The transition joint test program will be described. Fabrication experience and test results will be presented.

  3. Heat sink welding of austenitic stainless steel pipes to control distortion and residual stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, H.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Materials Technology Div., Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2007-07-01

    Construction of India's Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) involves extensive welding of austenitic stainless steels pipes of different dimensions. Due to high thermal expansion coefficient and poor thermal conductivity of this class of steels, welding can result in significant distortion of these pipes. Attempts to arrest this distortion can lead to high levels of residual stresses in the welded parts. Heat sink welding is one of the techniques often employed to minimize distortion and residual stress in austenitic stainless steel pipe welding. This technique has also been employed to repair welding of the piping of the Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) subjected to radiation induced intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). In the present study, a comparison of the distortion in two pipe welds, one made with heat sink welding and another a normal welds. Pipes of dimensions 350{phi} x 250(L) x 8(t) mm was fabricated from 316LN plates of dimensions 1100 x 250 x 8 mm by bending and long seam (L-seam) welding by SMAW process. Two fit ups with a root gap of 2 mm, land height of 1mm and a groove angle of 70 were prepared using these pipes for circumferential seam (C-seam) welding. Dimensions at predetermined points in the fit up were made before and after welding to check the variation in radius, circumference and and ovality of the pipes. Root pass for both the pipe fit up were carried out using conventional GTAW process with 1.6 mm AWS ER 16-8-2 as consumables. Welding of one of the pipe fit ups were completed using conventions GTAW process while the other was completed using heat sink welding. For second and subsequent layers of welding using this process, water was sprayed at the root side of the joint while welding was in progress. Flow rate of the water was {proportional_to}6 1/minute. Welding parameters employed were same as those used for the other pipe weld. Results of the dimensional measurements showed that there is no circumferential shrinkage in

  4. Evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel 316L pipe using guided wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel is a popular structural materials for liquid-hydrogen storage containers and piping components for transporting high-temperature fluids because of its superior material properties such as high strength and high corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. In general, tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding is used for bonding stainless steel. However, it is often reported that the thermal fatigue cracks or initial defects in stainless steel after welding decreases the reliability of the material. The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in relation to a change in the initial crack length in the welding zone of stainless steel. For this purpose, three specimens with different artificial defects of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm in stainless steel welds were prepared. By considering the thickness of s stainless steel pipe, special attention was given to both the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode in this study. It was clearly found that the L(0,2) mode was more sensitive to defects than the L(0,1) mode. Based on the results of the L(0,1) and L(0,2) mode analyses, the magnitude ratio of the two modes was more effective than studying each mode when evaluating defects near the welded zone of stainless steel because of its linear relationship with the length of the artificial defect.

  5. Evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel 316L pipe using guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Stainless steel is a popular structural materials for liquid-hydrogen storage containers and piping components for transporting high-temperature fluids because of its superior material properties such as high strength and high corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. In general, tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding is used for bonding stainless steel. However, it is often reported that the thermal fatigue cracks or initial defects in stainless steel after welding decreases the reliability of the material. The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in relation to a change in the initial crack length in the welding zone of stainless steel. For this purpose, three specimens with different artificial defects of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm in stainless steel welds were prepared. By considering the thickness of s stainless steel pipe, special attention was given to both the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode in this study. It was clearly found that the L(0,2) mode was more sensitive to defects than the L(0,1) mode. Based on the results of the L(0,1) and L(0,2) mode analyses, the magnitude ratio of the two modes was more effective than studying each mode when evaluating defects near the welded zone of stainless steel because of its linear relationship with the length of the artificial defect.

  6. Hydrogen-related stress corrosion cracking in line pipe steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    1997-01-01

    A correlation between hydrogen concentration (C0) and the critical stress intensity factor for propagation of hydrogen-related cracks has been established by fracture mechanical testing of CT-specimens for the heat affected zone of an X-70 pipeline steel. This has been compared with field...... measurements of the hydrogen uptake by cathodically protected steel exposed in heavy clay and peat type soils....

  7. Enhanced fluid flow through nanoscale carbon pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Max; Cagnon, Laurent; Thanou, Maya; Quirke, Nick

    2008-09-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that pressure driven flow of fluids through nanoscale ( d < 10 nm) carbon pores occurs 4 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than predicted by extrapolation from conventional theory. Here, we report experimental results for flow of water, ethanol, and decane through carbon nanopipes with larger inner diameters (43 +/- 3 nm) than previously investigated. We find enhanced transport up to 45 times theoretical predictions. In contrast to previous work, in our systems, decane flows faster than water. These nanopipes were composed of amorphous carbon deposited from ethylene vapor in alumina templates using a single step fabrication process. PMID:18680352

  8. Applications of niobium microalloyed ferrite pearlite steels to line pipe and plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of advanced controlled rolling techniques have been developed to improve toughness, strength and weldability of niobium-steels. To achieve optimum properties, control of prior stage rolling conditions and accelerated cooling are needed. In low carbon steel, the addition of niobium results in a greater increase in tensile strength than that of vanadium without a loss of toughness. At the same strength level, niobium-steel has less susceptibility to weld cracking and good toughness in the HAZ of its weldments than similar vanadium steels. Separation and formability of niobium steels are also discussed

  9. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  10. Study on Laser Visual Measurement Method for Seamless Steel PipeStraightness Error by Multiple Line-structured Laser Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长水; 谢建平; 王佩琳

    2001-01-01

    An original non-contact measurement method using multiple line-structured laser sensors is introduced for seamless steel pipe straightness error is in this paper. An arc appears on the surface of the measured seamless steel pipe against a line-structured laser source. After the image of the arc is accepted by a CCD camera, the coordinates of the center of the pipe cross-section circle containing the arc can be worked out through a certain algorithm. Similarly, multiple line-structured laser sensors are equipped parallel to the pipe. The straightness error of the seamless steel pipe, therefore, can be inferred from the coordinates of multiple cross-section centers obtained from every line-structured laser sernsor .

  11. 76 FR 47555 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Pipe From Japan; Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From... certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (``small diameter pipe... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on large diameter pipe from Japan and small......

  12. 78 FR 48647 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Preliminary Results... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: In response to requests...

  13. Research of Mold Powder for Ultra-Low Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper explained the mechanism of carbon pickup byultra-low-carbon steels during continuous casting and indicated that the major cause of carbon pickup is the contact of the molten steel with the enriched-carbon layer of the powder. Forming of the enriched-carbon layer is due to the existing of “carbon core”. Accordingly, the measures to reduce the carbon content and amount of the enriched-carbon layer were investigated. A kind of new powder has been developed and successfully used to minimize the carbon pickup by ultra-low carbon steels during continuous casting.

  14. Ratcheting-fatigue failure of pressurized elbows made of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue ratcheting investigations have been carried out to understand the ratcheting-fatigue failure of low carbon manganese steel (SA 333 Gr. 6). Experiments have been conducted on pressured pipe-elbow assembly subjected to reversible cyclic bending, to assess the failure mechanics of fatigue ratcheting and to evaluate the piping seismic design rules intended for their structural integrity. These investigations have shown a significant influence of the ratchet strain and non-relaxing mean stress on the low cycle fatigue life of material

  15. Analysis of Materials Science Aspects in Assessing Operational Reliability of Welded Stainless Steel Pipes for NPP Condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents criteria to control quality of welded stainless steel pipes for nuclear power plant condensers and problems of assessing their operational reliability. Based on the integrated approach, welded long thin-walled pipes made of stainless steel TP 316L and its closest analogues were checked for compliance with regulatory requirements of ASTM A249 and EN 10217-7 standards. It was found that quality, geometric dimensions, structure, mechanical and technological properties of pipes produced by various manufacturers in modern production using TIG welding seam correspond to the requirements of stated standards. According to tests, the weld of pipes is resistant to intergranular corrosion, but also tends to pitting corrosion and knife corrosion. Pipes for NPP condensers should additionally be tested in order to optimize corrosion resistance requirements and for proper selection of pipe materials for condensers

  16. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steelcarbon cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

  17. 75 FR 78216 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... questionnaire response at Exhibit S-5. While TUNA had a general knowledge that some of its pipe would be... Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November 3, 2010). Therefore, we are continuing to refer to this entity as TUNA for... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992) (Antidumping Duty Order)....

  18. Aluminizing Low Carbon Steel at Lower Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Si; Bining Lu; Zhenbo Wang

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the significantly enhanced aluminizing behaviors of a low carbon steel at temperatures far below the austenitizing temperature, with a nanostructured surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). A much thicker iron aluminide compound layer with a much enhanced growth kinetics of η-Fe2Al5 in the SMAT sample has been observed relative to the coarse-grained steel sample. Compared to the coarse-grained sample, a weakened texture is formed in the aluminide layer in the SMAT sample. The aluminizing kinetics is analyzed in terms of promoted diffusivity and nucleation frequency in the nanostructured surface layer.

  19. EIS Response of MIC on Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Maahn, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel under sulphate reducing (sulphide-producing) bacterial activity (SRB) results in the formation of both ferrous sulphides as well as biofilm on the metal surface. The electrochemical characteristics of the ferrous sulphide/steel interface...... diffusion and high interfacial capacitance appear. These effects are strongly enhanced in the biologically active environment as compared to the sterile solutions possibly due to an enhanced porosity in the biofilm/ferrous sulphide surface layers. The effect of these features is that EIS may be used...

  20. Study of the Intercrystalline Corrosion in Pipes of Stainless Steel in a Combined Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Andrés Montejo Serrano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is carried out with the purpose of giving answer to the possible presence ofintercrystalline corrosion and its future consequences in the built tubes of stainless steel 304L anddedicated to the conduction from the water to the boilers of a combined cycle of electricity production.The plant is these in this moments in installation of process investor and assembly and this study wasrequested since during the trial of installation of the pipes of stainless steel that will drive the watertried to the steam generators, they were detected on the part of the operatives some imperfections inthe material, what generated the doubt about the possibility of presence of intercrystalline corrosion orof another type in the pipes. After the realized rehearsals according to international norms and alsousing rehearsals metallography you concludes that the material employee is not sensitive to this typeof corrosion.

  1. Multi-Agent System Supply Chain Management in Steel Pipe Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srinivasan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work focus large -scale scheduling in the steel pipe industry on the significance and benefits of operating supply chains as an integral part of the modern manufacturing enterprises and also the importance of information sharing as the major requirement for the effective functioning of supply chains. A multi-agent architecture for integrated dynamic scheduling of the steel pipe industry is proposed . The scheduling systems of these processes have different objectives and constraints, and operate in an environment where there is a substantial quantity of real-time information concerning production failures, supplier information , order processing and customer requests. Each process is assigned to an agent who independently, seeks an optimal dynamic schedule at a local level taking into account local objectives, real-time information and information received from other agents. Each agent can react to real-time events in order to fix any problems that occur.

  2. Experiments of Multi-element Composite Foundation with Steel Pipe Pile and Gravel Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-zhi; ZHENG Jun-jie

    2008-01-01

    A set of self-developed apparatus for foundation physical model were utilized to conduct model tests of the multi-element composite foundation with a steel pipe pile and several gravel piles. Some load-bearing characteristics of the multi-element composite foundation, including the curves of foundation settlement, stresses of piles, pile-soil stress ratio, and load-sharing ratio of piles and soil, were obtained to study its working performances in silty sand soil. The experimental results revealed that the multi-element composite foundation with steel pipe pile and gravel pile contributed more than the gravel pile composite foundation in improving the bearing capacity of the silty fine sand.

  3. Analysis of ultrasound propagation in a steel pipe using ultrasonic pulse doppler method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal powers of nuclear reactors are calculated by the enthalpy difference between reactor feed water and main steam. Improvement of the measurement accuracy in the flow rate measurements of reactor feed water enables us to uprate reactor thermal power, called MUR (Measurement Uncertainly Recapture) uprate. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler system is expected to be a suitable method featuring the capability of measuring the flow profile directly in a pipe. For the optimum measurements, ultrasonic path from ultrasonic transducer into the fluid through steel pipe wall should be carefully predicted in high temperature water. This paper presents analytical results of ultrasound propagation using FEM simulation code and experimental results of pipe flow rate at high temperature thermal conditions. (author)

  4. Analysis of ultrasound propagation in a steel pipe using ultrasonic pulse doppler method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal powers of nuclear reactors are calculated by the enthalpy difference between reactor feed water and main steam. Improvement of the measurement accuracy in the flow rate measurements of reactor feed water enables us to uprate reactor thermal power, called MUR (Measurement Uncertainly Recapture) uprate. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler system is expected to be a suitable method featuring the capability o measuring the flow profile directly in a pipe. For the optimum measurements, ultrasound path from ultrasonic transducer into the fluid through steel pipe wall should be carefully predicted in high temperature water. This paper presents analytical results of ultrasound propagation using FEM simulation code and experimental results of pipe flow rate at high temperature thermal conditions. (author)

  5. High-energy air shock study in steel and grout pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitenko compressors are used to generate 43 mm/μs air shocks in both a steel and a grout outlet pipe containing ambient atmospheric air. Fiber-optic ports provide diaphragm burst times, time-of-arrival (TOA) data, and velocities for the shock front along the 20-mm-ID exit pipes. Pressure profiles are obtained at higher enthalpy shock propagation than ever before and at many locations along the exit pipes. Numerous other electronic sensors and postshot observations are described, as well as experimental results. The primary objectives of the experiments are as follows: (1) provide a data base for normalization/improvement of existing finite-difference codes that describe high-energy air shocks and gas propagation; (2) obtain quantitative results on the relative attenuation effects of two very different wall materials for high-energy air shocks and gas flows. The extensive experimental results satisfy both objectives

  6. The influence of the residual copper on the pipes steel hot plasticity according to environmental requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Rusănescu C.O.; Rusănescu M.

    2013-01-01

    Considering the importance of gaseous and/or liquid fuels impact on the environment, the resistance of pipelines at hot plastic deformation is important. Therefore, in order to avoid or reduce any adverse impact on the environment, the influence of residual copper on hot deformability of steel pipes was investigated in this paper. The negative copper influence was experimentally proved using torsion deformation at temperatures above 1000o, under the air and...

  7. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eRajala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland for periods of three and eight months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel.

  8. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Raulio, Mari; Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland) for periods of 3 and 8 months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel. PMID:26257707

  9. Production of high strength pipe steels by the CSP{sup R} thin slab technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reip, C.P.; Hennig, W.; Kempken, J.; Hagmann, R. [SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Compact Strip Production (CSP) thin-slab technology is a highly productive process for the cost-effective production of steel grades with an advanced range of properties in terms of inner quality of the hot strip, its surface formation and the associated technological characteristics. Extensive development work in the past 15 years has optimized the process technology which in turn has expanded the range of steels that can be produced. This paper described the ongoing development work regarding the production of higher-strength, microalloyed pipe steels. The resulting hot strip, due to the associated thickness and the potential pipe diameters, is well suited for HFI-welded pipes. Strength levels of up to grade API X80 can now be realized based on ferrite-pearlite and on very fine-grained, ferrite-bainite hot strip microstructures. This study showed that an 8 mm thick hot strip produced in a CSP plant has very good toughness at temperatures down to -60 degrees C. The material is also suitable for use in sour-gas pipelines according to results of hydrogen-induced cracking tests. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  11. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Alcantara, J.; Diaz, I.; Chico, B.; Simancas, J.; Fuente, D. de la

    2015-07-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  12. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  13. Nanostructure-based Processes at the Carbonizing Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Roslyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of nanostructure-based processes carburizing steels showed that oxidizing atmosphere when carburizing steel contains along with carbon dioxide (CO2 + C = 2CO molecular and atmospheric oxygen (O2 + 2C = 2CO; O + C = CO released from the carbonate ВаСОз during its thermal dissociation. Intensive formation of CO provides high carbonizing ability of carbonate-soot coating and steel.

  14. Ultrasonic flaw detection of austenitic stainless steel longitudinally welded pipe and tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been the trend that the welded austenitic stainless steel pipe and tubing are used in the nuclear industry in place of the seamless pipe and tubing. For most of the nuclear components, the pipe and tubing must be examined with ultrasonic method by the demands of ASME SA-655. But the ultrasonic flaw detection of the austenitic welds is generally difficult because of scattering and deflection of the acoustic beam due to the coarse grained and elastically anisotropic preferred oriented structure of dendrite. For the thinner welds of pipe and tubing, the attenuation and deflection of the beam do not make the serious problems, however, the deterioration of the signal-to-noise ratio by the coherent structural noise from the welds may still disturb the flaw detection. The longitudinal wave can be employed to suppress the structural noise. This depends upon its longer wave length. In the automatic examination of the pipe and tubing, however, the customary shear wave angle beam technique must be applied to use the skipped beam

  15. Effect of heat treatments on the hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of API X-65 grade line-pipe steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ananta Nagu; Amarnath; T K G Namboodhiri

    2003-06-01

    Delayed failure tests were carried out on hydrogen charged API X-65 grade line-pipe steel in as received (controlled rolled), normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement was found in the order of controlled rolled $\\gt$ quenched and tempered $\\gt$ normalized. The fracture mode in the hydrogen embrittled steel was ductile.

  16. Internal friction in martensitic carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes relationships between the internal friction and the microstructure of two steels containing 0.626 and 0.71 wt.% carbon. The steels were annealed at 1093 K for 5 min, quenched into water and tempered for 10 min at 423, 573 and 723 K. Internal friction was measured by using a forced vibration pendulum, in a temperature range from 100 to 450 K. The internal friction spectrum is decomposed into four peaks: P1 at 215 K, P2 at 235 K, P3 at 260 K and P4 at 380 K for 3 Hz. Peak P1 is attributed to the interactions between dislocations and carbon atoms. Peak P2 is related to the interaction between dislocations and carbide. Peak P3 is related to the generations of kink - pairs along edge dislocations. Peak P4 is attributed to epsilon carbide precipitation.

  17. Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-04

    Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and exhibits excellent die fill capability. Furthermore, they can be made hard with high compression ductility. In wire form it is projected that UHCS can exhibit extremely high strengths (5,000 MPa) for tire cord applications. Examples of structural components that have been formed from fine-grained spheroidized UHCSs are illustrated.

  18. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  19. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  20. Experimentation and numerical simulation of steel fibre reinforced concrete pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente, Albert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The results concerning on an experimental and a numerical study related to SFRCP are presented. Eighteen pipes with an internal diameter of 600 mm and fibre dosages of 10, 20 and 40 kg/m3 were manufactured and tested. Some technological aspects were concluded. Likewise, a numerical parameterized model was implemented. With this model, the simulation of the resistant behaviour of SFRCP can be performed. In this sense, the results experimentally obtained were contrasted with those suggested by means MAP reaching very satisfactory correlations. Taking it into account, it could be said that the numerical model is a useful tool for the optimal design of the SFRCP fibre dosages, avoiding the need of the systematic employment of the test as an indirect design method. Consequently, the use of this model would reduce the overall cost of the pipes and would give fibres a boost as a solution for this structural typology.

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados principales de un estudio experimental y numérico del comportamiento de tubos hormigón reforzado con fibras de acero (THFA. Se fabricaron y ensayaron 18 tubos de 600 mm de diámetro con cuantías de 10, 20 y 40 kg/m3 de fibras, concluyéndose varios aspectos tecnológicos relacionados con la fabricación y el ensayo así como del comportamiento resistente. Por otra parte, se ha desarrollado el modelo numérico MAP que permite la simulación del comportamiento resistente de THFA sometidos al ensayo de aplastamiento. Los resultados han sido satisfactorios para cualquier régimen de carga, permitiendo concluir que el modelo es una herramienta útil para el diseño óptimo de este tipo de tubos. Se concluye que el uso del modelo conduce a una reducción del coste del armado y da un impulso al uso de fibras como elemento de refuerzo en esta tipología estructural.

  1. Modeling of waste heat recovery by looped water-in-steel heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.; Lamfon, N.J.; Najjar, Y.S.H.; Habeebullah, M.H.; Alp, T.Y. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering

    1995-08-01

    Modeling and simulation of a water-in-steel heat pipe heat recovery system is undertaken in this paper. The heat recovery system consists of a looped two-phase thermosyphon that receives heat from the stack of a gas turbine engine and delivers it to the generator of an NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O absorption chiller. Variations in the operating temperature as well as evaporator geometry are investigated, and the consequences on system effectiveness are studied. It is concluded that the model for the water-in-steel looped thermosyphon overcomes drawbacks of the water-in-copper thermosyphon, and that the steel system is simpler in design, lower in cost, and more competent in performance. (author)

  2. AE characteristics during stress corrosion cracking of sensitized type 304 stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to get a better understanding on acoustic emission (AE) characteristics during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) processes of Type 304 stainless steel, to apply AE techniques to detection and monitoring of SCC of the type experienced with stainless steel boiling water reactor piping. SCC tests were performed on pipe specimens with 20 mm inner diameter. Before testing, all pipe specimens were solution-treated and then sensitized. The SCC tests were conducted in the circulating corrosion test equipment containing the pipe specimen under three kinds of bi-axial stresses, of which Mises equivalent stresses were kept at 172 MNm (17.5 kg/mm2). The test conditions were: the test temperature: 2250C; the concentration of chloride ion: approximately 50 ppm; the concentration of dissolved oxygen: approximately 10 ppm; the flow rate of water: 10 l/hr. Main results were: (1) the failure was caused mainly by intergranular stress corrosion cracking; (2) AE characteristics during the SCC test may be divided into three stages; (3) the most probable AE sources in the 3rd stage may be the phenomena due to the propagation of intergranular stress corrosion cracks; (4) the propagation velocity of intergranular stress corrosion cracks seems to become higher, as the hoop stress applied to the pipe specimens increases, even in the cases of the same value of Mises' equivalent stress; and (5) at the leakage due to SCC, cumulative counts, signal waveforms and peak-amplitude distributions shows a great change and the leakage is readily detectable by standard AE techniques. (author)

  3. Effect of intercritical annealing treatment on the mechanical properties of SA106 Gr.C piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported that SA106 Gr.C piping steel generally exhibits not enough toughness to apply LBB concept and needs a suitable additional heat treatment to improve the toughness. The intercritical annealing at the (α+γ) phase temperature at 760 deg C for 40 min was performed in this study. To evaluate the improved material properties with the heat treatments, tensile tests were carried out under various temperatures, from RT to 350 deg C, and strain rates, from 1.39x10-4s-1 to 1.39x10-2s-1. Also, Charpy impact tests were conducted to measure impact toughness at room temperature. The manifestations of dynamic strain aging (DSA) were observed in the tensile properties. However, the magnitude of serration and the strength increased by DSA was relatively small compared to similar grade carbon steels. The intercritical annealing was able to increase the impact toughness by 1.5 times compared to as-received material. The dissolved carbon content in the retained ferrite, which was formed at the (α+γ) region, may be lower than that in the transformed ferrite, which was formed at the pearlite transformation temperature. It is considered that the cleaner retained ferrite may have caused the higher impact toughness and ductility in addition to the general toughening due to finer grain sizes, which were resulted from the heat treatment

  4. Comparative Structural Strength Research of Hardened Carbon Steel and Hot-Rolled Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, A. V.; Zhakupov, A. N.; Kanayev, A. T.; Sikach, I. A.; Tugumov, K. K.

    2016-08-01

    Experiments on quantitative evaluation of fatigue strength showed that St5ps and St5sp carbon steels with A400 strength class can be fully applied for erection of constructions and buildings having cyclical loads during operation. Study of corrosion resistance of hardened carbon steel in comparison with hot-rolled alloy steel consists in difference in structures and hence, difference in intensity of electric and chemical processes featuring presence of steel in concrete. Structure of St5sp steel with A400 strength class in surface area has significantly less corrosion rate than ferritic-perlitic structure of 35GS steel with A400 strength class.

  5. Numerical study on forming complex fitting body on end of integrated stainless steel pipe without welds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大伟; 赵升吨

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary to use the integrated stainless steel pipe having two fitting bodies without welds while train travelling at high speed. In order to form this type of integrated stainless steel pipe, the method of preforming combined finish forming process is developed. The preforming process is characterized by flaring combined upsetting for left fitting body which is like a flange, and is characterized by tube axial compressive process under die constraint for right fitting body which is like a double-wall pipe. The finite element simulations of the processes are carried out by software package DEFORM, and the results indicate that: 1) left or right fitting body can be formed by a two-step forming process without folding and under-filling defects; 2) by using two-step forming, strain and stress in left fitting body are larger than those in right fitting body, and deformation in right fitting body is more homogenous than the deformation in left fitting body; 3) two or more preforming steps may be needed for left fitting body considering the distributions of strain and stress.

  6. Response of reinforced concrete and corrugated steel pipes to surface load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Geoff R.

    Full-scale simulated live load tests were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting using a single-axle frame on 600-mm-inner-diameter reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) and corrugated steel pipe (CSP) when buried in dense, well-graded sand and gravel. Measurements of the RCP at nominal and working forces and beyond are reported for 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m of soil cover above the pipe crown. The RCP experienced no cracking when buried at 0.3 m under nominal and working CL-625 and CL-800 single-axle design loads. At these loads, the vertical contraction of the pipe diameter was less than 0.08 and 0.10 mm and the largest tensile strains in the pipe were 75 and 100 muepsilon (50-60% of the cracking strain), respectively. A 0.15 (+/-0.05)-mm-wide axial crack developed at the inner crown in the presence of a 6 kNm/m circumferential bending moment (70% of the theoretical ultimate moment capacity) at the fully factored CL-625 load. This crack did not propagate or widen from 3 series of cyclic load-unload tests. At 1300 kN of applied load the change in pipe diameter was less than 3.5 mm. Increasing soil cover from 0.3 to 0.6 to 0.9 m reduced the circumferential crown bending moment from 6.0 to 3.9 to 2.1 kNm/m, respectively, at 400 kN of axle load. A 1.6- and a 2.8-mm-thick CSP were also subjected to axle loading. No yielding or limit states occurred in the 1.6-mm-thick CSP when buried 0.9-m-deep. However, at 0.6 m of cover a 300 kN axle load caused local yielding at the pipe crown. Increasing soil cover from 0.6 to 0.9 m decreased the vertical diameter change from -3.0 to -1.2 mm and the crown bending moment from 0.7 to 0.2 kNm/m (75% and 20% of the yield moment), respectively, at a 250 kN axle load. Deflections of the thicker CSP were less than the thinner pipe below the CL-625 single-axle load, however further increases in applied load produced a greater response in the thicker pipe, likely due to a haunch support issue. Shallow axle loading produced a greater 3-dimensional

  7. 77 FR 50465 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter seamless pipe) from Romania.\\1... Order: Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania... Corporation (the petitioner) alleged that AMTP made sales of small diameter seamless pipe from Romania...

  8. Friction stir processing on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Sergei Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, Alexander G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, Valery E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Friction stir processing of medium carbon steel samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. Samples have been machined from 40 and 40X steels. The tools have been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm and 3×3×1.5 mm tetrahedrons. The microstructure of stirred zone has been obtained using the smaller tool and consists of fine recrystallized 2-3 μm grains, whereas the larger tool has produced the 'onion-like' structures comprising hard quenched 'white' 500-600 MPa layers with 300-350 MPa interlayers of bainite needles. The mean values of wear intensity obtained after measuring the wear scar width were 0.02 mm/m and 0.001 mm/m for non-processed and processed samples, respectively.

  9. A study of ceramic-lined composite steel pipes prepared by SHS centrifugal-thermite process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 ceramic-lined steel pipe was produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis centrifugal thermite process (SHS C-T process from Fe2O3 and Al as the raw materials. The composition, phase separation and microstructures were investigated. The result showed the ceramic lined pipe is composed of the three main layers of various compositions, which were subsequently determined to be Fe layer, the transition layer and the ceramic layer. Fe layer is composed of austenite and ferrite, the transition layer consisted of Al2O3 ceramic and Fe, the ceramic layer consisted of the dendritic-shaped Al2O3 and the spinel-shaped structured FeAl2O4.

  10. Prediction of Welding Residual Stress in 2. 25Cr-1Mo Steel Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A numerical analysis method was proposed to predict the welding residual stress in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pipe considering solid-state phase transformations. A thermal elastic plastic finite element (FE) model considering effects of martensite transformation was developed based on commercial ABAQUS software. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were employed to simulate the fraction of martensite in fusion zone, coarsegrained heat affected zone and fine-grained heat affected zone. The Koistinen-Marburger relationship was used to trace the formation of martensite. The effects of both volume change and yield strength change due to phase transformation on welding residual stress were considered using the proposed FE model. The result shows that the phase transformation has significant effects on the welding residual stress in multi-pass butt weld of pipe. The predicted simulation results by the proposed numerical method are generally in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. 76 FR 15299 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with...) steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low carbon steels with... FR 74682 (December 1, 2010). On January 3, 2011, we received from United States Steel Corporation,...

  12. The influence of the residual copper on the pipes steel hot plasticity according to environmental requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusănescu C.O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of gaseous and/or liquid fuels impact on the environment, the resistance of pipelines at hot plastic deformation is important. Therefore, in order to avoid or reduce any adverse impact on the environment, the influence of residual copper on hot deformability of steel pipes was investigated in this paper. The negative copper influence was experimentally proved using torsion deformation at temperatures above 1000o, under the air and argon atmosphere. The samples were heated and then deformed at different temperatures with constant deformation rate. Also, structural analysis of investigated materials was done, using metallographic and SEM analysis.

  13. Passivation of carbon steel through mercury implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, P. J.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment, in which carbon steel samples were implanted with mercury ions from a broad beam ion source and their corrosion characteristics in air were evaluated, is described. Mercury doses of a few mA min/square cm at energies of a few hundred electron volts are shown to effect significant improvements in the corrosion resistance of the treated surfaces. In a warm moist environment the onset of rusting was extended from 15 min. for an untreated sample to approximately 30 hrs. for one implanted at a dose of 33 mA min/square cm with 1000 eV mercury ions.

  14. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  15. Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Jack, R.F.; Dowling, N.J.E.; Franklin, M.J.; Nivens, D.E.; Brooks, S.; Mittelman, M.W.; Vass, A.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Inst. for Applied Microbiology); Isaacs, H.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion of pipeline steels is an economically important problem. Microbes form tubercles which block fluid flow and can facilitate localized corrosion leading to through-wall penetrations. Microbes of diverse physiological types and metabolic potentialities have been recovered from fresh tubercles or under-deposit corrosion and have been characterized. In tests utilizing sterilizable flow-through systems containing pipeline steel coupons, corrosion rates determined by nondestructive electrochemical means have indicated that increasing the number of physiological types of microbes inoculated into the system generally increased the severity of the microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). This study reports the MIC of monocultures and combinations of monocultures in an aerobic fresh water system with low sulfate and an anaerobic saline system. In both the aerobic and anaerobic systems, the combination of microbes induced greater MIC responses than the monocultures. In tests involving a combination of microbes in both systems in which one member was a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), the corrosion mechanism was different for the control and the monocultures. This difference was indicated by the phase shift in the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The localization of corrosion, that in many cases is the hallmark of MIC, may be initiated by the inhomogeneities of supposedly smooth metal surfaces. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) demonstrated non-uniform current densities over carbon steel electrodes polished to a 600 grit finish suggesting pitting and repassivation of pits in sterile medium.

  16. Residual strain measurements of a fatigued metal stick and heat treated steel pipe at JRR3M-RESA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Horikawa, Takeshi; Kawashima, Hisaichi [Ryukoku Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Minakawa, Nobuaki; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori

    1997-06-01

    A residual strain on section of notched edge after fatiguing the carbon steel round bar with ring shape and semi-circular section and on thick direction of 13% Cr-steel pipe for oil well heat-treated after machining was tried to test. It was one of the initial experiments in residual strain measurement apparatus (RESA; old name is DIVE) installed at T2-1 port of JRR-3M to test a residual strain at section of 8 mm in diameter of the fatigue specimen at three (x{sup -}, y{sup -} and z{sup -}) directions on a fine mesh of 1 mm step. This test has another aim to inspect the apparatus itself such as obtained accuracy, required testing time, and so on, except original aim to find out strain of the specimen. As a result of the initial experiment, a lot of points to be investigated and improved were found out. According to these results, at present a fatigue specimen with large diameter (40 mm) is now in preparation. And, as is now processing on improvement of a monochromator to increase the beam intensity and so on, a higher resolution as well as a finer (about 1 micron) beam diameter for the specimen is expected to establish. (G.K.)

  17. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF THE HIGH-SPEED THERMAL PROCESSING REGIMES ON STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PIPE STEEL 32G2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Gordienko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on influence of high-speed heating temperature, regimes of cooling and temperature of abatement on structure and mechanical properties of pipe steel 32G2 are carried out. Recommendations on the regimes of high-speed thermal processing of steel 32G2 which can be used at manufacturing of seamless pipes are given.

  18. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC of c...

  19. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection...

  20. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. See Certain Small... Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania, 65 FR 48963 (August...

  1. Finite element analysis of fibre augmented steel technology pipe (FAST-PIPEtm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qishi; Yoosef-Ghodsi, Nader [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, Alberta, (Canada); Salama, Mamdouh [ConocoPhillips Company, Houston, Texas, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    FAST-PipeTM is fabricated from a steel liner hoop-wound with non-impregnated fibreglass strands. The design of this new technology requires developing analytical methods. This paper reported how the finite element program ABAQUS has been used to develop shell models capable of simulating the burst and bending behaviour of FAST-PIPETM. Experimental measurements were performed on 48 and 12 inch pipes to calibrate and to validate the finite element analysis models. The material properties were obtained using coupon tests, and the elastic modulus of the fibre wrap using burst tests. The results showed that the failure of both the burst and bend models was defined as the point where the wrap hoop strain reached a failure strain of about 2%. It is found that the analytical model was accurate based on the burst test results. Also, the moment capacity is not affected by the wrap elasticity modulus value and the type of yield criteria used for the steel liner.

  2. Survey report on unmanned site welding of austenitic stainless steel pipe and its ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field welding of austenitic stainless steel pipings and its non-destructive test in complicated and narrow places, reliable welding method and non-destructive testing method are required, and also, it is desirable to mechanize them (unmanned operation). In this study, the present state of the automatic welding of austenitic stainless steel pipings and ultrasonic flaw detection was investigated through the literatures in Japan and foreign countries. As the result, it was clarified that energetic research has been made recently to mechanize the welding, and though many points are left for future research and development, it is promising. In the ultrasonic flaw detection, many technical problems concerning the detectability of flaws remain at present, but is is expected to become feasible by future systematic research and development. The design of weld joints, the welding method and the remote automatic control of welding operation must be appropriate for guaranteeing the quality of welding, and these points were surveyed. The problems in the ultrasonic flaw detection are the attenuation of ultrasonic waves, the conditions of probes, the mode of wave motion and frequency, and the welding suitable to the ultrasonic flaw detection. (Kako, I.)

  3. Automatic testing for weld of steel pipe; Kokan yosetsubu kensa no jidoka / inline ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-09-05

    Computer and artificial intelligence (AI) have used in the manufacturing process of steel pipes and process continuation and automation are carried out. Particularly, even the experienced technology of the site can be programmed in the control computer. With the continuation and automation of manufacturing process, most of the nondestructive tests are carried out in line or on the table and highly precise and speedy flow detection have been possible due to the general effect of performance upgrading of testing equipments and its surrounding technology (exchange of step for each size, setting of flow sensitivity) and so forth. Promotion of automation and in line process of nondestructive test is to achieve high precision and high efficiency like reduction of distribution of results by manual operation, reduction of testing time and so forth. As for the testing of weld of steel pipe of present company, the latest technology along with the continuation, automation, reduction of manpower have been considered in its testing device. Further, technological improvement by developing extremely small sensor, high efficiency and so forth is expected. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Analysis on the deviation of feeder pipe ultrasonic thickness-measuring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an analysis on the large deviation of feeder ultrasonic thickness-measuring data in Qinshan NPP III, through which the influence of the inner surface of thin wall carbon steel pipe on ultrasonic thickness measurement accuracy is verified and a principle for selection of a thickness measuring probe for thin wall carbon steel pipe with rough inner surface is introduced. (author)

  5. Research on the Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel Pipe Welded Joint%碳钢管线焊接接头的电化学腐蚀行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维锋; 韩永典; 路永新; 孙紫麾; 陈英; 舒欣欣; 许威; 杨鹏; 毛晓军; 杨寿海; 徐连勇

    2015-01-01

    母材选用 A106B 管线钢,焊丝选用2.4 mm 的实芯焊丝 ER70S-G,使用两种焊接工艺(GTAW+SMAW和GTAW)进行钢管对接焊,试样焊接前后均无热处理。通过对焊接接头的焊缝、热影响区和母材的极化曲线测量,研究了两种焊接工艺所得焊接接头各区域的腐蚀行为。结果表明,两种接头不同区域的耐蚀性为:母材>热影响区>焊缝。%In this article, it used two kinds of welding process (GTAW+SMAW and GTAW)to carry out butt welding for A106B pipeline steel, selecting 2.5 mm solid core welding wire of ER70S-G, without heat treatment for test sample before and after welding. Through polarization curve measurement for welded joint weld, HAZ and base metal, the corrosion behavior of welded joints various regions under two welding process were studied. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of two kinds of welded joints various regions are as follows:the base metal>HAZ>weld.

  6. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter... diameter seamless pipe. The small diameter seamless pipe subject to the order is currently classifiable... small diameter seamless pipe from Romania entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for......

  7. Neutron diffraction residual stress measurements on girth-welded 304 stainless steel pipes with weld metal deposited up to half and full pipe wall thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residual stress distribution has been measured in two girth-welded austenitic stainless steel pipe weldments using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. One had weld filler metal deposited up to half the pipe wall thickness, and one had weld metal deposited up to full pipe wall thickness. The aim of the work is to evaluate the evolution in residual stress profile on filling the weld, on which there is little experimental data, and where the selection of the correct hardening model used in finite element modelling can benefit greatly from an understanding of the intermediate residual stresses partway through the welding operation. The measured residual stresses are compared with those calculated by finite element modelling and measured using X-ray diffraction. The results show a change in the measured hoop stress at the weld toe from tension to compression between the half- and fully-filled weld. The finite element results show an overprediction of the residual stress, which may be a consequence of the simple isotropic hardening model applied. The results have implications for the likely occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in this important type of pipe-to-pipe weldment. Highlights: ► 304 steel girth welded with weld metal to half and full pipe wall thickness. ► Residual stresses measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction, and modelled by FE. ► Weld toe residual σhoop changes from tensile to compressive from half to fully-filled. ► FE model for the fully-filled weld gives higher stress levels than those measured. ► Discrepancy is attributed to the isotropic hardening model used.

  8. Medium carbon vanadium micro alloyed steels for drop forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1992-12-31

    Growing competitiveness of alternative manufacturing routes requires cost minimization in the production of drop forged components. The authors analyse the potential of medium carbon, vanadium microalloyed steels for drop forging. Laboratory and industrial experiments have been carried out emphasizing deformation and temperature cycles, strain rates and dwell times showing a typical processing path, associated mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures. The steels the required levels of mechanical properties on cooling after forging, eliminating subsequent heat treatment. The machinability of V-microalloyed steels is also improved when compared with plain medium carbon steels. (author) 17 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. [Corrosion of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L in the simulated sewage pipes reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guo-Dong; Zuo, Jian-E; Wang, Ya-Jiao; Gan, Li-Li

    2014-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L which would be used as sewer in-situ rehabilitation materials was studied in the simulated sewage pipes reactor. The corrosion potential and corrosion rate of these three materials were studied by potentiodynamic method on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 56th day under two different conditions which were full immersion condition or batch immersion condition with a 2-day cycle. The electrode process was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on the 56th day. The microstructure and composition of the corrosion pitting were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) on the 56th day. The results showed that 304 and 316L had much better corrosion resistance than 201 under both conditions. 304 and 316L had much smaller corrosion rate than 201 under both conditions. The corrosion resistance of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much better than those under the full immersion condition. The corrosion rate of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much smaller than those under the full immersion condition. Point pitting corrosion was formed on the surfaces of 304 and 316L. In comparison, a large area of corrosion was formed in the surface of 201.

  10. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  11. Degradation of the pipe-steel structure upon long-term operation in contact with a hydrogen sulfide-containing medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Tabatchnikova, T. I.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.

    2011-03-01

    The phase composition and structure of defect portions of pipelines after long-term service in contact with a hydrogen sulfide-containing medium have been investigated. From structural changes, the process of the initiation of cracks and fracture of a low-carbon ferritic-pearlitic steel containing slag-induced laminations and precipitates of sulfides of the (Fe,Mn)S type has been reconstructed. The conditions under which a block cementite substructure is formed in the course of service and a transformation of the plate-type shape of the carbide phase occurs have been analyzed. It has been established that the dispersed carbides precipitating in this case limit the mobility of dislocations and thereby favor degradation of service properties of the pipe steel.

  12. Strength enhancement possibilities of low carbon steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper analyses methods of grain refinement and demonstrates development of structure andproperties of metallic materials after severe plastic deformations (SPD.Design/methodology/approach: Technology ARB was experimentally verified. The material was rolled in 11passes. Rolling proceeded at temperature 650˚C, with heating in furnace with inert atmosphere (Ar.Findings: True strain has achieved the value 9. Basic relations between magnitude of deformation, grainrefinement and resulting mechanical properties were described. Bonding of degree was greater than 90%.Practical implications: ARB method is one of instrument for acquirement materials with ultrafine grainstructure. Is it very simply apparatus, which can be used in practical technology (classical rolling mill.Originality/value: Development of structure was verified on low carbon steel. Obtained grain size was around 0.3 μm.Properties obtained by tensile test did not achieve the expected value. Grain size was homogenous in whole volume.

  13. Basic studies on carbon steel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of magnetite films grown in autoclave at high temperature on carbon steel has been performed in a dynamic loop in ammoniated citric and oxalic acid solutions at two different temperatures and constant pH. The dissolution process seems to be affected by the dual-layer oxide morphology depending on the growth conditions in the autoclave. The open-circuit potential of the specimens and the corrosion rate measured by the linear polarization method have been monitored. To this aim a particular corrosion cell and a suitable reference electrode have been set up at CISE. Polarization curves have been performed to check the electrochemical processes involved in the anodic and cathodic area. At last the effect of a corrosion inhibitor, of a complexing and a reducing agent and of temperature has also been studied. The work was carried out in the frame of a CNEN research programme for the development of the CIRENE prototype

  14. Material properties of a dissimilar metal weld Inconel 600/ Inconel 82 weld filler/ Carbon Steel (Gr.106 B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 600 pipes welded to Carbon-Steel are used in CANDU nuclear reactors. Fracture of these welded pipes has important consequences in term of safety, and therefore their mechanical properties need to be better understood. In this study, the weld region was analyzed at various length-scales using optical microscopy, micro hardness testing, small and large scale tensile testing, and Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Micro-hardness profiles showed variations across the weld and through thickness and were justified in terms of residual stresses. Local stress-strain curves were built using DIC and showed good agreement with stress-strain curves obtained from miniature tensile samples. (author)

  15. 77 FR 10773 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... to its notice of institution (76 FR 67473, November 1, 2011) of the subject five-year reviews was.... See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's Handbook on E-Filing, available on... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling...

  16. 77 FR 18266 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... the conduct of the expedited subject five- year reviews (77 FR 10773, February 23, 2012). The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines;...

  17. 75 FR 44763 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 68229 (December 23, 2009). The current deadline for the... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time... Department) received a timely request from domestic interested parties Allied Tube and Conduit...

  18. Φ10mm 碳纤维复合材料管成型工艺及性能研究%Forming Process and Properties of Φ10 mm Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锐霞; 尹亮; 潘玲英; 董波

    2012-01-01

    The forming process and properties of carbon fiber reinforced composite pipe with the diameter of 10mm were investigated. The results show that the carbon fiber reinforced composite pipe fabricated by the thermal shrinkage process has the advantages of simple forming process and better quality reliability. Compared to the stainless steel pipe with the diamemer of 10 mm, the carbon fiber reinforced composite pipe with the same diameter has the e-quivalent flexural stiffness. While the flexural strength of composite pipe is more than three times of the stainless steel with the same diameter, and its weight is only half of the stainless steel pipe. In addition, the composite has good dimension precision which can meet the design requirements.%对外径为Φ10 mm 碳纤维复合材料管成型工艺及性能进行了研究.结果表明,采用热缩工艺成型的碳纤维复合材料管工艺简单、质量可靠,Φ10 mm 碳纤维复合材料管件弯曲刚度与不锈钢管相当,弯曲强度为不锈钢的3倍以上,质量仅为不锈钢的50%,尺寸精度满足设计要求.

  19. The Effect of Ultrasonic Peening on Service Life of the Butt-Welded High-Temperature Steel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daavari, Morteza; Vanini, Seyed Ali Sadough

    2015-09-01

    Residual stresses introduced by manufacturing processes such as casting, forming, machining, and welding have harmful effects on the mechanical behavior of the structures. In addition to the residual stresses, weld toe stress concentration can play a determining effect. There are several methods to improve the mechanical properties such as fatigue behavior of the welded structures. In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic peening on the fatigue life of the high-temperature seamless steel pipes, used in the petrochemical environment, have been investigated. These welded pipes are fatigued due to thermal and mechanical loads caused by the cycle of cooling, heating, and internal pressure fluctuations. Residual stress measurements, weld geometry estimation, electrochemical evaluations, and metallography investigations were done as supplementary examinations. Results showed that application of ultrasonic impact treatment has led to increased fatigue life, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance of A106-B welded steel pipes in petrochemical corrosive environment.

  20. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... pipe from Romania. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on April 1, 2011 (76 FR 18251) and determined on July 5, 2011 that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 44608, July 26, 2011... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania...

  1. Cr-Mo Seamless Steel Pipe Welding Failure Analysis%Cr-Mo无缝钢管焊接失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊伟

    2012-01-01

    Cr-Mo无缝钢管具有抗氢腐蚀性和具有较好高温力学性能和耐温蠕变性能的珠光体耐热钢。文章介绍了Cr-Mo无缝钢管的焊接的主要问题,并针对某装置Cr-Mo无缝钢管焊接失效泄漏,分析此类无缝钢管焊接失效的原因。%Cr-Mo seamless steel pipe having resistance to hydrogen corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties at high temperature and high temperature creep properties of pearlitic heat resistant steel.The paper introduced the Cr-Mo seamless steel pipe welding problems,and in response to a Cr-Mo device of seamless steel pipe welding failure leakage,such analysis of seamless steel pipe welding failure reason

  2. Carbon steel flanges and welds evaluation on HF-alkylation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiiuela, L.; Chirinos, J. [PDVSA Manufacture y Mercadeo, Judibana (Venezuela). Centro de Refinacion Paraguana

    1999-11-01

    In 1995, there were two failures in the 20,000 BPD HF Alky unit at the Amuay Refinery causing a shutdown of the unit. The failures occurred in one flange and one weld in the depropanizer charge carbon steel pipe, containing propane, isobutane and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid at 190 F (88 C) and 321psig (22.5 Kg/cm{sup 2}). Examination showed severe uniform corrosion at the inside surface of the flange while the adjacent elbow showed minimal corrosion loss. The other failure showed preferential attack in the weld without corrosion loss in the pipe components. A complete evaluation of the Alky plant was necessary to identify other lines in similar conditions that could cause future emergency shutdown of the unit. An extensive on stream inspection program was performed on critical lines of the unit. This paper summarizes the results and conclusions of this evaluation.

  3. Correlation of microstructure and charpy impact properties in API X70 and X80 line-pipe steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at correlating microstructure and Charpy impact properties in high-toughness API X70 and X80 line-pipe steels. Three kinds of steels were fabricated by varying alloying elements and hot rolling conditions, and their microstructures and Charpy impact properties were investigated. In addition, their effective grain sizes were characterized by the electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The Charpy impact test results indicated that the steels rolled in the single phase region had the higher upper shelf energy (USE) than the steel rolled in the two phase region because their microstructures were composed of acicular ferrites. In the X80 steel rolled in the single phase region, the decreased energy transition temperature (ETT) could be explained by the decrease in the overall effective grain size due to the presence of acicular ferrite having smaller effective grain size. Thus, it had excellent mechanical properties in yield and tensile strengths, absorbed energy, and transition temperature, except in ductility

  4. Random cyclic constitutive models of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental study is performed on the random cyclic constitutive relations of a new pipe stainless steel, 0Cr18Ni10Ti, by an incremental strain-controlled fatigue test. In the test, it is verified that the random cyclic constitutive relations, like the wide recognized random cyclic strain-life relations, is an intrinsic fatigue phenomenon of engineering materials. Extrapolating the previous work by Zhao et al, probability-based constitutive models are constructed, respectively, on the bases of Ramberg-Osgood equation and its modified form. Scattering regularity and amount of the test data are taken into account. The models consist of the survival probability-strain-life curves, the confidence strain-life curves, and the survival probability-confidence-strain-life curves. Availability and feasibility of the models have been indicated by analysis of the present test data

  5. Random cyclic strain-life relations of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental study is performed on the random cyclic strain-life relations of the new pipe steel, 0Cr18Ni10Ti, by strain-controlled fatigue tests. Probabilistic models for characterizing the relations are presented on a basis of the Coffin-Manson strain-life equation. Three kinds of effects on probabilistic assessments are taken into account, which are the scattering regularity, the amount, and the combined effect of scattering regularity and the amount of the test data. With respect to these effects, the models are consisted of three kinds of probabilistic curves, i.e. the survival probability-strain-life curves, the confidence-based strain-life curves, and the probability and confidence-based strain-life curves. Availability and feasibility of the models are indicated by an analysis to the test results

  6. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  7. Generation of the Ultrasonic Guided Waves in a Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe Using an Array Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Jeon, Jin Hong; Kim, Jae-Hee; Eom, Heung-Sup; Im, Kwang Hee

    2005-04-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. In ultrasonic guided waves, however, there are numerous modes with different wave velocities, so that the generation and detection of the appropriate wave mode of the guided wave is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, mode tuning using an array transducer was investigated with the hardware implements to generate ultrasonic guided waves in a seamless stainless steel pipe. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. A series of experiments was carried out in order to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic tuning of modes by hardware: tuning the mode of the generated guided wave, group velocity measurement, tuned receiving and mode identification. As a result, the selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the time interval between adjacent elements of an array transducer.

  8. Dynamic versus quasi-static loading of X65 offshore steel pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, M.; Børvik, T.; Langseth, M.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2016-05-01

    Anchors or trawl gear occasionally impact offshore pipelines, resulting in large local and global deformations. Impact velocities are typically less than 5 m/s, but local strain rates may be very high. In this study strain rate effects in an X65 offshore material was characterised by split Hopkinson bar tests, while the cross-section homogeneity and possible anisotropic behaviour were determined by quasi-static material tests. Further, dynamic impact tests at prescribed velocities were carried out on simply supported full scale X65 steel pipes. Next, deformation-controlled quasi-static tests with the same boundary conditions were conducted. The level of deformation in the quasi-static tests was set to be equal to that attained in the dynamic tests. Finally, an assessment of the differences between the dynamically and quasi-statically loaded pipes was made in terms of force-displacement response, energy absorbed, and fracture. An optical light microscope and a scanning electron microscope were used to investigate fracture surfaces arising from the various tests.

  9. Comparison of Impact Properties for Carbon and Low Alloy Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.H. Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The impact properties of hot rolled carbon steel (used for the manufacture of reinforcement steel bars) and the quenched & tempered (Q&T) low alloy steel (used in the pressure vessel industry) were determined. The microstructure of the hot rolled carbon steel contained ferrite/pearlite phases, while that of the quenched and tempered low alloy steel contained bainite structure. Impact properties were determined for both steels by instrumented impact testing at temperatures between -150 and 200℃. The impact properties comprised total impact energy, ductile to brittle transition temperature, crack initiation and propagation energy, brittleness transition temperature and cleavage fracture stress. The Q&T low alloy steel displayed much higher resistance to ductile fracture at high test temperatures, while its resistance to brittle fracture at low test temperatures was a little higher than that of the hot rolled carbon steel. The results were discussed in relation to the difference in the chemical composition and microstructure for the two steels.

  10. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camariñas, Galicia in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy.La investigación fundamental en corrosión atmosférica marina de aceros al carbono es un campo científico relativamente joven que presenta grandes lagunas de conocimiento. La formación de akaganeíta en los productos de corrosión que se forman sobre el acero cuando se expone a atmósferas marinas conduce a un incremento notable de la velocidad de corrosión. En el trabajo se abordan las siguientes cuestiones: (a condiciones ambientales necesarias para la formación de akaganeíta, (b caracterización de la akaganeíta en los productos de corrosión formados, (c mecanismos de corrosión del acero al carbono en atmósferas marinas, (d exfoliación de las capas de herrumbre formadas en atmósferas marinas muy agresivas, (e predicción de la velocidad de corrosión a largo plazo, y (f comportamiento de aceros patinables. La

  11. 铸钢件与无缝钢管焊接技术%Cast Steel and Seamless Steel Pipe Welding Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧盐龙

    2012-01-01

    结合京沪高速铁路镇江南站站房工程铸钢件同无缝钢管焊接施工中一些技术工作及相关经验,通过设计院的相关设计文件及现场焊接工艺的指导,经过权威专家的评审,最终根据焊接的成果总结出了在管桁架结构的现场安装中铸钢件同无缝钢管的焊接工艺及注意要点。%In combination with the steel castings with seamless steel pipe welding construction technology and related work experience of Beijing-Shanghai High Speed Railway Zhenjiang south railway station building engineering, through the design of the related design documents and field welding process guidance, through the assessment of experts, based on the final welding results, the paper summarized steel castings with seamless steel pipe welding process and points for attention in pipe truss structure installation.

  12. Warm Deformation Microstructure of a Plain Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Eghbali; M Shaban

    2011-01-01

    Grain refinement in a plain carbon steel under intercritical warm deformation was studied by torsion tes ring. Based on the experimental results, the warm flow behaviour and microstructural evolution of ferrite were researched with particular emphasis on

  13. 76 FR 2344 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... columbium), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels...'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low- carbon steels... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, 66 FR 60194 (December...

  14. 76 FR 48143 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with...'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low carbon steels with...: Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China, 66 FR 59561...

  15. 76 FR 65748 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey; Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... small diameter carbon steel pipe and tube from Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or... from Brazil, Korea, and Taiwan, and small diameter carbon steel pipe and tube from Taiwan to promote... the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (76 FR 38691, July 1,...

  16. Corrosion resistance of ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) seam welds as compared to metal base in API 5L steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velasquez, Jorge L.; Godinez Salcedo, Jesus G.; Lopez Fajardo, Pedro [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of ERW seam welds and the base metal in API 5L X70 steel pipes was evaluated by Tafel tests. The procedure was according to ASTM G3 standard. The study was completed with metallographic and chemical characterization of the tested zones, that is, the welded zone and the base metal away of the weld. All tests were made on the internal surface of the pipe in order to assess the internal corrosion of an in-service pipeline made of the API 5L X70 steel. The test solution was acid brine prepared according to NACE Publications 1D182 and 1D196. The results showed that the ERW seam weld corrodes as much as three times faster than the base material. This behavior is attributed to a more heterogeneous microstructure with higher internal energy in the ERW seam weld zone, as compared to the base metal, which is basically a ferrite pearlite microstructure in a normalized condition. This result also indicates that pipeline segments made of ERW steel pipe where the seam weld is located near or at the bottom of the pipe are prone to a highly localized attack that may form channels of metal loss if there is water accumulation at the bottom of the pipeline. (author)

  17. Effect of intercritical annealing treatment on the fracture toughness of SA106 Gr.C piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the point of view on material properties in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) analysis, the premise of Leak-Before-Break (LBB) is that the materials used are sufficiently tough that small through-wall cracks would remain stable. The SA106 Gr.C piping steel, however, showed a substantial reduction in toughness due to dynamic strain aging (DSA) at the reactor operating temperature, which resulted in insufficient LBB safety margins. In this study, intercritical annealing in two-phase (α + γ) region was performed to investigate the possibility of improving the toughness and reducing DSA susceptibility for giving allowable LBB safety margins. Tensile tests were cried out under various temperatures and strain rates for assessing the material properties after the heat treatments. Also, Charpy impact tests were conducted to measure impact toughness at room temperature. After intercritical annealing the manifestations of dynamic strain aging (DSA) were observed in the tensile properties. However, the ductility loss caused by DSA was smaller than the as-received material. Furthermore, The intercritical annealing was able to increase the impact toughness by l.5 times compared to as-received material. It is considered that the cleaner (low carbon) retained ferrite, which was formed at the (α + γ) region, may have caused the higher impact toughness and ductility in addition to the general toughening due to finer grain sizes and increased ferrite content, which were resulted from the heat treatment. (author)

  18. Experimental fracture studies on carbon steel elbows with and without internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipe bends or elbows are commonly used components for nuclear power plant piping system. In service, these piping components are subjected to internal pressure in addition to bending loads and the internal pressure is known to have a significant effect on the load carrying capacity of these components. Hence, a systematic study was carried out to investigate and quantify the effect of internal pressure on the fracture behaviour of elbows used in nuclear power plant piping system. Fracture studies were conducted on five 219 mm diameter carbon steel elbows with and without internal pressure under in-plane opening moment. The investigations have shown that the presence of a circumferential notch at the intrados has a more detrimental effect on the fracture behaviour of the elbow, when compared with the presence of an axial notch at the intrados. It is also found that internal pressure plays a significant role in reducing the ovalization. -- Highlights: • Fracture studies were conducted on elbows with and without internal pressure. • Effect of internal pressure on load carrying capacity of the elbows was studied. • Various data acquired during the study include load, LLD, CMOD, ovality of the elbow. • Circumferential notch at intrados significantly affects elbow load carrying capacity

  19. Predicting the long term corrosion behaviour of pipe steels used at the CCS-site Ketzin, Germany in laboratory CO{sub 2}-saturated saline aquifer CCS-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfennig, A.; Linke, B. [HTW Univ. of Applied Sciences Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kranzmann, A. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    During Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) CO{sub 2}-corrosion of pipe steels is a relevant safety issue when emission gases are compressed in deep geological layers. The reliability of the steels 42CrMo4 (1.7225), X46Cr13 (1.4034), X20Cr13 (1.4021) and X35CrMo17 (1.4122) is demonstrated in laboratory experiments under an equivalent corrosive aquifer environment as found at the geological onshore CCS-site at Ketzin, Germany at the in-situ temperature 60 C. (orig.)

  20. The effect of oil on carbon dioxide corrosion inhibition on carbon steel - potential for improved corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for robust and cost efficient ways to prevent internal corrosion of carbon steel piping and equipment in oil and gas production and transportation has lead to the development of highly sophisticated CO2 corrosion inhibitor products. This thesis studies oil wetting and corrosion inhibitor performance on bare steel and steel with corrosion product deposits on the surface, in the presence of a refined, low aromatic hydrocarbon oil. Three surfactants were used in the experiments; two commercial inhibitor base chemicals; an oleic imidazoline salt (OI) and a phosphate ester (PE), and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a well characterized quaternary ammonium compound. Adsorption characteristics of the inhibitors on corroding iron and FeCO3 particles were also studied. Polarization resistance (PR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were used to study the effect of the oil on the performance of the inhibitors. The performance testing was done on corroding carbon steel without any surface deposits and on carbon steel with either ferrous carbonate (FeCO3) or ferric corrosion products on the surface. The results showed that the addition of oil in the inhibitor tests had a significant, positive effect on the performance of the two commercial corrosion inhibitors; decrease in corrosion rate of about one order of magnitude compared to the rate without oil was found. Based on the EIS data it was concluded that the improved performance was caused by a modification of the inhibitor film and not the formation of a macroscopic oil film on the steel surface. Indications of oil wetting of the steel surface were only found when ferric corrosion products were present and OI was used as the inhibitor. No such effects were seen on bare steel or on FeCO3 covered surfaces. Contact angle measurements and dispersion tests were used to investigate the effect of the inhibitors on the wettability of the three types of surfaces when they were exposed to

  1. Twin structure of the lath martensite in low carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well accepted that the martensites in quenched carbon steels exhibit two typical morphologies which are closely dependent on the carbon content, i.e. lath martensite in low carbon steels and lenticular martensite in high carbon steels. Based on conventional belief, the lath martensites in low carbon steels are with high density dislocations as the substructure, in contrast to twin substructure in lenticular high carbon martensite. In the present work, an intensive transmission electron microscopy investigation was made to characterize the microstructures of the lath martensite in a low carbon steel of 0.2 wt%C. It was found that lots of lath martensites consist of twin as their substructure, rather than high density dislocations. In addition, nanoscale precipitates cohering with ferrite matrix were found at the twin interfaces. The orientation relationships between the precipitates and the ferrite matrix are in good agreement with that of primitive hexagonal ω phase in titanium alloys and other bcc metals or alloys.

  2. Microstructural, Structural, and Thermal Characterization of Annealed Carbon Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Guevara, A.; Ortiz-Echeverri, C. J.; Rojas-Rodriguez, I.; Mosquera-Mosquera, J. C.; Ariza-Calderón, H.; Ayala-Garcia, I.; Rodriguez-García, M. E.

    2016-10-01

    As is well known, the metallurgical microstructure of carbon steel is formed by ferrite and pearlite after the annealing heat treatment. When the cooling rate increases, the diffusive process is interrupted causing a change in the metallurgical microstructure which will affect steel properties. The aim of this work was to study thermal, structural, and microstructural properties of annealed carbon steel samples with four different carbon contents. Crystalline structure and crystalline quality were studied by the X-ray diffraction technique, where the full width at half maximum analysis showed that as the carbon content increased, the crystalline quality decreased. The metallurgical microstructure morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The thermal diffusivity and the heat capacity were determined by the photoacoustic technique and by the thermal relaxation method, respectively. The thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity decreased as the carbon content increased. The amplitude signal of photothermal radiometry increased as the carbon content increased, while the phase signal of photothermal radiometry did not show significant differences among studied carbon steel types. The photoacoustic technique represents an important alternative in the steel characterization field.

  3. Twin structure of the lath martensite in low carbon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhang; Yulin Chen; Wenlong Xiao; Dehai Ping; Xinqing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    It has been well accepted that the martensites in quenched carbon steels exhibit two typical morphol-ogies which are closely dependent on the carbon content, i.e. lath martensite in low carbon steels and lenticular martensite in high carbon steels. Based on conventional belief, the lath martensites in low carbon steels are with high density dislocations as the substructure, in contrast to twin substructure in lenticular high carbon martensite. In the present work, an intensive transmission electron microscopy investigation was made to characterize the microstructures of the lath martensite in a low carbon steel of 0.2 wt%C. It was found that lots of lath martensites consist of twin as their substructure, rather than high density dislocations. In addition, nanoscale precipitates cohering with ferrite matrix were found at the twin interfaces. The orientation relationships between the precipitates and the ferrite matrix are in good agreement with that of primitive hexagonalωphase in titanium alloys and other bcc metals or alloys.&2016 Chinese Materials Research Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access.

  4. Investigation on short-term burst pressure of plastic pipes reinforced by cross helically wound steel wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yang ZHENG; Yong-jian GAO; Xiang LI; Xiu-feng LIN; Yu-bin LU; Yan-cong ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Plastic pipes reinforced by cross helically wound steel wires (PSP), which have exhibited excellent mechanical performance, consist of inner polyethylene (PE) layer, winding layer and outer PE layer. The winding layer is composed of two monolayers where steel wires are cross helically wound. An analytical procedure is developed to predict the short-term burst pressure of PSP as the monolayer is assumed to be elastic and orthotropic. The 3D anisotropic elasticity and Maximum Stress Failure Criterion are employed in the formulation of the elasticity problem. Good agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental data shows that the proposed approach can well predict the short-term burst pressure of PSP.

  5. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingo, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.

  6. Local microstructures, Hardness and mechanical properties of a stainless steel pipe-welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation is carefully performed into the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties of the three zones (the base metal, heat affecting zone and weld metal) of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-welded joint. The local microstructures are observed by a metallurgical test and a surface replica technology, the local hardness values are measures by a random Vickers hardness test, and the local mechanical properties are characterized by the Ramberg-Osgood and modified Ramberg-Osgood stress-stain relations. The investigation reveals that there are significant differences of the three zones in the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the three zones in the local microstructure, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the weld metal. The weld metal exhibits the largest heterogeneity of local microstructures and monotonic mechanical properties, and the largest scatter of local hardness values. It is necessary to consider these difference and introduce the reliability method to model the scatter in the pipe analysis. In addition, it is verified that a columnar grain structure, which is made up of matrix-rich δ ferrite bands, can characterize the weld metal and the distance between the neighboring rich δ ferrite bands is an appropriate measurement of the columnar grain structure. This measurement is in accordance with the transition point between the microstructural short crack and physical small crack stages, which are generally used for characterizing the short fatigue crack behavior of materials. This indicates that the microstructure controls the fatigue damage character of the present material

  7. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe... small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania.\\1\\ We invited... (the Act). \\1\\ See Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure...

  8. Martensite Formation in Partially and Fully Austenitic Plain Carbon Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.; Sietsma, J.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of martensite formation in plain carbon steels Fe-0.46C, Fe-0.66C, and Fe-0.80C has been investigated by dilatometry. It is demonstrated that carbon enrichment of the remaining austenite due to intercritical annealing of Fe-0.46C and Fe-0.66C does not only depress the start temperature

  9. 77 FR 59374 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... standard, line and pressure pipe (under 4\\1/2\\ inches) (hereinafter, ``small diameter pipe'') from Japan... Ltd. (``CNRL), a Canadian exporter of small diameter pipe, which had requested an administrative... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and...

  10. 75 FR 65453 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ...)) steels, high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels... niobium added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with micro...-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil, 64 FR 38756, 38759 (July 19, 1999). On...

  11. Analysis on the deformation and fracture behavior of carbon steel by in situ tensile test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Li; Haibo Huang

    2006-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of low-carbon steel, medium-carbon steel, and high-carbon steel were studied on internal microstructure using the scanning electron microscopy in situ tensile test. The microstructure mechanism of their deformation and fracture behavior was analyzed. The results show that the deformation and fracture behavior of low-carbon steel depends on the grain size of ferrite, the deformation and fracture behavior of medium-carbon steel depends on the size of ferrite grain and pearlite lump,and the deformation and fracture behavior of high-carbon steel depends on the size of pearlite lump and the pearlitic interlamellar spacing.

  12. 78 FR 42039 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low carbon... columbium), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels... Carbon Steel Flat Products from the People's Republic of China, 66 FR 59561 (November 29, 2001)....

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  14. Laser ignition of bulk 1018 carbon steel in pure oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K.; Branch, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to study the ignition characteristics of bulk 1018 carbon steel in a pure oxygen environment. Cylindrical 1018 carbon steel specimens 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm high were ignited by a focused CW CO2 laser beam in a cool, static, pure oxygen environment at oxygen pressures ranging from 0.103 to 6.895 MPa. A two-color pyrometer was designed and used to measure the ignition temperatures of the specimens. The temperature history of a spot approximately 0.5 mm in diameter located at the center of the specimen top surface was recorded with a maximum time resolution of 25 microsec, and with an accuracy of a few percent. Ignition temperature of bulk 1018 carbon steel was identified from the temperature history curve with the aid of the light intensity curve. Results show that 1018 carbon steel specimens ignite at temperatures between 1388 and 1450 K, which are below the melting range of the alloy (1662-1685 K). The ignition temperature of 1018 carbon steel is mildly dependent on oxygen pressure over the range of oxygen pressure investigated in this study.

  15. Ultrafine-grained low carbon steels by severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dobatkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of 0,14% C and 0,1% C - B low-carbon steels taken in two initial states, martensitic and ferritic-pearlitic, were studied after cold equal-channel angular (ECA pressing. ECA pressing leads to the formation of only partially submicrocrystalline structure with a grain size of 150 – 300 nm, depending on the steel alloying and initial state. The finest structure with the elements of 190 nm in size is obtained in the 0,1% C - B steel microalloyed with boron. The strength of the 0,1% C - B steel after cold ECA pressing (Rm = 805-1235 MPa meets the specifications of fasteners of the R80 - R120 strength grade. The strength of the deformed 0,14% C steel is close to the R80 strength grade.

  16. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien

    2014-06-01

    In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 2 year programme aimed at (1) determining the rate of anaerobic corrosion of steel in concrete, (2) investigating the nature of the corrosion products formed on carbon steel embedded in cementitious material under anaerobic conditions and (3) evaluating the effect of hydrogen over-pressures on the rate of anaerobic corrosion. All experiments have been carried out at temperatures in the range 20-300C, ie ambient conditions. 4 refs.; 19 figs.; 6 tabs

  18. MICROBIAL CORROSION OF MILD AND MEDIUM CARBON STEELS

    OpenAIRE

    J. E.O. OVRI; S. I. OKEAHIALAM; O. O. ONYEMAOBI

    2013-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the corrosion of mild and medium carbon steels is reported. The steels were exposed to anaerobic and aerobic, and fresh water (control) environments. The corrosion rates were evaluated at intervals of seven days for a period of 42 days using weight loss and electrochemical methods. The corroded specimens were visually examined and majorities were found to have undergone general corrosion in the three environments (aerobic, anaerobic, and fresh water)....

  19. Development and processing of low carbon bainitic steels

    OpenAIRE

    Suikkanen, P. (Pasi)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this work was to study systematically the effects of composition and processing on austenite grain growth and static recrystallization (SRX) kinetics, austenite decomposition under controlled cooling as well as microstructures, mechanical properties and weldability of hot rolled low carbon bainitic (LCB) steels. The results showed that the coarsening of austenite grain structure is influenced by the chemical composition. Steels with Nb-Ti alloying exhibited fine and uni...

  20. Non-linear finite element-based material constitutive law for zero slump steel fiber reinforced concrete pipe structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylova, Alena

    This study presents a comprehensive investigation of performance and behavior of steel-fiber reinforced concrete pipes (SFRCP). The main goal of this study is to develop the material constitutive model for steel fiber reinforced concrete used in dry-cast application. To accomplish this goal a range of pipe sizes varying from 15 in. (400 mm) to 48 in. (1200 mm) in diameter and fiber content of 0.17%, 0.25%, 0.33%, 0.5%, 0.67% and 83% by volume were produced. The pipes were tested in three-edge bearing condition to obtain the load-deformation response and overall performance of the pipe. The pipes were also subjected to hydrostatic joint and joint shear tests to evaluate the performance of the fiber-pipe joints for water tightness and under differential displacements, respectively. In addition, testing on hardened concrete was performed to obtain the basic mechanical material properties. High variation in the test results for material testing was identified as a part of experimental investigation. A three-dimensional non-linear finite element model of the pipe under the three edge bearing condition was developed to identify the constitutive material relations of fiber-concrete composite. A constitutive model of concrete implementing the concrete plasticity and continuum fracture mechanics was considered for defining the complex non-linear behavior of fiber-concrete. Three main concrete damage algorithms were examined: concrete brittle cracking, concrete damaged plasticity with adaptive meshing technique and concrete damaged plasticity with visco-plastic regularization. The latter was identified as the most robust and efficient to model the post-cracking behavior of fiber reinforced concrete and was used in the subsequent studies. The tension stiffening material constitutive law for composite concrete was determined by converging the FEM solution of load-deformation response with the results of experimental testing. This was achieved by iteratively modifying the non

  1. ESTIMATION OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGEABILITY AT FATIGUE OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Damageability estimation of carbon steel in the conditions of cyclic loading. Methodology. The steel fragments of railway wheel rim and rail head served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65 % С, 0.67 % Mn, 0.3 % Si, 0.027 % P, 0.028 % S и 0.7 % C, 0.82 % Mn, 0.56 % Si, 0.025 % P, 0.029 % S accordingly. The microstructure of tested steels corresponded to the state of metal after a hot plastic deformation. The fatigue research was conducted in the conditions of symmetric bend using the proof-of-concept machine of type «Saturn-10». Full Wohler diagrams and the lines corresponding to forming of sub-and micro cracks were constructed. The distribution analysis of internal stresses in the metal under cyclic loading was carried out using the microhardness tester of PMT-3 type.Findings. On the basis of fatigue curves for high-carbon steels analysis the positions of borders dividing the areas of convertible and irreversible damages were determined. The article shows that with the growth of carbon concentration in the steel at invariability of the structural state an increase of fatigue limit is observed. At the same time the acceleration of processes, which determine transition terms from the stage of forming of submicrocracks to the microcracks occurs. The research of microhardness distribution in the metal after destruction confirmed the nature of carbon amount influence on the carbon steel characteristics. Originality. Regardless on the stages of breakdown site forming the carbon steels behavior at a fatigue is determined by the ration between the processes of strengthening and softening. At a cyclic loading the heterogeneity of internal stresses distribution decreases with the increase of distance from the destruction surface. Analysis of metal internal restructuring processes at fatigue loading made it possible to determine that at the stages prior to incubation period in the metal microvolumes the cells are already

  2. Increasing corrosion resistance of carbon steels by surface laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, V. I.; Yakushin, V. L.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Petrovsky, V. N.; Safonov, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of investigation of the microstructure, elemental composition and corrosion resistance of the samples of low-alloy steel widely used in the engineering, after the application of laser cladding. The level of corrosion damage and the corrosion mechanism of cladded steel samples were established. The corrosion rate and installed discharge observed at the total destruction of cladding were obtained. The regularities of structure formation in the application of different powder compositions were obtained. The optimal powder composition that prevents corrosion of samples of low-carbon low-alloy steel was established.

  3. Development of a robot which inspects inner parts of hydraulic steel pipes. Suiatsu tekkan naibu tenken robot no kaihatsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Masayuki; Taniguchi, Kazuyoshi; Sanemori, Takeshi (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-11-30

    Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. pushes forward energetically the mechanization of investigation, design and operation in order to rationalize the maintenance of equipments and improve work safety. A robot which inspects inner parts of hydraulic steel pipes introduced in this report was investigated and developed as a part of above mechanization. This inspection robot runs in the inner parts of hydraulic steel pipes and inspections of optional positions can be carried out with various inspection equipments loaded on the robot by remote control. The robot{prime}s main body is put in the inner parts of hydraulic steel pipes and the control equipment is put outside. The robot{prime}s main body can be put to pieces of the size and weight that can be carried in through a manhole. Loaded inspection equipments are a visual examination equipment, a still photograph camera, pipe shell thickness measuring and pipe{prime}s internal coating film measuring equipments, and an examination equipment of pin holes in the pipe's internal coating. By the performance confirming test on actual hydraulic steel pipes, it was confirmed that fabrication workability, performance traverse, and inspection capacity of the robot were all sufficiently applicable to actual inspection works. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. MICROBIAL CORROSION OF MILD AND MEDIUM CARBON STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. O. OVRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of bacteria in the corrosion of mild and medium carbon steels is reported. The steels were exposed to anaerobic and aerobic, and fresh water (control environments. The corrosion rates were evaluated at intervals of seven days for a period of 42 days using weight loss and electrochemical methods. The corroded specimens were visually examined and majorities were found to have undergone general corrosion in the three environments (aerobic, anaerobic, and fresh water. The mild steel was found to corrode more than the medium carbon steel in anaerobic environment-mild steel: 6.43×10-4 mpy and -0.93 mV, due to limited available oxygen whilst it had -0.89 mV in aerobic and -0.77 mV in the fresh water. The medium carbon steel had -5.30×10-4 mpy and -0.91 mV in anaerobic: -0.84mV in aerobic and -0.74mV in freshwater.

  5. Dispersion behavior of torsional guided waves in a small diameter steel gas pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghari, B.; Humphrey, V; Moshrefi-Torbati, M.

    2013-01-01

    Condition monitoring of gas pipes has been an important issue for gas companies. Failure to accurately identify condition of gas pipes result in numerous problems. Also, producing a condition monitoring system for buried pipelines is challenging. Small pipes (with diameters less than 50 mm) are considered here as most of the literature focuses on larger pipes. Guided wave theory will be introduced alongside a numerical simulation of the relevant dispersion curves of the system. This paper inv...

  6. Austenite Recrystallization and Controlled Rolling of Low Carbon Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Lin-xiu; ZHANG Zhong-ping; SHE Guang-fu; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic recrystallization and static recrystallization in a low carbon steel were investigated through single-pass and double-pass experiments. The results indicate that as the deformation temperature increases and the strain rate decreases, the shape of the stress-strain curve is changed from dynamic recovery shape to dynamic recrystallization shape. The austenite could not recrystallize within a few seconds after deformation at temperature below 900 ℃. According to the change in microstructure during deformation, the controlled rolling of low carbon steel can be divided into four stages: dynamic recrystallization, dynamic recovery, strain-induced ferrite transformation, and rolling in two-phase region. According to the microstructure after deformation, the controlled rolling of low carbon steel can be divided into five regions: non-recrystallized austenite, partly-recrystallized austenite, fully-recrystallized austenite, austenite to ferrite transformation, and dual phase.

  7. Initial Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Industrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Pan, Chen; Wang, Zhenyao; Yu, Guocai

    2015-02-01

    The initial corrosion behavior of carbon steel subjected to Shenyang industrial atmosphere has been investigated by weight-loss measurement, scanning electron microscopy observation, x-ray diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. The experimental results reveal that the corrosion kinetics of the initial corrosion of carbon steel in industrial atmosphere follows empirical equation D = At n , and there is a corrosion rate transition from corrosion acceleration to deceleration; the corrosion products are composed of γ-FeOOH, α-FeOOH, Fe3O4, as well as FeS which is related to the existence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rust layers. The effect of dust particles on the corrosion evolution of carbon steel has also been discussed.

  8. Metal magnetic memory signals from surface of low-carbon steel and low-carbon alloyed steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li-hong; XU Bin-shi; DONG Shi-yun; YE Ming-hui; CHEN Qun-zhi; WANG Dan; YIN Da-wei

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the regularity of metal magnetic signals of ferromagnetic materials under the effect of applied load, the static tensile test of Q235 steel and 18CrNiWA steel plate specimens were conducted and metal magnetic memory signals of specimens were measured during the test process.The influencing factors of metal magnetic memory signals and the relationship between axial appliedload and signals were analyzed. The fracture and microstructure of the specimens were observed.The results show that the magnetic signals corresponding to the measured points change linearly approximately with increasing axial load.The microstructure of Q235 steel is ferrite and perlite, whereas that of l8CrNiWA steel is bainite and low-carbon martensite.The fracture of these two kinds of specimens is ductile rupture;carbon content of specimen materials and dislocation glide give much contribution to the characterisffcs of magnetic curves.

  9. 76 FR 78882 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Steel Plate From Canada, 66 FR 7617, 7618 (January 24, 2001)) (Canadian Plate), and accompanying Issued... this order is certain hot-rolled products of carbon steel and alloy steel, in coils, of approximately... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative...

  10. Trial manufacturing of titanium-carbon steel composite overpack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Takahiko; Tanai, Kenji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This paper reports the results of design analysis and trial manufacturing of full-scale titanium-carbon steel composite overpacks. The overpack is one of the key components of the engineered barrier system, hence, it is necessary to confirm the applicability of current technique in their manufacture. The required thickness was calculated according to mechanical resistance analysis, based on models used in current nuclear facilities. The Adequacy of the calculated dimensions was confirmed by finite-element methods. To investigate the necessity of a radiation shielding function of the overpack, the irradiation from vitrified waste has been calculated. As a result, it was shown that shielding on handling and transport equipment is a more reasonable and practical approach than to increase thickness of overpack to attain a self-shielding capability. After the above investigation, trial manufacturing of full-scale model of titanium-carbon steel composite overpack has been carried out. For corrosion-resistant material, ASTM Grade-2 titanium was selected. The titanium layer was bonded individually to a cylindrical shell and fiat cover plates (top and bottom) made of carbon steel. For the cylindrical shell portion, a cylindrically formed titanium layer was fitted to the inner carbon steel vessel by shrinkage. For the flat cover plates (top and bottom), titanium plate material was coated by explosive bonding. Electron beam welding and gas metal arc welding were combined to weld of the cover plates to the body. No significant failure was evident from inspections of the fabrication process, and the applicability of current technology for manufacturing titanium-carbon steel composite overpack was confirmed. Future research and development items regarding titanium-carbon steel composite overpacks are also discussed. (author)

  11. Modeling Corrosion Reactions of Steel in a Dilute Carbonate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2016-02-01

    This research models the corrosion reactions of a high-strength steel in an aerated, dilute, carbonate solution during a single-cycle voltammetry. Based on a previous study (Eliyan et al. in J Mater Eng Perform 24(6):1-8, 2015) and a literature survey, the corrosion reactions of the cathodic reduction, anodic dissolution, and passivation, as well as the interfacial interactions and the chemistry of the corrosion products are illustrated in schematics. The paper provides a visual guide on the corrosion reactions for steel in carbonate solutions based on the available mechanistic details that were reported and are still being investigated in literature.

  12. Measurement of fatigue crack growth rate in pipe and pipe weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striation spacing on the fracture surface developed during fatigue crack growth in pipes and pipe welds have been examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Striation spacing was measured on the fracture surface in maximum depth (radial) and surface (circumferential) direction at several locations. Striation spacing increases with crack growth in thickness (depth) direction of pipe and pipe weld. Local direction of striation spacing is different from the global direction of crack growth in cracked pipe. Striation spacing was compared with the conventionally evaluated crack growth rate where crack growth was measured using Alternate Current Potential Difference (ACPD) based instrument. Striation spacing is marginally lower for carbon steel and higher for stainless steel in comparison to da/dN in the Paris regime (evaluated from 'a Vs N' plot). Striation spacing form fracture surface of pipe was also compared with those measured on CT specimen. (author)

  13. Volatile corrosion inhibitor film formation on carbon steel surface and its inhibition effect on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI), bis-piperidiniummethyl-urea (BPMU), was developed for temporary protection of carbon steel. Its vapor corrosion inhibition property was evaluated under simulated operational conditions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to study the inhibition effect of BPMU on the corrosion of carbon steel with a thin stimulated atmospheric corrosion water layers. Adsorption of BPMU on carbon steel surfaces was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that BPMU can form a protective film on the metal surface, which protects the metal against further corrosion. The structure of the protective film was suggested as one BPMU molecule chelated with one Fe atom to form a complex with two hexa-rings

  14. Volatile corrosion inhibitor film formation on carbon steel surface and its inhibition effect on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-quan; An, Zhong-xun; Pan, Qing-yi; Gao, Li-xin; Zhou, Guo-ding

    2006-11-01

    A novel volatile corrosion inhibitor (VCI), bis-piperidiniummethyl-urea (BPMU), was developed for temporary protection of carbon steel. Its vapor corrosion inhibition property was evaluated under simulated operational conditions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to study the inhibition effect of BPMU on the corrosion of carbon steel with a thin stimulated atmospheric corrosion water layers. Adsorption of BPMU on carbon steel surfaces was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that BPMU can form a protective film on the metal surface, which protects the metal against further corrosion. The structure of the protective film was suggested as one BPMU molecule chelated with one Fe atom to form a complex with two hexa-rings.

  15. 75 FR 18153 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1, 2008... Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). The preliminary results for this... the record. See Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe...

  16. Effect of Saturated CO2 on Corrosion Behavior of 13Cr Pipe Steel in High Chloride Environment%高氯环境中饱和CO2对13Cr油管钢腐蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷冰; 马元泰; 李瑛; 王福会; 常泽亮; 谢俊峰; 宋文文; 周理志

    2013-01-01

    The effect of saturated CO2 on corrosion behavior of 13Cr pipe steel in high concentration chloride environment was studied by EIS, polarization test, EN test and SEM. The results indicated that the corrosion rate and corrosion probability of 13Cr pipe steel were accelerated in high chloride environment with the presence of saturated CO2. The 13Cr pipe steel suffered from pitting corrosion in high chloride concentration environment, whilst, from uniform corrosion by the synergistic effect of Cl and CO2. The stability of the passive film of 13Cr pipe steel decreased in high concentration chloride environment with saturated CO2, which can be explained by the dehydroxylation of the outer part of the passive film by carbonic acid and the increase of ionic conductivity of the passive film in aqueous electrolytes.%采用电化学阻抗(EIS)、极化曲线、电化学噪声(EN)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)研究了高氯环境中饱和CO2对13Cr油管钢腐蚀行为的影响.结果表明:饱和CO2加速材料的腐蚀,增大了腐蚀的发生频率,使材料的腐蚀由点蚀转变为均匀腐蚀.碳酸对钝化膜的去羟基化作用和增大钝化膜的导通率,是材料腐蚀行为变化的原因.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Modeling Residual Stress Distribution in All-position Duplex Stainless Steel Welded Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun JIN; Lixing HUO; Yufeng ZHANG; Bingren BAI; Xiaowei LI; Jun CAO

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the thermal-elastic-plastic theory, a three-dimensional finite element numerical simulation is performed on the girth welded residual stresses of the duplex stainless steel pipe with ANSYS nonlinear finite element program for the first time. Three-dimensional FEM using mobile heat source for analysis transient temperature field and welding stress field in circumferential joint of pipes is founded. Distributions of axial and hoop residual stresses of the joint are investigated. The axial and the hoop residual stresses at the weld and weld vicinity on inner surface of pipes are tensile, and they are gradually transferred into compressive with the increase of the departure from the weld. The axial residual stresses at the weld and weld vicinity on outer surface of pipes is compressive while the hoop one is tensile. The distributions of residual stresses compared positive-circle with negative-circle show distinct symmetry. These results provide theoretical knowledge for the optimization of process and the control of welding residual stresses.

  18. Corrosion behavior of carbon steels under tuff repository environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon steels may be used for borehole liners in a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff in Nevada. Borehole liners are needed to facilitate emplacement of the waste packages and to facilitate retrieval of the packages, if required. Corrosion rates of low carbon structural steels AISI 1020 and ASTM A-36 were determined in J-13 well water and in saturated steam at 1000C. Tests were conducted in air-sparged J-13 water to attain more oxidizing conditions representative of irradiated aqueous environments. A limited number of irradiation corrosion and stress corrosion tests were performed. Chromium-molybdenum alloy steels and cast irons were also tested. These materials showed lower general corrosion but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when welded. 4 references, 4 tables

  19. Oxidation of ultra low carbon and silicon bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Lucia [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lucia.suarez@ctm.com.es; Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: pablo.rodriguez@ctm.com.es; Houbaert, Yvan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Yvan.Houbaert@UGent.be; Colas, Rafael [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)], E-mail: rcolas@mail.uanl.mx

    2010-06-15

    Oxidation tests were carried out in samples from an ultra low carbon and two silicon bearing steels to determine the distribution and morphology of the oxide species present. The ultra low carbon steel was oxidized for short periods of time within a chamber designed to obtain thin oxide layers by controlling the atmosphere, and for longer times in an electric furnace; the silicon steels were reheated only in the electric furnace. The chamber was constructed to study the behaviour encountered during the short period of time between descaling and rolling in modern continuous mills. It was found that the oxide layers formed on the samples reheated in the electric furnace were made of different oxide species. The specimens treated in the chamber had layers made almost exclusively of wustite. Selected oxide samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy to obtain electron backscattered diffraction patterns, which were used to identify the oxide species in the layer.

  20. Atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel in the prairie regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, W.J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Andersson, J.I. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A study of atmospheric corrosion and carbon steel located in the prairie regions of Canada was presented. The study considered corrosion behaviour as well as the standards currently used to establish and predict corrosion in atmospheric conditions. The aim of the study was to develop an accurate predictive method of establishing corrosion amounts over time. The controlling parameters for atmospheric corrosion included acidic rainfall; temperature and humidity; time of wetness; and the presence of major contaminants such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). The predictive approach involved the study of a protective film of magnetite iron oxide that establishes itself on carbon steel over time. The presence of the film provides increased atmospheric corrosion resistance. An analysis of the atmospheric corrosion of steel tanks at the Hardisty terminal was used to demonstrate the method. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. 76 FR 66901 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with...'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low carbon steels with... Rescind the Review, 76 FR 48143 (August 8, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). ] DATES: Effective...

  2. 75 FR 4779 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... (HSLA) steels. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with micro-alloying levels of elements such as...-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Japan, 64 FR 24329 (May 6, 1999). In Nippon Steel... Value: Certain Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy, 64 FR 41213 (July 29,...

  3. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of laser dissimilar welding of carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouie Esfahani, M. R.; Coupland, J.; Marimuthu, S.

    2015-07-01

    This study reports an experimental and numerical investigation on controlling the microstructure and brittle phase formation during laser dissimilar welding of carbon steel to austenitic stainless steel. The significance of alloying composition and cooling rate were experimentally investigated. The investigation revealed that above a certain specific point energy the material within the melt pool is well mixed and the laser beam position can be used to control the mechanical properties of the joint. The heat-affected zone within the high-carbon steel has significantly higher hardness than the weld area, which severely undermines the weld quality. A sequentially coupled thermo-metallurgical model was developed to investigate various heat-treatment methodology and subsequently control the microstructure of the HAZ. Strategies to control the composition leading to dramatic changes in hardness, microstructure and service performance of the dissimilar laser welded fusion zone are discussed.

  4. Optimization of Friction Welding Process Parameters for Joining Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel%Optimization of Friction Welding Process Parameters for Joining Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Paventhan; P R Lakshminarayanan; V Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Friction weIding is a solid state joining process used extensively currently owing to its advantages such as low heat input, high production efficiency, ease of manufacture, and environment friendliness. Materials difficult to be welded by fusion welding processes can be successfully welded by friction welding. An attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the tensile strength of friction welded AISI 1040 grade medium carbon steel and AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel, incorporating the process parameters such as friction pressure, forging pressure, friction time and forging time, which have great influence on strength of the joints. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the friction welding process parameters to attain maximum tensile strength of the joint. The maximum tensile strength of 543 MPa could be obtained for the joints fabricated under the welding conditions of friction pressure of 90 MPa, forging pressure of 90 MPa, friction time of 6 s and forging time of 6 s.

  5. Microbial corrosion of carbon steel by sulfate-reducing bacteria:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements (EIS and DC-polarisation curves) have been conducted on carbon steel coupons exposed in SRB-active environments. Results from EIS measurements show that very large interfacial capacities are found in such systems, and consequently high capacitive currents are to be ex...

  6. Carbon distribution in bainitic steel subjected to deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu. F., E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Nikitina, E. N., E-mail: Nikitina-EN@mail.ru; Gromov, V. E., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Analysis of the formation and evolution of carbide phase in medium carbon steel with a bainitic structure during compressive deformation was performed by means of transmission electron diffraction microscopy. Qualitative transformations in carbide phase medium size particles, their density and volume concentration depended on the degree of deformation.

  7. Vanadium Effect on a Medium Carbon Forging Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the influence of vanadium on the hardenability and the bainitic transformation of a medium carbon steel is analyzed. While V in solid solution enhances the former, it hardly affects bainitic transformation. The results also reveal an unexpected result, an increase of the prior austenite grain size as the V content increases.

  8. Laser-ultrasonic absorption measurements in low carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, A.; Lord, M.; Levesque, D.; Dubois, M.; Bussiere, J.F. [Institut des Materiaux Industriels, Boucherville, Que. (Canada)

    2000-09-28

    We have refined the contactless laser-ultrasound reverberation technique to measure ultrasonic absorption on small metallic samples. In this technique, a sample is supported by a holder which is ultrasonically decoupled from the sample. A pulsed laser is used to generate an acoustic pulse. After the pulse has mode converted and scattered sufficiently to fully insonify the sample, the decrease in the noise-like ultrasonic signal is recorded as a function of time using a laser-interferometer. A joint time-frequency analysis technique is used to extract an absorption spectrum from the signal. In this paper, the technique is demonstrated in a frequency bandwidth ranging from 1 to 7 MHz, and in a dynamic range of 0.003 to 0.3 dB {mu}s{sup -1}. Measurements made on samples of three low-carbon steel grades, namely ultra low carbon (ULC), low carbon (LC), and high strength, low-alloy steels (HSLA), clearly show that ultrasonic absorption varies with steel grade. The technique was utilized to study the effect of a magnetic field on the ultrasonic absorption of an annealed ultra low carbon steel sample. It was found that magnetoelastic effects are responsible for a large fraction of the total absorption. (orig.)

  9. Carbon distribution in bainitic steel subjected to deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the formation and evolution of carbide phase in medium carbon steel with a bainitic structure during compressive deformation was performed by means of transmission electron diffraction microscopy. Qualitative transformations in carbide phase medium size particles, their density and volume concentration depended on the degree of deformation

  10. Analysis of a premature failure of welded AISI316L stainless steel pipes originated by microbial induced corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, E.; Bastidas, J.M.; Lopez, V. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-07-01

    This paper analyses the causes of the premature failure of welded AISI 316L stainless steel (ss) pipes which formed part of a sea water cooling circuit. The service time of the pipes was 8 months. The laboratory tests carried out consisted of metallography tests, {delta}-ferrite determination, intergranular corrosion susceptibility, cyclic anodic polarization curves, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The study presents typical forms of microbial induced corrosion (MIC) in AISI 308L and 316L ss in contact with natural sea water. The research is completed with the performance of bacteriological tests which demonstrate that the bacteria which cause the localized corrosion are of the sulphate-reducing genus ``desulfovibrio`` and the sulphide-oxidizing genus ``thiocapsa``. (orig.) 17 refs.

  11. Experimental performance of a waste heat recovery and utilization system with a looped water-in-steel heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, M.H.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.S.H.; El-Kalay, A.K. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    An experimental facility is described for the recovery, by means of heat-pipes, of waste-heat from exhaust gases, and the utilization of the recovered energy to cool ambient air. To this end, heat of combustion gases, generated in a stainless-steel combustion chamber, is recovered from the stack by means of a heat-pipe system. The recovered heat is utilized to run a modified commercial aqua-ammonia absorption chiller. Chilled water from the chiller is supplied to a fan-coil type cooling tunnel to cool the intake air of a (conceptual) gas turbine engine to boost its performance. It is concluded from test results that the experimental facility performs well, and that it behaves as predicted by modeling and simulation studies. The system is able to extract between 70 and 93% of the technically recoverable energy from exhaust gases, and utilizes the extracted energy to cool air. (Author)

  12. Study of Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Pipe Steel welded by Hybrid (Friction Stir Weld + Root Arc Weld) Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yong Chae [ORNL; Sanderson, Samuel [MegaStir Technologies LLC; Mahoney, Murray [Consultant; Wasson, Andrew J [ExxonMobil, Upstream Research Company (URC); Fairchild, Doug P [ExxonMobil, Upstream Research Company (URC); Wang, Yanli [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has recently attracted attention as an alternative construction process for gas/oil transportation applications due to advantages compared to fusion welding techniques. A significant advantage is the ability of FSW to weld the entire or nearly the entire wall thickness in a single pass, while fusion welding requires multiple passes. However, when FSW is applied to a pipe or tube geometry, an internal back support anvil is required to resist the plunging forces exerted during FSW. Unfortunately, it may not be convenient or economical to use internal backing support due to limited access for some applications. To overcome this issue, ExxonMobil recently developed a new concept, combining root arc welding and FSW. That is, a root arc weld is made prior to FSW that supports the normal loads associated with FSW. In the present work, mechanical properties of a FSW + root arc welded pipe steel are reported including microstructure and microhardness.

  13. Comprehensive Application of Steel Reinforced Concrete Jacking Pipe and Sand Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Pipe%钢筋混凝土管顶管与夹砂玻璃钢管的综合应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李之国

    2009-01-01

    该文介绍了采用DN2200钢筋混凝土管作为穿越管道进行顶管施工,然后在钢筋混凝土管内安装DNl800承插式夹砂玻璃钢管相结合的施工方法.此施工方法可有效地解决埋深较大的市政污水压力管道工程的施工技术问题.现供从事市政污水压力管道工程施工的同行参考.%The article introduces the construction of jacking pipe by using DN2200 steel reinforced concrete pipe as the crossing pipe, and the construction method of then installing DN1800 socket-and-spigot sand glass fiber reinforced plastic pipe into the steel reinforced concrete pipe. This construction method can efficiently solve the construction technical problems of the deeper embedded municipal sewage pressure pipe, which can provide the reference for the construction of the municipal sewage pressure pipe.

  14. The tensile capacity of steel pipe piles drilled into the bedrock

    OpenAIRE

    Sirén, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This Master’s thesis focuses on drilled pipe piles and their ability to transfer tensile forces. The tensile forces affecting pile foundations are usually transferred to the bedrock by rock anchors. If drilled pipe piles could transfer some of these tension forces, foundation work would be faster, easier and more cost-effective. This thesis is a continuation of a study published in 2014, which also investigated the tensile capacity of drilled pipe piles. This thesis consists of two main ...

  15. 爬行式钢管外表面打磨器%Outer Surface Grinders of Crawl Type Steel Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小琳; 熊健祥; 胡庆乐; 李克天

    2015-01-01

    Design and development of a crawling tube-polished outer surface descaling. Main building of c-shaped structure, easy handling in the pipe. Three angles of grinding head is installed, run back and forth than a 120-degree angle, 360 degree synthesized steel pipe outer surface grinding operations. Through two sets of alternating electromagnets clamping device for clamping,with the screw drive and kickback operation realized Sanders on the steel pipe creep feed. The device can be applied to the outer surface of metal pipe dangling erection and protective railings rust sanding of metal tubes.%设计开发了一种爬行式钢管外表面除锈打磨器。主体结构采用C字形结构,容易在钢管上装卸。三个等角度安装的打磨头,各往复运行大于120°,合成360°的钢管外表面的打磨作业。通过两套电磁铁夹持装置的交替夹持,配合螺杆正程和反程运转,实现打磨器在钢管上的爬行进给。该装置可应用于悬空架设的金属管道外表面和金属管防护栏杆的除锈打磨工作。

  16. Erosion Effect of Molten Steel on Carbon Containing Refractories for Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxia; YANG Bin; LIU Guoqi; CHENG Hepeng

    2007-01-01

    The erosion resistance of carbon containing refractories for continuous casting to molten steel was investigated by means of simulative erosion test and examining used refractories.Decolonization and reaction between molten steel and decolonization layer are main erosion process of carbon containing refractories by1 molten steel.The reactions between molten steel and oxide in refractories determine the thickness of decarbonization layer A dense layer formation on the working surface contacting with molten steel during casting will suppress decarbonization and erosion process.

  17. Market Demand Forecast and Analysis on China Steel Pipe in 2013%2013年中国钢管市场需求预测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭在美

    2013-01-01

    In this article,it summarized macro-economic situation of the world and China in 2013,and forecasted the growth of world economic will be increased by 3.6%,the China GDP will be enhanced by 8%,the growth of steel consumption will be increased by 4%.Based on this,it predicted the growth rate of China steel pipe is 3%,the foreign trade growth rate of steel pipe is 4%.In view of the above,it forecasted that the market demand of China steel pipe is 7 800×104 t,including 2 900×104 t seamless steel pipe,4 900×104 t welded pipe; the total exported amounts is 920×104 t,including 540×104 t seamless steel pipe,380×104 t welded pipe.It also analyzed the market demand situations of 14 industries of steel pipe application in 2013,and expatiated China steel pipe industry how to adapt to market demand.%概述了2013年世界及中国宏观经济形势,预测世界经济增长3.6%,中国GDP增长8%,中国钢材消费量增长4%,由此判断中国钢管消费量增长3%,钢管出口增长4%,据此推算,2013年中国钢管市场需求约为7 800×104t,其中无缝管为2 900×104t,焊管为4 900×104t;钢管出口为920×104t,其中无缝管为540×104t,焊管为380×104 t.分析了14个主要钢管应用行业2013年的市场需求情况,并对中国钢管行业如何适应市场需求进行了阐述.

  18. Uniaxial Fatigue of HDPE-100 Pipe. Experimental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Djebli, A.; A. Aid; M. Bendouba; Talha, A.; Benseddiq, N.; M. Benguediab; S. Zengah

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental analysis for determining the fatigue strength of PE-100, one of the most used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) materials for pipes, under cyclic axial loadings is presented. HDPE is a thermoplastic material used for piping systems, such as natural gas distribution systems, sewer systems and cold water systems, which provides a good alternative to metals such as cast iron or carbon steel. One of the causes for failures of HDPE pipes is fatigue which is the result...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... piping by means of seamless steel pipe expansion bends. Special consideration will be given for packless... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of...

  20. Cracking in stabilized austenitic stainless steel piping of German boiling water reactors - characteristic features and root cause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cracks have been found in the welds of piping systems made from stabilized austenitic stainless steels in German boiling water reactors (BWR). In the course of the intensive failure analysis metallographic examinations, microstructural investigations by electron microscopy, corrosion experiments and welding tests have been performed. The results show that cracking under the given medium conditions is due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in those parts of the heat affected zone (HAZ) which are overheated during welding and where solution of titanium carbides and subsequent precipitation of chromium carbides and depletion of chromium along the affected grain boundaries could occur. (orig.)

  1. FLOW PATTERN AND PRESSURE LOSS OF OIL-WATER TWO-PHASE FLOW IN HORIZONTAL STEEL PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; YAN Da-fan; ZHAO Jing-mei; AN Wei-jie; YAN Da-chun

    2005-01-01

    Experimental Study on oil-water two-phase flow patterns and pressure loss was conducted on a horizontal steel pipe loop with 26.1mm inner diameter and 30m total length.The working fluids are white oil, diesel oil and tap water.Several instruments, including a new type of liquid-probe are successfully integrated to identify 7 different flow patterns.The characteristics of the flow patterns and the transition process were observed and depicted in this paper.Investigation revealed that the pressure loss was mainly depended on the flow patterns.

  2. Elastic Sag Property of Low Carbon Martensite Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye-sheng; CHEN Mi-song; WU Zi-ping; ZHU Yin-lu; DUO Tie-yun

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the elastic sag resistance of new low-carbon martensite spring steel 35Si2CrVB developed recently and points out that the cause of elastic sag is attributed to cyclic softening of spring steel engendered during its serving,also considers that elastic sag property should be evaluated by dynamic mechanical properties of spring material such as dynamic yield strength σ'0.2, ratio of dynamic yield strength σ'0.2 vs. tensile strength σb (σ'0.2/σb) and ratio of dynamic yield strength σ' 0.2vs. static yield strengthσ0.2 (σ'0.2/σ0. 2 )etc. , which are measured by the cyclic stress-strain curve test. Compared with conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, 35Si2CrVB has good advantages in both dynamic and static properties, which show it possesses higher elastic sag resistance than 60Si2MnA because of its lath-martensite structure tempering in low temperature different from 60Si2MnA steel's plate martensite structure tempering inmedium temperature. So it can be demonstrated that low carbon martensite spring steel is more appropriate for the demands of spring.

  3. Weldability of Low Carbon Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mei; LI Lin; FU Ren-yu; ZHANG Ji-cheng; WAN Zi

    2008-01-01

    Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel exhibited high or rather high carbon equivalent (CE) because of its chemical composition,which was a particularly detrimental factor affecting weldability of steels.Thus the weldability of a TRIP steel (grade 600) containing (in mass percent,%) 0.11C-1.19Si-1.67Mn was extensively studied.The mechanical properties and impact toughness of butt joint,the welding crack susceptibility of weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) for tee joint,control thermal severity (CTS) of the welded joint,and Y shape 60° butt joint were measured after the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) test.The tensile strength of the weld was higher than 700 Mpa.Both in the fusion zone (FZ) and HAZ for butt joint,the impact toughness was much higher than 27 J,either at room temperature or at -20 ℃,indicating good low temperature impact ductility of the weld of TRIP 600 steel.In addition,welding crack susceptibility tests revealed that weldments were free of surface crack and other imperfection.All experimental results of this steel showed fairly good weldability.For application,the crossmember in automobile made of this steel exhibited excellent weldability,and fatigue and durability tests were also accomplished for crossmember assembly.

  4. Intragranular ferrite in inoculated low-carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoculated low-carbon plate steels have been developed which provide improved low temperature toughness compared with conventional HSLA steels, and also exhibit better weldability with high heat input welding processes. These characteristics make inoculated steels suitable for large structures in severe environments. The improved toughness and weldability are attributed to the formation of microstructures containing fine, intragranular ferrite which nucleates on inclusion dispersions, similar to acicular ferrite formation in weld metals. The development of various inoculated steels is described and the role of inclusions in intragranular ferrite formation is reviewed. The primary role of inclusions is to provide heterogeneous nucleation sites, but nucleation appears to be enhanced to a certain extent by a number of other phenomena at the inclusion surface. Various phases have been shown to enhance intragranular ferrite nucleation, and the most effective of these for inoculation of plate steels are phases rich in titanium and oxygen. Inoculated Ti-O steels have found limited commercial acceptance, but further development depends on achievement of reliable steelmaking technology to optimise microstructural control with particles

  5. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  6. Effect of Thermal Shock During Legionella Bacteria Removal on the Corrosion Properties of Zinc-Coated Steel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, Juliusz; Ryl, Jacek; Jazdzewska, Agata; Krakowiak, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct the failure analysis of a water-supply system made from zinc-coated steel. The observed corrosion process had an intense and complex character. The brownish deposits and perforations were present after 2-3 years of exploitation. The electrochemical study based on the Tafel polarization, corrosion potential monitoring, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with microscopic analysis via SEM and EDX were performed in order to identify the cause of such intense corrosion. The performed measurements allowed us to determine that thermal shock was the source of polarity-reversal phenomenon. This process had begun the corrosion of steel which later led to the formation of deposits and perforations in the pipes. The work includes appropriate action in order to efficiently identify the described corrosion threat.

  7. Bauschinger Effect in Microalloyed Steels: Part II. Influence of Work Softening on Strength Development During UOE Line-Pipe Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostryzhev, Andrii G.; Strangwood, Martin; Davis, Claire L.

    2011-10-01

    The Bauschinger effect (a reduced yield stress at the start of reverse deformation following forward prestrain) is an important factor of strength development for cold metal forming technology. In steels, the magnitude of the Bauschinger effect depends on composition, through the presence of microalloy precipitates, and prior processing, through the size and distribution of the microalloy precipitates and the presence of retained work hardening. In this article, the parameters of the Bauschinger effect and work hardening (coefficient and exponent) in forward and reverse deformations were quantitatively related to the particle number density and dislocation density for two high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels. An example of the application of the obtained dependences is discussed with respect to the strength development during UOE forming of large diameter line pipes.

  8. Burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipes subject to combined axial tension, internal pressure and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipe is measured under combined internal pressure, external axial tension and elevated temperature up to 160 °C. The experimental results are compared with existing burst pressure prediction models. Existing models are found to provide reasonable estimate of the burst pressure at room temperature but significantly over estimate the burst pressure at elevated temperature. Increasing externally applied axial stress and elevated temperature reduces the pressure capacity. - Highlights: • The burst pressure of super duplex steel is measured under combined loading. • Effect of elevated temperature on burst pressure is determined. • Burst pressure decreases with increasing temperature. • Existing models are reliable at room temperature. • Burst strength at elevated temperature is lower than predictions

  9. Anticorrosive Influence of Acetobacter aceti Biofilms on Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Danielle Cook

    2016-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel infrastructure is an emerging environmental and cost issue for the ethanol fuel industry, yet its examination lacks rigorous quantification of microbiological parameters that could reveal effective intervention strategies. To quantitatively characterize the effect of cell concentration on MIC of carbon steel, numbers of bacteria exposed to test coupons were systematically controlled to span four orders of magnitude throughout a seven-day test. The bacterium studied, Acetobacter aceti, has been found in ethanol fuel environments and can convert ethanol to the corrosive species acetic acid. A. aceti biofilms formed during the test were qualitatively evaluated with fluorescence microscopy, and steel surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. During exposure, biofilms developed more quickly, and test reactor pH decreased at a faster rate, when cell exposure was higher. Resulting corrosion rates, however, were inversely proportional to cell exposure, indicating that A. aceti biofilms are able to protect carbon steel surfaces from corrosion. This is a novel demonstration of corrosion inhibition by an acid-producing bacterium that occurs naturally in corrosive environments. Mitigation techniques for MIC that harness the power of microbial communities have the potential to be scalable, inexpensive, and green solutions to industrial problems.

  10. Anticorrosive Influence of Acetobacter aceti Biofilms on Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Danielle Cook

    2016-09-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel infrastructure is an emerging environmental and cost issue for the ethanol fuel industry, yet its examination lacks rigorous quantification of microbiological parameters that could reveal effective intervention strategies. To quantitatively characterize the effect of cell concentration on MIC of carbon steel, numbers of bacteria exposed to test coupons were systematically controlled to span four orders of magnitude throughout a seven-day test. The bacterium studied, Acetobacter aceti, has been found in ethanol fuel environments and can convert ethanol to the corrosive species acetic acid. A. aceti biofilms formed during the test were qualitatively evaluated with fluorescence microscopy, and steel surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. During exposure, biofilms developed more quickly, and test reactor pH decreased at a faster rate, when cell exposure was higher. Resulting corrosion rates, however, were inversely proportional to cell exposure, indicating that A. aceti biofilms are able to protect carbon steel surfaces from corrosion. This is a novel demonstration of corrosion inhibition by an acid-producing bacterium that occurs naturally in corrosive environments. Mitigation techniques for MIC that harness the power of microbial communities have the potential to be scalable, inexpensive, and green solutions to industrial problems.

  11. Development of Rapid Pipe Moulding Process for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Direct Resistance Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuto; Harada, Ryuki; Uemura, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutao; Kuwahara, Hideyuki

    To deal with environmental issues, the gasoline mileage of passenger cars can be improved by reduction of the car weight. The use of car components made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is increasing because of its superior mechanical properties and relatively low density. Many vehicle structural parts are pipe-shaped, such as suspension arms, torsion beams, door guard bars and impact beams. A reduction of the car weight is expected by using CFRP for these parts. Especially, when considering the recyclability and ease of production, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics are a prime candidate. On the other hand, the moulding process of CFRTP pipes for mass production has not been well established yet. For this pipe moulding process an induction heating method has been investigated already, however, this method requires a complicated coil system. To reduce the production cost, another system without such complicated equipment is to be developed. In this study, the pipe moulding process of CFRTP using direct resistance heating was developed. This heating method heats up the mould by Joule heating using skin effect of high-frequency current. The direct resistance heating method is desirable from a cost perspective, because this method can heat the mould directly without using any coils. Formerly developed Non-woven Stitched Multi-axial Cloth (NSMC) was used as semi-product material. NSMC is very suitable for the lamination process due to the fact that non-crimp stitched carbon fiber of [0°/+45°/90°/-45°] and polyamide 6 non-woven fabric are stitched to one sheet, resulting in a short production cycle time. The use of the pipe moulding process with the direct resistance heating method in combination with the NSMC, has resulted in the successful moulding of a CFRTP pipe of 300 mm in length, 40 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.

  12. MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING OF CAUSTIC CRACKING OF CARBON STEELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diaz, B.; Roy, A.

    2009-10-19

    Liquid waste generated by the PUREX process for separation of nuclear materials is concentrated and stored in Type IV single-shell carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Type IV tanks for this waste do not have cooling coils and have not undergone heat treatment to stress-relieve the tanks. After the waste is concentrated by evaporation, it becomes very alkaline and can cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and pitting corrosion of the tank materials. SRS has experienced leakage from non-stress-relieved waste tanks constructed of A285 carbon steel and pitting of A212 carbon steel tanks in the vapor space. An investigation of tank materials has been undertaken at SRS to develop a basic understanding of caustic SCC of A285 and A212 grade carbon steels exposed to aqueous solutions, primarily containing sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}), and sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) at temperatures relevant to the operating conditions of both the F and H area plants. This report presents the results of this corrosion testing program. Electrochemical tests were designed using unstressed coupons in a simulated tank environment. The purpose of this testing was to determine the corrosion susceptibility of the tank materials as a function of chemical concentration, pH, and temperature. A285 and A516 (simulates A212 carbon steel) coupons were used to investigate differences in the corrosion of these carbon steels. Electrochemical testing included measurement of the corrosion potential and polarization resistance as well as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) testing of coupons. From the CPP experiments, corrosion characteristics were determined including: corrosion potential (E{sub corr}), pitting or breakdown potential (E{sub pit}), and repassivation potential (E{sub prot}). CPP results showed no indications of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and all samples showed the formation of a stable passive layer as evidenced by the positive

  13. Acoustic emission reviling and danger level evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breakdowns and catastrophic damage occurring during the operation of nuclear power stations pipelines cause substantial economic and social loss annually throughout the world. Stress corrosion, vibration, fatigue, erosion, water shock, dynamic load, construction defects/errors are the main causes of pipes failures. For these reasons and in view of the age of nuclear power station pipes, there is an increased interest in finding means to prevent potential pipe failures. Nevertheless, statistical data of pipe failures continues to show significant numbers of accidents mainly due to stress corrosion cracking (about 65-80% of total number). To this end, a complex of investigations was carried out for the reliable AE diagnosis of pipes undergone stress corrosion cracking. These include: finding AE indications (fingerprints) of flaws developing in the metal in original condition as well as in metal subjected to stress corrosion; preparing AE criteria for evaluating the danger level of defects. (author)

  14. Study on Automatic Welding Technology of 16Mn Steel Round Steel Pipe%16Mn钢圆管自动焊接工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠科; 王小龙; 王希靖; 向凯

    2014-01-01

    At present, the small diameter thin wall thickness round steel pipes are usually welded by hand butt welding, in order to improve production efficiency and stabilize welding quality, adopting TIG pipeline automatic welding machine to weld 16Mn steel small diameter round pipe. In this article, it researched the influence rule of welding current and group gap on metallographic structure and mechanical properties of 16Mn steel small diameter round pipe. The result showed that the quality of 16Mn steel joints are the best when the welding current is 90 A and the group gap is 1.0 mm. The joint tensile strength of 1.0mm gap is higher than that of 1.5 mm gap, and the former is with better toughness. A small amount of pearlite and strip ferrite formed in the fusion zone are the main reason for other properties deviation.%针对目前小直径薄壁圆管多采用手工对接焊的现状,以提高生产效率和稳定焊接质量为目的,采用TIG管道自动焊接机实现了16Mn钢小直径圆管的焊接,研究了焊接电流和组对间隙对16Mn小直径薄壁圆管焊接接头的金相组织及力学性能的影响规律。研究结果表明,当焊接电流为90 A,组对间隙为1.0 mm时,16Mn钢焊接接头的质量最好;在组对间隙为1.0 mm时接头抗拉强度高于组对间隙为1.5 mm的抗拉强度,并且前者焊缝具有较好的韧性;熔合区中形成的少量珠光体和条状铁素体是其性能变差的主要原因。

  15. Low Carbon Steel Processed by Equal Channel Angular Warm Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrnik, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel AISI 10 was subjected to a severe plastic deformation technique called Equal Angular Channel Pressing (ECAP at different increased temperatures. The steel was subjected to ECAP with channel’s angle j = 90°, at different temperature in range of 150 - 300 °C. The number of passes at each temperature was N = 3. Light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM of thin foils were used to study the formation of substructure and ultrafine grains in deformed specimens. The size of newly born polygonized grains (subgrains and/or submicrocrystalline grains is in range of 300 - 500 mm. The formation of such of predominant submicrocrystalline structure resulted in significant increase of yield stress [Re] and tensile strength of the steel [Rm].

  16. Effects of tempering on internal friction of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyos, J.J., E-mail: jjhoyos@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Ciencia y Tecnologia de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Carrera 80 Numero 65-223, Medellin (Colombia); Ghilarducci, A.A., E-mail: friccion@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Instituto Balseiro-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche RN (Argentina); Salva, H.R., E-mail: salva@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Instituto Balseiro-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche RN (Argentina); Chaves, C.A., E-mail: cachaves@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Ciencia y Tecnologia de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Carrera 80 Numero 65-223, Medellin (Colombia); Velez, J.M., E-mail: jmvelez@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Ciencia y Tecnologia de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Carrera 80 Numero 65-223, Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Time tempering dependent microstructure of two steels is studied by internal friction. {yields} Internal friction indicates the interactions of dislocations with carbon and carbides. {yields} Internal friction detects the first stage of tempering. {yields} Precipitation hardening is detected by the decrease in the background. - Abstract: Two steels containing 0.626 and 0.71 wt.% carbon have been studied to determine the effects of tempering on the microstructure and the internal friction. The steels were annealed at 1093 K, quenched into water and tempered for 60 min at 423 K, 573 K and 723 K. The increase of the tempering time diminishes the martensite tetragonality due to the redistribution of carbon atoms from octahedrical interstitial sites to dislocations. Internal friction spectrum is decomposed into five peaks and an exponential background, which are attributed to the carbide precipitation and the dislocation relaxation process. Simultaneous presence of peaks P1 and P2 indicates the interaction of dislocations with the segregated carbon and carbide precipitate.

  17. Effects of tempering on internal friction of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Time tempering dependent microstructure of two steels is studied by internal friction. → Internal friction indicates the interactions of dislocations with carbon and carbides. → Internal friction detects the first stage of tempering. → Precipitation hardening is detected by the decrease in the background. - Abstract: Two steels containing 0.626 and 0.71 wt.% carbon have been studied to determine the effects of tempering on the microstructure and the internal friction. The steels were annealed at 1093 K, quenched into water and tempered for 60 min at 423 K, 573 K and 723 K. The increase of the tempering time diminishes the martensite tetragonality due to the redistribution of carbon atoms from octahedrical interstitial sites to dislocations. Internal friction spectrum is decomposed into five peaks and an exponential background, which are attributed to the carbide precipitation and the dislocation relaxation process. Simultaneous presence of peaks P1 and P2 indicates the interaction of dislocations with the segregated carbon and carbide precipitate.

  18. Fracture analysis for pressure pipe wrapped with carbon-fiber reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coupled FEM/EFG numerical method is introduced to calculate the stress intensity factors (SIF) along the crack front of a cracked pressure pipe line wrapped with carbon-fiber reinforced composite material (CFRC). Two types of crack shape, traverse through-wall crack and surface ellipse crack are considered respectively, based on which the effect of the CFRC sleeve length to the Stress Intensity Factors is numerically investigated. It shows that using the algorithm presented in this paper, the stress intensity factors of 3D component can be calculated effectively, and the SIF of the cracked pressure pipe line repaired with CFRC decrease obviously, compared to the original cracked pipe without any repair. Better repair efficiency is obtained with the increase of the sleeve length, but when the length is increased to a certain value, the length increasing of the sleeve contributes little to the decrease of the SIF, therefore to the repair efficiency. (authors)

  19. Gas explosions in process pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffersen, Kjetil

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, gas explosions inside pipes are considered. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations are the basis of the thesis. The target of the work was to study gas explosions in pipes and to develop numer- ical models that could predict accidental gas explosions inside pipes. Experiments were performed in circular steel and plexiglass pipes. The steel pipes have an inner diameter of 22.3 mm and lengths of 1, 2, 5 and 11 m. The plexiglass pipe has an inner diame...

  20. Residual stress and microstructure evolution by manufacturing processes for welded pipe joint in austenitic stainless steel type 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near the heat affected zone (HAZ) of welded pipe joint made of austenitic stainless steel type 316L, even though sensitization is not observed. Therefore, It can be considered that the effect of residual stress on SCC is more important. In the joining process of pipes, butt-welding is conducted after machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes. In case of welding after machining, it can be considered that residual stress due to machining is changed by welding thermal cycle. In this study, residual stress and microstructure evolution due to manufacturing processes is investigated. Change of residual stress distribution caused by processing history is examined by X-ray diffraction method. Residual stress distribution has a local maximum stress in the middle temperature range of the HAZ caused by processing history. Hardness measurement result also has a local maximum hardness in the same range of the HAZ. By using FE-SEM/EBSD, it is clarified that microstructure shows recovery in the high temperature range of HAZ. Therefore, residual stress distribution is determined by microstructure evolution and superposition effect of processing history. In summary, not only any part of manufacturing processes such as welding or machining but also treating all processes as processing history of pipes are important to evaluate SCC. (author)

  1. Ultrasound propagation in steel piping at electric power plant using clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler velocity-profile flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rates of reactor feedwater. This flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of nuclear power reactors. Some other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profiles across the pipe cross sections. For the accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasonic entering the fluid should be carefully estimated by the theoretical approach. However, the evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward for the several reasons such as temperature gradient in the wedge or mode conversion at the interface between the wedge and pipe. In recent years, the simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation in steel piping and water, using the 3D-FEM simulation code and the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to the flow profile measurements in power plants with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter. (author)

  2. Transverse and z-Direction CVN Impact Tests of X65 Line Pipe Steels of Two Centerline Segregation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lihong; Li, Huijun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jintao; Fletcher, Leigh; Simpson, Ian; Barbaro, Frank; Zheng, Lei; Bai, Mingzhuo; Shen, Jianlan; Qu, Xianyong

    2016-08-01

    Centerline segregation occurs as a positive concentration of alloying elements in the mid-thickness region of continuously cast slab. Depending upon its severity, it may affect mechanical properties and potentially downstream processing such as weldability, particularly for high-strength line pipe. The segregation fraction in continuously cast slabs and corresponding hot-rolled strips was assessed on API 5L grade X65 line pipe steels with different levels of segregation, rated as Mannesmann 2.0 and 1.4. The results showed that the segregation fraction in hot-rolled strip samples was in accordance with that assessed in the cast slabs, and the segregated regions in hot-rolled strip samples were found to be discontinuous. Transverse and z-direction CVN impact tests were conducted on the two strips and the results showed that centerline segregation does have an influence on the Charpy impact properties of line pipe steel. Specimens located at segregated regions exhibited lower Charpy impact toughness and strips rolled from slabs with higher segregation levels are more likely to exhibit greater variability in Charpy impact toughness. The influence of centerline segregation on z-direction Charpy impact toughness is more severe than on transverse Charpy impact toughness. Lower Charpy impact toughness and brittle fracture surface with cleavage facets along with rod-shaped MnS inclusions were observed for the strip rolled from slab with 2.0 segregation rating if the Charpy specimens were located at segregated regions. The influence on Charpy impact toughness can be associated with the pearlite structure at the centerline and level of MnS inclusions.

  3. Transverse and z-Direction CVN Impact Tests of X65 Line Pipe Steels of Two Centerline Segregation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lihong; Li, Huijun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jintao; Fletcher, Leigh; Simpson, Ian; Barbaro, Frank; Zheng, Lei; Bai, Mingzhuo; Shen, Jianlan; Qu, Xianyong

    2016-06-01

    Centerline segregation occurs as a positive concentration of alloying elements in the mid-thickness region of continuously cast slab. Depending upon its severity, it may affect mechanical properties and potentially downstream processing such as weldability, particularly for high-strength line pipe. The segregation fraction in continuously cast slabs and corresponding hot-rolled strips was assessed on API 5L grade X65 line pipe steels with different levels of segregation, rated as Mannesmann 2.0 and 1.4. The results showed that the segregation fraction in hot-rolled strip samples was in accordance with that assessed in the cast slabs, and the segregated regions in hot-rolled strip samples were found to be discontinuous. Transverse and z-direction CVN impact tests were conducted on the two strips and the results showed that centerline segregation does have an influence on the Charpy impact properties of line pipe steel. Specimens located at segregated regions exhibited lower Charpy impact toughness and strips rolled from slabs with higher segregation levels are more likely to exhibit greater variability in Charpy impact toughness. The influence of centerline segregation on z-direction Charpy impact toughness is more severe than on transverse Charpy impact toughness. Lower Charpy impact toughness and brittle fracture surface with cleavage facets along with rod-shaped MnS inclusions were observed for the strip rolled from slab with 2.0 segregation rating if the Charpy specimens were located at segregated regions. The influence on Charpy impact toughness can be associated with the pearlite structure at the centerline and level of MnS inclusions.

  4. The Study on 400 MPa Class Plain Carbon Structure Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-mei; LI Sheng-li; LI Wei-juan; DU Lin-xiu; WANG Guo-dong

    2004-01-01

    New generation of structure steel has been developed to meet the uninterruptedly increasing needs of the economic construction and development of society, and such material is characterized by ultra-fine grain. In this paper, 400MPa class plain carbon structure steel has been studied, making its yield strength doubled and service life doubled on the basis of good comprehensive properties in large quantity utilization. The deformation behavior and the stain induced transformation of SS400 steel at different temperature were investigated in the laboratory, and the industrial rolling test was carried out in 2 050mm HSM of Baosteel. Not only the laboratory studies but also the industrial test show that the technical route of the experimentis correct and the industrial test results on the basis of low carbon plain steel indicate that the grain size of ferrite was near to 4 ~ 5 μm, elongation was more than 30% , impact property was good, the yield strength can reach 400 MPa.

  5. A new nanoscale metastable iron phase in carbon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianwei; Zhang, Danxia; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Yanjun; Su, Yanjing; Zhao, Xinqing; Yin, Jiang; Song, Minghui; Ping, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Metastable ω phase is common in body-centred cubic (bcc) metals and alloys, including high-alloying steels. Recent theoretical calculations also suggest that the ω structure may act as an intermediate phase for face-centred cubic (fcc)-to-bcc transformation. Thus far, the role of the ω phase played in fcc-bcc martensitic transformation in carbon steels has not been reported. In previous investigations on martensitic carbon steels, extra electron diffraction spots were frequently observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and these spots were historically ascribed to the diffraction arising from either internal twins or carbides. In this paper, an intensive TEM investigation revealed that the extra spots are in fact attributed to the metastable ω phase in particle-like morphology with an overall size of several or dozens of nanometres. The strict orientation relationships between the ω phase and the ferrite matrix are in good agreement with those of the hexagonal (P6/mmm) ω phase in other bcc metals and alloys. The identification of the ω phase as well as the extra diffraction spots might provide a clue to help understand the physical mechanism of martensitic transformation in steels. PMID:26503890

  6. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of carbon steel with bulk coating holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With epoxy coal tar as the coating material, the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Q235 with different kinds of bulk coating holidays has been investigated with EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) in a 3.5vol% NaCl aqueous solution.The area ratio of bulk coating holiday to total coating area of steel is 4.91%. The experimental results showed that at free corrosionpotential, the corrosion of carbon steel with disbonded coating holiday is heavier than that with broken holiday and disbonded & broken holiday with time; Moreover, the effectiveness of Cathodic Protection (CP) of carbon steel with broken holiday is better than that with disbonded holiday and disbonded & broken holiday on CP potential -850 mV (vs CSE). Further analysis indicated that the two main reasons for corrosion are electrolyte solution slowly penetrating the coating, and crevice corrosion at steel/coating interface near holidays. The ratio of impedance amplitude (Z) of different frequency to minimum frequency is defined as K value. The change rate of K with frequency is related to the type of coating holiday.

  7. 76 FR 7815 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 75 FR 44224... Pipe (Over 4\\1/2\\ Inches) From Japan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of the... certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\...

  8. The Impact Of the Welded Joints Made Of X8CrNiTi18–10 Stainless Steel on the Reliability Estimation of Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Raimondas Skindaras; Jonas Bendikas; Vigantas Kumšlytis

    2011-01-01

    The chrome-nickel stainless steels of austenitic class applied in chemistry and energy industry are often used in the production of exceptional structures employed in an environment aggressive and dangerous for human life. Therefore, it is particularly significant for durability and reliability requirements. The article explores cracks that appeared in a tube made of X8CrNiTi18–10 austenitic steel. The examined pipe has worked for 90 000 hours under high temperature and pressure in an aggress...

  9. Polyoxometalate and Zirconium-Phosphate Conversion Coating for Steel Piping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Sub-topic O3.04, NASA has identified a need for control of material degradation to extend the life and reduce the life-cycle costs of piping systems subject to...

  10. Polyoxometalate and Zirconium-Phosphate Conversion Coating for Steel Piping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Sub-topic O3-04, NASA has identified a need for control of material degradation to extend the life and reduce the life-cycle costs of piping systems subject to...

  11. Corrosion of carbon steel nuclear waste containers in marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a study of the corrosion of carbon steel nuclear waste containers in deep ocean sediments, which had the objective of estimating the metal allowance needed to ensure that the containers were not breached by corrosion for 1000 years. It was concluded that under such disposal conditions carbon steel would not be subject to localised corrosion or hydrogen embrittlement, and therefore the study concentrated on evaluating the rate of general attack. This was carried out by developing a mechanistically based mathematical model which was formulated on the conservative assumption that the corrosion would be under activation control, and would not be impeded by the formation of corrosion product layers. This model predicted that an allowance of 33 mm would be required for a 1000 year life. (author)

  12. Fretting damage of high carbon chromium bearing steel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuno, Masato

    1988-01-01

    This thesis consists of four sections, the fretting wear properties of high carbon chromium bearing steel; the effect of debris during fretting wear; an introduction of a new fretting wear test apparatus used in this study; and the effects of fretting damage parameters on rolling bearings. The tests were operated under unlubricated conditions. Using a crossed cylinder contact arrangement, the tests were carried out with the normal load of 3N, slip amplitude of 50µm, and frequency of 30Hz ...

  13. Ultra-Fine Grained High Carbon Steel by Innovative Deformation

    OpenAIRE

    A.W.F. Smith, D.N. Crowther, P.J. Apps, and P.B. Prangnell

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the refinement of grain size in metals leads to a significantimprovement in specific mechanical properties. Processing schedules have been investigated aimedat producing an homogeneous ultra-fine ferrite and spheroidised carbide aggregate microstructure in high carbon (CMn) steels (0.6-1.2wt%C), via conventional ???warm??? rolling and innovative Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE). Suitable deformation schedules were determined from dilatometry and thermo-mechanical G...

  14. Mixed structures in continuously cooled low-carbon automotive steels

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, F.; Edmonds, D.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed microstructures have been studied in low- carbon microalloyed steels suitable for automotive applications, after continuous cooling from the hot-rolled condition. Microstructural features such as polygonal ferrite, bainitic and acicular ferrite and microphase constituent are identified using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of these mixed structures on the tensile strength, impact toughness and fracture behaviour is examined. It is found that improvements in impact toughn...

  15. 78 FR 64473 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Final No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low carbon... columbium), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels... Results of 2011-2012 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 78 FR 42039 (July 15, 2013)...

  16. Residual stress distributions in a P91 steel-pipe girth weld before and after post weld heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddea, S., E-mail: s.paddea@open.ac.uk [Materials Engineering, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Francis, J.A. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Paradowska, A.M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bouchard, P.J. [Materials Engineering, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Shibli, I.A. [European Technology Development Ltd., Leatherhead KT22 7RD, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residual stresses in a pipe girth weld in P91 steel have been measured in both the as-welded and PWHT conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest tensile residual stresses coincided with the HAZ boundary and the microstructural region that is prone to type IV cracking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compressive residual stresses were measured in the weld metal, in a location corresponding to the final weld pass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The location of the peak compressive stresses can be explained by the effect of solid-state phase transformation. - Abstract: In this study the residual stresses in a pipe girth weld in a ferritic-martensitic power plant steel were measured by neutron diffraction and compared with the corresponding metallurgical zones in the weld region. It was found that, in both the as-welded and post-weld heat treated condition, the highest tensile stresses resided near the outer boundary of the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and towards the weld root region. Substantial tensile direct and hydrostatic stresses existed across the HAZ, including the fine-grained and intercritically annealed regions, where premature type IV creep failures manifest in 9-12 Cr steel welds. Compressive stresses were found in the weld metal coinciding with the last weld bead to be deposited. Constrained cooling tests on test coupons illustrated that these compressive stresses can be explained in terms of the influence that solid-state phase transformations have on the accumulation of stress in welds.

  17. Influence of carbon steel grade on the initial attachment of bacteria and microbiologically influenced corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M A; Neil, W C; Stoddart, P R; Wade, S A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the composition and microstructure of different carbon steel grades on the initial attachment (≤ 60 min) of Escherichia coli and subsequent longer term (28 days) corrosion was investigated. The initial bacterial attachment increased with time on all grades of carbon steel. However, the rate and magnitude of bacterial attachment varied on the different steel grades and was significantly less on the steels with a higher pearlite phase content. The observed variations in the number of bacterial cells attached across different steel grades were significantly reduced by applying a fixed potential to the steel samples. Longer term immersion studies showed similar levels of biofilm formation on the surface of the different grades of carbon steel. The measured corrosion rates were significantly higher in biotic conditions compared to abiotic conditions and were found to be positively correlated with the pearlite phase content of the different grades of carbon steel coupons. PMID:26785935

  18. The diffusion of carbon from liquid sodium into stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory which describes the diffusion of carbon from liquid sodium into austenitic stainless steels is proposed. It is suggested that diffusion occurs simultaneously along two routes, i.e. the grain boundaries and the grains themselves. The grain boundaries provide a faster route than through the grains. In both routes the diffusion is accompanied by precipitation of iron/chromium carbides. The contributions of each route to the carbon concentration in the steel add together to give the observed profile. Each contribution obeys an equation of the error function type given as a solution to Fick's second law. A method of fitting such an equation to suitable curves using the minimising of sums of squares has been developed. It's application to profiles obtained in the present work has shown them to obey the above theory. The contributions from the two routes could be separated and used to evaluate effective diffusion coefficients. Most of the profiles were obtained from steel samples carburised in small sealed capsules. Constant carbon activities in sodium were ensured by the use of suitable sources, mainly couples consisting of a metal and one of its carbides or two carbides of the same metal. The profiles were mainly obtained from the metal by Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy. Work on samples obtained from two flowing sodium loops is reported, and are compared with other profiling techniques. (author)

  19. 75 FR 64700 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...'')) steels, high strength low alloy (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF... niobium added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with micro...-Quality Steel Products from Brazil, 64 FR 38797 (July 19, 1999); see also Final Affirmative...

  20. Studies of the properties of heat treated rolled medium carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    Daramola O. Oluyemi; Oladele Isiaka Oluwole; B.O Adewuyi

    2011-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to study critically the effects of heat treatment on the properties of rolled medium carbon steel. Representative samples of as-rolled medium carbon steel were subjected to heat treatment processes which are; Quenching, Lamellae Formation and Tempering in the following order (Q + Q + L + T), (Q + L + T) and (L + T). The steel was heated to the austenizing temperature of 830 ºC and water quenched. The quenched steel was subjected to lamellae formation by reheati...

  1. Some mechanistic observations on the crack growth characteristics of pressure vessel and piping steels in PWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of A533B and A508 pressure vessel steel and AISI Types 304 and 316 steels used in reactor coolant piping have been studied in a pressurized water reactor environment at 2880C (5500F). The influence of stress ratio (P/sub min//P/sub max/), frequency, ramp times, specimen orientation and material microstructures were included in the study. While none of the materials showed evidence of static crack growth in the environment, the ferritic steels did show an enhanced fatigue crack growth rate at test frequencies of five cycles per minute and lower. Based on fractographic examinations the enhanced growth rate is not the result of environmentally induced intergranular or cleavage modes of crack propagation. Instead, striation spacing measurements were found to agree with the macroscopic crack growth rate, demonstrating a time dependent environmental interaction which introduces a frequency dependent enhancement of the mechanically developed striations. Crack growth experiments using hold times have confirmed the absence of any superimposed contribution of static crack growth components. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted in an environment of Hydrogen Sulfide gas to establish the contribution of hydrogen embrittlement and will also be described

  2. Corrosion of pipe steel in CO2 containing impurities and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Spruijt, M.P.N.; Borys, M.

    2013-01-01

    CO2 flue gases acquired from different sources contain a significant amount of impurities and water, which are corrosive to the pipeline steel. To design the pipelines for large scale of CO2 flue gas transport, the corrosion of pipeline steels has to be investigated in the realistic conditions. In t

  3. Diagrams of supercooled austenite transformations of low-carbon and medium-carbon TRIP-steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determine the influence of cooling conditions on a structure and a shape of CCT-diagrams of TRIP-aided steels.Design/methodology/approach: The diagrams of undeformed supercooled austenite transformations for low-carbon and medium-carbon steels were determined. The specimens were austenitized at a temperature of 1100°C and cooled from a temperature of 900°C with a rate in a range from 1 to 300°Cs-1. The dilatometric tests were carried out by the use of the DIL805A/D dilatometer with a LVDT-type measuring head.Findings: It was found that obtained CCT-diagrams of low-carbon and medium-carbon steels are favourable for manufacturing TRIP-type steels with multiphase structures. The steels are characterized by large ferritic and bainitic fields and a right-displaced pearlitic range. However, a ferrite fraction obtained after cooling with an optimum rate from a temperature of 900°C is low. Increasing the fraction of the α phase requires two-stage cooling after austenitizing.Research limitations/implications: To obtain the optimum ferrite fraction, it is necessary to modify a cooling course in a range of γ→α transformation. It should result in an effective utilization of the time for the transformation of austenite into the fine-grained ferrite.Practical implications: The obtained diagrams of supercooled austenite transformations can be useful in a determination of a cooling course from a finishing rolling temperature for sheets with a multiphase structure.Originality/value: The diagrams of the undeformed supercooled austenite for the low-carbon and medium-carbon steels containing Nb and Ti microadditions were obtained.

  4. Research on Internal Hexagon Defect of Thick Seamless Steel Pipe%无缝厚壁管“内六方”缺陷研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建华; 付亚玲; 孙轶伦

    2012-01-01

    某厂φ400mm作业区在生产厚壁管定减径过程中出现明显的“内六方”缺陷.以φ426mm×38mm为例,通过分析,提出了优化孔型的解决方法.经生产实践,成品管“内六方”缺陷问题基本解决.%Seamless tube hexagon defect appeared during the production ofφ 400 mm thick wall seamless steel pipe reducing. Taking steel pipe with diameter of 426mm and wall thickness of 38mm as an example, through analysis, the optimized pass was put forward. Through production practice, the finished pipe hexagon defect was basically solved.

  5. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behaviors of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium were studied. Corrosion rate of carbon steel in wet bentonite was measured to be 20 μm/yr at 25 deg C using the AC impedance technique. This value is agreed with that obtained by weight loss at 40 deg C for 1 year. The effect of bicarbonate ion on the corrosion of carbon steel in wet bentonite was also evaluated. The carbon steels in wet bentonite having 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 M concentration of bicarbonate ion gave corrosion rates of 20, 8, and 0.2 μm/yr, respectively. Corrosion potentials of specimens were also measured and compared with the AC impedance results. Both results indicated that bicarbonate ion could effectively reduce the corrosion rate of carbon steels in bentonite due to the formation of protective layer on the carbon steel. (author)

  6. Characterization of Bainitic Microstrucutres in Low Carbon Hsla Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Seok; Park, Chan Gyung

    The austenite phase of low carbon steels can be transformed to various bainitic microstructures such as granular bainite, acicular ferrite and bainitic ferrite during continuous cooling process. In the present study site-specific transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens were prepared by using focused ion beam (FIB) to identify the bainitic microstructure in low carbon high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels clearly. Granular bainite was composed of fine subgrains and 2nd phase constituents like M/A or pearlite located at grain and/or subgrain boundaries. Acicular ferrite was identified as an aggregate of randomly orientated needle-shaped grains. The high angle relations among acicular ferrite grains were thought to be caused by intra-granular nucleation, which could be occur under the high cooling rate condition. Bainitic ferrite revealed uniform and parallel lath structure within the packet. In some case, however, the parallel lathes showed high angle relations due to packet overlapping during grow of bainitic ferrite, resulting in high toughness properties in bainitic ferrite based steels.

  7. Boriding of high carbon high chromium cold work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-carbon high-chromium cold work tool steels are widely used for blanking and cold forming of punches and dies. It is always advantageous to obtain an increased wear resistant surface to improve life and performance of these steels. In this connection boriding of a high-carbon high-chromium cold work die steel, D3, was conducted in a mixture of 30% B4C, 70% borax at 950 °C for two, four and six hours. Case depth of the borided layer obtained was between 40 to 80 μm. After boriding, the surface hardness achieved was between 1430 to 1544 HV depending upon the process time. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of a duplex compound layer consisting of FeB and Fe2B. It is generally considered that FeB is undesirable because of its inherent brittleness. Post boriding treatment (homogenization) transformed the compound layer into single-phase layer of Fe2B, while surface hardness decreased to 1345-1430 HV. Pin-on-disc wer test showed that wear resistance of the borided samples was superior as compared to non-borided material and increased with boriding time

  8. Plastic strain effect on behaviour of some steels used for manufacture NPP equipment and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steels widely applied in NPP equipment are investigated for preliminary deformation effects on their mechanical properties in operation. The steels under study are as follows: steel 15Kh2MFA as a material for WWER-440 pressure vessels; steels 10GN2MFA and 08Kh18N10T as materials for steam generator components. The steel 15Kh2MFA plates (8x50 and 13x50 mm in sections) pre-deformed by tension and heat treated are tested for fatigue and fracture toughness. The testing results show that preliminary deformation affects greatly on the stress-strained state in a crack tip. In specimens of 10GN2MFA steel pre-deformed by static and dynamic compression a decrease of fracture toughness is observed for both loads. The corrosive environment simulating the secondary circuit coolant is revealed to intensity the growth of fatigue cracks. As to steel 0Kh18N10T, no effect of preliminary deformation is noted on its behaviour in corrosive media

  9. The Impact Of the Welded Joints Made Of X8CrNiTi18–10 Stainless Steel on the Reliability Estimation of Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondas Skindaras

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The chrome-nickel stainless steels of austenitic class applied in chemistry and energy industry are often used in the production of exceptional structures employed in an environment aggressive and dangerous for human life. Therefore, it is particularly significant for durability and reliability requirements. The article explores cracks that appeared in a tube made of X8CrNiTi18–10 austenitic steel. The examined pipe has worked for 90 000 hours under high temperature and pressure in an aggressive media. To establish reasons for developed cracks, chemical composition, strength, hardness testing and metallographic structures have been examined. The performed investigations will prevent from potential emergencies and help with a more accurate assessment of the pipes made of particularly this class of steel in order to ensure operational reliability and durability in the future.Article in Lithuanian

  10. 高碳HFW焊管钩状裂纹研究%Study on Hooked Cracks of High Carbon HFW Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志鹏; 张宏艳; 缪成亮; 朱腾威; 崔阳

    2015-01-01

    In view of high carbon HFW pipe welding defects, sampling analysis found that the reasons for defect formation can be divided into four categories:①50%defects caused by endogenous inclusions;②30%defects caused by the continuous casting slag;③13.75%defects caused by internal cracks of slab; ④6.25%defects caused by the transverse corner cracks of slab. By optimizing the smelting process to improve the cleanliness of liquid steel and optimizing the casting process to reduce defects in the slab, large inclusions reducing, casting slag decreasing, slab transverse corner cracks reducing, pipe ultrasonic inspection pass rate is raised.%针对高碳HFW 焊管缺陷,取样分析后发现,探伤不合格缺陷形成的原因可分成4类:①50%的缺陷由内生夹杂物导致;②30%的缺陷由连铸夹渣导致;③13.75%的缺陷由板坯内裂纹导致;④6.25%的缺陷由板坯角部横裂纹导致。通过优化冶炼工艺提高钢液洁净度和优化浇铸工艺减少板坯缺陷,实现了板坯大型夹杂物的减少、卷渣率的降低和板坯裂纹的减少,从而提高了制管后焊缝超声波探伤的合格率。

  11. Measurement of the residual stresses in a stainless steel pipe girth weld containing long and short repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of residual measurements were made to obtain the through-thickness residual stress profiles in an as-welded and repair welded stainless steel pipe. Long and short length repairs were manufactured after initial measurements in the original girth weld. Measurements were made using neutron diffraction, deep hole and surface hole techniques. The various measurement methods were found to complement each other well. All the measurements revealed a characteristic profile for the through-thickness distribution of the residual stresses in the heat-affected zone. The residual stresses at mid-length of the heat affected zone of the short repair were found to be higher than in the long repair

  12. Finite element analysis of the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes applications to the oil industry

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Eduardo N

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of the models that were developed to simulate the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes. The finite element method offers to engineers the possibility of developing models to simulate the collapse behavior of casings inside oil wells and the collapse behavior of deepwater pipelines. However, if technological decisions are going to be reached from these model results, with implications for the economic success of industrial operations, for the occupational safety and health and for the environment, the engineering models need to be highly reliable. Using these models engineers can quantify the effect of manufacturing tolerances, wear, corrosion, etc. This book describes in great details the experimental programs that are developed to validate the numerical results.

  13. Acid neutralisation capacity of accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D C; MacLeod, C L; Hills, C D

    2003-05-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity test is widely used to assess the long-term performance of waste materials prior to disposal. Samples of fixed mass are exposed to increasing additions of nitric add in sealed containers and the resultant pH is plotted as a titration curve. In this work, the add neutralisation capacity test was used in the assessment of an accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag. Difficulties arose in applying the test procedure to this material. This was largely because of the raised pressure from significant volumes of released carbon dioxide trapped in the sealed sample containers, causing an alteration to leachate pH values. Consequently, the add neutralisation capacity test was modified to enable testing of samples in equilibrium with the atmosphere. No adverse effects on the results from testing of a carbonate free material were recorded. PMID:12803247

  14. Inhibition Performance of Enhanced-Mo Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in 55% LiBr Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Cheng-hao; HU Xian-qi

    2008-01-01

    The inhibition performance of enhanced-Mo inhibitor for carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution was measured by means of chemical immersion, electrochemical measurements, and physical detection technologies. Results indicated that enhanced-Mo inhibitor showed excellent inhibition performance of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution, especially at high temperature. With increasing the temperature of solution from 160 ℃ to 240 ℃, the corrosion rates of carbon steel increased from 17.67 μm/a to 33.07 μm/a. Enhanced-Mo inhibitor might improve the anodic polarization performance of carbon steel and widen the passive potential region of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution. Enhanced-Mo inhibitor belongs to anodic inhibitor. In 55% LiBr solution, the relationship between corrosion current density icorr and corrosion potential Ecorr of carbon steel accorded with the equation lgicorr=-2.66-3.54Ecorr, and the value of cathodic Tafel constant βc for the H2 reaction was 282 mVSCE. When 55% LiBr solution contained enhanced-Mo inhibitor, a passive film comprising Fe3O4 and MoO2 was formed on the carbon steel surface by electrochemical reactions. The corrosion of carbon steel might be retarded by this protective film, and the anticorrosion performance of carbon steel in 55% LiBr solution might be improved by enhanced-Mo inhibitor.

  15. Deformation Behavior of Ultra-low Carbon Steel in Ferrite Region during Warm Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang; CHEN Zhenye; LIU Li; YU Shengfu

    2008-01-01

    The hot deformation experiments of ultra-low carbon steel in ferrite range were carried out ina hot simulator in order to research hot deformation behaviors of ultra-low carbon steel in ferrite range at low temperature.The results show that the influences of deformation parameters on flow stress are different to those in austenitic deformation.The deformation characteristic parameters were calculated for ultra-low carbon steel in ferrite region.The flow stress equation for ultra-low carbon steel in ferritic deformation at low temperature was obtained.

  16. Inhibition Effect of Dodecylamine on Carbon Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyu; Huang, Ling; Qiu, Yubing; Guo, Xingpeng

    2012-12-01

    Dodecylamine spontaneously adsorbs on carbon steel via its polar group (-NH2) in hydrochloric acid solution. Furthermore, it forms a monolayer film on carbon steel surface. The inhibition mechanism of dodecylamine for carbon steel is geometric blocking effect. The adsorption of dodecylamine on carbon steel surface follows Arrhenius equation. The adsorption slightly increases activated energy, but greatly reduces pre-exponential factor value. Atomic force microscopy force curves indicate that at the area without adsorbed dodecylamine, no obvious adhere force occurs. At the area with adsorbed dodecylamine, however, an average 1.3 nN adhere force is observed.

  17. Mill Scale Corrosion and Prevention in Carbon Steel Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Roy, Himadri

    2015-10-01

    The cause of material degradation of an ASTM A-124 grade carbon steel tube belonging to a heat exchanger has been investigated. Visual examination, followed by an in-depth microstructural characterization using optical microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and scanning electron microscopy, was carried out for understanding the primary cause of material degradation. Based on the results of an extensive examination as well as the background information provided on the heat exchanger, it was determined that the steel tubes were predominantly damaged by the mechanism of crevice corrosion facilitated by the presence of mill scale. It is concluded that the heat exchanger tubes were not properly investigated for defects after their fabrication. Based on the situation, the proper cleaning method was selected for preventing further corrosion in the system. A chemical cleaning process was designed using acid pickling along with an inhibitor and a surfactant.

  18. Steel Microstructure Effect on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of High Strength Low Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo; Li, Ximing; Castaneda, Homero

    2014-08-01

    Different thermomechanical treatments were applied to a high strength low carbon steel with a novel chemical composition. As a result, three different microstructures were produced with dissimilar mechanical and corrosion properties. Subsequently, a tempering heat treatment was applied to redistribute the phases in the steel. Microstructure A with 56 pct martensite and 32 pct bainite presented high strength but medium ductility; microstructure C with 95 pct ferrite and 3 pct martensite/austenite resulted in low strength and high ductility, and finally microstructure B with 98 pct bainite and 2 pct martensite/austenite resulted in high strength and ductility. Alternatively the corrosion behavior obtained by polarization curves was characterized in 0.1 M H2SO4, 3 M H2SO4, 3.5 wt pct NaCl, and NS4 solutions resulting in similar magnitudes, while the corrosion behavior acquired by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy had slightly differences in 3 M H2SO4.

  19. Research on Welding Test of Grey Cast Iron and Low-Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Grey cast iron's welding itself is a complex proble m.So proper welding materials must be selected,complex welding techniques such as preheating before weldingslow cooling after welding etc,should be taken. However the carbon component in low-carbon steel is comparatively low,the carbo n of welded joint will diffuse to the low-carbon steel when it is welded with gr ey cast iron,which will cause the component of carbon greatly increased at the low-carbon steel side in HAZ,high carbon martensite and cracks ...

  20. Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

  1. Effect of creep constitutive equation on simulated stress mitigation behavior of alloy steel pipe during post-weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) is usually conducted to reduce the residual stress and to improve the mechanical properties of the welded region. The thermal elasto-plastic creep analysis is used to estimate the mitigation of the residual stress in the welded region analytically. The stress mitigation is caused by effect of the creep relaxation behavior during PWHT. Thus, creep constitutive equation is used to estimate the residual stress mitigation. The material properties of Norton's law and the Norton-Bailey law for alloy steel pipe JIS STPA23 (equivalent to ASME SA335P11 seamless steel tubes) were experimentally investigated. Creep tests were conducted at 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C. Specimens were subjected to certain stresses, and creep strain was measured. The material properties of Norton's law and the Norton-Bailey law were calculated from the measured creep strain data. Five bead-on curved plate specimens were fabricated in order to verify the thermal elasto-plastic creep analysis done with these creep constitutive equations. The curved plate was made from a pipe cut in the hoop direction. The specimens were welded without filler metal by gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW) on both surfaces in the center of the curved plate. The residual stress in one specimen was measured without PWHT. The other specimens were measured under different PWHT conditions. The results of analysis with the two creep constitutive equations agreed well with the experimentally measured results. In addition, no differences in the creep constitutive equations were observed at high PWHT temperature. Accordingly, these analyses conducted with both types of creep constitutive equation were verified to be effective. The effect of creep constitutive equation on simulated stress mitigation behavior during PWHT has been clarified for analytically estimating residual stress in the welded region

  2. Corrosion of a carbon steel in simulated liquid nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a collaboration agreement between CNEA (National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina) and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America), entitled 'Tank Corrosion Chemistry Cooperation', to study the corrosion behavior of carbon steel A537 class 1 in different simulated non-radioactive wastes in order to establish the safety concentration limits of the tank waste chemistry at Hanford site (Richland-US). Liquid high level nuclear wastes are stored in tanks made of carbon steel A537 (ASTM nomenclature) that were designed for a service life of 20 to 50 years. A thickness reduction of some tank walls, due to corrosion processes, was detected at Hanford site, beyond the existing predicted values. Two year long-term immersion tests were started using non radioactive simulated liquid nuclear waste solutions at 40 C degrees. This work extends throughout the first year of immersion. The simulated solutions consist basically in combinations of the 10 most corrosion significant chemical components: 5 main components (NaNO3, NaCl, NaF, NaNO2 and NaOH) at three concentration levels and 5 secondary components at two concentration levels. Measurements of the general corrosion rate with time were performed for carbon steel coupons, both immersed in the solutions and in the vapor phases, using weight loss and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy techniques. Optic and scanning electron microscopy examination, analysis of U-bend samples and corrosion potential measurements, were also done. Localized corrosion susceptibility (pitting and crevice corrosion) was assessed in isolated short-term tests by means of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. The effect of the simulated waste composition on the corrosion behavior of A537 steel was studied based on statistical analyses. The Surface Response Model could be successfully applied to the statistical analysis of the A537 steel corrosion in the studied solutions. General corrosion was not

  3. Residual stress distribution in austenitic stainless steel pipe butt-welded joint measured by neutron diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual stress is inevitable consequence of welding or manufacturing process, which might greatly affect propagation of high-cycle fatigue or SCC crack. In order to evaluate damages due to the crack, it is required to estimate residual stress and to reflect them to the evaluation process as well. The magnitude and distribution of residual stress greatly depend on the individual process of welding or manufacturing, while the accuracy of prediction or measurement is still insufficient. This paper reports the result of residual stress measurement of butt-welded pipe made of austenitic stainless steel. It also intended to improve prediction and measurement techniques concerning to residual stress. The measurement was conducted by neutron diffraction technique employing the diffractometer for residual stress analysis developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The measured results showed typical characteristics of butt-welded pipe both in decline of stress along axial direction and in radial distribution of bending due to axial stress. The measured result agreed qualitatively with the result predicted by the finite element analysis. A quantitative comparison between measured result and analysis showed a shift of the measured stress toward higher tensile. The measured result was also compared with the results by X-ray diffraction and strain-gauge methods to grasp the distinctive results of the methods. (author)

  4. A Spray Pyrolysis Method to Grow Carbon Nanotubes on Carbon Fibres, Steel and Ceramic Bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilatela, Juan J; Rabanal, M E; Cervantes-Sodi, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Máximo; Jiménez-Rodríguez, José A; Reiband, Gerd; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a spray pyrolysis method to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high degree of crystallinity, aspect ratio and degree of alignment on a variety of different substrates, such as conventional steel, carbon fibres (CF) and ceramics. The process consists in the chemical vapour deposition of both a thin SiO2 layer and CNTs that subsequently grow on this thin layer. After CNT growth, increases in specific surface by factors of 1000 and 30 for the steel and CF samples, respectively, are observed. CNTs growth on ceramic surfaces results in a surface resistance of 37.5 Ohm/sq. When using conventional steel as a rector tube, we observed CNTs growth rates of 0.6 g/min. Details of nanotube morphology and the growth mechanism are discussed. Since the method discussed here is highly versatile, it opens up a wide variety of applications in which specific substrates could be used in combination with CNTs.

  5. A Spray Pyrolysis Method to Grow Carbon Nanotubes on Carbon Fibres, Steel and Ceramic Bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilatela, Juan J; Rabanal, M E; Cervantes-Sodi, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Máximo; Jiménez-Rodríguez, José A; Reiband, Gerd; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a spray pyrolysis method to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high degree of crystallinity, aspect ratio and degree of alignment on a variety of different substrates, such as conventional steel, carbon fibres (CF) and ceramics. The process consists in the chemical vapour deposition of both a thin SiO2 layer and CNTs that subsequently grow on this thin layer. After CNT growth, increases in specific surface by factors of 1000 and 30 for the steel and CF samples, respectively, are observed. CNTs growth on ceramic surfaces results in a surface resistance of 37.5 Ohm/sq. When using conventional steel as a rector tube, we observed CNTs growth rates of 0.6 g/min. Details of nanotube morphology and the growth mechanism are discussed. Since the method discussed here is highly versatile, it opens up a wide variety of applications in which specific substrates could be used in combination with CNTs. PMID:26353505

  6. INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC SPARK ON HARDNESS OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is an estimation of influence of an electric spark treatment on the state of mouldable superficial coverage of carbon steel. Methodology. The steel of fragment of railway wheel rim served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65% С, 0.67% Mn, 0.3% Si, 0.027% P, 0.028% S. Structural researches were conducted with the use of light microscopy and methods of quantitative metallography. The structural state of the probed steel corresponded to the state after hot plastic deformation. The analysis of hardness distribution in the micro volumes of cathode metal was carried out with the use of microhardness tester of type of PMT-3. An electric spark treatment of carbon steel surface was executed with the use of equipment type of EFI-25M. Findings. After electric spark treatment of specimen surface from carbon steel the forming of multi-layered coverage was observed. The analysis of microstructure found out the existence of high-quality distinctions in the internal structure of coverage metal, depending on the probed area. The results obtained in the process are confirmed by the well-known theses, that forming of superficial coverage according to technology of electric spark is determined by the terms of transfer and crystallization of metal. The gradient of structures on the coverage thickness largely depends on development of structural transformation processes similar to the thermal character influence. Originality. As a result of electric spark treatment on the condition of identical metal of anode and cathode, the first formed layer of coverage corresponds to the monophase state according to external signs. In the volume of coverage metal, the appearance of carbide phase particles is accompanied by the decrease of microhardness values. Practical value. Forming of multi-layered superficial coverage during electric spark treatment is accompanied by the origin of structure gradient on a thickness. The effect

  7. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time. PMID:25173323

  8. Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Low Carbon Steel Weldments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahdy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research involves studying the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of “low carbon steel” (0.077wt% C before and after welding using Arc, MIG and TIG welding. The mechanical properties include testing of microhardness, tensile strength, the results indicate that microhardness of TIG, MIG welding is more than arc welding, while tensile strength in arc welding more than TIG and MIG.The corrosion behavior of low carbon weldments was performed by potentiostat at scan rate 3mV.sec-1 in 3.5% NaCl to show the polarization resistance and calculate the corrosion rate from data of linear polarization by “Tafel extrapolation method”. The results indicate that the TIG welding increase the corrosion current density and anodic Tafel slop, while decrease the polarization resistance compared with unwelded low carbon steel. Cyclic polarization were measured to show resistance of specimens to pitting corrosion and to calculate the forward and reveres potentials. The results show shifting the forward, reverse and pitting potentials toward active direction for weldments samples compared with unwelded sample.

  9. Welded, sandblasted, stainless steel corrugated bars in non-carbonated and carbonated mortars: A 9-year corrosion study

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, A.; Paredes, E. C.; Álvarez, S. M.; Velasco, F.

    2016-01-01

    Three different stainless steel corrugated grades (UNS S20430, S30403 and S32205) were similar welded to stainless steel bars with the same composition and dissimilar welded to carbon steel (CS). After cleaning the welding oxides by sandblasting, the reinforcements were embedded in mortar with chlorides and some of the samples were carbonated. Corrosion activity was monitored using corrosion potential (Ecorr) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 8 years of exposure, the sam...

  10. Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in Chloride and Sulfate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Ahmed Elsayed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is a major problem in industry and in infrastructure; a huge sum of expenditure every year is spent on preventing, retarding, and repairing its damages. This work studies the engineering of an inhibitor for carbon steel metal used in the cooling systems containing high concentration of chloride and sulfate ions. For this purpose, the synergy between the dichromate, molybdate and nitrite inhibitors is examined and optimized to the best results. Moreover, care was taken that the proposed inhibitor is compliant with the environmental laws and regulations.

  11. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, A. G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation.

  12. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel by extract of Buddleia perfoliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROY LOPES-SESENES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Buddleia perfoliata leaves extract has been investigated as a carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in 0.5 M sulfuric acid by using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and weight-loss tests at different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm and temperatures, namely 25, 40 and 60 °C. Results showthat inhibition efficiency increases as the inhibitor concentration increases, decreases with temperature, and reaches a maximum value after 12 h of exposure, decreasing with a further increase in the exposure time. It was found that the inhibitory effect is due to the presence of tannines on this extract.

  13. Recrystallization of High Carbon Steel during High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The recrystallization of high carbon steel during high temperature and high speed rolling has been studied by analyzing the stress-strain curves and the austenite grain size.Isothermal multi-pass hot compression at high strain rate was carried out by Gleeble-2000. The austenite grain size was measured by IBAS image analysis system. The results show that static recrystallization occurred at interpass time under pre-finish rolling, and at the finish rolling stage, due to the brief interpass time, static recrystallization can not be found.

  14. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation

  15. Hybrid Friction Stir Welding of High-carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Don-Hyun Choi; Seung-Boo Jung; Chang-Yong Lee; Byung-Wook Ahn; Jung-Hyun Choi; Yun-Mo Yeon; Keun Song; Seung-Gab Hong; Won-Bae Lee; Ki-Bong Kang

    2011-01-01

    A high-carbon steel joint, SK5 (0.84 wt% C), was successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW), both without and with a gas torch, in order to control the cooling rate during welding. After welding, the weld zone comprised gray and black regions, corresponding to microstructural variation: a martensite structure and a duplex structure of ferrite and cementite, respectively. The volume fraction of the martensite structure and the Vickers hardness in the welds were decreased with the using of the gas torch, which was related with the lower cooling rate.

  16. Comparison between shear wave ultrasonic examination and radiographic examination of some austenitic stainless steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the results of the ultrasonic and radiographic examinations of five austenitic pipe to pipe welds, which contained different types of intentional weld defects. Both the ultrasonic and radiographic examinations were made under laboratory conditions, and thus the results cannot directly be generalized to workshop examinations. The ultrasonic examination was performed using a conventional shear wave angle beam technique due to the geometric conditions of the welds. Longitudinal wave angle beam probes were not used in this work. Comparison between the results of the ultrasonic and radiographic examinations leads to the conclusion that neither method gives quite satisfactory results. Both methods missed some defects and the correlation between the results of the methods was not very good. In the ultrasonic examination the most difficult problem was the evaluation of the defects. (author)

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steels in CCTS Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cabrini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of an experimental work on the effect of steel microstructures on morphology and protectiveness of the corrosion scale formed in water saturated by supercritical CO2. Two HSLA steels were tested. The microstructures were modified by means of different heat treatments. Weight loss was measured after exposure at CO2 partial pressure of 80 bar and 60°C temperature. The morphology of the scale was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Cathodic potentiodynamic tests were carried out on precorroded specimens for evaluating the effect of preformed scales on cathodic polarization curves in CO2 saturated sulphuric acid solution at pH 3, which is the value estimated for water saturated by supercritical CO2. The results are discussed in order to evaluate the effect of iron carbide network on scale growth and corrosion rate. Weight loss tests evidenced average corrosion rate values in the range 1–2.5 mm/y after 150-hour exposure. The presence of thick siderite scale significantly reduces the corrosion rate of carbon steel. A slight decrease of the corrosion rate was observed as the scale thickness increases and moving from martensite to microstructures containing carbides.

  18. Austenite decomposition in carbon steel under dynamic deformation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nowotnik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to estimate the effect of the dynamic conditions resulting fromdeformation process on the austenite decomposition into ferrite and pearlite (A→F+P in the commercial carbon steel.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper flow stress curves and microstructure of deformed steel within therange of discontinuous (austenite to pearlite and austenite to ferrite transformation at different strain rates andcooling rates were presented. The microstructure of hot deformed samples was tested by means of an opticaland electron microscopy.Findings: It was shown that the flow localization during hot deformation and preferred growth of the pearlitecolonies at shear bands was very limited. The most characteristic feature of the microstructure observed for hotdeformed samples was the development of carbides that nucleated along elongated ferrite grains.Research limitations/implications: In spite of intense strain hardening due to deformation and phasetransformation overlapping, microstructural observation of deformed samples did not reveal significant flowlocalization effects or heterogeneous distribution of the eutectoid components. Therefore, complementary testsshould be carried out on the steel with higher strain above the 0.5 value.Originality/value: There was no data referred to particular features of the dynamic processes, such as dynamicrecrystallization and recovery, dynamic precipitation, that can occur during austenite decomposition into ferrite,and especially during discontinuous transformation of austenite to pearlite.

  19. Study on microstructure and mechanical characteristics of low-carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkari Khorrami, Mahmoud; Mostafaei, Mohammad Ali; Pouraliakbar, Hesam, E-mail: hpouraliakbar@alum.sharif.edu; Kokabi, Amir Hossein

    2014-07-01

    In this work, examinations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plain carbon steel and AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel dissimilar welds are carried out. Welding is conducted in both autogenous and using ER309L austenitic filler rod conditions through gas tungsten arc welding process. The results indicate that fully-ferritic and duplex ferritic–martensitic microstructures are formed for autogenous and filler-added welds, respectively. Carbide precipitation and formation of martensite at ferrite grain boundaries (intergranular martensite) as well as grain growth occur in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 430 steel. It is found that weld heat input can strongly affect grain growth phenomenon along with the amount and the composition of carbides and intergranular martensite. Acquired mechanical characteristics of weld in the case of using filler metal are significantly higher than those of autogenous one. Accordingly, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), hardness, and absorbed energy during tensile test of weld metal are increased from 662 MPa to 910 MPa, 140 Hv to 385 Hv, and 53.6 J m{sup −3} to 79 J m{sup −3}, respectively by filler metal addition. From fracture surfaces, predominantly ductile fracture is observed in the specimen welded with filler metal while mainly cleavage fracture occurs in the autogenous weld metal.

  20. An evaluation of depth sizing ability of ultrasonic testing by the large aperture transducer for axial crack in cast stainless steel pipe weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic testing is difficult for cast stainless steel which is used as the material of main coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors, because of the large attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves caused by its macro structure. Ultrasonic testing for the axial fatigue crack on welding area in the test piece of the cast stainless pipe was performed, using the double large aperture ultrasonic probes. In this study, depth sizing of defects was performed under the positive result of the detection of defects in former study. As a result, sizing of defects with over 20mm target depth for the specimen thickness 69mm is highly possible. (author)

  1. A Physically Based Dynamic Recrystallization Model Considering Orientation Effects for a Nitrogen Alloyed Ultralow Carbon Stainless Steel during Hot Forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan-lin XIE; An HE; Hai-long ZHANG; Gen-qi WANG; Xi-tao WANG

    2016-01-01

    The nitrogen alloyed ultralow carbon stainless steel is a good candidate material for primary loop pipes of AP1000 nuclear power plant.These pipes are manufactured by hot forging,during which dynamic recrystallization acts as the most important microstructural evolution mechanism.A physically based model was proposed to describe and predict the microstructural evolution in the hot forging process of those pipes.In this model,the coupled effects of dislocation density change,dynamic recovery,dynamic recrystallization and grain orientation function were con-sidered.Besides,physically based simulation experiments were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical sim-ulator,and the specimens after deformation were observed by optical metallography (OM)and electron back-scat-tered diffraction (EBSD)method.The results confirm that dynamic recrystallization is easy to occur with increasing deformation temperature or strain rate.The grains become much finer after full dynamic recrystallization.The model shows a good agreement with experimental results obtained by OM and EBSD in terms of stress-strain curves,grain size,and recrystallization kinetics.Besides,this model obtains an acceptable accuracy and a wide applying scope for engineering calculation.

  2. 75 FR 1495 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... interstitial-free (IF) steels, high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels, and the substrate for motor lamination... nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with micro-alloying levels of elements such as... Countervailing Duty Orders: Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India and Indonesia, 66 FR...

  3. 77 FR 45576 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...-free (``IF'')) steels, high strength low alloy (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor... and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with micro-alloying levels of elements...: Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China, 66 FR 59561...

  4. 75 FR 1031 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., high-strength low-alloy (``HSLA'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are... commonly referred to as columbium), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55792, 55794-96 (August 30, 2002) (``Wire Rod from...

  5. Influence of Molybdenum Addition on Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon HSLA-100 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Bogucki R.; Pytel S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The results of mechanical properties and microstructure observation of low carbon copper bearing steel with high addition of molybdenum are presented in this paper. This steels were characterized by contents of molybdenum in the range from 1% to 3% wt. After the thermo -mechanical processing the steels were subsequently quenched and tempered at different temperatures (500-800 °C) for 1h. The changes of mechanical properties as function of tempering temperature were typical for the steel with ...

  6. 热处理对无缝钢管尺寸变化的影响%Effect of Heat Treatment on Dimensional Changes of Seamless Steel Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旦天; 杨永昌

    2012-01-01

    热轧无缝钢管经调质处理后,与轧态相比各尺寸参数均发生变化,导致下道加工工序无法正常进行或无法满足交货技术条件。通过对不同规格的样管在现场进行跟踪测量各项尺寸参数,分析数据后表明,对不同规格的钢管,热处理工序对尺寸变化的影响程度不同。轧制尺寸公差的合理控制能抵消因热处理而引起的附加尺寸变形,在轧制小规格无缝钢管时,壁厚按负公差控制,外径按公差中线控制;在轧制大口径厚壁无缝钢管时,外径应按负公差控制,壁厚按正公差控制,能使成品钢管各项尺寸参数达到最终标准要求。%Compared to the rolled state,all the parameters of the hot rolling seamless steel pipe changed after quenching and tempering operation,which made the subsequent processing unable to operate normally meet the delivery technical conditions.Track and measure different specifications of the steel pipes in the mill,the results show that,for different dimensions of steel pipe,the dimensional changes with heat treatment process show a different degree of influence.The reasonable control of the rolling tolerance to offset the additional size of the deformation was caused by heat treatment,for rolling the smaller size seamless steel pipe,the wall thickness tolerance were controlled by the negative control,and outside diameter by the center line of the tolerance.For large-diameter thick-walled seamless steel pipe,diameter tolerance should be accorded with the negative control,and the wall thickness by the tolerance control,using this method can effectively guarantee the size parameters of the steel pipe to meet the ultimate standard.

  7. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Effects of Residuals in Carbon Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Ruddle

    2002-11-25

    AN experimental study of the effects of residual elements in carbon steels was carried out to gain better understanding and control of the effects of residual elements emanating from recycled steel scrap. Two plain carbon steel grade compositions (one medium-carbon and one low-carbon), residual elements and levels, and four areas of study, were selected on the bases of a comprehensive literature survey and consultation with sponsor steel companies. The influence of residuals (Cu, Sn, Ni, P, Si, up to the levels studied here), on these laboratory produced hot rolled steels was studied in the areas of (a) hot ductility, (b) surface hot shortness, (c) scale formation and adherence, and (d) embrittlement and mechanical properties. This report summarizes the experimental procedures, results, discussion and conclusions of this study. The relevance of the study is also discussed in relation to steel processing and product properties and in relation to energy consumption and environmental compliance.

  8. Effect of Cr and Mo on strain ageing behaviour of low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores the effects of Cr (0.26-0.74 wt%) and Mo (0.09-0.3 wt%) additions on the kinetics of strain ageing process in low carbon steel. The strain ageing behaviour of the steels was investigated by using tensile tests and transmission electron microscopy. The results have shown that Mo-alloyed steels undergo the same four stages of ageing as unalloyed low carbon steel, whereas Cr-alloyed steels exhibit only three stages of ageing. At the same time, the addition of Mo accelerates the ageing response, while alloying with Cr reduces the rate of strain ageing by ∼3 times in comparison with non-alloyed low carbon steel. It especially delays the offset of Stage III. This is explained by the reduction of carbon content in ferrite due to the enrichment of cementite with Cr leading to the reduction of its equilibrium solubility in ferrite.

  9. Efficiency of inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by consortium sulfate reducing bacteria on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Nur Akma; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2015-09-01

    The inhibition efficiency of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in controlling biocorrosion on the carbon steel surfaces has been investigated. The carbon steel coupons were incubated in the presence of consortium SRB (C-SRB) with and without BKC for the difference medium concentration. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency have been evaluated by a weight loss method. The morphology of biofilm C-SRB on the steel surfaces were characterized with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). The results revealed that BKC exhibits a low corrosion rate, minimizing the cell growth and biofilm development on the carbon steel surfaces.

  10. Efficiency of inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by consortium sulfate reducing bacteria on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahat, Nur Akma; Othman, Norinsan Kamil [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sahrani, Fathul Karim [School of Environment and Natural Resources Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition efficiency of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in controlling biocorrosion on the carbon steel surfaces has been investigated. The carbon steel coupons were incubated in the presence of consortium SRB (C-SRB) with and without BKC for the difference medium concentration. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency have been evaluated by a weight loss method. The morphology of biofilm C-SRB on the steel surfaces were characterized with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). The results revealed that BKC exhibits a low corrosion rate, minimizing the cell growth and biofilm development on the carbon steel surfaces.

  11. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  12. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of carbon steel from secondary circuit of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is the initiation or acceleration of the corrosion due to the interaction between the microbial activity and the corrosion processes. During 1980s , the electric power industry, particularly the nuclear industry , has devoted increased attention to MIC that affect reliability, operating and maintenance costs of plant systems. The economic impact of failures in such systems in large nuclear units can be extremely costly, about USD 1,000,000 per day. Costs for chemicals and delivery systems for water treatments to prevent MIC and biofouling can approach about USD 1,000,000 per year. Several plants have been forced to undertake replacement or to make extensive repairs of their service water system at a cost of about USD 30,000,000 per plant. Nuclear power plant can exhibit MIC as a result of their basic design philosophy. The large number of stand-by and redundant systems in nuclear plant design establishes stagnant or intermittent flow conditions, a situation in which a number of systems, some of which are safety-related, will be susceptible to MIC. The large size of nuclear generating facilities and the often prolonged licensing process has resulted in an extended construction phase, often with structural materials in contact with stagnant, untreated water used for hydrostat testing. This also produces a condition amenable to microbial growth. Carbon steels may experience random pitting, general corrosion, or severe degradation in flow as a result of MIC. Tubercles (comprising corrosion products, microbes, sticky exopolymer associated with both living and dead cells, and debris) often form on carbon steel pipes and other components. The tubercles create a hydraulic resistance to cooling water flow as well as sites for additional microbial activity. Tubercles can grow together, eventually becoming a severe impediment to cooling water flow. Pitting is also often observed beneath tubercles as mechanical and chemical

  13. 75 FR 11119 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1, 2008... Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). The preliminary results for this... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and...

  14. Reduction of work hardening rate in low-carbon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamanchili, Bhaskar Rao

    Low carbon grades of steel rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subject to ductility failures during production due to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing. The high work hardening rates are attributed to the presence of residuals, free nitrogen, or combinations thereof. This research concludes that the most cost-effective way to reduce the work hardening rate during wire drawing is to combine boron with nitrogen to form boron nitride, and thus reducing its work hardening contribution. The results of this study also conclude the following: (1) Boron/Nitrogen ratio is the more significant factor than rod tensile strength, which affects work hardening rate. Higher ratio is better in the 0.79 to 1.19 range. (2) Maintaining this narrow B/N range requires precise process control. (3) Process conditions such as dissolved oxygen (Steel Texas (North Star) benefited from this research by being able to provide a competitive edge in both quality and cost of its low carbon boron grades thus making North Star a preferred supplier of wire rod for these products.

  15. Work-Hardening and Deformation Mechanism of Cold Rolled Low Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Su-Fen; Peng Yan; Li Zhi-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The study reports the mechanical property and microstructure of cold rolled low carbon steel and its work-hardening behavior in the deformation process. The tensile test in room temperature of low carbon steel was implemented for the different cold rolling deformation, the stress-strain curve was draught according to the relationship between strength and deformation and fitted for the polynomial fitting, the strain hardening exponent (n) of test steel was calculated by the Hollomon method. In...

  16. Coefficient of friction between carbon steel and perlite concrete surfaces. Test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of coefficient of friction, μ, tests conducted on perlite blocks and carbon steel plates under various conditions are discussed. Variables included in the test entailed the use of lubricants (i.e. water and simulated radioactive waste solution) abrasives (120 grit, 60 grit, 40 grit sand paper) applied to the surfaces of the perlite block and carbon steel plates

  17. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  18. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... amended, 67 FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's... COMMISSION Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States... in the antidumping duty Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel...

  19. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  20. Microstructure and Properties of Ti and Ti+Nb Ultra-Low-Carbon Bake Hardened Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-ping; KANG Yong-lin; HAO Ying-min; LIU Guang-ming; XIONG Ai-ming

    2009-01-01

    Hot rolling, cold rolling and continuous annealing processes of Ti bearing and Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steels were experimentally studied. The microstrueture and texture evolution, as well as the morphology, size and distribution of second phase precipitates during hot roiling, cold rolling and continuous annea-ling were also analyzed. The results showed that the size of NbC precipitates in Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel was smaller than that of TiC precipitates in Ti bearing ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel, which made the average grain size of Ti+ Nb stabilized ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel finer than that of Ti bearing ultra-low-carbon bake hardened steel; for the yield strength, the former was higher than the latter; but for the γ value which reflects the deep-drawing performance, the former was lower than the latter.

  1. Mechanical Behaviour and Microstructural Characterization of Carbon Steel Samples from Three Selected Steel Rolling Plants

    OpenAIRE

    P. O. Atanda; Abioye, A. A.; A. O. Iyiola

    2015-01-01

    The research investigated the mechanical behavior of samples of steel rods obtained from three selected Steel Rolling Companies in South Western part of Nigeria. This was done by carrying out some mechanical tests such as tensile, impact and hardness as well as microstructural examination.Four sets of 16 mm steel rod samples were collected from Tiger steel industries, Phoenix steel and Oxil steel Industies, all located in South West Nigeria, The chemical composition was carried out using a...

  2. An evaluation of detection ability of ultrasonic testing with a large aperture transducer for axial cracks in cast stainless steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic testing is difficult to apply to cast stainless steel which is the material of the main coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors, because of the large attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves caused by its macro structure. In this study, ultrasonic testing for progression of axial fatigue cracks of a welded area in the test piece of cast stainless steel pipe was performed using double big-size ultrasonic probes which were formerly developed in INSS. It was found that detection of defects that were over 6% of the target depth for the specimen thickness of 69mm is possible, and detection of defects with over 10% of the target depth is possible for all test conditions. (author)

  3. 马氏体不锈钢HFW管线管的开发%Development of Weldable Martensitic Stainless Steel Line Pipe by HFW Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖国章; 高霞; 马星; 赵波锋

    2014-01-01

    A new type of martensitic stainless steel line pipe having excellent weldability and high corrosion resistance in wet CO2 environments manufactured by the high-frequency electric-resistance welding (HFW) process was developed. Through optimized design alloy composition, metallographic structure observation, mechanical property test, the steel pipe external dimension and anticorrosion performance test, the external dimension, mechanical properties of base metal and weld, and metallographic structure of the developed steel pipe can meet the design requirements. The test results showed that the new martensitic stainless steel can produce thin-walled and high precision line pipe, the gas shield welding techniques can be used in HFW; preheat before welding and heat treatment after welding don’t need for HFW steel pipe, the pipe body and weld can satisfy the condition of wet CO2 in oil and gas well.%研究开发了一种具有良好可焊性和抗湿CO2腐蚀的马氏体不锈钢合金及HFW焊管。通过合金成分优化设计、金相组织观察、力学性能试验、钢管外观尺寸及防腐性能试验,所开发的钢管外观尺寸、母材和焊缝的力学性能及金相组织等满足设计目标要求,与传统马氏体不锈钢管相比,具有更精确的外观尺寸。试验结果表明,新型可焊接马氏体不锈钢可以生产薄壁高精度管线管,可以用气体保护技术进行HFW焊接; HFW钢管不需焊前预热和焊后热处理,管体及焊缝所有性能满足油气井湿CO2腐蚀的服役环境。

  4. Numeric and experimental studies on surface cracking of disks and pipes of ferritic and austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For safeguarding the transmission chain from the two-dimensional sample to real three-dimensional structural components, the behavior of surface cracks in disks and pipes was investigated in an experimental and a theoretic-numerical way. The objective was a quantitative failure analysis which covers essential phases resulting from operation and breakdown conditions, in fact from the first propagation of the incipient crack under fatigue loading to stabile crack growth under monotonously increasing load up to wall breakthrough and a possible subsequent instability. The investigations of the growth of fatigue cracks show that the growth of partial through-cracks in disks and pipes is generally overestimated in analytic calculations, if the constants of the crack propagation determined for CT samples are used for these calculations. The results presented here show that the J-integral concept is suited to give a good description of the behavior of cracks in constructional components under shear fracture conditions as to the quality and quantity, if the influence of the multi-axiality of the state of stress on the resistance against crack propagation is appropriately considered. The transferability of samples to constructional components seems to be possible for purely mechanical strain even with a superposed amount of bending for a crack propagation which is not too great. (orig.)

  5. Properties and Microstructure of Laser Welded VM12-SHC Steel Pipes Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of microstructure and tests of welded joints of new generation VM12-SHC martensitic steel using high power CO2 laser (LBW method with bifocal welding head. VM12-SHC is dedicated to energetic installation material, designed to replace currently used. High content of chromium and others alloying elements improve its resistance and strength characteristic. Use of VM12-SHC steel for production of the superheaters, heating chambers and walls in steam boilers resulted in various weldability researches. In article are presented results of destructive and non-destructive tests. For destructive: static bending and Vickers hardness tests, and for non-destructive: VT, RT, UT, micro and macroscopic tests were performed.

  6. Study on temper-rapid cooling process of low carbon steel produced by CSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huajie Wu; Yangchun Liu; Jie Fu

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the effect of carbon precipitation on the microstructure and properties of steel products below A1 temperature,a new thermal treatment method (temper-rapid cooling process) was studied. By the temper-rapid cooling process, the yield strengths of the high strength low carbon (HSLC) steel ZJ330 and SPA-H produced using the compact strip production (CSP) process increased from 340 to about 410 MPa and from 410 to about 450 MPa, respectively. The results indirectly indicated that there existed nanoscaled iron-carbon precipitates that have obvious precipitation effect on low carbon steel produced by CSP. The prospect of application is discussed.

  7. 开口钢管桩沉桩阻力研究%Research of pile-sinking resistance of small aperture opening steel pipe pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹书文; 赵冬; 陈平; 张卫喜

    2012-01-01

    To get the pile-sinking resistance calculation formula of small aperture opening steel pipe pile, the plugging effect, squeezing effect and strain softening effect of open ended steel pipe pile are analyzed. The pile-sinking resistance formula is proposed combined with cone penetration test, the pile-sinking process is divided into two stages: before and after inner soil blocked, and the fitting coefficients of pile side resistance and pile tip resistance are calculated respectively, and the two stages pile-sinking resistance calculation formula of small aperture opening steel pipe pile is obtained. The results fit the test dates in engineering well. The research results can provide reference to pit-jacked steel pipe pile in Huanghe alluvial plain silt soil.%为得到小直径开口钢管桩的沉桩阻力计算公式,对开口钢管桩的土塞效应、挤土效应和软化效应进行了分析,结合静力触探原理,提出了沉桩阻力计算公式,将沉桩过程分为土塞闭合前后两个阶段,分别计算了桩侧阻力和桩端阻力的拟合系数,得到了小直径开口钢管桩的两阶段沉桩阻力计算公式.与工程实际测试数据符合较好.结果为黄河冲积平原粉土土质的坑式钢管静压桩提供了工程参考.

  8. Constitutive model depending upon temperature and strain rate of carbon constructional quality steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 罗迎社

    2008-01-01

    The basic factors relating to the rheological stress in the constitutive equations were introduced.Carbon constructional quality steels were regarded as a kind of elastic-viscoplastic materials under high temperature and the elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models were summarized.A series of tension experiments under the same temperature and different strain rates,and the same strain rate and different temperatures were done on 20 steel,35 steel and 45 steel.52 groups of rheological stress-strain curves were obtained.The experimental results were analyzed theoretically.The rheological stress constitutive models of carbon steels were built combining the strong points of the Perzyna model and Johnson-Cook model.Comparing the calculation results conducted from the model with the experiment results,the results proves that the model can reflect the temperature effect and strain rate effect of carbon constructional quality steels better.

  9. The possibility of tribopair lifetime extending by welding of quenched and tempered stainless steel with quenched and tempered carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    V. Marušić; I. Samardžić; Budić, I.; Marušić, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the conditions of tribocorrosion wear, extending of parts lifetime could be achieved by using stainless steel,which is hardened to sufficiently high hardness. In the tribosystem bolt/ bushing shell/link plate of the bucket elevator transporter conveyor machine, the previously quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel for bolts is hardened at ≈47 HRC and welded with the quenched and tempered high yield carbon steel for bolts. Additional material, based on Cr-Ni-Mo (18/8/6) is used. ...

  10. Stress-assisted, microbial-induced corrosion of stainless steel primary piping and other aging issues at the Omega West Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the discovery of cooling system leak of about 284 liters per twenty-four (24) hour period, an investigation determined that the 76.2-cm diameter, 33.5-m long stainless-steel (304) OWR delay line was losing water at the same nominal rate. An excavation effort revealed that a circumferential crack, approximately 0.0025 cm in width, extended around the bottom half of the delay line. In addition, other evidence of what appeared to be microcracking and pitting that originated at random nucleated sites around the pipe were also found. Results of destructive analysis and nondestructive testing allowed Los Alamos staff to conclude that the direct cause for the main crack and other pitting resulted from stress-assisted, microbial-induced corrosion of the stainless steel primary piping. The results also indicated that microbial action from bacteria that are normally present in earth can be extremely harmful to stainless- steel piping under certain conditions. Other potential problems that could have also eventually led to a permanent shutdown of the OWR were discussed. These problems, although never encountered nor associated with the current shutdown, were identified in aging studies and are associated with: (1) the water-cooled, bismuth gamma-ray shield and, (2) the aluminum thermal column head seal that prevents reactor vessel water from entering into the graphite-filled thermal column

  11. Stress-assisted, microbial-induced corrosion of stainless steel primary piping and other aging issues at the Omega West Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, A.

    1995-07-01

    After the discovery of cooling system leak of about 284 liters per twenty-four (24) hour period, an investigation determined that the 76.2-cm diameter, 33.5-m long stainless-steel (304) OWR delay line was losing water at the same nominal rate. An excavation effort revealed that a circumferential crack, approximately 0.0025 cm in width, extended around the bottom half of the delay line. In addition, other evidence of what appeared to be microcracking and pitting that originated at random nucleated sites around the pipe were also found. Results of destructive analysis and nondestructive testing allowed Los Alamos staff to conclude that the direct cause for the main crack and other pitting resulted from stress-assisted, microbial-induced corrosion of the stainless steel primary piping. The results also indicated that microbial action from bacteria that are normally present in earth can be extremely harmful to stainless- steel piping under certain conditions. Other potential problems that could have also eventually led to a permanent shutdown of the OWR were discussed. These problems, although never encountered nor associated with the current shutdown, were identified in aging studies and are associated with: (1) the water-cooled, bismuth gamma-ray shield and, (2) the aluminum thermal column head seal that prevents reactor vessel water from entering into the graphite-filled thermal column.

  12. 大口径埋地钢管变形原因分析%the Deformation Reason Analysis of Buried Steel Pipe with Large-diameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2012-01-01

    The deformation field measurement and backfilled soil sampling test of the deformed buried steel pipe with large diameter for a projet are introduced in this paper.Buried steel pipe working principle is analyzed and the deformation amount is calculated by" Spangler-lowa"model.The main reason of the buried steel pipe deformation is explained clearly ,and the prevention and control measures are introduced simply.%详细介绍了对某工程发生变形的大口径埋地钢管进行现场变形测量及回填土取样试验等工作。对埋地钢管的工作原理进行了分析并且应用Spangler-lowa公式进行变形量模拟计算,阐明了该工程钢管变形的主要原因,并提出了钢管变形预防措施。

  13. Thermal stresses in pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zaharnah, Iyad

    2002-01-01

    This study presents results about thermal stresses in externally heated pipes that are subjected to different flow types: laminar flow, turbulent flow, and pulsating flow. The effect o f flow Reynolds number on thermal stresses in the pipe is studied. To investigate the influence o f fluid and solid properties on the resulting thermal stresses in pipes, two solids namely; steel and cooper and three fluids namely; water, coolanol-25, and mercury are used in the study. Pipes with different diam...

  14. Stress-Strain Rate Relations in Ultra High Carbon Steels Deformed in the Ferrite Range of Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syn, C K; Lesuer, D R; Sherby, O D; Taleff, E M

    2003-02-20

    The stress-strain rate relations in ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been analyzed at high temperatures in the ferrite range where dislocation slip is the principal deformation mechanism. Specifically, the present investigation centers on the factors influencing the strength of UHCS in the ferrite range of 500 to 700 C and in the strain rate range of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. These steels contain iron carbide as a second phase either in the form of spheroidite or pearlite and vary in the grain size according to the processing history. The new variables that need to be taken into account are the effect of ferromagnetism and its change with temperature on the creep strength of the ferritic UHCSs. Recent studies have shown that ferromagnetism strongly influences the lattice and dislocation pipe diffusion coefficient and the elastic modulus of iron in the ferrite range of temperature. These variables are shown to influence the creep strength of ferrite-base steels and explain the high activation energies that are observed in many of the ferritic UHCSs.

  15. Solidification of stainless steel slag by accelerated carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D C; MacLeod, C L; Carey, P J; Hills, C D

    2003-06-01

    On exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) at a pressure of 3 bars, compacts formed from pressed ground slag, and 12.5 weight percent water, were found to react with approximately 18% of their own weight of CO2. The reaction product formed was calcium carbonate causing the slag to self-cement. Unconfined compressive strengths of 9MPa were recorded in carbonated compacts whereas strengths of < 1 MPa were recorded in non-carbonated slag compacts. As molten stainless steel slag containing dicalcium silicate (C2S) cools it can undergo several phase transitions. The final transformation from the beta-polymorph to gamma-C2S is accompanied by a volume change that causes the slag to self-pulverise or 'dust'. As a consequence of this the fine grained portion of the slag contains more of this phase whilst the coarser particles of the slag contain more of the calcium magnesium silicates that contribute the bulk of the waste. The fine fraction (< 125 microm) of the slag when ground is found to react to the same extent as the ground bulk slag and produces compacts with equivalent strength. A coarser fraction (4-8 mm) when ground to a similar grading does not react as extensively and produces a weaker product. Additions of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at 5 and 10 percent by weight did not alter the degree of reaction during carbonation of the bulk slag or ground fine fraction, however the strength of the 4-8 mm fraction was increased by this change. PMID:12868521

  16. Study on rolling process optimization of high carbon steel wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The existing problems in the manufacture of SWRH82B high carbon steel wire were discussed by sampling and testing the microstructure and properties of the steel from the workshop. To solve the problems, the experimental parameters for thermal simulation were optimized, and the thermal simulating experiments were carried out on a Gleeble1500 thermal simulator. The process parameters for the manufacture were optimized after analysis of the data, and the productive experiments were performed after the water box in front of the no-twist blocks was reconstructed, to control the temperature of the loop layer. The results from the productive experiments showed that the cooling rate of 10-15 ℃/s was reasonable before phase transformation, about 5℃/s during phase wire was increased to 1150-1170 MPa with an increase of 20-30 MPa, the percentage reduction of section was to 34%-36% with an increase of 1%-3% by testing the finished products after reconstruction.

  17. The kinetics of pitting corrosion of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an improved statistical method for analysing pit growth data to take account of the difference in area of laboratory specimens and full sized high level nuclear waste containers is described. Statistical analysis of data from pit growth experiments with large area (460 cm2) plates of BS 4360 steel have indicated that the depth distributions correlate most closely with a limited distribution function. This correlation implies that previous statistical analyses to estimate the maximum pit depths in full size containers, which were made using unlimited distribution functions, will be pessimistic. An evaluation of the maximum feasible pitting period based on estimating the period during which the oxygen diffusion flux is sufficient to stabilise a passive film on carbon steel containers has indicated that this is of the order of 125 years rather than the full 1000 year container life. The estimate is sensitive to the value of the leakage current assumed to flow through the passive film, and therefore work is planned to measure this accurately in relevant granitic environments. (author)

  18. Fatigue Property of Nano-grained Delaminated Low-carbon Steel Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. Li; T.F. Jing; M.M. Lu; R. Xu; B.Y. Liang; J.W. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Tension-tension fatigue life tests on nano-grained delaminated Iow-carbon steel sheet under different fatigue loads are carried out to study the fatigue properties of the steel. The three-dimensional microstructures of the steel are observed by TEM. In addition, the morphology of the fatigue fracture of the specimen under different loads is observed by SEM. The results show that micro-cracks form on the weak interface of the nano-grained steel under Iow-stress conditions, which hinders the propagation of the main cracks and reduces the fatigue crack propagation rate, resulting in the extending fatigue life of the steel.

  19. Effect of Carbon Properties on Melting Behavior of Mold Fluxes for Continuous Casting of Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During continuous casting of steel, the properties of mold fluxes strongly affect the casting performance,steel quality and environment of casting operation. The high temperature microscopy technique was used to investigate the melting behaviour of mold fluxes, and drip test method was used to determine their melting rate. The results showed that free carbon is a dominant factor in governing the melting behaviour of fluxes, and the melting rate is increased with increasing carbon reactivity and decreasing carbon content.

  20. Simple Predicting Method for Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Based on Tensile Strength of Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Three types of fatigue tests for an annealed carbon steel containing carbon of 0.42 % were carried out on smooth specimens and specimens with a small blind hole in order to investigate the fatigue crack growth law. A simple predicting method for crack growth rates has been proposed involving strength σb and the relation between cyclic stress and strain. The validity of proposed method has been confirmed by experiments on several carbon steels with different loadings.

  1. The effect of various deformation processes on the corrosion behavior of casing and tubing carbon steels in sweet environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elramady, Alyaa Gamal

    The aim of this research project is to correlate the plastic deformation and mechanical instability of casing steel materials with corrosion behavior and surface change, in order to identify a tolerable degree of deformation for casing steel materials. While the corrosion of pipeline and casing steels has been investigated extensively, corrosion of these steels in sweet environments with respect to plastic deformation due to bending, rolling, autofrettage, or handling needs more investigation. Downhole tubular expansion of pipes (casings) is becoming standard practice in the petroleum industry to repair damaged casings, shutdown perforations, and ultimately achieve mono-diameter wells. Tubular expansion is a cold-drawing metal forming process, which consists of running conical mandrels through casings either mechanically using a piston or hydraulically by applying a back pressure. This mechanism subjects the pipes to large radial plastic deformations of up to 30 pct. of the inner diameter. It is known that cold-working is a way of strengthening materials such as low carbon steel, but given that this material will be subjected to corrosive environments, susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) should be investigated. This research studies the effect of cold-work, in the form of cold-rolling and cold-expansion, on the surface behavior of API 5CT steels when it is exposed to a CO2-containing environment. Cold-work has a pronounced influence on the corrosion behavior of both API 5CT K55 and P110 grade steels. The lowest strength grade steel, API 5CT K55, performed poorly in a corrosive environment in the slow strain rate test. The ductile material exhibited the highest loss in strength and highest susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in a CO 2-containing environment. The loss in strength declined with cold-rolling, which can be ascribed to the surface compressive stresses induced by cold-work. On the other hand, API 5CT P110 grade steels showed higher

  2. FINITE DIFFERENCE SIMULATION OF LOW CARBON STEEL MANUAL ARC WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S Al-Khafagy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the evaluation and simulation of angular distortion in welding joints, and the ways of controlling and treating them, while welding plates of (low carbon steel type (A-283-Gr-C through using shielded metal arc welding. The value of this distortion is measured experimentally and the results are compared with the suggested finite difference method computer program. Time dependent temperature distributions are obtained using finite difference method. This distribution is used to obtain the shrinkage that causes the distortions accompanied with structural forces that act to modify these distortions. Results are compared with simple empirical models and experimental results. Different thickness of plates and welding parameters is manifested to illustrate its effect on angular distortions. Results revealed the more accurate results of finite difference method that match experimental results in comparison with empirical formulas. Welding parameters include number of passes, current, electrode type and geometry of the welding process.

  3. The Micro-hardness of Heat Treated Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef PETRÍK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the submitted work is to study the influence of applied loads ranging from 0.09807 N to 0.9807 N on measured values of micro-hardness of heat treated carbon steel. The influence of applied load on measured value of micro-hardness was evaluated by Meyer’s index n, PSR method and by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The influence of the load on the measured value of micro-hardness is statistically significant and the relationship between applied load and micro-hardness manifests the moderate reverse ISE. As far as the relationship between measured hardness and load independent “true hardness”, the best fit was obtained between HV0.05 and “true hardness” calculated using index a2.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.4017

  4. Subgrains and boron distribution of low carbon bainitic steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemin Wang; Bing Cao; Chengjia Shang; Xueyi Liu; Xinlai He

    2005-01-01

    The structure variation of deformed austenite during the relaxation stage after deformation at various temperatures in an Nb-B ultra low carbon bainitic steel and Fe-Ni alloy was studied by the thermo-simulation. Optical microscope and TEM were applied to analyze the microstructure after RPC (Relaxation-precipitation-controlling phase transformation technique) and the evolution of dislocation configuration. The particle tracking autoradiography (PTA) technique, revealing the distribution of boron, was employed to show the change of boron segregation after different relaxation times. The results indicate that during the relaxation stage the recovery occurs in the deformed austenite, the dislocations rearrange and subgrains form. During the subsequent cooling the boron will segregate at the boundaries of subgrains.

  5. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel by sodium metavanadate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIJAYA GOPAL SRIBHARATHY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of sodium metavanadate (SMV-adipic acid (AA system in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Cl- has been evaluated by weight-loss method; 250 ppm of SMV exhibits inhibition efficiency of 56 %. Addition of adipic acid to SMV improves the inhibition efficiency of the system. The formulation consisting of 250 ppm of SMV and 250 ppm of adipic acid has inhibition efficiency of 98 %. A synergistic effect exists between SMV and adipic acid with the synergism parameters greater than 1. Mecha¬nistic aspects of corrosion inhibition have been studied by electrochemical methods like potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-SMV complex and Fe2+-adipic acid complex. The protective film has been analyzed by fluorescence spectra, SEM and EDAX.

  6. 铝/钢复合管轧制开裂的原因分析%Reason Analysis on Rolling Crack of Aluminum / Steel Composite Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆瑞雪

    2012-01-01

    The influence factors on cold rolling crack of aluminum / steel composite pipe are studied, From three aspects of rolling processing rate,feed and lubricant, composite tube cracking is analyzed. With the lubricant identified, there are two main factors of rolling crack. The thinner the pipe relative wall thickness is, the easilier the pipe cracks. When the outside diameter of the pipe is less than the diameter of the roll, the pipe cracks easilier. Choosing a suitable lubricant and feed can avoid rolling crack.%对影响铝/钢复合管冷轧开裂的因素进行了研究,从轧制的加工率、送进量及润滑剂三方面对复合管开裂的影响进行了分析.在润滑剂确定的情况下,导致轧制开裂的主要因素有两个:管材的相对壁厚越薄,越易开裂;管材的外径小于轧辊直径,管材容易开裂.选择合适的润滑剂和送进量,可以避免轧制开裂.

  7. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D. J.; Michaud, W. F.; Galvin, T. M.; Burke, W. F.; Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1996-06-05

    The degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 308 stainless steel (SS) pipe welds due to thermal aging has been characterized at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in Charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. For the various welds in this study, upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. The decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or JIC is relatively small. Thermal aging had little or no effect on the tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by the formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on the fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  8. A study on the intercritical annealing treatment on the mechanical properties of SA106 Gr.C piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the point of view on material properties in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) analysis, the premise of LBB is that the materials used are sufficiently tough (ductile) that small through-wall crack would remain stable. It is reported, however, that the toughness and LBB safety margins of SA106 Gr.C piping steel is reduced due to dynamic strain aging (DSA) at the reactor operating temperature. In this study, intercritical annealing in two-phase (α+γ) region was performed to investigate the possibility of improving the toughness and reducing DSA susceptibility for giving allowable LBB safety margins. Tensile tests were carried out under various temperatures and strain rates for assessing the material properties with the heat treatments. Also, Charpy impact tests were conducted to measure impact toughness at room temperature. After intercritical annealing, the manifestations of DSA were observed in the tensile properties. However, the ductility loss caused by DSA was smaller than the as-received material. Furthermore, the intercritical annealing was able to increase the impact toughness by 1.5 times compared to as-received material. With the heat treatment, we could obtain some kinds of microstructural changes such as the cleaner retained ferrite, increased ferrite content and somewhat finer grain size. It is considered that the reduced DSA sensitivity was induced by cleaner retained ferrite and it resulted in higher impact toughness in addition to the general toughening due to finer grain sizes and increased ferrite content

  9. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  10. Influence of Heat Treatments on the Corrosion Resistance of Medium -Carbon Steel using Sulfuric Spring Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas Basheer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion is one of the important problems that may be occur to the parts of machinery and equipment after manufactured and when used as a result of exposure to corrosive media. Plain-carbon steel is considered as one of the most common minerals used in industrial applications. Some of heat treatments can have direct effect on the corrosion rate of steel by building up galvanic corrosion cells between its microscopic phases. Therefore, to adopt one of kinds of the plain-carbon steel and the most commonly used in industry to be study subject, that is medium carbon steel and took samples of this steel has been treated thermally in three methods which the normalising, annealing, and hardening .The corrosive media used in the research is Sulfuric Spring, it contains many chemical compounds to show its influence on the corrosion of steel. The weight loss method is used to determine corrosion rate and to compare between the results obtained, show that the greatest corrosion resistance of the annealed steel and the corrosion resistance of the hardened steel is the lowest while the corrosion  resistance of the normalised steel is in-between them.         Calcium carbonate was formed on the metal surface which acts as an isolating layer which decrease corrosion rate with time

  11. Three Heavy Reflector Experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 Reactor: Stainless Steel, Carbon Steel, and Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, A.; de Andrade e Silva, G. S.; Mura, L. F.; Fuga, R.; Jerez, R.; Mendonça, A. G.

    2014-04-01

    The heavy reflector experiments performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility comprise a set of critical configurations employing the standard 28×26-fuel-rod configuration. The heavy reflector, either Stainless Steel, Carbon Steel or Nickel plates, was placed at the west face of this reactor. 32 plates around 3.0 mm thick were used in all the experiments. The aim was to provide high quality experimental data for the interpretation and validation of the SS-304 heavy reflector calculation methods. The experiments of Carbon Steel, which is composed mainly of iron, and Nickel were performed to provide a consistent and an interpretative check to the SS-304 reflector measurements. The experimental data comprise a set of critical control bank positions, temperatures and reactivities as a function of the number of the plates. The competition between the effect of thermal neutron capture in the heavy reflector and the effect of fast neutrons back scattering to the core is highlighted by varying the reflector thickness. For the Carbon Steel case the reactivity gain when all the 32 plates are inserted is the smallest one, thus demonstrating that Carbon Steel or essentially iron does not have the same reflector properties as the Stainless Steel or Nickel plates do. Nickel has the highest reactivity gain, thus demonstrating that this material is better reflector than Iron and Stainless Steel. The theoretical analysis was performed by MCNP-5 with the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. It was shown that this library has a very good performance up to thirteen plates and overestimates the reactivity for higher number of plates independently of the type of the reflector.

  12. Development of Low and Middle Carbon Martensite Spring Steel with High Strength and Toughness for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ye-sheng; Wu Zi-ping; Zhu Yin-lu; Chen Hui-huang

    2004-01-01

    The conventional middle and high carbon spring steels have some drawbacks in properties, production and application. In order to meet the demands of rapid development of automobile, a new low and middle carbon spring steel35Si2CrMnVB, C0.34, Sil.66, Mn0.80, Cr0.67, V0.13, B0.001, P0.011, S0.014 wt.%, has been developed. Comparison between the new spring steel 35Si2CrMnVB and the conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, C0.61, Sil.75, Mn0.76, P0.021,S0.018 wt.%, shows that the new spring steel has not only high strength, good ductility, good comprehensive mechanical properties, but also low decarbonization tendency, sufficient hardenability and high elastic sag resistance, etc.. The microstructure change in quenched steel caused by the decreasing of carbon contents is detected through metallographic observation, the new low and middle carbon spring steel 35Si2CrMnVB after quenching is composed of almost lath martensite with high dislocation density and only a little martensite with twin structure. It is testified that to develop low carbon spring steel with more excellent properties for automobile is feasible.

  13. Recent Progress in High Strength Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrník J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced High Strength (AHS steels, among them especially Dual Phase (DP steels, Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels, Complex Phase (CP steels, Partially Martensite (PM steels, feature promising results in the field. Their extraordinary mechanical properties can be tailored and adjusted by alloying and processing. The introduction of steels with a microstructure consisting at least of two different components has led to the enlargement of the strength level without a deterioration of ductility. Furthermore, the development of ultra fine-grained AHS steels and their service performance are reviewed and new techniques are introduced. Various projects have been devoted to develop new materials for flat and long steel products for structural applications. The main stream line is High Strength, in order to match the weight lightening requirements that concern the whole class of load bearing structures and/or steel components and one of the most investigated topics is grain refinement.

  14. Inhibition of Corrosion of Carbon Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution by Myrmecodia Pendans Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atria Pradityana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitor is a substance that is added to the corrosive media to inhibit corrosion rate. Organic inhibitors are preferred to inorganic ones since they are environmentally friendly. One of the organic compounds which is rarely reported as a corrosion inhibitor is Myrmecodia Pendans. The organic compounds can be adsorbed on the metal surface and block the active surface to reduce the rate of corrosion. In this study, the used pipe was carbon steel API 5L Grade B with 3.5% NaCl solution as the corrosion medium. The objective of this research was to analyze the inhibition mechanism Myrmecodia Pendans towards carbon steel in a corrosion medium. Concentration variations of extract Myrmecodia Pendans were 0–500 ppm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR was used for chemical characterization of Myrmecodia Pendans. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS were used to measure the corrosion rate and behaviour. From the electrochemical measurements, it was found that the addition of 400 mg/L inhibitor gave the highest inhibition efficiency. Myrmecodia Pendans acted as a corrosion inhibitor by forming a thin layer on the metal surface.

  15. SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND CUTTING FORCES IN CRYOGENIC TURNING OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. YAP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cryogenic liquid nitrogen on surface roughness, cutting forces, and friction coefficient of the machined surface when machining of carbon steel S45C in wet, dry and cryogenic condition was studied through experiments. The experimental results show that machining with liquid nitrogen increases the cutting forces, reduces the friction coefficient, and improves the chips produced. Beside this, conventional machining with cutting fluid is still the most suitable method to produce good surface in high speed machining of carbon steel S45C whereas dry machining produced best surface roughness in low speed machining. Cryogenic machining is not able to replace conventional cutting fluid in turning carbon steel.

  16. THE ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF OCEANIC MICROBIOLOGICAL INFLUENCED CORROSION ON CARBON STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of carbon steel in the medium of marine microorganisms was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra, polarization curves, and so on. Experimental results showed that the corrosion potential of carbon steel moved in a negative direction in the unpurified marine microorganism solution, and the polarization style of the cathodic process did not change. The electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the impedance value of the electrode decreased in the medium with bacteria, which indicated that the existence of microorganism could accelerate the corrosion progress of carbon steel.

  17. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Melting Process Practice of Oil Well Drill Pipe Steel 26CrMo20%油井钻杆用钢26CrMo20的冶炼工艺实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚平; 李义河; 刘永刚

    2013-01-01

    介绍了油井钻杆用钢26CrMo20的技术要求,针对该钢的要求制定了合理的工艺路线,成功开发了油井钻杆用钢26CrMo20圆坯.%The technical demands for oil well drill pipe steel 26 CrMo20 were introduced,according to the demands for the steel,rational technology process line was drawn up,therefore the oil well drill pipe round billet steel 26CrMo20 was developed.

  19. Creep testing and viscous behavior research on carbon constructional quality steel under high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余敏; 罗迎社; 彭相华

    2008-01-01

    Creep tests under at a certain temperature and different stress levels were performed on two carbon constructional quality steels at a certain stress level and different temperatures,and their creep curves at high temperature were obtained based on analyzing the testing data.Taking 45 steel at a certain temperature and stress as the example,the integral creep constitutive equation and the differential stress-strain constitutive relationship were established based on the relevant rheological model,and the integral core function was also obtained.Simultaneously,the viscous coefficients denoting the viscous behavior in visco-plastic constitutive equation were determined by taking use of the creep testing data.Then the viscous coefficients of three carbon steels(20 steel,35 steel and 45 steel) were compared and analyzed.The results show that the viscosity is different due to different materials at the same temperature and stress.

  20. Development of P110 Grade Plain-end Pipe Steel for Oil Casing%P110钢级光管产品研制开发*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金海; 尚明

    2013-01-01

      Using 25Mn2V steel and taking the process of BOF→LF+VD→Continuous Casting→Rolling→Heat treatment, designing and optimizing the chemical composition and heat treatment process to control carbon content between 0.23%and 0.26%, and using high quality graphite lubricant andΦ180 mm round billet in hot rolling procedure, P110 grade casing pipes ofΦ177.8 mm×10.36 mm specification were developed and produced. The yield strength of the product is 903.8 MPa, the property qualification rate is 100%, UT inspection meets the needs of L2 level and the physical dimensions and external quality are fine. The product qualities meet the requirements of API 5CT standard and customers.%  采用25Mn2V钢、BOF→LF+VD→连铸→轧制→调质处理工艺,通过设计优化钢的化学成分及热处理工艺等,控制C含量在0.23%~0.26%,热轧使用高质量石墨润滑剂、Φ180 mm圆管坯,开发生产了Φ177.8 mm×10.36 mm规格P110钢级套管,产品屈服强度903.8 MPa,性能合格率100%,超声波探伤L2合格,几何尺寸、外表质量良好,产品质量满足API 5CT规范及用户要求。