WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon steel pipe

  1. Fracture assessment of Savannah River Reactor carbon steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, G.E.; Stoner, K.J.; Caskey, G.R.; Begley, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors have been in operation since the mid-1950's. One postulated failure mechanism for the reactor piping is brittle fracture of the original A285 and A53 carbon steel piping. Material testing of archival piping determined (1) the static and dynamic tensile properties; (2) Charpy impact toughness; and (3) the static and dynamic compact tension fracture toughness properties. The nil-ductility transition temperature (NDTT), determined by Charpy impact test, is above the minimum operating temperature for some of the piping materials. A fracture assessment was performed to demonstrate that potential flaws are stable under upset loading conditions and minimum operating temperatures. A review of potential degradation mechanisms and plant operating history identified weld defects as the most likely crack initiation site for brittle fracture. Piping weld defects, as characterized by radiographic and metallographic examination, and low fracture toughness material properties were postulated at high stress locations in the piping. Normal operating loads, upset loads, and residual stresses were assumed to act on the postulated flaws. Calculated allowable flaw lengths exceed the size of observed weld defects, indicating adequate margins of safety against brittle fracture. Thus, a detailed fracture assessment was able to demonstrate that the piping systems will not fail by brittle fracture, even though the NDTT for some of the piping is above the minimum system operating temperature

  2. Effect of heat treatment on carbon steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Harun.

    1987-01-01

    The heat treatment to improve the altered properties of carbon steel pipe welds is described. Pipe critical components in oil, gasification and nuclear reactor plants require adequate room temperature toughness and high strength at both room and moderately elevated temperatures. Microstructure and microhardness across the welds were changed markedly by the welding process and heat treatment. The presentation of hardness fluctuation in the welds can produce premature failure. A number of heat treatments are suggested to improve the properties of the welds. (author) 8 figs., 5 refs

  3. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... with material injury by reason of imports from China of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7304.19.10, 7304.19... Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination On the basis of...

  4. Fatigue crack growth rate studies on pipes and pipe welds made of austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Punit; Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, Vivek; Vaze, K.K.; Pukazhendhi, D.M.; Gandhi, P.; Raghava, G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the fatigue crack growth behavior in austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel pipes and pipe welds by carrying out analysis/predictions and experiments. The Paris law has been used for the prediction of fatigue crack growth life. To carry out the analysis, Paris constants have been determined for pipe (base) and pipe weld materials by using Compact Tension (CT)/Three Point Bend (TPB) specimens machined from the actual pipe/pipe weld. Analyses have been carried out to predict the fatigue crack growth life of pipes/pipe welds having part through cracks on the outer surface. In the analyses, Stress Intensity Factors (K) have been evaluated through two different schemes. The first scheme considers the 'K' evaluations at two points of the crack front i.e. maximum crack depth and crack tip at the outer surface. The second scheme accounts for the area averaged root mean square stress intensity factor (K RMS ) at deepest and surface points. In order to validate the analytical procedure/results, experiments have been carried out on full scale pipe and pipe welds with part through circumferential crack. Fatigue crack growth life evaluated using both schemes have been compared with experimental results. Use of stress intensity factor (K RMS ) evaluated using second scheme gives better fatigue crack growth life prediction compared to that of first scheme. (author)

  5. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...] Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and Turkey, pursuant to section 751(c..., Thailand, and Turkey. See Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from...

  6. Elastic-plastic fracture analysis of carbon steel piping using the latest CEGB R6 approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, S.; Hasegawa, K.; Shimizu, T.; Kobayashi, H.

    1991-01-01

    The elastic-plastic fracture of carbon steel piping having various pipe diameters and circumferential crack angles and subjected to a bending moment is analyzed using the latest United Kingdom Central Electricity Generating Board R6 approach. The elastic-plastic fracture criterion must be applied instead of the plastic collapse criterion with increase of the pipe diameter and the crack angle. A simplified elastic-plastic fracture analysis procedure based on the R6 approach is proposed. (author)

  7. The effect of cyclic and dynamic loads on carbon steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.L.; Scott, P.M.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the results of four 152-mm (6-inch) diameter, unpressurized, circumferential through-wall-cracked, dynamic pipe experiments fabricated from STS410 carbon steel pipe manufactured in Japan. For three of these experiments, the through-wall crack was in the base metal. The displacement histories applied to these experiments were a quasi-static monotonic, dynamic monotonic, and dynamic, cyclic (R = -1) history. The through-wall crack for the third experiment was in a tungsten-inert-gas weld, fabricated in Japan, joining two lengths of STS410 pipe. The displacement history for this experiment was the same history applied to the dynamic, cyclic base metal experiment. The test temperature for each experiment was 300 C (572 F). The objective of these experiments was to compare a Japanese carbon steel pipe material with US pipe material, to ascertain whether this Japanese steel was as sensitive to dynamic and cyclic effects as US carbon steel pipe. In support of these pipe experiments, quasi-static and dynamic, tensile and fracture toughness tests were conducted. An analysis effort was performed that involved comparing experimental crack initiation and maximum moments with predictions based on available fracture prediction models, and calculating J-R curves for the pipe experiments using the η-factor method

  8. 77 FR 37711 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...-fair-value imports from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon... respect to circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe from Oman and the United Arab Emirates being sold in...

  9. 78 FR 72863 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY... circular welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular welded pipe'') from the People's Republic of China...\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013). \\2\\ See Circular Welded...

  10. 76 FR 72173 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...-552-810] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab... Steel Pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, dated October 26, 2011 (hereinafter... pipe from India, the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), the United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the...

  11. 75 FR 4529 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Compliance Analyst, Office 6, Verification of the Sales Response of Pacific Pipe Public Company, Limited in... Pipe Public Company, Limited, dated August 24, 2009 (Bona Fides Preliminary Memorandum). The Department... Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Pacific Pipe Public Company, Limited, dated...

  12. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... welded carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, provided for in... from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam were subsidized and/or dumped within the...

  13. 76 FR 68208 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... (Preliminary)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, provided for in... Governments of India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the...

  14. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... (Preliminary)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and... India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe... the Governments of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in...

  15. 77 FR 15718 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-811] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab... Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and...

  16. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...)] Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY: United States... materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of...

  17. Corrosion by concentrated sulfuric acid in carbon steel pipes and tanks: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panossian, Zehbour; Almeida, Neusvaldo Lira de; Sousa, Raquel Maria Ferreira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg de Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento (CENPES); Marques, Leandro Bordalo Schmidt [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS, allied to the policy of reduction of emission of pollutants, has been adjusting the processes of the new refineries to obtain products with lower sulfur content. Thus, the sulfur dioxide, extracted from the process gases of a new refinery to be built in the Northeast, will be used to produce sulfuric acid with concentration between (94-96) %. This acid will be stored in carbon steel tanks and transported through a buried 8-km carbon steel pipe from the refinery to a pier, where it will be loaded onto ships and sent to the consumer markets. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of carbon steel by concentrated acid will become a great concern for the mentioned storage and transportation. When the carbon steel comes into contact with concentrated sulfuric acid, there is an immediate acid attack with the formation of hydrogen gas and ferrous ions which, in turn, forms a protective layer of FeSO{sub 4} on the metallic surface. The durability of the tanks and pipes made of carbon steel will depend on the preservation of this protective layer. This work presents a review of the carbon steel corrosion in concentrated sulfuric acid and discusses the preventive methods against this corrosion, including anodic protection. (author)

  18. A serviceability approach for carbon steel piping to intermittent high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon steel piping (e.g., ASME SA-106, SA-53), is installed in many industrial applications (i.e. diesel generator at NPP) where the internal gas flow subjects the piping to successive short time exposures at elevated temperatures up to 1,100 F. A typical design of this piping without consideration for creep-fatigue cumulative damage is at least incomplete if not inappropriate. Also, a design for creep-fatigue, usually employed for long-term exposure to elevated temperatures, would be too conservative and will impose replacement of the carbon steel piping with heat-resistant CrMo steel piping. The existing ASME Standard procedures do not explicitly provide acceptance criteria for the design qualification to withstand these intermittent exposures to elevated temperatures. The serviceability qualification proposed is based on the evaluation of equivalent full temperature cycles which are presumed/expected to be experienced by the exhaust piping during the design operating life of the diesel engine. The proposed serviceability analysis consists of: (a) determination of the permissible stress at elevated temperatures, and (b) estimation of creep-fatigue damage for the total expected cycles of elevated temperature exposures following the procedure provided in ASME Code Cases N-253-6 and N-47-28

  19. Qualification of diesel generator exhaust carbon steel piping to intermitted elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    The diesel generator exhaust piping, usually made up of carbon steel piping (e.g., ASME SA-106, SA-53), is subjected to successive short time exposures at elevated temperatures up to 1,000 F (538 C). A typical design of this piping, without consideration for creep-fatigue cumulative damage, is at least incomplete, if not inappropriate. Also, a design for creep-fatigue, usually employed for long-term exposure to elevated temperatures, would be too conservative and will impose replacement of the carbon steel piping with heat-resistant CrMo alloy piping. The existing ASME standard procedures do not explicitly provide acceptance criteria for the design qualification to withstand these intermittent exposures to elevated temperatures. The serviceability qualification proposed is based on the evaluation of equivalent full temperature cycles which are presumed/expected to be experienced by the exhaust piping during the design operating life of the diesel engine. The proposed serviceability analysis consists of: (a) determination of the permissible stress at elevated temperatures, and (b) estimation of creep-fatigue damage for the total expected cycles of elevated temperature exposures following the procedure provided in ASME Code Cases N-253-6 and N-47-28

  20. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki [and others

    1997-04-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program.

  1. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    1997-01-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program

  2. Detection of wall thinning of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation using Pulsed Eddy Current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Duckgun; Kishore, M. B.; Lee, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The test sample is a ferromagnetic carbon steel pipe having different thickness, covered with a 10 cm plastic insulation laminated by 0.4 mm Al plate to simulate the pipelines in NPPs. The PEC Probe used for the wall thinning detection consists of an excitation coil and a Hall sensor. The excitation coils in the probe is driven by a rectangular bipolar current pulse and the Hall-sensor will detects the resultant field. The Hall sensor output is considered as PEC signal. Results shows that the PEC system can detect wall thinning in an insulated pipeline of the NPPs. Local wall thinning in pipelines affects the structural integrity of industries like nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the present study a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology to detect the wall thing of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation is developed

  3. 75 FR 1335 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-008] Circular Welded Carbon Steel... review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan.\\1\\ On... review within the original time frame because we require additional time to obtain information from the...

  4. Development of carbon steel with superior resistance to wall thinning and fracture for nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju

    2010-07-01

    Carbon steel is usually used for piping for secondary coolant system in nuclear power plant because of low cost and good machinability. However, it is generally reported that carbon steel was failed catastrophically because of its low resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness. Especially, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of main problems of the wall thinning of piping in the nuclear power plant. Therefore, in this project, fabrication technology of new advanced carbon steel materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide ceramics into the matrix is developed first in order to improve the resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness drastically compared to the conventional one. In order to get highly wettable fine TiC ceramic particles into molten metal, the micro-sized TiC particles were first mechanically milled by Fe (MMed TiC/Fe) in a high energy ball mill machine in Ar gas atmosphere, and then mixed with surfactant metal elements (Sn, Cr, Ni) to obtain better wettability, as this lowered surface tension of the carbon steel melt. According to microscopic images revealed that an addition of MMed TiC/Fe-surfactant mixed powders favorably disperses the fine TiC particles in the carbon steel matrix. It was also found that the grain size refinement of the cast matrix is achieved remarkably when fine TiC particles were added due to the fact that they act as nucleation sites during the solidification process. As a results, a cast carbon steel dispersed with fine TiC particles shows improved mechanical properties such as hardness, tensile strength and cavitation resistance compared to that of without particles. However, the slight decrease of toughness was found

  5. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  6. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  7. 78 FR 21105 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    .../exporters of the subject merchandise, Saha Thai Steel Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd. (Saha Thai), and Pacific Pipe Company Limited (Pacific Pipe). The period of review (POR) is March 1, 2011, through February 29...) Company, Ltd 0.00 Pacific Pipe Company Limited * * No shipments or sales subject to this review. The firm...

  8. Evaluation of flaws in carbon steel piping. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.; Mehta, H.S.; Yukawa, S.; Ranganath, S.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this program was to develop flaw evaluation procedures and allowable flaw sizes for ferritic piping used in light water reactor (LWR) power generation facilities. The program results provide relevant ASME Code groups with the information necessary to define flaw evaluation procedures, allowable flaw sizes, and their associated bases for Section XI of the code. Because there are several possible flaw-related failure modes for ferritic piping over the LWR operating temperature range, three analysis methods were employed to develop the evaluation procedures. These include limit load analysis for plastic collapse, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) analysis for ductile tearing, and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis for non ductile crack extension. To ensure the appropriate analysis method is used in an evaluation, a step by step procedure also is provided to identify the relevant acceptance standard or procedure on a case by case basis. The tensile strength and toughness properties required to complete the flaw evaluation for any of the three analysis methods are included in the evaluation procedure. The flaw evaluation standards are provided in tabular form for the plastic collapse and ductile tearing modes, where the allowable part through flaw depth is defined as a function of load and flaw length. For non ductile crack extension, linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis methods, similar to those in Appendix A of Section XI, are defined. Evaluation flaw sizes and procedures are developed for both longitudinal and circumferential flaw orientations and normal/upset and emergency/faulted operating conditions. The tables are based on margins on load of 2.77 and 1.39 for circumferential flaws and 3.0 and 1.5 for longitudinal flaws for normal/upset and emergency/faulted conditions, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of flaws in carbon steel piping. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.; Mehta, H.S.; Yukawa, S.; Ranganath, S.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this program was to develop flaw evaluation procedures and allowable flaw sizes for ferritic piping used in light water reactor (LWR) power generation facilities. The program results provide relevant ASME Code groups with the information necessary to define flaw evaluation procedures, allowable flaw sizes, and their associated bases for Section XI of the code. Because there are several possible flaw-related failure modes for ferritic piping over the LWR operating temperature range, three analysis methods were employed to develop the evaluation procedures. These include limit load analysis for plastic collapse, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) analysis for ductile tearing, and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis for non ductile crack extension. To ensure the appropriate analysis method is used in an evaluation, a step by step procedure also is provided to identify the relevant acceptance standard or procedure on a case by case basis. The tensile strength and toughness properties required to complete the flaw evaluation for any of the three analysis methods are included in the evaluation procedure. The flaw evaluation standards are provided in tabular form for the plastic collapse and ductile tearing modes, where the allowable part through flaw depth is defined as a function of load and flaw length. For non ductile crack extension, linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis methods, similar to those in Appendix A of Section XI, are defined. Evaluation flaw sizes and procedures are developed for both longitudinal and circumferential flaw orientations and normal/upset and emergency/faulted operating conditions. The tables are based on margins on load of 2.77 and 1.39 for circumferential flaws and 3.0 and 1.5 for longitudinal flaws for normal/upset and emergency/faulted conditions, respectively

  10. Microbiological corrosion of ASTM SA105 carbon steel pipe for industrial fire water usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, S.; Ashok, K.; Karthik, V.; Venkatakrishnan, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    The large number of metallic systems developed for last few decades against both general uniform corrosion and localized corrosion. Among all microbiological induced corrosion (MIC) is attractive, multidisciplinary and complex in nature. Many chemical processing industries utilizes fresh water for fire service to nullify major/minor fire. One such fire water service line pipe attacked by micro-organisms leads to leakage which is industrially important from safety point of view. Also large numbers of leakage reported in similar fire water service of nearby food processing plant, paper & pulp plant, steel plant, electricity board etc…In present investigation one such industrial fire water service line failure analysis of carbon steel line pipe was analyzed to determine the cause of failure. The water sample subjected to various chemical and bacterial analyses. Turbidity, pH, calcium hardness, free chlorine, oxidation reduction potential, fungi, yeasts, sulphide reducing bacteria (SRB) and total bacteria (TB) were measured on water sample analysis. The corrosion rate was measured on steel samples and corrosion coupon measurements were installed in fire water for validating non flow assisted localized corrosion. The sulphide reducing bacteria (SRB) presents in fire water causes a localized micro biological corrosion attack of line pipe.

  11. 76 FR 3612 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-008] Circular Welded Carbon Steel... Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative... complete the preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because we require...

  12. Use of Nitrocarburizing for Strengthening Threaded Joints of Drill Pipes from Medium-Carbon Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    Nitrocarburizing is tested at the Drill Equipment Plant for reinforcing threaded joints of drill pipes for units with retrievable core receiver (RCR). The effect of the nitrocarburizing on the mechanical properties of steels of different alloying systems is considered. Steels for the production of threaded joints of drill pipes are recommended.

  13. Residual stress distribution in carbon steel pipe welded joint measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Morii, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate crack growth behavior of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in pipes, the residual stress distribution near the pipe weld region has to be measured through the wall thickness. Since the penetration depth of neutron is deep enough to pass through the thick pipe wall, the neutron diffraction technique for the residual stress measurement is effective for this purpose. At the first step the residual stress distribution near the weld region in a butt-welded carbon steel pipe was measured by the neutron diffraction. Significant stresses extended only to a distance of 30 mm from the center of the weld. The major tensile stresses occurred in the hoop direction in the fusion and heat affected zones of the weldment, and they attained a level greater than 200 MPa through the thickness. While the axial residual stress at the inside surface was 50 MPa, the stress at the outside surface was -100 MPa. The comparison of residual stress distributions measured by the neutron diffraction, the X-ray diffraction and the strain gauge method reveals that the neutron diffraction is the most effective for measuring the residual stress inside the structural components. (author)

  14. Mechanism of selective corrosion in electrical resistance seam welded carbon steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Fajardo, Pedro; Godinez Salcedo, Jesus; Gonzalez Velasquez, Jorge L. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F., (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas. Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    In this investigation the studies of the mechanism of selective corrosion in electrical resistance welded (ERW) carbon steel pipe was started. Metallographic characterizations and evaluations for inclusions were performed. The susceptibility of ERW pipe to selective corrosion in sea water (NACE 1D182, with O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}S) was studied by the stepped potential Potentiostatic electrochemical test method in samples of 1 cm{sup 3} (ASTM G5) internal surface of the pipe (metal base-weld). The tests were looking for means for predicting the susceptibility of ERW pipe to selective corrosion, prior to placing the pipeline in service. Manganese sulfide inclusions are observed deformed by the welding process and they are close to the weld centerline. A slight decarburization at the weld line is observed, and a distinct out bent fiber pattern remains despite the post-weld seam annealing. The microstructure of the weld region consists of primarily polygonal ferrite grains mixed with small islands of pearlite. It is possible to observe the differences of sizes of grain of the present phases in the different zones. Finally, scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the corrosion initiates with the dissolution of MnS inclusions and with small crack between the base metal and ZAC. (author)

  15. 76 FR 5205 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United... Thailand. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant to..., Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  16. 75 FR 60814 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United... Thailand. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to section... Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant to section 751...

  17. 76 FR 78615 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ...-810] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab..., the Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''), The United Arab Emirates (``the UAE''), and the Socialist Republic... Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

  18. 76 FR 72164 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ...-811] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab... Emirates, and Vietnam), or Angelica Mendoza (Oman), AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import Administration... Sultanate of Oman (Oman), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam...

  19. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand Determinations On... fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1...

  20. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ..., Saha Thai Steel Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd. (Saha Thai), and Pacific Pipe Company Limited (Pacific Pipe... Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd 0.00 Pacific Pipe Company Limited * * No shipments or sales subject to this... parties to comment on the Preliminary Results. Saha Thai, Wheatland Tube Company, and United States Steel...

  1. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of carbon steel piping material subjected to single overload/under-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Punit; Tripathi, R.; Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, V.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR) behaviour after single over-load/ under-load event on carbon steel piping material. The tests have been carried out on standard Compact Tension (CT) specimens. The effect of different crack length to width ratio (a/W) of specimen and overload/under-load ratios on FCGR have been studied. The studies have shown significant reduction in FCG rate after overload event. The strain field has been measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique ahead of the crack tip to quantify the plastic zone size due to overload and constant amplitude load. In addition, plastic zone calculations have also been carried out using 3D finite element analyses for the prediction of post overload FCGR/ life. The predicted FCGR are in agreement with experimentally determined FCGR. (author)

  2. A Study on Effect of Local Wall Thinning in Carbon Steel Elbow Pipe on Elastic Stress Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Seo, Jae Seok

    2009-01-01

    Feeder pipes that connect the inlet and outlet headers to the reactor core in CANDU nuclear power plants are considered as safety Class 1 piping items. Therefore, fatigue of feeder pipes should be assessed at design stage in order to verify structural integrity during design lifetime. In accordance with the fatigue assessment result, cumulative usage factors of some feeder pipes have significant values. The feeder pipes made of SA-106 Grade B or C carbon steel have some elbows and bends. An active degradation mechanism for the carbon steel outlet feeder piping is local wall thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Inspection results from plants and metallurgical examinations of removed feeders indicated the presence of localized thinning in the vicinity of the welds in the lower portion of outlet feeders, such as Grayloc hub-to-bend weld, Grayloc hub-to-elbow weld, elbow-to-elbow, and elbow-to-pipe weld. This local wall thinning can cause increase of peak stress due to stress concentration by notch effect. The increase of peak stress results in increase of cumulative usage factor. However, present fatigue assessment doesn't consider the stress concentration due to local wall-thinning. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of local wall thinning on stress concentration. This study investigates the effect of local wall thinning geometry on stress concentration by performing finite element elastic stress analysis

  3. Guided Wave Sensing In a Carbon Steel Pipe Using a Laser Vibrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Toledo, Abelardo; Salazar Soler, Jordi; Chávez Domínguez, Juan Antonio; García Hernández, Miguel Jesús; Turó Peroy, Antoni

    2010-05-01

    Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques have achieved a great development during the last decades as a valuable tool for material characterization, manufacturing control and structural integrity tests. Among these tools, the guided wave technology has been rapidly extended because it reduces inspection time and costs compared to the ordinary point by point testing in large structures, as well as because of the possibility of inspecting under insulation and coating conditions. This fast development has motivated the creation of several inspection and material characterization systems including different technologies which can be combined with this technique. Different measurements systems based on laser techniques have been presented in order to inspect pipes, plates and diverse structures. Many of them are experimental systems of high cost and complexity which combine the employment of a laser for generation of waves in the structure and an interferometer for detection. Some of them employ air-coupled ultrasound generation transducers, with high losses in air and which demand high energy for exciting waves in materials of high stiffness. The combined employment of a commercial vibrometer system for Lamb wave sensing in plates has been successfully shown in the literature. In this paper we present a measurement system based on the combined employment of a piezoelectric wedge transducer and a laser vibrometer to sense guided acoustic waves in carbon steel pipes. The measurement system here presented is mainly compounded of an angular wedge transducer, employed to generate the guided wave and a commercial laser vibrometer used in the detection process. The wedge transducer is excited by means of a signal function generator whose output signal has been amplified with a power signal amplifier. A high precision positioning system is employed to place the laser beam at different points through the pipe surface. The signal detected by the laser vibrometer system is

  4. Validation and Application of Computed Radiography (CR) Tangential Technique for Wall Thickness Measurement of 10 Inch Carbon Steel Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Amry Amin Abas; Arshad Yassin; Sukhri Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas industry requires Non Destructive Testing (NDT) to ensure each components, in-service and critical, are fit-for-purpose. Pipes that are used to transfer oil or gas are amongst the critical component that needs to be well maintained and inspected. Typical pipe discontinuities that may lead to unintended incidents are erosion, corrosion, dent, welding defects, etc. Wall thickness assessment, with Radiography Testing (RT) is normally used to inspect such discontinuities and can be performed with two approaches; (a) center line beam tangential technique (b) offset from the centre pipe tangential technique. The latter is a method of choice for this work because of the pipe dimension and limited radiation safe distance at site. Two successful validation approaches (simulation and experimental) were performed to determine the probability of successfulness before the actual RT work with tangential technique is carried out. The pipe was a 10 inch diameter in-service wrapped carbon steel. A 9 Ci Ir-192 and white Imaging Plate (IP) were used as a gamma radiation source and to record the radiographic image. Result of this work suggest that RT with tangential technique for 10 inch wrapped in-service carbon steel pipe can be successfully performed. (author)

  5. Ductile fracture behavior of 6-inch diameter type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel piping containing a through-wall or part-through crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Kaneko, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Norio.

    1986-05-01

    The double ended guillotine break philosophy in the design base accident of the nuclear power plant is considered to be overly conservative from the view point of piping design. Through the past experiences and developments of the fabrication, inspection, and operation of nuclear power plants, it has been recognized that the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept can be justified in the LWR pressure boundary pipings. In order to verify the LBB concept, extensive experimental and theoretical works are being conducted in many countries. Furthermore, a revised piping design standard, in which LBB concept is introduced, is under preparation in Japan, U.S.A., and European countries. At JAERI, a research program to investigate the unstable ductile fracture behavior of LWR piping under bending load has been carried out as a part of the LBB verification researches since 1983. This report summarizes the result of the ductile fracture tests conducted at room temperature in 1983 and 84. The 6-inch diameter pipes of type 304 stainless steel and STS 42 carbon steel pipe with a through-wall or part-through crack were tested under bending load with low or high compliance condition at room temperature. Pipe fracture data were obtained from the test as regards to load- displacement curve, crack extension, net section stress, J-resistance curve, and so on. Besides, the influence of the compliance on the fracture behavior was examined. Discussions are performed on the ductile pipe fracture criterion, flaw evaluation criterion, and LBB evaluation method. (author)

  6. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  7. A mechanism for corrosion product deposition on the carbon steel piping in the residual heat removal system of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Chiba, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Ohsumi, Katsumi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ishizawa, Noboru

    2002-01-01

    The dose rate of the residual heat removal (RHR) piping has been considered to be caused by accumulation of insoluble (crud) radioactive corrosion products on carbon steel surfaces. Soft shutdown procedures (i.e., plant shutdown with moderate coolant temperature reduction rate) used to be applied to reduce crud radioactivity release from the fuel surface, but these are no longer used because of the need for shorter plant shutdown times. In order to apply other suitable countermeasures to reduce RHR dose rate, assessment of plant data, experiments on deposition of crud and ion species on carbon steel, and mass balance evaluation of radioactive corrosion products based on plant and laboratory data were carried out and the following findings were made. (1) Deposits of ion species on carbon steel surfaces of the RHR piping was much more numerous than for crud. (2) Ion species accumulation behavior on RHR piping, which is temperature dependent, can be evaluated with the calculation model used for the dehydration reaction of corrosion products generated during the wet lay-up period. (3) Deposition amounts could be reduced to 1/2.5 when the starting RHR system operation temperature was lowered from 155degC to 120degC. (author)

  8. In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)

  9. 75 FR 33578 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum at... Eleventh Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel...

  10. 77 FR 41967 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Korea, 57 FR... pipe tubing used for farming and support members for reconstruction or load bearing purposes in the...

  11. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backfish, Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  12. Effect of length of thinning area on the failure behavior of carbon steel pipe containing a defect of wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Chi Yong

    2003-01-01

    The present study performed pipe failure tests using 102 mm-Sch. 80 carbon steel pipe with various simulated wall thinning defects, to investigate the effect of axial length of wall thinning and internal pressure on the failure behavior of pipe thinned by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The tests were conducted under loading conditions of four-point bending with and without internal pressure. The results showed that a failure mode of pipe with a defect depended on the magnitude of internal pressure and axial thinning length as well as stress type and thinning depth and circumferential angle. Both load carrying capability (LCC) and deformation capability (DC) were depended on stress type in the thinning area and dimensions of thinning defect. For applying tensile stress to the thinned area, the dependence of LCC on the axial length of wall thinning was determined by circumferential thinning angle, and the DC was proportionally increased with increase in axial length of wall thinning regardless of the circumferential angle. For applying compressive stress to thinned area, however, the LCC was decreased with increase in axial length of the thinned area. Also, the effect of internal pressure on failure behavior was characterized by failure mode of thinned pipe, and it promoted crack occurrence and mitigated a local buckling of the thinned area

  13. Development of Wall Thinning Distinction Method using the Multi-inspecting UT Data of Carbon Steel Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyeong Mo; Yun, Hun; Lee, Chan Kyoo [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    To manage the wall thinning of carbon steel piping in nuclear power plants, the utility of Korea has performed thickness inspection for some quantity of pipe components during refueling outages and determined whether repair or replacement after evaluating UT (Ultrasonic Test) data. When the existing UT data evaluation methods, such as Band, Blanket, PTP (Point to Point) Methods, are applied to a certain pipe component, unnecessary re-inspecting situations may be generated even though the component does not thinned. In those cases, economical loss caused by repeated inspection and problems of maintaining the pipe integrity followed by decreasing of newly inspected components may be generated. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) in USA has suggested several statistical methods, TPM (Total Point Method), LSS (Least Square Slope) Method, etc. to distinguish whether multiple inspecting components have thinned or not. This paper presents the analysis results for multiple inspecting components over three times based on both NAM (Near Area of Minimum) Method developed by KEPCO-E and C and the other methods suggested by EPRI.

  14. 77 FR 32531 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value... pipe) from the Sultanate of Oman (Oman) is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at less... from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) on...

  15. 75 FR 69052 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... threatened with material injury by reason of imports of seamless pipe from the PRC. According to section 736... that determination is based on the threat of material injury and is not accompanied by a finding that... Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

  16. 77 FR 64483 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-0649, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 1, 2012, the Department published in... Pipe from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam;'' ``Verification of the Sales Response of Midwest Air... Steel Joint Stock Company.... Sun Steel Joint Stock 4.57 Company. Huu Lien Asia Corporation........ Huu...

  17. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... tube products (welded pipe and tube) from Turkey.\\2\\ The period of review is May 1, 2011, to April 30... A.S. (BMB) had reviewable sales during this period of review. DATES: As of June 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER...

  18. 78 FR 72863 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order AGENCY...) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of net... reasonably foreseeable time.\\3\\ \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3...

  19. 78 FR 5170 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... International Trade Co., Ltd., Weifang East Steel Pipe Co., Ltd., WISCO & CRM Wuhan Material & Trade., Wuxi... relevant entries during this review period. Failure to comply with this requirement could result in the.... Failure to comply with the regulations and terms of an APO is a violation which is subject to sanction...

  20. 77 FR 64473 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY... Sultanate of Oman (``Oman''). DATES: Effective Date: October 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Sultanate of Oman (``GSO'') on April 5, April 20, and May 10, 2012. We received the GSO's responses...

  1. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... amended (``the Act''), that an industry in the United States is threatened with material injury by reason... case is based on the threat of material injury and is not accompanied by a finding that injury would... Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

  2. 77 FR 19192 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    .... See Memorandum to Susan H. Kuhbach, Director, Office 1 from David Layton, International Trade Analyst... Provision of Hot-Rolled Steel by the Steel Authority of India (``SAIL'') for Less Than Adequate Remuneration... the questions regarding land received at less than adequate remuneration, Zenith prevented us from...

  3. Ratchetting behavior of primary heat transport (PHT) piping material SA-333 carbon steel subjected to cyclic loads at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Desai, Y.M.; Kant, T.; Reddy, G.R.; Gupta, C.; Chakravarthy, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Ratchetting behavior of SA-333 Gr. 6 carbon steel used as primary heat transport (PHT) piping material has been investigated with three constitutive models proposed by Armstrong-Frederick, Chaboche and Ohno-Wang involving different hardening rules. Performance of the above mentioned models have been evaluated for a broad set of uniaxial and biaxial loading histories. The uniaxial ratchetting simulations have been performed for a range of stress ratios (R) by imposing different stress amplitudes and mean stress conditions. Numerical simulations indicated significant ratchetting and opening of hysteresis loop for negative stress ratio with constant mean stress. Application of cyclic stress without mean stress (R = -1.0) has been observed to produce negligible ratchet-strain accumulation in the material. Simulation under the biaxial stress condition was based on modeling of an internally pressurized thin walled pipe subjected to cyclic bending load. Numerical results have been validated with the experiments as per simulation conditions. All three models have been found to predict the observed accumulation of circumferential strain with increasing number of cycles. However, the Armstrong Frederick (A-F) model was found to be inadequate in simulating the ratchetting response for both uniaxial as well as biaxial loading cases. The A-F model actually over-predicted the ratchetting strain in comparison with the experimental strain values. On the other hand, results obtained with the Chaboche and the Ohno-Wang models for both the uniaxial as well as biaxial loading histories have been observed to closely simulate the experimental results. The Ohno-Wang model resulted in better simulation for the presents sets of experimental results in comparison with the Chaboche model. It can be concluded that the Ohno-Wang model suited well compared to the Chaboche model for above sets of uniaxial and biaxial loading histories. (authors)

  4. 75 FR 16439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of businesses, which the GOK deemed ``harmful to juveniles, affecting public morals, certain private... (August 30, 2002), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum (Wire Rod Memorandum) at ``Benchmark... from Turkey, 71 FR 43111 (July 31, 2006) (2004 Pipe Final), and accompanying Issues and Decision...

  5. 77 FR 20782 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Memorandum. We revised Pacific Pipe's financial expense ratio calculation to be based on its consolidated financial statements rather than its unconsolidated financial statements as reported. We increased Pacific... Saha Thai's financial expense ratio to zero. For more information on the changes to Saha Thai's COP...

  6. Analysis of leak and break behavior in a failure assessment diagram for carbon steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kunio; Shimizu, Tasuku; Saitoh, Takashi; Gotoh, Nobuho

    1992-01-01

    The leak and break behavior of a cracked coolant pipe subjected to an internal pressure and a bending moment was analyzed with a failure assessment diagram using the R6 approach. This paper examines the conditions of the detectable coolant leakage without breakage. A leakage assessment curve, a locus of assessment point for detectable coolant leakage, was defined in the failure assessment diagram. The region between the leak assessment and failure assessment curves satisfies the condition of detectable leakage without breakage. In this region, a crack can be safely inspected by a coolant leak detector. (orig.)

  7. 77 FR 64478 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ....D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.148 inch wall thickness (gage 9) 4.000 inch O.D. and 0.165 inch wall thickness (gage 8) 4.500 inch O.D. and 0.203 inch wall thickness... investigation is Zenith Birla (India) Limited (previously known as Zenith Steel Pipes and Industries Ltd...

  8. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is...

  9. Quality control of stainless steel pipings for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Minoru; Kitamura, Ichiro; Ito, Hisao; Sasaki, Ryoichi

    1979-01-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in total power generation is increasing recently in order to avoid the concentrated dependence on petroleum resources, consequently the reliability of operation of nuclear power plants has become important. In order to improve the reliability of plants, the reliability of each machine or equipment must be improved, and for the purpose, the quality control at the time of manufacture is the important factor. The piping systems for BWRs are mostly made of carbon steel, and stainless steel pipings are used for the recirculation system cooling reactors and instrumentation system. Recently, grain boundary type stress corrosion cracking has occurred in the heat-affected zones of welded stainless steel pipings in some BWR plants. In this paper, the quality control of stainless steel pipings is described from the standpoint of preventing stress corrosion cracking in BWR plants. The pipings for nuclear power plants must have sufficient toughness so that the sudden rupture never occurs, and also sufficient corrosion resistance so that corrosion products do not raise the radioactivity level in reactors. The stress corrosion cracking occurred in SUS 304 pipings, the factors affecting the quality of stainless steel pipings, the working method which improves the corrosion resistance and welding control are explained. (Kako, I.)

  10. Development of cutting techniques of steel pipe by wire sawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Inai, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    A cutting method has a high cutting efficiency and enable cutting in safe. A wire saw cutting method is used for dismantling of massive concrete structures such as nuclear power plants with an effective and safe mean. In the case of dismantling of structures with multiple pipes installed at these facilities, an effective method is also demanded. If a wire saw method to remotely cut target objects in a large block in bulk is applicable, it will be expected an effective dismantling work under severe conditions with radioactivity. Although the wire saw method has adaptability for any shapes of cutting target objects and is widely adopted in dismantling of concrete constructs, it has few actual achievements in dismantling of steel structures such as steel pipe bundle. This study aims to verify its cutting characteristics and adaptability as a cutting method by conducting a cutting basic test to develop a diamond wire saw method to efficiently cut constructs with multiple pipes in a bundle. The test proved that a wire saw cutting method apply to dismantle structures with steel pipe bundle. A wire saw for metal cutting is adaptable in dismantling of bundle of thick carbon steel and stainless steel pipes. And also a wire saw for concrete cutting is adaptable in dismantling of pipe bundle structure with a mortar. (author)

  11. Modification of the Structure of Low-Carbon Pipe Steel by Helical Rolling, and the Increase in Its Strength and Cold Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyagina, L. S.; Gordienko, A. I.; Pochivalov, Yu. I.; Smirnova, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports the investigation results on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon pipe steel after helical rolling. The processing of the steel leads to the refinement of ferritic grains from 12 (for the coarse-grained state) to 5 μm, to the strengthening of ferrite by carbide particles, a decrease in the total fraction of perlite grains, a more uniform alternation of ferrite and perlite, and the formation of regions with bainitic structure. The mechanical properties of the steel have been determined in the conditions of static and dynamic loading in the range of test temperatures from +20 to-70°C. As a result of processing, the ultimate tensile strength increases (from 650 to 770 MPa at a rolling temperature from 920°C) and the viscoplastic properties at negative temperatures are improved significantly. The ductile-brittle transition temperature of the rolled steel decreases from-32 to-55°C and the impact toughness at the test temperature-40°C increases eight times compared to the initial state of the steel.

  12. 76 FR 76944 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... review of entries of the subject merchandise during the POR from the following companies: Adler Steel Ltd. (``Adler Steel''), Al Jazeera Steel Products Co SAOG (``Al Jazeera Steel''), Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd.... Accordingly, Petitioners timely withdrew its requests for review of Adler Steel, Al Jazeera Steel, Baoshan...

  13. 77 FR 32508 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... pipe, oil country tubular goods, boiler tubing, cold- drawn or cold-rolled mechanical tubing, pipe and... in the marketing process and selling functions along the chain of distribution between the producer...

  14. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ..., Toyota Tsusho American Inc. (``TAI''), and Salem Steel North America, LLC (``Salem Steel'') on August 26... material injury, or threat of material injury, does not exist, this proceeding will be terminated and all...

  15. 77 FR 72818 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... description outlined above are included in the scope of this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular... Analysts, through Robert James, Program Manager, entitled ``Final Results in the 2010/2011 Administrative...

  16. 78 FR 286 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... the scope of this order, except for line pipe, oil country tubular goods, boiler tubing, cold-drawn or... order (``APO'') of their responsibility concerning the disposition of proprietary information disclosed...

  17. Thermal aging of primary coolant pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Bentley, J.; Brenner, S.S.; Spitznagel, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The long term mechanical integrity of the pipes used to carry the primary cooling water in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is of the utmost importance for safe operation. A combined atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was performed to characterize the microstructure of this cast stainless steel and to determine the changes that occur during long-term low-temperature thermal aging. The material used in this investigation was a commercial CF 8 type stainless. The steel was examined in the as-cast, unaged condition and also after aging for 7500 h at 673K. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. 76 FR 78612 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Corporation, we initiated reviews of Arihant Domestic Appliances Ltd., Good Luck Steel Tubes Ltd. and all affiliates, Good Luck Industries, Innoventive Industries Ltd., Jindal Group and all affiliates, Jindal... for a review of the order with respect to Arihant Domestic Appliances Ltd., Good Luck Steel Tubes Ltd...

  19. 76 FR 21331 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import Administration... butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China (PRC), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year...

  20. 77 FR 48965 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With... China (``PRC'') used in structural applications. In King Supply III, the CAFC, reversing the CIT, held... did not give rise to an end use restriction, (2) the Department's original scope ruling was supported...

  1. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... stress levels. Alloy pipes made to ASTM standard A-335 must be used if temperatures and stress levels... not used in standard, line or pressure applications. In addition, finished and unfinished oil country... antidumping duty order from the same country. If not covered by such an OCTG order, finished and unfinished...

  2. 77 FR 64465 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... of the Government of the UAE's (``GUAE''), Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd., KHK... Universal Tube and Plastic Industries, Ltd.; KHK 2.06 Scaffolding and Formwork LLC; Universal Tube and Pipe... Industry Usage Data Comment 4 Countervailability of Alita's Tariff Exemptions B. Subsidies Within the Jebel...

  3. 76 FR 4633 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... pipe fittings from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') used in structural applications, pursuant... Timken Co. v. United States, 893 F.2d 337 (Fed. Cir. 1990) (``Timken''), as clarified by Diamond Sawblades Mfrs. Coalition v. United States, 626 F.3d 1374 (Fed. Cir. 2010) (``Diamond Sawblades''), the...

  4. 77 FR 32552 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... pipe. The latter is a consolidated financial statement of a large conglomerate, and includes the.... They also provided the financial statements for an Indonesian producer of identical merchandise, and...- specific export subsidies). Second, we have on the record the financial statements of four Indian producers...

  5. On high temperature strength of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Manabu; Kanero, Takahiro; Ihara, Yoshihito

    1977-01-01

    In the steels for high temperature use, the oxidation resistance is regarded as important, but carbon steels show enough oxidation resistance to be used continuously at the temperature up to 500 deg. C if the strength is left out of consideration, and up to 450 deg. C even when the strength is taken into account. Moreover, the production is easy, the workability and weldability are good, and the price is cheap in carbon steels as compared with alloy steels. In the boilers for large thermal power stations, 0.15-0.30% C steels are used for reheater tubes, main feed water tubes, steam headers, wall water tubes, economizer tubes, bypass pipings and others, and they account for 70% of all steel materials used for the boilers of 350 MW class and 30% in 1000 MW class. The JIS standard for the carbon steels for high temperature use and the related standards in foreign countries are shown. The high temperature strength of carbon steels changes according to the trace elements, melting and heat treatment as well as the main compositions of C, Si and Mn. Al and N affect the high temperature strength largely. The characteristics of carbon steels after the heating for hours, the factors controlling the microstructure and high temperature strength, and the measures to improve the high temperature strength of carbon steels are explained. (Kako, I.)

  6. Microstructural characterization of primary coolant pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Bentley, J.

    1986-01-01

    Atom probe field-ion microscopy, analytical electron microscopy, and optical microscopy have been used to investigate the changes that occur in the microstructure of cast CF 8 primary coolant pipe stainless steel after long term thermal aging. The cast duplex microstructure consisted of austenite with 15% delta-ferrite. Investigation of the aged material revealed that the ferrite spinodally decomposed into a fine scaled network of α and α'. A fine G-phase precipitate was also observed in the ferrite. The observed degradation in mechanical properties is probably a consequence of the spinodal decomposition in the ferrite

  7. Modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of steel reinforced thermoplastic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijer, M.P.; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the time dependent behaviour of a steel reinforced thermoplastic pipe. This new class of composite pipes is constructed of a HDPE (high-density polyethylene) liner pipe, which is over wrapped with two layers of thermoplastic tape. The thermoplastic tapes are

  8. 78 FR 61335 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-910] Circular Welded Carbon... Operations, Office 4, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... of the Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration...

  9. 75 FR 29972 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty investigation of certain seamless carbon and alloy... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Critical Circumstances...

  10. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  11. Sensitization development in austenitic stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Page, R.E.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1984-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Division of Engineering Technology of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission are conducting a program to determine a method for evaluating welded and rapair-welded stainless steel piping for light-water reactor service. Validated models, based on experimental data, are being developed to predict the degree of sensitization (DOS) and the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the SS weldments. The cumulative effects of material composition, past fabrication procedures, past service exposure, weldment thermomechanical (TM) history, and projected post-repair component life are being considered. This program will measure and model the development of HAZ TM history and resultant sensitized microstructure in welded and repair-welded piping. An empirical correlation between a material's DOS and its susceptibility to SCC will be determined using slow strain rate tensile tests. Mill heat chemistries and processing/fabrication records already required in the nuclear industry will be used as input for initial DOS predictions

  12. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, R.M.; Wichman, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials

  13. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, R.M.; Wichman, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials.

  14. Thermoplastic liners for carbon steel pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, Mauyed S.; AlDossary, Abdullah K. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Materials selection for pipe and fittings used to convey corrosive fluids has often been a challenge. Traditionally, exotic Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) have been used in corrosive environments despite their high cost. Plastic lined carbon steel piping offers a cost effective alternative to the use of CRAs by eliminating corrosion, significantly reducing the use of toxic chemicals and the heavy metal usually present in CRAs. Thermoplastic Liners offer the combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical strength, which are unachievable with singular materials. Under pressure conditions, the liner is fully supported by the metalwork, while under vacuum conditions, the liner must be thick enough along with venting system to withstand the collapsing forces created by the negative pressure. Plastic liners have been used successfully to line and protect metallic pipelines for many years and have become an indispensable requirement of the oil and gas industry particularly with water injection and hydrocarbon services. In the case of internally corroded pipes, the use of thermoplastic liners for rehabilitation is an option to extend the lifetime of companies' assets, reduce maintenance cost and increase intervals between T and Is. For new construction, plastic liners in carbon steel pipes can compete technically and economically with pipelines of CRA materials and other corrosion inhibition systems. This paper describes various design features, installations of thermoplastic liners in comparison to other corrosion inhibition methods. (author)

  15. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping Duty..., by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe...

  16. Corrosion of carbon steel in neutral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Noboru; Iwahori, Toru; Kurosawa, Tatsuo

    1983-01-01

    The initial corrosion behavior of materials used in the construction of heat exchanger and piping system of BWR nuclear power plants and thermal power plants have been examined in neutral water at 30, 50, 100, 160, 200, and 285 deg C with two concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the water. In air-saturated water, the corrosion rate of carbon steel was so higher than those in deaerated conditions and the maximum corrosion rate was observed at 200 deg C. The corrosion rate in deaerated water gradually increased with increasing the water temperature. Low alloy steel (2.25 Cr, 1Mo) exhibited good corrosion resistance compared with the corrosion of carbon steel under similar testing conditions. Oxide films grown on carbon steel in deaerated water at 50, 100, 160, 200, and 285 deg C for 48 and 240 hrs were attacked by dissolved oxygen in room temperature water respectively. However the oxide films formed higher than about 160 deg C showed more protective. The electrochemical behavior of carbon steel with oxide films was also similar to the effect of temperature on the stability of oxide films. (author)

  17. Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, H.J.; Lin, M.C.C.; Chen, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively

  18. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis of the record... reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided... contained in USITC Publication 4413 (July 2013), entitled Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe from Malaysia...

  19. Development of Alloy Coating Process of Steel Pipe for Seawater service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Man; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Lee, Sang Hyeog [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., Okpo (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    The new alloy coating process was developed to apply steel pipe for seawater service. This process consists of Zn-Al hot-dip coating treatment immediately following after normal galvanizing treatment. The alloy coating process formed double layer after surface treatment, and the surface layer was similar to that of Galfan steel and the intermetallic layer was also similar to that of aluminized steel. The alloy coating layer protect steel pipe galvanically and provide steel pipe with high resistance to general corrosion of seawater. This new alloy coated steel pipe had also good weldability and adhesion strength of paints compared to galvanized steel. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  20. A simplified leak-before-break evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, R.M.; Zahoor, A.; Ghassemi, B. [NOVETECH Corp., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-10-01

    A simplified procedure has been defined for computing the allowable circumferential throughwall crack length as a function of applied loads in piping. This procedure has been defined to enable leak-before-break (LBB) evaluations to be performed without complex and time consuming analyses. The development of the LBB evaluation procedure is similar to that now used in Section 11 of the ASME Code for evaluation of part-throughwall flaws found in piping. The LBB evaluation procedure was bench marked using experimental data obtained from pipes having circumferential throughwall flaws. Comparisons of the experimental and predicted load carrying capacities indicate that the method has a conservative bias, such that for at least 97% of the experiments the experimental load is equal to or greater than 90% of the predicted load. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austenitic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials.

  1. SCC-induced failure of a 304 stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Disney, D.J.; Szostak, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 1991 January 12, a 304 Stainless Steel (SS) suction line in the AECL-Research NRU reactor failed, shutting down the reactor for approximately 12 months. The pipe, a 32 mm schedule 40 304 stainless steel line exposed to D 2 O at temperatures ≤35 degrees C had been in service for approximately 20 years, although no manufacturing data or composition specifications were available. The failure and resultant leak resulted in a small loss of D 2 O moderator from the reactor vessel. The pipe cracked approximately 180 degrees C around the circumference of a weld. This failure was unexpected and hense a thorough metallographic examination was carried out on the failed section, on the rest of the line (Line 1212), and on representative samples from the rest of the reactor in order to assess the integrity of the remaining piping

  2. Experiment on electrolysis decontamination of stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongwen; Dou Tianjun; Zhao Yujie

    2004-01-01

    A new electrolytic decontamination method used metal balls as conducting anode was investigated. The influences of current density, solution property and diameter of pipes on efficiency of electrolytic decontamination were examined and the efficiency of this method was compared with that of common electrolytic method under the same experimental conditions. Decontamination of samples of stainless steel pipes contaminated by plutonium was performed. Experimental results indicate that decontamination of stainless steel pipes contaminated by plutonium can be achieved at the optimum conditions of greater than 0.2 A·cm -2 current density, 5% sulfuric acid electrolyte and 5 min electrolysis. This method can be used in the decontamination of a wide variety of decommissioned metal materials. (author)

  3. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  4. Loading rate effects on strength and fracture toughness of pipe steels used in Task 1 of the IPIRG program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, C.W.; Landow, M.P.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1993-10-01

    Material characterization tests were conducted on laboratory specimens machined from pipes to determine the effect of dynamic loading (i.e., rates comparable to those for high amplitude seismic events) on tensile properties and fracture resistance at 288 C (550 F). Specimens were fabricated from seven different pipes, including carbon steels and stainless steels (both base metal and weld metal), which were to be subjected to full-scale pipe tests in IPIRG Task 1.0. For the stainless steels tested at 288 C (550 F), tensile strength was unchanged, while yield strength and fracture resistance were increased. The increase in fracture resistance was modest for the wrought base metals and substantial for the weld metal and the cast base metal. The carbon steels tested were sensitive to dynamic strain aging, and hence the strength and toughness was affected by both temperature and strain rate effects. The carbon steel base metal and welds exhibited ultimate tensile strength values at 288 C (550 F) that were greater than at room temperature. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength at 288 C (550 F) was lowered significantly by increased strain rate and, in the carbon steel base metals, increased strain rate also lowered the fracture resistance, substantially in the base metal of one pipe. In comparing these results to the IPIRG pipe test results to date, it was found that the trends of these tests agree well with the Subtask 1.2 quasi-static and dynamic pipe fracture experiments. Loads measured in the Subtask 1.1 pipe experiments were, however, somewhat higher than would have been expected by the trends observed in the laboratory tests

  5. Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Pipes - Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doru, Zdrenghea

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents in the first part a state of the art review of reinforced concrete pipes used in micro tunnelling realised through pipes jacking method and design methods for steel fibres reinforced concrete. In part two experimental tests are presented on inner pipes with diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with metal fibres (35 kg / m3). In part two experimental tests are presented on pipes with inner diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with steel fibres (35 kg / m3). The results obtained are analysed and are calculated residual flexural tensile strengths which characterise the post-cracking behaviour of steel fibres reinforced concrete. In the third part are presented numerical simulations of the tests of pipes and specimens. The model adopted for the pipes test was a three-dimensional model and loads considered were those obtained in experimental tests at reaching breaking forces. Tensile stresses determined were compared with mean flexural tensile strength. To validate tensile parameters of steel fibres reinforced concrete, experimental tests of the specimens were modelled with MIDAS program to reproduce the flexural breaking behaviour. To simulate post - cracking behaviour was used the method σ — ε based on the relationship stress - strain, according to RILEM TC 162-TDF. For the specimens tested were plotted F — δ diagrams, which have been superimposed for comparison with the similar diagrams of experimental tests. The comparison of experimental results with those obtained from numerical simulation leads to the following conclusions: - the maximum forces obtained by numerical calculation have higher values than the experimental values for the same tensile stresses; - forces corresponding of residual strengths have very similar values between the experimental and numerical calculations; - generally the numerical model estimates a breaking force greater

  6. Equipment for inspection of austenitic stainless steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, W.D.; Horn, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer controlled ultrasonic scanning system and a data acquisition and analysis system have been developed to perform the inservice inspection of welds in stainless steel sodium piping in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The scanning equipment consists of a six axis motion mechanism and control system which allows full articulation of an ultrasonic transducer as it follows the circumferential pipe welds. The data acquisition and analysis system consists of high speed ultrasonic waveform digitizing equipment, dedicated processors to perform on-line analysis, and data storage and display equipment

  7. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  8. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  9. Fatigue crack growth in austenitic stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethmont, M.; Cheissoux, J.L.; Lebey, J.

    1981-04-01

    The study presented in this paper is being carried out with a view to substantiating the calculations of the fatigue crack growth in pipes made of 316 L stainless steel. The results obtained may be applied to P.W.R. primary piping. It is divided into two parts. First, fatigue tests (cyclic pressure) are carried out under hot and cold conditions with straight pipes machined with notches of various dimensions. The crack propagation and the fatigue crack growth rate are measured here. Second, calculations are made in order to interpret experimental results. From elastic calculations the stress intensity factor is assessed to predict the crack growth rate. The results obtained until now and presented in this paper relate to longitudinal notches

  10. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal

  11. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  12. Piping equipment; Materiel petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

  13. Integrity of austenitic stainless steel piping welds for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canalini, A.; Lopes, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion applying K 1d concept was developed to determine the fracture mechanics properties of austenitic stainless steel nuclear piping welds. The critical dimensions, lenght and depth, for crack initiation were established and plotted in a chart. This study enables the dimensions of a discontinuity detected in an in-service inspection to be compared to the critical dimensions for crack initiation, and the indication can be judged critical or non-critical for the component. (author) [pt

  14. Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuessi, U.

    1996-01-01

    Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

  15. Fracture toughness evaluations of TP304 stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.W.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1997-02-01

    In the IPIRG-1 program, the J-R curve calculated for a 16-inch nominal diameter, Schedule 100 TP304 stainless steel (DP2-A8) surface-cracked pipe experiment (Experiment 1.3-3) was considerably lower than the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve calculated from a C(T) specimen (A8-12a). The results from several related investigations conducted to determine the cause of the observed toughness difference are: (1) chemical analyses on sections of Pipe DP2-A8 from several surface-cracked pipe and material property specimen fracture surfaces indicate that there are two distinct heats of material within Pipe DP2-A8 that differ in chemical composition; (2) SEN(T) specimen experimental results indicate that the toughness of a surface-cracked specimen is highly dependent on the depth of the initial crack, in addition, the J-R curves from the SEN(T) specimens closely match the J-R curve from the surface-cracked pipe experiment; (3) C(T) experimental results suggest that there is a large difference in the quasi-static, monotonic toughness between the two heats of DP2-A8, as well as a toughness degradation in the lower toughness heat of material (DP2-A8II) when loaded with a dynamic, cyclic (R = -0.3) loading history

  16. Finned Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe with Potassium Working Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This elemental space radiator heat pipe is designed to operate in the 700 to 875 K temperature range. It consists of a C-C (carbon-carbon) shell made from poly-acrylonitride fibers that are woven in an angle interlock pattern and densified with pitch at high process temperature with integrally woven fins. The fins are 2.5 cm long and 1 mm thick, and provide an extended radiating surface at the colder condenser section of the heat pipe. The weave pattern features a continuous fiber bath from the inner tube surface to the outside edges of the fins to maximize the thermal conductance, and to thus minimize the temperature drop at the condenser end. The heat pipe and radiator element together are less than one-third the mass of conventional heat pipes of the same heat rejection surface area. To prevent the molten potassium working fluid from eroding the C C heat pipe wall, the shell is lined with a thin-walled, metallic tube liner (Nb-1 wt.% Zr), which is an integral part of a hermetic metal subassembly which is furnace-brazed to the inner surface of the C-C tube. The hermetic metal liner subassembly includes end caps and fill tubes fabricated from the same Nb-1Zr alloy. A combination of laser and electron beam methods is used to weld the end caps and fill tubes. A tungsten/inert gas weld seals the fill tubes after cleaning and charging the heat pipes with potassium. The external section of this liner, which was formed by a "Uniscan" rolling process, transitions to a larger wall thickness. This section, which protrudes beyond the C-C shell, constitutes the "evaporator" part of the heat pipe, while the section inside the shell constitutes the condenser of the heat pipe (see figure).

  17. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, L.; Camitz, G. [Swerea KIMAB AB, Box 55970, SE-102 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Peultier, J.; Jacques, S.; Baudu, V.; Barrau, F.; Chareyre, B. [Industeel and ArcelorMittal R and D, 56 rue Clemenceau, BP19, FR-71201 le Creusot, Cedex (France); Bergquist, A. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, P.O. Box 74, SE-774 22 Avesta (Sweden); Pourbaix, A.; Carpentiers, P. [Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study, Avenue des Petits-Champs 4A, BE 1410 Waterloo (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    To be able to give safe recommendations concerning the choice of suitable stainless steel grades for pipelines to be buried in various soil environments, a large research programme, including field exposures of test specimens buried in soil in Sweden and in France, has been performed. Resistance against external corrosion of austenitic, super austenitic, lean duplex, duplex and super duplex steel grades in soil has been investigated by laboratory tests and field exposures. The grades included have been screened according to their critical pitting-corrosion temperature and according to their time-to-re-passivation after the passive layer has been destroyed locally by scratching. The field exposures programme, being the core of the investigation, uses large specimens: 2 m pipes and plates, of different grades. The exposure has been performed to reveal effects of aeration cells, deposits or confined areas, welds and burial depth. Additionally, investigations of the tendency of stainless steel to corrode under the influence of alternating current (AC) have been performed, both in the laboratory and in the field. Recommendations for use of stainless steels under different soil conditions are given based on experimental results and on operating experiences of existing stainless steel pipelines in soil. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Thermal aging evaluation of cast austenitic stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. H.; Jung, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    24 years have been passed since Kori Unit 1 began its commercial operation, and 19 years have been passed since Kori Unit 2 began its commercial operation. As the end point of design life become closer, plant life extension and periodic safety assessment is paid more and more attention to by utility company. In this paper, the methodologies and results of cast austenitic stainless steel pipe thermal aging evaluations of both units have been presented in association with aging time of 10, 20, and 30 years and operating temperature, respectively. Life extension cases respectively. As a result of this, at the operating temperature of 280 .deg. C, thermal aging was not a problem as long as Charpy V-notch room temperature minimum impact energy is concerned. However, more than 300 .deg. C and 30 years of operating condition, we should perform detailed fracture mechanics analysis with CMTR of NPP pipe

  19. Corrosion of carbon steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, B.

    1988-09-01

    This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the parent, and the presence of low-temperature transformation products in the heat-affected zone of the weld. These factors should be minimized or eliminated as appropriate so that the corrosion allowances determined for carbon steel waste drums is also adequate for the welds. An experimental/theoretical approach is recommended to evaluate the relative corrosion resistance of welds prepared from BS 4360 grade 43A steel to that of the parent material. (author)

  20. 77 FR 39735 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings From Italy, Malaysia... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-865-867 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines Determination On the basis of the...

  1. 76 FR 76437 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty orders on certain welded stainless steel pipe from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a...

  2. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-376 and 563-564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International... steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  3. The behavior of welded joint in steel pipe members under monotonic and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kyong-Ho; Jang, Gab-Chul; Shin, Young-Eui; Han, Jung-Guen; Kim, Jong-Min

    2006-01-01

    Most steel pipe members are joined by welding. The residual stress and weld metal in a welded joint have the influence on the behavior of steel pipes. Therefore, to accurately predict the behavior of steel pipes with a welded joint, the influence of welding residual stress and weld metal on the behavior of steel pipe must be investigated. In this paper, the residual stress of steel pipes with a welded joint was investigated by using a three-dimensional non-steady heat conduction analysis and a three-dimensional thermal elastic-plastic analysis. Based on the results of monotonic and cyclic loading tests, a hysteresis model for weld metal was formulated. The hysteresis model was proposed by the authors and applied to a three-dimensional finite elements analysis. To investigate the influence of a welded joint in steel pipes under monotonic and cyclic loading, three-dimensional finite elements analysis considering the proposed model and residual stress was carried out. The influence of a welded joint on the behavior of steel pipe members was investigated by comparing the analytical result both steel pipe with a welded joint and that without a welded joint

  4. Research on Buckling State of Prestressed Fiber-Strengthened Steel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruheng; Lan, Kunchang

    2018-01-01

    The main restorative methods of damaged oil and gas pipelines include welding reinforcement, fixture reinforcement and fiber material reinforcement. Owing to the severe corrosion problems of pipes in practical use, the research on renovation and consolidation techniques of damaged pipes gains extensive attention by experts and scholars both at home and abroad. The analysis of mechanical behaviors of reinforced pressure pipelines and further studies focusing on “the critical buckling” and intensity of pressure pipeline failure are conducted in this paper, providing theoretical basis to restressed fiber-strengthened steel pipes. Deformation coordination equations and buckling control equations of steel pipes under the effect of prestress is deduced by using Rayleigh Ritz method, which is an approximation method based on potential energy stationary value theory and minimum potential energy principle. According to the deformation of prestressed steel pipes, the deflection differential equation of prestressed steel pipes is established, and the critical value of buckling under prestress is obtained.

  5. Low carbon manganese-nickel-niobium steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisterkamp, F.; Hulka, K.

    1983-11-01

    Experimental heats of a low carbon-manganese-0.5% nickel-0.15% niobium steel have been rolled to plates between 13.5 and 50 mm thickness and to a 16 mm hot strip. Various combinations of soaking temperatures form 1100 0 C to 1300 0 C and of finish rolling temperatures between 710 0 C and 930 0 C have been investigated. From mechanical properties obtained, one can conclude that the investigated steel composition provides very good properties e.g. for pipe steels X65 to X75. In particular, the toughness at low temperature is outstanding despite relaxed rolling conditions. Metalographic and special investigations such as electron microscopy, texture evaluation and chemical extraction, correlated with applied rolling schedules and the mechanical properties obtained resulted in a comprehensive understanding about the benefits of high niobium metallurgy combined with nickel addition. All practically applied welding processes generated mechanical properties, in particular toughness of the weldment, that meet arctic specifications.(Author) [pt

  6. ICP-AES determination of trace elements in carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Rajeswari, B.; Kadam, R.M.; Babu, Y.; Godbole, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Carbon steel, a combination of the elements iron and carbon, can be classified into four types as mild, medium, high and very high depending on the carbon content which varies from 0.05% to 2.1%. Carbon steel of different types finds application in medical devices, razor blades, cutlery and spring. In the nuclear industry, it is used in feeder pipes in the reactor. A strict quality control measure is required to monitor the trace elements, which have deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon steel. Thus, it becomes imperative to check the purity of carbon steel as a quality control measure before it is used in feeder pipes in the reactor. Several methods have been reported in literature for trace elemental determination in high purity iron. Some of these include neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is widely recognized as a sensitive technique for the determination of trace elements in various matrices, its major advantages being good accuracy and precision, high sensitivity, multi-element capability, large linear dynamic range and relative freedom from matrix effects. The present study mainly deals with the direct determination of trace elements in carbon steel using ICP-AES. An axially viewing ICP spectrometer having a polychromator with 35 fixed analytical channels and limited sequential facility to select any analytical line within 2.2 nm of a polychromator line was used in these studies. Iron, which forms one of the main constituents of carbon steel, has a multi electronic configuration with line rich emission spectrum and, therefore, tends to interfere in the determination of trace impurities in carbon steel matrix. Spectral interference in ICP-AES can be seriously detrimental to the accuracy and reliability of trace element determinations, particularly when they are performed in the presence of high

  7. 76 FR 67473 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines would be likely to lead to... antidumping duty orders on imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the...

  8. Parametric studies for stress corrosion in Type 304 stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Stress corrosion tests were conducted in the General Electric Pipe Test Laboratory using 4-inch diameter welded pipe to evaluate the role of stress, oxygen level, cyclic loading rate, temperature, and material composition on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior of welded Type-304 stainless steel in high temperature, high purity water. The role of applied stress was evaluated in environments containing either 0.2 ppm or 8 ppm oxygen. The tests established that applied stress is the dominant variable among those studied. An increase in applied axial stress from 116 MPa (16.9 ksi) to 254 MPa (36.9 ksi) produced up to a 30 old decrease in lifetime. The change in oxygen level from 0.2 to 8 ppm produced up to a factor of four decrease in lifetime. The role of cyclic loading rate, investigated with only limited tests, was found to accelerate failure at high applied stresses. Finally one test was conducted at 232 0 C with no effect on pipe lifetime. The effects of the above parameters were defined using one heat of material. To compare the results with that of other susceptible heats, additional tests were conducted using material taken from an archive heat that had cracked in the field and from a second heat with lower carbon content that had not cracked in the field. The archive heat exhibited lifetimes that were consistent with the other test results. The low carbon material did not fail demonstrating its much reduced cracking tendency

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels.

  10. Variation behavior of residual stress distribution by manufacturing processes in welded pipes of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near heat affected zone (HAZ) of primary loop recirculation pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L in the nuclear power plants. For the non-sensitization material, residual stress is the important factor of SCC, and it is generated by machining and welding. In the actual plants, welding is conducted after machining as manufacturing processes of welded pipes. It could be considered that residual stress generated by machining is varied by welding as a posterior process. This paper presents residual stress variation due to manufacturing processes of pipes using X-ray diffraction method. Residual stress distribution due to welding after machining had a local maximum stress in HAZ. Moreover, this value was higher than residual stress generated by welding or machining. Vickers hardness also had a local maximum hardness in HAZ. In order to clarify hardness variation, crystal orientation analysis with EBSD method was performed. Recovery and recrystallization were occurred by welding heat near the weld metal. These lead hardness decrease. The local maximum region showed no microstructure evolution. In this region, machined layer was remained. Therefore, the local maximum hardness was generated at machined layer. The local maximum stress was caused by the superposition effect of residual stress distributions due to machining and welding. Moreover, these local maximum residual stress and hardness are exceeded critical value of SCC initiation. In order to clarify the effect of residual stress on SCC initiation, evaluation including manufacturing processes is important. (author)

  11. Comparison of carbon footprints of steel versus concrete pipelines for water transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilana, Lalit; Bhatt, Arpita H; Najafi, Mohammad; Sattler, Melanie

    2016-05-01

    The global demand for water transmission and service pipelines is expected to more than double between 2012 and 2022. This study compared the carbon footprint of the two most common materials used for large-diameter water transmission pipelines, steel pipe (SP) and prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP). A planned water transmission pipeline in Texas was used as a case study. Four life-cycle phases for each material were considered: material production and pipeline fabrication, pipe transportation to the job site, pipe installation in the trench, and operation of the pipeline. In each phase, the energy consumed and the CO2-equivalent emissions were quantified. It was found that pipe manufacturing consumed a large amount of energy, and thus contributed more than 90% of life cycle carbon emissions for both kinds of pipe. Steel pipe had 64% larger CO2-eq emissions from manufacturing compared to PCCP. For the transportation phase, PCCP consumed more fuel due to its heavy weight, and therefore had larger CO2-eq emissions. Fuel consumption by construction equipment for installation of pipe was found to be similar for steel pipe and PCCP. Overall, steel had a 32% larger footprint due to greater energy used during manufacturing. This study compared the carbon footprint of two large-diameter water transmission pipeline materials, steel and prestressed concrete cylinder, considering four life-cycle phases for each. The study provides information that project managers can incorporate into their decision-making process concerning pipeline materials. It also provides information concerning the most important phases of the pipeline life cycle to target for emission reductions.

  12. The precision cutting control research of automotive stainless steel thin wall pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel thin-walled tube are widely used in automobile industry at present, but as a result of thin wall pipe is poor strength and poor rigidity,which lead to deformation, shaped differencer and other problems in the process, it is hard to ensure the processing quality of parts. This paper proposes a method of thin stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting process in vehicle, greatly improved the problems and technical difficulties in the traditional process, the main research is about the cutting system and the hydraulic fixture design, obtained under low cost circumstances, it can realize high precision stainless steel pipes, high degree of automation to automatic cutting,simplified operation steps at the same time, increased the applicability of the system, provided a kind of advanced stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting device for the small and medium-sized enterprises.

  13. Modelling hydrogen permeation in a hydrogen effusion probe for monitoring corrosion of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiwiparat, P.; Rirksomboon, T.; Steward, F.R.; Lister, D.H.; Cook, W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen accumulation inside carbon steel and stainless steel devices shaped like cylindrical cups attached to a pipe containing hydrogen gas was modelled with MATLAB software. Hydrogen transfer around the bottom of the cups (edge effect) and diffusion through the cup walls (material effect) were accounted for. The variation of hydrogen pressure with time was similar for both materials, but the hydrogen plateau pressures in stainless steel cups were significantly higher than those in carbon steel cups. The geometry of the cup also affected the plateau pressure inside the cup. (author)

  14. 76 FR 66899 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... construction, shipbuilding, trucking, farm equipment, and related industries. Unfinished conduit pipe is also..., shipbuilding, trucking, farm-equipment, and related industries. Unfinished conduit pipe is also included in the... Steel Tube Works Co., Ltd 11.63 Pusan Steel Pipe Co., Ltd 4.91 All Others 6.37 Taiwan: Kao Hsing Chang...

  15. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. CITROSOLV process influence. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Burkart, A.L.; Delfino, C.A.; Rojo, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    In order to protect carbon steel towers and piping of Girlder sulfide (G.S.) experimental heavy water plants against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfides, a method, previously published, was developed. Carbon steel, exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide, forms iron sulfide scales. In oxygen free solutions evolution of corrosion follows the sequence: mackinawite → cubic ferrous sulfide → troilite → pyrrotite → pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite-pyrite or pyrite are the most protective layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2 MPa, for periods of 14 days). CITROSOLV Process (Pfizer) is used to descaling and passivating stainless steel plant's components. This process must be used in mixed (carbon steel - stainless steel) circuits and may cause the formation of magnetite scales over the carbon steel. The influence of magnetite in the pyrrotite-pyrite scales formation is studied in this work. (Author) [es

  16. Analysis of residual stresses in girth welded type 304 stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, F.W.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping is a problem for the nuclear power industry. Tensile residual stresses induced by welding are an important factor in IGSCC of Type 304 stainless steel pipes. Backlay and heat sink welding can retard IGSCC. 17 refs

  17. Pipe-CUI-profiler: a portable nucleonic system for detecting corrosion under insulation (CUI) of steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Rasif Mohd Zain; Roslan Yahya

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion under insulation (CUI) on the external wall of steel pipes is a common problem in many types of industrial plants. This is mainly due to the presence of moisture or water in the insulation materials. A portable nucleonic system that can be used to detect CUI without the need to remove the insulation materials, has been developed. The system is based on dual-beam gamma-ray absorption technique. It is designed to inspect pipes of internal diameter 50, 65, 80, 90, 100 and 150 mm. Pipeline of these sizes with aluminium or thin steel sheathing, containing fibre-glass or calcium silicate insulation to thicknesses of 25, 40 and 50 mm can be inspected. The system has proven to be a safe, fast and effective method of inspecting insulated pipes. This paper describes the new nucleonic system that has been developed. This paper describes the basic principle of the system and outlines its performance. (Author)

  18. Electrochemical and weight-loss study of carbon steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.J.; Olive, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) will undergo an 18 month refurbishment project beginning in April, 2008. During this time, most of the carbon steel piping in the primary loop will be drained of water and dried. However, some water will remain during the shutdown due to the lack of drains in some lower points in the piping system. As a result, it is necessary to examine the effect of corrosion during the refurbishment. This study examined the effect of several variables on the corrosion rate of clean carbon steel. Specifically, the effect of oxygen in the system and the presence of chloride ions were evaluated. Corrosion rates were determined using both a weight-loss technique and electrochemical methods. The experiment was conducted at room temperature. The corrosion products from the experiment were analyzed using a Raman microscope. The results of the weight-loss measurements show that the corrosion rate of polished carbon steel is independent of both the presence of oxygen and chloride ions. The electrochemical method failed to yield meaningful results due to the lack of clearly interpretable data and the inherent subjectivity in the analysis. Lepidocricite was found to be the main corrosion product using the Raman microscope. (author)

  19. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results of the... Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines'' from... Commerce (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt...

  20. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation of... from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines.\\2\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Butt...), titled Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines (Investigation...

  1. AWWA C303-17 concrete pressure pipe, bar-wrapped, steel-cylinder type

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes the manufacture of concrete pressure pipe, reinforced with a steel cylinder that is helically wrapped with mild steel bar reinforcement, in sizes ranging from 10 in. through 72 in. (250 mm through 1,830 mm), inclusive, and for working pressures up to 400 psi (2,760 kPa).

  2. The influence of gouge defects on failure pressure of steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alang, N A; Razak, N A; Zulfadli, M R

    2013-01-01

    Failure pressure of API X42 steel pipes with gouge defects was estimated through a nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis. The effect of gouge length on failure pressure of different pipe diameters was investigated. Stress modified critical strain (SMCS) model was applied as in predicting the failure of the pipe. The model uses strain based criteria to predict the failure. For validation of the model, the FE results were compared to experimental data in literature showing overall good agreement. The results show that the gouge length has significant influence on failure pressure. A smaller pipe diameter gives highest value of failure pressure

  3. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  4. Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless-Steel Pipes Welded by TIG Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Albdiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel (type 204 pipes welded by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG welding process. Testing of hardness (HRC, tensile strength and bending strength was performed for the steel pipes welded at two different welding temperatures (700 °C and 900 °C with and without using the weld filler wire. The microstructure of the welding regions was examined by using an optical microscopy. The properties showed that the steel pipes welded by 900 °C with using the weld filler obtained the highest tensile strength and bending strength versus these welded by 700 °C without the use of the weld filler. This is attributed to the weld filler heated and melt at sufficient temperature (900 °C and compensate losing in the Ni metal occurred in the base steel metal during the welding process.

  5. Reliability analysis of stainless steel piping using a single stress corrosion cracking damage parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedri, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of an investigation that combines standard methods of fracture mechanics, empirical correlations of stress-corrosion cracking, and probabilistic methods to provide an assessment of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) of stainless steel piping. This is done by simulating the cracking of stainless steel piping under IGSCC conditions using the general methodology recommended in the modified computer program Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events, and by characterizing IGSCC using a single damage parameter. Good correlation between the pipe end-life probability of leak and the damage values were found. These correlations were later used to generalize this probabilistic fracture model. Also, the probability of detection curves and the benefits of in-service inspection in order to reduce the probability of leak for nuclear piping systems subjected to IGSCC were discussed for several pipe sizes. It was found that greater benefits could be gained from inspections for the large pipe as compared to the small pipe sizes. Also, the results indicate that the use of a better inspection procedure can be more effective than a tenfold increase in the number of inspections of inferior quality. -- Highlights: • We simulate the pipe probability of failure under different level of SCC damages. • The residual stresses are adjusted to calibrate the model. • Good correlations between 40-year cumulative leak probabilities and D σ are found. • These correlations were used to generalize this probabilistic fracture model. • We assess the effect of inspection procedures and scenarios on leak probabilities

  6. Examination of the X-ray piping diagnostic system using EGS4 (measuring the thickness of a steel pipe with rust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, G.

    2001-01-01

    In a series of papers entitled 'Examination of the X-ray piping diagnostic system using EGS4' presented the proceedings of the EGS4 users' meetings, I discussed the possibility of measuring the thickness of piping walls with rust. In the present paper, I describe, based on our earlier results, how the thickness of steel pipes with rust can be measured. I conducted EGS4 simulation to measure the thickness of a combination of steel and rust and made an energy absorption diagram for this combination. The equivalent thickness of steel was obtained through experiments and the system operation. The thickness of the steel determined by using the diagram agreed well with the actual steel thickness obtained by the experiments. In the future, we will focus on how to automate this measurement procedure and how to use the same procedure to measure the thickness of pipes filled with water. (author)

  7. Effects of the inner mould material on the aluminium–316L stainless steel explosive clad pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xunzhong; Tao, Jie; Wang, Wentao; Li, Huaguan; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different mould materials were adopted to evaluate the effect of the constraint on the clad quality. ► The interface characteristics of clad pipe were analyzed for the different clad pipe. ► The clad pipes possess excellent bonding quality. - Abstract: The clad pipe played an important part in the pipeline system of the nuclear power industry. To prepare the clad pipe with even macrosize and excellent bonding quality, in this work, different mould materials were adopted to evaluate the effect of the constraint on the clad quality of the bimetal pipe prepared by explosive cladding. The experiment results indicated that, the dimension uniformity and bonding interface of clad pipe were poor by using low melting point alloy as mould material; the local bulge or the cracking of the clad pipe existed when the SiC powder was utilized. When the steel mould was adopted, the outer diameter of the clad pipe was uniform from head to tail. In addition, the metallurgical bonding was formed. Furthermore, the results of shear test, bending test and flattening test showed that the bonding quality was excellent. Therefore, the Al–316L SS clad pipe could endure the second plastic forming

  8. An Investigation of Aging Behaviour in Microalloyed Steel (X70) UOE Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskel, J. B.; Ma, J.; Ivey, D. G.; Henein, H.

    Aging of microalloyed steel pipe can occur at relatively low temperatures associated with the pipe coating process and/or during long term storage or use. The aging phenomenon is primarily attributed to C diffusion to dislocations and subsequent pinning of these dislocations. Important factors in the aging process include time, temperature, chemical composition and plastic deformation (arising from the pipe forming process). The work presented in this paper uses a Box-Behnken experimental design to determine the effect of time, temperature, location in the UOE pipe (90° or 180° to the weld), position through the pipe wall thickness (ID, CL or OD) and the steel's C/Nb ratio (0.60, 1.25 and 1.80) on the change in yield strength of three (uncoated) X70 UOE pipes. Quantitative microstructure analysis is undertaken to determine the grain size and microconstituent fractions of the as-received pipe material. Quadratic equations and response surface(s) correlating the significant aging variables with changes in the longitudinal yield stress of the pipe are developed. Both through thickness position and the C/Nb ratio, followed by aging temperature, had the largest effect on the change in longitudinal yield strength.

  9. Ultrahigh Ductility, High-Carbon Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua; Chen, Nailu

    2016-10-01

    Based on the proposed design idea of the anti-transformation-induced plasticity effect, both the additions of the Nb element and pretreatment of the normalization process as a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) were designed for Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb hot-rolled steel. This high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel exhibits a tensile strength of 1890 MPa and elongation of 29 pct accompanied by the excellent product of tensile and elongation of 55 GPa pct. The origin of ultrahigh ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel is revealed from two aspects: one is the softening of martensitic matrix due to both the depletion of carbon in the matensitic matrix during the Q-P-T process by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to retained austenite and the reduction of the dislocation density in a martensitic matrix by dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect during deformation, which significantly enhances the deformation ability of martensitic matrix; another is the high mechanical stability of considerable carbon-enriched retained austenite, which effectively reduces the formation of brittle twin-type martensite. This work verifies the correctness of the design idea of the anti-TRIP effect and makes the third-generation advanced high-strength steels extend to the field of high-carbon steels from low- and medium-carbon steels.

  10. Experimental electro-thermal method for nondestructively testing welds in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Welds in austenitic stainless steel pipes are notoriously difficult to nondestructively examine using conventional ultrasonic and eddy current methods. Survace irregularities and microscopic variations in magnetic permeability cause false eddy current signal variations. Ultrasonic methods have been developed which use computer processing of the data to overcome some of the problems. Electro-thermal nondestructive testing shows promise for detecting flaws that are difficult to detect using other NDT methods. Results of a project completed to develop and demonstrate the potential of an electro-thermal method for nondestructively testing stainless steel pipe welds are presented. Electro-thermal NDT uses a brief pulse of electrical current injected into the pipe. Defects at any depth within the weld cause small differences in surface electrical current distribution. These cause short-lived transient temperature differences on the pipe's surface that are mapped using an infrared scanning camera. Localized microstructural differences and normal surface roughness in the welds have little effect on the surface temperatures

  11. Experimental analysis on elasto-platic behaviour of T-branched stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citti, P.; Nerli, G.; Reale, S.; Rissone, P.

    1979-01-01

    Paper relates on results of a research, still in progress at Laboratories of Istituto di Ingegneria Meccanica of Florence University with close cooperation of CNEN Casaccia Laboratories, on incremental collapse phenomena with progressively increasing deflections and plastic fatigue phenomena in stainless steel piping components subjected to variable repeated loads. The reference is to emergency and faulted load contitions as they are defined in ASME III Code. The models are made by stainless steel pipe and simulate some primary circuit piping components. Namely models are not-symmetrical T-branched pipes fixed at their flanged ends and loaded in two sections by variable repeated loads. Tests are carried out to determine: plastic collapse load; strain hardening behaviour; shackedown load conditions. A numerical model is also developed to describe the incremental collapse phenomena. (orig.)

  12. Cubic martensite in high carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Xiao, Wenlong; Jiao, Kun; Ping, Dehai; Xu, Huibin; Zhao, Xinqing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2018-05-01

    A distinguished structural characteristic of martensite in Fe-C steels is its tetragonality originating from carbon atoms occupying only one set of the three available octahedral interstitial sites in the body-centered-cubic (bcc) Fe lattice. Such a body-centered-tetragonal (bct) structure is believed to be thermodynamically stable because of elastic interactions between the interstitial carbon atoms. For such phase stability, however, there has been a lack of direct experimental evidence despite extensive studies of phase transformations in steels over one century. In this Rapid Communication, we report that the martensite formed in a high carbon Fe-8Ni-1.26C (wt%) steel at room temperature induced by applied stress/strain has actually a bcc rather than a bct crystal structure. This finding not only challenges the existing theories on the stability of bcc vs bct martensite in high carbon steels, but also provides insights into the mechanism for martensitic transformation in ferrous alloys.

  13. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-810, A-583-815] Welded ASTM A-312... the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan... duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan pursuant to section...

  14. 77 FR 73015 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... antidumping duty order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (CWP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). The... preliminarily found that one respondent has made sales of the subject merchandise at prices below normal value...

  15. 75 FR 27987 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Republic of Korea (Korea). This review covers one producer/exporter of the subject merchandise to the... Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... WSSP from Korea. See Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

  16. 75 FR 44763 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. We... preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because we require additional time with...

  17. Seismic Capacity Estimation of Steel Piping Elbow under Low-cycle Fatigue Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Dae Gi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In some cases, this large relative displacement can increase seismic risk of the isolated facility. Especially, a inelastic behavior of crossover piping system to connect base isolated building and fixed base building can caused by a large relative displacement. Therefore, seismic capacity estimation for isolated piping system is needed to increase safety of nuclear power plant under seismic condition. Dynamic behavior analysis of piping system under seismic condition using shake table tests was performed by Touboul et al in 1995. In accordance with their study, plastic behavior could be occurred at pipe elbow under seismic condition. Experimental researches for dynamic behavior of typical piping system in nuclear power plant have been performed for several years by JNES(Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) and NUPEC(Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation). A low cycle ratcheting fatigue test was performed with scaled model of elbow which is a weakest component in piping system by Mizuno et al. In-plane cyclic loading tests under internal pressure condition were performed to evaluate the seismic capacity of the steel piping elbow. Leakage phenomenon occurred on and near the crown in piping elbow. Those cracks grew up in axial direction. The fatigue curve was estimated from test results. In the fatigue curve, loading amplitude exponentially decreased as the number of cycles increased. A FEM model of piping elbow was modified with test results. The relationships between displacement and force from tests and numerical analysis was well matched.

  18. A Study on the Characteristics of Corrosion in Cold Worked Flexible STS 304 Stainless Steel Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Soo; Kim, Sung Jin

    1993-01-01

    Effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of austenitic STS 304 stainless steel pipes were investigated using anodic polarization method, EDX analysis and SEM technique. Corrosion products had a lots of S and Cl - ion. Generally, corrosion patterns as a result of STS 304 stainless steel to concrete environment were proceeded in the order of the pitting to intergranular corrosion. In the case of the flexible pipes were covered tightly with other polymer materials, crevice corrosion occurred to a much greater extent on austenitic than on martensitic region

  19. Damage mechanism of piping welded joints made from austenitic Steel for the type RBMK reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karzov, G.; Timofeev, B.; Gorbakony, A.; Petrov, V.; Chernaenko, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the process of operation of RBMK reactors the damages were taking place on welded piping, produced from austenitic stainless steel of the type 08X18H10T. The inspection of damaged sections in piping has shown that in most cases crack-like defects are of corrosion and mechanical character. The paper considers in details the reasons of damages appearance and their development for this type of welded joints of downcomers 325xl6 mm, which were fabricated from austenitic stainless steel using TlG and MAW welding methods. (author)

  20. On the impact bending test technique for high-strength pipe steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenkin, A. M.; Odesskii, P. D.; Shabalov, I. P.; Likhachev, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is shown that the impact toughness (KCV-40 = 250 J/cm2) accepted for pipe steels of strength class K65 (σy ≥ 550 MPa) intended for large-diameter gas line pipes is ineffective to classify steels in fracture strength. The results obtained upon testing of specimens with a fatigue crack and additional sharp lateral grooves seem to be more effective. In energy consumption, a macrorelief with splits is found to be intermediate between ductile fracture and crystalline brittle fracture. A split formation mechanism is considered and a scheme is proposed for split formation.

  1. Determination of Burst Pressure of API Steel Pipes using Stress Modified Critical Strain Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alang, N A; Razak, N A; Sulaiman, A S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which can be used to determine the burst pressure of defective steel pipes using non-linear finite element (FE) analysis. The technique uses stress modified critical strain (SMCS) failure criterion to study the effect of gouge defects on maximum working pressure of API X65 steel pipes. The procedures in determining the model parameters using 3-D, homogeneous isotropic elastic-plastic material model with large deformation finite element analyses from notched tensile bars were systematically discussed. The relationship between burst pressure and gouge depth was proposed. The burst pressure estimated then was compared to experimental data from the literature for validation showing overall good agreements.

  2. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless-steel pipes under dynamic loading. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models

  3. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave propagation and extreme pressures are simulated and compared by the method of characteristics (MOC for reinforced PE pipes with various steel-mesh densities. Results show that a steel mesh can significantly increase the shock wave speed in a PE pipe and thus can cause severe peak pressure and hydraulic surges in a water supply pipeline system. The proposed wave speed formula can more reasonably evaluate the wave speed and improve the transient simulation of steel-mesh-reinforced PE pipes.

  4. Estimates of margins in ASME Code strength values for stainless steel nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The margins in the ASME Code stainless steel allowable stress values that can be attributed to the variations in material strength are evaluated for nuclear piping steels. Best-fit curves were calculated for the material test data that were used to determine allowable stress values for stainless steels in the ASME Code, supplemented by more recent data, to estimate the mean stresses. The mean yield stresses (on which the stainless steel S m values are based) from the test data are about 15 to 20% greater than the ASME Code yield stress values. The ASME Code yield stress values are estimated to approximately coincide with the 97% confidence limit from the test data. The mean and 97% confidence limit values can be used in the probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear piping

  5. The application of low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode for the inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z H; Xie, X D; Wu, B; Li, Y H; He, C F

    2012-01-01

    Shed-pipe grouting technology, an effective advanced supporting method, is often used in the excavation of soft strata. Steel floral pipes are one of the key load-carrying components of shed-pipe grouting supporting structures. Guided waves are a very attractive methodology to inspect multi-hole steel floral pipes as they offer long range inspection capability, mode and frequency tuning, and cost effectiveness. In this contribution, preliminary experiments are described for the inspection of steel floral pipes using a low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode, L(0,2). The relation between the number of grouting holes and the peak-to-peak amplitude of the first end-reflected signal was obtained. The effect of the grouting holes in steel floral pipes on the propagation velocity of the L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz was analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the typical grouting holes in steel floral pipe have no significant effect on the propagation of this mode. As a result, low frequency longitudinal guided wave modes have potential for the non-destructive long range inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes. Furthermore, the propagation velocity of the investigated L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz decreases linearly with the increase of the number of grouting holes in a steel floral pipe. It is also noticeable that the effect of the grouting holes cumulates along with the increase in the number of grouting holes and subsequent increase in reflection times of longitudinal guided waves in the steel floral pipe. The application potential of the low frequency longitudinal guided wave technique for the inspection of embedded steel floral pipes is discussed.

  6. Effect of Structure Factor on High-Temperature Ductility of Pipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasnikov, N. G.; Matveev, M. A.; Mishnev, P. A.

    2016-05-01

    Effects of various factors such as the grain size, the morphology of nonmetallic inclusions, and joint microalloying with boron and titanium on the high-temperature ductility of pipe steels are studied. Physical modeling of the conditions of cooling of the skin of a continuous-cast preform in the zone of secondary cooling in a Gleeble facility is performed. Technical recommendations are given for raising the hot ductility of steels under industrial conditions.

  7. Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes: part 1: technological analysis of the mechanical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available This paper is the first part of an extensive work focusing the technological development of steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes (FRCP. Here is presented and discussed the experimental campaign focusing the test procedure and the mechanical behavior obtained for each of the dosages of fiber used. In the second part ("Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes. Part 2: Numerical model to simulate the crushing test", the aspects of FRCP numerical modeling are presented and analyzed using the same experimental results in order to be validated. This study was carried out trying to reduce some uncertainties related to FRCP performance and provide a better condition to the use of these components. In this respect, an experimental study was carried out using sewage concrete pipes in full scale as specimens. The diameter of the specimens was 600 mm, and they had a length of 2500 mm. The pipes were reinforced with traditional bars and different contents of steel fibers in order to compare their performance through the crushing test. Two test procedures were used in that sense. In the 1st Series, the diameter displacement was monitored by the use of two LVDTs positioned at both extremities of the pipes. In the 2nd Series, just one LVDT is positioned at the spigot. The results shown a more rigidity response of the pipe during tests when the displacements were measured at the enlarged section of the socket. The fiber reinforcement was very effective, especially when low level of displacement was imposed to the FRCP. At this condition, the steel fibers showed an equivalent performance to superior class pipes made with traditional reinforced. The fiber content of 40 kg/m3 provided a hardening behavior for the FRCP, and could be considered as equivalent to the critical volume in this condition.

  8. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  9. Experimental and numerical study of steel pipe with part-wall defect reinforced with fibre glass sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, Lukasz; Tomaszewski, Michal; Malachowski, Jerzy; Sybilski, Kamil; Chebakov, Mikhail; Witek, Maciej; Yukhymets, Peter; Dmitrienko, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents numerical and experimental burst pressure evaluation of the gas seamless hot-rolled steel pipe. The main goal was to estimate mechanical toughness of pipe wrapped with composite sleeve and verify selected sleeve thickness. The authors used a nonlinear explicit FE code with constitutive models which allows for steel and composite structure failure modelling. Thanks to the achieved numerical and analytical results it was possible to perform the comparison with data received from a capacity test and good correlation between the results were obtained. Additionally, the conducted analyses revealed that local reduction of pipe wall thickness from 6 mm to 2.4 mm due to corrosion defect can reduce high pressure resistance by about 40%. Finally, pipe repaired by a fibre glass sleeve with epoxy resin with 6 mm thickness turned out more resistant than an original steel pipe considering burst pressure. - Highlights: • Numerical and experimental burst pressure evaluation of steel pipe was performed. • Seamless hot-rolled steel pipe with and without corrosion defect were considered. • Local reduction of pipe wall thickness from 6 to 2.4 mm reduces resistance by 40%. • Pipe repaired by a 6 mm fibre glass sleeve was more resistant than an original pipe.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., “Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High Pressure Service at... by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM D2517—Thermosetting plastic pipe and tubing, “Standard Specification...

  11. A study on the impediment of thickness diminution of Carbon steel tube by using a applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Oh; Kim, Jong Hui; Cho, Wan Sik; Hong, Sung Min; Park, Yun Won

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic properties of the carbon steel tube which is used as the pipe laying of cooling water in nuclear power plant were measured to research the impediment of thickness diminution of carbon steel tube. Magnetic field distribution of carbon steel tube in the applied magnetic field was simulated by computer program. On the basis of the simulation results, Alnico 5DG and Alnico 5 were selected as the permanent magnets applicable to the carbon steel tube. Sm2Co17 magnet was used to compare the performance of permanent magnets. The experimental apparatus similar to the draining environment of cooling water in nuclear power plant was also manufactured in order to research the impediment of thickness diminution of carbon steel carbon tube

  12. 75 FR 973 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... to welded austenitic stainless steel pipes. The HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and... with sections 772(d)(1) and (2) of the Act, we also deducted, where applicable, those selling expenses associated with economic activities occurring in the United States, including U.S. direct selling expenses (i...

  13. Viscoelastic behavior and durability of steel wire - reinforced polyethylene pipes under a high internal pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, S.; Anoshkin, A.N.; Zuyko, V.Yu

    2011-01-01

    The strength tests of steel-wire-reinforced polyethylene pipe specimens showed that, under a constant internal pressure exceeding 80% of their short-term ultimate pressure, the fracture of the specimens occurred in less than 24 hours. At pressures slightly lower than this level, some specimens did

  14. Fracture analysis procedure for cast austenitic stainless steel pipe with an axial crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Since the ductility of cast austenitic stainless steel pipes decreases due to thermal aging embrittlement after long term operation, not only plastic collapse failure but also unstable ductile crack propagation (elastic-plastic failure) should be taken into account for the structural integrity assessment of cracked pipes. In the fitness-for-service code of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME), Z-factor is used to incorporate the reduction in failure load due to elastic-plastic failure. However, the JSME code does not provide the Z-factor for axial cracks. In this study, Z-factor for axial cracks in aged cast austenitic stainless steel pipes was derived. Then, a comparison was made for the elastic-plastic failure load obtained from different analysis procedures. It was shown that the obtained Z-factor could derive reasonable elastic-plastic failure loads, although the failure loads were more conservative than those obtained by the two-parameter method. (author)

  15. Evaluation of residual stresses for the multipass welds of 316L stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    It is necessary to evaluate the influence of the residual stress and distortion in the design and fabrication of welded structure and the sound welded structure can be maintained by this consideration. Multipass welds of the 316L stainless steel have been widely employed in the pipes of Liquid Metal Reactor. In this study, the residual stresses in the 316L stainless steel pipe welds were calculated by the finite element method using ANSYS code. Also, the residual stresses both on the surface and in the interior of the thickness were measured by HRPD(High Resolution Powder Diffractometer) instrumented in HANARO Reactor. The residual stresses were measured for each 18 points in small(t/d=0.075) and large pipe specimens (t/d=0.034). The experimental and calculated results were compared and the characteristics of the distribution of the residual stress discussed

  16. EIS Response of MIC on Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Maahn, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel under sulphate reducing (sulphide-producing) bacterial activity (SRB) results in the formation of both ferrous sulphides as well as biofilm on the metal surface. The electrochemical characteristics of the ferrous sulphide/steel interface...... as compared to the biofilm/ferrous sulphide/steel interface has been studied with EIS, DC polarisations (Tafel, LPR) and a potentiostatic step technique. The electrochemical response is related to a threshold sulphide concentration above which very characteristic changes such as indications of finite...

  17. Evaluation of weld defects in stainless steel 316L pipe using guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Hyun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Stainless steel is a popular structural materials for liquid-hydrogen storage containers and piping components for transporting high-temperature fluids because of its superior material properties such as high strength and high corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. In general, tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding is used for bonding stainless steel. However, it is often reported that the thermal fatigue cracks or initial defects in stainless steel after welding decreases the reliability of the material. The objective of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in relation to a change in the initial crack length in the welding zone of stainless steel. For this purpose, three specimens with different artificial defects of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm in stainless steel welds were prepared. By considering the thickness of s stainless steel pipe, special attention was given to both the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode in this study. It was clearly found that the L(0,2) mode was more sensitive to defects than the L(0,1) mode. Based on the results of the L(0,1) and L(0,2) mode analyses, the magnitude ratio of the two modes was more effective than studying each mode when evaluating defects near the welded zone of stainless steel because of its linear relationship with the length of the artificial defect.

  18. Ductile fracture of circumferentially cracked type-304 stainless steel pipes in tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Norris, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    Circumferentially cracked pipes subjected to tensile load were analyzed for finite length and constant depth part-through cracks located at the inside of the pipe wall. The analysis postulated loads sufficient to cause net-section yielding of the flawed section. It was demonstrated that a propensity for predominantly radial growth exists for part-through cracks loaded in tension. This result is similar to the result for bend loading, except that bend loading causes more favorable conditions for wall breakthrough than tension loading. Numerical results were developed for 4-in. and 24-in-dia pipes. Safety margins for displacement controlled loads were described by a safety assessment diagram. This diagram defines a curve delineating leak from fracture in a space of nondimensional crack length and crack depth. 4-india schedule 80 Type-304 stainless steel pipes with length to radius ratio (L/R) of up to 100 exhibited leak-before-break behavior.

  19. Ductile fracture of circumferentially cracked type-304 stainless steel pipes in tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Norris, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Circumferentially cracked pipes subjected to tensile load were analyzed for finite length and constant depth part-through cracks located at the inside of the pipe wall. The analysis postulated loads sufficient to cause net-section yielding of the flawed section. It was demonstrated that a propensity for predominantly radial growth exists for part-through cracks loaded in tension. This result is similar to the result for bend loading, except that bend loading causes more favorable conditions for wall breakthrough than tension loading. Numerical results were developed for 4-in. and 24-in-dia pipes. Safety margins for displacement controlled loads were described by a safety assessment diagram. This diagram defines a curve delineating leak from fracture in a space of nondimensional crack length and crack depth. 4-india schedule 80 Type-304 stainless steel pipes with length to radius ratio (L/R) of up to 100 exhibited leak-before-break behavior

  20. Fracture studies on stainless steel straight pipes under earthquake-type cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava, G.; Vishnuvardhan, S.; Gandhi, P.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the crack growth and cyclic fracture behaviour, which are required for realistic assessment of Leak Before Break (LBB) applicability, experimental investigations were carried out on straight pipes under quasi-crystal loading. Totally 13 pipes were tested; three were stainless steel welded (SSW) using conventional shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) technique and the remaining specimens were Narrow Gap Welded (NGW). The fracture tests were carried out under load control, displacement control and combination of the two; the pipes were subjected to different amplitudes of load or load-line displacement (LLD), which were decided based on the response of the pipes under monotonic loading. Cyclic tearing and crack growth studies on eight straight pipes of the same material reported earlier in published literature are also considered for studying the results and understanding the behaviour. Under load control, with almost equal load amplitude, the NGW pipe exhibited improved life in comparison with SMAW pipe when both are subjected to cyclic loading. The crack growth and tearing instability behaviour of the pipes were studied. The same were found to be different for load control, displacement control and combined control tests. Based in the load-controlled experimental results, material specific plot between cyclic load amplitude (as a percentage of maximum load carrying capacity of a specimen under monotonic fracture) and number of cycles to failure was obtained. The results indicate that the piping components subjected to quasi-cyclic loading may fail in very less number of cycles even when the load amplitude is sufficiently below the monotonic fracture/collapse load. These studies will be helpful in designing nuclear power plant (NPP) piping components subjected to earthquake-type cyclic loading. (author)

  1. Electrolytic etching of fine stainless-steel pipes patterned by laser-scan lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sagara, Tomoya; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki

    2017-07-01

    Recently, it is required to develop a method for fabricating cylindrical micro-components in the field of measurement and medical engineering. Here, electrolytic etching of fine stainless-steel pipes patterned by laser-scan lithography was researched. The pipe diameter was 100 μm. At first, a pipe coated with 3-7 μm thick positive resist (tok, PMER P LA-900) was exposed to a violet laser beam with a wavelength of 408 nm (Neoark,TC20-4030-45). The laser beam was reshaped in a circle by placing a pinhole, and irradiated on the pipe by reducing the size in 1/20 using a reduction projection optics. Linearly arrayed 22 slit patterns with a width of 25 μm and a length of 175 μm were delineated in every 90-degree circumferential direction. That is, 88 slits in total were delineated at an exposure speed of 110 μm/s. In the axial direction, patterns were delineated at intervals of 90 μm. Following the pattern delineation, the pipe masked by the resist patterns was electrolytically etched. The pipe was used as an anode and an aluminum cylinder was set as a cathode around the pipe. As the electrolyte, aqueous solution of NaCl and NH4Cl was used. After etching the pipe, the resist was removed by ultrasonic cleaning in acetone. Although feasibility for fabricating multi-slit pipes was demonstrated, sizes of the etched slits were enlarged being caused by the undercut, and the shapes were partially deformed, and all the pipes were snapped at the chuck side.

  2. Modeling of residual stress mitigation in austenitic stainless steel pipe girth weldment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; West, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This study provides numerical procedures to model 40-cm-diameter, schedule 40, Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welding and a newly proposed post-weld treatment. The treatment can be used to accomplish the goal of imparting compressive residual stresses at the inner surface of a pipe girth weldment to prevent/retard the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the piping system in nuclear reactors. This new post-weld treatment for mitigating residual stresses is cooling stress improvement (CSI). The concept of CSI is to establish and maintain a certain temperature gradient across the pipe wall thickness to change the final stress state. Thus, this process involves sub-zero low temperature cooling of the inner pipe surface of a completed girth weldment, while simultaneously keeping the outer pipe surface at a slightly elevated temperature with the help of a certain heating method. Analyses to obtain quantitative results on pipe girth welding and CSI by using a thermo-elastic-plastic finite element model are described in this paper. Results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of CSI for introducing compressive residual stresses to prevent/retard IGSCC. Because of the symmetric nature of CSI, it shows great potential for industrial application

  3. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, B., E-mail: bianca@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lesage, J. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Pasqualino, I. [Subsea Technology Laboratory (LTS), Ocean Engineering Department, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68508, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Benseddiq, N. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Bemporad, E. [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy (LIME), University of Rome TRE, Via Della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work we study the fatigue damage evolution in an API 5L X60 steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural changes and residual stresses are evaluated during fatigue tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microdeformations and macro residual stresses are estimated by X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are discussed in view of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This indicator could allow the prediction of residual life before macrocracking. - Abstract: Steel pipes used in the oil and gas industry undergo the action of cyclic loads that can cause their failure by fatigue. A consistent evaluation of the fatigue damage during the initiation phase should fundamentally be based on a nanoscale approach, i.e., at the scale of the dislocation network, in order to take into account the micromechanisms of fatigue damage that precede macrocrack initiation and propagation until the final fracture. In this work, microstructural changes related to fatigue damage initiation are investigated in the API 5L X60 grade steel, used in pipe manufacturing. Microdeformations and macro residual stress are evaluated using X-ray diffraction in real time during alternating bending fatigue tests performed on samples cut off from an X60 steel pipe. The aim of this ongoing work is to provide ground for further development of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation in X60 steel. This damage indicator could allow a good residual life prediction of steel pipes previously submitted to fatigue loading, before macroscopic cracking, and help to increase the reliability of these structures.

  4. Experimentation and numerical simulation of steel fibre reinforced concrete pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, A. de la; Domingues de Figueiredo, A.; Aguado, A.; Molins, C.; Chama Neto, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    The results concerning on an experimental and a numerical study related to SFRCP are presented. Eighteen pipes with an internal diameter of 600 mm and fibre dosages of 10, 20 and 40 kg/m3 were manufactured and tested. Some technological aspects were concluded. Likewise, a numerical parameterized model was implemented. With this model, the simulation of the resistant behaviour of SFRCP can be performed. In this sense, the results experimentally obtained were contrasted with those suggested by means MAP reaching very satisfactory correlations. Taking it into account, it could be said that the numerical model is a useful tool for the optimal design of the SFRCP fibre dosages, avoiding the need of the systematic employment of the test as an indirect design method. Consequently, the use of this model would reduce the overall cost of the pipes and would give fibres a boost as a solution for this structural typology. (Author) 27 refs.

  5. Failure probability estimate of type 304 stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Mehta, H.S.; Ranganath, S.

    1989-01-01

    The primary source of in-service degradation of the SRS production reactor process water piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). IGSCC has occurred in a limited number of weld heat affected zones, areas known to be susceptible to IGSCC. A model has been developed to combine crack growth rates, crack size distributions, in-service examination reliability estimates and other considerations to estimate the pipe large-break frequency. This frequency estimates the probability that an IGSCC crack will initiate, escape detection by ultrasonic (UT) examination, and grow to instability prior to extending through-wall and being detected by the sensitive leak detection system. These events are combined as the product of four factors: (1) the probability that a given weld heat affected zone contains IGSCC; (2) the conditional probability, given the presence of IGSCC, that the cracking will escape detection during UT examination; (3) the conditional probability, given a crack escapes detection by UT, that it will not grow through-wall and be detected by leakage; (4) the conditional probability, given a crack is not detected by leakage, that it grows to instability prior to the next UT exam. These four factors estimate the occurrence of several conditions that must coexist in order for a crack to lead to a large break of the process water piping. When evaluated for the SRS production reactors, they produce an extremely low break frequency. The objective of this paper is to present the assumptions, methodology, results and conclusions of a probabilistic evaluation for the direct failure of the primary coolant piping resulting from normal operation and seismic loads. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break

  6. Effects of dynamic coupling between freestanding steel containment and attached piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Kincaid, R.H.; Short, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an accurate, practical method of converting uncoupled response time history results obtained from an uncoupled structure model into coupled response time histories using a post-processor routine. The method is rigorous and only requires the modal properties of the uncoupled structure model, the modal properties of the uncoupled attached equipment model, and the uncoupled time histories of the attachment points on the structure. Coupled response spectra or time histories for use as input to an uncoupled equipment model are obtained. Comparisons of coupled versus uncoupled analysis results are presented for representative piping systems attached to a typical BWR Mark III steel containment subjected to vibration from safety relief valve discharge with a fundamental frequency of 12 Hz. It is shown that the coupled response spectra at piping attachment points are reduced by a factor between 2 and 5 from the amplified uncoupled spectra at each significant piping modal frequency above 20 Hz for representative major piping systems attached to the unstiffened portion of the steel shell. Responses at lower frequencies are not generally reduced and may increase by coupling effects for the input loading and shell model studied. Peak accerations are generally significantly reduced while peak displacements may be decreased or increased. Rules are presented for estimating the coupling effects between freestanding steel shells and attached equipment. (orig./HP)

  7. Cathodic corrosion protection of steel pipes; Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Rohrleitungsstaehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Markus [SGK Schweizerische Gesellschaft fuer Korrosionsschutz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schoeneich, Hanns-Georg [Open Grid Europe, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The cathodic corrosion protection has been proven excellently in the practical use for buried steel pipelines. This is evidenced statistically by a significantly less frequency of loss compared to non-cathodically protected pipelines. Based on thermodynamic considerations, the authors of the contribution under consideration describe the operation of the cathodic corrosion protection and regular adjustment of the electrochemical potential at the interface steel / soil in practical use. Subsequently, the corrosion scenarios are discussed that may occur when an incorrect setting of the potential results from an operation over several decades. This incorrect setting also can be caused by the failure of individual components of the corrosion protection.

  8. A parametric study of residual stresses in multipass butt-welded stainless steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B. [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden); Josefson, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Solid Mechanics

    1996-06-01

    Multipass circumferential butt-welding of stainless steel pipes is simulated numerically in a non-linear thermo-mechanical FE-analysis. In particular, the through-thickness variation at the weld and heat affected zone, of the axial and hoop stresses and their sensitivity to variation in weld parameters are studied. Recommendations are given for the through thickness variation of the axial and hoop stresses to be used when assessing the growth of surface flaws at circumferential butt welds in nuclear piping system. 31 refs, 12 tabs, 54 figs.

  9. Hydrogen-related stress corrosion cracking in line pipe steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    1997-01-01

    A correlation between hydrogen concentration (C0) and the critical stress intensity factor for propagation of hydrogen-related cracks has been established by fracture mechanical testing of CT-specimens for the heat affected zone of an X-70 pipeline steel. This has been compared with field...

  10. 75 FR 78216 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Mexico, and Venezuela and Amendment..., Director, Office 7 to Michael Walsh, Director, AD/CVD Revenue Policy & Programs, U.S. Customs and Border...

  11. Logistics Outsourcing and The Role of Logistics Service Providers: A Study About Steel Pipe Production Enterprises in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Mehmet Selami; Turan, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Specialization requirement led the outsourcing preferred intensely by firms. Evidently “logistics activities” constitute an important part in the outsourced business activities. In this study, interviews were conducted with the managers from Turkey's steel pipe production enterprises who have knowledge of logistics management. Fourteen steel pipe enterprises were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by using quantitative methods and data were obtained by interview and face-...

  12. The First Assembly Line of Large-longitudinally-welded Steel Pipe in China Went into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bing

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 27, the first assembly line to produce JCOE large diameter Longitudinally-submerged-arc-welded steel pipe in China, Which is the key homemade equipment project of "West-East Gas Transmission"project, was put into production. Chen Gen, vice general manager of CNPC; Xie Zhiqiang and Liu Haisheng, assistant chief manager of CNPC; Shi Xingquan, vice president of PetroChina; and the president of Itochu-Marubeni Steel & iron Co., Ltd.of Japan; attended the opening ceremony and cut the ribbon.

  13. 76 FR 77770 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... previous review or the original less-than-fair-value (LTFV) investigation, the cash deposit rate will... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 57 FR 42953... structural pipe tubing used for framing and support members for reconstruction or load-bearing purposes in...

  14. 77 FR 10773 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year... orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines would be... certificate of service. Determination.--The Commission has determined to exercise its authority to extend the...

  15. High-energy air shock study in steel and grout pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, H.D.; Kratz, H.R.; Keough, D.D.; Duganne, D.A.; Ruffner, D.J.; Swift, R.P.; Baum, D.

    1979-01-01

    Voitenko compressors are used to generate 43 mm/μs air shocks in both a steel and a grout outlet pipe containing ambient atmospheric air. Fiber-optic ports provide diaphragm burst times, time-of-arrival (TOA) data, and velocities for the shock front along the 20-mm-ID exit pipes. Pressure profiles are obtained at higher enthalpy shock propagation than ever before and at many locations along the exit pipes. Numerous other electronic sensors and postshot observations are described, as well as experimental results. The primary objectives of the experiments are as follows: (1) provide a data base for normalization/improvement of existing finite-difference codes that describe high-energy air shocks and gas propagation; (2) obtain quantitative results on the relative attenuation effects of two very different wall materials for high-energy air shocks and gas flows. The extensive experimental results satisfy both objectives

  16. Creep properties in similar weld joint of a thick-walled P92 steel pipe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Kuchařová, Květa; Svobodová, M.; Kvapilová, Marie; Král, Petr; Horváth, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-12 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09518S; GA MPO FR-TI4/406 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 9–12%Cr steels * Creep testing * High temperature creep * Thick-walled pipe * Welding Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  17. Interphase and intergranular stress generation in carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, E.C.; Daymond, M.R.; Withers, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron diffraction spectra have been acquired during tensile straining of high and low carbon steels, in order to compare the evolution of internal stress in ferritic steel with and without a reinforcing phase. In low carbon steel, the generation of intergranular stresses predominates, while in high carbon steel similar intergranular stresses among ferrite grain families are superposed upon a large redistribution of stress between phases. Comparison is made to calculations using elastoplastic self-consistent and finite element methods

  18. Carbon steel protection in G.S. [Girldler sulphide] plants: Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, Osvaldo; Delfino, Cristina; Rojo, Enrique.

    1989-01-01

    In order to protect carbon steel towers and piping of a GS experimental heavy water plant against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide, a method, elsewhere published, was developed. Carbon steel exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide forms iron sulphide scales. In oxygen free solutions, evolution of corrosion follows the sequence mackinawite → cubic ferrous sulphide → troilite → pyrrotite → pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite and pyrite are the most protective layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2 MPa for a period of 14 days). During a plant shutdown procedures, the carbon steel protected with those scales is exposed to water and highly humid air; under such conditions oxidation is unavoidable. Later, treatment in plant conditions does not regenerate scales because the composition of regenerated scales involves more soluble iron sulphides such as mackinawite and troilite. Therefore, it is not recommendable to expose the protective scales to atmospherical conditions. (Author)

  19. A study on ultrasonic inspection of long steel pipes using lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Ho

    1996-02-01

    An ultrasonic inspection technique with use of Lamb waves was evaluated to detect and determine the exact location of flaws present in long steel pipes. Since multiple modes of Lamb waves are generated in the inspected pipes due to their dispersive characteristics, selection of a specific Lamb wave mode is very important for inspection of flaws. Experimental studies of flaw detectability with use of each Lamb wave mode, namely, A 0 , S 0 , A 1 , and S 1 mode and their ultrasonic attenuation characteristics were conducted. Experimental results showed that A 0 mode is the most effective for detection and exact determination of the location of flaws. A lucite wedge containing water column that generates the A 0 Lamb wave mode was developed and used in the present inspection study. It was found that the ultrasonic beam divergence after its wrapping around once the inspected pipe interferes with exact determination of the location of flaws and that maximum reflection signals are obtained when the transducer is located axially offset from the straight line with the position of the flaw. The present study showed feasibility of ultrasonic inspection with use of Lamb waves for detection of flaws in several meters long insulated or inaccessible steel pipes

  20. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations On the basis of... pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... regarding small- diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Romania...

  1. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  2. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eRajala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland for periods of three and eight months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel.

  3. Ice plugging of pipes using liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents a study on the ice plugging of pipe using liquid nitrogen, and is based on a literature review and on discussions with individuals who use the technique. Emphasis is placed on ferritic alloys, primarily carbon steels, in pipe sized up to 60 cm in diameter and on austenitic stainless steels in pipe sizes up to 30 cm in diameter. This technique is frequently used for leak testing in nuclear facilities

  4. Experimental and numerical simulation of carbon manganese steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental and numerical simulation of carbon manganese steel for cyclic plastic behaviour. J Shit, S Dhar, S Acharyya. Abstract. The paper deals with finite element modeling of saturated low cycle fatigue and the cyclic hardening phenomena of the materials Sa333 grade 6 carbon steel and SS316 stainless steel.

  5. Contamination of stainless steel process piping with radioactive cobalt colloids and methods for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeleye, S.A.; White, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Significant deposits of activity can occur on the internal surface of pipework carrying aqueous radioactive liquid. This paper describes experimental work to contaminate stainless steel piping with colloidal particles of Co 60 and considers decontamination methods. The effects on steel contamination of varying cobalt concentration and aqueous liquor pH were investigated. Deposition increased with increasing cobalt concentration and the ''plate-out'' increased markedly with increasing liquid pH. Low deposition occurred at pH ∼ 2 increasing by orders of magnitude at pH ∼ 10. Steel type had an effect on activity picked up. It was shown that liquid turbulence, on the surface, reduced activity deposition. Since the extent of contamination to be removed depends on deposition or ''plate-out'' kinetics, the factors affecting the rate of activity deposition are considered. Specimens of steel piping were treated by contacting with acid, electroetching or abrasion with emery cloth. Surface treatment was shown to delay deposition, in certain instances, but did not have much effect on overall equilibrium level of surface activity. The surface activity could be reduced by treatment with dilute nitric acid: however significant activity remained. Most of the remaining activity could be removed by treatment with nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath. (Author)

  6. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Alcantara, J.; Diaz, I.; Chico, B.; Simancas, J.; Fuente, D. de la

    2015-07-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  7. Plasticity of low carbon stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Kareva, E.N.

    1975-01-01

    In the temperature range 800-1200 0 C and with strain rates of from 10 -3 to 3 s -1 , austenitic (000Kh18N12) and austenitic-ferrite (000Kh26N6) very low carbon stainless steels containing 0.02-0.03% C exhibit no higher resilience than corresponding ordinary steels containing 0.10-0.12% C. However, the plasticity of such steels (particularly two-phase steels) at 900-1100 0 C is appreciably inferior owing to the development of intergranular brittle fracture. Pressure treatment preceded by partial cooling of the surface to 850 0 C yields rolled and forged products with acceptable indices but is inconvenient technically. At the Zlatoustovsk and Ashin metallurgical plants successful tests have been performed involving the forging and rolling of such steels heated to 1280-1300 0 C without partial cooling; it was necessary to improve the killing conditions, correct the chemical composition (increasing the proportion of ferrite) and take measures against heat loss. (author)

  8. 76 FR 67146 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-828] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld... antidumping duty order on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy in the Federal Register. See... preliminary results of this review within the original time frame because it needs to obtain additional...

  9. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  10. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  11. Internal friction in martensitic carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, J.J.; Ghilarducci, A.A.; Salva, H.R.; Chaves, C.A.; Velez, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes relationships between the internal friction and the microstructure of two steels containing 0.626 and 0.71 wt.% carbon. The steels were annealed at 1093 K for 5 min, quenched into water and tempered for 10 min at 423, 573 and 723 K. Internal friction was measured by using a forced vibration pendulum, in a temperature range from 100 to 450 K. The internal friction spectrum is decomposed into four peaks: P1 at 215 K, P2 at 235 K, P3 at 260 K and P4 at 380 K for 3 Hz. Peak P1 is attributed to the interactions between dislocations and carbon atoms. Peak P2 is related to the interaction between dislocations and carbide. Peak P3 is related to the generations of kink - pairs along edge dislocations. Peak P4 is attributed to epsilon carbide precipitation.

  12. CT image reconstruction of steel pipe section from few projections using the method of rotating polar-coordinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Shuaijun; Wu Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    Fast online inspection in steel pipe production is a big challenge. Radiographic CT imaging technology, a high performance non-destructive testing method, is quite appropriate for inspection and quality control of steel pipes. The method of rotating polar-coordinate is used to reconstruct the steel pipe section from few projections with the purpose of inspecting it online. It reduces the projection number needed and the data collection time, and accelerates the reconstruction algorithm and saves the inspection time evidently. The results of simulation experiment and actual experiment indicate that the image quality and reconstruction time of rotating polar-coordinate method meet the requirements of inspecting the steel tube section online basically. The study is of some theoretical significance and the method is expected to be widely used in practice. (authors)

  13. Corrosion control of carbon steel using inhibitor of banana peel extract in acid diluted solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komalasari; Utami, S. P.; Fermi, M. I.; Aziz, Y.; Irianti, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Issues of corrosion happened in pipes, it was used as fluid transportation in the chemical industry. Corrosion cannot be preventing, however it could be controlled or blocked. Inhibitor addition is one of the method to control the corrosion inside the pipe. Corrosion inhibitors consisted of inorganic and organic compound inhibitors. Organic inhibitor is composed from synthetic and natural material. This study focused to evaluate the inhibition’s efficiency from banana peel to carbon steel in different concentration of inhibitor and immersing time in acid solution variation. The research employed inhibitor concentration of 0 gram/liter, 2 gram/liter, 4 gram/liter and 6 gram/liter, immersed time of carbon steel for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours. It was immersed in chloride acid solution of 0.5 M and 1.5 M. Carbon Steel AISI 4041 was used as specimen steel. Results were analyzed using corrosion rate evaluation for each specimens and inhibitor efficiencies determination. It was found that the specimen without inhibitor yielded fast corrosion rate in long immersing time and high concentration of HCl. However, the specimens with inhibitor gave lowest corrosion rate which was 78.59% for 6 gram/litre and 10 hours in 0.5 M HCl.

  14. An appraisal of procedures used to give the criterion for instability of a through-wall circumferential crack in a stainless steel piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1989-01-01

    Against the background of the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking of 304 stainless steel in Boiling Water Reactor piping systems, this paper presents a critical appraisal of procedures that are currently used to give the criterion for instability of a through-wall circumferential crack in a stainless steel piping system. Particular attention is focussed on a simple procedure developed by Cotter, Chang and Zahoor, which has been applied to specific piping systems, the objective being to underpin its viability. The considerations are applicable to not only Boiling Water Reactor piping systems, but to other piping systems where pipe failure due to circumferential cracking is a potential problem. (author)

  15. Study on corrosion of carbon steel in DEA aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun Han; Xie, Jia Lin; Zhang, Li

    2018-02-01

    Corrosion of carbon steel in the CO2 capture process using diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solutions was investigated. The effects of the mass concentrations of DEA, solution temperature and CO2 loading on the corrosion rate of carbon steel were demonstrated. The experimental results provided comprehensive information on the appropriate concentration range of DEA aqueous solutions under which low corrosion of carbon steel can be achieved.

  16. Preparation and characterization of 304 stainless steel/Q235 carbon steel composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenning; Feng, Lajun; Feng, Hui; Cao, Ying; Liu, Lei; Cao, Mo; Ge, Yanfeng

    The composite material of 304 stainless steel reinforced Q235 carbon steel has been prepared by modified hot-rolling process. The resulted material was characterized by scanning electron microscope, three-electrode method, fault current impact method, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that metallurgical bond between the stainless steel layer and carbon steel substrate has been formed. The composite material exhibited good electrical conductivity and thermal stability. The average grounding resistance of the composite material was about 13/20 of dip galvanized steel. There has no surface crack and bubbling formed after fault current impact. The composite material led to a significant decrease in the corrosion current density in soil solution, compared with that of hot dip galvanized steel and bare carbon steel. On the basis polarization curve and EIS analyses, it can be concluded that the composite material showed improved anti-corrosion property than hot-dip galvanized steel.

  17. Passivation condition of carbon steel in bentonite/sand mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Kawakami, Susumu

    2002-03-01

    It is essential to understand the corrosion type of carbon steel under the repository conditions for the lifetime assessment of carbon steel overpack used for geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste. According to the previous study, carbon steel is hard to passivate in buffer material assuming a chemical condition range of groundwater in Japan. However, concrete support will be constructed around the overpack in the case of repository in the soft rock system and groundwater having a higher pH may infiltrate to buffer material. There is a possibility that the corrosion type of carbon steel will be influenced by the rise of the pH in groundwater. In this study, anodic polarization experiments were performed to understand the passivation condition of carbon steel in buffer material saturated with water contacted with concrete. An ordinary concrete an a low-alkalinity concrete were used in the experiment. The results of the experiments showed that the carbon steel can passivate under the condition that water having pH > 13 infiltrate to the buffer material assuming present property of buffer material. If the low-alkalinity concrete is selected as the support material, passivation can not occur on carbon steel overpack. The effect of the factors of buffer material such as dry density and mixing ratio of sand on the passivation of carbon steel was also studied. The results of the study showed that the present property of buffer material is enough to prevent passivation of carbon steel. (author)

  18. Pile load test on large diameter steel pipe piles in Timan-Pechora, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, S. [Golder Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tart, B. [Golder Associates Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Swartz, R. [Paragon Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pile load testing conducted in May and June of 1993 at the Polar Lights Ardalin project in Arkangelsk province, Russia, was documented. Pile load testing was conducted to determine the ultimate and allowable pile loads for varying pile lengths and ground temperature conditions and to provide creep test data for deformation under constant load. The piles consisted of 20 inch diameter steel pipe piles driven open ended through prebored holes into the permafrost soils. Ultimate pile capacities, adfreeze bond, and creep properties observed were discussed. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Effect of prestrain on ductility and toughness in high strength line pipe steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Y.; Besson, J. [Paristech, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris; Madi, Y. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs, Sceaux (France). Ermess EPF; Paristech, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris

    2009-07-01

    The anisotropic plasticity, ductility and toughness of an X100 steel pipeline was investigated both before and after a series of prestraining experiments. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of prestraining on ductility and toughness in high strength pipe steels. Results of the study showed that primary void growth and coalescence was dependent on initial plastic anisotropy and not dependent on tensile prestrain. Secondary void nucleation and growth was not influenced by either the initial plastic anisotropy or by prestraining. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the main damage mechanism was the void growth of primary dimples. Dimples in the prestrained materials were larger than those observed in materials that had not been prestrained. However, the effect on prestrain on dimple size was limited. Results showed both plastic and rupture anisotropies. It was concluded that prestraining induces a decrease in ductility, but has a significant impact on toughness. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  20. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  1. [Effect of chloramines disinfection for biofilm formation control on copper and stainless steel pipe materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yong-ji; Li, Xing; Li, Gui-bai

    2008-12-01

    Two rotating annular bioreactors (RABs) with copper and stainless steel pipe materials were adopted in the study, the effects of these two pipe materials and chloramines disinfection on biofilms formation in drinking water distribution system were evaluated. The maximum viable bacterial number in biofilm of copper and stainless steel reached 5.5 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 2.5 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 at 18th and 21st day without chloramines, and the viable bacterial number at the apparent steady state was 1.0 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 1.3 x 10(5) CFU/cm2 respectively. It was obvious that the biomass on copper materials was lower than that of the stainless steel. The maximum viable bacterial on copper and stainless steel under chloramines was 5.0 x 10(2) CFU/cm2 and 5.0 x 10(4) CFU/cm2, which was one order of magnitude lower than that of without chloramines, and its number was 10 CFU/cm2 and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU/cm2 at the steady state. These results illustrated that chloramines had apparent ability in controlling biomass when the biofilm was on steady states, especially for copper material. There was exponential relationship between biomass in biofilm and residue chloramines, which meant less biomass with more chloramines, synergistic effects were observed between chloramines and copper materials on biomass in biofilms inactivation.

  2. Fatigue damage evaluation of stainless steel pipes in nuclear power plants using positron annihilation lineshape analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuhiro [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Nakamura, Noriko; Yusa, Satoru [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Since positron annihilation lineshape analysis can evaluate the degree of fatigue damage by detecting defects such as dislocations in metals, we applied this method to evaluate that in a type 316 stainless steel pipe which was used in the primary system of a nuclear power plant. Using {sup 68}Ge as a positron source, an energy spread of annihilation gamma ray peak from the material was measured and expressed as the S-parameter. Actual plant material cut from a surge line pipe of a pressurizer in a pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant was measured by positron annihilation lineshape analysis and the S-parameter was obtained. Comparing the S-parameter with a relationship between the S-parameter and fatigue life ratio of the type 316 stainless steel, we evaluated the degree of fatigue damage of the actual material. Furthermore, to verify the evaluation, microstructures of the actual material were investigated with TEM (transmission electron microscope) to observe dislocation densities. As a result, a change in the S-parameter of the actual material from standard as-received material (type 316 stainless steel) was in the range from -0.0013 to 0.0014, while variations in the S-parameter of the standard as-received material were about {+-}0.002, and hence the differences between the actual material and the as-received material were negligible. Moreover, the dislocation density of the actual plant material observed with TEM was almost the same as that of the as-received one. In conclusion, we could confirm the applicability of the positron annihilation lineshape analysis to fatigue damage evaluation of stainless steel. (author)

  3. Plastic fracture mechanics prediction of fracture instability in a circumferentially cracked pipe in bending--2. Experimental verification on a Type 304 stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of a pipe fracture emanating from a stress corrosion crack in the heat-affected zones of girth-welds in Type 304 stainless steel pipes was investigated. The J-resistance curve--tearing modulus parameter for the prediction of crack initiation, stable growth and fracture instability--was employed. In the actual experiment, the onset of fracture instability occurred beyond maximum load at an average stable crack growth of 16 to 19 mm (0.63 to 0.75-in.) at each tip. 6 refs

  4. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF THE HIGH-SPEED THERMAL PROCESSING REGIMES ON STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PIPE STEEL 32G2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Gordienko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on influence of high-speed heating temperature, regimes of cooling and temperature of abatement on structure and mechanical properties of pipe steel 32G2 are carried out. Recommendations on the regimes of high-speed thermal processing of steel 32G2 which can be used at manufacturing of seamless pipes are given.

  5. Development of the ultrasonic technique for examination of centrifugally-cast stainless steel in pressure piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurenka, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Centrifugally - cast stainless steel (CCSS) are used to manufacture a large variety of components in the nuclear industry. Weldments are also made to join these parts to carbon steel items. These welds are usually made of stainless steel or inconel alloys. CCSS is sophisticated material and justification for its use in critical components is safety and reliability. These steels, as any other materials, need to be inspected to assess their structural integrity. Ultrasonic testing is one of the possible techniques. In some cases it is the only one of the feasible methods for this examination. This mainly concerns components in the primary and auxiliary circuits of nuclear plants. For a long time it has been recognized that CCSS items can be extremely difficult to inspect using ultrasonics. Many attempts in various research laboratories were conducted to improve the testing technique

  6. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless steel pipes under dynamic loading. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models.

  7. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless steel pipes under dynamic loading. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models

  8. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless-steel pipes under dynamic loading. Final report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models.

  9. Mitigation of inside surface residual stress of type 304 stainless steel pipe welds by inside water cooling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, R.

    1980-01-01

    The weld residual stress distributions, macro- and microstructures of heat affected zone and IGSCC susceptibility of Type 304 stainless steel pipe welds by natural and inside water cooling methods have been investigated. The residual stresses of pipe welds by the natural cooling method are high tensile on both the inside and the outside surface. While the residual stresses on the inside surface of pipe welds by the inside water cooling method are compressive in both axial and circumferential directions for each pipe size from 2 to 24 inch diameter. The sensitized zones of welds by the inside water cooling method are closer to the fusion line, much narrower and milder than those by the natural cooling method. According to the constant extension rate test results for specimens taken from the inside surface of pipe welds, the inside water cooled welds are more resistant to IGSCC than naturally cooled ones

  10. The residual stress distribution in welded pipe inner surface of stainless steel from the nuclear power plant in Ringhals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.E.

    1984-06-01

    The axial residual stress distribution on the inner surface of welded pipes of stainless steel SS 2333 (AISI 304) have been measured using the X-ray diffraction technique. Four halves of two pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm and wall thickness of 10 mm were investigated. The result on the pipe inner surface shows compressive stresses in the weld metal and tensile stresses within a region between 8-23 mm with a maximum of 180MPa at a distance of 17 mm from the weld centerline. The maximum axial and circumferential residual stresses on the pipe outer surface are of the magnitude of 100 MPa. By cutting the pipes into two halves these stresses are relaxed by about 35 MPa. (author)

  11. The Study on Environmental Fatigue Behavior of Low Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Pipes Using the Simplified Plant Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, One; Song, M. S.; Kim, I. Y.; Park, S. H.; Lee, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear components categorized as ASME Code Class 1 shall be evaluated for the fatigue and satisfy the fatigue acceptance criteria, CUF(cumulative usage factor) < 1 in accordance with ASME Code. However, recent studies have shown the fatigue evaluation procedure may not give conservative results when the components operate in the water environment. NRC issued Regulatory Guide 1.207 which enforces the new fatigue evaluation method or Fen(environmental fatigue correction factor) method to nuclear plants to be newly constructed. This paper describes the characteristics of the behavior of low alloy and austenitic stainless steel straight pipe related to environmental fatigue, which are obtained by using the method suggested by Regulatory Guide 1.207 and simplified plant transients

  12. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of nuclear reactor pressure vessel and piping steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speidel, M.O.; Magdowski, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive investigation of stress corrosion cracking of nuclear reactor pressure vessel and piping steels exposed to hot water. Experimental fracture mechanics results are compared with data from the literature and other laboratories. Thus a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge concerning stress corrosion crack growth rates is provided. Several sets of data confirm that 'fast' stress corrosion cracks with growth rates between 10 -8 and 10 -7 m/s and threshold stress intensities around 20 MN m -3/2 can occur under certain conditions. However, it appears possible that specific environmental, mechanical and metallurgical conditions which may prevail in reactors can result in significantly lower stress corrosion crack growth rates. The presently known stress corrosion crack growth rate versus stress intensity curves are discussed with emphasis on their usefulness in establishing safety margins against stress corrosion cracking of components in service. Further substantial research efforts would be helpful to provide a data base which permits well founded predictions as to how stress corrosion cracking in pressure vessels and piping can be reliably excluded or tolerated. It is emphasized, however, that the nucleation of stress corrosion cracks (as opposed to their growth) is difficult and may contribute substantially to the stress corrosion free service behaviour of the overwhelming majority of pressure vessels and pipes. (author)

  14. Round robin analysis on stress intensity factor of inner surface cracks in welded stainless steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Gi; Chang, Yoon Suk [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Maan Won [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs) were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  15. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania: Preliminary Results of..., line and pressure pipe (small diameter seamless pipe) from Romania. The period of review (POR) is... and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe from Romania,'' dated concurrently with this...

  16. Mechanistic studies of carbon steel corrosion inhibition by cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenoxide, R-Ar-O- ions from the CNSL inhibitor were found to be responsible for the reduction of the corrosion rate of the carbon steel. Also, it was observed that the surface charge of the carbon steel electrodes was positive with respect to the solutions containing CNSL inhibitor. It is likely that the mechanism of the ...

  17. Numerical simulation of micro-crack occurring in pipe made of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzka, Daria

    2017-10-01

    Research works carried out regard to studies aiming at determination of the effect of cumulative duty operation on the development of micro-cracks in pipelines for transport of chemical substances. This paper presents results of computer simulations of a pipeline made of stainless steel. The model was investigated using the COMSOL Multiphysics environment. The object under study was divided into sub areas and then discretized according to the FEM method. The physico-chemical parameters of individual areas were defined based on measurement data. The main aim of research works was the modeling of acoustic emission wave, which is emitted in the vicinity of the tip of micro-crack as a result of its development. In order to solve the task, heterogeneity in the structure of the material, referred to damage/micro-crack, causing local stresses was assumed. The local stresses give rise to elastic waves, which propagate in the material in all directions. When the emission waves reach the boundaries of the pipe they are then transferred into acoustic waves and propagate in the surround air, until their natural attenuation. The numerical model takes into account the effect of high pressure (3.6 MPa) and negative temperature (-100°C) of the gas, transported inside the pipe. The influence of changes of these values in the range of ± 20% on the obtained results was investigated. The main contribution of the works is the multiphysical simulation model of transportation pipe made of steel, coupling structural mechanics, thermal conductivity and acoustic waves.

  18. Numerical simulation of micro-crack occurring in pipe made of stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotzka Daria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research works carried out regard to studies aiming at determination of the effect of cumulative duty operation on the development of micro-cracks in pipelines for transport of chemical substances. This paper presents results of computer simulations of a pipeline made of stainless steel. The model was investigated using the COMSOL Multiphysics environment. The object under study was divided into sub areas and then discretized according to the FEM method. The physico-chemical parameters of individual areas were defined based on measurement data. The main aim of research works was the modeling of acoustic emission wave, which is emitted in the vicinity of the tip of micro-crack as a result of its development. In order to solve the task, heterogeneity in the structure of the material, referred to damage/micro-crack, causing local stresses was assumed. The local stresses give rise to elastic waves, which propagate in the material in all directions. When the emission waves reach the boundaries of the pipe they are then transferred into acoustic waves and propagate in the surround air, until their natural attenuation. The numerical model takes into account the effect of high pressure (3.6 MPa and negative temperature (-100̊C of the gas, transported inside the pipe. The influence of changes of these values in the range of ± 20% on the obtained results was investigated. The main contribution of the works is the multiphysical simulation model of transportation pipe made of steel, coupling structural mechanics, thermal conductivity and acoustic waves.

  19. Effect of Pipe Flattening in API X65 Linepipe Steels Having Bainite vs. Ferrite/Pearlite Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singon Kang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of microstructure on pipe flattening response was assessed using two different commercially produced U-ing, O-ing, and expansion (UOE pipes from API X65 steels having either a bainitic microstructure (steel B or a ferrite/pearlite microstructure (steel FP. A four-point bending apparatus and distinctive procedure were used to minimize strain localization during flattening. The flattened specimens were sectioned at different positions through the thickness, and tensile tested in both the longitudinal (LD and transverse directions (TD to assess the through-thickness variation in properties. Yield strength (YS distributions in the LD show V-shaped profiles through thickness in both steels, whereas the YS in the TD nearest the outside diameter (OD surface is reduced. These variations in YS are due to the Bauschinger effect associated with the compressive flattening pre-strain. The uniform elongation (UE of steel FP is almost independent of specimen position through the thickness, but for steel B there is a substantial reduction of the UE at both the inside and outside diameter positions and this reduction is greater in the LD. This work confirms that flattened pipe mechanical properties exhibit an important dependence on their microstructure type and it is postulated that the flattening procedure also influences the mechanical properties.

  20. Carbon steel protection in G.S. [Girldler sulphide] plants: Pt. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, Osvaldo; Delfino, Cristina; Rojo, Enrique.

    1990-01-01

    In order to protect carbon steel of towers and piping of a GS experimental heavy water plant against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide, a method, elsewhere published, was developed. Carbon steel exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulphide forms iron sulphide scales. In oxygen free solutions, evolution of corrosion follows the sequence mackinawate → cubic ferrous sulphide → troilite → pyrrotite → pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite and pyrite are the most protective layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2 MPa for a period of 14 days). Pyrite formation is favoured by an oxidizing agent presence that allows the oxidation of sulphur ions to disulphur ions. Elemental sulphur or oxygen were used as oxidating agents. Variation and operational parameters such as concentration, temperature, pH, aggregate time, etc. were studied. Though little improvement on protective scales quality was observed, results do not justify operational troubles and the additional costs and effort involved. (Author)

  1. Oxidation Behavior of Carbon Steel: Effect of Formation Temperature and pH of the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Vivekanand; Kain, Vivekanand

    2017-11-01

    The nature of surface oxide formed on carbon steel piping used in nuclear power plants affects flow-accelerated corrosion. In this investigation, carbon steel specimens were oxidized in an autoclave using demineralized water at various temperatures (150-300 °C) and at pH levels (neutral, 9.5). At low temperatures ( 240 °C) as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance measurement followed by Mott-Schottky analysis indicated an increase in defect density with exposure duration at 150 °C at neutral pH but a low and stable defect density in alkaline environment. The defect density of the oxide formed at neutral pH at 150-300 °C was always higher than that formed in alkaline environment as reported in the literature.

  2. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania: Final Results of Antidumping... alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. The period of review is August 1, 2010..., line and pressure pipe from Romania. See Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard...

  3. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania: Final Results of Antidumping... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. For the final results we... pressure pipe from Romania.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on the Preliminary Results. We...

  4. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J H; Caleyo, F; Hallen, J M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  5. Recent studies on the welding of austenitic stainless steel piping for BWR service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in stainless steel piping in BWR power plants has led to the development of various countermeasures. Replacement of the susceptible Type 304 stainless steel with Type 316 nuclear grade stainless steel has been done by a number of plants. In order to minimize radiation exposure to welding personnel, automatic GTA welding has been used wherever possible when we make the field welds. Studies have shown that the residual stresses in the welded butt joints are affected by the welding process, weld joint design and welding procedures. A new weld joint design has been developed which minimizes the volume of deposited metal while providing adequate access for welding. It also minimizes axial and radial shrinkage and the resulting residual stresses. Other countermeasures, which have been used, include stress modifications such as induction heating stress improvement (IHSI) and last pass heat sink welding (LPHSW). It has been shown that these remedies must be process adjusted to account for the welding process employed. In some cases where UT cracking indication have been detected or where through wall cracking has occurred, weld surfacing has been used to extend life. A further approach to preventing IGSCC in the weld HAZ has been through improvement of the water chemistry by injecting hydrogen to reduce the oxygen level and by keeping the impurity level low

  6. An automated repair method of water pipe infrastructure using carbon fiber bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzkey, Sean; Carr, Heath; Fyfe, Ed

    2011-04-01

    The United States water pipe infrastructure is made up of over 2 million miles of pipe. Due to age and deterioration, a large portion of this pipe is in need of repair to prevent catastrophic failures. Current repair methods generally involve intrusive techniques that can be time consuming and costly, but also can cause major societal impacts. A new automated repair method incorporating innovative carbon fiber technology is in development. This automated method would eliminate the need for trenching and would vastly cut time and labor costs, providing a much more economical pipe repair solution.

  7. Preparation and characterization of 304 stainless steel/Q235 carbon steel composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenning Shen

    Full Text Available The composite material of 304 stainless steel reinforced Q235 carbon steel has been prepared by modified hot-rolling process. The resulted material was characterized by scanning electron microscope, three-electrode method, fault current impact method, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that metallurgical bond between the stainless steel layer and carbon steel substrate has been formed. The composite material exhibited good electrical conductivity and thermal stability. The average grounding resistance of the composite material was about 13/20 of dip galvanized steel. There has no surface crack and bubbling formed after fault current impact. The composite material led to a significant decrease in the corrosion current density in soil solution, compared with that of hot dip galvanized steel and bare carbon steel. On the basis polarization curve and EIS analyses, it can be concluded that the composite material showed improved anti-corrosion property than hot-dip galvanized steel. Keywords: Stainless steel, Carbon steel, Anti-corrosion, Conductivity, Electrochemical, EIS

  8. 75 FR 20342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... covered in this review, but was covered in a previous review or the original less-than-fair-value (LTFV... investigation. See Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Non- Alloy Steel Pipe... for framing and support members for reconstruction or load-bearing purposes in the construction...

  9. 76 FR 78614 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-810, A-583-815] Welded ASTM A-312... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea (Korea... December 30, 1992, the Department published the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless...

  10. 77 FR 18266 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-865-867 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. DATES: Effective Date: March...

  11. Characterization of bond line discontinuities in a high-Mn TWIP steel pipe welded by HF-ERW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gitae; Kim, Bongyoon; Kang, Yongjoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heewoong [RD Team, Husteel, 131 Bugokgongdan-ro, Songak-eup, Dangjin-si, Chungnam 31721 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changhee, E-mail: chlee@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the microstructure and defects in a high-frequency electrical resistance welded (HF-ERW) pipe of high-Mn twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel were characterized. The microstructure of the base metal and the bond line were examined using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The features of the bond line were similar to those of conventional steel. Simultaneously, the circumferential ductility was evaluated via a flaring test. It was concluded that the deterioration of the circumferential ductility in a high-Mn TWIP steel pipe was caused by irregular shaped oxide defects and a penetrator that had been formed during welding. Specifically, the penetrator, which is composed of MnO and Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, was found to be the most influential on the circumferential ductility of the welded pipe. The penetrator was analyzed using both an electron probe micro analyzer and transmission electron microscopy, and the formation sequence of the penetrator was evaluated. - Highlights: •This study focused on applying the HF-ERW process to the seam welding of expandable pipe using TWIP steels. •For improvement of the circumferential ductility, deterioration factors were characterized. •Penetrator which would mainly deteriorate the circumferential ductility consisted of round MnO and Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. •Metallurgical evidence of existing theory regarding the mechanism of defect formation during the HF-ERW was characterized.

  12. 78 FR 34342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Mexico, and Venezuela and... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (reseller policy). This clarification... antidumping duties in accordance with the reseller policy. Cash Deposit Requirements The following cash...

  13. 76 FR 49437 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Mexico, and Venezuela and Amendment... 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). Because ``as entered'' liquidation instructions do not... assessment'' regulation on May 6, 2003. See Assessment Policy Notice. This clarification will apply to POR...

  14. Basic studies on carbon steel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavarotti, M.; Rizzi, R.; Ronchetti, C.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolution of magnetite films grown in autoclave at high temperature on carbon steel has been performed in a dynamic loop in ammoniated citric and oxalic acid solutions at two different temperatures and constant pH. The dissolution process seems to be affected by the dual-layer oxide morphology depending on the growth conditions in the autoclave. The open-circuit potential of the specimens and the corrosion rate measured by the linear polarization method have been monitored. To this aim a particular corrosion cell and a suitable reference electrode have been set up at CISE. Polarization curves have been performed to check the electrochemical processes involved in the anodic and cathodic area. At last the effect of a corrosion inhibitor, of a complexing and a reducing agent and of temperature has also been studied. The work was carried out in the frame of a CNEN research programme for the development of the CIRENE prototype

  15. Failure pressure of straight pipe with wall thinning under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Suzuki, Tomohisa; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The failure pressure of pipe with wall thinning was investigated by using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses (FEA). With careful modeling of the pipe and flaw geometry in addition to a proper stress-strain relation of the material, FEA could estimate the precise burst pressure obtained by the tests. FEA was conducted by assuming three kinds of materials: line pipe steel, carbon steel, and stainless steel. The failure pressure obtained using line pipe steel was the lowest under the same flaw size condition, when the failure pressure was normalized by the value of unflawed pipe defined using the flow stress. On the other hand, when the failure pressure was normalized by the results of FEA obtained for unflawed pipe under various flaw and pipe configurations, the failure pressures of carbon steel and line pipe steel were almost the same and lower than that of stainless steel. This suggests that the existing assessment criteria developed for line pipe steel can be applied to make a conservative assessment of carbon steel and stainless steel

  16. An assessment of composite repair system in offshore platform for corroded circumferential welds in super duplex steel pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Barros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a composite repair system in severely corroded circumferential welds in super duplex stainless steel pipes as a preventive measure against the premature corrosion damage at the welds. Artificial defects were fabricated on the super duplex steel tube in order to reproduce the localized corrosion damage defects found in real welded joints. Three kinds of through thickness defects were considered: 25%, 50% and 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. The performance of the repaired pipe was assessed by hydrostatic tests as per ISO 24817 standard. The results showed that the composite repair system can sustain the designed failure pressure even for the pipe damaged with through-wall defect up to 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. Hence, the composite repair system can be used as a preliminary tool to protect the unexpected or premature failure at the welds and maintain an adequate level of mechanical strength for a given operating pressure. This composite repair system can assure that the pipe will not leak until a planned maintenance of the line. Nevertheless, further work is still desirable to improve the confidence in the long-term performance of bonded composite

  17. Medium carbon vanadium micro alloyed steels for drop forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1992-01-01

    Growing competitiveness of alternative manufacturing routes requires cost minimization in the production of drop forged components. The authors analyse the potential of medium carbon, vanadium microalloyed steels for drop forging. Laboratory and industrial experiments have been carried out emphasizing deformation and temperature cycles, strain rates and dwell times showing a typical processing path, associated mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures. The steels the required levels of mechanical properties on cooling after forging, eliminating subsequent heat treatment. The machinability of V-microalloyed steels is also improved when compared with plain medium carbon steels. (author)

  18. Residual-stresses in austenitic stainless-steel primary coolant pipes and welds of pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, F.; Leggatt, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Surface and through thickness residual stress measurements were performed on an aged cast austenitic-ferritic stainless steel pipe and on an orbital TIG weld representative of those of primary coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors. An abrasive-jet hole drilling method and a block removal and layering method were used. Surface stresses and through thickness stress profiles are strongly dependent upon heat treatments, machining and welding operations. In the aged cast stainless steel pipe, stresses ranged between -250 and +175 MPa. On and near the orbital TIG weld, the outside surface of the weld was in tension both in the axial and hoop directions, with maximum values reaching 420 MPa in the weld. On the inside surface, the hoop stresses were compressive, reaching -300 MPa. However, the stresses in the axial direction at the root of the weld were tensile within 4 mm depth from the inside surface, locally reaching 280 MPa. (author)

  19. Effect of vacuum arc melting/casting parameters on shrinkage cavity/piping of austenitic stainless steel ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, J.; Feroz, M.; Sarwar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Shrinkage cavity/piping at the end of the solidified ingot of steels is one of the most common casting problem in 316L austenitic stainless steel ingot, when consumable electrode is melted and cast in a water-cooled copper mould by vacuum arc re-melting furnace. In present study an effort has been made to reduce the size of shrinkage cavity/ piping by establishing the optimum value of hot topping process parameters at the end of the melting process. It is concluded that the shrinkage cavity/piping at the top of the solidified ingot can be reduced to minimum by adjusting the process parameters particularly the melting current density. (author)

  20. Application of Leak Before Break concept in 316LN austenitic steel pipes welded using 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunto, Gabriel Giannini de

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a study of application of the Leak Before Break (LBB) concept, usually applied in nuclear power plants, in a pipe made from steel AISI type 316LN welded a coated electrode AISI type 316L. LBB concept is a criterion based on fracture mechanics analysis to show that a crack leak, present in a pipe, can be detected by leak detection systems, before this crack reaches a critical size that results in pipe fail. In the studied pipe, tensile tests and Ramberg-Osgood analyses were performed, as well as fracture toughness tests for obtaining the material resistance curve J-R. The tests were performed considering the base metal, weld and heat affected zone (HAZ), at the same operating temperatures of a nuclear power plant. For the mechanical properties found in these tests, load limit analyses were performed in order to determine the size of a crack which could cause a detectable leakage and the critical crack size, considering failure by plastic collapse. For the critical crack size found in the weld, which is the region that presented the lowest toughness, Integral J and tearing modulus T analyses were performed, considering failure by tearing instability. Results show a well-defined behavior between the base metal, HAZ and weld zones, where the base metal has a high toughness behavior, the weld has a low toughness behavior and the HAZ showed intermediate mechanical properties between the base metal and the weld. Using the PICEP software, the leak rate curves versus crack size and also the critical crack size were determined by considering load limit analysis. It was observed that after a certain crack size, the leak rate in base metal is much higher than for the HAZ and the weld, considering the same crack length. This occurs because in the base metal crack, it is expected that the crack grows in a more rounded form due to its higher toughness. The lowest critical crack size was found for the base metal presenting circumferential cracks. For the

  1. Stress corrosion evaluation on stainless steel 304 pipes in Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Inside the frame of the project IAEA/MEX-41044 'Stress corrosion as a starting event of accidents in nuclear plants', and of the institutional project IA-252 under the same name, it was required from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Plant, material equivalent to the one employed in the piping of the primary recycling system. Laguna Verde Nuclear Plant granted two tracks of tubes, that could be used to substitute the ones that are in operation, as is the tube SA-358TP304 CL-QC with transversal welding, designated as ER-316-LQA. According to the report entitles 'Revision of the operational experience related to corrosion in the nuclear plants' it was found that the stress corrosion is the principal mechanism of corrosion present in the nuclear plants. Previous records indicate that sensitized stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion in testings of constant loading in sea water (3.5% of chlorides approximately) to 80 Centigrade and to 80% of the limit of conveyance and that a solution of 22% of NaCl to 90 Centigrade, produces cracking due to stress corrosion in highly sensitized steels, in tests of speed of slow extension (SSRT), to a speed of 1x10 -6 s -1 . Daniels reports that there is a direct relation between the speed limit of detection of the SSRT test and the concentration of chlorides, for stainless steels tested to 100 Centigrade. The minimum detection speed of susceptibility to stress corrosion for solution to 20% of NaCl, is of 1x10 -7 s -1 . Taking into account these considerations, the employment of a solution with 22% of NaCl to 90 Centigrade to a speed of 1x10 -6 s -1 seems a good choice for the evaluation of stainless steel. (Author)

  2. Study on the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded steel pipes under bending load using diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Nico; Nitschke-Pagel, Thomas; Dilger, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This research is dedicated to the experimental investigation of the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded pipes due to quasi-static bending loads. Ferritic-pearlitic steel pipes are welded with two passes, resulting in a characteristic residual stress state with high tensile residual stresses at the weld root. Also, four-point bending is applied to generate axial load stress causing changes in the residual stress state. These are determined both on the outer and inner surfaces of the pipes, as well as in the pipe wall, using X-ray and neutron diffraction. Focusing on the effect of tensile load stress, it is revealed that not only the tensile residual stresses are reduced due to exceeding the yield stress, but also the compressive residual stresses for equilibrium reasons. Furthermore, residual stress relaxation occurs both parallel and perpendicular to the applied load stress.

  3. Applications of the essay at slow deformation velocity in pipes of stainless steel AISI-304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora R, L.; Mora R, T. De la

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays is carried out research related with the degradation mechanisms of structures, systems and/or components in the nuclear power plants, since many of the involved processes are those responsible for the dependability of these, of the integrity of the components and of the aspects of safety. The purpose of this work, was to determine the grade of susceptibility to the corrosion of a pipe of Austenitic stainless steel AISI 304, in a solution of Na CI (3.5%) to the temperatures of 60 and 90 C, in two different thermal treatments - 1. - Sensitive 650 C by 4 hours and cooled in water. 2. Solubilized to 1050 C by 1 hour and cooled in water

  4. Random cyclic constitutive models of 0Cr18Ni10Ti pipe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Yang Bing

    2004-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the random cyclic constitutive relations of a new pipe stainless steel, 0Cr18Ni10Ti, by an incremental strain-controlled fatigue test. In the test, it is verified that the random cyclic constitutive relations, like the wide recognized random cyclic strain-life relations, is an intrinsic fatigue phenomenon of engineering materials. Extrapolating the previous work by Zhao et al, probability-based constitutive models are constructed, respectively, on the bases of Ramberg-Osgood equation and its modified form. Scattering regularity and amount of the test data are taken into account. The models consist of the survival probability-strain-life curves, the confidence strain-life curves, and the survival probability-confidence-strain-life curves. Availability and feasibility of the models have been indicated by analysis of the present test data

  5. Novel manufacturing method by using stainless steel pipes expanded into aluminium profiles for the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dremel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dremel@iter.org; Boissin, Jean-Claude; Déléage, Vincent; Quinn, Eamonn; Pearce, Robert

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes the novel engineering and manufacturing solution of stainless steel pipe expansion into aluminium extrusion profiles for use at cryogenic temperatures up to 400 K. This fabrication method will be used for the thermal radiation shields and the cryopanels of the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps. The use of stainless steel pipes expanded into aluminium extrusion profiles is a solution that combines standard stainless steel welding procedures for the manifolds of the cooling circuits with extended aluminium structures taking advantage of the high thermal conductivity of aluminium. The cryogenic cooling circuits of the pump are a first confinement barrier in the ITER vacuum vessel and the risk of a leakage needs to be minimized as far as possible. The expansion method avoids the need of joints of dissimilar materials in the primary confinement barrier. The fabrication method and results of the prototyping of full scaled components for the ITER Neutral Beam cryopumps are outlined in this paper.

  6. Mixed structures in continuously cooled low-carbon automotive steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, F.A.; Edmonds, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed microstructures have been studied in low- carbon microalloyed steels suitable for automotive applications, after continuous cooling from the hot-rolled condition. Microstructural features such as polygonal ferrite, bainitic and acicular ferrite and microphase constituent are identified using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of these mixed structures on the tensile strength, impact toughness and fracture behaviour is examined. It is found that improvements in impact toughness as compared with microalloyed medium- carbon ferrite/pearlite steels can be achieved from these predominantly acicular structures developed by controlling alloy composition and continuous cooling of these lower carbon steels. (orig.)

  7. A fatigue initiation parameter for gas pipe steel submitted to hydrogen absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelle, J; Gilgert, J; Pluvinage, G [LaBPS - Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz et Universite Paul Verlaine Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France)

    2010-01-15

    Fatigue initiation resistance has been determined on API 5L X52 gas pipe steel. Tests have been performed on Roman Tile (RT) specimen and fatigue initiation was detected by acoustic emission. A comparison between specimens electrolytically charged with hydrogen and specimens without hydrogen absorption were made and it has been noted that fatigue initiation time is reduced of about 3 times when hydrogen embrittlement occurs. It has been proposed to use the concept of Notch Stress Intensity Factor as parameter to describe the fatigue initiation process. Due to the fact that hydrogen is localised in area with high hydrostatic pressure, definitions of local effective stress and distance have been modified when hydrogen is absorbed. This modification can be explained by existence of a ductile-brittle transition with hydrogen concentration. The fatigue initiation resistance curve allows that to determine a threshold for large number of cycles of fatigue non initiation. This parameter introduced in a Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) provides supplementary information about defect nocivity in gas pipes: a non-critical defect can be detected as dormant or not dormant defect i.e., as non propagating defect. (author)

  8. Experimental analysis of austenitic stainless steel straight pipes and elbows under pressure and moment loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrou, A.; Prost, J.P.; Delidais, M.

    1983-08-01

    In order to avoid undesirable plastic response in PWR primary system components, tests were performed on 1/10 scale pipes and elbows made from AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. L/D ratios were from 0.56 to 4.50 mm, arc angles of elbows were 30 0 , 45 0 , 60 0 and 90 0 . Pipes were subjected to bending moments at 3 internal pressure levels. They were tested to determine the mode of failure and served as a reference for elbows. Elbows were subjected to in-plane (closing and opening) and out-of-plane bending moments, at 3 pressure and 2 temperature levels. During these tests, loadings and displacements of components were monitored. Ovalisation of sections was measured regularly. The experimental plastic collapse moment corresponding to excessive deformation was compared to the maximum allowable moment under Design conditions. The experimental plastic instability moment considered as a limit for functional capability was compared to the maximum allowable moment for level C and D service limits

  9. Analysis of noncoplanar pressurized laminations in X2 steel pipes by non-linear finite element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla (Mexico). Dept. de Posgrado; Gonzalez, Jorge L.; Hallen, Jose M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking is of great interest in the mechanical integrity assessment of sour gas pipelines. Multiple stepwise cracks with internal pressure called laminations are often observed in pipelines and their interaction and coalescence may significantly affect the residual strength of the pipes. In this work, the interacting fields of non coplanar pressurized laminations in the wall of a pipe under pressure are analyzed by non-lineal finite element, considering an isotropic hardening law and the real tensile properties of the X52 steel. The results are presented as the evolution of the stress fields in the interlaminar region as a function of the pressure inside the laminations. It is found that for two approaching stepwise laminations the critical pressure follows a hyperbolic type law, thus the effect of the lamination length is principal for greater lengths and for shorter lengths the effect is minimum. The critical pressure is defined as pressure inside the lamination that causes plastification of the interlaminar region. (author)

  10. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  11. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camariñas, Galicia in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy.La investigación fundamental en corrosión atmosférica marina de aceros al carbono es un campo científico relativamente joven que presenta grandes lagunas de conocimiento. La formación de akaganeíta en los productos de corrosión que se forman sobre el acero cuando se expone a atmósferas marinas conduce a un incremento notable de la velocidad de corrosión. En el trabajo se abordan las siguientes cuestiones: (a condiciones ambientales necesarias para la formación de akaganeíta, (b caracterización de la akaganeíta en los productos de corrosión formados, (c mecanismos de corrosión del acero al carbono en atmósferas marinas, (d exfoliación de las capas de herrumbre formadas en atmósferas marinas muy agresivas, (e predicción de la velocidad de corrosión a largo plazo, y (f comportamiento de aceros patinables. La

  12. Medium carbon vanadium steels for closed die forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1993-01-01

    This work analyses the medium carbon micro alloyed vanadium potential for closed die forged production. The steels reach the mechanical resistance requests during cooling after forging, eliminating the subsequent thermal treatment. Those steels also present good fatigue resistance and machinability. The industrial scale experiments are also reported

  13. Corrosion resistance of ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) seam welds as compared to metal base in API 5L steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velasquez, Jorge L.; Godinez Salcedo, Jesus G.; Lopez Fajardo, Pedro [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE). Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of ERW seam welds and the base metal in API 5L X70 steel pipes was evaluated by Tafel tests. The procedure was according to ASTM G3 standard. The study was completed with metallographic and chemical characterization of the tested zones, that is, the welded zone and the base metal away of the weld. All tests were made on the internal surface of the pipe in order to assess the internal corrosion of an in-service pipeline made of the API 5L X70 steel. The test solution was acid brine prepared according to NACE Publications 1D182 and 1D196. The results showed that the ERW seam weld corrodes as much as three times faster than the base material. This behavior is attributed to a more heterogeneous microstructure with higher internal energy in the ERW seam weld zone, as compared to the base metal, which is basically a ferrite pearlite microstructure in a normalized condition. This result also indicates that pipeline segments made of ERW steel pipe where the seam weld is located near or at the bottom of the pipe are prone to a highly localized attack that may form channels of metal loss if there is water accumulation at the bottom of the pipeline. (author)

  14. Surface melting technique of small diameter stainless steel pipe by means of yttrium aluminium garnet laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katahira, Fujito; Hirano, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuribayashi, Munetaka; Umemoto, Tadahiro

    1994-01-01

    A new method of surface melting by using a high power yttrium aluminium garnet laser was developed. This method is applicable to a long distance and narrow space, because of the good accessibility of the laser beam through optical fibre.A desensitization of sensitized type 304 stainless steel pipe was demonstrated by using this technique. A melted layer of thickness approximately 200μm had a very finite solidification structure, which contained approximately 1.5% δ-ferrite. The average chemical composition of this layer was almost the same as that of type 304 stainless steel, and a band of 300μm thickness under the melted layer underwent solution heat treatment (SHT).As a result of such surface melting, the melted layer exhibited superior resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Since the SHT layer is highly resistant to IGSCC generally, it may be possible to improve the IGSCC resistance of base metal to a comparatively deep extent (500μm from the surface) by this technique. ((orig.))

  15. Surface melting technique of small diameter stainless steel pipe by means of yttrium aluminium garnet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Fujito (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Hirano, Kenji (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Tanaka, Yasuhiro (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Yoshida, Kazuo (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Kuribayashi, Munetaka (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan)); Umemoto, Tadahiro (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakahara-Cho, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235 (Japan))

    1994-12-01

    A new method of surface melting by using a high power yttrium aluminium garnet laser was developed. This method is applicable to a long distance and narrow space, because of the good accessibility of the laser beam through optical fibre.A desensitization of sensitized type 304 stainless steel pipe was demonstrated by using this technique. A melted layer of thickness approximately 200[mu]m had a very finite solidification structure, which contained approximately 1.5% [delta]-ferrite. The average chemical composition of this layer was almost the same as that of type 304 stainless steel, and a band of 300[mu]m thickness under the melted layer underwent solution heat treatment (SHT).As a result of such surface melting, the melted layer exhibited superior resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Since the SHT layer is highly resistant to IGSCC generally, it may be possible to improve the IGSCC resistance of base metal to a comparatively deep extent (500[mu]m from the surface) by this technique. ((orig.))

  16. corrosion response of low carbon steel in tropical road mud

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Corrosion Mitigation efforts using readily available anti- corrosion coatings to protect low carbon steel test coupons against the ... The following protective coating devices were effective: ..... 2 West, J.M (1986): Basic Corrosion and Oxidation,.

  17. An Evaluation of Carbon Steel Corrosion Under Stagnant Seawater Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion, of 1020 carbon steel coupons in, natural seawater over a six-month period was more aggressive under stagnant anaerobic conditions than stagnant aerobic conditions as measured by weight loss...

  18. Specification for carbon and low alloy steel containment structures for stationary nuclear power reactors. [Now obsolescent (by Amendment No. 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-01

    This British Standard covers the design, construction, inspection and testing of steel reactor containment structures made of carbon and low alloy steel for temperatures not exceeding 300 deg C. Such structures are not in contact with the reactor coolant during normal operation. Pressure-relieved structures are not excluded, provided they are of a form that contains the fission products or ensures their safe disposal. Attachments such as air-locks or piping that is or may become directly connected between the interior of the containment structure and a closure, and may therefore contain radioactive material released during accidents, is considered part of the containment structure.

  19. Sensitivity of the magnetization curves of different austenitic stainless tube and pipe steels to mechanical fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niffenegger, M.; Leber, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    In meta-stable austenitic stainless steels, fatigue is accompanied by a partial strain-induced transformation of paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite [G.B. Olsen, M. Cohen, Kinetics of strain induced martensite nucleation, Metall. Trans. 6 (1975) 791-795]. The associated changes of magnetic properties as the eddy current impedance, magnetic permeability or the remanence field may serve as an indication for the degree of fatigue and therefore the remaining lifetime of a component, even though the exact causal relationship between martensite formation and fatigue is not fully understood. However, measuring these properties by magnetic methods may be limited by the low affinity for strain-induced martensite formation. Thus other methods have to be found which are able to detect very small changes of ferromagnetic contents. With this aim the influence of cyclic strain loading on the magnetization curves of the austenitic stainless tube and pipe steels TP 321, 347, 304L and 316L is analysed in the present paper. The measured characteristic magnetic properties, which are the saturation magnetization, residual magnetization, coercive field and the field dependent permeability (AC-magnetization), are sensitive to fatigue and the corresponding material changes (martensitic transformation). In particular, the AC-magnetization was found to be very sensitive to small changes of the amount of strain induced martensite and therefore also to the degree of fatigue. Hence we conclude that applying magnetic minor loops are promising for the non-destructive evaluation of fatigue in austenitic stainless steel, even if a very small amount of strain induced martensite is formed

  20. Electrochemical performances of diamond-like carbon coatings on carbon steel, stainless steel, and brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadinata, Samuel-Sudibyo; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Pan, Szu-Jung; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Tai, Chen-Yi; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto stainless steel, carbon steel and brass by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Atomic arrangement, chemical structure, surface morphology and cross-section microstructure of the DLC coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the DLC coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by performing an open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and a potentiodynamic polarization test. The experimental results showed that properly deposited DLC coatings could cause an increase of OCP by hundreds of millivolts and a reduction of anodic current density by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of the substrate. The results also demonstrated that electrochemical techniques could be used as tools to detect the soundness of the DLC coating by examining OCP and polarization curve, which varied with the form of defect and depended on the type of substrate. - Highlights: ► The substrate could affect the quality of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. ► Defect-free DLC coating exhibited extremely low anodic current density. ► The quality of DLC coating on metal could be evaluated by electrochemical test

  1. Electrochemical performances of diamond-like carbon coatings on carbon steel, stainless steel, and brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadinata, Samuel-Sudibyo; Lee, Ming-Tsung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Pan, Szu-Jung [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Wen-Ta, E-mail: wttsai@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tai, Chen-Yi [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto stainless steel, carbon steel and brass by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Atomic arrangement, chemical structure, surface morphology and cross-section microstructure of the DLC coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the DLC coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by performing an open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and a potentiodynamic polarization test. The experimental results showed that properly deposited DLC coatings could cause an increase of OCP by hundreds of millivolts and a reduction of anodic current density by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of the substrate. The results also demonstrated that electrochemical techniques could be used as tools to detect the soundness of the DLC coating by examining OCP and polarization curve, which varied with the form of defect and depended on the type of substrate. - Highlights: ► The substrate could affect the quality of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. ► Defect-free DLC coating exhibited extremely low anodic current density. ► The quality of DLC coating on metal could be evaluated by electrochemical test.

  2. An experience with in-service fabrication and inspection of austenitic stainless steel piping in high temperature sodium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@igcar.gov.in; Laha, K.; Sakthy, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Procedure for changing 304L SS pipe to 316L SS in sodium loop has been established. • Hot leg made of 304L SS was isolated from existing cold leg made of 316LN SS. • Innovative welding was used in joining the new 316L SS pipe with existing 316LN SS. • The old components of 304L SS piping have been integrated with the new piping. - Abstract: A creep testing facility along with dynamic sodium loop was installed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India to assess the creep behavior of fast reactor structural materials in flowing sodium. Type 304L austenitic stainless steel was used in the low cross section piping of hot-leg whereas 316LN austenitic stainless steel in the high cross section cold-leg of the sodium loop. The intended service life of the sodium loop was 10 years. The loop has performed successfully in the stipulated time period. To enhance its life time, it has been decided to replace the 304L piping with 316L piping in the hot-leg. There were more than 300 welding joints involved in the integration of cold-leg with the new 316L hot-leg. Continuous argon gas flow was maintained in the loop during welding to avoid contamination of sodium residue with air. Several innovative welding procedures have been adopted for joining the new hot-leg with the existing cold-leg in the presence of sodium residue adopting TIG welding technique. The joints were inspected for 100% X-ray radiography and qualified by performing tensile tests. The components used in the discarded hot-leg were retrieved, cleaned and integrated in the renovated loop. A method of cleaning component of sodium residue has been established. This paper highlights the in-service fabrication and inspection of the renovation.

  3. Use of Neuber's rule to estimate the fatigue life of notched specimens of ASME SA 106-B steel piping in 2880C air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fatigue strain-life tests were conducted on notched specimens of ADMESA 106-B piping steel at PWR operating temperatures (288 0 C (550 0 F)), under completely reversed loading. Fatigue limits at 10 7 cycles were estimated for smooth specimens to be 185 M Pa (26.8 ksi) at 24 0 C and 232 MPa (33.7 ksi) at 288 0 C. The higher fatigue strength observed at the PWR temperature is postulated to be caused by dynamic strain aging processes. However, a reduction in fatigue strength in the low cycle fatigue regime was observed in 288 0 C air environment tests, which may indicate that the current ASME Section III design curve for carbon steels is nonconservative in its positioning. Notch strain histories were estimated for the notched specimen tests using various interpretations of Neuber's rule. It was concluded that the use of the fatigue notch concentration factor (K f ) in the Neuber relation in conjunction with the uniaxial cyclic stress-strain curve provided the best correlation of notched specimen fatigue data with results obtained from smooth specimen tests. The notched specimen strain-life results derived from the application of Neuber's rule alone proved to be conservative when compared with smooth specimen test results to such an extent that Neuber-generated notch stresses and strain amplitudes cannot accurately be compared with the mean data curves derived from the ASME Section III fatigue curves for carbon steels which are based on net section stress measurements. (author)

  4. Iron cycling at corroding carbon steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Ray, Richard I.; Little, Brenda J.; Emerson, David

    2013-01-01

    Surfaces of carbon steel (CS) exposed to mixed cultures of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in seawater media under aerobic conditions were rougher than surfaces of CS exposed to pure cultures of either type of microorganism. The roughened surface, demonstrated by profilometry, is an indication of loss of metal from the surface. In the presence of CS, aerobically grown FeOB produced tight, twisted helical stalks encrusted with iron oxides. When CS was exposed anaerobically in the presence of FeRB, some surface oxides were removed. However, when the same FeOB and FeRB were grown together in an aerobic medium, FeOB stalks were less encrusted with iron oxides and appeared less tightly coiled. These observations suggest that iron oxides on the stalks were reduced and solubilized by the FeRB. Roughened surfaces of CS and denuded stalks were replicated with three culture combinations of different species of FeOB and FeRB under three experimental conditions. Measurements of electrochemical polarization resistance established different rates of corrosion of CS in aerobic and anaerobic media, but could not differentiate rate differences between sterile controls and inoculated exposures for a given bulk concentration of dissolved oxygen. Similarly, total iron in the electrolyte could not be used to differentiate treatments. The experiments demonstrate the potential for iron cycling (oxidation and reduction) on corroding CS in aerobic seawater media. PMID:24093730

  5. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Muhammad; Soedardjo, B.; Arhatari, Dewi; Andryansyah; Haryanto, Mudi; Triyadi, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  6. Characterization of D2 tool steel friction surfaced coatings over low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharbabu, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Rao, K. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid state coating by friction surfacing method. • D2 tool steel is coated over relatively softer low carbon steel. • Defect free interface between tool steel coating and low carbon steel substrate. • D2 coatings exhibited higher hardness and good wear resistance. • Highly refined martensitic microstructure in the coating. - Abstract: In this work D2 tool steel coating is produced over a low carbon steel substrate using friction surfacing process. The process parameters are optimized to get a defect free coating. Microstructural characterization is carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Infrared thermography is used to measure the thermal profile during friction surfacing of D2 steel. Wear performance of the coating is studied using Pin-on-Disk wear tests. A lower rotational speed of the consumable rod and higher translational speed of the substrate is found to result in thinner coatings. Friction surfaced D2 steel coating showed fine-grained martensitic microstructure compared to the as-received consumable rod which showed predominantly ferrite microstructure. Refinement of carbides in the coating is observed due to the stirring action of the process. The infrared thermography studies showed the peak temperature attained by the D2 coating to be about 1200 °C. The combined effect of martensitic microstructure and refined carbides resulted in higher hardness and wear resistance of the coating

  7. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingo, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping

  8. Drop Weight Impact Behavior of Al-Si-Cu Alloy Foam-Filled Thin-Walled Steel Pipe Fabricated by Friction Stir Back Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Yukiko; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Al-Si-Cu alloy ADC12 foam-filled thin-walled stainless steel pipes, which exhibit metal bonding between the ADC12 foam and steel pipe, were fabricated by friction stir back extrusion. Drop weight impact tests were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and mechanical properties of the foam-filled pipes during dynamic compression tests, which were compared with the results of static compression tests. From x-ray computed tomography observation, it was confirmed that the fabricated foam-filled pipes had almost uniform porosity and pore size distributions. It was found that no scattering of the fragments of collapsed ADC12 foam occurred for the foam-filled pipes owing to the existence of the pipe surrounding the ADC12 foam. Preventing the scattering of the ADC12 foam decreases the drop in stress during dynamic compression tests and therefore improves the energy absorption properties of the foam.

  9. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    corrosion rates, when biofilm and corrosion products cover the steel surface. However, EIS might be used for detection of MIC. EN is a suitable technique to characterise the type of corrosion attack, but is unsuitable for corrosion rate estimation. The concentric electrodes galvanic probe arrangement......Abstract Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC...... of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic...

  10. Archaeologic analogues: Microstructural changes by natural ageing in carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Esther Bravo; Fernandez, Jorge Chamon; Arasanz, Javier Guzman; Peces, Raquel Arevalo; Criado, Antonio Javier; Dietz, Christian; Martinez, Juan Antonio; Criado Portal, Antonio Jose

    2006-01-01

    When discussing the container material for highly active radionuclear waste, carbon steel is one of the materials most frequently proposed by the international scientific community. Evidently, security with respect to the container behaviour into deep geological deposits is fundamental. Among other parameters, knowledge about material mechanical properties is essential when designing the container. Time ageing of carbon steel, apart from possible alterations of the chemical composition (e.g. corrosion) involves important microstructural changes, at the scale of centuries and millenniums. The latter may cause variations of the mechanical properties of carbon steel storage containers, with the corresponding risk of possible leakage. In order to properly estimate such risk and to adjust the corresponding mathematical models to reality, the microstructural changes observed in this study on archaeologic samples are evaluated, comparing ancient and modern steels of similar chemical composition and fabrication processes

  11. Method of vertically and horizontally cutting steel pipe piles and removing them based on the development of a steel pipe pile vertically cutting machine; Kokanko tatehoko setsudanki no kaihatsu ni yoru kochi chubu no juo setsudan tekkyo koho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-07-25

    A machine for vertically cutting steel pipe piles has newly been developed for the purpose of removing the end portions the shore protection steel pipe piles which interfere with the shield tunneling work in the Ohokagawa River tunneling section on the Minato Mirai 21 Line. This paper reports the development of the machine for vertically cutting steel pipe piles, and a method of cutting the shield tunneling work hindering piles under the ground by using this machine. The obstacle-constituting portions of the piles are removed by destroying the copings, excavating the interior of the piles to make the same hollow so that a cutting machine can be inserted, and cutting the piles vertically and horizontally. The basic structure of the cutting machine comprises a lower cutting unit for making forward and backward and upward and downward movements of a cutter, and an upper movable unit for controlling the rotation of the cutting unit. The cutting of a pile is done by projecting the cutter by a cylinder the base of which is joined to a cutter driver, and then moving the rotating cutter upward. The amounts of movements of these parts are detected by sensors, and an arbitrary range of the underground portion of a pile can be cut by a remote control operation. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien; Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Parkinson, Dula; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Bjegović, Dubravka; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The morphology of the corrosion of steel in cement paste was studied in situ. • During galvanostatic corrosion, carbon steel reinforcement corroded homogeneously. • On ferritic stainless steel, deep corrosion pits formed and caused wider cracks. • The measured rate of steel loss correlated well with Faraday’s law of electrolysis. - Abstract: In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover

  13. Local microstructures, Hardness and mechanical properties of a stainless steel pipe-welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxiang; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carefully performed into the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties of the three zones (the base metal, heat affecting zone and weld metal) of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-welded joint. The local microstructures are observed by a metallurgical test and a surface replica technology, the local hardness values are measures by a random Vickers hardness test, and the local mechanical properties are characterized by the Ramberg-Osgood and modified Ramberg-Osgood stress-stain relations. The investigation reveals that there are significant differences of the three zones in the local microstructures, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the three zones in the local microstructure, hardness values and monotonic mechanical properties, especially of the weld metal. The weld metal exhibits the largest heterogeneity of local microstructures and monotonic mechanical properties, and the largest scatter of local hardness values. It is necessary to consider these difference and introduce the reliability method to model the scatter in the pipe analysis. In addition, it is verified that a columnar grain structure, which is made up of matrix-rich δ ferrite bands, can characterize the weld metal and the distance between the neighboring rich δ ferrite bands is an appropriate measurement of the columnar grain structure. This measurement is in accordance with the transition point between the microstructural short crack and physical small crack stages, which are generally used for characterizing the short fatigue crack behavior of materials. This indicates that the microstructure controls the fatigue damage character of the present material

  14. Influence of structure on static cracking resistance and fracture of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, N. A.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The static cracking resistance of a number of welded joints made from pipe steels of K60 strength class has been determined. It has been established that the deformation parameter CTOD varies significantly at identical parameters of weldability of steels. The character of fracture has been investigated and the zone of local brittleness of welded joints has been studied. It has been shown that the ability of a metal to resist cracking is determined by the austenite grain size and by the bainite morphology in the region of overheating in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint.

  15. Damascus steels: history, processing, properties and carbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, a class of steels containing high levels of carbon (∼ 1-2 wt% C) was developed for superplastic characteristics - that is, the ability to plastically deform to an extraordinary degree in tension at intermediate temperatures. Because these steels also had excellent room temperature properties, they were developed for their commercial potential. In the late 1970s, we became aware of the striking compositional similarities between these modern steels and the ancient steels of Damascus. This observation led us to revisit the history and metallurgy of Damascus steels and related steels. The legends and origins of Damascus steel date back to the time of Alexander the Great (323 BC) and the medieval Crusades (11th and 12th century AD), and this material has also been the subject of scrutiny by famous scientist in Europe, including Michael Faraday. Modern attempts to reproduce the legendary surface patterns which famously characterized Damascus steels are described. The extend to which the characteristics of Damascus steels are unusual is discussed. Finally, a program on radiocarbon dating was initiated to directly determine the age of about 50 ancient steels, including a Damascus knife, and the results are summarized. (author)

  16. The influence of repeated loading on work of the steel fiber concrete drainage trays and pipes on the roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriichuk Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The drainage system is one of the components of the road design. The condition of the subgrade and pavement depends on its effectiveness. The main structural elements of the drainage system on the roads are gutters and pipes. They are made of concrete or reinforced concrete. Under the influence of climatic factors and fluctuations of the vibration caused by the vehicles movement on the surface, it occurs destruction: formation of cracks, potholes, husking of concrete, destruction of protective layer of concrete, etc. It should be noted that these structures perceive the dynamic and thermal effects. The low fracture materials toughness poses the issue of searching ways of its increase. One solution of this problem is the use of dispersion-reinforced concrete gutters and pipes. The article presents the results of research strength, crack resistance and deformability of gutters and pipes using steel fiber reinforced concrete under the action of repeated loads

  17. Corrosion of carbon steel in contact with bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, D.; Vokal, A.; Bruha, P.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Carbon steel canisters were chosen in a number of disposal concepts as reference material for disposal canisters. The corrosion rates of carbon steels in water solution both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions are well known, but only scarce data are available for corrosion behaviour of carbon steels in contact with bentonite. A special apparatus, which enables to measure corrosion rate of carbon steels under conditions simulating conditions in a repository, namely in contact with bentonite under high pressure and elevated temperatures was therefore prepared to study: - Corrosion rate of carbon steels in direct contact with bentonite in comparison with corrosion rate of carbon steels in synthetic bentonite pore water. - Influence of corrosion products on bentonite. The apparatus is composed of corrosion chamber containing a carbon steel disc in direct contact with compacted bentonite. Synthetic granitic water is above compacted bentonite under high pressure (50 - 100 bar) to simulate hydrostatic pressure in a repository. The experiments can be carried out under various temperatures. Bentonites used for experiments were Na-type of bentonite Volclay KWK 80 - 20 and Ca-Mg Czech bentonite from deposit Rokle. Before adding water into corrosion system the corrosion chamber was purged by nitrogen gas. The saturation of bentonite and corrosion rate were monitored by measuring consumption of water, pressure increase caused by swelling pressure of bentonite and by generation of hydrogen. Corrosion rate was also determined after corrosion experiments from weight loss of samples. The results of experiments show that the corrosion behaviour of carbon steels in contact with bentonite is very different from corrosion of carbon steels in water simulating bentonite pore water solution. The corrosion rates of carbon steel in contact with bentonite reached after 30 days of corrosion the values approaching 40 mm/yr contrary to values

  18. The corrosion and protection of less carbon containing steel in subsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimov, A. M; Mamedyarova, I. F; Selimkhanova, G. G; Bskhishova, D. A; Ibragimova, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The protection and corrosion resistance of steel in subsoil waters of Baku subway were investigated. Kinetic curves were drawn. The results obtained from the experiment coincide with calculated results. There have been revealed and proposed hudron and fuel oil mixture protecting steel from corrosion in subsoil waters (97.8%) for the internal surface of steel pipes

  19. Crack Resistance of Welded Joints of Pipe Steels of Strength Class K60 of Different Alloying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The crack resistance of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60 and different alloying systems is studied. The parameter of the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) is shown to be dependent on the size of the austenite grains and on the morphology of bainite in the superheated region of the heat-affected zone of the weld. The crack resistance is shown to be controllable due to optimization of the alloying system.

  20. Super-Hydrophobic Green Corrosion Inhibitor On Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H.; Ismail, A.; Ahmad, S.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-06-01

    There are many examples of organic coatings used for corrosion protection. In particular, hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic coatings are shown to give good protection because of their enhanced ability to slow down transport of water and ions through the coating. The purpose of this research is to develop water repellent coating to avoid direct contact between metal and environment corrosive and mitigate corrosion attack at pipeline system. This water repellent characteristic on super-hydrophobic coating was coated by electrodeposition method. Wettability of carbon steel with super-hydrophobic coating (cerium chloride and myristic acid) and oxidized surface was investigated through contact angle and inhibitor performance test. The inhibitor performance was studied in 25% tannin acid corrosion test at 30°C and 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl). The water contact angle test was determined by placing a 4-μL water droplet of distilled water. It shows that the wettability of contact angle super-hydrophobic with an angle of 151.60° at zero minute can be classified as super-hydrophobic characteristic. By added tannin acid as inhibitor the corrosion protection on carbon steel becomes more consistent. This reveals that the ability of the coating to withstand with the corrosion attack in the seawater at different period of immersions. The results elucidate that the weight loss increased as the time of exposure increased. However, the corrosion rates for uncoated carbon steel is high compared to coated carbon steel. As a conclusion, from both samples it can be seen that the coated carbon steel has less corrosion rated compared to uncoated carbon steel and addition of inhibitor to the seawater provides more protection to resist corrosion attack on carbon steel.

  1. intercritical heat treatments effects on low carbon steels quenched

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR B. A. EZEKOYE

    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 2. E-mail: benjamin.ezekoye@unn.edu.ng; bezekoye@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. Six low carbon steels containing carbon in the range 0.13-0.18wt%C were studied after intercritical quenching, intercritical quenching with low temperature tempering, ...

  2. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Iron sulfide scales formation on surfaces covered by fabrication produced films. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    This work describes the assays aimed to passivate the steel carbon of the process pipings. This steel is marked by the ASTM A 333 G6 and is chemically similar to those of isotopic exchange towers which corrode in contact with in-water hydrogen sulfide solutions forming iron sulfide protective layers. The differences between both materials lie in the surface characteristics to be passivated. The steel of towers has an internal side covered by paint which shall be removed prior to passivation. The steel's internal side shall be covered by a film formed during the fabrication process and constituted by calcinated wastes and iron oxides (magnetite, hematite and wustite). This film interferes in the formation process of passivating layers of pyrrhotite and pyrite. The possibility to passivate the pipes in their actual state was evaluated since it would result highly laborious and expensive to eliminate the film. (Author) [es

  3. Ultra low carbon bainitic (ULCB) steels after quenching and tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.; Kolan, C.; Jeziorski, L.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical and Charpy V impact strength properties of new advanced ultra low carbon bainitic (ULBC) steels after water quenching and tempering (WQT) have been investigated. Their chemical compositions are given. The nine continuous cooling transformation diagrams (CCT) of the new ULCB steel grades have been established. The CCT diagrams for ULCB N i steels containing 9% Ni - grade 10N9 and 5% Ni - grade HN5MVNb are given. The comparison between CCT diagrams of 3.5%Ni + 1.5%Cu containing steels grade HSLA 100 and HN3MCu is shown. The effect of the increase in carbon and titanium contents in the chemical composition of ULCB M n steels 04G3Ti, 06G3Ti and 09G3Ti on the kinetics of phase transformations during continuous cooling is presented by the shifting CCT diagrams. The Charpy V impact strength and brittle fracture occurence curves are shown. The effect of tempering temperature on tensile properties of WQT HN3MCu steel is shown and Charpy V impact strength curves after different tempering conditions are shown. The optimum tempering temperatures region of HN3MCu steel for high Charpy V impact toughness at law temperatures - 80 o C(193 K) and -120 o C(153 K) is estimated. The effect of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of HN5MVNb steel is given. The low temperature impact Charpy V toughness of HN5MVNb steel is shown. The optimum range of tempering temperature during 1 hour for high toughness of WQT HN5MVNb steel is given. HN3MCu and HN5MVNb steels after WQT have high yield strength YS≥690 MPa and high Charpy V impact toughness KV≥80 J at -100 o C (173K) and KCV≥50 J/cm 2 at - 120 o C (153K) so they may be used for cryogenic applications

  4. Application of laser cladding method to small-diameter stainless steel pipes in actual nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atago, Y.; Yamadera, M.; Tsuji, H.; Shiraiwa, T.; Kanno, M.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, to prevent stress corrosion cracking (SCC) the material of stainless steel (Type 304), a laser cladding method which produces a highly corrosion-resisting coating (cladding) to be formed on the surface of the material was developed. This is applicable to a long distance and narrow space, because of the good accessibility of the YAG (Yttrium-Aluminum Garnet) laser beam that can be transmitted through an optical fiber. In this method, a paste mixed metallic powder and heating resistive organic solvent is firstly placed on the inner surface of a small pipe and then a YAG laser beam transmitted through an optical fiber is irradiated to the paste, which will be melted and formed a clad subsequently, which is excellent in corrosion resistance. Finally, it can be achieved further resistance against the SCC due to the clad layer formed thus on the surface of the material. Recently, this Laser Cladding method was practically and successfully applied to the actual BWR Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. This report introduces the laser cladding technique, the equipments developed for practical application in the field

  5. Analysis of heat transfer in plain carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Heung Nam; Lee, Kyung Jong

    1999-01-01

    During cooling of steels, the heat transfer was controlled by radiation, convection, conduction and heat evolution from phase transformation. To analyze the heat transfer during cooling precisely, the material constants such as density, heat capacity and the heat evolved during transformation were obtained as functions of temperature and chemical composition for each phase observed in plain carbon steel using a thermodynamic analysis based on the sublattice model of Fe-C-Mn system. The results were applied to 0.049 wt% and 0.155 wt% carbon steels with an austenitic stainless steel as reference by developing a proper heat transfer governing equation. The equation was solved using the lumped system method. In addition, using a transformation dilatometer with adequate experimental conditions to clarify the individual heat transfer effect, the transformation heat evolved during cooling and the transformation behavior as well as the temperature change were observed. The predicted temperature profiles during cooling were well agreed with the measured ones

  6. Using of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Based Nanofluid in the Heat Pipe to Get Better Thermal Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bakhshan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal performance of a cylindrical heat pipe is investigated numerically. Three different types of water based nanofluids, namely, Al2O3 + Water, Diamond + Water, and Multi-Wall Carbon Nano tube (MWCNT + Water, have been used. The influence of using the simple nanofluids and MWCNT nanofluid on the heat pipe characteristics such as liquid velocity, pressure profile, temperature profile, thermal resistance, and heat transfer coefficient of heat pipe has been studied. A new correlation developed by Bakhshan and Saljooghi (2014 for viscosity of nanofluids has been implemented. The results show, a good agreement with the available analytical and experimental data. Also the results show, that the MWCNT based nanofluid has lower thermal resistance, higher heat transfer coefficient, and lower temperature difference between evaporator and condenser sections, so it has good thermal specifications as a working fluid for use in heat pipes. The prepared code has capability for parametric studies also.

  7. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-485-805] Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania: Extension of Time Limit for... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania for the period August 1...

  8. Friction Welding of Titanium and Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi, HASUI; Yoichi, KIRA; Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University; Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd.

    1985-01-01

    Titanium-steel is a combination of dissimilar materials, which are difficult to weld in general, owing to inevitable formation of brittle intermetallic compounds. A prominent feature of friction welding process is ability to weld dissimilar materials in many kinds of combinations. This report deals with friction weldabilily of pure titanium and S25C steel, which are 12 mm in diameter. Main results are summarized as follows; (1) Suitable welding conditions to obtain a sound weld, which has a j...

  9. The anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naish, C.C.; Balkwill, P.H.; O'Brien, T.M.; Taylor, K.J.; Marsh, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This is the final report of a 2 year programme aimed at (1) determining the rate of anaerobic corrosion of steel in concrete, (2) investigating the nature of the corrosion products formed on carbon steel embedded in cementitious material under anaerobic conditions and (3) evaluating the effect of hydrogen over-pressures on the rate of anaerobic corrosion. All experiments have been carried out at temperatures in the range 20-30 0 C, ie ambient conditions. 4 refs.; 19 figs.; 6 tabs

  10. ESTIMATION OF IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGEABILITY AT FATIGUE OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Damageability estimation of carbon steel in the conditions of cyclic loading. Methodology. The steel fragments of railway wheel rim and rail head served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65 % С, 0.67 % Mn, 0.3 % Si, 0.027 % P, 0.028 % S и 0.7 % C, 0.82 % Mn, 0.56 % Si, 0.025 % P, 0.029 % S accordingly. The microstructure of tested steels corresponded to the state of metal after a hot plastic deformation. The fatigue research was conducted in the conditions of symmetric bend using the proof-of-concept machine of type «Saturn-10». Full Wohler diagrams and the lines corresponding to forming of sub-and micro cracks were constructed. The distribution analysis of internal stresses in the metal under cyclic loading was carried out using the microhardness tester of PMT-3 type.Findings. On the basis of fatigue curves for high-carbon steels analysis the positions of borders dividing the areas of convertible and irreversible damages were determined. The article shows that with the growth of carbon concentration in the steel at invariability of the structural state an increase of fatigue limit is observed. At the same time the acceleration of processes, which determine transition terms from the stage of forming of submicrocracks to the microcracks occurs. The research of microhardness distribution in the metal after destruction confirmed the nature of carbon amount influence on the carbon steel characteristics. Originality. Regardless on the stages of breakdown site forming the carbon steels behavior at a fatigue is determined by the ration between the processes of strengthening and softening. At a cyclic loading the heterogeneity of internal stresses distribution decreases with the increase of distance from the destruction surface. Analysis of metal internal restructuring processes at fatigue loading made it possible to determine that at the stages prior to incubation period in the metal microvolumes the cells are already

  11. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien; Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Parkinson, Dula; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Bjegović, Dubravka; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien

    2014-06-01

    In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A simple computational method for predicting magnetic field in the vicinity of a three-phase underground cable with a fluid-filled steel-pipe enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.B.; Yang, X.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a simple computational method for predicting the magnetic field above ground, generated by an underground three-phase pipe-type cable. In the computation, an approximation is made to simplify the problem a Fourier series technique and an iterative procedure are employed to handle the nonlinear B-H characteristic of the steel pipe. To validate the computational method, measurements were made and the numerical results are compared with the measurement data. Also, data of magnetic fields generated by the pipe type cable are compared with those due to the cable in absence of the pipe. The advantages and disadvantages of this simple method are discussed

  14. Content of nitrogen in waste petroleum carbon for steel industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.O; Jimenez, A.F; Szieber, C.W; Banchik, A.D

    2004-01-01

    Steel industries use refined carbon as an alloy for steel production. This alloy is produced from waste carbon from the distillation of the petroleum. The refined carbon, called recarburizer, is obtained by calcination at high temperature. Under these thermal conditions the organic molecules decompose and a fraction of the N 2 , S and H 2 , volatile material and moisture are released; while the carbon tends to develop a crystalline structure similar to graphite's. The right combination of calcinations temperature and time in the furnace can optimize the quality of the resulting product. The content of S and N 2 has to be minimized for the use of calcined carbon in the steel industry. Nitrogen content should be reduced by two orders of magnitude, from 1% - 2% down to hundreds of ppm by weight. This work describes the activities undertaken to obtain calcined coke from petroleum from crude oil carbon that satisfies the requirements of the Mercosur standard 02:00-169 (Pending) for use as a carborizer in steels industries. To satisfy the requirements of the Mercosur standards NM 236:00 IRAM-IAS-NM so that graphite is used as a carburizer a content of 300 ppm maximum weight of nitrogen has to be obtained. So the first stage in this development is to define a production process for supplying calcined coke in the range of nitrogen concentrations required by the Mercosur standards (CW)

  15. Fatigue behaviour of friction welded medium carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel dissimilar joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paventhan, R.; Lakshminarayanan, P.R.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fusion welding of dissimilar metals is a problem due to difference in properties. → Solid state welding process such as friction welding is a solution for the above problem. → Fatigue life of friction welded carbon steel and stainless steel joints are evaluated. → Effect of notch on the fatigue life of friction welded dissimilar joints is reported. → Formation of intermetallic is responsible for reduction in fatigue life of dissimilar joints. -- Abstract: This paper reports the fatigue behaviour of friction welded medium carbon steel-austenitic stainless steel (MCS-ASS) dissimilar joints. Commercial grade medium carbon steel rods of 12 mm diameter and AISI 304 grade austenitic stainless steel rods of 12 mm diameter were used to fabricate the joints. A constant speed, continuous drive friction welding machine was used to fabricate the joints. Fatigue life of the joints was evaluated conducting the experiments using rotary bending fatigue testing machine (R = -1). Applied stress vs. number of cycles to failure (S-N) curve was plotted for unnotched and notched specimens. Basquin constants, fatigue strength, fatigue notch factor and notch sensitivity factor were evaluated for the dissimilar joints. Fatigue strength of the joints is correlated with microstructure, microhardness and tensile properties of the joints.

  16. Trial manufacturing of titanium-carbon steel composite overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Takahiko; Tanai, Kenji

    1999-11-01

    This paper reports the results of design analysis and trial manufacturing of full-scale titanium-carbon steel composite overpacks. The overpack is one of the key components of the engineered barrier system, hence, it is necessary to confirm the applicability of current technique in their manufacture. The required thickness was calculated according to mechanical resistance analysis, based on models used in current nuclear facilities. The Adequacy of the calculated dimensions was confirmed by finite-element methods. To investigate the necessity of a radiation shielding function of the overpack, the irradiation from vitrified waste has been calculated. As a result, it was shown that shielding on handling and transport equipment is a more reasonable and practical approach than to increase thickness of overpack to attain a self-shielding capability. After the above investigation, trial manufacturing of full-scale model of titanium-carbon steel composite overpack has been carried out. For corrosion-resistant material, ASTM Grade-2 titanium was selected. The titanium layer was bonded individually to a cylindrical shell and fiat cover plates (top and bottom) made of carbon steel. For the cylindrical shell portion, a cylindrically formed titanium layer was fitted to the inner carbon steel vessel by shrinkage. For the flat cover plates (top and bottom), titanium plate material was coated by explosive bonding. Electron beam welding and gas metal arc welding were combined to weld of the cover plates to the body. No significant failure was evident from inspections of the fabrication process, and the applicability of current technology for manufacturing titanium-carbon steel composite overpack was confirmed. Future research and development items regarding titanium-carbon steel composite overpacks are also discussed. (author)

  17. Electrochemical noise from corroding carbon steel and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.R.; Gaonkar, K.B.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.

    1997-05-01

    Electrochemical noise measurements were conducted on carbon steel and aluminium in sodium chloride solutions. Noise parameters like standard deviation of potential and current, noise resistance, pitting index, noise power were studied for the purpose of measuring corrosion rate. These parameters compared well with the corrosion rate. Pitting index was not very reliable. Current noise was more close to the corrosion rates. General corrosion gave rise to white noise type of power spectrum while flicker noise type of spectrum was obtained from pitting attack. Sodium nitrite is shown to inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel. Aluminium corrodes in the early period of exposure and passivates during long exposure

  18. Strength of low-carbon rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voropaev, V.I.; Filimonov, O.V.; Borisov, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of studying the effect of chemical composition and thermal treatment regimes on the structural strength of steels of the 25KhN3MFA type are presented. It is shown that alloying with niobium from 0.01 to 0.08% steels with the increased nickel content (4.2-4.5%) contributes to the increase of structural strength and reduction of semibrittleness temperature. To obtain high values of strength and plastic properties cooling with the rate of 10 3 -10 5 K/hr is recommended

  19. General and localized corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steels in oxygenated high-temperature water. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Smialowska, S.; Pednekar, S.

    1983-02-01

    The susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of two carbon steels, SA106-grB and SA333-gr6, which are used in seamless BWR piping, and a low-alloy pressure vessel steel, A508-C12, were studied in high purity water as a function of oxygen concentration (0.16 to 8 ppM) and temperature (50 to 288 0 C) . The susceptibility to SCC was measured using the slow strain rate technique. The fracture surfaces of the test specimens were also examined using SEM to determine the mode of failure. In water containing 1 and 8 ppM oxygen and at temperatures above 135 0 C, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) was observed to occur in A508-C12, SA333-gr6 and SA106grB steels at very high stresses. The susceptibility to SCC increased with temperature

  20. The entire mean stress relaxation effects of 0Cr18Ni10Ti piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bing; Zhao Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean stress relaxation effects of the Chinese new piping material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel. Six sets of specimens are respectively fatigued under a strain-controlled mode with the six straining ratios (R ε ) of -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48 by an improved test method implied with an maximum likelihood statistical principle. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and, surprisingly, involves an entire mean stress relaxation. A challenge is then emerging to the traditional same treat of straining ratio and stressing ratio (R σ ) in fatigue analysis and assessment. There is still no effective method to describe this kind of relaxation. However the R ε effects can represent the relaxation effects appropriately by investigation on the material random cyclic stress-strain (σ-ε) relations and strain-life (ε-N) relations with different R ε . The intrinsic randomness of the responses is taken into account on a probabilistic sense. Significant differences are observed of the material cyclic responses under different R ε . For σ-ε relations, the R ε effects act as a decreasing trend to the stress amplitudes with the increasing survival probability and confidence. The strongest effect appears at R ε of 0.029, and a weaker one acts as R ε is far away from zero. For ε-N relations, R ε greater than zero exhibits a positive effect on the fatigue lives of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under a survival probability of 0.999 and a confidence of 95%, while a negative effect is exhibited in case of R ε less than zero. Present work indicates that systematic researches should be made to give a reasonable fatigue prediction in service on a basis of cyclic strain inspection of structures. (authors)

  1. Magnetic property variation in carbon steel and chrome-molybdenum steel as a function of uniaxial stress noncoaxial with the magnetic field (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kaminski, D.A.; Jiles, D.C.; Biner, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Magnescope 1 magnetic measurements were made on carbon steel specimens ranging from 0.1--0.8 wt %C and on chrome-molybdenum steel specimens cut from electric power plant pipes previously in service. The carbon steel specimens were heat-treated using three procedures: (1) spheroidization, (2) quenching, and (3) quench and tempering. The specimens were subjected to uniaxial tension up to 40 ksi. The inspection head was aligned so that the magnetic field was oriented at different angles with respect to the stress axis. Magnetic properties (such as coercivity and maximum differential permeability) were extracted from digitized magnetic hysteresis loop measurements. Magnetic properties were studied as a function of stress at each angle of stress-field orientation. To our knowledge, such a comprehensive study of noncoaxial stress and field effects has never been accomplished before for such a wide variety of steel specimens. Results for the various materials are presented for different orientation angles and compared to numerical results from the noncoaxial magnetomechanical hysteresis model of Sablik et al. 2

  2. Development of seamless forged pipe and fitting for BWR recirculation loop piping with improved resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Keizo; Tsukada, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Iwadate, Tadao; Ono, Shinichi

    1981-01-01

    As a primary remedy for IGSCC of primary loop piping, especially Recirculation Loop Piping of BWR, extra low carbon stainless steel with high nitrogen content has become to be used. While, in order to make In-service Inspection easier and complete, new design of piping which decrease both number and total length of weld line has been considered. Japan Steel Works has developed the research on large size seamless forged pipe and fitting made from high nitrogen extra low carbon 316 stainless steel. This paper describes the key points of manufacturing technology as well as the material properties, especially strength and intergranular-corrosion and intergranular- stress-corrosion-cracking-resistivities of these forged pipe and fitting. (author)

  3. Application of Lab View Software for Thinning Measurement of Steel Pipe Sample by Using Gamma Ray Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibisono; Sugiharto

    2004-01-01

    The computer program, namely scaling pipe has been constructed to support the work of radiation monitoring either utilizing of sealed or unsealed source as well. The paper describes the performance of that computer program which is able to display numerical data coming from rate-meter to become graphical data and its ability to store data in form of software file with text format. The stored file can be performed by other software therefore the data can be calculated and analyzed. This computer program has been applied to measure the thickness of steel pipe with diameter of 3 inch which is machined with the different of 0.1 mm for each 50 mm length of the pipe. In this research the gamma radiation originated from 200 mCi of 241 Am source has been passed through the center of the pipe and the dose rate at the opposite of the source is measured. The attenuation coefficient calculated from that measurement is 0.0944 mm -1 with the deviation factor of 44 cps/mm. (author)

  4. Detection of surface cracking in steel pipes based on vibration data using a multi-class support vector machine classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, S.; Braytee, A.; Ye, L.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we focused at the development and verification of a robust framework for surface crack detection in steel pipes using measured vibration responses; with the presence of multiple progressive damage occurring in different locations within the structure. Feature selection, dimensionality reduction, and multi-class support vector machine were established for this purpose. Nine damage cases, at different locations, orientations and length, were introduced into the pipe structure. The pipe was impacted 300 times using an impact hammer, after each damage case, the vibration data were collected using 3 PZT wafers which were installed on the outer surface of the pipe. At first, damage sensitive features were extracted using the frequency response function approach followed by recursive feature elimination for dimensionality reduction. Then, a multi-class support vector machine learning algorithm was employed to train the data and generate a statistical model. Once the model is established, decision values and distances from the hyper-plane were generated for the new collected data using the trained model. This process was repeated on the data collected from each sensor. Overall, using a single sensor for training and testing led to a very high accuracy reaching 98% in the assessment of the 9 damage cases used in this study.

  5. OF PLAIN CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two steels En 3 and En 39 were given a TiC-TiN. CVD coating in the carburized and uncarburized conditions. The continuity of the coatings and their adherance to the substrate were examined. The thickness of the deposited coatings were also measured, their adherence to the substrate and their thickness was off ected by ...

  6. Influence of Surface Roughness and Agitation on the Morphology of Magnetite Films Electrodeposited on Carbon Steel Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hyeok Jeon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the effects of surface roughness and agitation on the morphology of magnetite films electrodeposited from alkaline Fe(III-triethanolamine (TEA solutions on carbon steel substrates. The surface roughness of the carbon steel substrates was maintained in the range of 1.64–0.06 μm by using mechanical grinding and polishing methods. The agitation speed was set at 0 and 900 rpm during the electrodeposition process. The particle size and surface roughness value of the magnetite films gradually decreased with decreasing substrate roughness. However, the influence of the substrate roughness on the thickness of the magnetite film was negligible. The morphology of the magnetite film fabricated at 900 rpm appeared to be highly faceted compared to that of the magnetite film produced at 0 rpm. The thickness and surface roughness of the magnetite film significantly increased with the agitation speed, which also significantly affected the electrodeposition efficiency. The effects of substrate surface roughness and agitation on the morphology of magnetite films electrodeposited on carbon steel substrates were also discussed. The obtained results provide critical information for the simulation of magnetite deposits on carbon steel pipes in the secondary systems of nuclear power plants.

  7. Surface protection of austenitic steels by carbon nanotube coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLucas, T.; Schütz, S.; Suarez, S.; Mücklich, F.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, surface protection properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) deposited on polished austenitic stainless steel are evaluated. Electrophoretic deposition is used as a coating technique. Contact angle measurements reveal hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic wetting characteristics of the carbon nanotube coating depending on the additive used for the deposition. Tribological properties of carbon nanotube coatings on steel substrate are determined with a ball-on-disc tribometer. Effective lubrication can be achieved by adding magnesium nitrate as an additive due to the formation of a holding layer detaining CNTs in the contact area. Furthermore, wear track analysis reveals minimal wear on the coated substrate as well as carbon residues providing lubrication. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is used to qualitatively analyse the elemental composition of the coating and the underlying substrate. The results explain the observed wetting characteristics of each coating. Finally, merely minimal oxidation is detected on the CNT-coated substrate as opposed to the uncoated sample.

  8. The characteristic investigation on narrow-gap TIG weld joint of heavy wall austenitic stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Deog Nam; Jung, In Cheol

    2003-01-01

    Although Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW or TIG welding) is considered as high quality and precision welding process, it also has demerit of low melting rate. Narrow-gap TIG welding which has narrow joint width reduces the groove volume remarkably, so it could be shorten the welding time and decrease the overall shrinkage in heavy wall pipe welding. Generally narrow-gap TIG welding is used as orbital welding process, it is important to select the optimum conditions for the automatic control welding. This paper looks at the application and metallurgical properties on narrow-gap TIG welding joint of heavy wall large austenitic stainless steel pipe to determine the deposition efficiency, the resultant shrinkage and fracture toughness. The fracture toughness depends slightly on the welding heat input

  9. Detection and sizing of large-scale cracks in centrifugally cast stainless steel pipes using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc, T.D.K.; Avioli, M.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Application of conventional ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been limited, mainly due to the anisotropy of the CCSS materials. Phenomena such as beam skewing and distortion are directly attributable to this anisotropy and cause severe difficulties in crack detection and sizing. To improve CCSS inspectability, the feasibility of using Lamb waves as the probing mechanism for detecting and characterizing a surface-breaking crack originating from the pipe interior surface is discussed. A similar research effort has been reported by Rokhlin who investigated the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations in thin sheets. Rokhlin and Adler also reported recently on the use of Lamb waves for evaluating spot welds. The motivation for using this probing mechanism derives from the recognition that the difficulties introduced by beam skewing, beam distortion, and high attenuation are circumvented, since Lamb waves are not bulk waves, but are resonant vibrational modes of a solid plate

  10. Carbon in condensed hydrocarbon phases, steels and cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAFAROVA Victoria Alexandrovna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of studies carried out mainly by the researchers of the Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, which are aimed at detection of new properties of carbon in such condensed media as petroleum and coal pitches, steels and cast irons. Carbon plays an important role in the industry of construction materials being a component of road and roof bitumen and setting the main mechanical properties of steels. It was determined that crystal-like structures appear in classical glass-like substances – pitches which contain several thousands of individual hydrocarbons of various compositions. That significantly extends the concept of crystallinity. In structures of pitches, the control parameter of the staged structuring process is paramagnetism of condensed aromatic hydrocarbons. Fullerenes were detected in steels and cast irons and identified by various methods of spectrometry and microscopy. Fullerene С60, which contains 60 carbon atoms, has diameter of 0,7 nm and is referred to the nanoscale objects, which have a significant influence on the formation of steel and cast iron properties. It was shown that fullerenes appear at all stages of manufacture of cast irons; they are formed during introduction of carbon from the outside, during crystallization of metal in welded joints. Creation of modified fullerene layers in steels makes it possible to improve anticorrosion and tribological properties of structural materials. At the same time, outside diffusion of carbon from the carbon deposits on the metal surface also leads to formation of additional amount of fullerenes. This creates conditions for occurrence of local microdistortions of the structure, which lead to occurrence of cracks. Distribution of fullerenes in iron matrix is difficult to study as the method is labor-intensive, it requires dissolution of the matrix in the hydrofluoric acid and stage fullerene separation with further identification by spectral methods.

  11. Nonmetallic inclusions in carbon steel smelted in plasma furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengelaya, I B; Kostyakov, V N; Nodiy, T K; Imerlishvili, V G; Gavisiani, A G [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Metallurgii

    1979-01-01

    A complex investigation on nonmetallic inclusions in carbon cast iron, smelted in plasma furnace in argon atmosphere and cast partly in the air and partly in argon atmosphere, has been carried out. As compared to open-hearth furnace carbon steel, the test metal was found to contain more oxide inclusions and nitrides; besides, in chromium-containing metal, chromium nitrides form the larger part of nitrides.

  12. Oxidation of ultra low carbon and silicon bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Lucia [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lucia.suarez@ctm.com.es; Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: pablo.rodriguez@ctm.com.es; Houbaert, Yvan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Yvan.Houbaert@UGent.be; Colas, Rafael [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)], E-mail: rcolas@mail.uanl.mx

    2010-06-15

    Oxidation tests were carried out in samples from an ultra low carbon and two silicon bearing steels to determine the distribution and morphology of the oxide species present. The ultra low carbon steel was oxidized for short periods of time within a chamber designed to obtain thin oxide layers by controlling the atmosphere, and for longer times in an electric furnace; the silicon steels were reheated only in the electric furnace. The chamber was constructed to study the behaviour encountered during the short period of time between descaling and rolling in modern continuous mills. It was found that the oxide layers formed on the samples reheated in the electric furnace were made of different oxide species. The specimens treated in the chamber had layers made almost exclusively of wustite. Selected oxide samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy to obtain electron backscattered diffraction patterns, which were used to identify the oxide species in the layer.

  13. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Pressure influence on iron sulfide scales formation. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, C.A.; Lires, O.A.; Rojo, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to protect carbon steel towers and piping of Girlder sulfide (G.S.) experimental heavy water plants against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide, a method, previously published, was developed. Carbon steel, exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide, forms iron sulfide scales. In oxygen free solutions evolution of corrosion follows the sequence: mackinawite → cubic ferrous sulfide → troilite → pyrrotite → pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite-pyrite or pyrite are the most protective layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2MPa, for periods of 14 days). Experiments, at 125 deg C and periods of 10-25 days, were performed in two different ways: 1- constant pressure operations at 0.5 and 1.1 MPa. 2- variable pressure operation between 0.3-1 MPa. In all cases pyrrotite-pyrite scales were obtained. (Author) [es

  14. Microbial corrosion of carbon steel by sulfate-reducing bacteria:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements (EIS and DC-polarisation curves) have been conducted on carbon steel coupons exposed in SRB-active environments. Results from EIS measurements show that very large interfacial capacities are found in such systems, and consequently high capacitive currents are to be ex...

  15. Carbon distribution in bainitic steel subjected to deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu. F., E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Nikitina, E. N., E-mail: Nikitina-EN@mail.ru; Gromov, V. E., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Analysis of the formation and evolution of carbide phase in medium carbon steel with a bainitic structure during compressive deformation was performed by means of transmission electron diffraction microscopy. Qualitative transformations in carbide phase medium size particles, their density and volume concentration depended on the degree of deformation.

  16. Vanadium Effect on a Medium Carbon Forging Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the influence of vanadium on the hardenability and the bainitic transformation of a medium carbon steel is analyzed. While V in solid solution enhances the former, it hardly affects bainitic transformation. The results also reveal an unexpected result, an increase of the prior austenite grain size as the V content increases.

  17. Comparison of fracture toughness values from an IPIRG-1 large-scale pipe system test and C(T) specimens on wrought TP304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.J.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.W.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Within the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, pipe system experiments involving dynamic loading with intentionally circumferentially cracked pipe were conducted. The pipe system was fabricated from 406-mm (16-inch) diameter Schedule 100 pipe, and the experiments were conducted at a pressure of 15.5 MPa (2,250 psi) and 288 C (550 F). The loads consisted of pressure, dead-weight, thermal expansion, inertia, and dynamic anchor motion. Significant instrumentation was used to allow the material fracture resistance to be calculated from these large-scale experiments. Three independent analyses were used to calculate the toughness directly from one of these pipe experiments. A comparison of the toughness values from the stainless steel base metal pipe experiment to standard quasi-static and dynamic C(T) specimen tests showed the pipe toughness value was significantly lower than that obtained from C(T) specimens. It is hypothesized that the cyclic loading from inertial stresses in this pipe system experiment caused local degradation of the material toughness. Such effects are not considered in current LBB or pipe flaw evaluation criteria

  18. Carbon Equivalence and Weldability of Microalloyed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-25

    being considered for Navy applications. Wilson et al [181 in their review of copper-adde. steels have shown that in the CCT diagram for modified versions...almost linearly with austenite grain size (Fig. 4.2) [211. Therefore, the net effect of the addition of micro-alloying elements is to shift the CCT ... diagram to shorter times and thereby decrease the amount of martensite in the HAZ. Recently, computation of austenite grain growth in the HAZ’s of micro

  19. Investigation of the ductile fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel plate, welds, and 4-inch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.; Hays, R.A.; Gudas, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral fracture toughness tests were performed on welded 304 stainless steel 2-inch plate and 4-inch diameter pipe. The 2-inch plate was welded using a hot-wire automatic gas tungsten arc process. The tests were performed at 550 0 F, 300 0 F and room temperature. The results of the J-integral tests indicate that the Jsub(Ic) of the base plate ranged from 4400 to 6100 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values for the tests performed at 300 0 F and room temperature were beyond the measurement capacity of the specimens and appear to indicate that Jsub(Ic) was greater than 8000 in lb/in 2 . The J-integral tests performed on the weld metal specimens indicate that the Jsub(Ic) values ranged from 930 to 2150 in lbs/in 2 at 550 0 F. The Jsub(Ic) values of the weld metal specimens tested at 300 0 F and room temperature were 2300 and 3000 in lbs/in 2 respectively. One HAZ specimen was tested at 550 0 F and found to have a Jsub(Ic) value of 2980 in lbs/in 2 which indicates that the HAZ is an average of the base metal and weld metal toughness. These test results indicate that there is a significant reduction in the initiation fracture toughness as a result of welding. The second phase of this task dealt with the fracture toughness testing of 4-inch diameter 304 stainless steel pipes containing a gas tungsten arc weld. The pipes were tested at 550 0 F in four point bending. Three tests were performed, two with a through wall flaw growing circumferentially and the third pipe had a part through radial flaw in combination with the circumferential flaw. These tests were performed using unloading compliance and d.c. potential drop crack length estimate methods. The results of these tests indicate that the presence of a complex crack (radial and circumferential) reduces in the initiation toughness and the tearing modulus of the pipe material compared to a pipe with only a circumferentially growing crack. (orig.)

  20. Corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in the Tournemire clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foct, F.; Dridi, W.; Cabrera, J.; Savoye, S.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon steels are possible materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste containers for long term geological disposal in argillaceous environments. Experimental studies of the corrosion behaviour of such materials has been conducted in various conditions. Concerning the numerous laboratory experiments, these conditions (water and clay mixture or compacted clay) mainly concern the bentonite clay that would be used for the engineered barrier. On the opposite, only few in-situ experiments has been conducted directly in the local clay of the repository site (such as Boom clay, etc.). In order to better estimate the corrosion behaviour of carbon steels in natural clay site conditions, an experimental study has been conducted jointly by EDF and IRSN in the argillaceous French site of Tournemire. In this study, A42 carbon steel specimens have been exposed in 3 different zones of the Tournemire clay formation. The first type of environmental conditions concerns a zone where the clay has not been affected by the excavation (EDZ) of the main tunnel neither by the main fracture zone of the clay formation. The second and third ones are located in the EDZ of the tunnel. In the second zone, an additional aerated water flows from the tunnel, whereas it does not in the third place. Some carbon steel specimens have been extracted after several years of exposure to these conditions. The average corrosion rate has been measured by the weight loss technique and the pitting corrosion depth has been evaluated under an optical microscope. Corrosion products have also been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. Results are then discussed regarding the surrounding environmental conditions. Calculations of the oxygen transport from the tunnel through the clay and of the clay re-saturation can explain, in a first approach, the corrosion behaviour of the carbon steel in the different tested zones. (authors)

  1. Mechanical properties and fatigue strength of high manganese non-magnetic steel/carbon steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Eiji; Ikeda, Soichi; Kim, You-Chul; Nakatsuji, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Kosuke.

    1997-01-01

    The dissimilar materials welded joints of high manganese non-magnetic steel/carbon steel (hereafter referred to as DMW joints), in which weld defects such as hot crack or blowhole are not found, were the good quality. Tensile strength of DMW joints was 10% higher than that of the base metal of carbon steel. In the bend tests, the DMW joints showed the good ductility without crack. Charpy absorbed energy at 0(degC) of the DMW joints was over 120(J) in the bond where it seems to be the lowest. Large hardening or softening was not detected in the heat affected zone. Fatigue strength of the DMW joints is almost the same with that of the welded joints of carbon steel/carbon steel. As the fatigue strength of the DMW joints exceeds the fatigue design standard curve of JSSC for carbon steel welded joints, the DMW joints can be treated the same as the welded joints of carbon steel/carbon steel of which strength is lower than that of high manganese non-magnetic steel, from the viewpoint of the fatigue design. (author)

  2. Acoustic emission reviling and danger level evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muravin, Gregory; Muravin, Boris; Lezvinsky, Luidmila

    2000-01-01

    Breakdowns and catastrophic damage occurring during the operation of nuclear power stations pipelines cause substantial economic and social loss annually throughout the world. Stress corrosion, vibration, fatigue, erosion, water shock, dynamic load, construction defects/errors are the main causes of pipes failures. For these reasons and in view of the age of nuclear power station pipes, there is an increased interest in finding means to prevent potential pipe failures. Nevertheless, statistical data of pipe failures continues to show significant numbers of accidents mainly due to stress corrosion cracking (about 65-80% of total number). To this end, a complex of investigations was carried out for the reliable AE diagnosis of pipes undergone stress corrosion cracking. These include: finding AE indications (fingerprints) of flaws developing in the metal in original condition as well as in metal subjected to stress corrosion; preparing AE criteria for evaluating the danger level of defects. (author)

  3. Failure Analysis of End Grain Attack and Pit Corrosion in 316L Stainless Steel Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Un Bong; Nam, Sung Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Byung Hak; Shim, Jong Hun [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Hee [Oil and Gas Technology SK E and C, Junggu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Soo [National Forensic Service, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the cause of surface cracks and pit corrosion on 316L pipe. An End Grain Attack (EGA) as a kind of pit mechanism was conducted on the pipe surface. The early stage of the EGA may come from under-deposit of caustic-water formation compositions like Na+, K+, Ca+, and Mg+ etc. The under-deposit corrosion is caused by the corrosion layer on the pipe surface followed by crevice corrosion due to accumulation of Cl‒ or S‒ composition between the corrosion layer and the pipe surface. In the early stage, the EGA occurred in all grain boundaries beneath the under-deposit corrosion. In the later stage of EGA, almost all the early attacked grain boundaries stopped at a limited depth of about 10 µm. Meanwhile, only the smallest number of the attacked boundaries progressed into the pipe as pit corrosion and resulted in leak failure.

  4. Effect of Thermal Shock During Legionella Bacteria Removal on the Corrosion Properties of Zinc-Coated Steel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, Juliusz; Ryl, Jacek; Jazdzewska, Agata; Krakowiak, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct the failure analysis of a water-supply system made from zinc-coated steel. The observed corrosion process had an intense and complex character. The brownish deposits and perforations were present after 2-3 years of exploitation. The electrochemical study based on the Tafel polarization, corrosion potential monitoring, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with microscopic analysis via SEM and EDX were performed in order to identify the cause of such intense corrosion. The performed measurements allowed us to determine that thermal shock was the source of polarity-reversal phenomenon. This process had begun the corrosion of steel which later led to the formation of deposits and perforations in the pipes. The work includes appropriate action in order to efficiently identify the described corrosion threat.

  5. Burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipes subject to combined axial tension, internal pressure and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasebikan, B.A.; Akisanya, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipe is measured under combined internal pressure, external axial tension and elevated temperature up to 160 °C. The experimental results are compared with existing burst pressure prediction models. Existing models are found to provide reasonable estimate of the burst pressure at room temperature but significantly over estimate the burst pressure at elevated temperature. Increasing externally applied axial stress and elevated temperature reduces the pressure capacity. - Highlights: • The burst pressure of super duplex steel is measured under combined loading. • Effect of elevated temperature on burst pressure is determined. • Burst pressure decreases with increasing temperature. • Existing models are reliable at room temperature. • Burst strength at elevated temperature is lower than predictions

  6. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  7. Manufacture of mold of polymeric composite water pipe reinforced charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar; Misdawati; Idris, M.; Nasution, F. K.; Harahap, U. N.; Simanjuntak, R. K.; Jufrizal; Pranoto, S.

    2018-03-01

    In general, household wastewater pipelines currently use thermoplastic pipes of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). This material is known to be not high heat resistant, contains hazardous chemicals (toxins), relatively inhospitable, and relatively more expensive. Therefore, researchers make innovations utilizing natural materials in the form of wood charcoal as the basic material of making the water pipe. Making this pipe requires a simple mold design that can be worked in the scale of household and intermediate industries. This research aims to produce water pipe mold with simple design, easy to do, and making time relatively short. Some considerations for molding materials are weight of mold, ease of raw material, strong, sturdy, and able to cast. Pipe molds are grouped into 4 (four) main parts, including: outer diameter pipe molding, pipe inside diameter, pipe holder, and pipe alignment control. Some materials have been tested as raw materials for outer diameter of pipes, such as wood, iron / steel, cement, and thermoset. The best results are obtained on thermoset material, where the process of disassembling is easier and the resulting mold weight is relatively lighter. For the inside diameter of the pipe is used stainless steel, because in addition to be resistant to chemical processes that occur, in this part of the mold must hold the press load due to shrinkage of raw materials of the pipe during the process of hardening (polymerization). Therefore, it needs high pressure resistant material and does not blend with the raw material of the pipe. The base of the mold is made of stainless steel material because it must be resistant to corrosion due to chemical processes. As for the adjustment of the pipe is made of ST 37 carbon steel, because its function is only as a regulator of the alignment of the pipe structure.

  8. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  9. Novel sintered ceramic materials incorporated with EAF carbon steel slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V.; Ntampegliotis, K.; Lamprakopoulos, S.; Papapolymerou, G.; Spiliotis, X.

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, novel sintered clay-based ceramic materials containing electric arc furnace carbon steel slag (EAFC) as a useful admixture were developed and characterized. The environmentally safe management of steel industry waste by-products and their valorization as secondary resources into value-added materials towards circular economy have attracted much attention in the last years. EAF Carbon steel slag in particular, is generated during the manufacture of carbon steel. It is a solid residue mainly composed of rich-in- Fe, Ca and Si compounds. The experimental results show that the beneficial incorporation of lower percentages of EAFC up to 6%wt. into ceramics sintered at 950 °C is attained without significant variations in sintering behavior and physico-mechanical properties. Further heating up to 1100 °C strongly enhances the densification of the ceramic microstructures, thus reducing the porosity and strengthening their mechanical performance. On the other side, in terms of thermal insulation behavior as well as energy consumption savings and production cost alleviation, the optimum sintering temperature appears to be 950 °C.

  10. Evaluation of Flow Accelerated Corrosion of Carbon Steel with Rotating Cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Jun; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2012-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of the carbon steel piping in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been major issue in nuclear industry. Rotating cylinder FAC test facility was designed and fabricated and then performance of the facility was evaluated. The facility is very simple in design and economic in fabrication and can be used in material and chemistry screening test. The facility is equipped with on line monitoring of pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen(DO), and temperature. Fluid velocity is controlled with rotating speed of the cylinder with a test specimen. FAC test of SA106 Gr. B carbon steel under 4 m/s flow velocity was performed with the rotating cylinder at DO concentration of less than 1 ppb and of 1.3 ppm. Also a corrosion test of the carbon steel at static condition, that is at zero fluid velocity, of test specimen and solution was performed at pH from 8 to 10 for comparison with the FAC data. For corrosion test in static condition, the amount of non adherent corrosion product was almost constant at pH ranging from 8 to 10. But adherent corrosion product decreased with increasing pH. This trend is consistent with decrease of Fe solubility with an increase in pH. For FAC test with rotating cylinder FAC test facility, the amount of non adherent corrosion product was also almost same for both DO concentrations. The rotating cylinder FAC test facility will be further improved by redesigning rotating cylinder and FAC specimen geometry for future work

  11. Microstructural investigations of 0.2% carbon content steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollabimazraehno, Sajjad; Hingerl, Kurt

    2011-10-01

    The effect of thermal annealing to get different phases on low carbon steel was investigated. Steel sheets (0.2 wt. % C) of 900 μm thickness were heat treated to produce different structures. All the samples have the same starting point, transformation to coarse austenite at 900 degree Celsius. The nano indentation results revealed that samples have different hadness. By making conventional SEM micrographs, focus ion beam maps, and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) the microstructural development and grain boundary variation of transformed phases martensite, biainte, tempered martensite and different combination of these phases were studied.

  12. Aerosol measurements from plasma torch cuts on stainless steel, carbon steel, and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, V.J.; Brodrick, C.J.; Crawford, S.; Nasiatka, J.; Pierucci, K.; Reyes, V.; Sambrook, J.; Wrobel, S.; Yeary, J.

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to quantify aerosol particle size and generation rates produced by a plasma torch whencutting stainless steel, carbon steel and aluminum. the plasma torch is a common cutting tool used in the dismantling of nuclear facilities. Eventually, other cutting tools will be characterized and the information will be compiled in a user guide to aid in theplanning of both D ampersand D and other cutting operations. The data will be taken from controlled laboratory experiments on uncontaminated metals and field samples taken during D ampersand D operations at ANL nuclear facilities. The plasma torch data was collected from laboratory cutting tests conducted inside of a closed, filtered chamber. The particle size distributions were determined by isokinetically sampling the exhaust duct using a cascade impactor. Cuts on different thicknesses showed there was no observable dependence of the aerosol quantity produced as a function of material thickness for carbon steel. However, data for both stainless steel and aluminum revealed that the aerosol mass produced for these materials appear to have some dependance on thickness, with thinner materials producing tmore aerosols. The results of the laboratory cutting tests show that most measured particle size distributions are bimodal with one mode at about 0.2 μm and the other at about 10 μm. The average Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameters (MMAD's) for these tests are 0.36 ±0.08 μm for stainless steel, 0.48 ±0.17μm for aluminum and 0.52±0.12 μm for carbon steel

  13. The conservatism of the net-section stress criterion for the failure of cracked stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1991-01-01

    The failure of cracked stainless steel piping can be predicted by assuming that failure conforms to a net-section stress criterion, using as input an appropriate value for the critical net-section stress together with a knowledge of the anticipated loadings. The stresses at the cracked section are usually calculated via a purely elastic analysis based on the piping being uncracked. However because the piping is built-in at its ends into a larger component, this limits the amount of elastic follow-up and, consequently, use of the net-section stress approach in this manner can lead to conservative failure predictions. This paper quantifies the extent of this conservatism, and shows that it can be quite marked. There is an additional measure of conservatism due to the fact that unstable failure need not necessarily be associated with the onset of crack extension. A key parameter with regard to both these conservatisms is L EFF , a length parameter which is a measure of the degree of elastic follow-up in the system. (author)

  14. Ultrasound propagation in steel piping at electric power plant using clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler velocity-profile flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Wada, Sanehiro; Aritomi, Masanori; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2008-01-01

    Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rates of reactor feedwater. This flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of nuclear power reactors. Some other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profiles across the pipe cross sections. For the accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasonic entering the fluid should be carefully estimated by the theoretical approach. However, the evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward for the several reasons such as temperature gradient in the wedge or mode conversion at the interface between the wedge and pipe. In recent years, the simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation in steel piping and water, using the 3D-FEM simulation code and the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to the flow profile measurements in power plants with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter. (author)

  15. Heat exchange performance of stainless steel and carbon foams modified with carbon nano fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzovskaya, I.; Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Reed, C.P.; Lefferts, Leonardus; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNF), with fishbone and parallel wall structures, were grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on the surface of carbon foam and stainless steel foam, in order to improve their heat exchange performance. Enhancement in heat transfer efficiency between 30% and 75% was achieved

  16. Effects of tempering on internal friction of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, J.J.; Ghilarducci, A.A.; Salva, H.R.; Chaves, C.A.; Velez, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Time tempering dependent microstructure of two steels is studied by internal friction. → Internal friction indicates the interactions of dislocations with carbon and carbides. → Internal friction detects the first stage of tempering. → Precipitation hardening is detected by the decrease in the background. - Abstract: Two steels containing 0.626 and 0.71 wt.% carbon have been studied to determine the effects of tempering on the microstructure and the internal friction. The steels were annealed at 1093 K, quenched into water and tempered for 60 min at 423 K, 573 K and 723 K. The increase of the tempering time diminishes the martensite tetragonality due to the redistribution of carbon atoms from octahedrical interstitial sites to dislocations. Internal friction spectrum is decomposed into five peaks and an exponential background, which are attributed to the carbide precipitation and the dislocation relaxation process. Simultaneous presence of peaks P1 and P2 indicates the interaction of dislocations with the segregated carbon and carbide precipitate.

  17. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.111 Design factor (F... street, or a railroad; (3) Is supported by a vehicular, pedestrian, railroad, or pipeline bridge; or (4...

  18. Influence of heat input and radius to pipe thickness ratio on the residual stresses in circumferential arc welded pipes of API X46 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmatzadeh, Majid; Moshayedi, Hessamoddin; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2017-01-01

    The present work aims to study residual stresses caused by circumferentially welding of two similar API X46 steel pipes by means of finite element modeling. Considering the metallurgical phase transformations and through thermal-mechanical uncoupled analysis, the 3D modeling was carried out by SYSWELD software. Materialistic thermal and mechanical properties of all phases were defined in terms of temperature as well as phase transformation properties. Residual stress was measured through hole-drilling method. The obtained results were used to verify the finite element model. By means of full factorial experiment designing method, effects of heat input and radius to pipe thickness ratio on maximum values of hoop and axial residual stresses were investigated. The effect of each factor was studied in 3 levels and by 9 experiments. Results of statistical analysis revealed that increase in heat input and radius-thickness ratio would lead to higher values of maximum hoop and axial residual stresses. However, interactions of high level of heat input and a low level of radius-thickness ratio increased inter-pass temperature and consequently caused a sudden raise in maximum values of residual stresses. - Highlights: • A FEM model was developed to simulate welding considering phase transformations. • The obtained residual stresses were validated by experiments. • Effect of heat input and radius-to-thickness ratio on residual stress were investigated. • Increasing heat input for 100% caused increasing hoop and axial residual stress until 200%. • Interaction of high heat input and low R/t causes a sudden increase in axial residual stresses.

  19. Measurement of carbon activity in sodium and steel and the behaviour of carbon-bearing species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran Pillai, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Mathews, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    Carburization or decarburization of structural materials in a sodium system depends on the local differences in carbon activity. The behaviour of carbon-bearing species in sodium influences its carbon activity. In order to understand the behaviour of carbon in these systems, an electrochemical carbon meter was fabricated in our laboratory. The original version of this meter was capable of operating in the temperature range of 850-980 K. Studies are carried out to extend this lower limit of temperature. Employing the carbon meter, experiments were carried out to understand the behaviour of carbon-bearing species. Gas equilibration experiments were also carried out with the same view. A new method for measuring the carbon activity in steels are described which employs the carbon meter. A review on these investigations and the conclusions reached on the behaviour of carbon in fast reactor loops are described

  20. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of carbon steel with bulk coating holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With epoxy coal tar as the coating material, the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Q235 with different kinds of bulk coating holidays has been investigated with EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) in a 3.5vol% NaCl aqueous solution.The area ratio of bulk coating holiday to total coating area of steel is 4.91%. The experimental results showed that at free corrosionpotential, the corrosion of carbon steel with disbonded coating holiday is heavier than that with broken holiday and disbonded & broken holiday with time; Moreover, the effectiveness of Cathodic Protection (CP) of carbon steel with broken holiday is better than that with disbonded holiday and disbonded & broken holiday on CP potential -850 mV (vs CSE). Further analysis indicated that the two main reasons for corrosion are electrolyte solution slowly penetrating the coating, and crevice corrosion at steel/coating interface near holidays. The ratio of impedance amplitude (Z) of different frequency to minimum frequency is defined as K value. The change rate of K with frequency is related to the type of coating holiday.

  1. Dynamic recrystallization behavior of a medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hai-lian; Liu, Guo-quan; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Ming-he

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic recrystallization behavior of a medium carbon vanadium microalloyed steel was systematically investigated at the temperatures from 900 °C to 1100 °C and strain rates from 0.01 s −1 to 10 s −1 on a Gleeble-1500 thermo-simulation machine. The flow stress constitutive equation of hot deformation for this steel was developed with the activation energy Q being about 273 kJ/mol, which is in reasonable agreement with those reported before. Activation energy analysis showed that vanadium addition in microalloyed steels seemed not to affect the activation energy much. The effect of Zener–Hollomon parameter on the characteristic points of flow curves was studied using the power law relation, and the dependence of critical strain (stress) on peak strain (stress) obeyed a linear equation. Dynamic recrystallization is the most important softening mechanism for the experimental steel during hot compression. The dynamic recrystallization kinetics model of this steel was established based on flow stress and a frequently-used dynamic recrystallization kinetics equation. Dynamic recrystallization microstructure under different deformation conditions was also observed and the dependence of steady-state grain size on the Zener–Hollomon parameter was plotted

  2. Ten years of Toarcian argillite - carbon steel in situ interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzeres, Alexandre [IRSN, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Maillet, Anais [IRSN, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, Batiment B35 - 5, avenue Albert Turpain, 86022 Poitiers cedex (France); Gaudin, Anne [UMR CNRS 6112, LPGN, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); El Albani, Abderrazak; Vieillard, Philippe [UMR CNRS 7285, IC2MP, Batiment B35 - 5, avenue Albert Turpain, 86022 Poitiers cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    In situ interaction experiments over periods of 2, 6, and 10 years between Toarcian argillite and carbon steel discs were carried out in the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL), yielding a dataset of the materials' geochemical evolution under conditions representative of the future geological disposal of high-level long-lived radioactive wastes. The carbon steel discs were exposed to corrosion due to trapped oxygen. The corrosion rates indicate that the oxidizing transient lasted between 2 and 6 years. A systematic dissolution of calcium phases (Ca-smectite sheets in I/S and calcite) was observed in the iron diffusion halos. The iron release induced mineralogical dissolution and precipitation reactions, which partly clogged the argillite porosity. (authors)

  3. Hardness and adhesion performances of nanocoating on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnidawani, J. N.; Azlina, H. N.; Norita, H.; Bonnia, N. N.

    2018-01-01

    Nanocoatings industry has been aggressive in searching for cost-effective alternatives and environmental friendly approaches to manufacture products. Nanocoatings represent an engineering solution to prevent corrosion of the structural parts of ships, insulation and pipelines industries. The adhesion and hardness properties of coating affect material properties. This paper reviews ZnO-SiO2 as nanopowder in nano coating formulation as the agent for new and improved coating performances. Carbon steel on type S50C used as common substrate in nanocoating industry. 3wt% ZnO and 2wt% SiO2 addition of nanoparticles into nanocoating showed the best formulation since hardness and adhesion of nanocoating was good on carbon steel substrate. Incorporation of nanoparticles into coating increased the performances of coating.

  4. Marine Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alc?ntara, Jenifer; de la Fuente, Daniel; Chico, Bel?n; Simancas, Joaqu?n; D?az, Iv?n; Morcillo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel is an extensive topic that has been studied over the years by many researchers. However, until relatively recently, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the action of marine chlorides. Corrosion in coastal regions is a particularly relevant issue due the latter’s great importance to human society. About half of the world’s population lives in coastal regions and the industrialisation of developing countries tends to concentrate production pl...

  5. Analysis of corrosion products of carbon steel in wet bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Kazuo; Nagano, Tetsushi; Nakayama, Shinichi; Muraoka, Susumu

    1992-02-01

    As a part of evaluation of the long-term durability for the overpack containers for high-level radioactive waste, we have conducted corrosion tests for carbon steel in wet bentonite, a candidate buffer material. The corrosion rates were evaluated by weight difference of carbon steel and corrosion products were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and colorimetry. At 40degC, the corrosion rate of carbon steel in wet bentonite was smaller than that in pure water. At 95degC, however, the corrosion rate in wet bentonite was much higher than that in pure water. This high corrosion rate in wet bentonite at 95degC was considered to result from evaporation of moisture in bentonite in contact with the metal. This evaporation led to dryness and then to shrinkage of the bentonite, which generated ununiform contact of the metal with bentonite. Probably, this ununiform contact promoted the local corrosion. The locally corroded parts of specimen in wet bentonite at 95degC were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), and lepidocrocite γ-FeO(OH) was found as well as goethite α-FeO(OH). In wet bentonite at 95degC, hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 was identified by means of colorimetry. (author)

  6. Grain Refinement of Low Carbon Martensitic Steel by Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolebina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-carbon steels have good corrosion and technological properties. Hot deformation is the main operation in manufacturing the parts from these steels. So one of the important properties of the material is a property of plasticity. The grain size significantly influences on the ductility properties of steel. The grain size of steel depends on the chemical composition of the crystallization process, heat treatment, and steel machining. There are plenty methods to have grain refinement. However, taking into account the large size of the blanks for the hydro turbine parts, the thermal cycling is an advanced method of the grain refinement adaptable to streamlined production. This work experimentally studies the heat treatment influence on the microstructure of the low-carbon 01X13N04 alloy steel and proposes the optimal regime of the heat treatment to provide a significantly reduced grain size. L.M. Kleiner, N.P. Melnikov and I.N. Bogachyova’s works focused both on the microstructure of these steels and on the influence of its parameters on the mechanical properties. The paper focuses mainly on defining an optimal regime of the heat treatment for grain refinement. The phase composition of steel and temperature of phase transformation were defined by the theoretical analysis. The dilatometric experiment was done to determine the precise temperature of the phase transformations. The analysis and comparison of the experimental data with theoretical data and earlier studies have shown that the initial sample has residual stress and chemical heterogeneity. The influence of the heat treatment on the grain size was studied in detail. It is found that at temperatures above 950 ° C there is a high grain growth. It is determined that the optimal number of cycles is two. The postincreasing number of cycles does not cause further reducing grain size because of the accumulative recrystallization process. Based on the results obtained, the thermal cycling

  7. A Failure Estimation Method of Steel Pipe Elbows under In-plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bub-Gyu Jeon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  8. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk [Seismic Simulation Tester Center, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Sik [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  9. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk; Kim, Nam Sik

    2017-01-01

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation

  10. Bainite formation kinetics in high carbon alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzginova, N.V.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many investigations have been carried out on the modeling of the bainite formation. In the present work, a physical approach proposed in the literature is implemented to model the formation of lower bainite in high carbon steels (1 wt.% C). In this model, the carbon diffusion is assumed to control the kinetics of the bainite formation. Both the nucleation and the growth rates are considered in an Avrami type analysis. The effect of alloying elements is taken into account considering only the thermodynamics of the system. The results and the physical meaning of the model parameters are discussed. It is shown that the diffusional approach gives a reasonable description of bainite formation kinetics in high carbon steel. Only two fitting parameters are used: the first accounts for carbon grain-boundary diffusion and the second is the initial nucleation-site density. The model satisfactorily accounts for the effect of transformation temperature, but does not take into account the carbide precipitation during bainite formation and the effect of alloying elements on the diffusion coefficient of carbon

  11. Corrosion of pipe steel in CO2 containing impurities and possible solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Spruijt, M.P.N.; Borys, M.

    2013-01-01

    CO2 flue gases acquired from different sources contain a significant amount of impurities and water, which are corrosive to the pipeline steel. To design the pipelines for large scale of CO2 flue gas transport, the corrosion of pipeline steels has to be investigated in the realistic conditions. In

  12. Studying the effect of elastic-plastic strain and hydrogen sulphide on the magnetic behaviour of pipe steels as applied to their testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povolotskaya Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports results of magnetic measurements made on samples of the 12GB pipe steel (strength group X42SS designed for producing pipes to be used in media with high hydrogen sulphide content, both in the initial state and after exposure to hydrogen sulphide, for 96, 192 and 384 hours under uniaxial elastic-plastic tension. At the stage of elastic deformation there is a unique correlation between the coercive force measured on a minor hysteresis loop in weak fields and tensile stress, which enables this parameter to be used for the evaluation of elastic stresses in pipes made of the 12 GB pipe steel under different conditions, including a hydrogen sulphide containing medium. The effect of the value of preliminary plastic strain, viewed as the initial stress-strain state, on the magnetic behaviour of X70 pipe steels under elastic tension and compression is studied. Plastic strain history affects the magnetic behaviour of the material during subsequent elastic deformation since plastic strain induces various residual stresses, and this necessitates taking into account the initial stress-strain state of products when developing magnetic techniques for the determination of their stress-strain parameters during operation.

  13. Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ishigami, Ryoya; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser was studied for application to nuclear decommissioning. Successful cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel plates up to 300 mm in thickness was demonstrated, as was that of thick steel components such as simulated reactor vessel walls, a large pipe, and a gate valve. The results indicate that laser cutting applied to nuclear decommissioning is a promising technology. (author)

  14. Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2005-12-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration, i.e., carbonation of alkaline silicate Ca/Mg minerals, analogous to natural weathering processes, is a possible technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline Ca-rich industrial residues are presented as a possible feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration. These materials are cheap, available near large point sources of CO2, and tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their chemical instability. Ground steel slag was carbonated in aqueous suspensions to study its reaction mechanisms. Process variables, such as particle size, temperature, carbon dioxide pressure, and reaction time, were systematically varied, and their influence on the carbonation rate was investigated. The maximum carbonation degree reached was 74% of the Ca content in 30 min at 19 bar pressure, 100C, and a particle size of <38 μm. The two must important factors determining the reaction rare are particle size (<2 mm to <38 μm) and reaction temperature (25-225C). The carbonation reaction was found to occur in two steps: (1) leaching of calcium from the steel slag particles into the solution; (2) precipitation of calcite on the surface of these particles. The first step and, more in particular, the diffusion of calcium through the solid matrix toward the surface appeared to be the rate-determining reaction step, The Ca diffusion was found to be hindered by the formation of a CaCO3-coating and a Ca-depleted silicate zona during the carbonation process. Research on further enhancement of the reaction rate, which would contribute to the development of a cost-effective CO2-sequestration process, should focus particularly on this mechanism

  15. Deteriorations of pulmonary function, elevated carbon monoxide levels and increased oxidative stress amongst water-pipe smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karaduman Yalcin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A water pipe (hookah is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analytical study that has included 50 volunteers who smoke a water pipe and the control group of 50 volunteers who smoke neither a cigarette nor a water pipe. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the breath and pulmonary function tests (PFTs were performed before and after smoking a water pipe. Blood samples were taken from either the volunteer control group or water-pipe smokers group after smoking a water pipe for the purpose of evaluation of the parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Carbon monoxide values were measured to be 8.08±7.4 ppm and 28.08±16.5 ppm before and after smoking a water pipe, respectively. This increment was found statistically significant. There were also significant reductions in PFTs after smoking a water pipe. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI were found prominently higher after smoking a water pipe for the group of water-pipe smokers than for the control group. Conclusions: This study has shown that water-pipe smoking leads to deterioration in pulmonary function and increases oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge this study is the only one that has shown the effect of water-pipe smoking on oxidative stress. More studies must be planned to show the side effects of water-pipe habit and protective policies should be planned especially for young people in Europe. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:731

  16. Radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Microstructural and micromechanical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouanis, F.Z.; Bentiss, F.; Bellayer, S.; Vogt, J.B.; Jama, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → C38 carbon steel samples were plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge. → RF plasma treatment enables nitriding for non-heated substrates. → The morphological and chemical analyses show the formation of a uniform thickness on the surface of the nitrided C38 steel. → Nitrogen plasma active species diffuse into the samples and lead to the formation of Fe x N. → The increase in microhardness values for nitrided samples with plasma processing time is interpreted by the formation of a thicker nitrided layer on the steel surface. - Abstract: In this work, C38 carbon steel was plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge on non-heated substrates. General characterizations were performed to compare the chemical compositions, the microstructures and hardness of the untreated and plasma treated surfaces. The plasma nitriding was carried out on non-heated substrates at a pressure of 16.8 Pa, using N 2 gas. Surface characterizations before and after N 2 plasma treatment were performed by means of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Vickers microhardness measurements. The morphological and chemical analysis showed the formation of a uniform structure on the surface of the nitrided sample with enrichment in nitrogen when compared to untreated sample. The thickness of the nitride layer formed depends on the treatment time duration and is approximately 14 μm for 10 h of plasma treatment. XPS was employed to obtain chemical-state information of the plasma nitrided steel surfaces. The micromechanical results show that the surface microhardness increases as the plasma-processing time increases to reach, 1487 HV 0.005 at a plasma processing time of 8 h.

  17. Radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Microstructural and micromechanical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouanis, F.Z. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Bellayer, S.; Vogt, J.B. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jama, C., E-mail: charafeddine.jama@ensc-lille.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2011-05-16

    Highlights: {yields} C38 carbon steel samples were plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge. {yields} RF plasma treatment enables nitriding for non-heated substrates. {yields} The morphological and chemical analyses show the formation of a uniform thickness on the surface of the nitrided C38 steel. {yields} Nitrogen plasma active species diffuse into the samples and lead to the formation of Fe{sub x}N. {yields} The increase in microhardness values for nitrided samples with plasma processing time is interpreted by the formation of a thicker nitrided layer on the steel surface. - Abstract: In this work, C38 carbon steel was plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge on non-heated substrates. General characterizations were performed to compare the chemical compositions, the microstructures and hardness of the untreated and plasma treated surfaces. The plasma nitriding was carried out on non-heated substrates at a pressure of 16.8 Pa, using N{sub 2} gas. Surface characterizations before and after N{sub 2} plasma treatment were performed by means of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Vickers microhardness measurements. The morphological and chemical analysis showed the formation of a uniform structure on the surface of the nitrided sample with enrichment in nitrogen when compared to untreated sample. The thickness of the nitride layer formed depends on the treatment time duration and is approximately 14 {mu}m for 10 h of plasma treatment. XPS was employed to obtain chemical-state information of the plasma nitrided steel surfaces. The micromechanical results show that the surface microhardness increases as the plasma-processing time increases to reach, 1487 HV{sub 0.005} at a plasma processing time of 8 h.

  18. Experimental use of Line-X coated steel pipe piles, Clay Hill Bridge (#2157) replacement project over the Mousam River, Route 9/Western Avenue, Kennebunk, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Steel pipe piles used by MaineDOT for bridge construction are typically coated with a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE). FBE is a powder-based coating with properties similar to traditional : epoxies. Its name is derived from the process by which it adheres ...

  19. Corrosion of welded steel piping in domestic hot water: A case history. Corrosion de una instalacion de tubos soldados de acero galvanizado para agua caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, E J; Soria, L; Gallardo, J M

    1993-01-01

    Many leaks had occurred after seven years of service in the hot sanitary water system of building. The results of the failure analysis have led to the conclusion that the reduced life of the piping system was primarily promoted by the use of a dissimilar metal (galvanized steel-copper) installation and by an excessive service temperature. Through precuations were taking to electrically insulate both types of tubing by employing dielectric fittings and water flow followed the ''rule of flow'' (zinc[yields] copper), an indirect galvanic attach on galvanized steel took place. Localized corrosion was originated by microcells formed by plating out of soluble copper. Corrosive attack was most severe at weld seams. The microstructure of the weld zone was very different from that of the surrounding pipe. In addition, some pipes presented signs of incomplete fusion (welding without filling metal) and others had protruding weld seams which produced crevice attack and erosion-corrosion, respectively. Author (10 refs.)

  20. Carbon-steel corrosion in multiphase slug flow and CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarreal, J.; Laverde, D.; Fuentes, C.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrocarbon multiphase flow may exhibit various geometric configurations or flow patterns. One of these flow patterns is known as multiphase slug flow. If CO 2 is present in hydrocarbons, the steel pipelines can be corroded as this process is probably enhanced by slug flow turbulence. A hydrodynamic circuit was built to study the CO 2 corrosion rates under different slug flow conditions. The experimental results show how the corrosion rate of a carbon-steel electrode varies according to the flow turbulence. The higher slug frequency used in this study was 80 slugs/min. Experimental results for pressure drop and slug length are in agreement with the Dukler and Hubbard [A model for gas-liquid slug flow in horizontal and near horizontal tubes, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 14 (1975) 337-347] multiphase flow model. Furthermore, the experimental slug frequencies are well correlated by the Shell and Gregory [Correlation of the liquid volume fraction in the slug for horizontal gas-liquid slug flow. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 4 (1978) 33-39] equations in horizontal pipes

  1. Piping equipment. Mastering fluids; Materiel petrole. La maitrise des fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouvay et Cauvin

    1998-10-01

    This new edition of the blue bible for pipemen details the most recent developments in American standards (API, ASTM, ASME). It is aimed at end-users in specifically purchasing departments, standardization, new projects and maintenance personal in the oil and chemicals industries as well as engineering companies, pipe-makers and boiler-makers. Contains descriptions of both materials specifications such as carbon steel, stainless steel and steel alloys, and dimensions of line components. (author)

  2. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Jae-Won; Ha, Young-Kyoung; Choi, In-Kyu; Chun, Kwan-Sik

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion behaviors of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium were studied. Corrosion rate of carbon steel in wet bentonite was measured to be 20 μm/yr at 25 deg C using the AC impedance technique. This value is agreed with that obtained by weight loss at 40 deg C for 1 year. The effect of bicarbonate ion on the corrosion of carbon steel in wet bentonite was also evaluated. The carbon steels in wet bentonite having 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 M concentration of bicarbonate ion gave corrosion rates of 20, 8, and 0.2 μm/yr, respectively. Corrosion potentials of specimens were also measured and compared with the AC impedance results. Both results indicated that bicarbonate ion could effectively reduce the corrosion rate of carbon steels in bentonite due to the formation of protective layer on the carbon steel. (author)

  3. Self-rewetting carbon nanofluid as working fluid for space and terrestrial heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, R.; Savino, R.; Mirabile Gattia, D.; Marazzi, R.; Vittori Antisari, M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal management is very important in modern electronic systems. Recent researches have been dedicated to the study of the heat transfer performances of binary heat transfer fluids with peculiar surface tension properties and in particular to that of “self-rewetting fluids”, i.e., liquids with a surface tension increasing with temperature and concentration. Since in the course of liquid/vapor-phase change, self-rewetting fluids behavior induces a rather strong liquid inflow (caused by both temperature and concentration gradients) from the cold region (where liquid condensates) to the hot evaporator region, this fluids have been proposed and investigated as new heat transfer fluids for advanced heat transfer devices, e.g., heat pipes or heat spreaders for terrestrial and space applications (Savino et al. in Space Technol 25(1):59–61, 2009). The present work is dedicated to the study of the thermophysical properties of a new class of heat transfer fluids based on water/alcohol solutions with suspended carbon nanostructures, in particular single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), synthesized by a homemade apparatus with an AC arc discharge in open air (Mirabile Gattia et al. in Nanotechnology 18:255604, 2007). SWNHs are cone-shaped nanoparticles with diameters between 1 and 5 nm and lengths in the range of 20–100 nm. SWNHs could be found in the form of quite-spherical aggregates with diameters ranging from 20 to 100 nm. The paper also discusses the results of these investigations and laboratory characterization tests of different heat pipes, including reference ordinary heat pipes and innovative pipes filled with self-rewetting fluids and self-rewetting nanofluids. The potential interest of the proposed studies stems from the large number of possible industrial applications, including space technologies and terrestrial applications, such as cooling of electronic components.

  4. Self-rewetting carbon nanofluid as working fluid for space and terrestrial heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, R.; Savino, R.; Mirabile Gattia, D.; Marazzi, R.; Vittori Antisari, M.

    2011-11-01

    Thermal management is very important in modern electronic systems. Recent researches have been dedicated to the study of the heat transfer performances of binary heat transfer fluids with peculiar surface tension properties and in particular to that of "self-rewetting fluids", i.e., liquids with a surface tension increasing with temperature and concentration. Since in the course of liquid/vapor-phase change, self-rewetting fluids behavior induces a rather strong liquid inflow (caused by both temperature and concentration gradients) from the cold region (where liquid condensates) to the hot evaporator region, this fluids have been proposed and investigated as new heat transfer fluids for advanced heat transfer devices, e.g., heat pipes or heat spreaders for terrestrial and space applications (Savino et al. in Space Technol 25(1):59-61, 2009). The present work is dedicated to the study of the thermophysical properties of a new class of heat transfer fluids based on water/alcohol solutions with suspended carbon nanostructures, in particular single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), synthesized by a homemade apparatus with an AC arc discharge in open air (Mirabile Gattia et al. in Nanotechnology 18:255604, 2007). SWNHs are cone-shaped nanoparticles with diameters between 1 and 5 nm and lengths in the range of 20-100 nm. SWNHs could be found in the form of quite-spherical aggregates with diameters ranging from 20 to 100 nm. The paper also discusses the results of these investigations and laboratory characterization tests of different heat pipes, including reference ordinary heat pipes and innovative pipes filled with self-rewetting fluids and self-rewetting nanofluids. The potential interest of the proposed studies stems from the large number of possible industrial applications, including space technologies and terrestrial applications, such as cooling of electronic components.

  5. Finite element analysis of the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes applications to the oil industry

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Eduardo N

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of the models that were developed to simulate the collapse and post-collapse behavior of steel pipes. The finite element method offers to engineers the possibility of developing models to simulate the collapse behavior of casings inside oil wells and the collapse behavior of deepwater pipelines. However, if technological decisions are going to be reached from these model results, with implications for the economic success of industrial operations, for the occupational safety and health and for the environment, the engineering models need to be highly reliable. Using these models engineers can quantify the effect of manufacturing tolerances, wear, corrosion, etc. This book describes in great details the experimental programs that are developed to validate the numerical results.

  6. High carbon microalloyed martensitic steel with ultrahigh strength-ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Ying [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai 200245 (China); Chen, Nailu, E-mail: nlchen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Based on the idea of rising the mechanical stability of retained austenite by the addition of Si in Fe-Mn based steels, an Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb was designed, then its hot rolled plate was successively tread by normalization process as pretreatment of novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process. Product of tensile and elongation (PSE) of 53.94 GPa% were obtained for this high carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel, and the PSE (40.18 GPa%) obtained by the conversion of tensile sample size using Oliver formula still is more excellent PSE than those of other microalloyed advanced high strength steels reported. The microstructural characterization reveals origin of ultrahigh PSE resulting from both the increase of considerable and dispersed carbon enriched retained austenite with relative high mechanical stability in volume fraction and the decrease of brittle twin-type martensite with the sensitivity of notch.

  7. Surveillance of evolution of defects in stainless steel piping subject to fatigue cycles in temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.

    1976-01-01

    The surveillance of internal crack growth in austenitic ICL 167 CN steel is possible by using ultrasonic techniques. The fracture mechanics allows to predict the evolution of these cracks under fatigue loading [fr

  8. Processing and refinement of steel microstructure images for assisting in computerized heat treatment of plain carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhank; Panda, Aditi; Naskar, Ruchira; Mishra, Dinesh Kumar; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-11-01

    Steels are alloys of iron and carbon, widely used in construction and other applications. The evolution of steel microstructure through various heat treatment processes is an important factor in controlling properties and performance of steel. Extensive experimentations have been performed to enhance the properties of steel by customizing heat treatment processes. However, experimental analyses are always associated with high resource requirements in terms of cost and time. As an alternative solution, we propose an image processing-based technique for refinement of raw plain carbon steel microstructure images, into a digital form, usable in experiments related to heat treatment processes of steel in diverse applications. The proposed work follows the conventional steps practiced by materials engineers in manual refinement of steel images; and it appropriately utilizes basic image processing techniques (including filtering, segmentation, opening, and clustering) to automate the whole process. The proposed refinement of steel microstructure images is aimed to enable computer-aided simulations of heat treatment of plain carbon steel, in a timely and cost-efficient manner; hence it is beneficial for the materials and metallurgy industry. Our experimental results prove the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  9. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  10. 77 FR 2318 - Certain Circular Welded Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ..., Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United States International... Turkey, the antidumping duty orders on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from India, Thailand, and Turkey...

  11. Cast Steel Filtration Trials Using Ceramic-Carbon Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipowska B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trials of cast steel filtration using two types of newly-developed foam filters in which carbon was the phase binding ceramic particles have been conducted. In one of the filters the source of carbon was flake graphite and coal-tar pitch, while in the other one graphite was replaced by a cheaper carbon precursor. The newly-developed filters are fired at 1000°C, i.e. at a much lower temperature than the currently applied ZrO2-based filters. During filtration trials the filters were subjected to the attack of a flowing metal stream having a temperature of 1650°C for 30 seconds.

  12. Calculation of the residual stress field created by quenching and grinding in a cast duplex stainless steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Le Delliou, P.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate with a finite element program the residual stresses generated by quenching and grinding a cast duplex stainless steel pipe. These calculations are performed with Code Aster (developed by EDF/R and D D). They are preliminary to a 3D study concerning an elbow made of the same material. Quenching is simulated by an axisymmetric thermomechanical calculation. Grinding are simulated either by lowering mechanical properties in ground parts of the pipe, either by the releasing the nodes. Stresses due to quenching are in high compression in the skin and tensile in the middle. After grinding (the first concerning both internal and external skins, the second concerning only the internal skin), stresses become tensile on the skin. These results are compared to those obtained in a similar study by CEA and also to the measurement. Some important differences appear in the thermal results between the two FE programs, due to a too coarse time step in the CASTEM 2000 calculation. However, the effect on the residual stress field is not very important. Two complementary studies have shown a negligible influence of mesh size, as well as an equivalence of the two numerical methods used for simulating grinding (lowering the Young modulus and releasing the nodes), according the values given at the notes of the skin by the first method are corrected. (authors)

  13. Establishing a design procedure for buried steel-reinforced high-density polyethylene pipes : a field study, [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Several national standards and specification have been developed for design, installation, : and materials for precast concrete pipe, corrugated metal pipe, and HDPE pipes. However, : no national accepted installation standard or design method is ava...

  14. Carbon and metal-carbon implantations into tool steels for improved tribological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, J.-P.; Harskamp, F.; Torri, P.; Willers, H.; Fusari, A.; Gibson, N.; Haupt, J.

    1997-05-01

    The high-fluence implantation of carbon and dual implantations of metal-metalloid pairs into steels with different microstructures are briefly reviewed. A previously unexamined system, the implantation of Si and C into two kinds of tool steels, M3 and D2, have been studied in terms of microstructure and tribological performance. In both cases ion implantation transfers a surface into an amorphous layer. However, the tribological behavior of these two materials differs remarkably: in the case of ion-implanted M3 a reduction of wear in a steel pin is observed even at high pin loads, whereas in the case of ion-implanted D2 the beneficial effects of ion implantation were limited to the lowest pin load. The importance of an initial phase at the onset of sliding is emphasized and a number of peculiarities observed in ion-implanted M3 steel are discussed.

  15. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-01-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ''like for like'' replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants

  16. Corrosion of a carbon steel in simulated liquid nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenz Gonzalez, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    This work is part of a collaboration agreement between CNEA (National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina) and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America), entitled 'Tank Corrosion Chemistry Cooperation', to study the corrosion behavior of carbon steel A537 class 1 in different simulated non-radioactive wastes in order to establish the safety concentration limits of the tank waste chemistry at Hanford site (Richland-US). Liquid high level nuclear wastes are stored in tanks made of carbon steel A537 (ASTM nomenclature) that were designed for a service life of 20 to 50 years. A thickness reduction of some tank walls, due to corrosion processes, was detected at Hanford site, beyond the existing predicted values. Two year long-term immersion tests were started using non radioactive simulated liquid nuclear waste solutions at 40 C degrees. This work extends throughout the first year of immersion. The simulated solutions consist basically in combinations of the 10 most corrosion significant chemical components: 5 main components (NaNO 3 , NaCl, NaF, NaNO 2 and NaOH) at three concentration levels and 5 secondary components at two concentration levels. Measurements of the general corrosion rate with time were performed for carbon steel coupons, both immersed in the solutions and in the vapor phases, using weight loss and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy techniques. Optic and scanning electron microscopy examination, analysis of U-bend samples and corrosion potential measurements, were also done. Localized corrosion susceptibility (pitting and crevice corrosion) was assessed in isolated short-term tests by means of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. The effect of the simulated waste composition on the corrosion behavior of A537 steel was studied based on statistical analyses. The Surface Response Model could be successfully applied to the statistical analysis of the A537 steel corrosion in the studied solutions. General corrosion was not

  17. Electrical design of a 110-ft long muon pipe with automatic degaussing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1985-11-01

    This memo describes a magnetized cylindrical pipe made from tape wound grain oriented low carbon steel rolls. Grain oriented steel yields much higher magnetic fields at low ampereturns than cast iron or other steel pipes. This is especially important when only a few windings are allowed in the inner bore. The power supply and operating cost are also much lower. The pipe has a high (approx.9 kG) remnant field, but is automatically degaussed upon shutdown of the DC excitation power supply. A remnant field detector senses whether degaussing was successful. The pipe is used in the muon beam line. Its magnetic field deflects unwanted halo muons. Tests need to be conducted with and without pipe field. It is therefore desirable that the pipe field automatically returns to zero when the DC excitation is shut off. This can be rather easily accomplished

  18. INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC SPARK ON HARDNESS OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is an estimation of influence of an electric spark treatment on the state of mouldable superficial coverage of carbon steel. Methodology. The steel of fragment of railway wheel rim served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65% С, 0.67% Mn, 0.3% Si, 0.027% P, 0.028% S. Structural researches were conducted with the use of light microscopy and methods of quantitative metallography. The structural state of the probed steel corresponded to the state after hot plastic deformation. The analysis of hardness distribution in the micro volumes of cathode metal was carried out with the use of microhardness tester of type of PMT-3. An electric spark treatment of carbon steel surface was executed with the use of equipment type of EFI-25M. Findings. After electric spark treatment of specimen surface from carbon steel the forming of multi-layered coverage was observed. The analysis of microstructure found out the existence of high-quality distinctions in the internal structure of coverage metal, depending on the probed area. The results obtained in the process are confirmed by the well-known theses, that forming of superficial coverage according to technology of electric spark is determined by the terms of transfer and crystallization of metal. The gradient of structures on the coverage thickness largely depends on development of structural transformation processes similar to the thermal character influence. Originality. As a result of electric spark treatment on the condition of identical metal of anode and cathode, the first formed layer of coverage corresponds to the monophase state according to external signs. In the volume of coverage metal, the appearance of carbide phase particles is accompanied by the decrease of microhardness values. Practical value. Forming of multi-layered superficial coverage during electric spark treatment is accompanied by the origin of structure gradient on a thickness. The effect

  19. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  20. Demonstration and Validation of Stainless Steel Materials for Critical Above Grade Piping in Highly Corrosive Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    materials for corroded fire-suppression water pipelines at the Chimu- Wan tank farms on Okinawa Island, Japan. 1.3 Approach Members of the research... pipelines . As such, detailed designs for supports and seismic analysis were not required. Calculations were performed in accordance with ASME B31.3...The pipeline was assembled using tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding. Pipe segments were joined at a stationary location to form longer seg

  1. An assessment of carbon steel overpacks for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.; Bland, I.D.; Taylor, K.J.; Sharland, S.; Tasker, P.

    1986-01-01

    The report summarizes the results obtained at Harwell in the second phase of a project evaluating the corrosion behaviour of high-level waste overpacks in geological disposal. It has concentrated on the use of carbon steel in granitic and argillaceous environments, and has aimed at estimating the corrosion allowance required to achieve a 1000-year overpack life. Experimental and mathematical modelling studies have indicated that 200 mm of steel should be more than sufficient to prevent overpack penetration by general or localized corrosion. A theoretical assessment of the possible effects of micro-organisms on overpack corrosion has concluded that such species are likely to be found in repositories, but that only a fraction of their population should be corrosive towards carbon steel. Making the pessimistic assumption that all organic carbon in a 500 mm bentonite backfill is utilized by corrosive sulphate reducing bacteria, it has been estimated that this will result in an additional metal loss of 13 mm. One form of corrosion which cannot be dealt with by the corrosion allowance approach is stress corrosion cracking, since even at the lowest reported propagation rates, a metal thickness exceeding 3 m would be penetrated in 1000 years. It has been concluded that the possibility of stress corrosion cannot be dismissed, but, because the process requires a certain minimum stress level before it can occur, it should be possible to avoid the problem by giving the overpacks a stress relief heat treatment. Tests in a model environment have shown that a heat treatment designed to reduce fabrication stresses to 50% of the yield strengh should be sufficient to prevent cracking. It is recommended that this conclusion be substantiated by scaled-up experiments with model overpacks. The report draws further attention to degradation by hydrogen embrittlement

  2. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, A. G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation.

  3. On the carbide formation in high-carbon stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, M.; Qureshi, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Stainless steels containing high Cr as well as carbon contents in excess of 1.5 weight percent have been developed for applications which require high resistance erosion and environmental corrosion. Formation of carbides is one of important parameters for controlling properties of these materials especially erosion characteristics. Percent work includes the study of different type of carbides which from during the heat treatment of these materials. It has been found that precipitation of secondary carbides and the nature of matrix transformation plays an important role in determining the hardness characteristics of these materials. (author)

  4. Plasticity of low carbon steel in a hot state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalov, V P; Rizol' , A I; Shram, N N [Ural' skij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernykh Metallov, Sverdlovsk (USSR)

    1977-07-01

    The hot ductility (in tapered-specimen piersing test and the in wedge-shaped specimen rolling test) is studied of the Armeo-type low carbon steel produced by vacuum induction and open hearth techniques. The variations of the chemical composition within specified ranges, particularly as regards sulphur, oxygen and the Mn/S ratio, have a marked effect on the processing ductility. The temperature range of brittle fracture and acceptable hot working reductions as functions of the chemical composition have been revealed.

  5. Plasticity of low carbon steel in a hot state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, V.P.; Rizol', A.I.; Shram, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    The hot ductility (in tapered-specimen piersing test and the in wedge-shaped specimen rolling test) is studied of the Armeo-type low carbon steel produced by vacuum induction and open hearth techniques. The variations of the chemical composition within specified ranges, particularly as regards sulphur, oxygen and the Mn/S ratio, have a marked effect on the processing ductility. The temperature range of brittle fracture and acceptable hot working reductions as functions of the chemical composition have been revealed

  6. Corrosion Inhibitor of Carbon Steel from Onion Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Samsudin Asep

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steels composed by two main elements, they are iron (Fe and carbon (C elements which widely used in industrial because of its resistance and more affordable than stainless steel, but their weakness is they have low corrosion resistance. One way to modify carbon steel is by coating them with antioxidant compounds that can delay, slow down, and prevent lipid oxidation process, which obtained from onion peel extract. Several studies on corrosion inhibitors have been performed. However, the efficiency was not reach the optimum. This study aims to examine the effect of onion peel extract concentration on the efficiency of corrosion inhibitor and characterization of the green corrosion inhibitor from onion peel extract. This research method begins by extracting onion peel to 200 ml solvent which we use aquadest and methanol and mixed with 5 grams of crushed onion peel, then let them be extracted for 60 minutes with room temperature. Once it was filtered and the solution obtained, followed by evaporating process with rotary evaporator to decrease the content of solvent. The product is ready to be used as a green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 mol/L HCl. While the analysis used is HPLC qualitative analysis, and electroplatting process. The impedance is measured at a frequency of 100 kHz to 4 mHz with an AC current of 10mV. Inhibitor concentrations are vary between 2 ml and 4 ml of onion peel extract. Electroplatting is done within 30 minutes with 10 minutes each checking time. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was done for the analysis of corrosion rate and weight loss. Based on HPLC analysis, it is known that the extract of onion peel contains 1mg/L of quercetin, which is belong to flavonoid group as green inhibitor. While electroplatting process, aquadest solvent having average efficiency of 99,57% for 2 ml of extract, and 99,60% for 4 ml of extract. Methanol solvent having average efficiency of 99,52% for 2 ml of extract and 99

  7. The effect of pressure loadings on the conservatism of the net-section stress criterion for the failure of cracked stainless steel piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1994-01-01

    The technological problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of type 304 stainless steel piping in boiling water reactor piping systems, has provided the motivation for the considerable research interest in the integrity of cracked piping systems that are fabricated by ductile materials. IGSCC cracks are able to form at the inner surfaces of pipes. The cracks are circumferential and are able to grow slowly in service by a time dependent environmentally assisted mechanism. From a safety standpoint, it is important to know whether accident condition loadings will drive a part-through IGSCC crack unstably across the pipe thickness by a non-environmentally assisted fracture mechanism, and the resulting through-wall crack then propagate around the pipe circumference leading to a complete pipe severance. A methodology that has been developed to address this problem is a net-section stress methodology. The net-section stress approach for predicting the onset of crack extension in a piping system can give overly conservative predictions because a piping system is built-in at its end points and because crack extension requires some plastic deformation. The present paper is concerned with identifying the role of system pressure on the degree of conservatism, and two effects are important. Firstly, by inducing an axial tensile force at the cracked section, it is shown that the factor of conservatism can be increased. Secondly it is shown that the pressure induced moment at the cracked section behaves no differently to other contributions to this moment, in that all sources are associated with the same limited amount of elastic follow-up. All sources are associated with the same elastic flexibility parameter L*, which depends solely on the flexibility of the system and not on the nature of the loading

  8. Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems.

  9. An overview of environmental degradation of materials in nuclear power plant piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Several types of environmental degradation of piping in light water reactor (LWR) power systems have already had significant economic impact on the industry. These include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel piping, erosion-corrosion of carbon steel piping in secondary systems, and a variety of types of fatigue failures. In addition, other problems have been identified that must be addressed in considering extended lifetimes for nuclear plants. These include the embrittlement of cast stainless steels after extended thermal aging at reactor operating temperatures and the effect of reactor environments on the design margin inherent in the ASME Section III fatigue design curves especially for carbon steel piping. These problems are being addressed by wide-ranging research programs in this country and abroad. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the accomplishments of these programs and to note some of the remaining unanswered questions

  10. An overview of environmental degradation of materials in nuclear power plant piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    Piping in light water reactor (LWR) power systems is affected by several types of environmental degradation: intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) has required research, inspection, and mitigation programs that will ultimately cost several billion dollars; erosion-corrosion of carbon steel piping has been observed frequently in the secondary systems of both BWRs and pressurized water reactors (PWRs); the effect of the BWR environment can greatly diminish the design margin inherent in the ASME Section III fatigue design curves for carbon steel piping; and cast stainless steels are subject to embrittlement after extended thermal aging at reactor operating temperatures. These problems are being addressed by wide-ranging research programs in this country and abroad. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the accomplishments of these programs and to note some of the remaining unanswered questions

  11. Study on Spheroidization and Related Heat Treatments of Medium Carbon Alloy Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisha S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medium carbon steels as engineering materials is reflected by the fact that out of the vast majority of engineering grade ferrous alloys available and used in the market today, a large proportion of them are from the family of medium carbon steels. Typically medium carbon steels have a carbon range of 0.25 to 0.65% by weight, and a manganese content ranging from 0.060 to 1.65% by weight. Medium carbon steels are more resistive to cutting, welding and forming as compared to low carbon steels. From the last two decades a number of research scholars reported the use of verity of heat treatments to tailor the properties of medium carbon steels. Spheroidizing is the novel industrial heat treatment employed to improve formability and machinability of medium/high carbon low alloy steels. This exclusive study covers procedure, the effects and possible outcomes of various heat treatments on medium carbon steels. In the present work, other related heat treatments like annealing and special treatments for property alterations which serve as pretreatments for spheroidizing are also reviewed. Medium carbon steels with property alterations by various heat treatment processes are finding increased responsiveness in transportation, aerospace, space, underwater along with other variegated fields. Improved tribological and mechanical properties consisting of impact resistance, stiffness, abrasion and strength are the main reasons for the increased attention of these steels in various industries. In the present scenario for the consolidation of important aspects of various heat treatments and effects on mechanical properties of medium carbons steel, a review of different research papers has been attempted. This review may be used as a guide to provide practical data for heat treatment industry, especially as a tool to enhance workability and tool life.

  12. Secondary pipe rupture at Mihama unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajime Ito; Takehiko Sera

    2005-01-01

    The secondary system pipe rupture occurred on August 9, 2004, while Mihama unit 3 was operating at the rated thermal power. The rupture took place on the condensate line-A piping between the No.4 LP heater and the deaerator, downstream of an orifice used for measuring the condensate flux. The pipe is made of carbon steel, and normally has 558.8 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness. The pipe wall had thinned to 0.4 mm at the point of minimum thickness. It is estimated that the disturbed flow of water downstream of the orifice caused erosion/corrosion and developed wall thinning, leading to a rupture at the thinnest section under internal pressure, about 1MPa. Observation of the pipe internal surface revealed a scale-like pattern typical in this kind of phenomenon. Eleven workers who were preparing for an annual outage that was to start from August 14 suffered burn injuries, of who five died. Since around 1975, we, Kansai Electric, have been checking pipe wall thickness while focusing on the thinning of carbon steel piping in the secondary system. Summarizing the results from such investigation and reviewing the latest technical knowledge including operating experience from overseas utilities, we compiled the pipe thickness management guideline for PWR secondary pipes, 1990. The pipe section that ruptured at the Mihama unit 3 should have been included within the inspection scopes according to the guideline but was not registered on the inspection list. It had not been corrected for almost thirty years. As the result, this pipe section had not been inspected even once since the beginning of the plant operation, 1976. It seems that the quality assurance and maintenance management had not functioned well regarding the secondary system piping management, although we were responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants as licensee. We will review the secondary system inspection procedure and also improve the pipe thickness management guideline. And also, we would replace

  13. Kinetics of electrochemical boriding of low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartal, G.; Eryilmaz, O.L.; Krumdick, G.; Erdemir, A.; Timur, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the growth kinetics of the boride layers forming on low carbon steel substrates was investigated during electrochemical boriding which was performed at a constant current density of 200 mA/cm 2 in a borax based electrolyte at temperatures ranging from 1123 K to 1273 K for periods of 5-120 min. After boriding, the presence of both FeB and Fe 2 B phases were confirmed by the X-ray diffraction method. Cross-sectional microscopy revealed a very dense and thick morphology for both boride phases. Micro hardness testing of the borided steel samples showed a significant increase in the hardness of the borided surfaces (i.e., up to (1700 ± 200) HV), while the hardness of un-borided steel samples was approximately (200 ± 20) HV. Systematic studies over a wide range of boriding time and temperature confirmed that the rate of the boride layer formation is strongly dependent on boriding duration and has a parabolic character. The activation energy of boride layer growth for electrochemical boriding was determined as (172.75 ± 8.6) kJ/mol.

  14. Surface martensitization of Carbon steel using Arc Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Haris; Dimyati, Arbi; Sebayang, Darwin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper new technology of surface structure modification of steel by short plasma exposure in Arc Plasma Sintering (APS) device is presented. APS is an apparatus working based on plasma generated by DC pulsed current originally used for synthesizing materials via sintering and melting. Plasma exposure in APS was applied into the specimens for 1 and 3 seconds which generate temperature approximately about 1300-1500°C. The SUP9, pearlitic carbon steel samples were used. The hardness, hardening depth and microstructure of the specimens have been investigated by Vickers micro hardness test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) supported by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The results have showed that the mechanical property was significantly improved due to the formation of single martensitic structures as identified by SEM. The hardness of treated surface evaluated by Vickers hardness test showed significant improvement nearly three time from 190 VHN before to 524 VHN after treatment. Furthermore, EDX confirmed that the formation of martensite layer occurred without altering its composition. The APS also produced uniform hardened layer up to 250 μm. The experiment has demonstrated that arc plasma process was successfully improved the mechanical properties of steel in relatively very short time.

  15. Study on microstructure and mechanical characteristics of low-carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkari Khorrami, Mahmoud; Mostafaei, Mohammad Ali; Pouraliakbar, Hesam, E-mail: hpouraliakbar@alum.sharif.edu; Kokabi, Amir Hossein

    2014-07-01

    In this work, examinations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plain carbon steel and AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel dissimilar welds are carried out. Welding is conducted in both autogenous and using ER309L austenitic filler rod conditions through gas tungsten arc welding process. The results indicate that fully-ferritic and duplex ferritic–martensitic microstructures are formed for autogenous and filler-added welds, respectively. Carbide precipitation and formation of martensite at ferrite grain boundaries (intergranular martensite) as well as grain growth occur in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 430 steel. It is found that weld heat input can strongly affect grain growth phenomenon along with the amount and the composition of carbides and intergranular martensite. Acquired mechanical characteristics of weld in the case of using filler metal are significantly higher than those of autogenous one. Accordingly, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), hardness, and absorbed energy during tensile test of weld metal are increased from 662 MPa to 910 MPa, 140 Hv to 385 Hv, and 53.6 J m{sup −3} to 79 J m{sup −3}, respectively by filler metal addition. From fracture surfaces, predominantly ductile fracture is observed in the specimen welded with filler metal while mainly cleavage fracture occurs in the autogenous weld metal.

  16. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Scope of the Orders Japan The products covered by this order include certain... designing the piping system: (1) Corrosion of the piping system will occur if material other than stainless... designing the piping system: (1) Corrosion of the piping system will occur if material other than stainless...

  17. South African performance based standards (PBS) vehicle to transport steel pipes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dessein, T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available measures the vehicle?s rollover stability. Rearward Amplification (RA) ? Measures the degree to which the lateral accelerations experienced by trailing units are amplified in comparison to that of the towing unit in a high speed evasive single lane...-speed 90? turn high-speed travel along a 1.0km long straight road with uneven road surface a pulse-steer test HVTT11: A South African PBS Vehicle to Transport Pipes 10 a constant radius turn at slowly increasing speed an evasive lane change...

  18. Ultrasonic inspection of liquid-metal-filled austenitic stainless steel piping welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.; Martin, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this effort is to reliably detect a crack extending 25 to 50% through the wall of Schedule 40 sodium filled pipe at refueling temperatures (204 0 C [400 0 F]) using remote examination techniques. The task of demonstrating a prototype ultrasonic ISI system under simulated refueling conditions was laid out in two phases. The first phase was initiation of long-lead efforts which were key elements of a practical prototype system, including ultrasonic signal analysis efforts and laboratory prototype support systems. The second phase, dependent on successful completion of the first, consisted of development and demonstration of a prototype system in a simulated ISI environment

  19. General corrosion of carbon steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    This short paper seeks to provide a summary of the main knowledge about the general corrosion of carbon steels in high temperature water. In pure water or slightly alkaline deaerated water, steels develop a protective coating of magnetite in a double layer (Potter and Mann oxide) or a single layer (Bloom oxide). The morphology of the oxide layer and the kinetics of corrosion depend on the test parameters controlling the solubility of iron. The parameters exercising the greatest influence are partial hydrogen pressure and mass transfer: hydrogen favours the solubilization of the magnetite; the entrainment of the dissolved iron prevents a redeposition of magnetite on the surface of the steel. Cubic or parabolic in static conditions, the kinetics of corrosion tends to be linear in dynamic conditions. In dynamic operation, corrosion is at least one order of magnitude lower in water with a pH of 10 than in pure water with a pH of 7. The activation energy of corrosion is 130 kJ/mol (31 kcal/mol). This results in the doubling of corrosion at around 300 deg C for a temperature increase of 15 deg C. Present in small quantities (100-200 ppb), oxygen decreases general corrosion but increases the risk of pitting corrosion - even for a low chloride content - and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion-fatigue. The steel composition has probably an influence on the kinetics of corrosion in dynamic conditions; further work would be required to clarify the effect of some residual elements. (author). 31 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  1. Effect of Cr and Mo on strain ageing behaviour of low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereloma, E.V.; Bata, V.; Scott, R.I.; Smith, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the effects of Cr (0.26-0.74 wt%) and Mo (0.09-0.3 wt%) additions on the kinetics of strain ageing process in low carbon steel. The strain ageing behaviour of the steels was investigated by using tensile tests and transmission electron microscopy. The results have shown that Mo-alloyed steels undergo the same four stages of ageing as unalloyed low carbon steel, whereas Cr-alloyed steels exhibit only three stages of ageing. At the same time, the addition of Mo accelerates the ageing response, while alloying with Cr reduces the rate of strain ageing by ∼3 times in comparison with non-alloyed low carbon steel. It especially delays the offset of Stage III. This is explained by the reduction of carbon content in ferrite due to the enrichment of cementite with Cr leading to the reduction of its equilibrium solubility in ferrite.

  2. Effect of Cr and Mo on strain ageing behaviour of low carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereloma, E.V., E-mail: elenap@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Bata, V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University (Australia); Scott, R.I.; Smith, R.M. [BlueScope Steel Limited, Port Kembla (Australia)

    2010-04-25

    This work explores the effects of Cr (0.26-0.74 wt%) and Mo (0.09-0.3 wt%) additions on the kinetics of strain ageing process in low carbon steel. The strain ageing behaviour of the steels was investigated by using tensile tests and transmission electron microscopy. The results have shown that Mo-alloyed steels undergo the same four stages of ageing as unalloyed low carbon steel, whereas Cr-alloyed steels exhibit only three stages of ageing. At the same time, the addition of Mo accelerates the ageing response, while alloying with Cr reduces the rate of strain ageing by {approx}3 times in comparison with non-alloyed low carbon steel. It especially delays the offset of Stage III. This is explained by the reduction of carbon content in ferrite due to the enrichment of cementite with Cr leading to the reduction of its equilibrium solubility in ferrite.

  3. Efficiency of inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by consortium sulfate reducing bacteria on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahat, Nur Akma; Othman, Norinsan Kamil [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sahrani, Fathul Karim [School of Environment and Natural Resources Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition efficiency of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in controlling biocorrosion on the carbon steel surfaces has been investigated. The carbon steel coupons were incubated in the presence of consortium SRB (C-SRB) with and without BKC for the difference medium concentration. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency have been evaluated by a weight loss method. The morphology of biofilm C-SRB on the steel surfaces were characterized with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). The results revealed that BKC exhibits a low corrosion rate, minimizing the cell growth and biofilm development on the carbon steel surfaces.

  4. Efficiency of inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by consortium sulfate reducing bacteria on carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahat, Nur Akma; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in controlling biocorrosion on the carbon steel surfaces has been investigated. The carbon steel coupons were incubated in the presence of consortium SRB (C-SRB) with and without BKC for the difference medium concentration. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency have been evaluated by a weight loss method. The morphology of biofilm C-SRB on the steel surfaces were characterized with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). The results revealed that BKC exhibits a low corrosion rate, minimizing the cell growth and biofilm development on the carbon steel surfaces

  5. Efficiency of inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by consortium sulfate reducing bacteria on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Nur Akma; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2015-09-01

    The inhibition efficiency of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in controlling biocorrosion on the carbon steel surfaces has been investigated. The carbon steel coupons were incubated in the presence of consortium SRB (C-SRB) with and without BKC for the difference medium concentration. The corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency have been evaluated by a weight loss method. The morphology of biofilm C-SRB on the steel surfaces were characterized with variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). The results revealed that BKC exhibits a low corrosion rate, minimizing the cell growth and biofilm development on the carbon steel surfaces.

  6. Analysis of corrosion products of carbon steel in wet bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, K.; Nagano, T.; Kozai, N.; Nakashima, S.; Nakayama, S.; Muraoka, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following conclusions were obtained; (1) At 40degC, the average corrosion rate of SS41 carbon steel in wet bentonite was 0.025 mm/y. This is smaller than the value of 0.042 mm/y obtained in pure water at 40degC. However, at 95degC, the corrosion rate of SS41 carbon steel in wet bentonite was 0.27 mm/y, which is much larger than that in pure water at 95degC. (2) At 95degC, γ-FeO(OH) (lepidocrocite) was formed only in wet bentonite, and it was absent in pure water. Evaporation of moisture resulted in the formation of partial covering of bentonite, which promoted local corrosion. Consequently, γ-FeO(OH) was considered to be formed. (3) In wet bentonite at 95degC, α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) can be identified by means of colorimetry. The color of corrosion products is orangish, indicating the contribution of α-Fe 2 O 3 in iron hydroxides. (author)

  7. Microstructures and mechanical properties of duplex low carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfirano; Eben, U. S.; Hidayat, M.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructures behavior of duplex cold-rolled low carbon steel for automotive applications has been investigated. Intercritical annealing treatment is commonly used to develop a duplex low carbon steel containing ferrite and martensite. To get a duplex phase ferrite and martensite, the specimens were heated at inter-critical annealing temperature of 775°C - 825°C, for heating time up to 20 minutes, followed by water-quenched. The hardness of specimens was studied. The optical microscopy was used to analyze the microstructures. The optimal annealing conditions (martensite volume fraction approaching 20%) at 775°C with a heating time of 10 minutes was achieved. The highest hardness value was obtained in cold-rolled specimens of 41% in size reduction for intercritical annealing temperature of 825°C. In this condition, the hardness value was 373 HVN. The correlation between intercritical annealing temperature and time can be expressed in the transformation kinetics as fγ/fe = 1-exp(-Ktn) wherein K and n are grain growth rate constant and Avrami’s exponent, respectively. From experiment, the value of K = 0.15 and n = 0.461. Using the relationship between temperatures and heating time, activation energy (Q) can be calculated that is 267 kJ/mol.

  8. Marine Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Jenifer; Fuente, Daniel de la; Chico, Belén; Simancas, Joaquín; Díaz, Iván; Morcillo, Manuel

    2017-04-13

    The atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel is an extensive topic that has been studied over the years by many researchers. However, until relatively recently, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the action of marine chlorides. Corrosion in coastal regions is a particularly relevant issue due the latter's great importance to human society. About half of the world's population lives in coastal regions and the industrialisation of developing countries tends to concentrate production plants close to the sea. Until the start of the 21st century, research on the basic mechanisms of rust formation in Cl - -rich atmospheres was limited to just a small number of studies. However, in recent years, scientific understanding of marine atmospheric corrosion has advanced greatly, and in the authors' opinion a sufficient body of knowledge has been built up in published scientific papers to warrant an up-to-date review of the current state-of-the-art and to assess what issues still need to be addressed. That is the purpose of the present review. After a preliminary section devoted to basic concepts on atmospheric corrosion, the marine atmosphere, and experimentation on marine atmospheric corrosion, the paper addresses key aspects such as the most significant corrosion products, the characteristics of the rust layers formed, and the mechanisms of steel corrosion in marine atmospheres. Special attention is then paid to important matters such as coastal-industrial atmospheres and long-term behaviour of carbon steel exposed to marine atmospheres. The work ends with a section dedicated to issues pending, noting a series of questions in relation with which greater research efforts would seem to be necessary.

  9. Marine Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Jenifer; de la Fuente, Daniel; Chico, Belén; Simancas, Joaquín; Díaz, Iván; Morcillo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel is an extensive topic that has been studied over the years by many researchers. However, until relatively recently, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the action of marine chlorides. Corrosion in coastal regions is a particularly relevant issue due the latter’s great importance to human society. About half of the world’s population lives in coastal regions and the industrialisation of developing countries tends to concentrate production plants close to the sea. Until the start of the 21st century, research on the basic mechanisms of rust formation in Cl−-rich atmospheres was limited to just a small number of studies. However, in recent years, scientific understanding of marine atmospheric corrosion has advanced greatly, and in the authors’ opinion a sufficient body of knowledge has been built up in published scientific papers to warrant an up-to-date review of the current state-of-the-art and to assess what issues still need to be addressed. That is the purpose of the present review. After a preliminary section devoted to basic concepts on atmospheric corrosion, the marine atmosphere, and experimentation on marine atmospheric corrosion, the paper addresses key aspects such as the most significant corrosion products, the characteristics of the rust layers formed, and the mechanisms of steel corrosion in marine atmospheres. Special attention is then paid to important matters such as coastal-industrial atmospheres and long-term behaviour of carbon steel exposed to marine atmospheres. The work ends with a section dedicated to issues pending, noting a series of questions in relation with which greater research efforts would seem to be necessary. PMID:28772766

  10. A Study of the Effect of Interrupted Quenches on a Thermomechanically Processed High Carbon Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    steel . Successful martempering requires a cooling rate sufficient to avoid the nose of the C- curve and thus prevent significant bainite formation. When...STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF INTERRUPTED QUENCHES ON A THERMONECHANICALLY PROCESSED HIGH CARBON STEEL by Steven A. Barton October 1982 Thesis Advisor: T.R...unlimited. A Study of the Effect of Interrupted Quenches on a Thermomechanically Processed High Carbon Steel by Steven A. Barton Lieutenant, United

  11. Properties and Microstructure of Laser Welded VM12-SHC Steel Pipes Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of microstructure and tests of welded joints of new generation VM12-SHC martensitic steel using high power CO2 laser (LBW method with bifocal welding head. VM12-SHC is dedicated to energetic installation material, designed to replace currently used. High content of chromium and others alloying elements improve its resistance and strength characteristic. Use of VM12-SHC steel for production of the superheaters, heating chambers and walls in steam boilers resulted in various weldability researches. In article are presented results of destructive and non-destructive tests. For destructive: static bending and Vickers hardness tests, and for non-destructive: VT, RT, UT, micro and macroscopic tests were performed.

  12. Formation of carbonate pipes in the northern Okinawa Trough linked to strong sulfate exhaustion and iron supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Guo, Zixiao; Chen, Shun; Sun, Zhilei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jiwei; Du, Mengran

    2017-05-01

    The microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a key biogeochemical process that consumes substantial amounts of methane produced in seafloor sediments, can lead to the formation of carbonate deposits at or beneath the sea floor. Although Fe oxide-driven AOM has been identified in cold seep sediments, the exact mode by which it may influence the formation of carbonate deposits remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the morphology, petrology and geochemistry of a methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate pipe in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). We detect abundant authigenic pyrites, as well as widespread trace Fe, within microbial mat-like carbonate veins in the pipe. The in situ δ34S values of these pyrites range from -3.9 to 31.6‰ (VCDT), suggesting a strong consumption of seawater sulfate by sulfate-driven AOM at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone. The positive δ56Fe values of pyrite and notable enrichment of Fe in the OT pipe concurrently indicate that the pyrites are primarily derived from Fe oxides in deep sediments. We propose that the Fe-rich carbonate pipe formed at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone, below which Fe-driven AOM, rather than Fe-oxide reduction coupled to organic matter degradation, might be responsible for the abundantly available Fe2+ in the fluids from which pyrites precipitated. The Fe-rich carbonate pipe described in this study probably represents the first fossil example of carbonate deposits linked to Fe-driven AOM. Because Fe-rich carbonate deposits have also been found at other cold seeps worldwide, we infer that similar processes may play an essential role in biogeochemical cycling of sub-seafloor methane and Fe at continental margins.

  13. Development of measurement technique for crack depth in weld zone of thick stainless steel pipe with ultrasonic phased array TOFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Phased array TOFD (time of flight diffraction) method which makes possible to detect tip diffraction echoes and measure crack depth in an austenitic stainless steel weld zone with a thickness of more than 25 mm to which region it was difficult to apply ultrasonic test due to scattering of ultrasonic waves has been developed. The developed method uses a single array transducer to have a short distance between incident points of transmitter and receiver in order to propagate waves in shorter pass in the weld region. Transmitting and receiving ultrasonic beams from a single array probe can be set a crossing point and a focal point at desired depth. This method makes possible to scan with 16 kinds of combination of crossing points and focal pints of ultrasonic beam at a time. We have examined fundamental characteristics of depth measurement with electric discharge machining slits on base metal of a stainless steel with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could measure the slit depth with 0.2mm error from the slit depth with a estimating method of a lateral wave propagation time with back wall echo. (2) The largest error of the depth measurement from the slit depth with the ultrasonic beam crossing point set at the 4mm different point from the tip of the slit was 0.3 mm. (3) The largest error of the depth measurements due to the difference of focal point depth of ultrasonic beam was 0.2 mm. (4) The highest tip diffraction echo could be observed with the ultrasonic beam cross point set at the tip of the slit. The difference of 4 mm between the cross point and the tip of the slit caused attenuation of tip diffraction echo height in -6.8 dB. Furthermore we have measured a depth of electric discharge machining slits, fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on stainless steel welded pipe specimens with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could detect the tip diffraction echoes which have a signal noise ratio with more than 2.4 from the fatigue

  14. Raising the Corrosion Resistance of Low-Carbon Steels by Electrolytic-Plasma Saturation with Nitrogen and Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmanov, S. A.; Grishina, E. P.; Belkin, P. N.; Kusmanova, Yu. V.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-05-01

    Structural features of the external oxide layer and internal nitrided, carbonitrided and carburized layers in steels 10, 20 and St3 produced by the method of electrolytic plasma treatment are studied. Specimens of the steels are tested for corrosion in a naturally aerated 1-N solution of sodium chloride. The condition of the metal/sodium chloride solution interface is studied by the method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steels can be raised by anode electrolytic-plasma saturation with nitrogen and carbon. Recommendations are given on the choice of carbonitriding modes for structural steels.

  15. A study of the condition for the passivation of carbon steel in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Morimoto, Masataka; Honda, Akira

    1999-01-01

    It is important to study the corrosion behavior of materials to be used for overpack for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Carbon steel is one of the candidate materials. The type of corrosion on carbon steel depends on whether the carbon steel is passivated or not. In this study, the condition for the passivation of carbon steel was studied using bentonite as the buffer material. Anodic polarization in bentonite and the measurements of pH of porewater in bentonite was measured. The results of these experiments showed that the possibility of passivation is small in highly compacted bentonite in groundwater in Japan. Therefore, localized corrosion on carbon steel due to the breakdown of passive film is unlikely in bentonite. In other words, general corrosion seems to be the most probable type of corrosion under repository condition in Japan. (author)

  16. An evaluation of detection ability of ultrasonic testing with a large aperture transducer for axial cracks in cast stainless steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Yoshito; Ishida, Hitoshi; Kurozumi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is difficult to apply to cast stainless steel which is the material of the main coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors, because of the large attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves caused by its macro structure. In this study, ultrasonic testing for progression of axial fatigue cracks of a welded area in the test piece of cast stainless steel pipe was performed using double big-size ultrasonic probes which were formerly developed in INSS. It was found that detection of defects that were over 6% of the target depth for the specimen thickness of 69mm is possible, and detection of defects with over 10% of the target depth is possible for all test conditions. (author)

  17. Special Advanced Studies for Pollution Prevention. Delivery Order 0017: Sol-Gel Surface Preparation for Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Haixing

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this program is to study the feasibility of using sol-gel active alumina coatings for the surface preparation of carbon steel and stainless steel for adhesive bonding, and to optimize...

  18. Corrosion of carbon steel and low-alloy steel in diluted seawater containing hydrazine under gamma-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Seawater was injected into reactor cores of Units 1, 2, and 3 in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station as an urgent coolant. It is considered that the injected seawater causes corrosion of steels of the reactor pressure vessel and primary containment vessel. To investigate the effects of gamma-rays irradiation on weight loss in carbon steel and low-alloy steel, corrosion tests were performed in diluted seawater at 50°C under gamma-rays irradiation. Specimens were irradiated with dose rates of 4.4 kGy/h and 0.2 kGy/h. To evaluate the effects of hydrazine (N 2 H 4 ) on the reduction of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, N 2 H 4 was added to the diluted seawater. In the diluted seawater without N 2 H 4 , weight loss in the steels irradiated with 0.2 kGy/h was similar to that in the unirradiated steels, and weight loss in the steels irradiated with 4.4 kGy/h increased to approximate 1.7 times of those in the unirradiated steels. Weight loss in the steels irradiated in the diluted seawater containing N 2 H 4 was similar to that in the diluted seawater without N 2 H 4 . When N 2 was introduced into the gas phase in the flasks during gamma-rays irradiation, weight loss in the steels decreased. (author)

  19. Investigation of the development and optimisation of cutting loads for the cutting of steel pipes with typical properties and material properties for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, S.; Freund, H.U.; Hollenberg, K.; Horning, W.; Esser, H.J.

    1987-04-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a type of cutter loading for the cutting of thickwalled steel pipes by explosive technique which, due to its construction and cutting performance, is suitable for use when dismantling pipelines in shutdown nuclear power stations. The loading sleeve is built up of individual linear elements and can be placed as a polygon (e.g. octagon) around pipes of different diameters. A steel pipe with dimensions 610 mm diameter x 36 mm wall thickness (live steam pipe of a German BWR of a new type) was completely and accurately cut using a cutting load sleeve with 1.84 kg of explosive. The great tamping of the cutting loader type developed, minimises the quantity of explosive required and reduces the air shock or blast wave peak pressure to about 30% compared to a charge without tamping. The distance at which the value of peak pressure of the blast wave of 1 bar (which could cause damage) is exceeded, is reduced to 3.0 metres compared to 5.3 metres for an untamped charge of the same cutting power. (orig./HP) [de

  20. 78 FR 16832 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ...] Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation of... ``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty (``AD'') orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel... (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 85 (January 3, 2012). \\2\\ See Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From...

  1. Probabilistic based design rules for intersystem LOCAS in ABWR piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Wesley, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for probability-based standards for low-pressure piping systems that are attached to the reactor coolant loops of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) which could experience reactor coolant loop temperatures and pressures because of multiple isolation valve failures. This accident condition is called an intersystem loss-of-coolant accident (ISLOCA). The methodology was applied to various sizes of carbon and stainless steel piping designed to advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) temperatures and pressures

  2. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels: Role of the initial dislocation structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, B., E-mail: bianca@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lesage, J. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Pasqualino, I. [Subsea Technology Laboratory (LTS), Ocean Engineering Department, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68508, Cidade Universitária, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Bemporad, E. [University of Rome “ROMA TRE”, Mechanical and Industrial Eng. Dept., Via Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Benseddiq, N. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cité Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2013-09-15

    The present work is the second part of an ongoing study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels [B. Pinheiro et al., Mat. Sci. Eng., A 532 (2012) 158–166]. Microdeformations and residual stresses (macrostresses) are evaluated by X-ray diffraction during alternating bending fatigue tests on samples taken from an API 5L X60 grade steel pipe. Microdeformations are evaluated from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the diffraction peak and residual stresses are estimated from the peak shift. Here, to understand the role of the initial dislocation structure, annealed samples are considered. As previously found for as-machined samples, the evolution of microdeformations shows three regular successive stages, but now with an increase during the first stage. The amplitude of each stage is accentuated with increasing stress amplitude, while its duration is reduced. Residual stresses show a similar trend, with stages of the same durations than those observed for FWHM, respectively. Additionally, changes in density and distribution of dislocations are observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with the technique of focused ion beam. The results are very encouraging for the development of a future indicator of fatigue damage initiation for pipe steels based on microstructural changes measured by X-ray diffraction.

  3. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels: Role of the initial dislocation structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, B.; Lesage, J.; Pasqualino, I.; Bemporad, E.; Benseddiq, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is the second part of an ongoing study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in pipe steels [B. Pinheiro et al., Mat. Sci. Eng., A 532 (2012) 158–166]. Microdeformations and residual stresses (macrostresses) are evaluated by X-ray diffraction during alternating bending fatigue tests on samples taken from an API 5L X60 grade steel pipe. Microdeformations are evaluated from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the diffraction peak and residual stresses are estimated from the peak shift. Here, to understand the role of the initial dislocation structure, annealed samples are considered. As previously found for as-machined samples, the evolution of microdeformations shows three regular successive stages, but now with an increase during the first stage. The amplitude of each stage is accentuated with increasing stress amplitude, while its duration is reduced. Residual stresses show a similar trend, with stages of the same durations than those observed for FWHM, respectively. Additionally, changes in density and distribution of dislocations are observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with the technique of focused ion beam. The results are very encouraging for the development of a future indicator of fatigue damage initiation for pipe steels based on microstructural changes measured by X-ray diffraction

  4. MODEL TESTS AND 3D ELASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR STEEL PIPE PILES WITH WINGS IN STALLED IN SOIL CEMENT COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Toshiyuki; Teramoto, Shuntarou; Kimura, Makoto

    Steel pipe piles with wings installed in soil cement column is a composite foundation of pile consisting of soil improvement with cement and steel pipe with wings. This type of pile shows higher vertical bearing capacity when compared to steel pipe piles that are installed without soil cement. It is thought the wings contribute to higher bearing capacity of this type of piles. The wings are also thought to play the role of structural unification of pile foundations and load transfer. In this study, model test and 3D elastic finite element analysis was carried out in order to elucidate the effect of wings on the structural unification of pile foundation and the load transfer mechanism. Firstly, the model test was carried out in order to grasp the influence of pile with and without wings, the shape of wings of the pile and the unconfined compression strength of the soil cement on the structural unification of the pile foundation. The numerical analysis of the model test was then carried out on the intermediate part of the pile foundation with wings and mathematical model developed. Finally load tran sfer mechanism was checked for the entire length of the pile through this mathematical model and the load sharing ratio of the wings and stress distribution occurring in the soil cement clarified. In addition, the effect of the wing interval on the structural unification of the pile foundation and load transfer was also checked and clarified.

  5. Stress-assisted, microbial-induced corrosion of stainless steel primary piping and other aging issues at the Omega West Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.

    1995-01-01

    After the discovery of cooling system leak of about 284 liters per twenty-four (24) hour period, an investigation determined that the 76.2-cm diameter, 33.5-m long stainless-steel (304) OWR delay line was losing water at the same nominal rate. An excavation effort revealed that a circumferential crack, approximately 0.0025 cm in width, extended around the bottom half of the delay line. In addition, other evidence of what appeared to be microcracking and pitting that originated at random nucleated sites around the pipe were also found. Results of destructive analysis and nondestructive testing allowed Los Alamos staff to conclude that the direct cause for the main crack and other pitting resulted from stress-assisted, microbial-induced corrosion of the stainless steel primary piping. The results also indicated that microbial action from bacteria that are normally present in earth can be extremely harmful to stainless- steel piping under certain conditions. Other potential problems that could have also eventually led to a permanent shutdown of the OWR were discussed. These problems, although never encountered nor associated with the current shutdown, were identified in aging studies and are associated with: (1) the water-cooled, bismuth gamma-ray shield and, (2) the aluminum thermal column head seal that prevents reactor vessel water from entering into the graphite-filled thermal column

  6. Underwater cutting of stainless steel plate and pipe for dismantling reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, M.; Tateiwa, F.; Kanatani, F.; Yamashita, S.

    1982-01-01

    A consumable electrode water jet cutting technique is described. Satisfactory underwater cutting of 80mm stainless steel plate using a current of 2000A and at a water depth of 200mm has been demonstrated. The electrical requirements for this arc welding method applied to cutting were found to be approximately one third those required for conventional plasma arc cutting for the same thickness plate. An application of this technique might be found in the dismantling of atomic reactor pressure vessels, and parts of commercial atomic reactors. (author)

  7. Development of super duplex stainless steel for water-supply pipe and valve in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kim, Jun Sick; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Zin Hyung

    2000-01-01

    Austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels are very attractive as material for water-supply facilities in atomic power plants where both high mechanical strength and excellent resistance to localized and stress corrosion are required. However, these alloys have a problem to get sensitive to embrittlement when exposed to temperatures of 250 ∼ 1050 deg C. So far, there have been large efforts to improve this alloy. In this paper, a new developed alloy designed to improve not resistance to the embrittlement but also mechanical and corrosion properties compared with existing commercial alloys were introduced with some experimental results. (author)

  8. Evaluation of protective effect of deposits formed by naphthenic corrosion and sulfidation on carbon steel and steel 5Cr-0.5Mo exposed in atmospheric distillation fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Duarte

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Refining of so-called opportunity crude oils with a high level of naphthenic acids and sulfur compounds has been increasing interest due to limited availability of light crude oils, however, considerable corrosive effects in the processing to high temperature on pipes and distillation towers mainly by the attack of naphthenic acids and sulfur compounds; sulfur compounds could be corrosive or can reduce the attack of naphthenic acids due to the formation of sulfides layers on the metal surface. In this work was evaluated the performance of deposits formed on the surface of carbon steel AISI SAE 1020 and 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel exposed in crude oil fractions obtained from atmospheric distillation tower. For this, gravimetric tests were performed in dynamic autoclave using metal samples pre-treated in a crude oil fraction obtained from the atmospheric distillation tower of the Crude Distillation Unit (CDU # 1 in order to form layers of sulfides on the surface of the two materials and subsequently to expose pre-treated and non-pretreated samples in two different crude oil fractions obtained from atmospheric distillation tower of Crude Distillation Unit (CDU # 2. The evaluation showed that the samples pretreated decreased tendency to corrosion by naphthenic acids and sulfidation compared to untreated samples.

  9. Improved corrosion resistance of cast carbon steel in sulphur oxides by Alonizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzer, M.; Dzioba, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The results of studies on the Alonizing of cast steel and of testing the corrosion resistance of this cast steel in an atmosphere containing 5 to 6% SO 2 + 50% SO 3 at 853 K are described and compared with the results obtained with unalonized cast carbon steel and high-alloy 23Cr-8Ni-2Mo cast steel. The duration of the corrosion tests was 336 hours. The aluminium diffusion layer on cast carbon steel was obtained by holding the specimens in a mixture containing 99% of powered Fe-Al and 1% of NH 4 Cl at 1323 ± 20 K. The holding time was 10 and 20 hours, respectively. The aluminium layer formed on the cast carbon steel was examined by optical microscopy and an X-ray microanalysis. After Alonizing for 10 h the layer had reached a thickness of 950 μm, and contained up to 35% Al. In a mixture of sulphur oxides corrosion rate of the alonized cast carbon steel was by about 600 times lower than of the unalonized cast carbon steel, and by about 50 times lower than that of the 23Cr-8Ni-2Mo cast steel. (orig.) [de

  10. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel and Hot Dip Galvanized Steel in Simulated Concrete Solution with Different pH Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchen XIE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hot dip galvanizing technology is now widely used as a method of protection for steel rebars. The corrosion behaviors of Q235 carbon steel and hot galvanized steel in a Ca(OH2 solution with a pH from 10 to 13 was investigated by electrode potential and polarization curves testing. The results indicated that carbon steel and hot galvanized steel were all passivated in a strong alkaline solution. The electrode potential of hot dip galvanized steel was lower than that of carbon steel; thus, hot dip galvanized steel can provide very good anodic protection for carbon steel. However, when the pH value reached 12.5, a polarity reversal occurred under the condition of a certain potential. Hot dip galvanized coating became a cathode, and the corrosion of carbon steel accelerated. The electrochemical behaviors and passivation abilities of hot dip galvanized steel and carbon steel were affected by pH. The higher the pH value was, the more easily they were passivated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16675

  11. Hot ductility of medium carbon steel with vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Park, Jun-Young; Chung, JunHo; Park, Dae-Bum; Jang, Jin-Young; Huh, Sungyul; Ju Kim, Sung; Kang, Jun-Yun; Moon, Joonoh; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hot ductility of medium carbon steel containing 0.52 wt% of carbon and 0.11 wt% of vanadium was investigated using a hot tensile test performed up to fracture. The hot ductility was evaluated by measuring the reduction of area of the fractured specimens, which were strained at a variety of test temperatures in a range of 600–1100 °C at a strain rate of 2×10"−"3/s. The hot ductility was excellent in a temperature range of 950–1100 °C, followed by a decrease of the hot ductility below 950 °C. The hot ductility continued to drop as the temperature was lowered to 600 °C. The loss of hot ductility in a temperature range of 800–950 °C, which is above the Ae_3 temperature, was due to V(C,N) precipitation at austenite grain boundaries. The further decline of hot ductility between 700 °C and 750 °C resulted from the transformation of ferrite films decorating austenite grain boundaries. The hot ductility continued to decrease at 650 °C or less, owing to ferrite films and the pearlite matrix, which is harder than ferrite. The pearlite was transformed from austenite due to relatively high carbon content.

  12. Pulsed eddy current differential probe to detect the defects in a stainless steel pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angani, C. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, C. G.; Leela, P.; Kishore, M.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an electromagnetic nondestructive technique widely used to detect and quantify the flaws in conducting materials. In the present study a differential Hall-sensor probe which is used in the PEC system has been fabricated for the detection of defects in stainless steel pipelines. The differential probe has an exciting coil with two Hall-sensors. A stainless steel test sample with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches under different depths of 1-5 mm was made and the sample was laminated by plastic insulation having uniform thickness to simulate the pipelines in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The driving coil in the probe is excited by a rectangular current pulse and the resultant response, which is the difference of the two Hall-sensors, has been detected as the PEC probe signal. The discriminating time domain features of the detected pulse such as peak value and time to zero are used to interpret the experimental results with the defects in the test sample. A feature extraction technique such as spectral power density has been devised to infer the PEC response.

  13. Evaluation of elastic-plastic fracture of toughness and fracture resistance of carbon steel STS42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Nakamura, Haruo; Kashiwagi, Kohmei

    1987-01-01

    The elastic-plastic fracture toughness (J Ic ) and fracture resistance (J-R curve) of a carbon steel, STS42, used for piping in a nuclear reactor were evaluated according to the several evaluating methods recommended or proposed so far, to discuss their applicability and utility. The results obtained are as follows: (1) In evaluating J Ic , the multiple specimen method recommended by the Japan Society for Mechanical Engineers (JSME standard S001) gives the most reliable results by using smaller sized specimens. (2) The single-specimen methods by using the compliance technique, adopted in the ASTM standards (E813, E813 modified, Tentative test procedure for determining the plain strain J-R curve), do not give an accurate J-R curve or J Ic , due to an error in the calculated crack length. (3) In evaluating the J-R curve, it is necessary to account for crack extension in calculating the J-integral. (4) According to the above results, a new standard method for determining the J-R curve including the J Ic test method should be poprosed. (author)

  14. Corrosion behaviour of dissimilar welds between martensitic stainless steel and carbon steel from secondary circuit of candu npp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, L.; Fulger, M.; Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.; Lazar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion damages of welds occur in spite of the fact that the proper base metal and filler metal have been correctly selected, industry codes and standards have been followed and welds have been realized with full weld penetration and have proper shape and contour. It is not unusual to find that, although the base metal or alloy is resistant to corrosion in a particular environment, the welded counterpart is not resistant. In secondary circuit of a Nuclear Power Station there are some components which have dissimilar welds. Our experiments were performed in chloride environmental on two types of samples: non-welded (420 martensitic steel and 52.2k carbon steel) and dissimilar welds (dissimilar metal welds: joints beetween 420 martensitic steel and 52.2k carbon steel). To evaluate corrosion susceptibility of dissimilar welds was used electrochemical method (potentiodynamic method) and metallography microscopy (microstructural analysis). The present paper follows the localized corrosion behaviour of dissimilar welds between austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel in solutions containing chloride ions. We have been evaluated the corrosion rates of samples (welded and non-welded) by electrochemically. (authors)

  15. High-carbon chromium steel resistance to small plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajduchenya, V.F.; Madyanov, S.A.; Apaev, B.A.; Kirillov, Yu.V.; Sokolov, L.D.

    1978-01-01

    The phase composition of a steel with 1.08% C and 2.1% Cr, and the variation in the level of microstresses in the matrix as related to the annealing temperature in the range of 400-600 deg C and in the applied compression stress were investigated. To study the phase composition, and chromium content in the α-solution and the carbide phases, magnetic, chemical, and X-ray spectrum analyses were carried out. The change in the level of microstresses was determined roentgenographically. During the stress relaxation test at temperatures of 20-180 deg C, the mechanism of plastic deformation near the yield point was investigated. It is shown that three dislocation mechanisms operate in high-carbon chromium steel under the conditions at hand: overcoming the Pierls-Nabarro barriers by the dislocations, overcoming the stress fields of coherent carbide particles by dislocations, and circumvention of second-phase particles by dislocations. The dependence of the realization of the different plastic deformation mechanisms on the number of carbide particles and the chromium concentration in the matrix was established. The thermally activated nature of the motion of the dislocations under conditions of stress relaxation at an elevated temperature is noted

  16. Crystallographic features of lath martensite in low-carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Hiromoto; Ueji, Rintaro; Tsuji, Nobuhiro; Minamino, Yoritoshi

    2006-01-01

    Electron backscattering diffraction with field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze crystallographically the lath martensite structure in a 0.20% carbon steel. The crystallographic features of the lath martensite structure, of the order of the prior austenite grain size or larger, were clarified. Although the orientations of the martensite crystals were scattered around the ideal variant orientations, the martensite in this steel maintained the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship. The procedures of the crystallographic analysis of the martensite (ferrite) phase with the K-S orientation relationship were explained in detail. Variant analysis showed that all 24 possible variants did not necessarily appear within a single prior austenite grain and that all six variants did not necessarily appear within each packet. Specific combinations of two variants appeared within local regions (sub-blocks), indicating a strict rule for variant selection. Prior austenite grain boundaries and most of the packet boundaries were clearly recognized. However, it was difficult to determine the block boundaries within the sub-blocks

  17. The kinetics of pitting corrosion of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.; Taylor, K.J.; Sooi, Z.

    1988-02-01

    The development of an improved statistical method for analysing pit growth data to take account of the difference in area of laboratory specimens and full sized high level nuclear waste containers is described. Statistical analysis of data from pit growth experiments with large area (460 cm 2 ) plates of BS 4360 steel have indicated that the depth distributions correlate most closely with a limited distribution function. This correlation implies that previous statistical analyses to estimate the maximum pit depths in full size containers, which were made using unlimited distribution functions, will be pessimistic. An evaluation of the maximum feasible pitting period based on estimating the period during which the oxygen diffusion flux is sufficient to stabilise a passive film on carbon steel containers has indicated that this is of the order of 125 years rather than the full 1000 year container life. The estimate is sensitive to the value of the leakage current assumed to flow through the passive film, and therefore work is planned to measure this accurately in relevant granitic environments. (author)

  18. The corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1988-01-01

    The production of hydrogen can cause problems in a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. Since gas production is mainly due to the corrosion of carbon steel, it is important to have as reliable data as possible on the corrosion rate of steel in anaerobic cement. A review of the literature shows that the corrosion current densities lie in the range 0.01 to 0.1 μA/cm 2 (corresponding to corrosion rates between 0.1 and 1.2 μm/a). This implies hydrogen production rates between 0.022 and 0.22 mol/(m 2 .a). Corrosion rates of this order of magnitude are technically irrelevant, with the result that there is very little interest in determining them accurately. Furthermore, their determination entails problems of measurement technique. Given the current situation, it would appear somewhat risky to accept the lower value for hydrogen production as proven. Proposals are made for experiments which would reduce this element of uncertainty. (author) 10 figs., 35 refs

  19. Effect of artificial aging on the microstructure of weldment on API 5L X-52 steel pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J.M.; Albiter, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of artificial aging on the microstructure in the weldment of an API 5L X-52 steel pipe were studied. Aging was performed at 250 deg. C over a period of 1000 h and values were recorded at every 100 h intervals. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed precipitation strengthening from nearly circular Nb-C containing nanoparticles for the base metal and heat affected zone, and cementite for the weld metal. The largest amount of precipitation in the weldment zone was obtained at 500 h, due to peak-aging, which showed the highest particle density. The weld metal was more susceptible to aging, exhibiting the highest increase in precipitation at 500 h, followed by the heat affected zone. After 500 h, the deterioration in the microstructure was caused by the coarsening of particles due to over-aging. The base metal showed the larger increment in particle size after 900 h of aging accompanied by a bigger decrease in fine particles than in the weld metal

  20. Random cyclic stress-strain responses of a stainless steel pipe-weld metal. I. A statistical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.X.; Wang, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.199, p.315-26, 2000. This paper pays a special attention to the issue that there is a significant scatter of the stress-strain responses of a nuclear engineering material, 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pipe-weld metal. Statistical investigation is made to the cyclic stress amplitudes of this material. Three considerations are given. They consist of the total fit, the consistency with fatigue physics and the safety in practice of the seven commonly used statistical distributions, namely Weibull (two- and three-parameter), normal, lognormal, extreme minimum value, extreme maximum value and exponential. Results reveal that the data follow meanwhile the seven distributions but the local effects of the distributions yield a significant difference. Any of the normal, lognormal, extreme minimum value and extreme maximum value distributions might be an appropriate assumed distribution for characterizing the data. The normal and extreme minimum models are excellent. Other distributions do not fit the data as they violate two or three of the mentioned considerations. (orig.)

  1. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference

  2. Hot corrosion of pack cementation aluminized carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.F.; Mohamed, K.E.; Abd El-Azim, M.E.; Soliman, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low carbon steel was aluminized by the pack cementation technique at various aluminizing temperatures and times in or der to have different aluminide coatings. The aluminized specimens were sprayed at the beginning of the hot corrosion experiments with Na C 1+Na 2 SO 4 solution. The hot corrosion tests were carried out by thermal cycling at 850 degree C in air. The results were evaluated by, corrosion kinetics based on weight change measurements, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was found that the maximum corrosion resistance to this corrosive environment is achieved by aluminizing at 900 degree C for 19 h or 950 degree C for >4 h. These aliminizing conditions lead to formation of thick aluminide coatings with sufficient aluminium concentration (>15 wt%) at their outer surface necessary for continuous formation of protective Al 2 O 3 scale. The tested materials are used in protection of some components used in electric power stations (conventional or nuclear)

  3. Effect of Nanoparticles on Wettability of Nanocoating on Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhasnidawani Johari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanocoatings plays an important role in coating industry. The solution was being prepared through copolymerization of epoxy resin hardener and with the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles, Zinc Oxide (ZnO and Silica (SiO2. ZnO and SiO2 were synthesized using sol-gel. Epoxy hardener acted as host while the metal oxide nanoparticles as guest components. The formulation of nanocoatings with excellent adhesion strength and corrosion protection of carbon steel was studied. The performance of wetting ability with different medium was analysed using contact angle. Water medium showed the addition of 3wt% of hybrid between ZnO and SiO2 was the best nanocoating to form hydrophobic surface and was also the best nanocoating surface to form hydrophilic surface with vacuum oil dropping. In oil dropping, the contact angle was smaller than 90° and the water drop tends to spreads on surface.

  4. Microbiologically induced corrosion of carbon steel under continuous flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaru, Mariana; Dragomir, Maria; Voicu, Anca

    2008-01-01

    Microbiologically induced corrosion is the label generally applied to corrosion involving the action of bacteria on metal surfaces. While different combinations of bacterial species, materials and chemical constituents are interrelated factors, stagnant water is the factor most often mentioned in reported cases. This paper presents the results obtained regarding the testing of microbiologically induced corrosion of carbon steel under continuous flow conditions in the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. The tests were performed on coupons of SA106gr.B exposed both in stagnant conditions and in flow conditions. The surfaces of these coupons were studied by metallographic technique, while the developed biofilms were analysed using microbiological technique. The correlation of all the results which were obtained emphasized that the minimizing the occurrence of stagnant or low-flow conditions can prove effective in reducing the risk of microbiologically induced corrosion in plant cooling-water systems. (authors)

  5. Stress corrosion cracking of A515 grade 60 carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.L.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of welding method plate thickness, and subsequent stress relief treatment on the stress corrosion cracking propensity of ASTM A515 Grade 60 carbon steel plate exposed to a 5 M NaNO 3 solution at 190 0 F for eight weeks. It was found that all weld coupons receiving no thermal stress relief treatment cracked within eight weeks; all weld coupons given a vibratory stress relief cracked within eight weeks; two of the eight weld coupons stress relieved at 600 0 F for one hour cracked within eight weeks; none of the weld coupons stress relieved at 1100 0 F for one hour cracked within eight weeks; and that cracking was generally more severe in coupons fabricated from 7/8 inch plate by shielded metal arc welding than it was in coupons fabricated by other welding methods. (U.S.)

  6. Polyaspartic acid as a green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, R. [Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Gu, N.; Li, C. [Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The inhibitor effect of the environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor polyaspartic acid (PASP) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polarization curve results clearly reveal the fact that PASP is a good anode-type inhibitor. EIS results confirm its corrosion inhibition ability. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing PASP concentration, and the maximum inhibition efficiency was 80.33% at 10 C. SEM reveals that a protective film forms on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of this inhibitor is found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inhibitory action of the corrosion inhibitor. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Investigation of the benzotriazole as addictive for carbon steel phosphating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annies, V.; Cunha, M.T.; Rodrigues, P.R.P.; Banczek, E.P.; Terada, M.

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the viability of substitution of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) for benzotriazole (BTAH) in the zinc phosphate bath (PZn+NaNO 2 ) for phosphating of carbon steel (SAE 1010). The characterization of the samples was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optical Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was evaluated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated by Open Circuit Potential, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Anodic Potentiodynamic Polarization Curves in a 0.5 mol L -1 NaCl electrolyte. The experimental results showed that the phosphate layer obtained in the solution with benzotriazole (PZn+BTAH) presented better corrosion resistance properties than that obtained in sodium nitrite. The results demonstrated that the sodium nitrite NaNO 2 can be replaced by benzotriazole (BTAH) in zinc phosphate baths. (author)

  8. The role of carbon in the breakaway oxidation of mild steel in high pressure carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surman, P.L.; Brown, A.M.

    1974-01-01

    The rate controlling step in the oxidation of iron and mild steel in CO 2 is the diffusion of iron across the inner of two layers of magnetite scale. Cation diffusion is directed towards available oxidant and hence tends to produce fresh oxide in freely available space. The initial oxidation process is thus protective and stress-free. As oxidation proceeds the gaseous reaction product, carbon monoxide, tends to accumulate at the oxide/metal interface. Eventually this leads to simultaneous carbon deposition and oxide formation. This carbon contamination allows oxidant access to oxide crystallite 'jacking points', and hence volume expansion and stressed breakaway corrosion can occur. Experiments designed to simulate the promotion, propagation and healing of breakaway oxidation and to define the conditions for carbon deposition are reported. (author)

  9. Investigating pitting in X65 carbon steel using potentiostatic polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Sikiru; Hua, Yong; Barker, R.; Neville, A.

    2017-11-01

    Although pitting corrosion in passive materials is generally well understood, the growth of surface pits in actively-corroding materials has received much less attention to date and remains poorly understood. One of the key challenges which exists is repeatedly and reliably generating surface pits in a practical time-frame in the absence of deformation and/or residual stress so that studies on pit propagation and healing can be performed. Another pertinent issue is how to evaluate pitting while addressing general corrosion in low carbon steel. In this work, potentiostatic polarisation was employed to induce corrosion pits (free from deformation or residual stress) on actively corroding X65 carbon steel. The influence of applied potential (50 mV, 100 mV and 150 mV vs open circuit potential) was investigated over 24 h in a CO2-saturated, 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 30 °C and pH 3.8. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilised to examine pits, while surface profilometry was conducted to measure pit depth as a function of applied potential over the range considered. Analyses of light pitting (up to 120 μm) revealed that pit depth increased linearly with increase in applied potential. This paper relates total pit volume (measured using white light interferometry) to dissipated charge or total mass loss (using the current response for potentiostatic polarisation in conjunction with Faraday's law). By controlling the potential of the surface (anodic) the extent of pitting and general corrosion could be controlled. This allowed pits to be evaluated for their ability to continue to propagate after the potentiostatic technique was employed. Linear growth from a depth of 70 μm at pH 3.8, 80 °C was demonstrated. The technique offers promise for the study of inhibition of pitting.

  10. Relationship between 0.2% proof stress and Vickers hardness of work-hardened low carbon austenitic stainless steel, 316SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Saburo

    2004-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) occurs in shrouds and piping made of low carbon austenitic stainless steels at nuclear power plants. A work-hardened layer is considered to be one of the probable causes for this occurrence. The maximum Vickers hardness measured at the work-hardened layer is 400 HV. It is important to determine the yield strength and tensile strength of the work-hardened layer in the investigation on the causes of SCC. However, the tensile specimen cannot be obtained since the thickness of the work-hardened layer is as mall as several hundred μm, therefore, it is useful if we can estimate these strengths from its Vickers hardness. Consequently, we investigated the relationships between Vickers hardness versus yield strength and tensile strength using the results obtained on various steels in a series of Fatigue Data Sheets published by the National Institute for Materials Science and results newly obtained on a parent material and rolled materials (reduction of area: 10 - 50%, maximum hardness: 350 HV) for a low carbon stainless steel. The results showed that (1) the relationship between the 0.2% proof stress and the Vickers hardness can be described by a single straight line regardless of strength, structure, and rolling ratio, however, (2) the tensile strength is not correlated with the Vickers hardness, and the austenitic stainless steel in particular shows characteristics different from those of other steels. (author)

  11. Creep properties and microstructure evaluation of weld joint of the pipe made of P92 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasl, Josef; Jandova, Dagmar; Chvostova, Eva [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic); Folkova, Eva [SKODA POWER a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    One-side weld joint of W type was prepared from P92 type steel using GTAW and SMAW method. Creep test to the rupture of smooth cross-weld samples has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 575 to 650 C and at stresses from 70 to 240 MPa. Fractographic analysis, hardness measurement and detailed study of submicrostructure have been performed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Changes of microstructure were correlated with the creep strength. Increase in size of secondary phases and cavities formation were evident after creep tests at temperatures above 575 C. Voids were concentrated in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones, where fracture occurred. In addition, a sporadic occurrence of individual cavities was found out in the base material and the weld metal after tests at 625 and 650 C. During creep exposures at temperatures above 600 C Laves phase precipitated. (orig.)

  12. The effect of various deformation processes on the corrosion behavior of casing and tubing carbon steels in sweet environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elramady, Alyaa Gamal

    The aim of this research project is to correlate the plastic deformation and mechanical instability of casing steel materials with corrosion behavior and surface change, in order to identify a tolerable degree of deformation for casing steel materials. While the corrosion of pipeline and casing steels has been investigated extensively, corrosion of these steels in sweet environments with respect to plastic deformation due to bending, rolling, autofrettage, or handling needs more investigation. Downhole tubular expansion of pipes (casings) is becoming standard practice in the petroleum industry to repair damaged casings, shutdown perforations, and ultimately achieve mono-diameter wells. Tubular expansion is a cold-drawing metal forming process, which consists of running conical mandrels through casings either mechanically using a piston or hydraulically by applying a back pressure. This mechanism subjects the pipes to large radial plastic deformations of up to 30 pct. of the inner diameter. It is known that cold-working is a way of strengthening materials such as low carbon steel, but given that this material will be subjected to corrosive environments, susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) should be investigated. This research studies the effect of cold-work, in the form of cold-rolling and cold-expansion, on the surface behavior of API 5CT steels when it is exposed to a CO2-containing environment. Cold-work has a pronounced influence on the corrosion behavior of both API 5CT K55 and P110 grade steels. The lowest strength grade steel, API 5CT K55, performed poorly in a corrosive environment in the slow strain rate test. The ductile material exhibited the highest loss in strength and highest susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in a CO 2-containing environment. The loss in strength declined with cold-rolling, which can be ascribed to the surface compressive stresses induced by cold-work. On the other hand, API 5CT P110 grade steels showed higher

  13. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  14. Influence of Heat Treatments on the Corrosion Resistance of Medium -Carbon Steel using Sulfuric Spring Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas Basheer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion is one of the important problems that may be occur to the parts of machinery and equipment after manufactured and when used as a result of exposure to corrosive media. Plain-carbon steel is considered as one of the most common minerals used in industrial applications. Some of heat treatments can have direct effect on the corrosion rate of steel by building up galvanic corrosion cells between its microscopic phases. Therefore, to adopt one of kinds of the plain-carbon steel and the most commonly used in industry to be study subject, that is medium carbon steel and took samples of this steel has been treated thermally in three methods which the normalising, annealing, and hardening .The corrosive media used in the research is Sulfuric Spring, it contains many chemical compounds to show its influence on the corrosion of steel. The weight loss method is used to determine corrosion rate and to compare between the results obtained, show that the greatest corrosion resistance of the annealed steel and the corrosion resistance of the hardened steel is the lowest while the corrosion  resistance of the normalised steel is in-between them.         Calcium carbonate was formed on the metal surface which acts as an isolating layer which decrease corrosion rate with time

  15. Steel slag carbonation in a flow-through reactor system: the role of fluid-flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Eleanor J; Williams-Jones, Anthony E; Migdisov, Artashes A

    2015-01-01

    Steel production is currently the largest industrial source of atmospheric CO2. As annual steel production continues to grow, the need for effective methods of reducing its carbon footprint increases correspondingly. The carbonation of the calcium-bearing phases in steel slag generated during basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel production, in particular its major constituent, larnite {Ca2SiO4}, which is a structural analogue of olivine {(MgFe)2SiO4}, the main mineral subjected to natural carbonation in peridotites, offers the potential to offset some of these emissions. However, the controls on the nature and efficiency of steel slag carbonation are yet to be completely understood. Experiments were conducted exposing steel slag grains to a CO2-H2O mixture in both batch and flow-through reactors to investigate the impact of temperature, fluid flux, and reaction gradient on the dissolution and carbonation of steel slag. The results of these experiments show that dissolution and carbonation of BOF steel slag are more efficient in a flow-through reactor than in the batch reactors used in most previous studies. Moreover, they show that fluid flux needs to be optimized in addition to grain size, pressure, and temperature, in order to maximize the efficiency of carbonation. Based on these results, a two-stage reactor consisting of a high and a low fluid-flux chamber is proposed for CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation, allowing dissolution of the slag and precipitation of calcium carbonate to occur within a single flow-through system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Alternative methodology for assessing part-through-wall cracks in carbon steel bends removed from Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Xinjian, E-mail: duanx@aecl.c [Senior Engineer, Reactor Engineering Department, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Kozluk, Michael J., E-mail: kozlukm@aecl.c [Independent Consultant, Oakville, ON (Canada); Gendron, Tracy [Manager-HTS Materials Integrity, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Slade, John [Senior Technical Advisor, Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, NB (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    In 2008 April Point Lepreau Generating Station entered an extended refurbishment outage that will involve the replacement of key reactor components (fuel channels and connecting feeder pipes). Prior to the refurbishment outage, New Brunswick Power Nuclear had been successfully managing intergranular, axial cracking of carbon steel feeder piping, that were also experiencing thinning, in the Point Lepreau Generating Station, primarily by an aggressive program of inspection, repair and testing of ex-service material. For the previous three maintenance outages, a probabilistic safety evaluation (PSE) had been used to demonstrate that annual inspection of the highest risk locations maintains the nuclear safety risk from cracking at an acceptably low level. The PSE makes use of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) model to predict the failure of part-through-wall cracks. Burst-pressure testing of two ex-service feeder pipe sections with part-through-wall cracks showed that this FAD model significantly under predicts the failure pressure measured in the component tests. Use of this FAD model introduces undesirable conservatism into PSE assessments that are used to optimize feeder piping inspection and maintenance plans. This paper describes an alternative finite element approach, which could be used to provide more representative structural models for use in PSE assessments. This alternative approach employs the elasto-plastic large strain finite element formulation; uses representative material properties; considers the spatial microstructural distribution; accounts for the effect of work hardening rate; models all deformation processes, i.e., uniform deformation, localized necking, and failure imitation and propagation. Excellent pre-test prediction was shown for the burst-pressure test performed in 2006. Although cold-worked feeder bends have reduced fracture toughness compared to the parent straight pipe, post-test metallurgical examinations showed that failure at the

  17. Variations of fracture toughness and stress-strain curve of cold worked stainless steel and their influence on failure strength of cracked pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess failure probability of cracked components, it is important to know the variations of the material properties and their influence on the failure load assessment. In this study, variations of the fracture toughness and stress-strain curve were investigated for cold worked stainless steel. The variations of the 0.2% proof and ultimate strengths obtained using 8 specimens of 20% cold worked stainless steel (CW20) were 77 MPa and 81 MPa, respectively. The respective variations were decreased to 13 and 21 MPa for 40% cold worked material (CW40). Namely, the variation in the tensile strength was decreased by hardening. The COVs (coefficients of variation) of fracture toughness were 7.3% and 16.7% for CW20 and CW40, respectively. Namely, the variation in the fracture toughness was increased by hardening. Then, in order to investigate the influence of the variations in the material properties on failure load of a cracked pipe, flaw assessments were performed for a cracked pipe subjected to a global bending load. Using the obtained material properties led to variation in the failure load. The variation in the failure load of the cracked pipe caused by the variation in the stress-strain curve was less than 1.5% for the COV. The variation in the failure load caused by fracture toughness variation was relatively large for CW40, although it was less than 2.0% for the maximum case. It was concluded that the hardening induced by cold working does not cause significant variation in the failure load of cracked stainless steel pipe. (author)

  18. The effect of variations in carbon activity on the carburization of austenitic steels in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyther, J.R.; Hobdell, M.R.; Hooper, A.J.

    1978-07-01

    Experience has shown that the liquid sodium coolant of fast breeder reactors is an effective carbon-transport medium; the resulting carburization of thin austenitic stainless steel components (eg IHX and fuel cladding) could adversely affect their mechanical integrity. The degree and nature of steel carburization depend, inter alia, on the carbon activity of the sodium environment. Exploratory tests are described in which specimens of austenitic stainless steel were carburized in sodium, the carbon activity of which was continuously monitored by a BNL electrochemical carbon meter. The sodium carbon activity was initially high, but decreased with time, simulating conditions equivalent to plant start-up or coolant clean-up following accidental oil ingress. The extent and nature of steel carburization was identified by metallography, electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography and chemical analysis. (author)

  19. Fatigue Life Estimation of Medium-Carbon Steel with Different Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Medium-carbon steel is commonly used for the rail, wire ropes, tire cord, cold heading, forging steels, cold finished steel bars, machinable steel and so on. Its fatigue behavior analysis and fatigue life estimation play an important role in the machinery industry. In this paper, the estimation of fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness using established S-N and P-S-N curves is presented. To estimate the fatigue life, the effect of the average surface roughness on the fatigue life of medium-carbon steel has been investigated using 75 fatigue tests in three groups with average surface roughness (Ra: 0.4 μm, 0.8 μm, and 1.6 μm, respectively. S-N curves and P-S-N curves have been established based on the fatigue tests. The fatigue life of medium-carbon steel is then estimated based on Tanaka-Mura crack initiation life model, the crack propagation life model using Paris law, and material constants of the S-N curves. Six more fatigue tests have been conducted to validate the presented fatigue life estimation formulation. The experimental results have shown that the presented model could estimate well the mean fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness.

  20. Inhibition of Corrosion of Carbon Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution by Myrmecodia Pendans Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atria Pradityana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitor is a substance that is added to the corrosive media to inhibit corrosion rate. Organic inhibitors are preferred to inorganic ones since they are environmentally friendly. One of the organic compounds which is rarely reported as a corrosion inhibitor is Myrmecodia Pendans. The organic compounds can be adsorbed on the metal surface and block the active surface to reduce the rate of corrosion. In this study, the used pipe was carbon steel API 5L Grade B with 3.5% NaCl solution as the corrosion medium. The objective of this research was to analyze the inhibition mechanism Myrmecodia Pendans towards carbon steel in a corrosion medium. Concentration variations of extract Myrmecodia Pendans were 0–500 ppm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR was used for chemical characterization of Myrmecodia Pendans. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS were used to measure the corrosion rate and behaviour. From the electrochemical measurements, it was found that the addition of 400 mg/L inhibitor gave the highest inhibition efficiency. Myrmecodia Pendans acted as a corrosion inhibitor by forming a thin layer on the metal surface.

  1. SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND CUTTING FORCES IN CRYOGENIC TURNING OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. YAP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cryogenic liquid nitrogen on surface roughness, cutting forces, and friction coefficient of the machined surface when machining of carbon steel S45C in wet, dry and cryogenic condition was studied through experiments. The experimental results show that machining with liquid nitrogen increases the cutting forces, reduces the friction coefficient, and improves the chips produced. Beside this, conventional machining with cutting fluid is still the most suitable method to produce good surface in high speed machining of carbon steel S45C whereas dry machining produced best surface roughness in low speed machining. Cryogenic machining is not able to replace conventional cutting fluid in turning carbon steel.

  2. Sustainable Steel Carburization by Using Snack Packaging Plastic Waste as Carbon Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyan Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research regarding waste conversion to resources technology has attracted growing attention with the continued increase of waste accumulation issues and rapid depletion of natural resources. However, the study, with respect to utilizing plastics waste as carbon resources in the metals industry, is still limited. In this work, an environmentally friendly approach to utilize snack packaging plastic waste as a valuable carbon resources for steel carburization is investigated. At high temperature, plastic waste could be subject to pyrolytic gasification and decompose into small molecular hydrocarbon gaseous products which have the potential to be used as carburization agents for steel. When heating some snack packaging plastic waste and a steel sample together at the carburization temperature, a considerable amount of carbon-rich reducing gases, like methane, could be liberated from the plastic waste and absorbed by the steel sample as a carbon precursor for carburization. The resulting carburization effect on steel was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer techniques. These investigation results all showed that snack packaging plastic waste could work effectively as a valuable carbon resource for steel carburization leading to a significant increase of surface carbon content and the corresponding microstructure evolution in steel.

  3. Galvanic Interaction between Chalcopyrite and Pyrite with Low Alloy and High Carbon Chromium Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the galvanic interaction between pyrite and chalcopyrite with two types of grinding media (low alloy and high carbon chromium steel ball in grinding of a porphyry copper sulphide ore. Results indicated that injection of different gases into mill altered the oxidation-reduction environment during grinding. High carbon chromium steel ball under nitrogen gas has the lowest galvanic current, and low alloy steel ball under oxygen gas had the highest galvanic current. Also, results showed that the media is anodic relative to pyrite and chalcopyrite, and therefore pyrite or chalcopyrite with a higher rest potential acted as the cathode, whilst the grinding media with a lower rest potential acted as the anode, when they are electrochemically contacted. It was also found that low alloy steel under oxygen produced the highest amount of EDTA extractable iron in the slurry, whilst high carbon chromium steel under nitrogen atmosphere led to the lowest amount.

  4. Hydrogen degradation of 21-6-9 and medium carbon steel by disc pressure test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.H.; Zhou, W.X.; Xu, Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the method of disc pressure test and the results for 21-6-9 stainless steel and medium carbon steel in hydrogen gas with different pressures and time of storage. The results show the hydrogen induced degradation of these two kinds of steel. An attempt was made to establish an index which uses variation of area of deformed disc to determine the degradation of ductility in a hydrogen environment. (orig.)

  5. Stress state evaluation in low carbon and TRIP steels by magnetic permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouli, M.-E.; Giannakis, M

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic permeability is an indicative factor for the steel health monitoring. The measurements of magnetic permeability lead to the evaluation of the stress state of any ferromagnetic steel. The magnetic permeability measurements were conducted on low carbon and TRIP steel samples, which were subjected to both tensile and compressive stresses. The results indicated a direct correlation of the magnetic permeability with the mechanical properties, the stress state and the microstructural features of the examined samples. (paper)

  6. Carbonation of steel slag for CO2 sequestration: Leaching of products and reaction mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, steel slag samples were carbonated to a varying extent. Leaching experiments and geochemical modeling were used to identify solubility-controlling processes of

  7. Reinforcement steel corrosion in passive state and by carbonation: Consideration of galvanic currents and interface steel - concrete defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the durability of nuclear waste deep storage structures. The work carried out is essentially an experimental study, and focuses on the corrosion of steel in the passive state with aerated or non-aerated conditions on the one hand, and the corrosion of steel in carbonated concrete during the propagation phase on the other hand. Indeed, the pore solution of concrete in contact with the metal is alkaline (pH between 12 and 13). Under these conditions, steel reinforced concrete remains passive by forming a stable and protective oxide layer (corrosion of steel in the passive state). This passive layer limits the steel corrosion rate at very low values (negligible on a short life time) but not null. For the nuclear waste storage structures due to a very long life time (up to several hundred years), this low corrosion rate can become a risk. Therefore, it is necessary to study the evolution of the oxide layer growth over time. The objectives of the thesis are to study the influence of the steel-concrete interface quality on reinforcement corrosion in passive and active state, and the possible occurrence of galvanic corrosion currents between different reinforcement steel areas. (author)

  8. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  9. Electrochemical formation of carbonated corrosion products on carbon steel in deaerated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refait, Ph.; Bourdoiseau, J.A.; Jeannin, M.; Nguyen, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Green rust is electro-generated at low NaHCO 3 concentration (0.003 mol dm −3 ). ► Chukanovite and carbonated green rust are obtained in NaHCO 3 + Na 2 SO 4 deaerated electrolytes. ► The mechanisms of formation of carbonated corrosion products of carbon steel are specified. - Abstract: To investigate the nature and properties of carbonated rust layers, carbon steel electrodes were polarised anodically at a potential ∼100–200 mV higher than the open circuit potential in NaHCO 3 solutions (0.003, 0.1 and 1 mol dm −3 ) continuously deaerated by an argon flow. X-ray diffraction and μ-Raman spectroscopy were used to identify the electro-generated compounds. GR(CO 3 2− ) (=Fe II 4 Fe III 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 ·4H 2 O) is observed at 0.003 and 0.1 mol dm −3 NaHCO 3 whereas FeCO 3 is obtained at the largest concentration (1 mol dm −3 ). GR(CO 3 2− ) is accompanied by magnetite Fe 3 O 4 at the lowest NaHCO 3 concentration. The current density decreases to negligible values in each case, indicating that a passive film also forms independently of the nature of the carbonated compound. Experiments were performed similarly in solutions of NaHCO 3 and Na 2 SO 4 . Chukanovite Fe 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 could be obtained in solutions containing 0.03 mol dm −3 of each salt. In contrast with the results obtained in the solutions free of sulphate, the current density remains important during the formation of the rust layer

  10. 78 FR 16252 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, and Thailand: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Indonesia P.T. Krakatau Steel 10.21 All Others 10.21 Thailand Sahaviriya Steel Industries Public Company...] Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, and Thailand: Final Results of... products (``HR steel'') from India, Indonesia, and Thailand pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of...

  11. Effect of dynamic strain aging on isotropic hardening in low cycle fatigue for carbon manganese steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhi Yong; Chaboche, Jean-Louis; Wang, Qing Yuan; Wagner, Danièle; Bathias, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Carbon–manganese steel A48 (French standard) is used in steam generator pipes of nuclear reactor pressure vessels at high temperatures (about 200 °C). The steel is sensitive to dynamic strain aging in monotonic tensile test and low cycle fatigue test at certain temperature range and strain rate. Its isotropic hardening behavior observed from experiments has a hardening, softening and hardening evolution with the effect of dynamic strain aging. The isotropic hardening model is improved by coupling the dislocation and dynamic strain aging theory to describe the behavior of A48 at 200 °C

  12. Effect of dynamic strain aging on isotropic hardening in low cycle fatigue for carbon manganese steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhi Yong, E-mail: huangzy@scu.edu.cn [Sichuan University, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No. 29 Jiuyanqiao Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chaboche, Jean-Louis [ONERA, DMSM, 29 avenue de la Division Lecerc, F-92320 Chatillon (France); Wang, Qing Yuan [Sichuan University, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No. 29 Jiuyanqiao Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wagner, Danièle; Bathias, Claude [Université ParisOuest Nanterre La Défense (France)

    2014-01-01

    Carbon–manganese steel A48 (French standard) is used in steam generator pipes of nuclear reactor pressure vessels at high temperatures (about 200 °C). The steel is sensitive to dynamic strain aging in monotonic tensile test and low cycle fatigue test at certain temperature range and strain rate. Its isotropic hardening behavior observed from experiments has a hardening, softening and hardening evolution with the effect of dynamic strain aging. The isotropic hardening model is improved by coupling the dislocation and dynamic strain aging theory to describe the behavior of A48 at 200 °C.

  13. Fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steels in LWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Michaud, W.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fatigue tests have been conducted on A106-Gr B carbon steel and A533-Gr B low-alloy steel to evaluate the effects of an oxygenated-water environment on the fatigue life of these steels. For both steels, environmental effects are modest in PWR water at all strain rates. Fatigue data in oxygenated water confirm the strong dependence of fatigue life on dissolved oxygen (DO) and strain rate. The effect of strain rate on fatigue life saturates at some low value, e.g., between 0.0004 and 0.001%/s in oxygenated water with ∼0.8 ppm DO. The data suggest that the saturation value of strain rate may vary with DO and sulfur content of the steel. Although the cyclic stress-strain and cyclic-hardening behavior of carbon and low-alloy steels is distinctly different, the degradation of fatigue life of these two steels with comparable sulfur levels is similar. The carbon steel exhibits pronounced dynamic strain aging, whereas strain-aging effects are modest in the low-alloy steel. Environmental effects on nucleation of fatigue crack have also been investigated. The results suggest that the high-temperature oxygenated water has little or not effect on crack nucleation

  14. Application of tearing modulus stability concepts to nuclear piping. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, K.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Zahoor, A.

    1982-02-01

    The recently developed tearing modulus stability concept was successfully applied to several boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) piping systems. Circumferentially oriented through-the-thickness cracks were postulated at numerous locations in each system. For each location, the simplified tearing stability methods developed in USNRC Report NUREG/CR-0838 were used to determine crack stability. The J-T diagram was used to present the results of the computations. The piping systems considered included Type 304 stainless steel as well as A106 carbon steel materials. These systems were analyzed using the piping analysis computer code MINK

  15. Application of tearing modulus stability concepts to nuclear piping. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, K.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Zahoor, A.

    1982-02-01

    The recently developed tearing modulus stability concept was successfully applied to several boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) piping systems. Circumferentially oriented through-the-thickness cracks were postulated at numerous locations in each system. For each location, the simplified tearing stability methods developed in USNRC Report NUREG/CR-0838 were used to determine crack stability. The J-T diagram was used to present the results of the computations. The piping systems considered included Type 304 stainless steel as well as A106 carbon steel materials. These systems were analyzed using the piping analysis computer code MINK.

  16. Corrosion Performance of Carbon Steel in Simulated Pore Solution in the Presence of Micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Koleva, D.A.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Kolev, H.; Van Breugel, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results on the investigation of the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in model alkaline medium in the presence of very low concentration of polymeric nanoaggregates [0.0024 wt % polyethylene oxide (PEO)113-b-PS70 micelles]. The steel electrodes were investigated in chloride

  17. Solar Powered Automated Pipe Water Management System, Water Footprint and Carbon Footprint in Soybean Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanto, K. S.; Abang, Z. E.; Arif, C.; Yanuar, J. P. M.

    2018-05-01

    An automatic water management system for agriculture land was developed based on mini PC as controller to manage irrigation and drainage. The system was integrated with perforated pipe network installed below the soil surface to enable water flow in and out through the network, and so water table of the land can be set at a certain level. The system was operated by using solar power electricity supply to power up water level and soil moisture sensors, Raspberry Pi controller and motorized valve actuator. This study aims to implement the system in controlling water level at a soybean production land, and further to observe water footprint and carbon footprint contribution of the soybean production process with application of the automated system. The water level of the field can be controlled around 19 cm from the base. Crop water requirement was calculated using Penman-Monteith approach, with the productivity of soybean 3.57t/ha, total water footprint in soybean production is 872.01 m3/t. Carbon footprint was calculated due to the use of solar power electric supply system and during the soybean production emission was estimated equal to 1.85 kg of CO2.

  18. 76 FR 64312 - Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Final Results of the Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping... the antidumping duty order on light-walled welded rectangular carbon steel tubing from Taiwan pursuant... steel tubing from Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...

  19. 75 FR 29976 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-826] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...-quality steel plate products from Italy. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products...

  20. 78 FR 29113 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products... duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from the Republic of Korea...