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Sample records for carbon source utilization

  1. UTILIZATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE AS CARBON SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for organic acid fermentation.  The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of pineapple waste as substrate for lactic acid fermentation under variables of aerobic, anaerobic condition and pH controlling. Initial results showed that the liquid pineapple waste can be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation using Lactobacillus delbrueckii. In the anaerobic condition growth of bacteria and lactic acid production better than aerobic condition. In the anaerobic condition and the controlled pH  the production of lactic acid are found to be 54.79 g/l  (78.27% yield at  40oC, pH 6, 50 rpm and 70 g/l sugar concentration.  In contrast, only 13.87g/l lactic acid produced if the fermentation pH was not controlled even though the fermentation parameters were kept at the same conditions

  2. Utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources by Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested a number of carbon and nitrogen compounds for their effect on the production of an antibacterial antibiotic by Streptomyces kananmyceticus M27. Dextrose was found to be the most suitable carbon source, though maltose, sucrose, and soluble starch gave moderate yields. (NH4)H2PO4 and yeast extract were ...

  3. Utilization of carbon sources in a northern Brazilian mangrove ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Schwamborn, Ralf; Saint-Paul, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios ( 13C and 15N) and trophic level (TL) estimates based on stomach content analysis and published data were used to assess the contribution of autotrophic sources to 55 consumers in an intertidal mangrove creek of the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Primary producers showed δ 13C signatures ranging between -29.2 and -19.5‰ and δ 15N from 3.0 to 6.3‰. The wide range of the isotopic composition of carbon of consumers (-28.6 to -17.1‰) indicated that different autotrophic sources are important in the intertidal mangrove food webs. Food web segregation structures the ecosystem into three relatively distinct food webs: (i) mangrove food web, where vascular plants contribute directly or indirectly via POM to the most 13C-depleted consumers (e.g. Ucides cordatus and zooplanktivorous food chains); (ii) algal food web, where benthic algae are eaten directly by consumers (e.g. Uca maracoani, mullets, polychaetes, several fishes); (iii) mixed food web where the consumers use the carbon from different primary sources (mainly benthivorous fishes). An IsoError mixing model was used to determine the contributions of primary sources to consumers, based on δ 13C values. Model outputs were very sensitive to the magnitude of trophic isotope fractionation and to the variability in 13C data. Nevertheless, the simplification of the system by a priori aggregation of primary producers allowed interpretable results for several taxa, revealing the segregation into different food webs.

  4. Glyphosate Utilization as the Source of Carbon: Isolation and Identification of new Bacteria

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    M. Mohsen Nourouzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed bacteria from oil palm plantation soil (OPS were isolated to investigate their ability to utilize glyphosate as carbon source. Results showed that approximately all of the glyphosate was converted to aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA (99.5%. It is worthy to note that mixed bacteria were able to degrade only 2% of AMPA to further metabolites. Two bacterial strains i.e. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Providencia alcalifaciens were obtained from enrichment culture. Bacterial isolates were cultured individually on glyphosate as a sole carbon source. It was observed that both isolates were able to convert glyphosate to AMPA.

  5. Isolation and characterization of yeasts capable of efficient utilization of hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassa-Barbosa, L A; Procópio, R E L; Matos, I T S R; Filho, S A

    2015-09-28

    Few yeasts have shown the potential to efficiently utilize hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source. In this study, microorganisms isolated from the Manaus region in Amazonas, Brazil, were characterized based on their utilization of the pentoses, xylose, and arabinose. The yeasts that showed a potential to assimilate these sugars were selected for the better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Two hundred and thirty seven colonies of unicellular microorganisms grown on hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, xylose, arabinose, and yeast nitrogen base selective medium were analyzed. Of these, 231 colonies were subjected to sugar assimilation tests. One hundred and twenty five of these were shown to utilize hydrolyzed hemicellulose, xylose, or arabinose as the carbon source for growth. The colonies that showed the best growth (N = 57) were selected, and their internal transcribed spacer-5.8S rDNA was sequenced. The sequenced strains formed four distinct groups in the phylogenetic tree, and showed a high percentage of similarity with Meyerozyma caribbica, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans, Trichosporon loubieri, Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida lignohabitans, and Candida ethanolica. The discovery of these xylose-fermenting yeasts could attract widespread interest, as these can be used in the cost-effective production of liquid fuel from lignocellulosic materials.

  6. Utilization of Glyphosate as Phosphate Source: Biochemistry and Genetics of Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechel, David L.; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses. PMID:24600043

  7. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nowak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic (i.e., carbonate equilibria and biotic factors influence the δ13C and 14C of DIC. We applied a novel graphical method for tracking changes in the δ13C and 14C of DIC in two distinct aquifer complexes identified in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE, a platform to study how water transport links surface and shallow groundwaters in limestone and marlstone rocks in central Germany. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes. Although water residence times in the Hainich CZE aquifers based on hydrogeology are relatively short (years or less, DIC isotopes in the shallow, mostly anoxic, aquifer assemblage (HTU were depleted in 14C compared to a deeper, oxic, aquifer complex (HTL. Carbon isotopes and chemical changes in the deeper HTL wells could be explained by interaction of recharge waters equilibrated with post-bomb 14C sources with carbonates. However, oxygen depletion and δ13C and 14C values of DIC below those expected from the processes of carbonate equilibrium alone indicate considerably different biogeochemical evolution of waters in the upper aquifer assemblage (HTU wells. Changes in 14C and 13C in the upper aquifer complexes result from a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including oxidation of 14C-depleted OM derived from recycled microbial carbon and sedimentary organic matter as well as water–rock interactions. The microbial pathways inferred from DIC isotope shifts and changes in water chemistry in the HTU wells were supported by comparison with in situ microbial community structure based on 16S rRNA analyses. Our findings

  8. Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate from Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 utilizing glycerol as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, S P; Balan, L; Lekshmi, N; Cubelio, S S; Philip, R; Bright Singh, I S

    2017-03-01

    Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from moderately halophilic bacterium Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 isolated from tunicate Phallusia nigra. Twenty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from tunicate samples and three among them exhibited an orange fluorescence in Nile red staining indicating the presence of PHB. One of the isolates, MCCB 284, which showed rapid growth and good polymer yield, was identified as V. harveyi. The optimum conditions of the isolate for the PHB production were pH 8·0, sodium chloride concentration 20 g l -1 , inoculum size 0·5% (v/v), glycerol 20 g l -1 and 72 h of incubation at 30°C. Cell dry weight (CDW) of 3·2 g l -1 , PHB content of 2·3 g l -1 and final PHB yield of 1·2 g l -1 were achieved. The extracted PHB was characterized by FTIR, NMR and DSC-TGA techniques. An isolate of V. harveyi that could effectively utilize glycerol for growth and PHB accumulation was obtained from tunicate P. nigra. PHB produced was up to 72% based on CDW. This is the first report of an isolate of V. harveyi which utilizes glycerol as the sole carbon source for PHB production with high biomass yield. This isolate could be of use as candidate species for commercial PHB production using glycerol as the feed stock or as source of genes for recombinant PHB production or for synthetic biology. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a bacterium which utilizes polyester polyurethane as a sole carbon and nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Onuma, F; Kimpara, N; Nakahara, T

    1995-06-01

    Various soil samples were screened for the presence of microorganisms which have the ability to degrade polyurethane compounds. Two strains with good polyurethane degrading activity were isolated. The more active strain was tentatively identified as Comamonas acidovorans. This strain could utilize polyester-type polyurethanes but not the polyether-type polyurethanes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Adipic acid and diethylene glycol were probably the main degradation products when polyurethane was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. When ammonium nitrate was used as nitrogen source, only diethylene glycol was detected after growth on polyurethane.

  10. Molecular mechanisms behind the adjustment of phototrophic light-harvesting and mixotrophic utilization of cellulosic carbon sources in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Blifernez-Klassen, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Plants, green algae and cyanobacteria perform photosynthetic conversion of sunlight into chemical energy in a permanently changing natural environment, where the efficient utilization of light and inorganic carbon represent the most critical factors. Photosynthetic organisms have developed different acclimation strategies to adapt changing light conditions and insufficient carbon source supply in order to survive and to assure optimal growth and protection. This thesis provides further insigh...

  11. Assessment of self-organizing maps to analyze sole-carbon source utilization profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflaive, Joséphine; Céréghino, Régis; Danger, Michaël; Lacroix, Gérard; Ten-Hage, Loïc

    2005-07-01

    The use of community-level physiological profiles obtained with Biolog microplates is widely employed to consider the functional diversity of bacterial communities. Biolog produces a great amount of data which analysis has been the subject of many studies. In most cases, after some transformations, these data were investigated with classical multivariate analyses. Here we provided an alternative to this method, that is the use of an artificial intelligence technique, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM, unsupervised neural network). We used data from a microcosm study of algae-associated bacterial communities placed in various nutritive conditions. Analyses were carried out on the net absorbances at two incubation times for each substrates and on the chemical guild categorization of the total bacterial activity. Compared to Principal Components Analysis and cluster analysis, SOM appeared as a valuable tool for community classification, and to establish clear relationships between clusters of bacterial communities and sole-carbon sources utilization. Specifically, SOM offered a clear bidimensional projection of a relatively large volume of data and were easier to interpret than plots commonly obtained with multivariate analyses. They would be recommended to pattern the temporal evolution of communities' functional diversity.

  12. Utilization of xylose as a carbon source for mixotrophic growth of Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Suling; Liu, Guijun; Meng, Youting; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Sijing; Shang, Hongzhong

    2014-11-01

    Mixotrophic cultivation is one potential mode for microalgae production, and an economically acceptable and environmentally sustainable organic carbon source is essential. The potential use of xylose for culturing Scenedesmus obliquus in a mixotrophic mode and physiological features of xylose-grown S. obliquus were studied. S. obliquus had a certain xylose tolerance, and was capable of utilizing xylose for growth. At a xylose concentration of 4gL(-1), the maximal cell density was 2.2gL(-1), being 2.9-fold of that under photoautotrophic condition and arriving to the level of mixotrophic growth using 4gL(-1) glucose. No changes in cellular morphology of the cells grown with or without xylose were detected. Fluorescence emission from photosystem II (PS II) relative to photosystem I (PS I) was decreased in mixotrophic cells, implying that the PSII activity was decreased. The biomass lipid content was enhanced and carbohydrate concentration was decreased, in relation to photoautotrophic controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz; Pałecz, Bartłomiej; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L −1 ) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring- 14 C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of 14 CO 2 , proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate

  14. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland); Pałecz, Bartłomiej [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 165, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Długoński, Jerzy, E-mail: jdlugo@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L{sup −1}) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate.

  15. Utilization of solid catfish manure waste as carbon and nutrient source for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Suan; Li, Jing; Blersch, David M

    2018-04-19

    The aim of this work was to study the solid waste (manure) produced by catfish as a potential feedstock for the production of lactic acid (LA) via fermentation. The solid waste contains high levels of both carbohydrates and nutrients that are sufficient for LA bacteria. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) was applied using enzyme and Lactobacillus pentosus, and different loadings of enzyme and solid waste were tested. Results showed LA concentrations of 35.7 g/L were obtained at 15% solids content of catfish waste. Because of the high nutrient content in the fish waste, it could also be used as supplementary substrate for nitrogen and carbon sources with other lignocellulosic materials. A combined feedstock of catfish waste and paper mill sludge was tested, increasing the final LA concentration to 43.1 g/L at 12% solids loading. The catfish waste was shown to be a potential feedstock to provide both carbon and nutrients for LA production, suggesting its use as a sole substrate or in combination with other lignocellulosic materials.

  16. Few-layer graphene growth from polystyrene as solid carbon source utilizing simple APCVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shahrokh; Afzalzadeh, Reza

    2016-07-01

    This research article presents development of an economical, simple, immune and environment friendly process to grow few-layer graphene by controlling evaporation rate of polystyrene on copper foil as catalyst and substrate utilizing atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method. Evaporation rate of polystyrene depends on molecular structure, amount of used material and temperature. We have found controlling rate of evaporation of polystyrene by controlling the source temperature is easier than controlling the material weight. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as Raman Spectroscopy has been used for characterization of the layers. The frequency of G‧ to G band ratio intensity in some samples varied between 0.8 and 1.6 corresponding to few-layer graphene. Topography characterization by atomic force microscopy confirmed Raman results.

  17. Biotechnological route for sustainable succinate production utilizing oil palm frond and kenaf as potential carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, Abdullah Amru Indera; Manaf, Shareena Fairuz Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md

    2017-04-01

    Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF. Utilization of non-food, inexhaustible, and low-cost derived biomass in the form of OPF and kenaf for bio-based succinate production remains largely untapped. Owing to the richness of carbohydrates in OPF and kenaf, bio-succinate commercialization using these sources appears as an attractive proposition for future sustainable developments. The aim of this paper was to review some research efforts in developing a biorefinery system based on OPF and kenaf as processing inputs. It presents the importance of the current progress in bio-succinate commercialization, in addition to describing the potential use of different succinate production hosts and various pretreatments-saccharifications under development for OPF and kenaf. Evaluations on the feasibility of OPF and kenaf as fermentation substrates are also discussed.

  18. Analysis of preference for carbon source utilization among three strains of aromatic compounds degrading Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karishma, M; Trivedi, Vikas D; Choudhary, Alpa; Mhatre, Akanksha; Kambli, Pranita; Desai, Jinal; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-10-01

    Soil isolates Pseudomonas putida CSV86, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PP4 and Pseudomonas sp. C5pp degrade naphthalene, phthalate isomers and carbaryl, respectively. Strain CSV86 displayed a diauxic growth pattern on phenylpropanoid compounds (veratraldehyde, ferulic acid, vanillin or vanillic acid) plus glucose with a distinct second lag-phase. The glucose concentration in the medium remained constant with higher cell respiration rates on aromatics and maximum protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity in the first log-phase, which gradually decreased in the second log-phase with concomitant depletion of the glucose. In strains PP4 and C5pp, growth profile and metabolic studies suggest that glucose is utilized in the first log-phase with the repression of utilization of aromatics (phthalate or carbaryl). All three strains utilize benzoate via the catechol 'ortho' ring-cleavage pathway. On benzoate plus glucose, strain CSV86 showed preference for benzoate over glucose in contrast to strains PP4 and C5pp. Additionally, organic acids like succinate were preferred over aromatics in strains PP4 and C5pp, whereas strain CSV86 co-metabolizes them. Preferential utilization of aromatics over glucose and co-metabolism of organic acids and aromatics are found to be unique properties of P. putida CSV86 as compared with strains PP4 and C5pp and this property of strain CSV86 can be exploited for effective bioremediation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilization of glyphosate as phosphate source: biochemistry and genetics of bacterial carbon-phosphorous lyase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a l...

  20. Utilization of waste bittern from saltern as a source for magnesium and an absorbent for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Choon-Ki; Park, Hyunju; Jho, Eun Hea

    2017-10-01

    During solar salt production, large quantities of bittern, a liquid by-product containing high inorganic substance concentrations, are produced. The purpose of this research was to examine the utilization of waste bittern generated from salterns as a source for Mg production and as an absorbent for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture. The study was conducted in a sequential two-step process. At NaOH/Mg molar ratios of 2.70-2.75 and pH 9.5-10.0, > 99% Mg precipitation from the bittern was achieved. After washing with water, 100-120 g/L of precipitate containing 94% Mg(OH) 2 was recovered from the bittern. At the optimum NH 4 OH concentration of 5%, 120 g of sodium bicarbonate precipitate per liter of bittern were recovered, which was equivalent to 63 g CO 2 captured per liter of bittern. These results can be used to support the use of bittern as a resource and reduce economic losses during solar salt production.

  1. The Aspergillus nidulans acuL gene encodes a mitochondrial carrier required for the utilization of carbon sources that are metabolized via the TCA cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipphi, Michel; Oestreicher, Nathalie; Nicolas, Valérie; Guitton, Audrey; Vélot, Christian

    2014-07-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of acetate as sole carbon source requires several genes (acu). Most of them are also required for the utilization of fatty acids. This is the case for acuD and acuE, which encode the two glyoxylate cycle-specific enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, but also for acuL that we have identified as AN7287, and characterized in this study. Deletion of acuL resulted in the same phenotype as the original acuL217 mutant. acuL encodes a 322-amino acid protein which displays all the structural features of a mitochondrial membrane carrier, and shares 60% identity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate/fumarate mitochondrial antiporter Sfc1p (also named Acr1p). Consistently, the AcuL protein was shown to localize in mitochondria, and partial cross-complementation was observed between the S. cerevisiae and A. nidulans homologues. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested that the acuL gene is involved in the utilization of carbon sources that are catabolized via the TCA cycle, and therefore require gluconeogenesis. In addition, acuL proves to be co-regulated with acuD and acuE. Overall, our data suggest that AcuL could link the glyoxylate cycle to gluconeogenesis by exchanging cytoplasmic succinate for mitochondrial fumarate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Substrate specificity of glucose dehydrogenase and carbon source utilization pattern of pantoea dispersa strain P2 and its radiation induced mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Murugesan, Senthilkumar

    2009-01-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing pantoea dispersa strain P2 produced 5.5 mM and 42.6 mM of gluconic acid on 24 h and 72 h incubation, respectively. Strain P2 exhibited glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) specific activity of 0.32 IU mg -1 protein. We have studied the substrate specificity of GDH as well as carbon source utilization pattern of strain P2. GDH of strain P2 did not use ribose as substrate. Utilization of lactose with specific activity of 0.65 IU mg -1 protein indicated that the enzyme belongs to GDH type B isozyme. Arabinose, galactose, ribose, sucrose and xylose did not induce the synthesis of GDH enzyme while mannose induced the synthesis of GDH with highest specific activity of 0.58 IU mg -1 protein. Through radiation mutagenesis, the substrate specificity of GDH was modified in order to utilize side range of sugars available in root exudates. Ribose, originally not a substrate for GDH of strain P2 was utilized as substrate by mutants P2-M5 with specific activity of 0.44 and 0.57 IU mg -1 protein, respectively. Specific activity of GDH on the media containing lactose and galactose was also improved to 1.2 and 0.52 IU mg -1 protein in P2-M5 and P2-M6 respectively. Based on the carbon source availability in root exudate, the mutants can be selected and utilized as efficient biofertilizer under P-deficient soil conditions

  3. Substrate specificity of glucose dehydrogenase and carbon source utilization pattern of pantoea dispersa strain P2 and its radiation induced mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Murugesan, Senthilkumar [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing pantoea dispersa strain P2 produced 5.5 mM and 42.6 mM of gluconic acid on 24 h and 72 h incubation, respectively. Strain P2 exhibited glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) specific activity of 0.32 IU mg{sup -1} protein. We have studied the substrate specificity of GDH as well as carbon source utilization pattern of strain P2. GDH of strain P2 did not use ribose as substrate. Utilization of lactose with specific activity of 0.65 IU mg{sup -1} protein indicated that the enzyme belongs to GDH type B isozyme. Arabinose, galactose, ribose, sucrose and xylose did not induce the synthesis of GDH enzyme while mannose induced the synthesis of GDH with highest specific activity of 0.58 IU mg{sup -1} protein. Through radiation mutagenesis, the substrate specificity of GDH was modified in order to utilize side range of sugars available in root exudates. Ribose, originally not a substrate for GDH of strain P2 was utilized as substrate by mutants P2-M5 with specific activity of 0.44 and 0.57 IU mg{sup -1} protein, respectively. Specific activity of GDH on the media containing lactose and galactose was also improved to 1.2 and 0.52 IU mg{sup -1} protein in P2-M5 and P2-M6 respectively. Based on the carbon source availability in root exudate, the mutants can be selected and utilized as efficient biofertilizer under P-deficient soil conditions.

  4. Assessing an effective feeding strategy to optimize crude glycerol utilization as sustainable carbon source for lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Lorenzo; Ami, Diletta; Posteri, Riccardo; Giuzzi, Andrea; Mereghetti, Paolo; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-05-05

    Microbial lipids can represent a valuable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in the context of a viable bio-based economy. This production can be driven by cultivating some oleaginous microorganisms on crude-glycerol, a 10% (w/w) by-product produced during the transesterification process from oils into biodiesel. Despite attractive, the perspective is still economically unsustainable, mainly because impurities in crude glycerol can negatively affect microbial performances. In this view, the selection of the best cell factory, together with the development of a robust and effective production process are primary requirements. The present work compared crude versus pure glycerol as carbon sources for lipid production by three different oleaginous yeasts: Rhodosporidium toruloides (DSM 4444), Lipomyces starkeyi (DSM 70295) and Cryptococcus curvatus (DSM 70022). An efficient yet simple feeding strategy for avoiding the lag phase caused by growth on crude glycerol was developed, leading to high biomass and lipid production for all the tested yeasts. Flow-cytometry and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, supported by principal component analysis (PCA), were used as non-invasive and quick techniques to monitor, compare and analyze the lipid production over time. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis completed the quali-quantitative description. Under these operative conditions, the highest lipid content (up to 60.9% wt/wt) was measured in R. toruloides, while L. starkeyi showed the fastest glycerol consumption rate (1.05 g L(-1) h(-1)). Being productivity the most industrially relevant feature to be pursued, under the presented optimized conditions R. toruloides showed the best lipid productivity (0.13 and 0.15 g L(-1) h(-1) on pure and crude glycerol, respectively). Here we demonstrated that the development of an efficient feeding strategy is sufficient in preventing the inhibitory effect of crude glycerol, and robust enough to ensure high lipid

  5. Corn cob biochar increases soil culturable bacterial abundance without enhancing their capacities in utilizing carbon sources in Biolog Eco-plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lin-lin; HAN Guang-ming; LAN Yu; LIU Sai-nan; GAO Ji-ping; YANG Xu; MENG Jun; CHEN Wen-fu

    2017-01-01

    Biochar has been shown to influence soil microbial communities in terms of their abundance and diversity.However,the relationship among microbial abundance,structure and C metabolic traits is not well studied under biochar application.Here it was hypothesized that the addition of biochar with intrinsic properties (i.e.,porous structure) could affect the proliferation of culturable microbes and the genetic structure of soil bacterial communities.In the meantime,the presence of available organic carbon in biochar may influence the C utilization capacities of microbial community in Biolog Eco-plates.A pot experiment was conducted with differenct biochar application (BC) rates:control (0 t ha-1),BC1 (20 t ha-1) and BC2 (40 t ha-1).Culturable microorganisms were enumerated via the plate counting method.Bacterial diversity was examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).Microbial capacity in using C sources was assessed using Biolog Eco-plates.The addition of biochar stimulated the growth of actinomyces and bacteria,especially the ammonifying bacteria and azotobacteria,but had no significant effect on fungi proliferation.The phylogenetic distribution of the operational taxonomic units could be divided into the following groups with the biochar addition:Firmicutes,Acidobacteria,Gemmatimonadetes,Actinobacteria,Cyanobacteria and α-,β-,γ-and δ-Proteobacteria (average similarity >95%).Biochar application had a higher capacity utilization for L-asparagine,Tween 80,D-mannitol,L-serine,γ-hydroxybutyric acid,N-acetyI-D-glucosamine,glycogen,itaconic acid,glycyl-L-glutamic acid,α-ketobutyricacid and putrescine,whereas it had received decreased capacities in using the other 20 carbon sources in Biolog Eco-plates.Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the physico-chemical properties,indices of bacterial diversity,and C metabolic traits were positively correlated with the appearance of novel sequences under BC2 treatment.Our study indicates that the

  6. Utilization of fruit peels as carbon source for white rot fungi biomass production under submerged state bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunnisola Kola Saheed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of nutrient rich waste streams within the food and hospitality industry is inevitable and remained a matter of concern to stakeholders. Three white rot fungal strains were cultivated under submerged state bioconversion (SmB. Fermentable sugar conversion efficiency, biomass production and substrate utilization constant were indicators used to measure the success of the process. The substrates – banana peel (Bp, pineapple peel (PAp and papaya peel (Pp were prepared in wet and dried forms as substrates. Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium, Panus tigrinus M609RQY, and RO209RQY were cultivated on sole fruit wastes and their composites. All fungal strains produced profound biomass on dry sole wet substrates, but wet composite substrates gave improved results. P. tigrinus RO209RQY was the most efficient in sugar conversion (99.6% on sole substrates while P. tigrinus M609RQY was efficient on composite substrates. Elevated substrate utilization constant (Ku and biomass production heralded wet composite substrates. P. chrysosporium was the most performing fungal strain for biomass production, while PApBp was the best composite substrate.

  7. Carbon source for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-25

    Molasses is hydrolyzed and treated with Ca/sup 2 +/ to produce fructose and a good C-source for glutamic acid and lysine fermentation. Thus, sugarcane molasses was diluted with H/sub 2/O, adjusted to pH 1.5, and kept at 60/sup 0/ for 4 hr. Three liters of this solution was cooled to 0/sup 0/ and 262 g Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a 30% solution was added, along with seed crystals of Ca-fructose additional product. Crystal addition product was recovered and dissolved; the solution contained 6.4g glucose and 168 g fructose, a 50% yield of fructose. The mother liquor was neutralized with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to precipitate the Ca. The supernatant contained 284 g glucose and 159 g fructose and was used as the C source in a fermentation medium in which Coryne-bacterium lilum produced glutamic acid. Yield was 49.0 g/L compared to 48.3 g/L when molasses was used as the C source.

  8. Carbon source utilization patterns of Bacillus simplex ecotypes do not reflect their adaptation to ecologically divergent slopes in 'Evolution Canyon', Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Johannes; Pukall, Rüdiger; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2008-10-01

    The 'Evolution Canyons' I and II in Israel are model habitats to study adaptation and speciation of bacteria in the environment. These canyons represent similar ecological replicates, separated by 40 km, with a strongly sun-exposed and hot 'African' south-facing slope (SFS) vs. a cooler and mesic-lush 'European' north-facing slope (NFS). Previously, among 131 Bacillus simplex isolates, distinct genetic lineages (ecotypes), each specific for either SFS or NFS, were identified, suggesting a temperature-driven slope-specific adaptation. Here, we asked whether the ecological heterogeneity of SFS vs. NFS also affected carbon utilization abilities, as determined using the Biolog assay. Contrary to expectation, a correlation between substrate utilization patterns and the ecological origin of strains was not found. Rather, the patterns split according to the two major phylogenetic lineages each of which contain SFS and NFS ecotypes. We conclude that traits related to the general energy metabolism, as far as assessed here, are neither shaped by the major abiotic features of 'Evolution Canyon', namely solar radiation, temperature, and drought, nor by the soil characteristics. We further conclude that some traits diverge rather neutrally from each other, whereas other, more environmentally related traits are shaped by natural selection and show evolutionary convergence.

  9. The Efficient Utilization of Open Source Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Intelligence and Systems Analysis

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the efficient utilization of open source information. Open source information consists of a vast set of information from a variety of sources. Not only does the quantity of open source information pose a problem, the quality of such information can hinder efforts. To show this, two case studies are mentioned: Iran and North Korea, in order to see how open source information can be utilized. The huge breadth and depth of open source information can complicate an analysis, especially because open information has no guarantee of accuracy. Open source information can provide key insights either directly or indirectly: looking at supporting factors (flow of scientists, products and waste from mines, government budgets, etc.); direct factors (statements, tests, deployments). Fundamentally, it is the independent verification of information that allows for a more complete picture to be formed. Overlapping sources allow for more precise bounds on times, weights, temperatures, yields or other issues of interest in order to determine capability. Ultimately, a "good" answer almost never comes from an individual, but rather requires the utilization of a wide range of skill sets held by a team of people.

  10. Generation, capture, and utilization of industrial carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew J; Sin, Emily H K; Marriott, Ray; Clark, James H

    2010-03-22

    efficiency and lower per capita consumption, and replacing fossil energy sources with sources such as wind, wave, and solar, respectively). "Low carbon" is of inherently less value to the chemical and plastics industries at least in terms of raw materials although a version of (2), the use of biomass, does apply, especially if we use carbon sources that are renewable on a human timescale. There is however, another renewable, natural source of carbon that is widely available and for which greater utilization would help restore material balance and the natural cycle for carbon in terms of resource and waste. CO(2), perhaps the most widely discussed and feared chemical in modern society, is as fundamental to our survival as water, and like water we need to better understand the human as well as natural production and consumption of CO(2) so that we can attempt to get these into a sustainable balance. Current utilization of this valuable resource by the chemical industry is only 90 megatonne per year, compared to the 26.3 gigatonne CO(2) generated annually by combustion of fossil fuels for energy generation, as such significant opportunities exist for increased utilization of CO(2) generated from industrial processes. It is also essential that renewable energy is used if CO(2) is to be utilized as a C1 building block.

  11. Human Impacts and Management of Carbon Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.; Edmonds, J.; Socolow, R.; Surles, T.

    1999-08-20

    The energy system dominates human-induced carbon flows on our planet. Globally, six billion tons of carbon are contained in the fossil fuels removed from below the ground every year. More than 90% of the carbon in fossil fuels is used for energy purposes, with carbon dioxide as the carbon product and the atmosphere as the initial destination for the carbon dioxide. Significantly affecting the carbon flows associated with fossil fuels is an immense undertaking. Four principal technological approaches are available to affect these carbon flows: (1) Fossil fuels and other energy resources can be utilized more efficiently; (2) Energy sources other than fossil fuels can be used; (3) Carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels can be trapped and redirected, preventing it from reaching the atmosphere (fossil carbon sequestration); and (4) One can work outside the energy system to remove carbon dioxide biologically from the atmosphere (biological carbon sequestration). An optimum carbon management strategy will surely implement all four approaches and a wise R&D program will have vigorous sub-programs in all four areas. These programs can be effective by integrating scenario analyses into the planning process. A number of future scenarios must be evaluated to determine the need for the new technologies in a future energy mix. This planning activity must be an iterative process. At present, R&D in the first two areas--energy efficiency and non-fossil fuel energy resources--is relatively well developed. By contrast, R&D in the third and the fourth areas--the two carbon sequestration options--is less well developed. The task before the workshop was to recommend ways to initiate a vigorous carbon sequestration research program without compromising the strength of the current programs in the first two areas. We recommend that this task be fulfilled by initiating several new programs in parallel. First, we recommend that a vigorous carbon sequestration program be launched

  12. Standard light source utilizing spontaneous radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, O.; Takenaga, M.; Tsujimoto, Y.

    1975-01-01

    A standard light source is described utilizing spontaneous radiation made by mixing a fluorescent substance LnVO 4 :X (wherein Ln is Y or Gd, and X is Dy or Eu) with a radioactive substance containing a radioactive isotope which is less in the degree of temperature variation of the intensity of emitted light and excellent in stability. Particularly when used in a light-receiving device having photomultiplier tubes, the said light source emits light quite similar to that of a thermoluminescent substance such as CaSO 4 :X (wherein X is Im, Dy, Sm or Mn), LiF or Mg 2 SiO 4 :Tb, and is excellent as a calibration high-stability standard light source for use in the above-mentioned light-receiving device. (auth)

  13. Optimising carbon and nitrogen sources for Azotobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work deals with selecting and optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for producing biomass from Azotobacter chroococcum. Four carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, manitol and sodium benzoate) and four nitrogen sources (yeast extract, meat extract, NH4Cl and (NH4)2SO4) were evaluated during the first ...

  14. Utilization of oil palm biodiesel solid residue as renewable sources for preparation of granular activated carbon by microwave induced KOH activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2013-02-01

    In this work, preparation of granular activated carbon from oil palm biodiesel solid residue, oil palm shell (PSAC) by microwave assisted KOH activation has been attempted. The physical and chemical properties of PSAC were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, volumetric adsorption analyzer and elemental analysis. The adsorption behavior was examined by performing batch adsorption experiments using methylene blue as dye model compound. Equilibrium data were simulated using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Kinetic modeling was fitted to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models, while the adsorption mechanism was determined using the intraparticle diffusion and Boyd equations. The result was satisfactory fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 343.94mg/g at 30°C. The findings support the potential of oil palm shell for preparation of high surface area activated carbon by microwave assisted KOH activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formic Acid Manufacture: Carbon Dioxide Utilization Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rumayor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 utilization alternatives for manufacturing formic acid (FA such as electrochemical reduction (ER or homogeneous catalysis of CO2 and H2 could be efficient options for developing more environmentally-friendly production alternatives to FA fossil-dependant production. However, these alternatives are currently found at different technological readiness levels (TRLs, and some remaining technical challenges need to be overcome to achieve at least carbon-even FA compared to the commercial process, especially ER of CO2, which is still farther from its industrial application. The main technical limitations inherited by FA production by ER are the low FA concentration achieved and the high overpotentials required, which involve high consumptions of energy (ER cell and steam (distillation. In this study, a comparison in terms of carbon footprints (CF using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA tool was done to evaluate the potential technological challenges assuring the environmental competitiveness of the FA production by ER of CO2. The CF of the FA conventional production were used as a benchmark, as well as the CF of a simulated plant based on homogeneous catalysts of CO2 and H2 (found closer to be commercial. Renewable energy utilization as PV solar for the reaction is essential to achieve a carbon-even product; however, the CF benefits are still negligible due to the enormous contribution of the steam produced by natural gas (purification stage. Some ER reactor configurations, plus a recirculation mode, could achieve an even CF versus commercial process. It was demonstrated that the ER alternatives could lead to lower natural resources consumption (mainly, natural gas and heavy fuel oil compared to the commercial process, which is a noticeable advantage in environmental sustainability terms.

  16. Carbon source feeding strategies for recombinant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... protein expression with the influence of the carbon source feeding ... in the culture media, increasing the peroxisomes numbers ...... source, temperature, pH, O2, methanol feeding strategy) ..... Catabolite Inactivation in Yeast.

  17. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    information-data on various carbon dioxide emission sources and available capture-utilization technologies; the model and solution libraries [2]; and the generic 3-stage approach for determining more sustainable solutions [3] through superstructure (processing networks) based optimization – adopted for global...... need to provide, amongst other options: useful data from in-house databases on carbon dioxide emission sources; mathematical models from a library of process-property models; numerical solvers from library of implemented solvers; and, work-flows and data-flows for different benefit scenarios...... to be investigated. It is useful to start by developing a prototype framework and then augmenting its application range by increasing the contents of its databases, libraries and work-flows and data-flows. The objective is to present such a prototype framework with its implemented database containing collected...

  18. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon source in the future chemical industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; Heinrich Krauch, Carl

    1982-11-01

    Rising crude oil prices favour the exploitation of hitherto unutilised energy carriers and the realisation of new technologies in all sectors where carbon is used. These changed economic constraints necessitate both savings in conventional petrochemistry and a change to oil-independent carbon sources in the chemical industry. While, in coal chemistry, the synthesis and process principles of petrochemistry — fragmentation of the raw material and subsequent buildup of molecular structures — can be maintained, the raw material structure largely remains unchanged in the chemistry of renewable raw materials. This lecture is to demonstrate the structural as well as the technological and energy criteria of the chemistry of alternative carbon sources, to forecast the chances of commercial realization and to discuss some promising fields of research and development.

  20. The utilization of radiation sources in Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, P.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the situation that Angola, which joined the IAEA in September 1999, is facing with the lack of an appropriate infrastructure for the control of radiation sources. It emphasizes the country's needs in technical assistance from the IAEA and other Member States for improving its regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety. (author)

  1. Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report summarizes a workshop hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office on May 23–24, 2017, in Orlando, Florida. The event gathered stakeholder input through facilitated discussions focused on innovative technologies and business strategies for growing algae on waste carbon dioxide resources.

  2. Proteinase production in Pseudomonas fluorescens ON2 is affected by carbon sources and allows surface-attached but not planktonic cells to utilize protein for growth in lake water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Mette Haubjerg; Worm, Jakob; Jørgensen, Niels O. G.

    2012-01-01

    -colonies were able to utilize this resource, while planktonic cells were not. Our experiments are the first to experimentally support models predicting that production of extra-cellular enzymes in dilute environments may be a waste of resources, whereas it represents a favorable feeding strategy in organic...... and there was no evidence for cell density-regulated or starvation-induced proteinase production. Proteinase was produced in the absence of an organic nitrogen source, and citrate had a negative while glucose had a positive effect on the production. Hence P. fluorescens ON2 seems to exploit protein sources by expressing...

  3. Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on cellulose synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on cellulose production by Acetobacter lovaniensis HBB5 was examined. In this study, glucose, fructose, sucrose and ethanol as carbon source and yeast extract, casein hydrolysate and ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source were used. Among the carbon sources, ...

  4. Emerging Pattern in Utilizing Electronic Information Sources by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a detailed comparative analysis of electronic information sources (EIS) utilized by pharmacy lecturers in South-South universities in Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which EIS are utilized among pharmacy lecturers in South-South Nigeria. The aim is to explore the emerging pattern of ...

  5. Carbon emissions and management scenarios for consumer-owned utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    An important subset of the utility sector has been scarcely explored for its ability to reduce carbon dioxide emissions: consumer-owned electric utilities significantly contribute to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, but are often excluded from energy efficiency and renewable energy policies. They sell a quarter of the nation's electricity, yet the carbon impact of these sales is not well understood, due to their small size, unique ownership models, and high percentage of purchased power for distribution. This paper situates consumer-owned utilities in the context of emerging U.S. climate policy, quantifying for the first time the state-by-state carbon impact of electricity sales by consumer-owned utilities. We estimate that total retail sales by consumer-owned utilities account for roughly 568 million metric tons of CO 2 annually, making this sector the 7th largest CO 2 emitter globally, and examine state-level carbon intensities of the sector in light of the current policy environment and the share of COU distribution in the states. Based on efficiency and fuel mix pathways under conceivable regulations, carbon scenarios for 2030 are developed.

  6. 40 CFR 74.44 - Reduced utilization for combustion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for consumption or in the residence or facility of a customer to whom the opt-in source's utility... production, the designated representative of the opt-in source must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the...: ER04AP95.014 where “actual heat input” and “reduction from improved efficiency” are defined as set forth in...

  7. The kinetics of Scenedesmus obliquus microalgae growth utilizing carbon dioxide gas from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiansathit, Worrarat; Keener, Tim C.; Khang, Soon-Jai; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux; Hovichitr, Patcharee

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus was cultured in a laboratory photobioreactor to determine the efficacy of using biogas as a carbon source for the microalgae's growth. The biogas contained ∼60% CH 4 and ∼40% CO 2 , and was derived from an anaerobic digester operating from animal wastes, and an anaerobic reactor utilizing high strength wastewater. The results showed that biogas is a viable carbon source for microalgae growth and that significant portions of the biogas' CO 2 can be utilized for algae growth, resulting in a biogas having a high concentration of methane. This paper develops the kinetic expressions for the algae's growth by assuming an autocatalytic reaction between carbon substrate and microalgae. The maximum specific growth rate and biomass productivity of S. obliquus were 0.56 d −1 and 0.145 g L −1 d −1 respectively. The biomass contained 51.8% carbon and higher heating value (HHV) was 22.9 MJ kg −1 . - Highlights: • Biogas is a viable carbon source for microalgae growth. • Biomass production rate and characteristics were assessed. • Scenedesmus obliquus can adjust to grow with high concentration of CO 2 in the carbon source

  8. Bacterial carbon utilization in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Langergraber, Günter; Watzinger, Andrea; Haberl, Raimund; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-03-01

    Subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands with intermittent loading are considered as state of the art and can comply with stringent effluent requirements. It is usually assumed that microbial activity in the filter body of constructed wetlands, responsible for the removal of carbon and nitrogen, relies mainly on bacterially mediated transformations. However, little quantitative information is available on the distribution of bacterial biomass and production in the "black-box" constructed wetland. The spatial distribution of bacterial carbon utilization, based on bacterial (14)C-leucine incorporation measurements, was investigated for the filter body of planted and unplanted indoor pilot-scale constructed wetlands, as well as for a planted outdoor constructed wetland. A simple mass-balance approach was applied to explain the bacterially catalysed organic matter degradation in this system by comparing estimated bacterial carbon utilization rates with simultaneously measured carbon reduction values. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands proved to be a suitable model system for investigating microbial carbon utilization in constructed wetlands. Under an ideal operating mode, the bulk of bacterial productivity occurred within the first 10cm of the filter body. Plants seemed to have no significant influence on productivity and biomass of bacteria, as well as on wastewater total organic carbon removal.

  9. Biocompatible yogurt carbon dots: evaluation of utilization for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Saliha; Kara, Meryem; Demirel Kars, Meltem; Aykül, Fatmanur; Çiçekci, Hacer; Akkuş, Mehmet

    2017-09-01

    In this study, carbon dots (CDs) were produced from yogurt, a fermented milk product, via microwave-assisted process (800 W) in 30 min without using any additional chemical agents. Yogurt CDs had outstanding nitrogen and oxygen ratios. These dots were monodisperse and about 2 nm sized. The toxicological assessments of yogurt carbon dots in human cancer cells and normal epithelial cells and their fluorescence imaging in living cell system were carried out. Yogurt carbon dots had intense fluorescent signal under confocal microscopy and good fluorescence stability in living cell system. The resulting yogurt carbon dots exhibited high biocompatibility up to 7.1 mg/mL CD concentration which may find utilization in medical applications such as cellular tracking, imaging and drug delivery. Yogurt carbon dots have potential to be good diagnostic agents to visualize cancer cells which may be developed as a therapeutic carrier.

  10. Measures for carbon dioxide problem and utilization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Toshinori

    1992-01-01

    As global environment problems, there are water, expansion of deserts, weather, tropical forests, wild animals, ocean pollution, nuclear waste contamination, acid rain, ozone layer and so on, and population, foods, energy, and resources are the problems surrounding them. It is clear that these origins are attributed to the development and consumption largely dependent on the intention of developed countries and the population problem of developing countries. In this report, the discharge of carbon dioxide that causes greenhouse effect and its relation with energy are discussed. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration, its release from fossil fuel, the destruction of forests, the balance of carbon on the earth, the development of new energy such as solar energy, the transport of new energy, secondary energy system and the role of carbon dioxide, the transfer to low carbon fuel and the carbon reduction treatment of fuel, the utilization of unused energy and energy price, the efficiency of energy utilization, the heightening of efficiency of energy conversion, energy conservation and the breakaway from energy wasteful use culture, and the recovery, preservation and use of discharged carbon dioxide are described. (K.I.)

  11. The role of utilities in developing low carbon, electric megacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Chris; Stewart, Iain D.; Facchini, Angelo; Mele, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Development of electric cities, with low carbon power supply, is a key strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions. We analyze the role of electric utilities as important actors to catalyze the transition to electric cites, drawing upon data for the world's 27 megacities. Progress towards the ideal electric city is most advanced for Paris, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires for low carbon electricity, while Indian megacities have relatively high use of carbon-intensive electricity as a percentage of total energy use. There is wide variety in the structure of markets for electricity provision in megacities, with a dominant, public utility being the most common model. We review literature on electricity sector business models and broadly propose future models dependent on the predominance of locally dispersed generation and the nature of the ownership of the electric grid within the city. Where a high proportion of electricity can be provided by locally distributed supply within a city, the role of utilities could predominantly become that of enabler of exchange with the grid, but new pricing structures are required. A further challenge for utilities in enabling the electric city is to provide a higher level of resilience to events that disrupt power supply. - Highlights: • Amongst 27 megacities, Paris, Rio, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires are most progressed low carbon electric cities. • Indian megacities have relatively high use of electricity as a percentage of total energy use. • Wide variety in electricity market structure in megacities; dominant, public utility the most common model. • Utilities could become enablers of exchange with the grid, but new pricing models required.

  12. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization Status of Electronic Information Sources (EIS) for HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tesfa

    HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment in Specialized Teaching Hospitals of. Ethiopia, 2016. Senait Samuel Bramo. 1. , Tesfamichael Alaro Agago. 2*. OPEN ACCESS. Citation: Senait Samuel Bramo,. Tesfamichael Alaro Agago. Utilization. Status of Electronic Information Sources. (EIS) for HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment.

  14. Mesoscale inversion of carbon sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauvaux, T.

    2008-01-01

    Inverse methods at large scales are used to infer the spatial variability of carbon sources and sinks over the continents but their uncertainties remain large. Atmospheric concentrations integrate the surface flux variability but atmospheric transport models at low resolution are not able to simulate properly the local atmospheric dynamics at the measurement sites. However, the inverse estimates are more representative of the large spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystems compared to direct flux measurements. Top-down and bottom-up methods that aim at quantifying the carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere correspond to different scales and are not easily comparable. During this phD, a mesoscale inverse system was developed to correct carbon fluxes at 8 km resolution. The high resolution transport model MesoNH was used to simulate accurately the variability of the atmospheric concentrations, which allowed us to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved fluxes. All the measurements used here were observed during the intensive regional campaign CERES of May and June 2005, during which several instrumented towers measured CO 2 concentrations and fluxes in the South West of France. Airborne measurements allowed us to observe concentrations at high altitude but also CO 2 surface fluxes over large parts of the domain. First, the capacity of the inverse system to correct the CO 2 fluxes was estimated using pseudo-data experiments. The largest fraction of the concentration variability was attributed to regional surface fluxes over an area of about 300 km around the site locations depending on the meteorological conditions. Second, an ensemble of simulations allowed us to define the spatial and temporal structures of the transport errors. Finally, the inverse fluxes at 8 km resolution were compared to direct flux measurements. The inverse system has been validated in space and time and showed an improvement of the first guess fluxes from a vegetation model

  15. The Nordic Seas carbon budget: Sources, sinks, and uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsen, Are; Eldevik, Tor; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Lauvset, Siv K.; Nilsen, Jan Even Ø.; Bellerby, Richard G. J; Johannessen, Truls; Falck, Eva

    2011-01-01

    A carbon budget for the Nordic Seas is derived by combining recent inorganic carbon data from the CARINA database with relevant volume transports. Values of organic carbon in the Nordic Seas' water masses, the amount of carbon input from river runoff, and the removal through sediment burial are taken from the literature. The largest source of carbon to the Nordic Seas is the Atlantic Water that enters the area across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge; this is in particular true for the anthropogen...

  16. A multivariate-utility approach for selection of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S; Husseiny, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    A deterministic approach is devised to compare the safety features of various energy sources. The approach is based on multiattribute utility theory. The method is used in evaluating the safety aspects of alternative energy sources used for the production of electrical energy. Four alternative energy sources are chosen which could be considered for the production of electricity to meet the national energy demand. These are nuclear, coal, solar, and geothermal energy. For simplicity, a total electrical system is considered in each case. A computer code is developed to evaluate the overall utility function for each alternative from the utility patterns corresponding to 23 energy attributes, mostly related to safety. The model can accommodate other attributes assuming that these are independent. The technique is kept flexible so that virtually any decision problem with various attributes can be attacked and optimal decisions can be reached. The selected data resulted in preference of geothermal and nuclear energy over other sources, and the method is found viable in making decisions on energy uses based on quantified and subjective attributes. (author)

  17. Isolation of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria from different ecological sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Choudri, S.F.; Hameed, A.

    1991-01-01

    Among the various samples from different ecological sources oil contaminated soil samples and waste from sugar processing industry were found to have bacterial populations with ability of utilizing oil. In addition to oil, molasses base medium was also used to study the utilizing ability. Selection was made on the basis on the high gas production, decrease in pH, percentage of oil consumed and bacterial counts. Fermented scum and oil contaminated soil from Sehala (Islamabad) were found to contain microbes having maximum oil degrading ability. The bacterial isolates belong to the genera of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Escherichia. (author)

  18. Denitrification on internal carbon sources in RAS is limited by fibers in fecal waste of rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Busscher, J.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification on internal carbon sources offers the advantage to control nitrate levels in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) by using the fecal carbon produced within the husbandry system. However, it is not clear to which extent fecal carbon can be utilized by the microbial community within

  19. Diagnostic Evaluation of Carbon Sources in CMAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional monitoring networks measure only total elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) routinely. Diagnosing model biases with such limited information is difficult. Measurements of organic tracer compounds have recently become available and allow for more detailed di...

  20. Inverter for interfacing advanced energy sources to a utility grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A transistor is operated in the PWM mode such that a hlaf sine wave of current is delivered first to one-half of a distribution transformer and then the other as determined by steering thyristors operated at the fundamental sinusoidal frequency. Power to the transistor is supplied by a dc source such as a solar array and the power is converted such that a sinusoidal current is injected into a utility at near unity power factor.

  1. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  2. Utilization of HTGR on active carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukitaka, E-mail: yukitaka@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2014-05-01

    A new energy transformation concept based on carbon recycling, called as active carbon recycling energy system, ACRES, was proposed for a zero carbon dioxide emission process. The ACRES is driven availably by carbon dioxide free primary energy. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is a candidate of the energy sources for ACRES. A smart ironmaking system with ACRES (iACRES) is one of application examples. The contribution of HTGR on iACRES was discussed thermodynamically in this study. A carbon material is re-used cyclically as energy carrier media in ACRES. Carbon monoxide (CO) had higher energy densities than hydrogen and was compatible with conventional process. Thus, CO was suitable recycling media for ACRES. Efficient regeneration of CO was a key technology for ACRES. A combined system of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction was candidate. CO{sub 2} direct electrolysis was also one of the candidates. HTGR was appropriate heat source for both water and CO{sub 2} electrolysises, and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction. Thermodynamic energy balances were calculated for both systems with HTGR for an ironmaking system. The direct system showed relatively advantage to the combined system in the stand point of enthalpy efficiency and simplicity of the process. One or two plants of HTGR are corresponding with ACRES system for one unit of conventional blast furnace. The proposed ACRES system with HTGR was expected to form the basis of a new energy industrial process that had low CO{sub 2} emission.

  3. Utility view of the source term and air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The utility view of the source term and air cleaning is discussed. The source term is made up of: (1) noble gases, which there has been a tendency to ignore in the past because it was thought there was nothing that could be done with them anyway, (2) the halogens, which have been dealt with in Air Cleaning Conferences in the past in terms of charcoal and other systems for removing them, and (3) the solid components of the source term which particulate filters are designed to handle. Air cleaning systems consist of filters, adsorbers, containment sprays, suppression pools in boiling water reactors and ice beds in ice condenser-equipped plants. The feasibility and cost of air cleaning systems are discussed

  4. Overcoming Barriers to Successfully Commercializing Carbon Dioxide Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Marvin, E-mail: marvin.kant@tu-berlin.de [Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-13

    The successful transition to a low-carbon economy hinges on innovative solutions and collaborative action on a global scale. Sustainable entrepreneurship is thereby recognized as a key driver in the creation and transformation of ecologically and socially sustainable economic systems. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this topic by understanding commercialization barriers for strong sustainability-oriented new technology ventures and to derive recommendations to overcome them. A qualitative multilevel approach is applied to identify barriers and drivers within the internal dynamic capabilities of the organization and within the organization’s external stakeholders. A model of barriers has been developed based on semi-structured interviews with new carbon dioxide utilization ventures and associated industry players in Canada, the USA, and the European Economic Area. Resulting recommendations to facilitate the (re-)design of a dedicated support system are proposed on four levels: (a) actors, (b) resources, (c) institutional settings, and (d) the coordination of the support system.

  5. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2015-03-19

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An alternative hypothesis is that deep-water DOC consists of many different, intrinsically labile compounds at concentrations too low to compensate for the metabolic costs associated to their utilization. Here, we present experimental evidence showing that low concentrations rather than recalcitrance preclude consumption of a substantial fraction of DOC, leading to slow microbial growth in the deep ocean. These findings demonstrate an alternative mechanism for the long-term storage of labile DOC in the deep ocean, which has been hitherto largely ignored. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Successfully Commercializing Carbon Dioxide Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Marvin

    2017-01-01

    The successful transition to a low-carbon economy hinges on innovative solutions and collaborative action on a global scale. Sustainable entrepreneurship is thereby recognized as a key driver in the creation and transformation of ecologically and socially sustainable economic systems. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this topic by understanding commercialization barriers for strong sustainability-oriented new technology ventures and to derive recommendations to overcome them. A qualitative multilevel approach is applied to identify barriers and drivers within the internal dynamic capabilities of the organization and within the organization’s external stakeholders. A model of barriers has been developed based on semi-structured interviews with new carbon dioxide utilization ventures and associated industry players in Canada, the USA, and the European Economic Area. Resulting recommendations to facilitate the (re-)design of a dedicated support system are proposed on four levels: (a) actors, (b) resources, (c) institutional settings, and (d) the coordination of the support system.

  7. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, J M; Mayol, Eva; Hansman, Roberta L.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An alternative hypothesis is that deep-water DOC consists of many different, intrinsically labile compounds at concentrations too low to compensate for the metabolic costs associated to their utilization. Here, we present experimental evidence showing that low concentrations rather than recalcitrance preclude consumption of a substantial fraction of DOC, leading to slow microbial growth in the deep ocean. These findings demonstrate an alternative mechanism for the long-term storage of labile DOC in the deep ocean, which has been hitherto largely ignored. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes of Few Walls Using Aliphatic Alcohols as a Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Espinosa-Magaña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes with single and few walls are highly appreciated for their technological applications, regardless of the limited availability due to their high production cost. In this paper we present an alternative process that can lead to lowering the manufacturing cost of CNTs of only few walls by means of the use of the spray pyrolysis technique. For this purpose, ferrocene is utilized as a catalyst and aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol or butanol as the carbon source. The characterization of CNTs was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The study of the synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs show important differences in the number of layers that constitute the nanotubes, the diameter length, the quantity and the quality as a function of the number of carbons employed in the alcohol. The main interest of this study is to give the basis of an efficient synthesis process to produce CNTs of few walls for applications where small diameter is required.

  9. Utilization of Ethanolamine as Carbon Dioxide Absorber For

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Asdiana Irma; Zakir, Muhammad; Maming, Maming

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of ethanolamine as carbon dioxide absober for estimating of coral age from langkai island via LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting) method has been done. Focus is to analyze coral reefs taken from Langkai island surface which is relatively far from the influence of human activities. Chemical preparation was carried out by using a mixture of NaOH with H2O2 30% followed by a mixture of HClO4 with H2O2 30%, and finally with HCl solution to produce a clean sample with 8.6% weight reduct...

  10. Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, J.; Eichelbroenner, M.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.) [de

  11. Source attribution of black carbon in Arctic snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Dean A; Warren, Stephen G; Grenfell, Thomas C; Doherty, Sarah J; Larson, Timothy V; Clarke, Antony D

    2009-06-01

    Snow samples obtained at 36 sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean in early 2007 were analyzed for light-absorbing aerosol concentration together with a suite of associated chemical species. The light absorption data, interpreted as black carbon concentrations, and other chemical data were input into the EPA PMF 1.1 receptor model to explore the sources for black carbon in the snow. The analysis found four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source, and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources (encompassing both open and closed combustion) together accounting for >90% of the black carbon.

  12. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  13. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  14. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  15. Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakaya, Ahmet; Ozilgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy utilization increases almost twofold; processing the same amount into the peeled or diced-tomatoes increases the energy utilization seven times. In case of juice production, the increase is five times. The carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy used and is 189.4 kg/t of fresh tomatoes in the case of retail packaging, and did not change considerably when made into paste. The carbon dioxide emission increased twofold with peeled or diced-tomatoes, and increased threefold when juiced. Chemical fertilizers and transportation made the highest contribution to energy utilization and CO 2 emission. The difference in energy utilization is determined mainly by water to dry solids ratio of the food and increases with the water content of the final product. Environmentally conscious consumers may prefer eating fresh tomatoes or alternatively tomato paste, to minimize carbon dioxide emission. -- Highlights: → Energy utilization for producing one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes was 2412.8 MJ → Energy utilization was 2 folds with paste, 7 times with peeled or diced-tomatoes, 5 times with juice. → Energy utilization increases with water content of the final product. → Transportation, packaging, evaporation and chemicals are the major energy consumers. → Carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy.

  16. Utilization Of Carbon Nanotubes In Electromagnetic Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanis Zakariah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM energy termed seabed logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges include sensitivity and frequency matching. This paper presents development of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs as electromagnetic wave detector due to outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes. They are currently one of the desired materials for advanced technologies. Two types of detectors were developed in this work, carbon nanotube-based (D1 and without nanotube-based (D2 detectors. Various configuration and arrangement for each type of detector were investigated to determine the one with the highest detection measurement and stability of frequency stability of detection system. It was found that 20 turn-coils coil placed at its centre gives the maximum detection of induction voltage, 39.61 mV. However, the 20 turn- coils with CNTs which gives 36.50 mV is the preferred EM detectors due to the stability in frequency of the detection system.

  17. Apportioning bacterial carbon source utilization in soil using 14 C isotope analysis of FISH-targeted bacterial populations sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS): 14 C-FISH-FACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougoulias, Christos; Meade, Andrew; Shaw, Liz J

    2018-02-19

    An unresolved need in microbial ecology is methodology to enable quantitative analysis of in situ microbial substrate carbon use at the population level. Here, we evaluated if a novel combination of radiocarbon-labelled substrate tracing, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort the FISH-targeted population for quantification of incorporated radioactivity ( 14 C-FISH-FACS) can address this need. Our test scenario used FISH probe PSE1284 targeting Pseudomonas spp. (and some Burkholderia spp.) and salicylic acid added to rhizosphere soil. We examined salicylic acid- 14 C fate (mineralized, cell-incorporated, extractable and non-extractable) and mass balance (0-24 h) and show that the PSE1284 population captured ∼ 50% of the Nycodenz extracted biomass 14 C. Analysis of the taxonomic distribution of the salicylic acid biodegradation trait suggested that PSE1284 population success was not due to conservation of this trait but due to competitiveness for the added carbon. Adding 50KBq of 14 C sample -1 enabled detection of 14 C in the sorted population at ∼ 60-600 times background; a sensitivity which demonstrates potential extension to analysis of rarer/less active populations. Given its sensitivity and compatibility with obtaining a C mass balance, 14 C-FISH-FACS allows quantitative dissection of C flow within the microbial biomass that has hitherto not been achieved. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Carbon Capture and Utilization in the Industrial Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarras, Peter C; Comello, Stephen; Bains, Praveen; Charoensawadpong, Panunya; Reichelstein, Stefan; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2017-10-03

    The fabrication and manufacturing processes of industrial commodities such as iron, glass, and cement are carbon-intensive, accounting for 23% of global CO 2 emissions. As a climate mitigation strategy, CO 2 capture from flue gases of industrial processes-much like that of the power sector-has not experienced wide adoption given its high associated costs. However, some industrial processes with relatively high CO 2 flue concentration may be viable candidates to cost-competitively supply CO 2 for utilization purposes (e.g., polymer manufacturing, etc.). This work develops a methodology that determines the levelized cost ($/tCO 2 ) of separating, compressing, and transporting carbon dioxide. A top-down model determines the cost of separating and compressing CO 2 across 18 industrial processes. Further, the study calculates the cost of transporting CO 2 via pipeline and tanker truck to appropriately paired sinks using a bottom-up cost model and geo-referencing approach. The results show that truck transportation is generally the low-cost alternative given the relatively small volumes (ca. 100 kt CO 2 /a). We apply our methodology to a regional case study in Pennsylvania, which shows steel and cement manufacturing paired to suitable sinks as having the lowest levelized cost of capture, compression, and transportation.

  19. Overcoming Barriers to Successfully Commercializing Carbon Dioxide Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Kant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful transition to a low-carbon economy hinges on innovative solutions and collaborative action on a global scale. Sustainable entrepreneurship is thereby recognized as a key driver in the creation and transformation of ecologically and socially sustainable economic systems. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this topic by understanding commercialization barriers for strong sustainability-oriented new technology ventures and to derive recommendations to overcome them. A qualitative multilevel approach is applied to identify barriers and drivers within the internal dynamic capabilities of the organization and within the organization’s external stakeholders. A model of barriers has been developed based on semi-structured interviews with new carbon dioxide utilization ventures and associated industry players in Canada, the USA, and the European Economic Area. Resulting recommendations to facilitate the (re-design of a dedicated support system are proposed on four levels: (a actors, (b resources, (c institutional settings, and (d the coordination of the support system.

  20. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  1. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  2. The Potential for Electrofuels Production in Sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic CO2 Point Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Julia; Hackl, Roman; Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO 2 per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and incineration (8%). Most of the CO 2 is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO 2 were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO 2 (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO 2 supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

  3. Diamond carbon sources: a comparison of carbon isotope models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkley, M.B.; Otter, M.L.; Gurney, J.J.; Hill, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of approximately 500 inclusion-bearing diamonds have been determined in the past decade. 98 percent of these diamonds readily fall into two broad categories on the basis of their inclusion mineralogies and compositions. These categories are peridotitic diamonds and eclogitic diamonds. Most peridotitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -10 and -1 permil, whereas eclogitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -28 and +2 permil. Peridotitic diamonds may represent primordial carbon, however, it is proposed that initially inhomogeneous δ 13 C values were subsequently homogenized, e.g. during melting and convection that is postulated to have occurred during the first billion years of the earth's existence. If this is the case, then the wider range of δ 13 C values exhibited by eclogitic diamonds requires a different explanation. Both the fractionation model and the subduction model can account for the range of observed δ 13 C values in eclogitic diamonds. 16 refs., 2 figs

  4. Choosing the Energy Sources Needed for Utilities in the Design and Refurbishment of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Atănăsoae

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for choosing the energy sources that are needed for the following building utilities following building: lighting, domestic hot water, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. The novelty of this paper consists of applying the concept of the energy hub and considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions when selecting the available energy sources in the building’s location. The criterion for selecting the energy sources is the minimum overall cost of all forms of energy that are consumed in the building over its estimated lifetime. In order to estimate the overall costs, it is necessary to know the power that is installed and provided by the energy production technologies that are inside the building, as well as the capacity of energy that is required from outside energy sources. An office building that was proposed for refurbishment has been investigated as a case study. In the paper, we have analysed four scenarios. The results indicate that more favourable alternative solutions can be obtained compared to the traditional scenario (Scenario 4—heat and electricity by public utility networks. The overall costs are 46.17% (212,671 EUR lower in Scenario 1, 25.35% (116,770 EUR lower in Scenario 2, and 10.89% (50,150 EUR lower in Scenario 3. Additionally, the carbon dioxide emissions are 22.98% (49 tonnes CO2/year lower in Scenario 1 and 8.91% (19 tonnes CO2/year lower in Scenario 2. Thus, renewable energy sources can occupy a growing share of the total energy consumption of the building. The proposed algorithm can be used for both the refurbishment of existing buildings and the design of new buildings.

  5. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr-1, with a range of 132-159 Mt C yr-1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr-1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr-1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr-1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  6. Source contributions to atmospheric fine carbon particle concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Gray, H.; Cass, Glen R.

    A Lagrangian particle-in-cell air quality model has been developed that facilitates the study of source contributions to atmospheric fine elemental carbon and fine primary total carbon particle concentrations. Model performance was tested using spatially and temporally resolved emissions and air quality data gathered for this purpose in the Los Angeles area for the year 1982. It was shown that black elemental carbon (EC) particle concentrations in that city were dominated by emissions from diesel engines including both on-highway and off-highway applications. Fine primary total carbon particle concentrations (TC=EC+organic carbon) resulted from the accumulation of small increments from a great variety of emission source types including both gasoline and diesel powered highway vehicles, stationary source fuel oil and gas combustion, industrial processes, paved road dust, fireplaces, cigarettes and food cooking (e.g. charbroilers). Strategies for black elemental carbon particle concentration control will of necessity need to focus on diesel engines, while controls directed at total carbon particle concentrations will have to be diversified over a great many source types.

  7. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  8. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  9. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the induction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    about the induction and repression mechanism of this hydrolytic enzyme. This report ... chitin as a sole source of carbon followed by the medium containing an extra nitrogen source, yeast extract. .... against fluorescent background by UV illumination. Statistical ..... Virulence Associated with Native and Mutant Isolates of an.

  10. Innovative utilization of renewable energy sources to combat climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju-Jeantly, T.; Nuortio, K.; Hotta, A.; Coda-Zabetta, E.; Palonen, J.; Kokki, S. (Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)), Email: kalle.nuortimo@fwfin.com, Email: arto.hotta@fwfin.com, Email: juha.palonen@fwfin.com, Email: sami.kokki@fwfin.com

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become a difficult challenge for both legislators and technologists. The need to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} has resulted in several new global and local agreements (the Kyoto protocol, Bali agreement etc., EU-emission trading directive) all driving tightening environmental legislation. /1/ Foster Wheeler as a global supplier of power equipment, has taken the challenge to respond to these environmental, social and political challenges. Products such as state-of-the-art boilers and gasifiers for heat and electricity generation from biomass are offered and further developed. Generally, biomass is considered to be a clean renewable energy source. Emissions are lower when firing biomass instead of fossil fuel, and the amount of SO{sub 2} released to the atmosphere is minimal due to the low sulfur content of the fuel. Life-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions are zero. /2/ Even though biomass can locally have a fairly large contribution in energy production, it will not be a global solution alone to mitigate the climate problem. Biomass currently accounts for about 10 % of world primary energy use, two thirds of which is used for small scale cooking and heating in developing countries. Biomass production is subject to a range of sustainability constraints, such deforestation etc. Coal will remain an important source for energy also in the future. Therefore it is important to develop clean coal solutions. The first, already existing solutions is to burn coal in high efficiency large Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers and cofire biomass. This way the biomass can be burned with much better efficiency than in small biomass fired plants. The co-firing of biomass in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) power plant will even enable a carbon negative solution for coal firing. The future solution will be CCS. A possible future solution to combat global warming and ensure sustainable power production can be large power plants fuelled by algae combined with CCS. Algae

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage and Carbon Capture and Utilization: What Do They Offer to Indonesia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adisaputro, Didi, E-mail: didiadisaputro@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Department of Energy Security, Indonesian Defence University, Bogor (Indonesia); Saputra, Bastian [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-30

    Indonesia is a developing country with abundance resource of fossil fuel in the world, and this fossil fuel will remain as the main source of energy over the next few decades. However, the Indonesian Government has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel consumption as an effort to mitigate climate change. In view of this, two possible energy scenarios are envisioned to honor this commitment: “business as usual” (BaU) and the National Energy Policy (NEP) scenario (National Energy Council, 2014). The NEP scenario reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by up to 26% through an improved energy mix, less reliance on carbon-based fuels, and the deployment of renewable energy sources from 2020 to 2050. However, these actions are considered insufficient to further reduce the CO{sub 2} emission target, leading to an initiative to implement carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology.

  12. Response to Comment on "Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean"

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, J M; Mayol, E.; Hansman, R. L.; Herndl, G. J.; Dittmar, T.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Our recent finding that dilution limits dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization in the deep ocean has been criticized based on the common misconception that lability equates to rapid and complete utilization. Even when considering

  13. Using hydrocarbon as a carbon source for synthesis of carbon nanotube by electric field induced needle-pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi Kia, Kaveh; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    In this work different hydrocarbons are used as the carbon source, in the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nano onions. An electric field induced needle pulse arc-discharge reactor is used. The influence of starting carbon on the synthesis of CNTs is investigated. The production efficiency is compared for Acetone, Isopropanol and Naphthalene as simple hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons are preheated and then pretreated by electric field before being exposed to plasma. The hydrocarbon vapor is injected into plasma through a graphite spout in the cathode assembly. The pulsed plasma takes place between two graphite rods while a strong electric field has been already established alongside the electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 μs. Mechanism of precursor decomposition is discussed by describing three forms of energy that are utilized to disintegrate the precursor molecules: thermal energy, electric field and kinetic energy of plasma. Molecular polarity of a hydrocarbon is one of the reasons for choosing carbon raw material as a precursor in an electric field induced low power pulsed-plasma. The results show that in order to obtain high quality carbon nanotubes, Acetone is preferred to Isopropanol and Naphthalene. Scanning probe microscopy techniques are used to investigate the products. - Highlights: • We synthesized CNTs (carbon nano tubes) by needle pulsed plasma. • We use different hydrocarbons as carbon source in the production of CNTs. • We investigated the influence of starting carbon on the synthesis of CNTs. • Thermal energy, electric field and kinetic energy are used to break carbon bonds. • Polar hydrocarbon molecules are more efficient than nonpolar ones in production

  14. Application of a systematic methodology for sustainable carbon dioxide utilization process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    than carbon capture and storage. To achieve this a methodology is developed to design sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes. First, the information on the possible utilization alternatives is collected, including the economic potential of the process and the carbon dioxide emissions...... emission are desired in order to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. Using this estimated preliminary evaluation, the top processes, with the most negative carbon dioxide emission are investigated by rigorous detailed simulation to evaluate the net carbon dioxide emissions. Once the base case design...

  15. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  16. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  17. Stable carbon isotope ratios: implications for the source of sediment carbon and for phytoplankton carbon assimilation in Lake Memphremagog, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaZerte, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope (SCI) ratio of the sediment of Lake Memphremagog, Quebec is compared with that ot terrestrial sources and the phytoplankton to determine the relative proportion of allochthonous carbon incorporated into the sediments. Approximately 40-50% of the organic carbon in the main basins' pelagic sediment was terrestrial in origin, whereas up to 100% was terrestrial in littoral areas. The SCI method of determining the organic carbon source of sediments appears more reliable than the C/N method. A comparison of the SCI fractionation of the phytoplankton with laboratory cultures under different degrees of carbon limitation indicates that the phytoplankton of Lake Memphremagog are not carbon limited and fix carbon primarily by the C 3 pathway

  18. The EC CAST project (carbon-14 source term)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of underground geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes. It is possible for carbon-14 to be released from waste packages in a variety of chemical forms, both organic and inorganic, and as dissolved or gaseous species The EC CAST (CArbon-14 Source Term) project aims to develop understanding of the generation and release of carbon-14 from radioactive waste materials under conditions relevant to packaging and disposal. It focuses on the release of carbon-14 from irradiated metals (steels and zirconium alloys), from irradiated graphite and from spent ion-exchange resins. The CAST consortium brings together 33 partners. CAST commenced in October 2013 and this paper describes progress to March 2015. The main activities during this period were reviews of the current status of knowledge, the identification and acquisition of suitable samples and the design of experiments and analytical procedures. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of Glycerol and Waste Alcohol as Supplemental Carbon Sources for Denitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Uprety, Kshitiz

    2013-01-01

    Supplemental carbon has been successfully added and implemented at biological nutrient removal treatment plants all around the world in order to reach low nitrogen discharge limits. Although, methanol has been the most prevalent external electron donor used due to its low cost and effectiveness, many utilities are moving away from it due to cost volatility, safety issues, and hindered performance in cold weather conditions. Many sustainable and alternative sources are being researched, such a...

  20. Preliminary assessment of a method utilizing carbon dioxide and steelmaking slags to produce precipitated calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloneva, Sanni; Said, Arshe; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An NH 4 -salt-based method utilizes CO 2 and steelmaking slags to produce pure CaCO 3 . ► It was determined if its economic potential warrants moving forward. ► Despite small solvent losses, the method was found to have economical potential. ► The method has significant CO 2 emissions reduction potential. ► Scaling up the reactor will allow for a more detailed design for the process. -- Abstract: One of the options that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions for climate change mitigation is the so-called CO 2 sequestration by mineral carbonation, or CO 2 mineral sequestration. Steel manufacturing could benefit from this option by utilizing its own by-products, i.e. steelmaking slags to combine with CO 2 . We have recently studied a method, where aqueous solution of ammonium salt (e.g. ammonium acetate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride) is used to extract calcium selectively from the steel converter slag, followed by precipitation of pure calcium carbonate by bubbling CO 2 through the produced solution. The ammonium salt solution is recovered and re-used. The purpose of this research was to determine if the economic potential of the method warrants moving forward to large-scale application. Despite the small solvent losses, the method was found to have economical potential. In addition, it has significant CO 2 emission reduction potential as well. Scaling up the reactor from the small laboratory scale will allow more detailed design for the process to be made followed by a full economical evaluation including all of the important operational and capital investment costs.

  1. Economics of carbon dioxide capture and utilization-a supply and demand perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naims, Henriette

    2016-11-01

    Lately, the technical research on carbon dioxide capture and utilization (CCU) has achieved important breakthroughs. While single CO 2 -based innovations are entering the markets, the possible economic effects of a large-scale CO 2 utilization still remain unclear to policy makers and the public. Hence, this paper reviews the literature on CCU and provides insights on the motivations and potential of making use of recovered CO 2 emissions as a commodity in the industrial production of materials and fuels. By analyzing data on current global CO 2 supply from industrial sources, best practice benchmark capture costs and the demand potential of CO 2 utilization and storage scenarios with comparative statics, conclusions can be drawn on the role of different CO 2 sources. For near-term scenarios the demand for the commodity CO 2 can be covered from industrial processes, that emit CO 2 at a high purity and low benchmark capture cost of approximately 33 €/t. In the long-term, with synthetic fuel production and large-scale CO 2 utilization, CO 2 is likely to be available from a variety of processes at benchmark costs of approx. 65 €/t. Even if fossil-fired power generation is phased out, the CO 2 emissions of current industrial processes would suffice for ambitious CCU demand scenarios. At current economic conditions, the business case for CO 2 utilization is technology specific and depends on whether efficiency gains or substitution of volatile priced raw materials can be achieved. Overall, it is argued that CCU should be advanced complementary to mitigation technologies and can unfold its potential in creating local circular economy solutions.

  2. A mobile light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trower, W.P.; Melekhin, V.N.; Shvedunov, V.I.; Sobenin, N.P.

    1995-01-01

    The pulsed light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras developed to image concealed narcotics/explosives is described. This race-track microtron will produce 40 mA pulses of 70 MeV electrons, have minimal size and weight, and maximal ruggedness and reliability, so that it can be transported on a truck. (orig.)

  3. A mobile light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, W. P.; Karev, A. I.; Melekhin, V. N.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Sobenin, N. P.

    1995-05-01

    The pulsed light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras developed to image concealed narcotics/explosives is described. This race-track microtron will produce 40 mA pulses of 70 MeV electrons, have minimal size and weight, and maximal ruggedness and reliability, so that it can be transported on a truck.

  4. Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the induction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on the induction and repression of chitinase enzyme from Beauveria bassiana isolates. Priyanka Dhar, Gurvinder Kaur. Abstract. Beauveria bassiana a natural soil borne insect pathogen is being used effectively these days in integrated pest management system. Foliar application of ...

  5. Carbon footprint of urban source separation for nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Spångberg, J; Davidsson, Å

    2017-07-15

    Source separation systems for the management of domestic wastewater and food waste has been suggested as more sustainable sanitation systems for urban areas. The present study used an attributional life cycle assessment to investigate the carbon footprint and potential for nutrient recovery of two sanitation systems for a hypothetical urban area in Southern Sweden. The systems represented a typical Swedish conventional system and a possible source separation system with increased nutrient recovery. The assessment included the management chain from household collection, transport, treatment and final return of nutrients to agriculture or disposal of the residuals. The results for carbon footprint and nutrient recovery (phosphorus and nitrogen) concluded that the source separation system could increase nutrient recovery (0.30-0.38 kg P capita -1 year -1 and 3.10-3.28 kg N capita -1 year -1 ), while decreasing the carbon footprint (-24 to -58 kg CO 2 -eq. capita -1 year -1 ), compared to the conventional system. The nutrient recovery was increased by the use of struvite precipitation and ammonium stripping at the wastewater treatment plant. The carbon footprint decreased, mainly due to the increased biogas production, increased replacement of mineral fertilizer in agriculture and less emissions of nitrous oxide from wastewater treatment. In conclusion, the study showed that source separation systems could potentially be used to increase nutrient recovery from urban areas, while decreasing the climate impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrieta, J.M.; Mayol, E.; Hansman, R.L.; Herndl, G.J.; Dittmar, T.; Duarte, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An

  7. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The effect of toxic carbon source on the reaction of activated sludge in the batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Zhang, Siyu; Xu, Min; Song, Jiamei

    2018-03-01

    The toxic carbon source can cause higher residual effluent dissolved organic carbon than easily biodegraded carbon source in activated sludge process. In this study, an integrated activated sludge model is developed as the tool to understand the mechanism of toxic carbon source (phenol) on the reaction, regarding the carbon flows during the aeration period in the batch reactor. To estimate the toxic function of phenol, the microbial cells death rate (k death ) is introduced into the model. The integrated model was calibrated and validated by the experimental data and it was found the model simulations matched the all experimental measurements. In the steady state, the toxicity of phenol can result in higher microbial cells death rate (0.1637 h -1 vs 0.0028 h -1 ) and decay rate coefficient of biomass (0.0115 h -1 vs 0.0107 h -1 ) than acetate. In addition, the utilization-associated products (UAP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) formation coefficients of phenol are higher than that of acetate, indicating that more carbon flows into the extracellular components, such as soluble microbial products (SMP), when degrading toxic organics. In the non-steady state of feeding phenol, the yield coefficient for growth and maximum specific growth rate are very low in the first few days (1-10 d), while the decay rate coefficient of biomass and microbial cells death rate are relatively high. The model provides insights into the difference of the dynamic reaction with different carbon sources in the batch reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Managing carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning: Current practices in the Western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by 15 electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without federal climate regulation in the US, the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of US electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  10. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhan Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  11. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-07-19

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  12. The Utility of Open Source Software in Military Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esperon, Agustin I; Munoz, Jose P; Tanneau, Jean M

    2005-01-01

    .... The companies involved were THALES and GMV. The MILOS project aimed to demonstrate benefits of Open Source Software in large software based military systems, by casting off constraints inherent to traditional proprietary COTS and by taking...

  13. Utilization of Agricultural Information Sources and Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    aesonnigeria.org ... sources on adoption of animal and crop technologies among farming households in Imo State, Nigeria. Structured ... used to improve the condition of human and natural environment as well as carry out some other socio-economic ...

  14. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  15. The Utility of Open Source Software in Military Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esperon, Agustin I; Munoz, Jose P; Tanneau, Jean M

    2005-01-01

    The MILOS (Military Systems based on Open-source Software) project was a European research program in the Eurofinder framework, attached to the CEPA 6 and co-financed by the Ministry of Defence of France and Spain...

  16. Dosimetry of beta sources utilized in nuclear medicine and biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Rivera, E.; Cricco, G.; Martin, G.; Cocca, C.; Caro, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use of high energy pure beta sources (i.e., 32 P= 1.71 MeV/des) is common in medicine (intratumoral therapy or treatment of non-malignant illness as restenosis) and in biochemistry (molecular biology). The external dosimetry of these sources offers some important points that must be considered: 1) beta particles emitted by the source are not monoenergetic; 2) the range (R 0 ) vary with the source energy and the Z of the absorber; 3) below an energy of 1 MeV, the specific ionization in the absorbent medium (air, water, lucite) increases as the beta energy (E β ) decreases; 4) the range of beta particles, R β , is independent from Z of the material, provided Z is low and the material has no hydrogen; in this case, the expression: R β δ 1 = R β δ 2 is valid; 5) the calculation of the external beta dosimetry must consider that since the used sources are not punctual there is self-absorption which should be taken into account. However, in the range of the fractions of activities for the above mentioned practices a theoretical model for punctual sources can be used; in this case, it is valid to use the expression: Dose Rate: = A (S/δ)E β e -S/δ δx /4 π d 2 , where: (S/δ) is the absorbent Mass Stopping Power and represents the loss of energy by unit mass thickness; it depends from E β and it is independent from Z; (δx) is the mass thickness of the absorber. By this way, e -S/δ δx is the attenuation of the beta particles flow. From the application of this formula it can be deduced that, for sources of 1 mCi of 32 P activities, as those employed in biochemistry, a small thickness of lucite is enough shield. When the source has higher activities, as those used in radiotherapy, the operator should take into account the regulations for a strict dosimetric control. These formulae allow a simplified calculation of the 32 P dosimetry of sources used in nuclear medicine and biomedical practices. (author) [es

  17. Spatial distribution of carbon sources and sinks in Canada's forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing M.; Weimin, Ju; Liu, Jane; Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Wenjun

    2003-01-01

    Annual spatial distributions of carbon sources and sinks in Canada's forests at 1 km resolution are computed for the period from 1901 to 1998 using ecosystem models that integrate remote sensing images, gridded climate, soils and forest inventory data. GIS-based fire scar maps for most regions of Canada are used to develop a remote sensing algorithm for mapping and dating forest burned areas in the 25 yr prior to 1998. These mapped and dated burned areas are used in combination with inventory data to produce a complete image of forest stand age in 1998. Empirical NPP age relationships were used to simulate the annual variations of forest growth and carbon balance in 1 km pixels, each treated as a homogeneous forest stand. Annual CO 2 flux data from four sites were used for model validation. Averaged over the period 1990-1998, the carbon source and sink map for Canada's forests show the following features: (i) large spatial variations corresponding to the patchiness of recent fire scars and productive forests and (ii) a general south-to-north gradient of decreasing carbon sink strength and increasing source strength. This gradient results mostly from differential effects of temperature increase on growing season length, nutrient mineralization and heterotrophic respiration at different latitudes as well as from uneven nitrogen deposition. The results from the present study are compared with those of two previous studies. The comparison suggests that the overall positive effects of non-disturbance factors (climate, CO 2 and nitrogen) outweighed the effects of increased disturbances in the last two decades, making Canada's forests a carbon sink in the 1980s and 1990s. Comparisons of the modeled results with tower-based eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange at four forest stands indicate that the sink values from the present study may be underestimated

  18. Utilization of opium poppy wastes as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.; Cengiz, M.; Yayli, N. (KT University, Akcaabat-Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty)

    1994-01-01

    Air dried and ground opium poppy stalks suspended in water containing sodium carbonate catalysts have been completely converted into liquid fuels and water soluble- chemicals at 573[degree]K in a 0.1 liter autoclave. Extractives and oil properties obtained from stalks and poppy seed were studied. Major components of the oil were linoleic acid (60.2%) and oleic acid (22.3%). Alcohol-benzene extractives of the stalks were 28.8% while ether solubility was 7.5%. 15 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Utilization of leaf litter as a potential feed source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proximate analysis and In-situ nylon bag ruminal dry matter degradation of fall dropped Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar) and Quercus alba (white oak) leaves were used to determine their potential use as a feed source for ruminant livestock animals. Ash content was 8.24 and 4.69 ...

  20. Carbon trading and carbon taxation: how to consider biotic sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Schlamadinger, Bernhard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol (KP) to the UNFCCC includes land-use change and forestry in the carbon accounting process, limited to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation since 1990, and explicitly provides for the option of using a variety of flexibility mechanisms to meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets stipulated in a more cost-efficient manner. Domestically, different countries might adopt different approaches to achieve their emission reduction objectives, such as carbon trading or carbon taxation, and it is not clear to date what the implications for bioenergy use, forestry, and land-use change can be expected to be. With respect to national GHG emissions trading, the main issues studied in this paper are: Should trading of fossil fuel emissions allowances be coupled with trading of biotic credits and debits? Should credits for carbon sequestration in forests be auctioned or grandfathered? Should there be a distinction between a carbon permit issued for an additional biotic sink and those issued for fossil fuel carbon emissions? Is there a difference for biotic carbon sinks and sources between one-time permits and permits that allow a continued release of GHG over some pre-specified time? Should permits be issued only for the carbon-stock changes that count under the KP? With respect to national carbon taxation schemes, two questions are investigated: Should a tax credit be given for afforestation/reforestation (and a tax debit for deforestation)? Should tax credits also be given for projects that sequester carbon but do not count under the KP (such as forest protection rather than forest management)? For both schemes a crucial point is that by the formulation chosen in the KP two different classes of forest are created (i.e. those counted and those not counted under the KP), so that the implications for land prices might be significant. From a conceptual point of view this paper addresses the above-mentioned questions and contrasts some of the major

  1. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) utilizing strain database | Saini | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culling of excess carbon dioxide from our environment is one of the major challenges to scientific communities. Many physical, chemical and biological methods have been practiced to overcome this problem. The biological means of CO2 fixation using various microorganisms is gaining importance because database of ...

  2. Achieving high performance in intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cells with renewable carbon as a fuel source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Wenbin; He, Xiaojin; Mi, Yongli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bamboo fiber and waste paper were pyrolyzed to generate bamboo carbon and waste paper carbon as anode fuels of IT-DCFC. • Superior cell performance was achieved with the waste paper carbon. • The results suggested the high performance was due to the highest thermal reactivity and the catalytic inherent impurities. • Calcite and kaolinite as inherent impurities favored the thermal decomposition and the electrooxidation of carbon. - Abstract: Three kinds of carbon sources obtained from carbon black, bamboo fiber and waste paper were investigated as anode fuels in an intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cell. The carbon sources were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, etc. The results indicated that the waste paper carbon was more abundant in calcite and kaolinite, and showed higher thermal reactivity in the intermediate temperature range compared with the other two carbon sources. The cell performance was tested at 650 °C in a hybrid single cell, using Sm 0.20 Ce 0.80 O 2−x as the electrolyte. As a result, the cell fed with waste paper carbon showed the highest performance among the three carbon sources, with a peak power density of 225 mW cm −2 . The results indicated that its inherent impurities, such as calcite and kaolinite, might favor the thermal gasification of renewable carbon sources, which resulted in the enhanced performance of the intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cell

  3. The utilization of dual source CT in imaging of polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, 899 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z1M9 (Canada)], E-mail: savvas.nicolaou@vch.ca; Eftekhari, A.; Sedlic, T.; Hou, D.J.; Mudri, M.J.; Aldrich, John; Louis, L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, 899 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z1M9 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Despite the growing role of imaging, trauma remains the leading cause of death in people below the age of 45 years in the western industrialized countries. Trauma has been touted as the largest epidemic in the 20th century. The advent of MDCT has been the greatest advance in trauma care in the last 25 years. However, there are still challenges in CT imaging of the polytrauma individual including time restraints, diagnostic errors, radiation dose effects and bridging the gap between anatomy and physiology. This article will analyze these challenges and provide possible solutions offered by the unique design of the dual source CT scanner.

  4. The utilization of dual source CT in imaging of polytrauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaou, S.; Eftekhari, A.; Sedlic, T.; Hou, D.J.; Mudri, M.J.; Aldrich, John; Louis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growing role of imaging, trauma remains the leading cause of death in people below the age of 45 years in the western industrialized countries. Trauma has been touted as the largest epidemic in the 20th century. The advent of MDCT has been the greatest advance in trauma care in the last 25 years. However, there are still challenges in CT imaging of the polytrauma individual including time restraints, diagnostic errors, radiation dose effects and bridging the gap between anatomy and physiology. This article will analyze these challenges and provide possible solutions offered by the unique design of the dual source CT scanner

  5. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Heo, Jina; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, bicarbonate was proposed as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO 2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system. 5gL -1 of sodium bicarbonate was found to well support the growth of Dunaliella salina, showing 2.84-fold higher specific growth rate than a bicarbonate-free control. This bicarbonate-fed cultivation also could yield biomass productivity similar to that of CO 2 -based system as long as pH was controlled. While the supplied CO 2 , because of its being a gas, was mostly lost and only 3.59% of it was used for biomass synthesis, bicarbonate was effectively incorporated into the biomass with 91.40% of carbon utilization efficiency. This study showed that the bicarbonate-based microalgae cultivation is indeed possible, and can even become a truly environment-friendly and workable approach, provided that a CO 2 mineralization technology is concomitantly established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Response to Comment on "Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean"

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2015-12-18

    Our recent finding that dilution limits dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization in the deep ocean has been criticized based on the common misconception that lability equates to rapid and complete utilization. Even when considering the redefinition of recalcitrant DOC recently proposed by Jiao et al., the dilution hypothesis best explains our experimental observations.

  7. Optical Performance of Carbon-Nanotube Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, Niels de; Allioux, Myriam; Oostveen, Jim T.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Milne, William I.

    2005-01-01

    The figure of merit for the electron optical performance of carbon-nanotube (CNT) electron sources is presented. This figure is given by the relation between the reduced brightness and the energy spread in the region of stable emission. It is shown experimentally that a CNT electron source exhibits a highly stable emission process that follows the Fowler-Nordheim theory for field emission, fixing the relationship among the energy spread, the current, and the radius. The performance of the CNT emitter under realistic operating conditions is compared with state-of-the-art electron point sources. It is demonstrated that the reduced brightness is a function of the tunneling parameter, a measure of the energy spread at low temperatures, only, independent of the geometry of the emitter

  8. A Carbon Nanotube Electron Source Based Ionization Vacuum Gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changkun Dong; Ganapati Myneni

    2003-10-01

    The results of fabrication and performance of an ionization vacuum gauge using a carbon nanotube (CNT) electron source are presented. The electron source was constructed with multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT), which were grown using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The electron emission of the source was stable in vacuum pressure up to 10-7 Torr, which is better than the metal field emitters. The measurement linearity of the gauge was better than {+-}10% from 10-6 to 10-10 Torr. The gauge sensitivity of 4 Torr-1 was achieved under 50 {micro}A electron emission in nitrogen. The gauge is expected to find applications in vacuum measurements from 10-7 Torr to below 10-11 Torr.

  9. Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The data base required to adequately ascertain seasonal source and sink strengths in the arctic regions is difficult to obtain. However, there are now a reasonable quantity of data for this polar region to estimate sources and sinks within the Arctic which may contribute significantly to the annual tropospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration fluctuation. The sea-ice-air and the sea-air interfaces account for most of the contribution to the sources and sinks for carbon dioxide. Although the arctic and subarctic region is small in extent, it certainly is not impervious and ice sealed. Our estimate, based on historical data and current research, indicates that the Arctic, which is about 4% of the earth's surface, is an annual net sink for approx. 10/sup 15/ g CO/sub 2/ accounting for an equivalent of approx. 3% of the annual anthropogenic contribution of CO/sub 2/ to the troposphere.

  10. Ligninolytic Activity of Ganoderma strains on Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYPUK ARTININGSIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a phenylpropanoid polymers with only few carbon bonds might be hydrolized. Due to its complexity, lignin is particularly difficult to decompose. Ganoderma is one of white rot fungi capable of lignin degradation. The ligninolytic of several species Ganoderma growing under different carbon sources was studied under controlled conditions which P. chrysosporium was used as standard comparison.Three types of ligninolytic, namely LiP, MnP, and laccase were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Ratio between clear zone and diameter of fungal colony was used for measuring specific activity qualitatively.Four sspecies of Ganoderma showed positive ligninolytic qualitatively that G. lucidum KT2-32 gave the highest ligninolytic. Activity of LiP and MnP in different carbon sources was consistently resulted by G. lucidum KT2-32, while the highest activity of laccase was shown by G. ochrolaccatum SA2-14. Medium of Indulin AT affected production of protein extracellular and induced ligninolytic. Glucose, BMC, and pine sawdust did not affect the activity of ligninolytic. The specific activity of Ganoderma species was found to be higher than the one of P. chrysosporium.

  11. Utilization of low-temperature heat sources for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from marine diesel engines, industries and refrigeration plants to biomass, geothermal and solar heat sources. There is a great potential for enhancing the utilization of these heat sources by novel...

  12. Utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp CH1 in biological carbon dioxide mitigation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, C.L.; Lee, C.M.; Chen, P.C. [Hungkuang University, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2011-05-15

    Before switching totally to alternative fuel stage, CO{sub 2} mitigation process has considered a transitional strategy for combustion of fossil fuels inevitably. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} mitigation options, such as oceanic or geologic injection, the biological photosynthetic process would present a far superior and sustainable solution under both environmental and social considerations. The utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. CH1 in carbon dioxide mitigation processes is analyzed in our research. It was found that an original developed photobioreactor with internal light source exhibits high light utilization. Anabaena sp. CH1 demonstrates excellent CO{sub 2} tolerance even at 15% CO{sub 2} level. This enables flue gas from power plant to be directly introduced to Anabaena sp. CH1 culture. Double light intensity and increased 47% CO{sub 2} bubble retention time could enhance CO{sub 2} removal efficiencies by 79% and 67%, respectively. A maximum CO{sub 2} fixation rate of 1.01 g CO{sub 2} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} was measured experimentally.

  13. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, I.; Selg, V.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km 2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  14. Feed in summer, rest in winter: microbial carbon utilization in forest topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žifčáková, Lucia; Větrovský, Tomáš; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Howe, Adina; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-09-18

    Evergreen coniferous forests contain high stocks of organic matter. Significant carbon transformations occur in litter and soil of these ecosystems, making them important for the global carbon cycle. Due to seasonal allocation of photosynthates to roots, carbon availability changes seasonally in the topsoil. The aim of this paper was to describe the seasonal differences in C source utilization and the involvement of various members of soil microbiome in this process. Here, we show that microorganisms in topsoil encode a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and auxiliary enzymes. While the transcription of genes encoding enzymes degrading reserve compounds, such as starch or trehalose, was high in soil in winter, summer was characterized by high transcription of ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzymes produced mainly by fungi. Fungi strongly dominated the transcription in litter and an equal contribution of bacteria and fungi was found in soil. The turnover of fungal biomass appeared to be faster in summer than in winter, due to high activity of enzymes targeting its degradation, indicating fast growth in both litter and soil. In each enzyme family, hundreds to thousands of genes were typically transcribed simultaneously. Seasonal differences in the transcription of glycoside hydrolases and auxiliary enzyme genes are more pronounced in soil than in litter. Our results suggest that mainly fungi are involved in decomposition of recalcitrant biopolymers in summer, while bacteria replace them in this role in winter. Transcripts of genes encoding enzymes targeting plant biomass biopolymers, reserve compounds and fungal cell walls were especially abundant in the coniferous forest topsoil.

  15. Utilization of tomato waste as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatović Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effects of two extraction procedures (using ultrasonic bath and high performance homogenizer on the extraction efficiency of polyphenolics present in the tomato waste. The isolation of flavonoid fraction of obtained extracts was performed by solid-phase extraction. The antioxidant activity of flavonoid fractions was determined using different spectrophotometric tests, including reducing power and 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assays. The content of total polyphenolics and flavonoids in extract obtained employing homogenizer (E2 was higher than in the extract obtained employing ultrasonic bath (E1, and it was 14.33 mg/g and 7.70 mg/g, respectively. The flavonoid fraction (EF2 of extract E2 showed higher antioxidant activity than flavonoid fraction (EF1 of extract E1. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of fractions EF1 and EF2, expressed as EC50 value, were 0.78 mg/ml and 0.45 mg/ml, respectively. The obtained results show that tomato wastes can be used as an easily accessible source of antioxidant polyphenolics.

  16. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kholod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder. Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  17. Biomass Burning Emissions of Black Carbon from African Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Leone, O.; Nitschke, K. L.; Dubey, M. K.; Carrico, C.; Springston, S. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Watson, T. B.; Kuang, C.; Uin, J.; McMeeking, G. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Zuidema, P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emissions are a large source of carbon to the atmosphere via particles and gas phase species. Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted along with gas-phase carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be used to determine particulate emission ratios and modified combustion efficiencies. Black carbon (BC) aerosols are potentially underestimated in global models and are considered to be one of the most important global warming factors behind CO2. Half or more BC in the atmosphere is from BB, estimated at 6-9 Tg/yr (IPCC, 5AR) and contributing up to 0.6 W/m2 atmospheric warming (Bond et al., 2013). With a potential rise in drought and extreme events in the future due to climate change, these numbers are expected to increase. For this reason, we focus on BC and organic carbon aerosol species that are emitted from forest fires and compare their emission ratios, physical and optical properties to those from controlled laboratory studies of single-source BB fuels to understand BB carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere. We investigate BC in concentrated BB plumes as sampled from the new U.S. DOE ARM Program campaign, Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC). The ARM Aerosol Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) are currently located on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, located midway between Angola and Brazil. The location was chosen for sampling maximum aerosol outflow from Africa. The far-field aged BC from LASIC is compared to BC from indoor generation from single-source fuels, e.g. African grass, sampled during Fire Lab At Missoula Experiments IV (FLAME-IV). BC is measured with a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) alongside numerous supporting instrumentation, e.g. particle counters, CO and CO2 detectors, aerosol scattering and absorption measurements, etc. FLAME-IV includes both direct emissions and well-mixed aerosol samples that have undergone dilution, cooling, and condensation. BC

  18. A Low Carbon EU Energy System and Unconventional Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, F.; Kanudia, A.; Tosato, GC.

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the potential role of unconventional fossil fuels in a global low carbon energy system. Making use of a systemic approach, the paper presents an original application of a global partial equilibrium energy system model (TIAM-JET). In order to give a worldwide perspective with higher detail on European energy systems, the model links a set of extra-European macro-regions to the 30 European countries. First, a review of the most recent estimates of the available stocks of unconventional hydrocarbon resources is used to build the set of assumption for the scenario analysis. Secondly, a set of scenarios assuming different availability and cost of unconventional fuels are added to both a Current Trend scenario and a Carbon Constrained (CC) scenario, to explore the perspectives of unconventional gas and oil in a scenario halving CO 2 emissions by 2050, which is consistent with a 2 degree temperature increase. The results show if/how unconventional sources can contribute to the robustness of the European energy system with respect to the stress of a strong carbon constraint. We define this robustness as the capacity of the energy system to adapt its evolution to long-term constraints and keep delivering energy services to end users. In our approach robustness represents the long-term dimension of energy security. Assessing this ''system property'' requires analysing the wide range of factors that can exercise a stabilizing influence on the energy services delivery system, together with their relations, actual interactions and synergies. The energy system approach used for the analysis seeks to take into account as much of this complexity as possible. We assess the robustness of the EU system to the carbon constraint by looking at how the CC scenario affects energy system costs and energy prices under scenarios with different deployment of unconventional sources. This provides insights on the synergies and/or trade-offs between energy security and

  19. Assessing carbon source-dependent phenotypic variability in Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikel, Pablo Ivan; de Lorenzo, Victor

    2018-01-01

    capacity of single bacteria by means of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, in combination with the analysis of the temporal takeoff of growth in single-cell cultures, is a simple and easy-to-implement approach. It can help to understand the link between macroscopic phenotypes (e.g., microbial......The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida is rapidly becoming a platform of choice for applications that require a microbial host highly resistant to different types of stresses and elevated rates of reducing power regeneration. P. putida is capable of growing in a wide variety of carbon sources...

  20. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49-5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS⋅h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63-6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS⋅h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes.

  1. Cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid as external carbon sources in biological nutrient removal*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Hu, Xiang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one kind of food industry effluent, cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, on biological nutrient removal (BNR) from municipal wastewater in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Experiments were carried out with cassava stillage supernatant and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, and one pure compound (sodium acetate) served as an external carbon source. Cyclic studies indicated that the cassava by-products not only affected the transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen in the BNR process, but also resulted in higher removal efficiencies for phosphorus and nitrogen compared with sodium acetate. Furthermore, assays for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) demonstrated that the proportion of DPAOs to PAOs reached 62.6% (Day 86) and 61.8% (Day 65) when using cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid, respectively, as the external carbon source. In addition, the nitrate utilization rates (NURs) of the cassava by-products were in the range of 5.49–5.99 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h) (MLVSS is mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) and 6.63–6.81 g N/(kg MLVSS∙h), respectively. The improvement in BNR performance and the reduction in the amount of cassava stillage to be treated in-situ make cassava stillage and its anaerobic fermentation liquid attractive alternatives to sodium acetate as external carbon sources for BNR processes. PMID:25845364

  2. The internet as a source of drug information: a profile of utilization by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Introduction: The internet is a useful tool which could provide quality drug information if well applied. Its utilization as a source of drug information by junior doctors in Nigeria is not well documented.

  3. New CO and HCN sources associated with IRAS carbon stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGUYEN-Q-RIEU; Epchtein, N.; TRUONG-BACH; Cohen, M.

    1987-01-01

    Emission of CO and HCN was detected in 22 out of a sample of 53 IRAS sources classified as unidentified carbon-rich objects. The sample was selected according to the presence of the silicon carbide feature as revealed by low-resolution spectra. The molecular line widths indicate that the CO and HCN emission arises from the circumstellar envelopes of very highly evolved stars undergoing mass loss. The visible stars tend to be deficient in CO as compared with unidentified sources. Most the detected CO and HCN IRAS stars are distinct and thick-shelled objects, but their infrared and CO luminosities are similar to those of IRC + 102156 AFGL and IRC-CO evolved stars. The 12 micron flux seems to be a good indicator of the distance, hence a guide for molecular searches.

  4. Air-source heat pump carbon footprints: HFC impacts and comparison to other heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    European governments see that heat pumps could reduce carbon emissions in space- and hot-water heating. EU's Renewable Energy Directive designates heat pumps as renewable - eligible for various subsidies - if their carbon footprints are below an implied, average threshold. This threshold omits carbon generated by manufacture and emission of a heat-pump's fluorocarbon refrigerant. It also omits the footprint of the heat pump's hardware. To see if these omissions are significant, this study calculated carbon footprints of representative, residential heat pumps in the UK. Three findings emerged. First, in relation to power generation, which accounts for most of a heat-pump's greenhouse-gas emissions, fluorocarbons add another 20% to the footprint. Second, at UK efficiencies a heat-pump footprint (in kg CO 2 e emitted per kWh delivered) is comparable or higher than footprints of gaseous fuels used in heating. It is lower than the footprint of heating oil and far lower than the footprints of solid fuels. Third, production and disposal of a heat pump's hardware is relatively insignificant, accounting for only 2-3% of the overall heat-pump footprint. Sensitivities to the results were assessed: key factors are footprint of electricity generation, F-gas composition and leak rates and type of wall construction. - Research highlights: → Refrigerant emissions add 20% to a UK air-source heat pump's carbon footprint. → This contribution is so far ignored by regulations. → UK heat pump footprints are comparable to those of gaseous fuels.

  5. Prioritizing low-carbon energy sources to enhance China’s energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four dimensions and ten metrics are used for energy security assessment. • Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered for energy security. • AHP has been used to quantify qualitative metrics. • TOPSIS method has been used for prioritize the low-carbon energy sources. • Sensitivity analysis and integrated ranking have been carried out. - Abstract: This paper explores how low-carbon systems compare to each other in terms of their net effect on Chinese energy security, and how they ought to be ranked and strategized into an optimal and integrated resource plan. The paper utilizes Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to first determine the relative performances of hydroelectricity, wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, and nuclear power with respect to the energy security dimensions of availability, affordability, accessibility, and acceptability. Both qualitative and quantitative metrics are considered. It relies on AHP to calculate the relative weights of the qualitative metrics attached to these dimensions of energy security for each of our five low carbon energy sources. Then, energy security performance is determined by aggregating multiple, weighted metrics into a generic index based on the method of TOPSIS and then tweaked with a sensitivity analysis. Finally, an integrated method has been developed to rank the low-carbon energy systems from most to least important, with major implications for Chinese decision-makers and stakeholders. We conclude that hydroelectricity and wind power are the two low-carbon energy sources with the most potential to enhance China’s energy security. By contrast, nuclear and solar power have the least potential

  6. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  7. Experimental Evidence that Abrasion of Carbonate Sand is a Significant Source of Carbonate Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, L.; Kivrak, L.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    aragonite needles 1-3 µm in length identical to those described in carbonate mud from a range of modern environments. Our results suggest that abrasion during bed load and suspended load transport of carbonate sand, even over small areas, is likely a significant potential source of carbonate mud in both modern and ancient carbonate environments.

  8. Enhancing substrate utilization and power production of a microbial fuel cell with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Gábor Márk; Lóránt, Bálint; Lóka, Máté; Nagy, Balázs; László, Krisztina

    2017-07-01

    Catalytic efficiency of a nitrogen-doped, mesoporous carbon aerogel cathode catalyst was investigated in a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) applying graphite felt as base material for cathode and anode, utilizing peptone as carbon source. This mesoporous carbon aerogel containing catalyst layer on the cathode increased the maximum power density normalized to the anode volume to 2.7 times higher compared to the maximum power density obtained applying graphite felt cathode without the catalyst layer. At high (2 and 3) cathode/anode volume ratios, maximum power density exceeded 40 W m -3 . At the same time, current density and specific substrate utilization rate increased by 58% resulting in 31.9 A m -3 and 18.8 g COD m -3  h -1 , respectively (normalized to anode volume). Besides the increase of the power and the rate of biodegradation, the investigated catalyst decreased the internal resistance from the range of 450-600 to 350-370 Ω. Although Pt/C catalyst proved to be more efficient, a considerable decrease in the material costs might be achieved by substituting it with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel in MFCs. Such cathode still displays enhanced catalytic effect.

  9. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  10. The strategy of carbon utilization in uniculm barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.J.; Ryle, G.J.A.; Powell, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Following exposure of the youngest mature leaf of uniculm barley to 14 CO 2 , groups of plants were harvested over a 72 h period to determine the fate of 14 C in the photosynthesizing leaf and in growing leaves and roots. Initially, 14 C was mainly present in sucrose with a little in starch and charged compounds; transport out of the fed leaf was rapid and, by 7 and 24 h, 56 and 93% respectively of the 14 C had been translocated about equally to growing leaves and roots. Sucrose entering meristems was quickly metabolized to protein and structural carbohydrate (40 and 60% of the 14 C in these organs at 7 and 24 h respectively), while the remainder was converted to short-term storage products or intermediary metabolites. By the end of the first day c.35% of the 14 C originally assimilated had been lost in respiration. The metabolism of the leaf appeared to be organized on a diurnal basis, for it exported nearly all its carbon within 24 h of assimilation. In contrast, some of the assimilate imported into growing leaves and, to a lesser extent, roots was not immediately used for growth but persisted as temporary metabolites and was subsequently used for growth in the following days. (author)

  11. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  12. Carbon Sources Influence Fumonisin Production in Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taotao; Gong, Liang; Jiang, Guoxiang; Wang, Yong; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Qu, Hongxia; Duan, Xuewu; Wang, Jiasheng; Jiang, Yueming

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is a worldwide fungal pathogen that produces fumonisins which are harmful to animal and human health. However, environmental factors affecting fumonisin biosynthesis in F. proliferatum are not well understood. Based on our preliminary results, in this study, we investigated the effect of sucrose or mannose as the sole carbon source on fumonisin B (FB) production by F. proliferatum and studied their underlying mechanisms via proteome and gene expression analysis. Our results showed that mannose, used as the sole carbon source, significantly blocked fumonisin B 1 and B 2 production by F. proliferatum as compared with the use of sucrose. Fifty-seven differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified. The downregulated proteins in the mannose-cultured strain were mainly involved in carbon metabolism, response to stress, and methionine metabolism, as compared with the sucrose-cultured strain. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that expression of several key genes involved in FB biosynthetic pathway and in transcription regulation were significantly downregulated in the mannose-cultured F. proliferatum, whereas expression of histone deacetylation-related genes were significantly upregulated. These results suggested that the blockage of FB biosynthesis by mannose was associated with the decreases in conversion of acetyl-CoA to polyketide, methionine biosynthesis, and NADPH regeneration. More importantly, milder oxidative stress, downregulated expression of genes involved in biosynthetic pathway and transcription regulation, and upregulated expression of genes with histone deacetylation possibly were responsible for the blockage of FB biosynthesis in F. proliferatum. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effective utilization technology of carbon dioxide. CO sub 2 no yuko riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibusuki, T. (National Research Inst. for pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-03-12

    As carbon dioxide-related environmental measures, method was explained to chemically convert and utilize carbon dioxide. Synthesis is possible of methanol, carbon monoxide, different carbohydrates, etc. by catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, using hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water. Task consists of heightening in both convertibility and selectivity, and abundant supply of low cost hydrogen. Methane, alcohol, etc. can be synthesized by electrochemical reducion of carbon dioxide. Because of effectively inserting multiple electron, discssion is being made of catalyst, intergrated with electrode, and electron transmitter. The photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide can be also made by utilizing photoelectric current, generated upon photoradiation on the semiconductive electrode. However, task consists of heightening in both efficiency and selectivity. Photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide, actually made by green plant, consists of oxidationlike decomposition of water and reduction of carbon dioxide. Both those reactions are skillfully separated by intermediation of very quick electron transmission system. Reduction is being studied with semiconductor, metallic colloid, enzyme, metallic complex and other various catalysts. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Energy Utilization Evaluation of Carbon Performance in Public Projects by FAHP and Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the low-carbon economy advocated all over the world, how to use energy reasonably and efficiently in public projects has become a major issue. It has brought many open questions, including which method is more reasonable in evaluating the energy utilization of carbon performance in public projects when the evaluation information is fuzzy; whether an indicator system can be constructed; and which indicators have more impact on carbon performance. This article aims to solve these problems. We propose a new carbon performance evaluation system for energy utilization based on project processes (design, construction, and operation. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP is used to accumulate the indicator weights and cloud model is incorporated when the indicator value is fuzzy. Finally, we apply our indicator system to a case study of the Xiangjiang River project in China, which demonstrates the applicability and efficiency of our method.

  15. The Potential for Electrofuels Production in Sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic CO{sub 2} Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Julia, E-mail: julia.hansson@ivl.se [Climate and Sustainable Cities, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Hackl, Roman [Climate and Sustainable Cities, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Taljegard, Maria [Division of Energy Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria [Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-03-13

    This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and incineration (8%). Most of the CO{sub 2} is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO{sub 2} were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO{sub 2} supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

  16. Dietary carbon sources of mussels and tubeworms from Galapagos hydrothermal vents determined from tissue adC activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P M; Smith, K L; Druffel, E M; Linick, T W

    1981-07-30

    The large quantities of reduced carbon that are required to support the filter-feeding mytilid mussels (Mytilus sp.), vesicomyid clams (Clayptogena sp.) and various other animals in the Galapagos hydrothermal vent systems are thought to be derived from either the in situ synthesis of particulate organic matter by chemoautotrophic, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria or by the advection of sedimentary organic carbon into the vent environment from surrounding areas. In contrast, the dense populations of vestimentiferan tubeworms (Riftia pachyptila), which lack mouth organs and digestive tracts, apparently utilize organic carbon synthesized by symbiotic chemoautotrophs. We present evidence here, based on adC activities and acC/abC ratios, that the principal source of dietary carbon for mussels and tubeworms is derived from the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIOC) in the vent effluent waters.

  17. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  18. A thermoacoustic engine capable of utilizing multi-temperature heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Sun Daming; Liu Yu; Steiner, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Low-grade energy is widespread. However, it cannot be utilized with high thermal efficiency directly. Following the principle of thermal energy cascade utilization, a thermoacoustic engine (TE) with a new regenerator that can be driven by multiple heat sources at different temperature levels is proposed. Taking a regenerator that utilizes heat sources at two temperatures as an example, theoretical research has been conducted on a traveling-wave TE with the new regenerator to predict its performance. Experimental verification is also done to demonstrate the benefits of the new regenerator. Results indicate that a TE with the new regenerator utilizing additional heat at a lower temperature experiences an increase in pressure ratio, acoustic power, efficiency, and exergy efficiency with proper heat input at an appropriate temperature at the mid-heater. A regenerator that uses multi-temperature heat sources can provide a means of recovering lower grade heat.

  19. Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C-H carboxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aanindeeta; Dick, Graham R; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kanan, Matthew W

    2016-03-10

    Using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock for commodity synthesis is an attractive means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and a possible stepping-stone towards renewable synthetic fuels. A major impediment to synthesizing compounds from CO2 is the difficulty of forming carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds efficiently: although CO2 reacts readily with carbon-centred nucleophiles, generating these intermediates requires high-energy reagents (such as highly reducing metals or strong organic bases), carbon-heteroatom bonds or relatively acidic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds. These requirements negate the environmental benefit of using CO2 as a substrate and limit the chemistry to low-volume targets. Here we show that intermediate-temperature (200 to 350 degrees Celsius) molten salts containing caesium or potassium cations enable carbonate ions (CO3(2-)) to deprotonate very weakly acidic C-H bonds (pKa > 40), generating carbon-centred nucleophiles that react with CO2 to form carboxylates. To illustrate a potential application, we use C-H carboxylation followed by protonation to convert 2-furoic acid into furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA)--a highly desirable bio-based feedstock with numerous applications, including the synthesis of polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is a potential large-scale substitute for petroleum-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since 2-furoic acid can readily be made from lignocellulose, CO3(2-)-promoted C-H carboxylation thus reveals a way to transform inedible biomass and CO2 into a valuable feedstock chemical. Our results provide a new strategy for using CO2 in the synthesis of multi-carbon compounds.

  20. Sourcing of Steam and Electricity for Carbon Capture Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2017-11-07

    This paper compares different steam and electricity sources for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) retrofits of pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. Analytical expressions for the thermal efficiency of these power plants are derived under 16 different CCS retrofit scenarios for the purpose of illustrating their environmental and economic characteristics. The scenarios emerge from combinations of steam and electricity sources, fuel used in each source, steam generation equipment and process details, and the extent of CO 2 capture. Comparing these scenarios reveals distinct trade-offs between thermal efficiency, net power output, levelized cost, profit, and net CO 2 reduction. Despite causing the highest loss in useful power output, bleeding steam and extracting electric power from the main power plant to meet the CCS plant's electricity and steam demand maximizes plant efficiency and profit while minimizing emissions and levelized cost when wholesale electricity prices are below 4.5 and 5.2 US¢/kWh for PC-CCS and NGCC-CCS plants, respectively. At prices higher than these higher profits for operating CCS retrofits can be obtained by meeting 100% of the CCS plant's electric power demand using an auxiliary natural gas turbine-based combined heat and power plant.

  1. A Novel Airborne Carbon Isotope Analyzer for Methane and Carbon Dioxide Source Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E. S.; Huang, Y. W.; Owano, T. G.; Leifer, I.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies on major sources of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4) indicate significant underestimation of methane release from fossil fuel industrial (FFI) and animal husbandry sources, among others. In addition, uncertainties still exist with respect to carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements, especially source fingerprinting. CO2 isotopic analysis provides a valuable in situ measurement approach to fingerprint CH4 and CO2as associated with combustion sources, leakage from geologic reservoirs, or biogenic sources. As a result, these measurements can characterize strong combustion source plumes, such as power plant emissions, and discriminate these emissions from other sources. As part of the COMEX (CO2 and MEthane eXperiment) campaign, a novel CO2 isotopic analyzer was installed and collected data aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft. Developing methods to derive CH4 and CO2 budgets from remote sensing data is the goal of the summer 2014 COMEX campaign, which combines hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and non-imaging spectroscopy (NIS) with in situ airborne and surface data. COMEX leverages the synergy between high spatial resolution HSI and moderate spatial resolution NIS. The carbon dioxide isotope analyzer developed by Los Gatos Research (LGR) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology and incorporates proprietary internal thermal control for high sensitivity and optimal instrument stability. This analyzer measures CO2 concentration as well as δ13C, δ18O, and δ17O from CO2 at natural abundance (100-3000 ppm). The laboratory accuracy is ±1.2 ppm (1σ) in CO2 from 370-1000 ppm, with a long-term (1000 s) precision of ±0.012 ppm. The long-term precision for both δ13C and δ18O is 0.04 ‰, and for δ17O is 0.06 ‰. The analyzer was field-tested as part of the COWGAS campaign, a pre-cursor campaign to COMEX in March 2014, where it successfully discriminated plumes related to combustion processes associated with

  2. Utilization of carbon/carbon composites in nuclear simulation fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.; Rezende, M.C.; Ferreira, S.R.; Otani, C.

    1988-01-01

    Thermo-hydraulic problems, in nuclear plants are normally analysed by using electrically heated rods. Carbon/carbon composites were used to make heating elements for testing by indirect heating up to a heat flux of 100 W/cm 2 . It is easy to verify that this value can be exceed if the choice of the complementary materials for insulator and cladding were improved. The swaging process used to reduce the cladding diameter prevented the fabrication of graphite heater rods. (author) [pt

  3. Assembling x-ray sources by carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V.; Lucci, M.; Toschi, F.; Orlanducci, S.; Tamburri, E.; Terranova, M. L.; Ciorba, A.; Rossi, M.; Hampai, D.; Cappuccio, G.

    2007-05-01

    By the use of a chemical vapour deposition technique a series of metal wires (W, Ta, Steel ) with differently shaped tips have been coated by arrays of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The field emission properties of the SWNT deposits have been measured by a home made apparatus working in medium vacuum (10 -6- 10 -7 mbar) and the SWNT-coated wires have been used to fabricate tiny electron sources for X-ray tubes. To check the efficiency of the nanotube coated wires for X-ray generation has, a prototype X-ray tube has been designed and fabricated. The X-ray tube works at pressures about 10 -6 mbar. The target ( Al film) is disposed on a hole in the stainless steel sheath: this configuration makes unnecessary the usual Be window and moreover allows us to use low accelerating potentials (< 6 kV).

  4. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Quere, Corrine [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Raupach, Mike [GCP, Canberra, Australia; Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Bopp, Laurent [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environement, France; Friedlingstein, Pierre [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Conway, T.J. [NOAA, Boulder, CO; Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Feely, R. A. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Foster, Pru [University of Bristol, UK; House, Joanna I [University of Bristol, UK; Prentice, Colin I. [University of Bristol, UK; Gurney, Kevin [Purdue University; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA; Huntingford, Chris [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Oxon, England; Levy, Peter E. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Midlothian, Scotland; Lomas, M. R. [University of Sheffield; Woodward, F. I. [University of Sheffield; Majkut, Joseph [Princeton University; Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton University; Metzl, Nicolas [University of Paris; Ometto, Jean P [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Peters, Glen P [Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway; Running, Steven [University of Montana, Missoula; Sitch, Stephen [University of Leeds, UK; Takahashi, Taro [Columbia University; Van der Werf, Guido [Universitate Amsterdam

    2009-12-01

    Efforts to control climate change require the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This can only be achieved through a drastic reduction of global CO2 emissions. Yet fossil fuel emissions increased by 29% between 2000 and 2008, in conjunction with increased contributions from emerging economies, from the production and international trade of goods and services, and from the use of coal as a fuel source. In contrast, emissions from land-use changes were nearly constant. Between 1959 and 2008, 43% of each year's CO2 emissions remained in the atmosphere on average; the rest was absorbed by carbon sinks on land and in the oceans. In the past 50 years, the fraction of CO2 emissions that remains in the atmosphere each year has likely increased, from about 40% to 45%, and models suggest that this trend was caused by a decrease in the uptake of CO2 by the carbon sinks in response to climate change and variability. Changes in the CO2 sinks are highly uncertain, but they could have a significant influence on future atmospheric CO2 levels. It is therefore crucial to reduce the uncertainties.

  5. Alginate Production from Alternative Carbon Sources and Use of Polymer Based Adsorbent in Heavy Metal Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kıvılcımdan Moral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer composed of mannuronic and guluronic acids. It is harvested from marine brown algae; however, alginate can also be synthesized by some bacterial species, namely, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Use of pure carbohydrate sources for bacterial alginate production increases its cost and limits the chance of the polymer in the industrial market. In order to reduce the cost of bacterial alginate production, molasses, maltose, and starch were utilized as alternative low cost carbon sources in this study. Results were promising in the case of molasses with the maximum 4.67 g/L of alginate production. Alginates were rich in mannuronic acid during early fermentation independent of the carbon sources while the highest guluronic acid content was obtained as 68% in the case of maltose. The polymer was then combined with clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite, to remove copper from a synthetic wastewater. Alginate-clinoptilolite beads were efficiently adsorbed copper up to 131.6 mg Cu2+/g adsorbent at pH 4.5 according to the Langmuir isotherm model.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Fritz Wendisch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources, and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols.

  7. Effect of electrode mass ratio on aging of activated carbon based supercapacitors utilizing organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cericola, D.; Kötz, R.; Wokaun, A.

    2011-03-01

    The accelerated degradation of carbon based supercapacitors utilizing 1 M Et4NBF4 in acetonitrile and in propylene carbonate as electrolyte is investigated for a constant cell voltage of 3.5 V as a function of the positive over total electrode mass ratio. The degradation rate of the supercapacitor using acetonitrile as a solvent can be decreased by increasing the mass of the positive electrode. With a mass ratio (positive electrode mass/total electrode mass) of 0.65 the degradation rate is minimum. For the capacitor utilizing propylene carbonate as a solvent a similar effect was observed. The degradation rate was smallest for a mass ratio above 0.5.

  8. Current sources of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in our atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David; McCulloch, Archie; Liang, Qing; Reimann, Stefan; Newman, Paul A.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or CTC) is an ozone-depleting substance whose emissive uses are controlled and practically banned by the Montreal Protocol (MP). Nevertheless, previous work estimated ongoing emissions of 35 Gg year-1 of CCl4 into the atmosphere from observation-based methods, in stark contrast to emissions estimates of 3 (0-8) Gg year-1 from reported numbers to UNEP under the MP. Here we combine information on sources from industrial production processes and legacy emissions from contaminated sites to provide an updated bottom-up estimate on current CTC global emissions of 15-25 Gg year-1. We now propose 13 Gg year-1 of global emissions from unreported non-feedstock emissions from chloromethane and perchloroethylene plants as the most significant CCl4 source. Additionally, 2 Gg year-1 are estimated as fugitive emissions from the usage of CTC as feedstock and possibly up to 10 Gg year-1 from legacy emissions and chlor-alkali plants.

  9. Factors for Microbial Carbon Sources in Organic and Mineral Soils from Eastern United States Deciduous Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, Caroline R. [Mills College, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    Forest soils represent a large portion of global terrestrial carbon; however, which soil carbon sources are used by soil microbes and respired as carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well known. This study will focus on characterizing microbial carbon sources from organic and mineral soils from four eastern United States deciduous forests using a unique radiocarbon (14C) tracer. Results from the dark incubation of organic and mineral soils are heavily influenced by site characteristics when incubated at optimal microbial activity temperature. Sites with considerable differences in temperature, texture, and location differ in carbon source attribution, indicating that site characteristics play a role in soil respiration.

  10. A generic methodology for the design of sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes using superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    , including as an extractive agent or raw material. Chemical conversion, an important element of utilization, involves the use of carbon dioxide as a reactant in the production of chemical compounds [2]. However, for feasible implementation, a systematic methodology is needed for the design of the utilization......, especially chemical conversion, processes. To achieve this, a generic methodology has been developed, which adopts a three-stage approach consisting in (i) process synthesis, (ii) process design, and (iii) innovative and sustainable design [3]. This methodology, with the individual steps and associated...... methods and tools, has been developed and applied to carbon dioxide utilization networks. This work will focus on the first stage, process synthesis, of this three-stage methodology; process synthesis is important in determining the appropriate processing route to produce products from a selection...

  11. Advanced imaging technology using carbon nanotube x ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hae Young; Seol, Seung Kown; Kim, Jaehoon; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jong Uk

    2008-01-01

    Recently, X ray imaging technology is a useful and leading medical diagnostic tool for healthcare professionals to diagnose disease in human body. CNTs(i.e. carbon nanotubes)are used in many applications like FED, Micro wave amplifier, X ray source, etc. because of its suitable electrical, chemical and physical properties. Specially, CNTs are well used electron emitters for x ray source. Conventionally, thermionic type of tungsten filament x ray tube is widely employed in the field of bio medical and industrial application fields. However, intrinsic problems such as, poor emission efficiency and low imaging resolution cause the limitation of use of the x ray tube. To fulfill the current market requirement specifically for medical diagnostic field, we have developed rather a portable and compact CNT based x ray source in which high imaging resolution is provided. Electron sources used in X ray tubes should be well focused to the anode target for generation of high quality x ray. In this study, Pierce type x ray generation module was tested based its simulation results using by OPERA 3D code. Pierce type module is composed of cone type electrical lens with its number of them and inner angles of them that shows different results with these parameters. And some preliminary images obtained using the CNT x ray source were obtained. The represented images are the finger bone and teeth in human body. It is clear that the trabeculation shape is observed in finger bone. To obtain the finger bone image, tube currents of 250A at 42kV tube voltage was applied. The human tooth image, however, is somewhat unclear because the supplied voltage to the tube was limited to max. 50kV in the system developed. It should be noted that normally 60∼70kV of tube voltage is supplied in dental imaging. Considering these it should be emphasized that if the tube voltage is over 60kV then clearer image is possible. In this paper, we are discussed comparing between these experiment results and

  12. Starch and starch hydrolysates are favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria in the human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songling; Ren, Fazheng; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Lu; Hao, Yanling; Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Lei, Xingen; Sun, Erna; Liu, Hongna

    2015-03-01

    Bifidobacteria are key commensals in human gut, and their abundance is associated with the health of their hosts. Although they are dominant in infant gut, their number becomes lower in adult gut. The changes of the diet are considered to be main reason for this difference. Large amounts of whole-genomic sequence data of bifidobacteria make it possible to elucidate the genetic interpretation of their adaptation to the nutrient environment. Among the nutrients in human gut, starch is a highly fermentable substrate and can exert beneficial effects by increasing bifidobacteria and/or being fermented to short chain fatty acids. In order to determine the potential substrate preference of bifidobacteria, we compared the glycoside hydrolase (GH) profiles of a pooled-bifidobacterial genome (PBG) with a representative microbiome (RM) of the human gut. In bifidobacterial genomes, only 15% of GHs contained signal peptides, suggesting their weakness in utilization of complex carbohydrate, such as plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, compared with other intestinal bacteria, bifidobacteiral genomes encoded more GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates, indicating that they have genetic advantages in utilizing these substrates. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68 isolated from centenarian's faeces was used as a model strain to further investigate the carbohydrate utilization. The pathway for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates was the only complete pathway for complex carbohydrates in human gut. It is noteworthy that all of the GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates in the BBMN68 genome were conserved in all studied bifidobacterial strains. The in silico analyses of BBMN68 were further confirmed by growth experiments, proteomic and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analyses. Our results demonstrated that starch and starch hydrolysates were the most universal and favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria. The low amount of these

  13. Effect of zinc sources on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on an inceptisol of Delhi to evaluate three sources of zinc, namely, zinc sulphate, zincated urea and zinc oxide on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence. Results indicated that, amongst the three zinc sources, zinc sulphate and zincated urea gave the best performance in increasing the grain yield of rice whereas zinc oxide depressed the grain yield of wheat significantly when compared to other treatments. The highest Zn derived from fertilizer and its utilization was obtained with zinc sulphate for both rice and wheat crops. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Tracing the sources of organic carbon in freshwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Meersmans, Jeroen; Barclay, Rachel; Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Barker, Sam; Jones, Richard; Hartley, Iain; Dungait, Jennifer; Quine, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    both terrestrial and aquatic sources as recorded in lake sediments to the measured rates of soil erosion and terrestrial & aquatic CO2 respiration rates, this study has paved a way towards a novel and cross-disciplinary approach to investigate and further improve current status of knowledge as regards C-cycling across the entire terrestrial-aquatic continuum. 137Cs was found to be useful to understand the dynamics and spatial pattern of lateral fluxes of sediment & C at the catchment scale, while tracing chemical composition of C using n-alkanes and stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) allowed distinguishing between the terrestrial vs. aquatic origin of C and determining main sources of particulate organic carbon in the aquatic environment within the two study catchments.

  15. Insight into climate change from the carbon exchange of biocrusts utilizing non-rainfall water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hailong; Hu, Chunxiang

    2017-05-31

    Biocrusts are model ecosystems of global change studies. However, light and non-rainfall water (NRW) were previously few considered. Different biocrust types further aggravated the inconsistence. So carbon-exchange of biocrusts (cyanobacteria crusts-AC1/AC2; cyanolichen crust-LC1; chlorolichen crust-LC2; moss crust-MC) utilizing NRW at various temperatures and light-intensities were determined under simulated and insitu mesocosm experiments. Carbon input of all biocrusts were negatively correlated with experimental temperature under all light-intensity with saturated water and stronger light with equivalent NRW, but positively correlated with temperature under weak light with equivalent NRW. LCPs and R/Pg of AC1 were lowest, followed in turn by AC2, LC2 and MC. Thus AC1 had most opportunities to use NRW, and 2.5 °C warming did cause significant changes of carbon exchange. Structural equation models further revealed that air-temperature was most important for carbon-exchange of ACs, but equally important as NRW for LC2 and MC; positive influence of warming on carbon-input in ACs was much stronger than the latter. Therefore, temperature effect on biocrust carbon-input depends on both moisture and light. Meanwhile, the role of NRW, transitional states between ACs, and obvious carbon-fixation differences between lichen crusts should be fully considered in the future study of biocrusts responding to climate change.

  16. Active pore space utilization in nanoporous carbon-based supercapacitors: Effects of conductivity and pore accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredych, Mykola; Koscinski, Mikolaj; Sliwinska-Bartkowiak, Malgorzata; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2012-12-01

    Composites of commercial graphene and nanoporous sodium-salt-polymer-derived carbons were prepared with 5 or 20 weight% graphene. The materials were characterized using the adsorption of nitrogen, SEM/EDX, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and potentiometric titration. The samples' conductivity was also measured. The performance of the carbon composites in energy storage was linked to their porosity and electronic conductivity. The small pores (<0.7) were found as very active for double layer capacitance. It was demonstrated that when double layer capacitance is a predominant mechanism of charge storage, the degree of the pore space utilization for that storage can be increased by increasing the conductivity of the carbons. That active pore space utilization is defined as gravimetric capacitance per unit pore volume in pores smaller than 0.7 nm. Its magnitude is affected by conductivity of the carbon materials. The functional groups, besides pseudocapacitive contribution, increased the wettability and thus the degree of the pore space utilization. Graphene phase, owing to its conductivity, also took part in an insitu increase of the small pore accessibility and thus the capacitance of the composites via enhancing an electron transfer to small pores and thus imposing the reduction of groups blocking the pores for electrolyte ions.

  17. Carbon emissions associated with the procurement and utilization of forest harvest residues for energy, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Dennis R. Becker; Anthony W. D' Amato; Alan R. Ek; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the use of forest-derived biomass for energy has prompted comparisons to fossil fuels and led to controversy over the atmospheric consequences of its utilization. Much of the debate has centered on the carbon storage implications of utilizing whole trees for energy and the time frame necessary to offset the carbon emissions associated with fixed-life...

  18. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor using propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan, M; Saunders, A M; Guisasola, A; Baeza, J A; Casas, C; Blackall, L L

    2004-01-05

    An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using propionate as the sole carbon source. The microbial community was followed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques and Candidatus 'Accumulibacter phosphatis' were quantified from the start up of the reactor until steady state. A series of SBR cycle studies was performed when 55% of the SBR biomass was Accumulibacter, a confirmed polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO) and when Candidatus 'Competibacter phosphatis', a confirmed glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO), was essentially undetectable. These experiments evaluated two different carbon sources (propionate and acetate), and in every case, two different P-release rates were detected. The highest rate took place while there was volatile fatty acid (VFA) in the mixed liquor, and after the VFA was depleted a second P-release rate was observed. This second rate was very similar to the one detected in experiments performed without added VFA.A kinetic and stoichiometric model developed as a modification of Activated Sludge Model 2 (ASM2) including glycogen economy, was fitted to the experimental profiles. The validation and calibration of this model was carried out with the cycle study experiments performed using both VFAs. The effect of pH from 6.5 to 8.0 on anaerobic P-release and VFA-uptake and aerobic P-uptake was also studied using propionate. The optimal overall working pH was around 7.5. This is the first study of the microbial community involved in EBPR developed with propionate as a sole carbon source along with detailed process performance investigations of the propionate-utilizing PAOs. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Active pipe-embedded structures in buildings for utilizing low-grade energy sources: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Jinbo; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade energy sources such as geothermal energy, favorable ambient air and industrial waste heat etc. exist widely. Sufficient utilization of these low-grade energy sources may reduce our daily dependence on high-grade energy sources such as electricity resulting in reduced emission of green house gas for environmental conservation. Active pipe-embedded structure as floor/ceiling usually with water as the medium to carry heat or coolth may utilize these low-grade energy sources for providing space air-conditioning. Compact arrangement of pipes in the structure may significantly enlarge heat transfer surface between the slab mass and water in the pipe allowing substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. Application of the heat or coolth storage capacity of this structure for preheating or pre-cooling is also one among the advantages of this structure for shifting load and exploiting the nighttime cheap electricity tariff in some regions. This paper presents the technology of the active pipe-embedded structure for utilizing widely existing low-grade energy sources following by a comprehensive review on the heat transfer calculation models of this structure and its practical applications in real building systems for space air-conditioning. This review shows that more works on the active structure, especially simple and transient models for dynamic and accurate performance prediction and easy integration with existing building energy simulation packages, are worthwhile for further promoting the practical application wherever the low-grade energy sources are favorable. (author)

  20. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The results of a 20 month study to explore the technical and economic feasibility of fuelwood utilization to operate a 50 megawatt energy conversion facility are described. The availability of biomass as a fuel source, the methods of harvesting and collecting the fuelstock, the costs of providing adequate fuel to the plant, and other requirements for fueling the proposed conversion facility are investigated. (MHR)

  1. SETMDC: Preprocessor for CHECKR, FIZCON, INTER, etc. ENDF Utility source codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: SETMDC-6.13 is a utility program that converts the source decks of the following set of programs to different computers: CHECKR-6.13; FIZCON-6.13; GETMAT-6.13; INTER-6.13; LISTEF-6; PLOTEF-6; PSYCHE-6; STANEF-6.13

  2. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  3. Increase of plasma ion source efficiency utilizing collisions of the second kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is experimentally found that the efficiency of a plasma ion source for use in an electromagnetic separator can be increased under appropriate operating conditions utilizing collisions of the second kind, of a proper gas is additionally introduced into the arc chamber containing atoms with metastable excited levels. (author)

  4. Microbial production of poly(hydroxybutyrate) from C₁ carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Mokhtari, Zahra-Beigom; Amai, Tomohito; Tanaka, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an attractive substitute for petrochemical plastic due to its similar properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. The cost of scaled-up PHB production inhibits its widespread usage. Intensive researches are growing to reduce costs and improve thermomechanical, physical, and processing properties of this green biopolymer. Among cheap substrates which are used for reducing total cost of PHB production, some C₁ carbon sources, e.g., methane, methanol, and CO₂ have received a great deal of attention due to their serious role in greenhouse problem. This article reviews the fundamentals of strategies for reducing PHA production and moves on to the applications of several cheap substrates with a special emphasis on methane, methanol, and CO₂. Also, some explanation for involved microorganisms including the hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria and methanotrophs, their history, culture condition, and nutritional requirements are given. After description of some important strains among the hydrogen-oxidizing and methanotrophic producers of PHB, the article is focused on limitations, threats, and opportunities for application and their future trends.

  5. Source apportionment of PM10 mass and particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Mann; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyunjae; Jeon, Haeun; Cho, Chaeyoon; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Hong, Seungkyu; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Park, Rokjin J.; Hong, Jihyung; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal is a bowl-shaped urban basin in the Himalayan foothills with a serious problem of fine particulate air pollution that impacts local health and impairs visibility. Particulate carbon concentrations have reached severe levels that threaten the health of 3.5 million local residents. Moreover, snow and ice on the Himalayan mountains are melting as a result of additional warming due to particulate carbon, especially high black carbon concentrations. To date, the sources of the Valley's particulate carbon and the impacts of different sources on particulate carbon concentrations are not well understood. Thus, before an effective control strategy can be developed, these particulate carbon sources must be identified and quantified. Our study has found that the four primary sources of particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley during winter are brick kilns, motor vehicles, fugitive soil dust, and biomass/garbage burning. Their source contributions are quantified using a recently developed new multivariate receptor model SMP. In contrast to other highly polluted areas such as China, secondary contribution is almost negligible in Kathmandu Valley. Brick kilns (40%), motor vehicles (37%) and biomass/garbage burning (22%) have been identified as the major sources of elemental carbon (black carbon) in the Kathmandu Valley during winter, while motor vehicles (47%), biomass/garbage burning (32%), and soil dust (13%) have been identified as the most important sources of organic carbon. Our research indicates that controlling emissions from motor vehicles, brick kilns, biomass/garbage burning, and soil dust is essential for the mitigation of the particulate carbon that threatens public health, impairs visibility, and influences climate warming within and downwind from the Kathmandu Valley. In addition, this paper suggests several useful particulate carbon mitigation methods that can be applied to Kathmandu Valley and other areas in South Asia with

  6. Relict thermokarst carbon source kept stable within gas hydrate stability zone of the South Kara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.; Winsborrow, M.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Semenov, P.

    2017-12-01

    Substantial shallow sources of carbon can exist in the South Kara Sea shelf, extending offshore from the permafrost areas of Yamal Peninsula and the Polar Ural coast. Our study presents new evidence for >250 buried relict thermokarst units. These amalgamated thawing wedges formed in the uppermost permafrost of the past and are still recognizable in today's non-permafrost areas. Part of these potential carbon reservoirs are kept stable within the South Kara Sea gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We utilize an extensive 2D high-resolution seismic dataset, collected in the South Kara Sea in 2005-2006 by Marine Arctic Geological Expedition (MAGE), to map distinctive U-shaped units that are acoustically transparent. These units appear all over the study area in water depths 50-250 m. Created by thermal erosion into Cretaceous-Paleogene bedrock, they are buried under the younger glacio-marine deposits and reach hundreds of meters wide and up to 100 meters thick. They show the characteristics of relict thermokarst, generated during ancient episode(s) of sea level regression of the South Kara Sea. These thermokarst units are generally limited by the Upper Regional Unconformity, which is an erosional horizon created by several glaciation events during the Pleistocene. On land, permafrost is known to sequester large volumes of carbon, half of which is concentrated within thermokarst structures. Based on modern thermokarst analogues we demonstrate with our study that a significant amount of organic carbon can be stored under the Kara Sea. To assess the stability of these shallow carbon reservoirs we carried out GHSZ modeling, constrained by geochemical analyses, temperature measurements and precise bathymetry. This revealed a significant potential for a GHSZ in water depths >225 m. The relict thermokast carbon storage system is stable under today's extremely low bottom water temperatures ( -1.7 °C) that allows for buried GHSZ, located tens of meters below the seabed

  7. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2009-01-01

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO 2 and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO 2 , (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO 2 , and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO 2 showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO 3 - -N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO 3 - -N/L and 9.09 mg NO 3 - -N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO 3 - -N/L

  8. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: mk_aroua@um.edu.my

    2009-03-15

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO{sub 2} and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO{sub 2}, (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO{sub 2}, and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO{sub 2} showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/L and 9.09 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/L.

  9. A potential explanation for the effect of carbon source on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes a new theory to account for the effect of carbon source on the characteristics of acetate-fed and glucose-fed aerobic granules. It is well known that reactor pH can vary in response to the oxidation of glucose or sodium acetate. As such, the effects associated with the carbon sources may be explained by ...

  10. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  11. Utilization of corn cob biochar in a direct carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinshuai; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2014-12-01

    Biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of corn cob is used as the fuel of a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) employing a composite electrolyte composed of a samarium doped ceria (SDC) and a eutectic carbonate phase. An anode layer made of NiO and SDC is utilized to suppress the cathode corrosion by the molten carbonate and improves the whole cell stability. The anode off-gas of the fuel cell is analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The effect of working temperature on the cell resistance and power output is examined. The maximum power output achieves 185 mW cm-2 at a current density of 340 mA cm-2 and 750 °C. An anode reaction scheme including the Boudouard reaction is proposed.

  12. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  13. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  14. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Carbon deposition thresholds on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes I. Fuel utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2015-03-01

    In the first of a two part publication, the effect of fuel utilization (Uf) on carbon deposition rates in solid oxide fuel cell nickel-based anodes was studied. Representative 5-component CH4 reformate compositions (CH4, H2, CO, H2O, & CO2) were selected graphically by plotting the solutions to a system of mass-balance constraint equations. The centroid of the solution space was chosen to represent a typical anode gas mixture for each nominal Uf value. Selected 5-component and 3-component gas mixtures were then delivered to anode-supported cells for 10 h, followed by determination of the resulting deposited carbon mass. The empirical carbon deposition thresholds were affected by atomic carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) fractions of the delivered gas mixtures and temperature. It was also found that CH4-rich gas mixtures caused irreversible damage, whereas atomically equivalent CO-rich compositions did not. The coking threshold predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations employing graphite for the solid carbon phase agreed well with empirical thresholds at 700 °C (Uf ≈ 32%); however, at 600 °C, poor agreement was observed with the empirical threshold of ∼36%. Finally, cell operating temperatures correlated well with the difference in enthalpy between the supplied anode gas mixtures and their resulting thermodynamic equilibrium gas mixtures.

  16. Inorganic Carbon Utilization of the Freshwater Red Alga Compsopogon coeruleus (Balbis Montagne (Compsopogonaceae, Rhodophyta Evaluated by in situ Measurement of Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Lun Liu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the inorganic carbon utilization of the freshwater red alga Compsopogon coeruleus, photosynthetic rates in response to increasing of bicarbonate concentration, the addition of alkaline HEPES buffer (pH 8.8, acid HEPES buffer (pH 4.0 and the extracellular carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide, AZ, respectively, were examined in situ by using a submersible pulse amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometer. Among the treatments, adding acid HEPES buffer significantly reduced photosynthetic rates of the alga, while others showed no effect. Accordingly, we concluded that C. coeruleus had less or no inorganic carbon (Ci limitation in its natural habitat. The alga might have higher affinity for bicarbonate and directly uptake bicarbonate as main Ci source without the aid of extracellular carbonic anhydrase.

  17. Utilization of open source electronic health record around the world: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Aminpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many projects on developing Electronic Health Record (EHR systems have been carried out in many countries. The current study was conducted to review the published data on the utilization of open source EHR systems in different countries all over the world. Using free text and keyword search techniques, six bibliographic databases were searched for related articles. The identified papers were screened and reviewed during a string of stages for the irrelevancy and validity. The findings showed that open source EHRs have been wildly used by source limited regions in all continents, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. It would create opportunities to improve national healthcare level especially in developing countries with minimal financial resources. Open source technology is a solution to overcome the problems of high-costs and inflexibility associated with the proprietary health information systems.

  18. Utilization of open source electronic health record around the world: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminpour, Farzaneh; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ahamdi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Many projects on developing Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems have been carried out in many countries. The current study was conducted to review the published data on the utilization of open source EHR systems in different countries all over the world. Using free text and keyword search techniques, six bibliographic databases were searched for related articles. The identified papers were screened and reviewed during a string of stages for the irrelevancy and validity. The findings showed that open source EHRs have been wildly used by source limited regions in all continents, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. It would create opportunities to improve national healthcare level especially in developing countries with minimal financial resources. Open source technology is a solution to overcome the problems of high-costs and inflexibility associated with the proprietary health information systems.

  19. Investigations of potential microbial methanogenic and carbon monoxide utilization pathways in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization: the Tablelands, NL, CAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Lea Morrill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as portals into the biogeochemistry of a subsurface environment with H2 and CH4 present. Very little, however, is known about the carbon substrate utilization, energy sources, and metabolic pathways of the microorganisms that live in this ultra-basic environment. The potential for microbial methanogenesis with bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and propionate precursors and carbon monoxide (CO utilization pathways were tested in laboratory experiments by adding substrates to water and sediment from the Tablelands, NL, CAD, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. Microbial methanogenesis was not observed after bicarbonate, formate, acetate, or propionate addition. CO was consumed in the live experiments but not in the killed controls and the residual CO in the live experiments became enriched in 13 C. The average isotopic enrichment factor resulting from this microbial utilization of CO was estimated to be 11.2 ± 0.2‰. Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and δ13C values suggest limited incorporation of carbon from CO into microbial lipids. This indicates that in our experiments, CO was used primarily as an energy source, but not for biomass growth. Environmental DNA sequencing of spring fluids collected at the same time as the addition experiments yielded a large proportion of Hydrogenophaga-related sequences, which is consistent with previous metagenomic data indicating the potential for these taxa to utilize CO.

  20. Investigations of potential microbial methanogenic and carbon monoxide utilization pathways in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization: the Tablelands, NL, CAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Penny L; Brazelton, William J; Kohl, Lukas; Rietze, Amanda; Miles, Sarah M; Kavanagh, Heidi; Schrenk, Matthew O; Ziegler, Susan E; Lang, Susan Q

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as portals into the biogeochemistry of a subsurface environment with H2 and CH4 present. Very little, however, is known about the carbon substrate utilization, energy sources, and metabolic pathways of the microorganisms that live in this ultra-basic environment. The potential for microbial methanogenesis with bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and propionate precursors and carbon monoxide (CO) utilization pathways were tested in laboratory experiments by adding substrates to water and sediment from the Tablelands, NL, CAD, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. Microbial methanogenesis was not observed after bicarbonate, formate, acetate, or propionate addition. CO was consumed in the live experiments but not in the killed controls and the residual CO in the live experiments became enriched in (13)C. The average isotopic enrichment factor resulting from this microbial utilization of CO was estimated to be 11.2 ± 0.2‰. Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and δ(13)C values suggest limited incorporation of carbon from CO into microbial lipids. This indicates that in our experiments, CO was used primarily as an energy source, but not for biomass growth. Environmental DNA sequencing of spring fluids collected at the same time as the addition experiments yielded a large proportion of Hydrogenophaga-related sequences, which is consistent with previous metagenomic data indicating the potential for these taxa to utilize CO.

  1. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  2. Food sources for the mangrove tree crab aratus pisonii: a carbon isotopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, L.D.; Silva, C.A.R.; Rezende, C.E.; Martinelli, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Muscle tissues from the mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii was analysed for carbon isotopic composition, in order to trace its major food sources. Potential food sources: mangrove leaves epi phytic green algae, mangrove sediments and open water and mangrove suspended matter; were also analysed. The results show that A. pisonii is basically omnivorous, with major food sources from marine origin. However, mangrove carbon can contribute with 16% to 42% in the crab's diet. (author)

  3. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  4. A 2009 Mobile Source Carbon Dioxide Emissions Inventory for the University of Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Johanna M; Cooper, C David

    2012-09-01

    A mobile source carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the University of Central Florida (UCF) has been completed. Fora large urban university, more than 50% of the CO2 emissions can come from mobile sources, and the vast majority of mobile source emissions come from on-road sources: personal vehicles and campus shuttles carrying students, faculty, staff and administrators to and from the university as well as on university business trips. In addition to emissions from on-road vehicles, emissions from airplane-based business travel are significant, along with emissions from nonroad equipment such as lawnmowers, leaf blowers, and small maintenance vehicles utilized on campus. UCF has recently become one of the largest universities in the nation (with over 58,000 students enrolled in the fall 2011 semester) and emits a substantial amount of CO2 in the Central Florida area. For this inventory, students, faculty, staff and administrators were first surveyed to determine their commuting distances and frequencies. Information was also gathered on vehicle type and age distribution of the personal vehicles of students, faculty, administrators, and staff as well as their bus, car-pool, and alternate transportation usage. The latest US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved mobile source emissions model, Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES2010a), was used to calculate the emissions from on-road vehicles, and UCF fleet gasoline consumption records were used to calculate the emissions from nonroad equipment and from on-campus UCF fleet vehicles. The results of this UCF mobile source emissions inventory were compared with those for another large U.S. university. With the growing awareness of global climate change, a number of colleges/universities and other organizations are completing greenhouse gas emission inventories. Assumptions often are made in order to calculate mobile source emissions, but without field data or valid reasoning, the accuracy of those

  5. Energy utilization, carbon dioxide emission, and exergy loss in flavored yogurt production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorgüven, Esra; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of food production processes on the environment in terms of energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission. There are three different energy utilization mechanisms in food production: Utilization of solar energy by plants to produce agricultural goods; feed consumption by herbivores to produce meat and milk; fossil fuel consumption by industrial processes to perform mixing, cooling, heating, etc. Production of strawberry-flavored yogurt, which involves these three mechanisms, is investigated here thermodynamically. Analysis starts with the cultivation of the ingredients and ends with the transfer of the final product to the market. The results show that 53% of the total exergy loss occurs during the milk production and 80% of the total work input is consumed during the plain yogurt making. The cumulative degree of perfection is 3.6% for the strawberry-flavored yogurt. This value can rise up to 4.6%, if renewable energy resources like hydropower and algal biodiesel are employed instead of fossil fuels. This paper points the direction for the development of new technology in food processing to decrease waste of energy and carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere. -- Highlights: ► Energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during strawberry-flavored yogurt production. ► Cumulative degree of perfection of strawberry-flavored yogurt is 3.6%. ► 53% of the total exergy loss occurs during the milk production. ► 80% of the total work input is consumed during the plain yogurt making.

  6. compomics-utilities: an open-source Java library for computational proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc; Colaert, Niklaas; Helsens, Kenny; Sickmann, Albert; Berven, Frode S; Martens, Lennart

    2011-03-08

    The growing interest in the field of proteomics has increased the demand for software tools and applications that process and analyze the resulting data. And even though the purpose of these tools can vary significantly, they usually share a basic set of features, including the handling of protein and peptide sequences, the visualization of (and interaction with) spectra and chromatograms, and the parsing of results from various proteomics search engines. Developers typically spend considerable time and effort implementing these support structures, which detracts from working on the novel aspects of their tool. In order to simplify the development of proteomics tools, we have implemented an open-source support library for computational proteomics, called compomics-utilities. The library contains a broad set of features required for reading, parsing, and analyzing proteomics data. compomics-utilities is already used by a long list of existing software, ensuring library stability and continued support and development. As a user-friendly, well-documented and open-source library, compomics-utilities greatly simplifies the implementation of the basic features needed in most proteomics tools. Implemented in 100% Java, compomics-utilities is fully portable across platforms and architectures. Our library thus allows the developers to focus on the novel aspects of their tools, rather than on the basic functions, which can contribute substantially to faster development, and better tools for proteomics.

  7. compomics-utilities: an open-source Java library for computational proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helsens Kenny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the field of proteomics has increased the demand for software tools and applications that process and analyze the resulting data. And even though the purpose of these tools can vary significantly, they usually share a basic set of features, including the handling of protein and peptide sequences, the visualization of (and interaction with spectra and chromatograms, and the parsing of results from various proteomics search engines. Developers typically spend considerable time and effort implementing these support structures, which detracts from working on the novel aspects of their tool. Results In order to simplify the development of proteomics tools, we have implemented an open-source support library for computational proteomics, called compomics-utilities. The library contains a broad set of features required for reading, parsing, and analyzing proteomics data. compomics-utilities is already used by a long list of existing software, ensuring library stability and continued support and development. Conclusions As a user-friendly, well-documented and open-source library, compomics-utilities greatly simplifies the implementation of the basic features needed in most proteomics tools. Implemented in 100% Java, compomics-utilities is fully portable across platforms and architectures. Our library thus allows the developers to focus on the novel aspects of their tools, rather than on the basic functions, which can contribute substantially to faster development, and better tools for proteomics.

  8. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  9. Growth of Candida famata and Trichosporon cutaneum on uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy, a hitherto unknown property of yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Brink, Jolanda A. van den; Veenhuis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Yeast strains capable of utilizing uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil by the enrichment culture method. The strains were identified as Candida famata (Harrison) Meyer et Yarrow and Trichosporon cutaneum (De Beurm., Gougerot et Vaucher) Ota. On the subcellular

  10. Distribution and Sources of Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    69

    School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi – 110067 ... and macroalgae may be major contributors of organic matter in the lagoon. .... 3.2 Analysis of Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Biogenic Silica.

  11. Kinetics of inorganic carbon utilization by microalgal biofilm in a flat plate photoreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.H.; Leu, J.Y.; Lan, C.R.; Lin, P.H.P.; Chang, F.L. [Development Center for Biotechnology, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. for Environmental Program

    2003-11-01

    A kinetic model was developed to describe inorganic carbon utilization by microalgae biofilm in a flat plate photoreactor. The model incorporates the fundamental mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and biological reaction of inorganic carbon by microalgal biofilm. An advanced numerical technique, the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method, was employed to solve this kinetic model. The model solutions included the concentration profiles of inorganic carbon in the microalgal biofilm, the growths of suspended microalgae and microalgal biofilm, the effluent concentrations of inorganic carbon, and the flux of inorganic carbon from bulk liquid into biofilm. The batch kinetic test was independently conducted to determine biokinetic parameters used in the microalgal biofilm model simulation while initial thickness of microalgal biofilm were assumed. A laboratory-scale flat plate photoreactor with a high recycle flow rate was set up and conducted to verify the model. The volume of photoreactor is 60 l which yields a hydraulic retention time of 1.67 days. The model-generated inorganic carbon and the suspended microalgae concentration curves agreed well with those obtained in the laboratory-scale test. The fixation efficiencies of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and CO{sub 2} are 98.5% and 90% at a steady-state condition, respectively. The concentration of suspended microalgal cell reached up to 12 mg/l at a maximum growth rate while the thickness of microalgal biofilm was estimated to be 104 pm at a steady-state condition. The approaches of experiments and model simulation presented in this study could be employed for the design of a flat plate photoreactor to treat CO{sub 2} by microalgal biofilm in a fossil-fuel power plant.

  12. The influence of various carbon and nitrogen sources on oil production by Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S; Mathur, J M

    1987-01-01

    The oil-synthesizing capacity of Fusarium oxysporum, cultivated on basal nutrient medium, was evaluated using different carbon and nitrogen sources. In one of the media, molasses was also used as a principal carbon source. Media containing glucose and ammonium nitrate were found to be most efficient for oil production. Fatty acid profile of the fungal oil indicated the presence of a wide range of fatty acids ranging from C8 to C24. Fatty acid composition largely depends on the type of carbon and nitrogen sources.

  13. NapA Mediates a Redox Regulation of the Antioxidant Response, Carbon Utilization and Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariann E. Mendoza-Martínez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The redox-regulated transcription factors (TFs of the bZIP AP1 family, such as yeast Yap1 and fission yeast Pap1, are activated by peroxiredoxin proteins (Prxs to regulate the antioxidant response. Previously, Aspergillus nidulans mutants lacking the Yap1 ortholog NapA have been characterized as sensitive to H2O2 and menadione. Here we study NapA roles in relation to TFs SrrA and AtfA, also involved in oxidant detoxification, showing that these TFs play different roles in oxidative stress resistance, catalase gene regulation and development, during A. nidulans life cycle. We also uncover novel NapA roles in repression of sexual development, normal conidiation, conidial mRNA accumulation, and carbon utilization. The phenotypic characterization of ΔgpxA, ΔtpxA, and ΔtpxB single, double and triple peroxiredoxin mutants in wild type or ΔnapA backgrounds shows that none of these Prxs is required for NapA function in H2O2 and menadione resistance. However, these Prxs participate in a minor NapA-independent H2O2 resistance pathway and NapA and TpxA appear to regulate conidiation along the same route. Using transcriptomic analysis we show that during conidial development NapA-dependent gene expression pattern is different from canonical oxidative stress patterns. In the course of conidiation, NapA is required for regulation of at least 214 genes, including ethanol utilization genes alcR, alcA and aldA, and large sets of genes encoding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, drug detoxification, carbohydrate utilization and secondary metabolism, comprising multiple oxidoreductases, membrane transporters and hydrolases. In agreement with this, ΔnapA mutants fail to grow or grow very poorly in ethanol, arabinose or fructose as sole carbon sources. Moreover, we show that NapA nuclear localization is induced not only by oxidative stress but also by growth in ethanol and by carbon starvation. Together with our previous work, these results show

  14. Distribution and Sources of Black Carbon in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling

    The Arctic is warming at twice the global rate over recent decades. To slow down this warming trend, there is growing interest in reducing the impact from short-lived climate forcers, such as black carbon (BC), because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly relative to CO2 reduction. To propose efficient mitigation policies, it is imperative to improve our understanding of BC distribution in the Arctic and to identify the sources. In this dissertation, we investigate the sensitivity of BC in the Arctic, including BC concentrations in snow (BCsnow) and BC concentrations in air (BCair), to emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging using a global 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. By including flaring emissions, estimating dry deposition velocity using resistance-in-series method, and including Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) in wet scavenging, simulated BCsnow in the eight Arctic sub-regions agree with the observations within a factor of two, and simulated BCair fall within the uncertainty range of observations. Specifically, we find that natural gas flaring emissions in Western Extreme North of Russia (WENR) strongly enhance BCsnow (by up to ?50%) and BCair (by 20-32%) during snow season in the so-called 'Arctic front', but has negligible impact on BC in the free troposphere. The updated dry deposition velocity over snow and ice is much larger than those used in most of global CTMs and agrees better with observation. The resulting BCsnow changes marginally because of the offsetting of higher dry and lower wet deposition fluxes. In contrast, surface BCair decreases strongly due to the faster dry deposition (by 27-68%). WBF occurs when the environmental vapor pressure is in between the saturation vapor pressure of ice crystals and water drops in mixed-phase clouds. As a result, water drops evaporate and releases BC particles in them back into the interstitial air. In most CTMs, WBF is either missing or represented by a uniform and low BC

  15. Carbon Dioxide Utilization by the Five-Membered Ring Products of Cyclometalation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Iwao

    2016-01-01

    In carbon dioxide utilization by cyclometalated five-membered ring products, the following compounds are used in four types of applications: 1. 2-Phenylpyrazole iridium compounds, pincer phosphine iridium compounds and 2-phenylimidazoline iridium compounds are used as catalysts for both formic acid production from CO2 and H2, and hydrogen production from the formic acid. This formic acid can be a useful agent for H2 production and storage for fuel cell electric vehicles. 2. Other chemicals, e.g., dimethyl carbonate, methane, methanol and CO, are produced with dimethylaminomethylphenyltin compounds, pincer phosphine iridium compounds, pincer phosphine nickel compound and ruthenium carbene compound or 2-phenylpyridine iridium compounds, and phenylbenzothiazole iridium compounds as the catalysts for the reactions with CO2. 3. The five-membered ring intermediates of cyclometalation reactions with the conventional substrates react with carbon dioxide to afford their many types of carboxylic acid derivatives. 4. Carbon dioxide is easily immobilized at room temperature with immobilizing agents such as pincer phosphine nickel compounds, pincer phosphine palladium compounds, pincer N,N-dimethylaminomethyltin compounds and tris(2-pyridylthio)methane zinc compounds. PMID:28503084

  16. Extent of Head Teachers' Utilization of Innovative Sources of Funding Primary Schools in Enugu State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amogechukwu, Eze Thecla; Unoma, Chidobi Roseline

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent Head teachers utilize innovative sources of funding primary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed to examine the extent head teachers utilize innovative sources of funding primary schools in Enugu State. Data were collected through a 14-item questionnaire…

  17. Effect of large aspect ratio of biomass particles on carbon burnout in a utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gera; M.P. Mathur; M.C. Freeman; Allen Robinson [Fluent, Inc./NETL, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-12-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of comprehensive combustion sub models that include the effect of large aspect ratio of biomass (switchgrass) particles on carbon burnout and temperature distribution inside the particles. Temperature and carbon burnout data are compared from two different models that are formulated by assuming (i) the particles are cylindrical and conduct heat internally, and (ii) the particles are spherical without internal heat conduction, i.e., no temperature gradient exists inside the particle. It was inferred that the latter model significantly underpredicted the temperature of the particle and, consequently, the burnout. Additionally, some results from cofiring biomass (10% heat input) with pulverized coal (90% heat input) are compared with the pulverized coal (100% heat input) simulations and coal experiments in a tangentially fired 150 MW{sub e} utility boiler. 26 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  19. An optimization model for carbon capture & storage/utilization vs. carbon trading: A case study of fossil-fired power plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağralı, Semra; Üçtuğ, Fehmi Görkem; Türkmen, Burçin Atılgan

    2018-06-01

    We consider fossil-fired power plants that operate in an environment where a cap and trade system is in operation. These plants need to choose between carbon capture and storage (CCS), carbon capture and utilization (CCU), or carbon trading in order to obey emissions limits enforced by the government. We develop a mixed-integer programming model that decides on the capacities of carbon capture units, if it is optimal to install them, the transportation network that needs to be built for transporting the carbon captured, and the locations of storage sites, if they are decided to be built. Main restrictions on the system are the minimum and maximum capacities of the different parts of the pipeline network, the amount of carbon that can be sold to companies for utilization, and the capacities on the storage sites. Under these restrictions, the model aims to minimize the net present value of the sum of the costs associated with installation and operation of the carbon capture unit and the transportation of carbon, the storage cost in case of CCS, the cost (or revenue) that results from the emissions trading system, and finally the negative revenue of selling the carbon to other entities for utilization. We implement the model on General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) by using data associated with two coal-fired power plants located in different regions of Turkey. We choose enhanced oil recovery (EOR) as the process in which carbon would be utilized. The results show that CCU is preferable to CCS as long as there is sufficient demand in the EOR market. The distance between the location of emission and location of utilization/storage, and the capacity limits on the pipes are an important factor in deciding between carbon capture and carbon trading. At carbon prices over $15/ton, carbon capture becomes preferable to carbon trading. These results show that as far as Turkey is concerned, CCU should be prioritized as a means of reducing nation-wide carbon emissions in an

  20. Carbon source from the toroidal pumped limiter during long discharge operation in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, E.; Brosset, C.; Lowry, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Chappuis, P.; Corre, Y.; Desgranges, C.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Mitteau, R.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Thomas, P.; Tsitrone, E.; Hogan, J.; Roubin, P.; Martin, C.; Arnas, C.

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of deuterium retention mechanisms requires the knowledge of carbon sources in Tore-Supra. The main source of carbon in the vacuum vessel during long discharges is the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL). This work is devoted to the experimental characterisation of the carbon source from the TPL surface during long discharges using a visible spectroscopy diagnostic. Moreover, we present an attempt to perform a carbon balance over a typical campaign and we discuss it with regards to the deuterium in-vessel inventory deduced from particle balance and the deuterium content of the deposited layers. The study shows that only a third of the estimated deuterium trapped in the vessel is trapped in the carbon deposits. Thus, in the present state of our knowledge and characterisation of the permanent retention, one has to search for mechanisms other than co-deposition to explain the deuterium retention in Tore Supra. (A.C.)

  1. Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, A.; Walker, W.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Houghton, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The carbon balance of tropical ecosystems remains uncertain, with top-down atmospheric studies suggesting an overall sink and bottom-up ecological approaches indicating a modest net source. Here we use 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world’s tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year-1). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year-1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year-1. Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses.

  2. A Precisely Assembled Carbon Source to Synthesize Fluorescent Carbon Quantum Dots for Sensing Probes and Bioimaging Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yiqiang; Luo, Dan; Yu, Min; Zhang, Ting; Cao, Xuanping; Zhou, Yanheng; Liu, Yan

    2018-02-09

    A broad range of carbon sources have been used to fabricate varieties of carbon quantum dots (CQDs). However, the majority of these studies concern the influence of primary structures and chemical compositions of precursors on the CQDs; it is still unclear whether or not the superstructures of carbon sources have effects on the physiochemical properties of the synthetic CQDs. In this work, the concept of molecular assembly is first introduced into the design of a new carbon source. Compared with the tropocollagen molecules, the hierarchically assembled collagen scaffolds, as a new carbon source, immobilize functional groups of the precursors through hydrogen bonds, electrostatic attraction, and hydrophobic forces. Moreover, the accumulation of functional groups in collagen self-assembly further promotes the covalent bond formation in the obtained CQDs through a hydrothermal process. Both of these two chemical superiorities give rise to high quality CQDs with enhanced emission. The assembled collagen scaffold-based CQDs with heteroatom doping exhibit superior stability, and could be further applied as effective fluorescent probes for Fe 3+ detection and cellular cytosol imaging. These findings open a wealth of possibilities to explore more nanocarbons from precursors with assembled superstructures. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Microbial-induced remediation of Zn2+ pollution based on the capture and utilization of carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The TG-DSC results showed that weight loss of the precipitates occurred around 253°C. The FTIR and TG-DSC results were in accord with the XRD and EDS results and proved again that the precipitates were basic zinc carbonate. This work thus demonstrates a new method for processing Zn2+ pollution based on the utilization of carbon dioxide.

  4. FOOD SOURCES AND CARBON BUDGET OF CHINESE PRAWN PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董双林; 张硕; 王芳

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn (Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semiintensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20-28)×10-3.

  5. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration

  6. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  7. Solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires promoted by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Congxiang [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Wen-wen; Wang, Xingli [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Xiaocheng [Laboratory of clean energy chemistry and materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18 Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Tan, Chong Wei [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tay, Beng Kang, E-mail: ebktay@ntu.edu.sg [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Coquet, Philippe [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • An array of well aligned and uniform CNTs is successfully fabricated by PECVD. • SiONW growth utilizes Si substrate as the source, ruling out the usage of silane. • With CNT array on the substrate, SiONW growth is improved significantly. • CNTs help dispersion of the catalysts and diffusion of the Si atoms. - Abstract: We report a method to promote solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires (SiONWs) by using an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It starts with the fabrication of CNT array by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Si wafers, followed by growth of SiONWs. Herein, CNTs serve as a scaffold, which helps the dispersion of catalysts for SiONWs and also provides space for hydrogen which boosts the diffusion of Si atoms and hence formation of SiONWs. As the result, a three dimensional (3D) hybrid network of densely packed SiONWs and CNTs can be produced rapidly.

  8. Utilisation of flue gases from biofuels in greenhouses as carbon dioxide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuopanportti, H.; Rissanen, R.; Vuollet, A.; Kanniainen, T.; Tikka, A.; Ramm-Chmidt, L.; Seppaelae, R.; Piira, T.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the project is to develop technologies by which the flue gases from burning bio fuels and peat can be purified for used in green houses as a low cost source of carbon dioxide. Traditionally carbon dioxide has been produced by burning propane or natural gas or by injecting bottled carbon dioxide gas directly into the green house. The new methods should be more affordable than the present ones. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of Black and Brown Carbon Concentrations and Sources during winter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Liu, Yue; Hansen, Anthony D. A.; Močnik, Griša; Zheng, Mei

    2017-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), play important roles in air quality, human health, and climate change. A better understanding of sources of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol (including black carbon and brown carbon) is particular critical for formulating emission-based control strategies and reducing uncertainties in current aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced serious air pollution problems and high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in recent years, especially during heating seasons. During November and December of 2016, several severe haze episodes occurred in Beijing, with hourly average PM2.5 mass concentration up to 400 μg/m3. In this study, concentration levels and sources of black carbon and brown carbon were investigated based on 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE-33) with combination of other PM2.5 chemical composition information. Contributions of traffic and non-traffic emissions (e.g., coal combustion, biomass burning) were apportioned, and brown carbon was separated from black carbon. Our preliminary results showed that (1) Concentrations of BC were around 5.3±4.2 μg/m3 during the study period, with distinct diurnal variations during haze and non-haze days. (2) Traffic emissions contributed to about 37±17% of total BC, and exhibited higher contributions during non-haze days compared to haze days. (3) Coal combustion was a major source of black carbon and brown carbon in Beijing, which was more significant compared to biomass burning. Sources and the relative contributions to black carbon and brown carbon during haze and non-haze days will be further discussed.

  10. Photosynthate supply and utilization in alfalfa: a developmental shift from a source to a sink limitation of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysdorfer, C.; Bassham, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term carbon dioxide enrichment, 14 CO 2 feeding, and partial defoliation were employed as probes to investigate source/sink limitations of photosynthesis during the development of symbiotically grown alfalfa. In the mature crop, long-term CO 2 enrichment does not affect the rates of net photosynthesis, relative growth, 14 C export to nonphotosynthetic organs, or the rates of 14 C label incorporation into leaf sucrose, starch, or malate. The rate of glycolate labeling is, however, substantially reduced under these conditions. When the mature crop was partially defoliated, a considerable increase in net photosynthesis occurred in the remaining leaves. In the seedling crop, long-term CO 2 enrichment increased dry matter accumulation, primarily as a result of increases in leaf starch content. Although the higher rates of starch synthesis are not maintained, the growth enhancement of the enriched plants persisted throughout the experimental period. These results imply a source limitation of seedling photosynthesis and a sink limitation of photosynthesis in more mature plants. Consequently, both the supply and the utilization of photosynthate may limit seasonal photosynthesis in alfalfa

  11. [Kinetic simulation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with fermentation broth as carbon source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-07-01

    As a high-quality carbon source, fermentation broth could promote the phosphorus removal efficiency in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The transformation of substrates in EBPR fed with fermentation broth was well simulated using the modified activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2) based on the carbon source metabolism. When fermentation broth was used as the sole carbon source, it was found that heterotrophic bacteria acted as a promoter rather than a competitor to the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). When fermentation broth was used as a supplementary carbon source of real municipal wastewater, the wastewater composition was optimized for PAO growth; and the PAO concentration, which was increased by 3.3 times compared to that in EBPR fed with solely real municipal wastewater, accounting for about 40% of the total biomass in the reactor.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis of cyclic carbonates from olefins with sodium bicarbonates as the C1 source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jie; Mao, Xianwen; Jamison, Timothy F; Hatton, T Alan

    2014-03-25

    An effective transformation of alkenes into cyclic carbonates has been achieved using NaHCO3 as the C1 source in acetone-water under microwave heating, with selectivities and yields significantly surpassing those obtained using conventional heating.

  13. Factors influencing buyers' willingness to offer price premiums for carbon credits sourced from urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; J.P. Siry

    2015-01-01

    Marketing carbon offset credits generated by urban forest projects could help cities and local governments achieve their financial self-sufficiency and environmental sustainability goals. Understanding the value of carbon credits sourced from urban forests, and the factors that determine buyers’ willingness to pay a premium for such credits could benefit cities in...

  14. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignati, E.; Karl, M.; Krol, M.C.; Wilson, J.; Stier, P.; Cavalli, F.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in

  15. Tracing organic matter sources of estuarine tidal flat nematodes with stable carbon isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, T.; Luyten, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Vincx, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study explores the use of stable carbon isotopes to trace organic matter sources of intertidal nematodes in the Schelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Stable carbon isotope signatures of nematodes from a saltmarsh and 4 tidal flat stations were determined in spring and winter situations, and

  16. The global carbon nation: Status of CO2 capture, storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocs, Elizabeth A.

    2017-07-01

    As the world transitions toward cleaner and more sustainable energy generation, Carbon Capture and Sequestration/Storage (CCS) plays an essential role in the portfolio of technologies to help reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The projected increase in population size and its resulting increase in global energy consumption, for both transportation and the electricity grid —the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, will continue to add to current CO2 emissions levels during this transition. Since eighty percent of today's global energy continues to be generated by fossil fuels, a shift to low-carbon energy sources will take many decades. In recent years, shifting to renewables and increasing energy efficiencies have taken more importance than deploying CCS. Together, this triad —renewables, energy efficiency, and CCS— represent a strong paradigm for achieving a carbon-free world. Additionally, the need to accelerate CCS in developing economies like China and India are of increasing concern since migration to renewables is unlikely to occur quickly in those countries. CCS of stationary sources, accounting for only 20% reduction in emissions, as well as increasing efficiency in current systems are needed for major reductions in emissions. A rising urgency for fifty to eighty percent reduction of CO2 emissions by 2050 and one hundred percent reduction by 2100 makes CCS all that more critical in the transition to a cleaner-energy future globally.

  17. The global carbon nation: Status of CO2 capture, storage and utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocs Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world transitions toward cleaner and more sustainable energy generation, Carbon Capture and Sequestration/Storage (CCS plays an essential role in the portfolio of technologies to help reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The projected increase in population size and its resulting increase in global energy consumption, for both transportation and the electricity grid —the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, will continue to add to current CO2 emissions levels during this transition. Since eighty percent of today’s global energy continues to be generated by fossil fuels, a shift to low-carbon energy sources will take many decades. In recent years, shifting to renewables and increasing energy efficiencies have taken more importance than deploying CCS. Together, this triad —renewables, energy efficiency, and CCS— represent a strong paradigm for achieving a carbon-free world. Additionally, the need to accelerate CCS in developing economies like China and India are of increasing concern since migration to renewables is unlikely to occur quickly in those countries. CCS of stationary sources, accounting for only 20% reduction in emissions, as well as increasing efficiency in current systems are needed for major reductions in emissions. A rising urgency for fifty to eighty percent reduction of CO2 emissions by 2050 and one hundred percent reduction by 2100 makes CCS all that more critical in the transition to a cleaner-energy future globally.

  18. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. A one-step single source route to carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized via directly pyrolyzing ferrocene in the autoclave. The nanotubes with several micrometers in length have outer and inner diameters in the range of 40–100 nm and 20–40 nm, respectively. An yield of ∼70% of CNTs can be obtained without any accessorial solvents and ...

  20. Primary carbon sources for juvenile penaeid shrimps in a mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a variety of primary producers (mangroves, epiphytes, phytoplankton and seagrasses), sediments and in five penaeid shrimp species (Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) indicus, P. japonicus, P. semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros and M. stebbingi), collected ...

  1. Removing carbon dioxide from a stationary source through co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Except temperature of solvent, all study variables showed strong relation with the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed (with a P-value < 0.05). Uniquely, this study has evaluated the potential for sodium bicarbonate production from the CO2 absorbed using gravimetric analysis. It is also possible to recover over 28% crystal ...

  2. Intertidal zones as carbon dioxide sources to coastal oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    To understand the factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO sub(2)) exchanges near land-sea boundary diurnal observations have been made twice on CO sub(2) in the air and water in a coastal region. The results suggest that CO sub(2) enrichment...

  3. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon sources on mycelial growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grifola umbellate is a famous and expensive Chinese herb medicine and the main medicinal component is polysaccharide mainly produced by its mycelia. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon resources on mycelial growth and polysaccharides production of a medicinal mushroom, G. umbellate were studied in the ...

  4. Simulation and Optimization of a Carbon Nanotube Electron Source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knápek, Alexandr; Radlička, Tomáš; Krátký, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 60-65 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : carbon nanotube * electron beam lithography Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  5. Distribution of organic carbon and petroleum source rock potential of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary carbonates, South Florida Basin: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacas, James George

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 134 core samples from the South Florida Basin show that the carbonates of Comanchean age are relatively richer in average organic carbon (0.41 percent) than those of Coahuilan age (0.28 percent), Gulfian age (0.18 percent) and Paleocene age (0.20 percent). They are also nearly twice as rich as the average world, wide carbonate (average 0.24 percent). The majority of carbonates have organic carbons less than 0.30 percent but the presence of many relatively organic rich beds composed of highly bituminous, argillaceous, highly stylolitic, and algal-bearing limestones and dolomites accounts for the higher percentage of organic carbon in some of the stratigraphic units. Carbonate rocks that contain greater than 0.4 percent organic carbon and that might be considered as possible petroleum sources were noted in almost each subdivision of the Coahuilan and Comanchean Series but particularly the units of Fredericksburg 'B', Trinity 'A', Trinity 'F', and Upper Sunniland. Possible source rocks have been ascribed by others to the Lower Sunniland, but lack of sufficient samples precluded any firm assessment in this initial report. In the shallower section of the basin, organic-rich carbonates containing as much as 3.2 percent organic carbon were observed in the lowermost part of the Gulfian Series and carbonate rocks with oil staining or 'dead' and 'live oil' were noted by others in the uppermost Gulfian and upper Cedar Keys Formation. It is questionable whether these shallower rocks are of sufficient thermal maturity to have generated commercial oil. The South Florida basin is still sparsely drilled and produces only from the Sunniland Limestone at an average depth of 11,500 feet (3500 m). Because the Sunniland contains good reservoir rocks and apparently adequate source rocks, and because the success rate of new oil field discoveries has increased in recent years, the chances of finding additional oil reserves in the Sunniland are promising. Furthermore, the

  6. Technology roadmap study on carbon capture, utilization and storage in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xian; Fan, Jing-Li; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology will likely become an important approach to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and optimize the structure of energy consumption in China in the future. In order to provide guidance and recommendations for CCUS Research, Development and Demonstration in China, a high level stakeholder workshop was held in Chongqing in June 2011 to develop a technology roadmap for the development of CCUS technology. This roadmap outlines the overall vision to provide technically viable and economically affordable technological options to combat climate change and facilitate socio-economic development in China. Based on this vision, milestone goals from 2010 to 2030 are set out in accordance with the technology development environment and current status in China. This study identifies the critical technologies in capture, transport, utilization and storage of CO 2 and proposes technical priorities in the different stages of each technical aspect by evaluating indices such as the objective contribution rate and technical maturity, and gives recommendations on deployment of full-chain CCUS demonstration projects. Policies which would support CCUS are also suggested in this study. - Highlights: • A technology roadmap for CCUS development in China from 2010 to 2030 is presented. • Sound data and analysis in combination with expert workshops are used. • Critical technologies in CCUS are identified. • Priority actions of all stages are identified and proposed. • Guidance and recommendations for CCUS RD and D are provided

  7. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibner, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of [14C]HMB to L-methionine was shown by chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte protein hydrolysate and incorporation into protein was proven by cycloheximide inhibition of synthesis. When incorporation of HMB was compared to that of DL-methionine (DLM) equimolar quantities of the two sources were found in liver cell protein. These results support, at a cellular level, the conclusion that HMB and DLM are biochemically equivalent sources of methionine for protein synthesis

  9. Feasibility study on utilization of vitrified radioactive waste as radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Yoshii, Fumio; Hyakutake, Kenichiro

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study on utilization of vitrified high level radioactive waste (VW) as radiation source has been carried out. Natural rubber latex was radiation vulcanized with VW to demonstrate the feasibility. The dose rate was 0.1 kGy/hr. As a sensitizer, n-butyl acrylate was added. Negligible small activation of natural rubber (NR) latex by neutron from the VW was observed. The residual sensitizer in the irradiated latex and physical properties of film molded from the irradiated latex were the same level with the conventional radiation vulcanization of NR latex with γ-rays from Co-60. Surgical gloves and protective rubber gloves for radioactive contamination were produced from 20 litters of NR latex vulcanized with 2 VWs. The physical properties of both gloves were acceptable. These results suggested that vitrified high level waste can be used as an industrial radiation source. (author)

  10. Staphylococcus aureus utilizes host-derived lipoprotein particles as sources of exogenous fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delekta, Phillip C; Shook, John C; Lydic, Todd A; Mulks, Martha H; Hammer, Neal D

    2018-03-26

    clinical utility of targeting bacterial fatty acid synthesis is debated. Moreover, the fatty acid reservoir(s) exploited by S. aureus are not well understood. Human low-density lipoprotein particles represent a particularly abundant in vivo source of fatty acids and are present in tissues S. aureus colonizes. Herein, we establish that S. aureus is capable of utilizing the fatty acids present in low-density lipoproteins to bypass both chemical and genetic inhibition of fatty acid synthesis. These findings imply that S. aureus targets LDLs as a source of fatty acids during pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Lipids Reprogram Metabolism to Become a Major Carbon Source for Histone Acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonnell, Eoin; Crown, Scott B; Fox, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Cells integrate nutrient sensing and metabolism to coordinate proper cellular responses to a particular nutrient source. For example, glucose drives a gene expression program characterized by activating genes involved in its metabolism, in part by increasing glucose-derived histone acetylation....... Here, we find that lipid-derived acetyl-CoA is a major source of carbon for histone acetylation. Using (13)C-carbon tracing combined with acetyl-proteomics, we show that up to 90% of acetylation on certain histone lysines can be derived from fatty acid carbon, even in the presence of excess glucose...

  12. The influence of different nitrogen and carbon sources on mycotoxin production in Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzonkalik, Katrin; Herrling, Tanja; Syldatk, Christoph; Neumann, Anke

    2011-05-27

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by Alternaria alternata at 28°C using a semi-synthetic medium (modified Czapek-Dox broth) supplemented with nitrogen and carbon sources. Additionally the effect of shaken and static cultivation on mycotoxin production was tested. Initial experiments showed a clear dependency between nitrogen depletion and mycotoxin production. To assess whether nitrogen limitation in general or the type of nitrogen source triggers the production, various nitrogen sources including several ammonium/nitrate salts and amino acids were tested. In static culture the production of AOH/AME can be enhanced greatly with phenylalanine whereas some nitrogen sources seem to inhibit the AOH/AME production completely. TA was not significantly affected by the choice of nitrogen source. In shaken culture the overall production of all mycotoxins was lower compared to static cultivation. Furthermore tests with a wide variety of carbon sources including monosaccharides, disaccharides, complex saccharides such as starch as well as glycerol and acetate were performed. In shaken culture AOH was produced when glucose, fructose, sucrose, acetate or mixtures of glucose/sucrose and glucose/acetate were used as carbon sources. AME production was not detected. The use of sodium acetate resulted in the highest AOH production. In static culture AOH production was also stimulated by acetate and the amount is comparable to shaken conditions. Under static conditions production of AOH was lower except when cultivated with acetate. In static cultivation 9 of 14 tested carbon sources induced mycotoxin production compared to 4 in shaken culture. This is the first study which analyses the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources in a semi-synthetic medium and assesses the effects of culture conditions on

  13. Effects of organic nitrogen and carbon sources on mycelial growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... mycelial growth and polysaccharides production and their optimization in the ... Soybean meal was selected as the optimal organic nitrogen source for its significant ..... economy and high yield in industrial production. There-.

  14. Sustainable process design with process intensification - Development and implementation of a framework for sustainable carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca

    . The developed framework adopts a 3-stage approach for sustainable design, which is comprised of: (1) synthesis, (2) design, and (3) innovation. In the first stage, the optimal processing route is obtained from a network via a superstructure-based approach. This stage incorporates a structured database...... and are designed and simulated in detail: 1. Dimethyl ether from methanol via combined reforming 2. Dimethyl ether from methanol via direct hydrogenation 3. Dimethyl carbonate via ethylene carbonate and methanol from combined reforming 4. Dimethyl carbonate via ethylene carbonate and methanol from direct...... hydrogenation. Through the analysis of the processes, it can be seen that the methanol distillation and the dimethyl carbonate downstream separation contribute to largeamounts of the utility consumption and therefore costs. Therefore, the reductionof the utility consumption of the methanol distillation...

  15. Development and Utilization of Bright Tabletop Sources of Coherent Soft X-Ray Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    2005-01-01

    This project investigated aspects of the development and utilization of compact XUV sources based on fast capillary discharges and high order harmonic up conversion. These sources are very compact, yet can generate soft x-ray radiation with peak spectral brightness several orders of magnitude larger than a synchrotron beam lines. The work has included the characterization of some of the important parameters that enable the use of these sources in unique applications, such as the degree of spatial coherence and the wavefront characteristics that affect their focusing capabilities. In relation to source development, they have recently completed preliminary work towards exploring the generation of high harmonics in a pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge. Since ions are more difficult to ionize than neutral atoms, the use of pre-ionized nonlinear media may lead to the generation of coherent light at > 1 KeV photon energy. Recent application results include the first study of the damage threshold and damage mechanism of XUV mirrors exposed to intense focalized 46.9 nm laser radiation, and the study of the ablation of polymers with soft x-ray laser light

  16. How organic carbon derived from multiple sources contributes to carbon sequestration processes in a shallow coastal system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2015-04-16

    Carbon captured by marine organisms helps sequester atmospheric CO 2 , especially in shallow coastal ecosystems, where rates of primary production and burial of organic carbon (OC) from multiple sources are high. However, linkages between the dynamics of OC derived from multiple sources and carbon sequestration are poorly understood. We investigated the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of particulate OC (POC) and dissolved OC (DOC) in the water column and sedimentary OC using elemental, isotopic, and optical signatures in Furen Lagoon, Japan. Based on these data analysis, we explored how OC from multiple sources contributes to sequestration via storage in sediments, water column sequestration, and air-sea CO 2 exchanges, and analyzed how the contributions vary with salinity in a shallow seagrass meadow as well. The relative contribution of terrestrial POC in the water column decreased with increasing salinity, whereas autochthonous POC increased in the salinity range 10-30. Phytoplankton-derived POC dominated the water column POC (65-95%) within this salinity range; however, it was minor in the sediments (3-29%). In contrast, terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were relatively minor contributors in the water column but were major contributors in the sediments (49-78% and 19-36%, respectively), indicating that terrestrial and phytobenthos-derived POC were selectively stored in the sediments. Autochthonous DOC, part of which can contribute to long-term carbon sequestration in the water column, accounted for >25% of the total water column DOC pool in the salinity range 15-30. Autochthonous OC production decreased the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the water column and thereby contributed to atmospheric CO 2 uptake, except in the low-salinity zone. Our results indicate that shallow coastal ecosystems function not only as transition zones between land and ocean but also as carbon sequestration filters. They

  17. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China III: Carbon isotope based source apportionment of black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuangyou; Xing, Zhenyu; Huang, Xiaofeng; Deng, Junjun; Andersson, August; Fang, Wenzheng; Gustafsson, Örjan; Zhou, Jiabin; Du, Ke

    2018-03-01

    Regional haze over China has severe implications for air quality and regional climate. To effectively combat these effects the high uncertainties regarding the emissions from different sources needs to be reduced. In this paper, which is the third in a series on the sources of PM2.5 in pollution hotspot regions of China, we focus on the sources of black carbon aerosols (BC), using carbon isotope signatures. Four-season samples were collected at two key locations: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH, part of Northern China plain), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD). We find that that fossil fuel combustion was the predominant source of BC in both BTH and PRD regions, accounting for 75 ± 5%. However, the contributions of what fossil fuel components were dominating differed significantly between BTH and PRD, and varied dramatically with seasons. Coal combustion is overall the all-important BC source in BTH, accounting for 46 ± 12% of the BC in BTH, with the maximum value (62%) found in winter. In contrast for the PRD region, liquid fossil fuel combustion (e.g., oil, diesel, and gasoline) is the dominant source of BC, with an annual mean value of 41 ± 15% and the maximum value of 55% found in winter. Region- and season-specific source apportionments are recommended to both accurately assess the climate impact of carbonaceous aerosol emissions and to effectively mitigate deteriorating air quality caused by carbonaceous aerosols.

  18. A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter Anthony, K. M.; Zimov, S. A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, Miriam C.; Anthony, P.; Chapin, F. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S.; Frenzel, P.F.; Frolking, S.

    2014-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes formed across vast regions of Siberia and Alaska during the last deglaciation and are thought to be a net source of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide during the Holocene epoch1,2,3,4. However, the same thermokarst lakes can also sequester carbon5, and it remains uncertain whether carbon uptake by thermokarst lakes can offset their greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use field observations of Siberian permafrost exposures, radiocarbon dating and spatial analyses to quantify Holocene carbon stocks and fluxes in lake sediments overlying thawed Pleistocene-aged permafrost. We find that carbon accumulation in deep thermokarst-lake sediments since the last deglaciation is about 1.6 times larger than the mass of Pleistocene-aged permafrost carbon released as greenhouse gases when the lakes first formed. Although methane and carbon dioxide emissions following thaw lead to immediate radiative warming, carbon uptake in peat-rich sediments occurs over millennial timescales. We assess thermokarst-lake carbon feedbacks to climate with an atmospheric perturbation model and find that thermokarst basins switched from a net radiative warming to a net cooling climate effect about 5,000 years ago. High rates of Holocene carbon accumulation in 20 lake sediments (47±10 grams of carbon per square metre per year; mean±standard error) were driven by thermokarst erosion and deposition of terrestrial organic matter, by nutrient release from thawing permafrost that stimulated lake productivity and by slow decomposition in cold, anoxic lake bottoms. When lakes eventually drained, permafrost formation rapidly sequestered sediment carbon. Our estimate of about 160petagrams of Holocene organic carbon in deep lake basins of Siberia and Alaska increases the circumpolar peat carbon pool estimate for permafrost regions by over 50 per cent (ref. 6). The carbon in perennially frozen drained lake sediments may become vulnerable to mineralization as permafrost disappears7

  19. Carbon source/sink function of a subtropical, eutrophic lake determined from an overall mass balance and a gas exchange and carbon burial balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Xing Yangping; Xie Ping; Ni Leyi; Rong Kewen

    2008-01-01

    Although studies on carbon burial in lake sediments have shown that lakes are disproportionately important carbon sinks, many studies on gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface have demonstrated that lakes are supersaturated with CO 2 and CH 4 causing a net release of CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In order to more accurately estimate the net carbon source/sink function of lake ecosystems, a more comprehensive carbon budget is needed, especially for gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface. Using two methods, overall mass balance and gas exchange and carbon burial balance, we assessed the carbon source/sink function of Lake Donghu, a subtropical, eutrophic lake, from April 2003 to March 2004. With the overall mass balance calculations, total carbon input was 14 905 t, total carbon output was 4950 t, and net carbon budget was +9955 t, suggesting that Lake Donghu was a great carbon sink. For the gas exchange and carbon burial balance, gaseous carbon (CO 2 and CH 4 ) emission across the water-air interface totaled 752 t while carbon burial in the lake sediment was 9477 t. The ratio of carbon emission into the atmosphere to carbon burial into the sediment was only 0.08. This low ratio indicates that Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink. Results showed good agreement between the two methods with both showing Lake Donghu to be a great carbon sink. This results from the high primary production of Lake Donghu, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic activity. Gaseous carbon emission accounted for about 15% of the total carbon output, indicating that the total output would be underestimated without including gaseous carbon exchange. - Due to high primary production, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic acitivity, subtropical, eutrophic Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink

  20. Sink- or Source-driven Phanerozoic carbon cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, Y.; Donnadieu, Y.; Maffre, P.; Carretier, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Phanerozoic evolution of the atmospheric CO2 level is controlled by the fluxes entering or leaving the exospheric system. Those fluxes (including continental weathering, magmatic degassing, organic carbon burial, oxidation of sedimentary organic carbon) are intertwined, and their relative importance in driving the global carbon cycle evolution may have fluctuated through time. Deciphering the causes of the Phanerozoic climate evolution thus requires a holistic and quantitative approach. Here we focus on the role played by the paleogeographic configuration on the efficiency of the CO2 sink by continental silicate weathering, and on the impact of the magmatic degassing of CO2. We use the spatially resolved numerical model GEOCLIM (geoclimmodel.worpress.com) to compute the response of the silicate weathering and atmospheric CO2 to continental drift for 22 time slices of the Phanerozoic. Regarding the CO2 released by the magmatic activity, we reconstruct several Phanerozoic histories of this flux, based on published indexes. We calculate the CO2 evolution for each degassing scenario, and accounting for the paleogeographic setting. We show that the paleogeographic setting is a main driver of the climate from 540 Ma to about the beginning of the Jurassic. Regarding the role of the magmatic degassing, the various reconstructions do not converge towards a single signal, and thus introduce large uncertainties in the calculated CO2 level over time. Nevertheless, the continental dispersion, which prevails since the Jurassic, promotes the CO2 consumption by weathering and forces atmospheric CO2 to stay low. Warm climates of the "middle" Cretaceous and early Cenozoic require enhanced CO2 degassing by magmatic activity. In summary, the Phanerozoic climate evolution can be hardly assigned to a single process, but is the result of complex and intertwined processes.

  1. Polyol synthesis in Aspergillus niger : influence of oxygen availability, carbon and nitrogen sources on the metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diano, Audrey; Bekker-Jensen, S; Dynesen, Jens Østergaard

    2006-01-01

    Polyol production has been studied in Aspergillus niger under different conditions. Fermentations have been run using high concentration of glucose or xylose as carbon source and ammonium or nitrate as nitrogen source. The growth of biomass, as freely dispersed hyphae, led to an increase of medium...

  2. Bioreactors for fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide gas. Tansan gas no koteiter dot yuko riyo no tame no bio reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. (Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science); Benemann, J. (California University, CA (USA))

    1991-06-01

    As for a preventive countermeasure against the global warming, experiments and studies have been conducted on the bioreactors to fix carbon dioxide gas recovered from the concentric and large scale generating sources such as thermal power plamts in a form of carbohydrate by means of the culture of microbial algae. By using the Vertical Tube Reactors (VTR) culturing apparatus, a variety of microbial algae were cultivated and experiments were performed on the relationship of biomass productivity and absorption rate of carbon dioxide gas indoors and outdoors. Consequently, it was found that when the flow rate of carbon dioxide gas is adjusted to make the biomass productivity of filament type Nostoc maximum,the inlet and outlet concentrations of carbon dioxide gas were 0.7% and 0.05% respectively with the absorption rate of more than 90%. From the standpoint of fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide gas, the above rate of removal is one of the important parameters and it will be necessary in future to compare the rates of removal of carbon dioxide gas among various types of bioreactors as a function of operating condition. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-25

    Within the 3rd EUROSOLAR Conference at 25th to 26th May, 2009, in Ludwigshafen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Municipal power supply - Renewable energies (Hermann Scheer); (b) The significance of municipal regulations for the development of renewable energies by the example of Rheinland-Pfalz (Gerhard Weissmueller); (c) The solar regulation of the city Marburg (Franz Kahle); (d) Large-area solar-potential register SUN-AREA, the example Osnabrueck (Martina Klaerle); (e) Energy autonomy by means of methods at municipal and state level (Stephan Grueger); (f) Concession process according to paragraph 46 EnWG as a start for a locally regenerative strategic reorientation (Christian Theobald); (g) Municipal utilities and regenerative power generation (Johannes van Bergen); (h) The hybrid power plant Enertrag (Michael Wenske); (i) Eco-power with ecological added value (Uwe Leprich); (j) Increase of added value at biogas by means of grid connection (Leonhard Thien); (k) Biogas products for private customers (Oliver Hummel); (l) Marketing of biogas as a fuel - WEGAS Wendlaender BioGas (Hans-Volker Marklewitz); (m) Geothermal heat in the Upper Rhine Graben by the example of the geothermal power plant Landau (Peter Hauffe); (n) The Act on Heating with Renewable Energy Sources - A chance for new fields of business for municipal utilities (Klara Siraki); (o) Direct marketing of electricity from renewable energies as a chance for municipal utilities (Martin Altrock, Matthias Stark); (p) The significance of EEG and EEWaermeG 2009 in the further enlargement of renewable energies (Fabio Longo); (q) Taking over of the gas grid by the municipal utility Waldkirch GmbH (Dieter Nagel); (r) Municipal added value - municipal economical effects of decentral power generation (Michael Wuebbels).

  4. Light spectrum modifies the utilization pattern of energy sources in Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaie, Samareh; Vaas, Lea A I; Rosberg, Anna Karin; Windstam, Sofia T; Karlsson, Maria E; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Khalil, Sammar; Wohanka, Walter; Alsanius, Beatrix W

    2017-01-01

    Despite the overruling impact of light in the phyllosphere, little is known regarding the influence of light spectra on non-phototrophic bacteria colonizing the leaf surface. We developed an in vitro method to study phenotypic profile responses of bacterial pure cultures to different bands of the visible light spectrum using monochromatic (blue: 460 nm; red: 660 nm) and polychromatic (white: 350-990 nm) LEDs, by modification and optimization of a protocol for the Phenotype MicroArray™ technique (Biolog Inc., CA, USA). The new protocol revealed high reproducibility of substrate utilization under all conditions tested. Challenging the non-phototrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 with white, blue, and red light demonstrated that all light treatments affected the respiratory profile differently, with blue LED having the most decisive impact on substrate utilization by impairing respiration of 140 substrates. The respiratory activity was decreased on 23 and 42 substrates under red and white LEDs, respectively, while utilization of one, 16, and 20 substrates increased in the presence of red, blue, and white LEDs, respectively. Interestingly, on four substrates contrasting utilization patterns were found when the bacterium was exposed to different light spectra. Although non-phototrophic bacteria do not rely directly on light as an energy source, Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 changed its respiratory activity on various substrates differently when exposed to different lights. Thus, ability to sense and distinguish between different wavelengths even within the visible light spectrum must exist, and leads to differential regulation of substrate usage. With these results, we hypothesize that different light spectra might be a hitherto neglected key stimulus for changes in microbial lifestyle and habits of substrate usage by non-phototrophic phyllospheric microbiota, and thus might essentially stratify leaf microbiota composition and diversity.

  5. Light spectrum modifies the utilization pattern of energy sources in Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samareh Gharaie

    Full Text Available Despite the overruling impact of light in the phyllosphere, little is known regarding the influence of light spectra on non-phototrophic bacteria colonizing the leaf surface. We developed an in vitro method to study phenotypic profile responses of bacterial pure cultures to different bands of the visible light spectrum using monochromatic (blue: 460 nm; red: 660 nm and polychromatic (white: 350-990 nm LEDs, by modification and optimization of a protocol for the Phenotype MicroArray™ technique (Biolog Inc., CA, USA. The new protocol revealed high reproducibility of substrate utilization under all conditions tested. Challenging the non-phototrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 with white, blue, and red light demonstrated that all light treatments affected the respiratory profile differently, with blue LED having the most decisive impact on substrate utilization by impairing respiration of 140 substrates. The respiratory activity was decreased on 23 and 42 substrates under red and white LEDs, respectively, while utilization of one, 16, and 20 substrates increased in the presence of red, blue, and white LEDs, respectively. Interestingly, on four substrates contrasting utilization patterns were found when the bacterium was exposed to different light spectra. Although non-phototrophic bacteria do not rely directly on light as an energy source, Pseudomonas sp. DR 5-09 changed its respiratory activity on various substrates differently when exposed to different lights. Thus, ability to sense and distinguish between different wavelengths even within the visible light spectrum must exist, and leads to differential regulation of substrate usage. With these results, we hypothesize that different light spectra might be a hitherto neglected key stimulus for changes in microbial lifestyle and habits of substrate usage by non-phototrophic phyllospheric microbiota, and thus might essentially stratify leaf microbiota composition and diversity.

  6. Evaluation of lead/carbon devices for utility applications : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmet, Paula S. (MeadWestvaco Corporation,North Charleston, SC)

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the results of a three-phase project that evaluated lead-based energy storage technologies for utility-scale applications and developed carbon materials to improve the performance of lead-based energy storage technologies. In Phase I, lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were compared to other technologies that used the same or similar materials. At the end of Phase I (in 2005) it was found that lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were not yet fully developed and optimized (cost/performance) to be a viable option for utility-scale applications. It was, however, determined that adding carbon to the negative electrode of a standard lead-acid battery showed promise for performance improvements that could be beneficial for use in utility-scale applications. In Phase II various carbon types were developed and evaluated in lead-acid batteries. Overall it was found that mesoporous activated carbon at low loadings and graphite at high loadings gave the best cycle performance in shallow PSoC cycling. Phase III studied cost/performance benefits for a specific utility application (frequency regulation) and the full details of this analysis are included as an appendix to this report.

  7. Sources and mobility of carbonate melts beneath cratons, with implications for deep carbon cycling, metasomatism and rift initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Sebastian; Romer, Rolf L.; Stracke, Andreas; Steenfelt, Agnete; Smart, Katie A.; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2017-05-01

    Kimberlite and carbonatite magmas that intrude cratonic lithosphere are among the deepest probes of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Their co-existence on thick continental shields is commonly attributed to continuous partial melting sequences of carbonated peridotite at >150 km depths, possibly as deep as the mantle transition zone. At Tikiusaaq on the North Atlantic craton in West Greenland, approximately 160 Ma old ultrafresh kimberlite dykes and carbonatite sheets provide a rare opportunity to study the origin and evolution of carbonate-rich melts beneath cratons. Although their Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-Li isotopic compositions suggest a common convecting upper mantle source that includes depleted and recycled oceanic crust components (e.g., negative ΔεHf coupled with > + 5 ‰ δ7Li), incompatible trace element modelling identifies only the kimberlites as near-primary low-degree partial melts (0.05-3%) of carbonated peridotite. In contrast, the trace element systematics of the carbonatites are difficult to reproduce by partial melting of carbonated peridotite, and the heavy carbon isotopic signatures (-3.6 to - 2.4 ‰ δ13C for carbonatites versus -5.7 to - 3.6 ‰ δ13C for kimberlites) require open-system fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Given that the oxidation state of Earth's mantle at >150 km depth is too reduced to enable larger volumes of 'pure' carbonate melt to migrate, it is reasonable to speculate that percolating near-solidus melts of carbonated peridotite must be silicate-dominated with only dilute carbonate contents, similar to the Tikiusaaq kimberlite compositions (e.g., 16-33 wt.% SiO2). This concept is supported by our findings from the North Atlantic craton where kimberlite and other deeply derived carbonated silicate melts, such as aillikites, exsolve their carbonate components within the shallow lithosphere en route to the Earth's surface, thereby producing carbonatite magmas. The relative abundances of trace elements of such highly

  8. Million Trees Los Angeles: Carbon dioxide sink or source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; A. Kendall; S. Albers

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to answer the question, 'Will the Million Trees LA (MTLA) programme be a CO2 sink or source?' Using surveys, interviews, field sampling and computer simulation of tree growth and survival over a 40-year period, we developed the first process-based life cycle inventory of CO2 for a large tree...

  9. Effects of Maize Source and Complex Enzymes on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defu Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4 and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP and B (Avizyme 1502. Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks. Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p0.05, respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05. Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets.

  10. Exploring sources of knowledge utilized in practice among Jordanian registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghabeesh, Suhair Husni; Abu-Moghli, Fathieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Saleh, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Understanding sources of knowledge used in everyday practice is very helpful in improving the quality of health care services. There is a consensus in the literature that nurses mostly relied in their practice on experiential knowledge gained through their interactions with other members of health care professionals and patients. The general aim of this study is to explore the sources of knowledge Jordanian registered nurses use during their practice. A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data from 539 Jordanian registered nurses from 10 hospitals using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean year of experience of the sample was 7.08 years. Of the 615 questionnaires distributed, 555 were returned. This yields a response rate of 87.6%. Results revealed that the top five ranked sources used by Jordanian registered nurses include: the information that nurses learned during nursing education, personal experience in nursing over time, what was learned through providing care to patients, information gained through discussion between physicians and nurses about patients, and information from policy and procedure manuals. Jordanian registered nurses recognize the value of research and that research utilization (RU) is an important issue and must not be ignored. The study has many implications for practice, education and research. Health care managers and decision makers need to play a more visible and instrumental role in encouraging RU to improve patients' quality of life. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sources and characteristics of terrestrial carbon in Holocene-scale sediments of the East Siberian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Kirsi; Tesi, Tommaso; Bröder, Lisa; Andersson, August; Pearce, Christof; Sköld, Martin; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-09-01

    Thawing of permafrost carbon (PF-C) due to climate warming can remobilise considerable amounts of terrestrial carbon from its long-term storage to the marine environment. PF-C can be then be buried in sediments or remineralised to CO2 with implications for the carbon-climate feedback. Studying historical sediment records during past natural climate changes can help us to understand the response of permafrost to current climate warming. In this study, two sediment cores collected from the East Siberian Sea were used to study terrestrial organic carbon sources, composition and degradation during the past ˜ 9500 cal yrs BP. CuO-derived lignin and cutin products (i.e., compounds solely biosynthesised in terrestrial plants) combined with δ13C suggest that there was a higher input of terrestrial organic carbon to the East Siberian Sea between ˜ 9500 and 8200 cal yrs BP than in all later periods. This high input was likely caused by marine transgression and permafrost destabilisation in the early Holocene climatic optimum. Based on source apportionment modelling using dual-carbon isotope (Δ14C, δ13C) data, coastal erosion releasing old Pleistocene permafrost carbon was identified as a significant source of organic matter translocated to the East Siberian Sea during the Holocene.

  12. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  13. [Harvest of the carbon source in wastewater by the adsorption and desorption of activated sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xiang-Hua; Zhao, Fang; Mei, Yi-Jun

    2011-04-01

    The carbon source in municipal wastewater was adsorbed by activated sludge and then harvested through the hydrolysis of activated sludge. Results indicated that activated sludge had high absorbing ability towards organic carbon and phosphorus under continuous operation mode, and the average COD and TP absorption rate reached as high as 63% and 76%, respectively. Moreover, about 50% of the soluble carbon source was outside of the sludge cell and could be released under mild hydrolysis condition. Whereas the absorbed amount of nitrogen was relatively low, and the removal rate of ammonia was only 13% . Furthermore, the releases of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from the sludge absorbing pollutants in the wastewater were studied. By comparing different hydrolysis conditions of normal (pH 7.5, 20 degrees C), heating (pH 7.5, 60 degrees C) and the alkaline heating (pH 11, 60 degrees C), the last one presented the optimum hydrolysis efficiency. Under which, the release rate of COD could reach 320 mg/g after 24 hours, whereas nitrogen and phosphorus just obtained low release rates of 18 mg/g and 2 mg/g, respectively. Results indicate that the carbon source in wastewater could be harvested by the adsorption and desorption of activated sludge, and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are low and would not influence the reuse of the harvested carbon source.

  14. Utilization of carbon 13-labelled stable isotopes for studying drug toxicity on cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, M.; Wietzerbin, J.; Tran-Dinh, S.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach for studying the effects of two drugs, amphotericine B (AMB), an anti-fungal antibiotic, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DG), on the glucose metabolism in brewer yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is presented; AMB interacts with the membrane sterols, inducing formation of pores through which ions and small molecules can pass. DG may enter in the cytosol, where it is phosphoryled by hexokinase into deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate (DG6P) which disappears very slowly. DG slows down the glycolysis process and induces the formation of new substances. This paper shows the advantages of utilizing carbon 13-labelled substrates combined to the NMR-13C and NMR-1H techniques. 6 figs., 5 refs

  15. Implication of using different carbon sources for denitrification in wastewater treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; El-Shawabkeh, Ibrahim; Gu, April Z

    2009-08-01

    Application of external carbon sources for denitrification becomes necessary for wastewater treatment plants that have to meet very stringent effluent nitrogen limits (e.g., 3 to 5 mgTN/L). In this study, we evaluated and compared three carbon sources--MicroC (Environmental Operating Solutions, Bourne, Massachusetts), methanol, and acetate-in terms of their denitrification rates and kinetics, effect on overall nitrogen removal performance, and microbial community structure of carbon-specific denitrifying enrichments. Denitrification rates and kinetics were determined with both acclimated and non-acclimated biomass, obtained from laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor systems or full-scale plants. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the use of MicroC for denitrification processes, with maximum denitrification rates (k(dmax)) of 6.4 mgN/gVSSh and an observed yield of 0.36 mgVSS/mgCOD. Comparable maximum nitrate uptake rates were found with methanol, while acetate showed a maximum denitrification rate nearly twice as high as the others. The maximum growth rates measured at 20 degrees C for MicroC and methanol were 3.7 and 1.2 day(-1), respectively. The implications resulting from the differences in the denitrification rates and kinetics of different carbon sources on the full-scale nitrogen removal performance, under various configurations and operational conditions, were assessed using Biowin (EnviroSim Associates, Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada) simulations for both pre- and post-denitrification systems. Examination of microbial population structures using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) throughout the study period showed dynamic temporal changes and distinct microbial community structures of different carbon-specific denitrifying cultures. The ability of a specific carbon-acclimated denitrifying population to instantly use other carbon source also was investigated, and the chemical-structure-associated behavior patterns observed

  16. Biological denitrification from mature landfill leachate using a food-waste-derived carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Haowei; Liu, Nuo; Zou, Quan

    2018-05-15

    The mature landfill leachate containing high ammonia concentration (>1000 mg/L) is a serious threat to environment; however, the low COD to TN ratio (C/N, waste and oil-added food waste, were first applied as external carbon sources for the biological nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate in an aerobic/anoxic membrane bioreactor. "Acidogenic liquid b" served quite better than commercial sodium acetate, considering the higher denitrification efficiency and the slightly rapider denitrification rate. The effect of C/N and temperature were investigated under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 d, which showed that C/N ≥ 7 (25 °C) was enough to meet the general discharge standards of NH 4 + -N, TN and COD in China. Even for some special areas of China, the more stringent discharge standards (NH 4 + -N ≤ 8 mg/L, TN ≤ 20 mg/L) could also be achieved under longer HRT of 14 d and C/N ≥ 6. Notably, the COD concentration in effluent could also be well reduced to 50-55 mg/L, without further physical-chemical treatment. This proposed strategy, involving the high-value utilization of food waste, is thus promising for efficient nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of gasoline-denatured ethanol as a carbon source for denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazasi, Anna; Boardman, Gregory D; Bott, Charles B

    2013-06-01

    In this study concerning denitrification, the performance of three carbon sources, methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and gasoline-denatured ethanol (dEtOH), was compared and evaluated on the basis of treatment efficiency, inhibition potential and cost. The gasoline denaturant considered here contained mostly aliphatic compounds and little of the components that typically boost the octane rating, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Results were obtained using three lab-scale SBRs operated at SRT of 12.0 +/- 0.9 days. After biomass was acclimated, denitrification rates with dEtOH were similar to those of EtOH (201 +/- 50 and 197 +/- 28 NO3-N/g MLVSS x d, respectively), and higher than those of MeOH (165 +/- 49 mg NO3-N/g MLVSS x d). The denaturant did not affect biomass production, nitrification or denitrification. Effluent soluble COD concentrations were always less than the analytical detection limit. Although the cost of dEtOH ($2.00/kg nitrate removed) was somewhat higher than that of methanol ($1.63/kg nitrate removed), the use of dEtOH is very promising and utilities will have to decide if it is worth paying a little extra to take advantage of its benefits.

  18. Ethanol and Acetate Acting as Carbon/Energy Sources Negatively Affect Yeast Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chronological lifespan (CLS is defined as the length of time that a population of nondividing cells can survive in stationary phase. In this phase, cells remain metabolically active, albeit at reduced levels, and responsive to environmental signals, thus simulating the postmitotic quiescent state of mammalian cells. Many studies on the main nutrient signaling pathways have uncovered the strong influence of growth conditions, including the composition of culture media, on CLS. In this context, two byproducts of yeast glucose fermentation, ethanol and acetic acid, have been proposed as extrinsic proaging factors. Here, we report that ethanol and acetic acid, at physiological levels released in the exhausted medium, both contribute to chronological aging. Moreover, this combined proaging effect is not due to a toxic environment created by their presence but is mainly mediated by the metabolic pathways required for their utilization as carbon/energy sources. In addition, measurements of key enzymatic activities of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, together with respiration assays performed in extreme calorie restriction, point to a long-term quiescent program favoured by glyoxylate/gluconeogenesis flux contrary to a proaging one based on the oxidative metabolism of ethanol/acetate via TCA and mitochondrial respiration.

  19. Evaluating measurements of carbon dioxide emissions using a precision source--A natural gas burner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rodney; Bundy, Matthew; Zong, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    A natural gas burner has been used as a precise and accurate source for generating large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate emissions measurements at near-industrial scale. Two methods for determining carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources are considered here: predicting emissions based on fuel consumption measurements-predicted emissions measurements, and direct measurement of emissions quantities in the flue gas-direct emissions measurements. Uncertainty for the predicted emissions measurement was estimated at less than 1%. Uncertainty estimates for the direct emissions measurement of carbon dioxide were on the order of ±4%. The relative difference between the direct emissions measurements and the predicted emissions measurements was within the range of the measurement uncertainty, therefore demonstrating good agreement. The study demonstrates how independent methods are used to validate source emissions measurements, while also demonstrating how a fire research facility can be used as a precision test-bed to evaluate and improve carbon dioxide emissions measurements from stationary sources. Fossil-fuel-consuming stationary sources such as electric power plants and industrial facilities account for more than half of the CO2 emissions in the United States. Therefore, accurate emissions measurements from these sources are critical for evaluating efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study demonstrates how a surrogate for a stationary source, a fire research facility, can be used to evaluate the accuracy of measurements of CO2 emissions.

  20. Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa using sucrose as the sole carbon source by co-culture with Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shikai; Wu, Yong; Wang, Xu

    2016-11-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae is a feasible alternative strategy to avoid the light limitation of photoautotrophic culture, but the heterotrophic utilization of disaccharides is difficult for microalgae. Aimed at this problem, a co-culture system was developed by mix culture of C. pyrenoidosa and R. glutinis using sucrose as the sole carbon source. In this system, C. pyrenoidosa could utilize glucose and fructose which were hydrolyzed from sucrose by R. glutinis. The highest specific growth rate and final cell number proportion of algae was 1.02day(-1) and 45%, respectively, when cultured at the initial algal cell number proportion of 95.24% and the final algal cell density was 111.48×10(6)cells/mL. In addition, the lipid content was also promoted due to the synergistic effects in mix culture. This study provides a novel approach using sucrose-riched wastes for the heterotrophic culture of microalgae and may effectively decrease the cost of carbon source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  2. Carbon monoxide in jupiter's upper atmosphere: An extraplanetary source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.J.; Logan, J.A.; McElroy, M.B.

    1978-01-01

    Ablation of meteoroidal material in Jupiter's atmosphere may provide substantial quantities of H 2 O. Subsequent photochemistry can convert H 2 O and CH 4 to CO and H 2 . The associated source of CO could account for the observations by Beer, Larson, Fink, and Treffers, and Beer and Taylor, and would explain the relatively low rotational temperatures inferred by Beer and Taylor. Meteoritic debris might also provide spectroscopically detectable concentrations of SiO

  3. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  4. Form of inorganic carbon utilized for photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris 11h cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyachi, Shigetoh; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    1979-01-01

    The rate of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation in Chlorella vulgaris 11h cells in the presence of 0.55 mM NaH 14 CO 3 at pH 8.0 (20 0 C) was greatly enhanced by the addition of carbonic anhydrase (CA). However, when air containing 400 ppm 14 CO 2 was bubbled through the algal suspension, the rate of 14 CO 2 fixation immediately after the start of the bubbling was suppressed by CA. These effects of CA were observed in cells which had been grown in air containing 2% CO 2 (high-CO 2 cells) as well as those grown in ordinary air (containing 0.04% CO 2 , low-CO 2 cells). We therefore concluded that, irrespective of the CO 2 concentration given to the algal cells during growth, the active species of inorganic carbon absorbed by Chlorella cells is free CO 2 and they cannot utilize bicarbonate. The effects observed in the high-CO 2 cells were much more pronounced than those in the low-CO 2 cells. This difference was accounted for by the difference in the affinity for CO 2 in photosynthesis between the high- and low-CO 2 cells. (author)

  5. Designing management strategies for carbon dioxide storage and utilization under uncertainty using inexact modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Jie; Xu, Ye; Sun, Wei; Chen, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Effective application of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) systems could help to alleviate the influence of climate change by reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The research objective of this study is to develop an equilibrium chance-constrained programming model with bi-random variables (ECCP model) for supporting the CCUS management system under random circumstances. The major advantage of the ECCP model is that it tackles random variables as bi-random variables with a normal distribution, where the mean values follow a normal distribution. This could avoid irrational assumptions and oversimplifications in the process of parameter design and enrich the theory of stochastic optimization. The ECCP model is solved by an equilibrium change-constrained programming algorithm, which provides convenience for decision makers to rank the solution set using the natural order of real numbers. The ECCP model is applied to a CCUS management problem, and the solutions could be useful in helping managers to design and generate rational CO2-allocation patterns under complexities and uncertainties.

  6. Dynamics of carbon sources supporting burial in seagrass sediments under increasing anthropogenic pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-15

    Seagrass meadows are strong coastal carbon sinks of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coastal anthropogenic pressure on the variability of carbon sources in seagrass carbon sinks during the last 150 yr. We did so by examining the composition of the sediment organic carbon (Corg) stocks by measuring the δ13Corg signature and C : N ratio in 210Pb dated sediments of 11 Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows around the Balearic Islands (Spain, Western Mediterranean) under different levels of human pressure. On average, the top meter sediment carbon deposits were mainly (59% ± 12%) composed by P. oceanica derived carbon whereas seston contribution was generally lower (41% ± 8%). The contribution of P. oceanica to the total sediment carbon stock was the highest (∼ 80%) in the most pristine sites whereas the sestonic contribution was the highest (∼ 40–80%) in the meadows located in areas under moderate to very high human pressure. Furthermore, an increase in the contribution of sestonic carbon and a decrease in that of seagrass derived carbon toward present was observed in most of the meadows examined, coincident with the onset of the tourism industry development and coastal urbanization in the region. Our results demonstrate a general increase of total carbon accumulation rate in P. oceanica sediments during the last century, mainly driven by the increase in sestonic Corg carbon burial, which may have important implications in the long-term carbon sink capacity of the seagrass meadows in the region examined.

  7. Mineral Carbonation Potential of CO2 from Natural and Industrial-based Alkalinity Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J.; Kirchofer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a Carbon Capture and Storage (CSS) technology where gaseous CO2 is reacted with alkaline materials (such as silicate minerals and alkaline industrial wastes) and converted into stable and environmentally benign carbonate minerals (Metz et al., 2005). Here, we present a holistic, transparent life cycle assessment model of aqueous mineral carbonation built using a hybrid process model and economic input-output life cycle assessment approach. We compared the energy efficiency and the net CO2 storage potential of various mineral carbonation processes based on different feedstock material and process schemes on a consistent basis by determining the energy and material balance of each implementation (Kirchofer et al., 2011). In particular, we evaluated the net CO2 storage potential of aqueous mineral carbonation for serpentine, olivine, cement kiln dust, fly ash, and steel slag across a range of reaction conditions and process parameters. A preliminary systematic investigation of the tradeoffs inherent in mineral carbonation processes was conducted and guidelines for the optimization of the life-cycle energy efficiency are provided. The life-cycle assessment of aqueous mineral carbonation suggests that a variety of alkalinity sources and process configurations are capable of net CO2 reductions. The maximum carbonation efficiency, defined as mass percent of CO2 mitigated per CO2 input, was 83% for CKD at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. In order of decreasing efficiency, the maximum carbonation efficiencies for the other alkalinity sources investigated were: olivine, 66%; SS, 64%; FA, 36%; and serpentine, 13%. For natural alkalinity sources, availability is estimated based on U.S. production rates of a) lime (18 Mt/yr) or b) sand and gravel (760 Mt/yr) (USGS, 2011). The low estimate assumes the maximum sequestration efficiency of the alkalinity source obtained in the current work and the high estimate assumes a sequestration efficiency

  8. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    MATRIX is a group of scientists who have common interests in utilizing x-ray synchrotron radiation for materials research. This group has developed a specialized beam line (X-18A) for x-ray scattering studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beam line was designed to optimize experimental conditions for diffuse scattering and surface/interface studies. An extension of diffuse scattering to provide better quantitative data has been shown as well as a unique application to the solution of the phase problem. In the x-ray surface scattering area the first reported experiment to illustrate the capabilities for studying monolayers on water was performed. Current beam line upgrade projects are also described. In addition to a change to a UHV system and improvements dictated by operational experience, two new systems are described, a unique small angle scattering chamber (SAXS) for dynamic studies of nucleation and growth and a surface scattering chamber. 5 figs

  9. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollom, M.

    1979-01-01

    The conclusions and findings of extensive analyses undertaken to assess the environmental impacts and effects of the proposal to assist in an Advanced System Demonstration for Utilization of Biomass as an Energy Source by means of a wood-fueled power plant. Included are a description of the proposed project, a discussion of the existing environment that the project would affect, a summary of the project's impacts on the natural and human environments, a discussion of the project's relationships to other government policies and plans, and an extensive review of the alternatives which were considered in evaluating the proposed action. All findings of the research undertaken are discussed. More extensive presentations of the methods of analysis used to arrive at the various conclusions are available in ten topical technical appendices.

  10. Utilization of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, R.R.; Greenwood, L.R.; Popek, R.J.; Schulke, A.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) neutron scattering facility (NSF) has been investigated for its applicability to neutron activation analysis. A polyethylene insert has been added to the vertical hole VT3 which enhances the thermal neutron flux by a factor of two. The neutron spectral distribution at this position has been measured by the multiple-foil technique which utilized 28 activation reactions and the STAYSL computer code. The validity of this spectral measurement was tested by two irradiations of National Bureau of Standards SRM-1571 (orchard leaves), SRM-1575 (pine needles), and SRM-1645 (river sediment). The average thermal neutron flux for these irradiations normalized to 10 μamp proton beam is 4.0 x 10 11 n/cm 2 -s. Concentrations of nine trace elements in each of these SRMs have been determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Agreement of measured values to certified values is demonstrated to be within experiment error

  11. Mangroves, a major source of dissolved organic carbon to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Hertkorn, Norbert; Kattner, Gerhard; Lara, RubéN. J.

    2006-03-01

    Organic matter, which is dissolved in low concentrations in the vast waters of the oceans, contains a total amount of carbon similar to atmospheric carbon dioxide. To understand global biogeochemical cycles, it is crucial to quantify the sources of marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We investigated the impact of mangroves, the dominant intertidal vegetation of the tropics, on marine DOC inventories. Stable carbon isotopes and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that mangroves are the main source of terrigenous DOC in the open ocean off northern Brazil. Sunlight efficiently destroyed aromatic molecules during transport offshore, removing about one third of mangrove-derived DOC. The remainder was refractory and may thus be distributed over the oceans. On a global scale, we estimate that mangroves account for >10% of the terrestrially derived, refractory DOC transported to the ocean, while they cover only <0.1% of the continents' surface.

  12. Selection criteria utilized for hyperbaric oxygen treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, N B; Dunford, R G; Kramer, C C; Norkool, D M

    1995-01-01

    Medical directors of North American hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) facilities were surveyed to assess selection criteria applied for treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning within the hyperbaric medicine community. Responses were received from 85% of the 208 facilities in the United States and Canada. Among responders, 89 monoplace and 58 multiplace chamber facilities treat acute CO poisoning, managing a total of 2,636 patients in 1992. A significant majority of facilities treat CO-exposed patients with coma (98%), transient loss of consciousness (LOC) (77%), ischemic changes on electrocardiogram (91%), focal neurologic deficits (94%), or abnormal psychometric testing (91%), regardless of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level. Although 92% would use HBO for a patient presenting with headache, nausea, and COHb 40%, only 62% of facilities utilize a specified minimum COHb level as the sole criterion for HBO therapy of an asymptomatic patient. When COHb is used as an independent criterion to determine HBO treatment, the level utilized varies widely between institutions. Half of responding facilities place limits on the delay to treatment for patients with only transient LOC. Time limits are applied less often in cases with persistent neurologic deficits. While variability exists, majority opinions can be derived for many patient selection criteria regarding the use of HBO in acute CO poisoning.

  13. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Katagiri, K.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C{sup 4+} and C{sup 6+} ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10{sup 10} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse and about 5 × 10{sup 9} C{sup 6+} ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10{sup 11} C{sup 6+} ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the {sup 11}C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C{sup 4+} ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of {sup 11}C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  14. Characterization of Niobium Oxide Films Deposited by High Target Utilization Sputter Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R; Ellis, A D; Loomis, G E; Rana, S I

    2007-01-01

    High quality, refractory metal, oxide coatings are required in a variety of applications such as laser optics, micro-electronic insulating layers, nano-device structures, electro-optic multilayers, sensors and corrosion barriers. A common oxide deposition technique is reactive sputtering because the kinetic mechanism vaporizes almost any solid material in vacuum. Also, the sputtered molecules have higher energies than those generated from thermal evaporation, and so the condensates are smoother and denser than those from thermally-evaporated films. In the typical sputtering system, target erosion is a factor that drives machine availability. In some situations such as nano-layered capacitors, where the device's performance characteristics depends on thick layers, target life becomes a limiting factor on the maximizing device functionality. The keen interest to increase target utilization in sputtering has been addressed in a variety of ways such as target geometry, rotating magnets, and/or shaped magnet arrays. Also, a recent sputtering system has been developed that generates a high density plasma, directs the plasma beam towards the target in a uniform fashion, and erodes the target in a uniform fashion. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and compare niobia films deposited by two types of high target utilization sputtering sources, a rotating magnetron and a high density plasma source. The oxide of interest in this study is niobia because of its high refractive index. The quality of the niobia films were characterized spectroscopically in optical transmission, ellipsometrically, and chemical stoichiometry with X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The refractive index, extinction coefficients, Cauchy constants were derived from the ellipsometric modeling. The mechanical properties of coating density and stress are also determined

  15. An overview of financial sources being utilized to support Zika Virus published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Keisha; Reveiz, Ludovic; Elias, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Since its initial detection in Brazil in 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) has spread rapidly throughout most of the Caribbean and South, Central and North America. An upsurge in congenital syndrome associated with ZIKV and Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) has been associated with the increase in ZIKV. This amplification in numbers led to the need for funded research initiatives focusing on various countries globally and on specific experimental types. To determine the financial institutions involved in the production of primary research into the ZIKV epidemic. This research also intends to draw attention to the investigative areas that are dominating, experimental types being conducted and the geographical areas that are producing the bulk of the research utilizing available funds. A cross sectional search of published primary research was conducted using Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Zika platform and PubMed between January 2007 and October 2016. Titles, abstract and full articles were assed and one researcher extracted data. Information was crossed checked by a second researcher to ensure accuracy. 268 articles were included and investigations occurred across 48 countries with Brazil and USA dominating the research. Applied Research and Laboratory based studies were most frequently utilized. 38.1% of articles did not report financial sources. Public institutions were the major known contributors. Other financiers included private, non-profits and mixed funders exclusive of public sources. 156 individual financial bodies assisted with National Institute of Health being most frequently mentioned followed by The National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and the Institut Pasteur. Virus, vectors and reservoirs was most frequently used (99/268, 36.9%) followed by clinical management (70/268, 26.1%) and epidemiology (46/268, 17.2%). The evidence suggests international efforts to fund ZIKV research and a need to foster collaborative and

  16. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Jones, Miriam C.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Boreal regions store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing current and potential carbon sources and sinks in the boreal soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence) of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in this area for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape process changes over the next 20 to 50 years. This provides a major challenge for predicting how the interplay between land management activities and impacts of climate warming will affect carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To assist land managers in adapting and managing for potential changes in the Interior Alaska carbon cycle we developed this review paper incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation types, and soil regimes in Interior Alaska with a focus on ramifications for the carbon cycle. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to support policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To support this we have surveyed relevant peer reviewed estimates of carbon stocks in aboveground and belowground biomass for Interior Alaska boreal ecosystems. We have also summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from the same ecosystems. These data have been converted into the same units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance including how compounding disturbances can affect the boreal system. Finally, we provide

  17. Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Rebecca [Bryant Research, LLC; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one

  18. Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Rebecca; Kszos, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one-on-one interviews

  19. Use of transglutaminases in foods and potential utilization of plants as a transglutaminase source – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bittencourt Luciano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p1   Transglutaminases (TGases are enzymes able to catalyze acyl-transfer reactions introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, peptides and primary amines. Animal TGases were the first studied and are divided in nine different groups of isoenzymes. They have a wide range of functions in the metabolism of most animal cells, and share the characteristic of being Ca2+-dependent. Microbial and plant TGases were also identified, and there is a vast heterogeneity among their amino acid sequences. Interestingly, it seems that all transglutaminases share a specific amino acid triad of Cys-His-Asp in their catalytic site, which can be found in all tertiary structures of the enzymes yet studied so far. Microbial TGases are the most widely used for food modification due to lower costs and high yields involved with their extraction and purification when compared to mammal sources. TGases are ubiquitously found in a variety of plants, and their utilization for food transformation has been proposed. However, there is only a single attempt using vegetal TGase in food systems, where apple pomace was used to improve the quality of pork meat. The transference of mammalian TGase genes to plants has also been considered and they were found to be successfully expressed in rice and tobacco leaves. These results lead to a new approach, where TGases could be literally farmed for food utilization.

  20. Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Sriyati, Siti; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-08-01

    Indonesian society is a pluralistic society with different cultures and local potencies that exist in each region. Some of local community still adherethe tradition from generation to generation in managing natural resources wisely. The application of the values of local wisdom is necessary to teach back to student to be more respect the culture and local potentials in the region. There are many ways developing student character by exploring local wisdom and implementing them as a learning resources. This study aims at revealing the values of local wisdom Ngata Toro indigenous people of Central Sulawesi Province in managing forest as a source of learning biology. This research was conducted by in-depth interviews, participant non-observation, documentation studies, and field notes. The data were analyzed with triangulation techniques by using a qualitative interaction analysis that is data collection, data reduction, and data display. Ngata Toro local community manage forest by dividing the forest into several zones, those arewana ngkiki, wana, pangale, pahawa pongko, oma, and balingkea accompanied by rules in the management of result-based forest conservation and sustainable utilization. By identifying the purpose of zonation and regulation of the forest, such values as the value of environmental conservation, balance value, sustainable value, and the value of mutual cooperation. These values are implemented as a biological learning resource which derived from the competences standard of analyze the utilization and conservation of the environment.

  1. Use of transglutaminases in foods and potential utilization of plants as a transglutaminase source – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. Luciano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TGases are enzymes able to catalyze acyl-transfer reactions introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, peptides and primary amines. Animal TGases were the first studied and are divided in nine different groups of isoenzymes. They have a wide range of functions in the metabolism of most animal cells, and share the characteristic of being Ca2+-dependent. Microbial and plant TGases were also identified, and here is a vast heterogeneity among their amino acid sequences. Interestingly, it seems that all transglutaminases share a specific amino acid triad of Cys-His-Asp in their catalytic site, which can be found in all tertiary structures of the enzymes yet studied so far. Microbial TGases are the most widely used for food modification due to lower costs and high yields involved with their extraction and purification when compared to mammal sources. TGases are ubiquitously found in a variety of plants, and their utilization for food transformation has been proposed. However, there is only a single attempt using vegetal TGase in food systems, where apple pomace was used to improve the quality of pork meat. The transference of mammalian TGase genes to plants has also been considered and they were found to be successfully expressed in rice and tobacco leaves. These results lead to a new approach, where TGases could be literally farmed for food utilization.

  2. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  3. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  4. Influence of natural and novel organic carbon sources on denitrification in forest, degraded urban, and restored streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic carbon is important in regulating ecosystem function, and its source and abundance may be altered by urbanization. We investigated shifts in organic carbon quantity and quality associated with urbanization and ecosystem restoration, and its potential effects on denitrific...

  5. Controlled deposition and utilization of carbon on Ni-YSZ anodes of SOFCs operating on dry methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Yong; Zhang, Liqin; An, Wenting; Zhou, Wei; Sha, Yujing; Shao, Zongping; Bai, Jianping; Li, Si-Dian

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising power-generation systems to utilize methane or methane-based fuels with a high energy efficiency and low environmental impact. A successive multi-stage process is performed to explore the operation of cells using dry methane or the deposited carbon from methane decomposition as fuel. Stable operation can be maintained by optimizing the fuel supply and current density parameters. An electrochemical impedance analysis suggests that the partial oxidization of Ni can occur at anodes when the carbon fuel is consumed. The stability of cells operated on pure methane is investigated in three operating modes. The cell can run in a comparatively stable state with continuous power output in an intermittent methane supply mode, where the deposition and utilization of carbon is controlled by balancing the fuel supply and consumption. The increase in the polarization resistance of the cell might originate from the small amount of NiO and residual carbon at the anode, which can be removed via an oxidation-and-reduction maintenance process. Based on the above strategy, this work provides an alternative operating mode to improve the stability of direct methane SOFCs and demonstrates the feasibility of its application. - Highlights: • A new strategy to control the deposition and utilization of carbon was developed. • A stable fuel cell operation was obtained with an intermittent fuel supply mode. • Polarization resistance increased due to small amount of NiO and residual carbon.

  6. Sources and delivery of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 1977--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, M.; Perlich, H.; Robinson, R.; Shah, M.; Zimmerman, F.

    1978-12-01

    Results are presented from a comprehensive study by Pullman Kellogg, with assistance from Gulf Universities Research Consortium (GURC) and National Cryo-Chemics Incorporated (NCI), of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. A survey of carbon dioxide sources within the geographic areas of potential EOR are shown on four regional maps with the tabular data for each region to describe the sources in terms of quantity and quality. Evaluation of all the costs, such as purchase, production, processing, and transportation, associated with delivering the carbon dioxide from its source to its destination are presented. Specific cases to illustrate the use of the maps and cost charts generated in this study have been examined.

  7. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1, biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct.

  8. Secondary organic carbon quantification and source apportionment of PM10 in Kaifeng, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lin; FENG Yinchang; WU Jianhui; ZHU Tan; BI Xiaohui; HAN Bo; YANG Weihong; YANG Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    During 2005, the filter samples of ambient PM10 from five sites and the source samples of particulate matter were collected in Kaifeng, Henan province of China. Nineteen elements, water-soluble ions, total carbon (TC) and organic carbon (OC) contained in samples were analyzed. Seven contributive source types were identified and their contributions to ambient PM10 were estimated by chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Weak associations between the concentrations of organic carbon and element carbon (EC) were observed during the sampling periods, indicating that there was secondary organic aerosol pollution in the urban atmosphere. An indirect method of "OC/EC minimum ratio" was applied to estimate the concentration of secondary organic carbon (SOC). The results showed that SOC contributed 26.2%, 32.4% and 18.0% of TC in spring, summer-fall and winter respectively, and the annual average SOC concentration was 7.07 μg/m3, accounting for 5.73% of the total mass in ambient PM10. The carbon species concentrations in ambient PM10 were recalculated by subtracting the SOC concentrations from measured concentrations of TC and OC to increase the compatibility of source and receptor measurements for CMB model.

  9. A model for detailed evaluation of fossil-energy saving by utilizing unused but possible energy-sources on a city scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasuhumi; Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest in the utilization of unused, but possible, energy sources to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and fossil-energy consumption, and especially to comply with the Kyoto Protocol which came into effect in 2005. Detailed considerations of plant location, land use and life cycle analysis, however, have not yet been fully estimated with a view to confirming the advantages of the new energy-source usage. A model for heat energy from river water and treated sewage water, and waste-heat energy from municipal solid-waste incineration plants was built and applied to the Tokyo urban area in Japan, considering the spatial and time-related distribution of demands and supplies, the shapes of buildings in the demand area, and life-cycle analysis. The model selected areas were those which should use these energies without prejudice, and sometimes the areas were far from the energy-source point. The reduction of carbon-dioxide emissions resulting from new energy-sources was about 8% of the reduction target for Tokyo in 1990. The model was able to precisely evaluate the new energy-usage, using data from both supply and demand sides. (author)

  10. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

  11. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  12. A comparative assessment of the energy and carbon balance of utilizing straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, R.E.; Mortimer, N.D.; Hetherington, Robert; Grant, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    There has been a recent growth of interest in the potential for using straw as an energy source to generate electricity and/or heat. The energy balance of this process is important as a measure of the sustainability of such an activity, while the CO 2 emitted and that saved by offsetting the need to produce energy by other means are also important, given the U.K.'s obligations to reduce CO 2 emissions. An existing methodology is adopted to calculate estimates of primary energy inputs and CO 2 outputs. Results of calculations are presented and considered in the context of their implications for potential uses of straw represented by four scenarios. Conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions to the energy and carbon balances of using straw as a fuel and recommendations are made for further work. (author)

  13. Total organic carbon, an important tool in an holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, P.D.; Burns, W.A.; Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S. [Battelle Member Inst., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The identification and allocation of multiple hydrocarbon sources in marine sediments is best achieved using an holistic approach. Total organic carbon (TOC) is one important tool that can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations in cases where inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. In a study of the benthic sediments from Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), we find excellent agreement between measured TOC and TOC calculated from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. Confirmation by two such independent source indicators (TOC and fingerprint matches) provides evidence that source allocations determined by the fingerprint matches are robust and that the major TOC sources have been correctly identified. Fingerprint matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of various sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. TOC contents are then calculated using source allocation results from fingerprint matches and the TOCs of contributing sources. Comparisons of the actual sediment TOC values and those calculated from source allocation support our earlier published findings that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in sediments in this area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and associated oil seeps along the northern GOA coast and exclude thermally mature area coals from being important contributors to the PWS background due to their high TOC content.

  14. Research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Shengwei; Wang, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review on the development and modeling of active hollow core slab is presented. • The applications and performance evaluation of the slab in building are reviewed. • Finite element or finite difference method is often used in multidimensional model. • Performance evaluations of building using active slabs for ventilation are limited. • More works on the active hollow core slab are worthwhile. - Abstract: The society and the building professionals have paid much concern in recent years on building energy efficiency and the development and applications of low energy technologies for buildings/green buildings allowing the elimination, or at least reduction of dependence on electricity or fossil fuel while maintaining acceptable indoor environment. Utilizations of favorable diurnal temperature difference and ground thermal source for air conditioning are among these low energy technologies. Utilization of the hollow cores in the prefabricated slab for ventilation and the mass of the slab for thermal storage is widely used in building systems in Europe by exploiting the low energy source of the ambient air. These hollow core slabs aim at enlarging the heat transfer surface between the slab mass and the air in the core, which permits substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. This, in turn, allows the use of low energy cooling or heating sources, such as the ground, outside air or recovered process heat. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources. The principle and development of active hollow core slabs in building systems for leveling the indoor temperature fluctuation by ventilation air passing the cores are described. Calculation models of the active hollow core concrete slab as well as the practical applications and performance evaluation of the slab applied in building systems for air

  15. Production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei grown on various carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzywoda, Michel; Labre, Elisabeth; Pourquie, Jacques [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosics is considered, using a process in which biomass is first pretreated by steam explosion, yielding freely water-extractible pentoses and a cellulose-rich residue which can be further hydrolyzed by cellulases into glucose to be fermented into ethanol. Results that are reported show that both the pentose extracts and the glucose-rich hydrolyzates can be used as carbon sources for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei. When compared with lactose as the main carbon source, pentose extracts support lower but satisfactory protein productions which are characterized by an increase in hemicellulolytic activities, which significantly improves the saccharifying potential of these enzyme preparations. (author).

  16. Carbon source-sink limitations differ between two species with contrasting growth strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Angela C; Rogers, Alistair; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-11-01

    Understanding how carbon source and sink strengths limit plant growth is a critical knowledge gap that hinders efforts to maximize crop yield. We investigated how differences in growth rate arise from source-sink limitations, using a model system comparing a fast-growing domesticated annual barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. NFC Tipple) with a slow-growing wild perennial relative (Hordeum bulbosum). Source strength was manipulated by growing plants at sub-ambient and elevated CO 2 concentrations ([CO 2 ]). Limitations on vegetative growth imposed by source and sink were diagnosed by measuring relative growth rate, developmental plasticity, photosynthesis and major carbon and nitrogen metabolite pools. Growth was sink limited in the annual but source limited in the perennial. RGR and carbon acquisition were higher in the annual, but photosynthesis responded weakly to elevated [CO 2 ] indicating that source strength was near maximal at current [CO 2 ]. In contrast, photosynthetic rate and sink development responded strongly to elevated [CO 2 ] in the perennial, indicating significant source limitation. Sink limitation was avoided in the perennial by high sink plasticity: a marked increase in tillering and root:shoot ratio at elevated [CO 2 ], and lower non-structural carbohydrate accumulation. Alleviating sink limitation during vegetative development could be important for maximizing growth of elite cereals under future elevated [CO 2 ]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Carbon allocation, source-sink relations and plant growth: do we need to revise our carbon centric concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery that plants 'eat air' 215 years ago, carbon supply was considered the largely unquestioned top driver of plant growth. The ease at which CO2 uptake (C source activity) can be measured, and the elegant algorithms that describe the responses of photosynthesis to light, temperature and CO2 concentration, explain why carbon driven growth and productivity became the starting point of all process based vegetation models. Most of these models, nowadays adopt other environmental drivers, such as nutrient availability, as modulating co-controls, but the carbon priority is retained. Yet, if we believe in the basic rules of stoichometry of all life, there is an inevitable need of 25-30 elements other then carbon, oxygen and hydrogen to build a healthy plant body. Plants compete for most of these elements, and their availability (except for N) is finite per unit land area. Hence, by pure plausibility, it is a highly unlikely situation that carbon plays the rate limiting role of growth under natural conditions, except in deep shade or on exceptionally fertile soils. Furthermore, water shortage and low temperature, both act directly upon tissue formation (meristems) long before photosynthetic limitations come into play. Hence, plants will incorporate C only to the extent other environmental drivers permit. In the case of nutrients and mature ecosystems, this sink control of plant growth may be masked in the short term by a tight, almost closed nutrient cycle or by widening the C to other element ratio. Because source and sink activity must match in the long term, it is not possible to identify the hierarchy of growth controls without manipulating the environment. Dry matter allocation to C rich structures and reserves may provide some stoichimetric leeway or periodic escapes from the more fundamental, long-term environmental controls of growth and productivity. I will explain why carbon centric explanations of growth are limited or arrive at plausible answers

  18. [Impact of Land Utilization Pattern on Distributing Characters of Labile Organic Carbon in Soil Aggregates in Jinyun Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Jiang, Chang-sheng; Hao, Qing-ju

    2015-09-01

    Four land utilization patterns were selected for this study in Jinyun mountain, including subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest), sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land. Soil samples were taken every 10 cm in the depth of 60 cm soil and proportions of large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0. 25-2 mm), microaggregates (0. 053 - 0. 25 mm) and silt + clay (organic carbon and labile organic carbon in each aggregate fraction and analyze impacts of land uses on organic carbon and labile organic carbon of soil aggregates. LOC content of four soil aggregates were significantly reduced with the increase of soil depth; in layers of 0-60 cm soil depth, our results showed that LOC contents of forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland. Reserves of labile organic carbon were estimated by the same soil quality, it revealed that forest (3. 68 Mg.hm-2) > abandoned land (1. 73 Mg.hm-2) > orchard (1. 43 Mg.hm-2) >sloping farmland (0.54 Mg.hm-2) in large macroaggregates, abandoned land (7.77, 5. 01 Mg.hm-2) > forest (4. 96, 2.71 Mg.hm-2) > orchard (3. 33, 21. 10 Mg.hm-2) > sloping farmland (1. 68, 1. 35 Mg.hm-2) in small macroaggregates and microaggregates, and abandoned land(4. 32 Mg.hm-2) > orchard(4. 00 Mg.hm-2) > forest(3. 22 Mg.hm-2) > sloping farmland (2.37 Mg.hm-2) in silt + clay, forest and abandoned land were higher than orchard and sloping farmland in other three soil aggregates except silt + clay. It was observed that the level of organic carbon and labile organic carbon were decreased when bringing forest under cultivation to orchard or farmland, and augments on organic carbon and labile organic carbon were found after exchanging farmland to abandoned land. The most reverses of forest and abandoned land emerged in small macroaggregates, orchard and sloping farmland were in microaggregates. That was, during the transformations of land utilization pattern, soil aggregates with bigger size were

  19. The Growth of open source: A look at how companies are utilizing open source software in their business models

    OpenAIRE

    Feare, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how open source software is being incorporated into the business models of companies in the software industry. The goal is to answer the question of whether the open source model can help sustain economic growth. While some companies are able to maintain a "pure" open source approach with their business model, the reality is that most companies are relying on proprietary add-on value in order to generate revenue because open source itself is simply not big business. Ultima...

  20. Evaluation of the integrated hydrothermal carbonization-algal cultivation process for enhanced nitrogen utilization in Arthrospira platensis production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Changhong; Wu, Peichun; Pan, Yanfei; Lu, Hongbin; Chi, Lei; Meng, Yingying; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable microalgal cultivation at commercial scale requires nitrogen recycling. This study applied hydrothermal carbonization to recover N of hot-water extracted Arthrospira platensis biomass residue into aqueous phase (AP) under different operation conditions and evaluated the N utilization, biomass yield and quality of A. platensis cultures using AP as the sole N source. With the increase of temperature at 190-210°C or reaction time of 2-3h, the N recovery rate decreased under nitrogen-repletion (+N) cultivation, while contrarily increased under nitrogen-limitation (-N) cultivation. Under +N biomass accumulation in the cultures with AP under 190°C was enhanced by 41-67% compared with that in NaNO3, and the highest protein content of 51.5%DW achieved under 200°C-2h was also 22% higher. Carbohydrate content of 71.4%DW under -N cultivation achieved under 210°C-3h was 14% higher than that in NaNO3. HTC-algal cultivation strategy under -N mode could save 60% of conventional N. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon footprint of forest and tree utilization technologies in life cycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, András; Pécsinger, Judit

    2017-04-01

    In our research project a suitable method has been developed related the technological aspect of the environmental assessment of land use changes caused by climate change. We have prepared an eco-balance (environmental inventory) to the environmental effects classification in life-cycle approach in connection with the typical agricultural / forest and tree utilization technologies. The use of balances and environmental classification makes possible to compare land-use technologies and their environmental effects per common functional unit. In order to test our environmental analysis model, we carried out surveys in sample of forest stands. We set up an eco-balance of the working systems of intermediate cutting and final harvest in the stands of beech, oak, spruce, acacia, poplar and short rotation energy plantations (willow, poplar). We set up the life-cycle plan of the surveyed working systems by using the GaBi 6.0 Professional software and carried out midpoint and endpoint impact assessment. Out of the results, we applied the values of CML 2001 - Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 years) [kg CO2-Equiv.] and Eco-Indicator 99 - Human health, Climate Change [DALY]. On the basis of the values we set up a ranking of technology. By this, we received the environmental impact classification of the technologies based on carbon footprint. The working systems had the greatest impact on global warming (GWP 100 years) throughout their whole life cycle. This is explained by the amount of carbon dioxide releasing to the atmosphere resulting from the fuel of the technologies. Abiotic depletion (ADP foss) and marine aquatic ecotoxicity (MAETP) emerged also as significant impact categories. These impact categories can be explained by the share of input of fuel and lube. On the basis of the most significant environmental impact category (carbon footprint), we perform the relative life cycle contribution and ranking of each technologies. The technological life cycle stages examined

  2. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vignati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and those due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of the observations, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation.

    The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i a simple approach considering BC as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment of the removal with fixed 70% of in-cloud black carbon concentrations scavenged by clouds and removed when rain is present and (ii a more complete description of microphysical ageing within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol, which results in a global average of 40% in-cloud black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer atmospheric lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, indicating that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of

  3. Toxicity and efficacy of carbon nanotubes and graphene: the utility of carbon-based nanoparticles in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin; Petibone, Dayton; Xu, Yang; Mahmood, Meena; Karmakar, Alokita; Casciano, Dan; Ali, Syed; Biris, Alexandru S

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted great interest in biomedical applications such as advanced imaging, tissue regeneration, and drug or gene delivery. The toxicity of the carbon nanotubes and graphene remains a debated issue although many toxicological studies have been reported in the scientific community. In this review, we summarize the biological effects of carbon nanotubes and graphene in terms of in vitro and in vivo toxicity, genotoxicity and toxicokinetics. The dose, shape, surface chemistry, exposure route and purity play important roles in the metabolism of carbon-based nanomaterials resulting in differential toxicity. Careful examination of the physico-chemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterials is considered a basic approach to correlate the toxicological response with the unique properties of the carbon nanomaterials. The reactive oxygen species-mediated toxic mechanism of carbon nanotubes has been extensively discussed and strategies, such as surface modification, have been proposed to reduce the toxicity of these materials. Carbon-based nanomaterials used in photothermal therapy, drug delivery and tissue regeneration are also discussed in this review. The toxicokinetics, toxicity and efficacy of carbon-based nanotubes and graphene still need to be investigated further to pave a way for biomedical applications and a better understanding of their potential applications to humans.

  4. Carbon Source-Dependent Inducible Metabolism of Veratryl Alcohol and Ferulic Acid in Pseudomonas putida CSV86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Karishma

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas putida CSV86 degrades lignin-derived metabolic intermediates, viz., veratryl alcohol, ferulic acid, vanillin, and vanillic acid, as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Strain CSV86 also degraded lignin sulfonate. Cell respiration, enzyme activity, biotransformation, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses suggest that veratryl alcohol and ferulic acid are metabolized to vanillic acid by two distinct carbon source-dependent inducible pathways. Vanillic acid was further metabolized to protocatechuic acid and entered the central carbon pathway via the β-ketoadipate route after ortho ring cleavage. Genes encoding putative enzymes involved in the degradation were found to be present at fer, ver, and van loci. The transcriptional analysis suggests a carbon source-dependent cotranscription of these loci, substantiating the metabolic studies. Biochemical and quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR studies revealed the presence of two distinct O-demethylases, viz., VerAB and VanAB, involved in the oxidative demethylation of veratric acid and vanillic acid, respectively. This report describes the various steps involved in metabolizing lignin-derived aromatic compounds at the biochemical level and identifies the genes involved in degrading veratric acid and the arrangement of phenylpropanoid metabolic genes as three distinct inducible transcription units/operons. This study provides insight into the bacterial degradation of lignin-derived aromatics and the potential of P. putida CSV86 as a suitable candidate for producing valuable products. IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas putida CSV86 metabolizes lignin and its metabolic intermediates as a carbon source. Strain CSV86 displays a unique property of preferential utilization of aromatics, including for phenylpropanoids over glucose. This report unravels veratryl alcohol metabolism and genes encoding veratric acid O-demethylase, hitherto unknown in pseudomonads, thereby providing new insight into the

  5. Water Source Utilization of Hammock and Pine Rockland Plant Communities in the Everglades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A. K.; Sternberg, L.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.

    2007-12-01

    South Florida has a mosaic of plant communities resulting from topographical differences, spatially varying hydroperiods and fire. The only plant communities not flooded in the wet season are hardwood hammocks and often pine rocklands. Natural fires burn off litter accumulated in pine rocklands, with the exception of organic matter in sinkholes in the limestone bedrock. This relative lack of soil is thought to constrain pineland plants in the Everglades to depend upon groundwater that is typically low in nutrients. In contrast, adjoining hardwood hammocks have accumulated an organic soil layer that traps rainwater and nutrients. Plants in hammocks may be able to utilize this water and thereby access nutrients present in the litter. Hammocks are thus viewed as localized areas of high nutrients and instances of vegetation feedback upon the oligotrophic everglades landscape enabling establishment and survival of flood-intolerant tropical hardwood species. This study examines water source use and couples it to foliar nutrient concentrations of plants found in hammocks and pinelands. We examined the δ2H and δ18O of stem waters in plants in Everglades National Park and compared those with the δ2H and δ18O of potential water sources. In the wet season hammock plants accessed both groundwater and water in the surface organic soil layer while in the dry season they relied more on groundwater. A similar seasonal shift was observed in pineland plants; however groundwater constituted a much higher proportion of total water uptake throughout the year under observation. Concomitant with differential water utilization by hammock and pineland plant communities, we observed hammock plants having a significantly higher annual mean foliar N and P concentration than pineland plants. Most hammock species are intolerant of flooded soils and are thus constrained by the high water table in the wet season, yet access the lowered groundwater table in the dry season due to drying up of

  6. Determination of the growth of nematophagous fungi on diverse carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Orozco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic amendments have been widely used to stimulate the populations of predatory nematophagous fungi (PNF in soil; however, the use of organic amendments has produced inconsistent results in the control of parasitic nematodes. The inconsistencies have been partially attributed to the chemical composition of the organic amendments, specifically to carbon and nitrogen contents. Therefore, to know the carbon preferences of these fungi could be helpful to promote the predatory phase of the PNF in soil. The aim of this study was to determine the growth of native PNF strains from Costa Rica in diverse carbon sources. The PNF Arthrobotrys oligospora and Candelabrella musiformis were grown in artificial culture media containing the following carbon sources: cellulose, chitin, pectin, starch, and skim milk. The growth rate developed by the PNF in each one of the culture media was determined and compared. The growth rates developed by both fungal species followed the next order: cellulos e>chitin>pectin>starch>skim milk. Significant differences in the growth rates developed by the fungal strains were detected only in culture medium containing cellulose, in comparison with culture media containing other carbon sources. In culture medium containing cellulose both A. oligospora and C. musiformis grew faster with respect to the other culture media, but A. oligospora strains grew faster in comparison with C. musiformis strains. Both fungal species developed the lowest growth rates in culture media containing starch and skim milk.

  7. Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, A; Walker, W; Carvalho, L; Farina, M; Sulla-Menashe, D; Houghton, R A

    2017-10-13

    The carbon balance of tropical ecosystems remains uncertain, with top-down atmospheric studies suggesting an overall sink and bottom-up ecological approaches indicating a modest net source. Here we use 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world's tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year -1 ). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year -1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year -1 Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. Utilization of Activated Carbon Prepared from Aceh Coffee Grounds as Bio-sorbent for Treatment of Fertilizer Industrial Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, M.; Mahidin, M.; Mulana, F.; Aman, F.

    2018-05-01

    The people of Aceh are well known as coffee drinkers. Therefore, a lot of coffee shops have been established in Aceh in the past decade. The growing of coffee shops resulting to large amounts of coffee waste produced in Aceh Province that will become solid waste if not wisely utilized. The high carbon content in coffee underlined as background of this research to be utilized those used coffee grounds as bio-sorbent. The preparation of activated carbon from coffee grounds by using carbonization method that was initially activated with HCl was expected to increase the absorption capacity. The prepared activated carbon with high reactivity was applied to adsorb nitrite, nitrate and ammonia in wastewater outlet of PT. PIM wastewater pond. Morphological structure of coffee waste was analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The result showed that the adsorption capacity of iodine was equal to 856.578 mg/g. From the characterization results, it was concluded that the activated carbon from coffee waste complied to the permitted quality standards in accordance with the quality requirements of activated carbon SNI No. 06-3730-1995. Observed from the adsorption efficiency, the bio-sorbent showed a tendency of adsorbing more ammonia than nitrite and nitrate of PT. PIM wastewater with ammonia absorption efficiency of 56%.

  9. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    on sucrose, fructose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. During growth on acetate there was no production of alpha -amylase, whereas addition of small amounts of glucose resulted in alpha -amylase production. A possible induction by alpha -methyl-D-glucoside during growth on glucose was also investigated......, but this compound was not found to be a better inducer of alpha -amylase production than glucose. The results strongly indicate that besides acting as a repressor via the CreA protein, glucose acts as an inducer.......The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol...

  10. Effect of carbon coating on cycle performance of LiFePO4/C composite cathodes using Tween80 as carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, You-Guo; Zheng, Feng-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Qing-Yu; Wang, Hong-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Tween80 addition could enhance cycle stability of LiFePO 4 material. • The FTIR spectrum confirms Tween80 surfactant can bond with LiFePO 4 particles. • Some chemical bonds between material and carbon layer still exist after sintering. - Abstract: The influence of carbon coating on the cycle performance of LiFePO 4 /C composite cathodes using polyoxyethylenesorbitan monooleate (Tween80) as carbon source against lithium metal foil anode for Li-ion batteries was investigated in this paper. According to Infrared spectrum analysis (FTIR), the Tween80 surfactant molecules bond to the surface of LiFePO 4 and form an adsorption layer, which contribute to the formation of a homogeneous carbon layer tightly coating on the surface of LiFePO 4 particles in the process of sintering, due to a strong binding force provided by surface chemical bonds. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the carbon layer around LiFePO 4 using Tween80 as carbon source still coating on the surface of LiFePO 4 after 200 cycles at 5 C rate while the carbon layer shed from the surface of LiFePO 4 using glucose as carbon source. As a result, the carbon-coated LiFePO 4 using Tween80 as carbon source exhibits much higher capacity retention than the sample using glucose as carbon source. Electrochemical impedance measurement (EIS) reveals that the carbon-coated LiFePO 4 electrode using Tween80 surfactant has a lower charge transfer resistance than the electrode using glucose as carbon source electrode after 100 and 200 cycles at 5 C rate

  11. Effects of different fruit juices used as carbon source on cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... In this study, the effect of various commercial fruit juices (used as plant carbon source) was assessed on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Liza at seedling stage under aseptic conditions. Seeds were germinated on ½MS medium (within 2-days) under dark conditions. They were sub-cultured on MS0 (MS.

  12. Replacement of soybean meal in compound feed by European protein sources : effects on carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Blonk, H.; Tyszler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim was to investigate if soybean products from South American can be replaced by protein sources produced in Europe in a sustainable way. Based on data from literature, and based on the systematics of the FeedPrint programme, the nutritional value and the carbon footprint (CFP) of these

  13. The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-10

    Dec 10, 2011 ... The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ... Furthermore, since the middle lamella contains high levels of calcium, it was thought that it may play an important ..... Processing of the pectate lyase PelI by ...

  14. External Carbon Source Addition as a Means to Control an Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    In alternating type activated sludge nutrient removal processes, the denitrification rate can be limited by the availability of readily-degradable carbon substrate. A control strategy is proposed by which an easily metabolizable COD source is added directly to that point in the process at which d...

  15. End-of-Life Transitions and Hospice Utilization for Adolescents: Does Having a Usual Source of Care Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Lindley, Lisa C

    2017-08-01

    Adolescents with life-limiting illnesses have intensive end-of-life trajectories and could benefit from initiation of hospice services. The medical home model, which includes having a usual source of primary care, may help facilitate quality outcomes at the end-of-life for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between having a usual source of primary care on hospice utilization and end-of-life transitions among adolescents between 15-20 years with a life-limiting illness. A retrospective cohort design used 2007-2010 California Medicaid claims data (n=585). Our dependent variables were hospice utilization (i.e., hospice enrollment, hospice length of stay) and the independent variable was usual source of primary care. Multivariate regression techniques including least squares regression, multivariate logistic regression, and negative binomial regression were used in the analysis of the relationship between usual source of primary care and hospice utilization and end-of-life transitions. Ten percent of our sample utilized hospice services. Having a usual source of primary care was associated with an increase in hospice enrollment, hospice length of stay, and end-of-life transitions. Adolescents with a cancer diagnosis were more likely to enroll in hospice services. For adolescents at the end of life, having a usual source of primary care had a significant impact on hospice enrollment and length of stay. This study is among the first to demonstrate a relationship between primary care and hospice use among this vulnerable population.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CO2U) ICEF Roadmap 2.0. Draft October 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandalow, D; Aines, R; Friedmann, J; McCormick, C; McCoy, S

    2017-10-02

    Last year, experts from CO2 Sciences, Columbia University and Valence Strategic came together to develop a roadmap. That document, Carbon Dioxide Utilization ICEF Roadmap 1.0, released at the UNFCCC Marrakesh Climate Change Conference in 2016, surveyed the commercial and technical landscape of CO2 conversion and use. The document provided extensive background and analysis and has helped to provide a foundation for additional studies, including this one.This roadmap is meant to complement and expand upon the work of its predecessor. Based in part on a workshop at Columbia University’s Center on Global Energy Policy in July 2017, it explores three distinct categories of CO2-based products, the technologies that can be harnessed to convert CO2 to these products, and the associated research and development needs. It also explores the complicated topic of life cycle analysis—critically important when considering the climate impacts of CO2 conversion and use—as well as policy tools that could be used to promote CO2-based products.

  17. Elucidating the Role of Carbon Sources on Abiotic and Biotic Release of Arsenic into Cambodian Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneke, M.

    2017-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring contaminant in Cambodia that has been contaminating well-water sources of millions of people. Commonly, studies look into the biotic factors that cause the arsenic to be released from aquifer sediments to groundwater. However, abiotic release of As from sediments, though little studied, may also play key roles in As contamination of well water. The goal of this research is to quantitatively compare organic-carbon mediated abiotic and biotic release of arsenic from sediments to groundwater. Batch anaerobic incubation experiments under abiotic (sodium azide used to immobilize microbes) and biotic conditions were conducted using Cambodian aquifer sediments, four different organic carbon sources (sodium lactate, sodium citrate, sodium oxalate, and humic acid), and six different carbon concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25mg C/L). Dissolved arsenic, iron(Fe), and manganese(Mn) concentrations in the treatments were measured 112 days . In addition, sediment and solution carbon solution was measured . Collectively, these show how different carbon sources, different carbon concentrations, and how abiotic and biotic factors impact the release of arsenic from Cambodian sediments into aquifers. Overall, an introduction of organic carbon to the soil increases the amount of As released from the sediment. The biotic + abiotic and abiotic conditions seemed to play a minimal role in the amount of As released. Dissolved species analysis showed us that 100% of the As was As(V), Our ICP-MS results vary due to the heterogeneity of samples, but when high levels are Fe are seen in solution, we also see high levels of As. We also see higher As concentrations when there is a smaller amount of Mn in solution.

  18. Sequestration and utilization of carbon dioxide by chemical and biological methods for biofuels and biomaterials by chemoautotrophs: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Indu Shekhar; Kumar, Manish; Varjani, Sunita J; Wu, Yonghong; Gnansounou, Edgard; Ravindran, Sindhu

    2018-05-01

    To meet the CO 2 emission reduction targets, carbon dioxide capture and utilization (CCU) comes as an evolve technology. CCU concept is turning into a feedstock and technologies have been developed for transformation of CO 2 into useful organic products. At industrial scale, utilization of CO 2 as raw material is not much significant as compare to its abundance. Mechanisms in nature have evolved for carbon concentration, fixation and utilization. Assimilation and subsequent conversion of CO 2 into complex molecules are performed by the photosynthetic and chemolithotrophic organisms. In the last three decades, substantial research is carry out to discover chemical and biological conversion of CO 2 in various synthetic and biological materials, such as carboxylic acids, esters, lactones, polymer biodiesel, bio-plastics, bio-alcohols, exopolysaccharides. This review presents an over view of catalytic transformation of CO 2 into biofuels and biomaterials by chemical and biological methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating vertical concentration profile of carbon source released from slow-releasing carbon source tablets and in situ biological nitrate denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, Y.; HAN, K.; Yoon, J.; Lee, J. H.; Song, K.; Kang, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Slow-releasing carbon source tablets were manufactured during the design of a small-scale in situ biological denitrification system to reduce high-strength nitrate (> 30 mg N/L) from a point source such as livestock complexes. Two types of slow-releasing tablets, precipitating tablet (PT, apparent density of 2.0 g/mL) and floating tablet (FT), were prepared to achieve a vertically even distribution of carbon source (CS) in a well and an aquifer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used to control the release rate, and microcrystalline cellulose pH 101 (MCC 101) was added as a binder. The #8 sand was used as a precipitation agent for the PTs, and the floating agents for the FTs were calcium carbonate and citric acid. FTs floated within 30 min. and remained in water because of the buoyance from carbon dioxide, which formed during the acid-base reaction between citric acid and calcium carbonate. The longevities of PTs with 300 mg of HPMC and FTs with 400 mg of HPMC were 25.4 days and 37.3 days, respectively. We assessed vertical CS profile in a continuous flowing physical aquifer model (release test, RT) and its efficiency on biological nitrate denitrification (denitrification test, DT). During the RT, PTs, FTs and a tracer (as 1 mg rhodamine B/L) were initially injected into a well of physical aquifer model (PAM). Concentrations of CS and the tracer were monitored along the streamline in the PAM to evaluate vertical profile of CS. During the DT, the same experiment was performed as RT, except continuous injection of solution containing 30 mg N/L into the PAM to evaluate biological denitrification activity. As a result of RT, temporal profiles of CS were similar at 3 different depths of monitoring wells. These results suggest that simultaneous addition of PT and FT be suitable for achieving a vertically even distribution of the CS in the injection well and an aquifer. In DT, similar profile of CS was detected in the injection well, and nitrate was biologically

  20. Resistance to Phosphinothricin (Glufosinate) and Its Utilization as a Nitrogen Source by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A R; Lopez-Siles, F J; Cardenas, J

    1996-10-01

    Wild-type strain 21gr of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was resistant to the ammonium salt of l-phosphinothricin (PPT, also called glufosinate), an irreversible inhibitor of glutamine synthetase activity and the main active component of the herbicide BASTA (AgrEvo, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). Under the same conditions, however, this strain was highly sensitive to l-methionine-S-sulfoximine, a structural analog of PPT which has been reported to be 5 to 10 times less effective than PPT as an inhibitor in plants. Moreover, this alga was able to grow with PPT as the sole nitrogen source when this compound was provided at low concentrations. This utilization of PPT was dependent upon the addition of acetate and light and did not take place in the presence of ammonium. Resistance was due neither to the presence of N-acetyltransferase or transaminase activity nor to the presence of glutamine synthetase isoforms resistant to PPT. By using l-[methyl-(sup14)C]PPT, we demonstrated that resistance is due to lack of PPT transport into the cells. This strongly suggests that PPT and l-methionine-S-sulfoximine enter the cells through different systems. Growth with PPT is supported by its deamination by an l-amino acid oxidase activity which has been previously described to be located at the periplasm.

  1. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suwartha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recharge pond and river at three sampling point to determine existing water quality of the pond. The results showed that recharge rate of the pond between dry season (3.2 mm/day and wet season (6.1 mm/day are considered as insignificant different. The water balance of the recharge pond shows an excessive rate. Various physics and chemical parameters (turbidity, color, TDS, pH, and  Cl are found to have concentration lower than the water quality standard. The results suggest that the pond surface water is remain suitable to be recharged into aquifer zone so that sustaining ground water conservation campaign, and it is potential to be utilized as an additional  raw water source for domestic water demand of UI Campus Depok.

  2. Asp- and Glu-specific novel dipeptidyl peptidase 11 of Porphyromonas gingivalis ensures utilization of proteinaceous energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko; Shimoyama, Yu; Kimura, Shigenobu; Kon, Asako; Haraga, Hiroshi; Ono, Toshio; Nemoto, Takayuki K

    2011-11-04

    Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis, asaccharolytic black-pigmented anaerobes, are predominant pathogens of human chronic and periapical periodontitis, respectively. They incorporate di- and tripeptides from the environment as carbon and energy sources. In the present study we cloned a novel dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) gene of P. endodontalis ATCC 35406, designated as DPP11. The DPP11 gene encoded 717 amino acids with a molecular mass of 81,090 Da and was present as a 75-kDa form with an N terminus of Asp(22). A homology search revealed the presence of a P. gingivalis orthologue, PGN0607, that has been categorized as an isoform of authentic DPP7. P. gingivalis DPP11 was exclusively cell-associated as a truncated 60-kDa form, and the gene ablation retarded cell growth. DPP11 specifically removed dipeptides from oligopeptides with the penultimate N-terminal Asp and Glu and has a P2-position preference to hydrophobic residues. Optimum pH was 7.0, and the k(cat)/K(m) value was higher for Asp than Glu. Those activities were lost by substitution of Ser(652) in P. endodontalis and Ser(655) in P. gingivalis DPP11 to Ala, and they were consistently decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. Arg(670) is a unique amino acid completely conserved in all DPP11 members distributed in the genera Porphyromonas, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides, whereas this residue is converted to Gly in all authentic DPP7 members. Substitution analysis suggested that Arg(670) interacts with an acidic residue of the substrate. Considered to preferentially utilize acidic amino acids, DPP11 ensures efficient degradation of oligopeptide substrates in these Gram-negative anaerobic rods.

  3. Asp- and Glu-specific Novel Dipeptidyl Peptidase 11 of Porphyromonas gingivalis Ensures Utilization of Proteinaceous Energy Sources*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko; Shimoyama, Yu; Kimura, Shigenobu; Kon, Asako; Haraga, Hiroshi; Ono, Toshio; Nemoto, Takayuki K.

    2011-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis, asaccharolytic black-pigmented anaerobes, are predominant pathogens of human chronic and periapical periodontitis, respectively. They incorporate di- and tripeptides from the environment as carbon and energy sources. In the present study we cloned a novel dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) gene of P. endodontalis ATCC 35406, designated as DPP11. The DPP11 gene encoded 717 amino acids with a molecular mass of 81,090 Da and was present as a 75-kDa form with an N terminus of Asp22. A homology search revealed the presence of a P. gingivalis orthologue, PGN0607, that has been categorized as an isoform of authentic DPP7. P. gingivalis DPP11 was exclusively cell-associated as a truncated 60-kDa form, and the gene ablation retarded cell growth. DPP11 specifically removed dipeptides from oligopeptides with the penultimate N-terminal Asp and Glu and has a P2-position preference to hydrophobic residues. Optimum pH was 7.0, and the kcat/Km value was higher for Asp than Glu. Those activities were lost by substitution of Ser652 in P. endodontalis and Ser655 in P. gingivalis DPP11 to Ala, and they were consistently decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. Arg670 is a unique amino acid completely conserved in all DPP11 members distributed in the genera Porphyromonas, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides, whereas this residue is converted to Gly in all authentic DPP7 members. Substitution analysis suggested that Arg670 interacts with an acidic residue of the substrate. Considered to preferentially utilize acidic amino acids, DPP11 ensures efficient degradation of oligopeptide substrates in these Gram-negative anaerobic rods. PMID:21896480

  4. Variable Responses to Carbon Utilization between Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of a Human Carrier Strain of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Kalai Chelvam

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi is a foodborne pathogen that causes typhoid fever and infects only humans. The ability of S. Typhi to survive outside the human host remains unclear, particularly in human carrier strains. In this study, we have investigated the catabolic activity of a human carrier S. Typhi strain in both planktonic and biofilm cells using the high-throughput Biolog Phenotype MicroArray, Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC biofilm inoculator (96-well peg lid and whole genome sequence data. Additional strains of S. Typhi were tested to further validate the variation of catabolism in selected carbon substrates in the different bacterial growth phases. The analyzes of the carbon utilization data indicated that planktonic cells of the carrier strain, S. Typhi CR0044 could utilize a broader range of carbon substrates compared to biofilm cells. Pyruvic acid and succinic acid which are related to energy metabolism were actively catabolised in the planktonic stage compared to biofilm stage. On the other hand, glycerol, L-fucose, L-rhamnose (carbohydrates and D-threonine (amino acid were more actively catabolised by biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Notably, dextrin and pectin could induce strong biofilm formation in the human carrier strain of S. Typhi. However, pectin could not induce formation of biofilm in the other S. Typhi strains. Phenome data showed the utilization of certain carbon substrates which was supported by the presence of the catabolism-associated genes in S. Typhi CR0044. In conclusion, the findings showed the differential carbon utilization between planktonic and biofilm cells of a S. Typhi human carrier strain. The differences found in the carbon utilization profiles suggested that S. Typhi uses substrates mainly found in the human biliary mucus glycoprotein, gallbladder, liver and cortex of the kidney of the human host. The observed diversity in the carbon catabolism profiles among

  5. Methods of analysis for complex organic aerosol mixtures from urban emission sources of particulate carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hildemann, L.M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1990-10-01

    Organic aerosols comprise approximately 30% by mass of the total fine particulate matter present in urban atmospheres. The chemical composition of such aerosols is complex and reflects input from multiple sources of primary emissions to the atmosphere, as well as from secondary production of carbonaceous aerosol species via photochemical reactions. To identify discrete sources of fine carbonaceous particles in urban atmospheres, analytical methods must reconcile both bulk chemical and molecular properties of the total carbonaceous aerosol fraction. This paper presents an overview of the analytical protocol developed and used in a study of the major sources of fine carbon particles emitted to an urban atmosphere. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Analysis of carbon monoxide production in multihundred-watt heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Mulford, R.N.R.

    1976-05-01

    The production of carbon monoxide observed within Multihundred Watt heat sources placed under storage conditions was analyzed. Results of compositional and isotopic analyses of gas taps performed on eight heat sources are summarized and interpreted. Several proposed CO generation mechanisms are examined theoretically and assessed by applying thermodynamic principles. Outgassing of the heat source graphite followed by oxygen isotopic exchange through the vent assemblies appears to explain the CO production at storage temperatures. Reduction of the plutonia fuel sphere by the CO is examined as a function of temperature and stoichiometry. Experiments that could be performed to investigate possible CO generation mechanisms are discussed

  7. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  8. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

    2011-09-01

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  9. Morphogenesis and Production of Enzymes by Penicillium echinulatum in Response to Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Daniel Hahn Schneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on morphology and cellulase and xylanase production of Penicillium echinulatum was evaluated in this work. Among the six carbon sources studied, cellulose and sugar cane bagasse were the most suitable for the production of filter paper activity, endoglucanases, xylanases, and β-glucosidases. However, sucrose and glucose showed β-glucosidase activities similar to those obtained with the insoluble sources. The polyacrylamide gels proved the enzymatic activity, since different standards bands were detected in the media mentioned above. Regarding morphology, it was observed that the mycelium in a dispersed form provided the greatest enzymatic activity, possibly due to greater interaction between the substrate and hyphae. These data are important in understanding the physiology of fungi and could contribute to obtaining enzyme with potential application in the technology of second generation ethanol.

  10. Electron source with a carbon-fibrous cathode for radiation-technology accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper analyses the circuit of a full operating voltage electron source which is a direct-action electron accelerator. The electron source consists of a power supply, high-voltage multiplier-rectifier, vacuum planar diode, vacuum system and control system. The vacuum electron diode contains an autoemission carbon-fibrous cathode and beryllium foil strip anode. The results of measurements of emission characteristics of alumosilicate and carbon-fibrous cathodes are presented. The investigations into test electron source show that it can be used as a basis for creating an electron accelerator which will be capable of generating 1 MW electron beams of 1-2 MeV energy and 1 A current. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Synthesis and utilization of carbon nanotubes for fabrication of electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotubes. - Highlights: • This review discusses synthesis and applications of carbon nanotubes sensors. • The review summarizes contributions of carbon nanotube to electrochemical biosensor. • Good electrical conductivity makes carbon nanotubes a good material for biosensors. • Carbon nanotubes promotes electron transfer that aids biosensing of biomolecules. - Abstract: This review summarizes the most recent contributions in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of carbon nanotubes to the assembly of carbon nanotube-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future expectations. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving carbon nanotubes sensors have been reported ever since the first design of carbon nanotube electrochemical biosensors. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes allow them to act as “electron wire” between the redox center of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make them very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Carbon nanotubes promote the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, hemoglobin and biomolecules, such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine pesticides, metals ions and hydrogen peroxide.

  12. Synthesis and utilization of carbon nanotubes for fabrication of electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T., E-mail: abdul.lawal@yahoo.com

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotubes. - Highlights: • This review discusses synthesis and applications of carbon nanotubes sensors. • The review summarizes contributions of carbon nanotube to electrochemical biosensor. • Good electrical conductivity makes carbon nanotubes a good material for biosensors. • Carbon nanotubes promotes electron transfer that aids biosensing of biomolecules. - Abstract: This review summarizes the most recent contributions in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of carbon nanotubes to the assembly of carbon nanotube-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future expectations. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving carbon nanotubes sensors have been reported ever since the first design of carbon nanotube electrochemical biosensors. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes allow them to act as “electron wire” between the redox center of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make them very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Carbon nanotubes promote the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, hemoglobin and biomolecules, such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine pesticides, metals ions and hydrogen peroxide.

  13. The potential of carbon and nitrogen isotopes to conservatively discriminate between subsoil sediment sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Olley, Jon

    2013-04-01

    Moreton Bay, in South East Queensland, Australia, is a Ramsar wetland of international significance. A decline of the bay's ecosystem health has been primarily attributed to sediments and nutrients from catchment sources. Sediment budgets for three catchments indicated gully erosion dominates the supply of sediment in Knapp Creek and the Upper Bremer River whereas erosion from cultivated soils is the primary sediment source in Blackfellow Creek. Sediment tracing with fallout-radionuclides confirmed subsoil erosion processes dominate the supply of sediment in Knapp Creek and the Upper Bremer River whereas in Blackfellow Creek cultivated and subsoil sources contribute >90% of sediments. Other sediment properties are required to determine the relative sediment contributions of channel bank, gully and cultivated sources in these catchments. The potential of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to conservatively discriminate between subsoil sediment sources is presented. The conservativeness of these sediment properties was examined through evaluating particle size variations in depth core soil samples and investigating whether they remain constant in source soils over two sampling occasions. Varying conservative behavior and source discrimination was observed. TN in the

  14. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  15. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation for CO{sub 2} Storage and Utilization: A Review of the Carbonate Crystallization and Polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ribooga; Kim, Semin; Lee, Seungin; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Minhee; Park, Youngjune, E-mail: young@gist.ac.kr [Carbon and Energy Systems, School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-10

    The transformation of CO{sub 2} into a precipitated mineral carbonate through an ex situ mineral carbonation route is considered a promising option for carbon capture and storage (CCS) since (i) the captured CO{sub 2} can be stored permanently and (ii) industrial wastes (i.e., coal fly ash, steel and stainless-steel slags, and cement and lime kiln dusts) can be recycled and converted into value-added carbonate materials by controlling polymorphs and properties of the mineral carbonates. The final products produced by the ex situ mineral carbonation route can be divided into two categories—low-end high-volume and high-end low-volume mineral carbonates—in terms of their market needs as well as their properties (i.e., purity). Therefore, it is expected that this can partially offset the total cost of the CCS processes. Polymorphs and physicochemical properties of CaCO{sub 3} strongly rely on the synthesis variables such as temperature, pH of the solution, reaction time, ion concentration and ratio, stirring, and the concentration of additives. Various efforts to control and fabricate polymorphs of CaCO{sub 3} have been made to date. In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge and recent investigations entailing mechanistic studies on the formation of the precipitated CaCO{sub 3} and the influences of the synthesis factors on the polymorphs.

  16. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation for CO2 Storage and Utilization: A Review of the Carbonate Crystallization and Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribooga Chang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of CO2 into a precipitated mineral carbonate through an ex situ mineral carbonation route is considered a promising option for carbon capture and storage (CCS since (i the captured CO2 can be stored permanently and (ii industrial wastes (i.e., coal fly ash, steel and stainless-steel slags, and cement and lime kiln dusts can be recycled and converted into value-added carbonate materials by controlling polymorphs and properties of the mineral carbonates. The final products produced by the ex situ mineral carbonation route can be divided into two categories—low-end high-volume and high-end low-volume mineral carbonates—in terms of their market needs as well as their properties (i.e., purity. Therefore, it is expected that this can partially offset the total cost of the CCS processes. Polymorphs and physicochemical properties of CaCO3 strongly rely on the synthesis variables such as temperature, pH of the solution, reaction time, ion concentration and ratio, stirring, and the concentration of additives. Various efforts to control and fabricate polymorphs of CaCO3 have been made to date. In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge and recent investigations entailing mechanistic studies on the formation of the precipitated CaCO3 and the influences of the synthesis factors on the polymorphs.

  17. Role of carbon source in the shift from oxidative to hydrolytic wood decomposition by Postia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Brown rot fungi initiate wood decay using oxidative pretreatments to improve access for cellulolytic enzymes. These pretreatments are incompatible with enzymes, and we recently showed that Postia placenta overcomes this issue by delaying glycoside hydrolase (GH) gene upregulation briefly (wood wafers and spatially mapped expression (via quantitative PCR) of twelve ORs and GHs targeted using functional genomics analyses. By layering expression patterns over solubilized sugar data (via HPLC) from wood, we observed solubilization of wood glucose, cellobiose, mannose, and xylose coincident with the OR-GH transition. We then tested effects of these soluble sugars, plus polymeric carbon sources (spruce powder, cellulose), on P. placenta gene expression in liquid cultures. Expression of ORs was strictly (aox1, cro5) or progressively repressed over time (qrd1, lcc1) by all soluble sugars, including cellobiose, but not by polymeric sources. Simple sugars repressed hemicellulase gene expression over time, but these sugars did not repress cellulases. Cellulase genes were upregulated, however, along with hemicellulases in the presence of soluble cellobiose and in the presence of polymeric carbon sources, relative to starvation (carbon-free). This verifies an inducible cellulase system in P. placenta that lacks carbon catabolite repression (CCR), and it suggests that brown rot fungi use soluble sugars, particularly cellobiose, to cue a critical oxidative-hydrolytic transition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-performance field emission device utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-based pillar architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Kedawat, Garima; Gangwar, Amit Kumar; Nagpal, Kanika; Kashyap, Pradeep Kumar; Srivastava, Shubhda; Singh, Satbir; Kumar, Pawan; Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Seo, Deok Min; Tripathi, Prashant; More, Mahendra A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Late, Dattatray J.

    2018-01-01

    The vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based pillar architectures were created on laminated silicon oxide/silicon (SiO2/Si) wafer substrate at 775 °C by using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition under low pressure process condition. The lamination was carried out by aluminum (Al, 10.0 nm thickness) as a barrier layer and iron (Fe, 1.5 nm thickness) as a catalyst precursor layer sequentially on a silicon wafer substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that synthesized CNTs are vertically aligned and uniformly distributed with a high density. The CNTs have approximately 2-30 walls with an inner diameter of 3-8 nm. Raman spectrum analysis shows G-band at 1580 cm-1 and D-band at 1340 cm-1. The G-band is higher than D-band, which indicates that CNTs are highly graphitized. The field emission analysis of the CNTs revealed high field emission current density (4mA/cm2 at 1.2V/μm), low turn-on field (0.6 V/μm) and field enhancement factor (6917) with better stability and longer lifetime. Emitter morphology resulting in improved promising field emission performances, which is a crucial factor for the fabrication of pillared shaped vertical aligned CNTs bundles as practical electron sources.

  19. High-performance field emission device utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-based pillar architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs-based pillar architectures were created on laminated silicon oxide/silicon (SiO2/Si wafer substrate at 775 °C by using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition under low pressure process condition. The lamination was carried out by aluminum (Al, 10.0 nm thickness as a barrier layer and iron (Fe, 1.5 nm thickness as a catalyst precursor layer sequentially on a silicon wafer substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that synthesized CNTs are vertically aligned and uniformly distributed with a high density. The CNTs have approximately 2–30 walls with an inner diameter of 3–8 nm. Raman spectrum analysis shows G-band at 1580 cm−1 and D-band at 1340 cm−1. The G-band is higher than D-band, which indicates that CNTs are highly graphitized. The field emission analysis of the CNTs revealed high field emission current density (4mA/cm2 at 1.2V/μm, low turn-on field (0.6 V/μm and field enhancement factor (6917 with better stability and longer lifetime. Emitter morphology resulting in improved promising field emission performances, which is a crucial factor for the fabrication of pillared shaped vertical aligned CNTs bundles as practical electron sources.

  20. BIOREMEDIATION FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE: ORGANIC SOLID WASTE AS CARBON SOURCES FOR SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Jamil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate reduction has been slowly replacing chemical unit processes to treat acid mine drainage (AMD. Bioremediations for AMD treatment are favored due to their low capital and maintenance cost. This paper describes the available AMD treatment, current SRB commercialization such as THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies, and also the factors and limitations faced. THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies use expensive carbon sources such as hydrogen as the electron donor. This paper discusses the possibility of organic solid waste as an alternative substrate as it is cheaper and abundant. A possible AMD treatment system setup was also proposed to test the efficiency of sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing organic solid substrate.

  1. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch ...

  2. The flexible feedstock concept in Industrial Biotechnology: Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast strains for access to alternative carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Gil Lopez, Marina; Hennig, Guido; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Sgobba, Elvira; Veldmann, Kareen H

    2016-09-20

    Most biotechnological processes are based on glucose that is either present in molasses or generated from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis. At the very high, million-ton scale production volumes, for instance for fermentative production of the biofuel ethanol or of commodity chemicals such as organic acids and amino acids, competing uses of carbon sources e.g. in human and animal nutrition have to be taken into account. Thus, the biotechnological production hosts E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, bacilli and Baker's yeast used in these large scale processes have been engineered for efficient utilization of alternative carbon sources. This flexible feedstock concept is central to the use of non-glucose second and third generation feedstocks in the emerging bioeconomy. The metabolic engineering efforts to broaden the substrate scope of E. coli, C. glutamicum, pseudomonads, B. subtilis and yeasts to include non-native carbon sources will be reviewed. Strategies to enable simultaneous consumption of mixtures of native and non-native carbon sources present in biomass hydrolysates will be summarized and a perspective on how to further increase feedstock flexibility for the realization of biorefinery processes will be given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sources of carbon and sulfur nutrition for consumers in three meromictic lakes of New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, B.

    1986-01-01

    The trophic importance of bacterioplankton as a source of carbon and sulfur nutrition for consumers in meromictic lakes was tested using stable carbon (delta 13 C) and sulfur (delta 34 S) isotopic measurements. Studies in three lakes near Syracuse, New York, showed that most consumers ultimately derive their C and S nutrition from a mixture of terrestrial detritus, phytoplankton, and littoral vegetation, rather than from bacterioplankton. Food webs in these meromictic lakes are thus similar to those in other lakes that lack dense populations of bacterioplankton

  4. Carbon Sources for Yeast Growth as a Precondition of Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Hormetic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Vasylkovska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormesis is a phenomenon of particular interest in biology, medicine, pharmacology, and toxicology. In this study, we investigated the relationship between H2O2-induced hormetic response in S. cerevisiae and carbon sources in yeast growth medium. In general, our data indicate that (i hydrogen peroxide induces hormesis in a concentration-dependent manner; (ii the effect of hydrogen peroxide on yeast reproductive ability depends on the type of carbon substrate in growth medium; and (iii metabolic and growth rates as well as catalase activity play an important role in H2O2-induced hormetic response in yeast.

  5. Utility and potential of rapid epidemic intelligence from internet-based sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S J; Chughtai, A A; Macintyre, C R

    2017-10-01

    Rapid epidemic detection is an important objective of surveillance to enable timely intervention, but traditional validated surveillance data may not be available in the required timeframe for acute epidemic control. Increasing volumes of data on the Internet have prompted interest in methods that could use unstructured sources to enhance traditional disease surveillance and gain rapid epidemic intelligence. We aimed to summarise Internet-based methods that use freely-accessible, unstructured data for epidemic surveillance and explore their timeliness and accuracy outcomes. Steps outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist were used to guide a systematic review of research related to the use of informal or unstructured data by Internet-based intelligence methods for surveillance. We identified 84 articles published between 2006-2016 relating to Internet-based public health surveillance methods. Studies used search queries, social media posts and approaches derived from existing Internet-based systems for early epidemic alerts and real-time monitoring. Most studies noted improved timeliness compared to official reporting, such as in the 2014 Ebola epidemic where epidemic alerts were generated first from ProMED-mail. Internet-based methods showed variable correlation strength with official datasets, with some methods showing reasonable accuracy. The proliferation of publicly available information on the Internet provided a new avenue for epidemic intelligence. Methodologies have been developed to collect Internet data and some systems are already used to enhance the timeliness of traditional surveillance systems. To improve the utility of Internet-based systems, the key attributes of timeliness and data accuracy should be included in future evaluations of surveillance systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The Potential and Utilization of Unused Energy Sources for Large-Scale Horticulture Facility Applications under Korean Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Tak Hyun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. In addition, we utilized available unused energy as a heat source for a heat pump in a large-scale horticulture facility and analyzed its feasibility through EnergyPlus simulation modeling. Accordingly, the discharge flow rate from the Fan Coil Unit (FCU in the horticulture facility, the discharge air temperature, and the return temperature were analyzed. The performance and heat consumption of each heat source were compared with those of conventional boilers. The result showed that the power load of the heat pump was decreased and thus the heat efficiency was increased as the temperature of the heat source was increased. Among the analyzed heat sources, power plant waste heat which had the highest heat source temperature consumed the least electric energy and showed the highest efficiency.

  7. Effect of additional carbon source on naphthalene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida G7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kangtaek; Park, Jin-Won; Ahn, Ik-Sung

    2003-01-01

    Addition of a carbon source as a nutrient into soil is believed to enhance in situ bioremediation by stimulating the growth of microorganisms that are indigenous to the subsurface and are capable of degrading contaminants. However, it may inhibit the biodegradation of organic contaminants and result in diauxic growth. The objective of this work is to study the effect of pyruvate as another carbon source on the biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, naphthalene was used as a model PAH, ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source, and oxygen as an electron acceptor. Pseudomonas putida G7 was used as a model naphthalene-degrading microorganism. From a chemostat culture, the growth kinetics of P. putida G7 on pyruvate was determined. At concentrations of naphthalene and pyruvate giving similar growth rates of P. putida G7, diauxic growth of P. putida G7 was not observed. It is suggested that pyruvate does not inhibit naphthalene biodegradation and can be used as an additional carbon source to stimulate the growth of P. putida G7 that can degrade polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

  8. Primary Nutritional Content of Bio-Flocs Cultured with Different Organic Carbon Sources and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIE EKASARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bio-flocs technology (BFT in aquaculture offers a solution to avoid environmental impact of high nutrient discharges and to reduce the use of artificial feed. In BFT, excess of nutrients in aquaculture systems are converted into microbial biomass, which can be consumed by the cultured animals as a food source. In this experiment, upconcentrated pond water obtained from the drum filter of a freshwater tilapia farm was used for bio-flocs reactors. Two carbon sources, sugar and glycerol, were used as the first variable, and two different levels of salinity, 0 and 30 ppt, were used as the second variable. Bio-flocs with glycerol as a carbon source had higher total n-6 PUFAs (19.1 ± 2.1 and 22.3 ± 8.6 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt, respectively than that of glucose (4.0 ± 0.1 and 12.6 ± 2.5 mg/g DW at 0 and 30 ppt. However, there was no effect of carbon source or salinity on crude protein, lipid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents of the bio-flocs.

  9. Friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon films grown in various source gas plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, A.; Nilufer, I.B.; Eryilmaz, O.L.; Beschliesser, M.; Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1999-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of various source gases (methane, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene) on the friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. Films were deposited on AISI H13 steel substrates and tested in a pin-on-disk machine against DLC-coated M50 balls in dry nitrogen. We found a close correlation between friction coefficient and source gas composition. Specifically, films grown in source gases with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios exhibited lower friction coefficients and a higher wear resistance than films grown in source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratios. The lowest friction coefficient (0.014) was achieved with a film derived from methane with an H/C ratio of 4, whereas the coefficient of films derived from acetylene (H/C=1) was 0.15. Similar correlations were observed for wear rates. Specifically, films derived from gases with lower H/C values were worn out, and the substrate material was exposed, whereas films from methane and ethane remained intact and wore at rates that were almost two orders of magnitude lower than films obtained from acetylene. (orig.)

  10. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Larsen

    Full Text Available Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13C patterns among amino acids (δ(13CAA could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  11. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  12. Contribution of deep sourced carbon from hydrocarbon seeps to sedimentary organic carbon: Evidence from Δ14C and δ13C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D.; Peckmann, J.; Peng, Y.; Liang, Q.; Roberts, H. H.; Chen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) limits the release of methane from marine sediments and promotes the formation of carbonates close to the seafloor along continental margins. It has been established that hydrocarbon seeps are a source of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon to marine environments. However, questions remain about the contribution of deep sourced carbon from hydrocarbon seeps to the sedimentary organic carbon pool. For a number of hydrocarbon seeps from the South China Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, the portion of modern carbon was determined based on natural radiocarbon abundances (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotope (δ13Corganic carbon) compositions of the non-carbonate fractions extracted from authigenic carbonates. Samples from both areas show a mixing trend between ideal planktonic organic carbon (δ13C = -22‰ VPDB and 90% modern carbon) and the ambient methane. The δ13Corganic carbon values of non-carbonate fractions from three ancient seep deposits (northern Italy, Miocene; western Washington State, USA, Eocene to Oligocene) confirm that the proxy can be used to constrain the record of sulfate-driven AOM through most of Earth history by measuring the δ13C values of organic carbon. This study reveals the potential of using δ13C values of organic carbon to discern seep and non-seep environments. This new approach is particularly promising when authigenic carbonate is not present in ancient sedimentary environments. Acknowledgments: The authors thank BOEM and NOAA for their years' support of the deep-sea dives. Funding was provided by the NSF of China (Grants: 41422602 and 41373085).

  13. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF HEAT SOURCES ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Rabczak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lot of attention is nowadays devoted to the problem of generally defined ecology. It is absolutely essential in case of systems and sources generating heat due to their direct influence on the environment through emitting post-process products to the atmosphere which are, most frequently a result of combustion. Therefore, constant searchers are made to optimize the operation of heat sources and to acquire energy from sources for which the general balance of carbon dioxide emission is zero or close to zero. This work compares the emissions of equivalent CO2 from selected systems with the following heat sources: coal, gas furnace, heat pump, and refers results of the analysis to aspects connected with regulations concerning environmental protection. The systems generating thermal energy in the gas furnaces, coal, biomass, as well as the compression heat pumps with the lower heat source as ambient air or ground were taken under consideration, as well as centralized systems for the production of heat based on the combustion of coal, gas, oil, and biomass. the Emission of carbon dioxide for the installation of cogeneration and absorption heat pump were also calculated. Similarly obtained amount of extra emission necessary for the proper operation maintenance of heating devices via the supplied electricity from external source, the mostly fuel-fired power plants for fuels as previously mentioned. The results of the calculations were presented in tables and graphs.

  15. The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the fatty acids profile of Mortierella vinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mohammadi Nasr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microbial lipids attract attention of many researchers due to their therapeutic effects. The goal of this study is the production and optimization of lipids and fatty acids in Mortierella vinaceaby applying different media to achieve invaluable fatty acids in pharmaceutical and food industry. Materials and methods: Mortierella vinacea was cultured on potato dextrose agar. Then the spores were inoculated to the production medium. After 72 hours, the lipids were extracted and they were analyzedby gas chromatography. To optimize lipid and important fatty acids production in medium, various carbon and nitrogen sources were substituted with glucose and yeast extract respectively. Results: The effect of some carbon and nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid and fatty acids production were assayed. The highest level of lipid production was in a medium which contains lactose and yeast extract (26.66%. Linoleic acid was only produced in presence of lactose and yeast extract (25.7%. While, M. vinacea yielded the highest level of linoleic acid (52.76% in a medium containing peptone, linolenic acid was achieved only in presence of lactose and triptone. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, lactose as a carbon source was the most effective one in the production of lipids. In addition, linoleic acid was produced in presence of lactose, so lactose was selected as the best carbon source. Peptone and triptone as a nitrogen source were chosen for the production of linoleic acid and linolenic acid in M. vinacea respectively. All of these findings reveal that Mortierella strain is a potential candidate for enhancement of linoleic acid and linolenic acid production. Furthermore, this simple media can be used in production of linoleic acid and linolenic acid for industrial goals in large scales.

  16. Microbial lipid production by oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus sp. in the batch cultures using corncob hydrolysate as carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yi-Huang; Chang, Ku-Shang; Lee, Ching-Fu; Hsu, Chuan-Liang; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Jang, Hung-Der

    2015-01-01

    To realize the feasibility of biodiesel production from high-lipid cell culture, microbial lipid production by the oleaginous yeasts was studied using glucose and sucrose as carbon source. Among the tested strains, Cryptococcus sp. SM5S05 accumulated the highest levels of intracellular lipids. The crude lipid contents of Cryptococcus sp. cultured in yeast malt agar reached 30% on a dry weight basis. The accumulation of lipids strongly depended on carbon/nitrogen ratio and nitrogen concentration. The highest content of lipids, measured at a carbon/nitrogen ratio of 60–90 and at a nitrogen concentration of 0.2%, was 60–57% lipids in the dry biomass. Batch cultures using corncob hydrolysate demonstrated that there was minimal inhibitory effect with a reducing sugar concentration of 60 g l −1 or higher. Batch cultures of Cryptococcus sp. SM5S05 in the corncob hydrolysate medium with 60 g l −1 glucose resulted in a dry biomass, lipid yields, and content of 12.6 g l −1 , 7.6 g l −1 , and 60.2%, respectively. The lipids contained mainly long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbon atoms. The fatty acid profile of Cryptococcus oils was quite similar to that of conventional vegetable oil. The cost of lipid production could be further reduced with corncob hydrolysate being utilized as the raw material for the oleaginous yeast. The results showed that the microbial lipid from Cryptococcus sp. was a potential alternative resource for biodiesel production. - Highlights: • Microbial oil production from oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus sp. was studied. • Accumulation of lipid strongly depended on C/N ratio and nitrogen concentration. • Cultures in hydrolysate medium with 60 g/l glucose resulted in maximum lipid yields. • Maximal lipid content in the Cryptococcus sp. were 60.2% on dried weight basis

  17. A comparative study of methanol as a supplementary carbon source for enhancing denitrification in primary and secondary anoxic zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Bowyer, Jocelyn C; Foley, Leah; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-04-01

    A comparative study on the use of methanol as a supplementary carbon source to enhance denitrification in primary and secondary anoxic zones is reported. Three lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were operated to achieve nitrogen and carbon removal from domestic wastewater. Methanol was added to the primary anoxic period of the first SBR, and to the secondary anoxic period of the second SBR. No methanol was added to the third SBR, which served as a control. The extent of improvement on the denitrification performance was found to be dependent on the reactor configuration. Addition to the secondary anoxic period is more effective when very low effluent nitrate levels are to be achieved and hence requires a relatively large amount of methanol. Adding a small amount of methanol to the secondary anoxic period may cause nitrite accumulation, which does not improve overall nitrogen removal. In the latter case, methanol should be added to the primary anoxic period. The addition of methanol can also improve biological phosphorus removal by creating anaerobic conditions and increasing the availability of organic carbon in wastewater for polyphosphate accumulating organisms. This potentially provides a cost-effective approach to phosphorus removal from wastewater with a low carbon content. New fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) probes targeting methanol-utilising denitrifiers were designed using stable isotope probing. Microbial structure analysis of the sludges using the new and existing FISH probes clearly showed that the addition of methanol stimulated the growth of specific methanol-utilizing denitrifiers, which improved the capability of sludge to use methanol and ethanol for denitrification, but reduced its capability to use wastewater COD for denitrification. Unlike acetate, long-term application of methanol has no negative impact on the settling properties of the sludge.

  18. Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressured Oxy-combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Klaus; McClung, Aaron; Davis, John

    2014-03-31

    The team of Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI) and Thar Energy LLC (Thar) applied technology engineering and economic analysis to evaluate two advanced oxy-combustion power cycles, the Cryogenic Pressurized Oxy-combustion Cycle (CPOC), and the Supercritical Oxy-combustion Cycle. This assessment evaluated the performance and economic cost of the two proposed cycles with carbon capture, and included a technology gap analysis of the proposed technologies to determine the technology readiness level of the cycle and the cycle components. The results of the engineering and economic analysis and the technology gap analysis were used to identify the next steps along the technology development roadmap for the selected cycle. The project objectives, as outlined in the FOA, were 90% CO{sub 2} removal at no more than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE) as compared to a Supercritical Pulverized Coal Plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The supercritical oxy-combustion power cycle with 99% carbon capture achieves a COE of $121/MWe. This revised COE represents a 21% reduction in cost as compared to supercritical steam with 90% carbon capture ($137/MWe). However, this represents a 49% increase in the COE over supercritical steam without carbon capture ($80.95/MWe), exceeding the 35% target. The supercritical oxy-combustion cycle with 99% carbon capture achieved a 37.9% HHV plant efficiency (39.3% LHV plant efficiency), when coupling a supercritical oxy-combustion thermal loop to an indirect supercritical CO{sub 2} (sCO{sub 2}) power block. In this configuration, the power block achieved 48% thermal efficiency for turbine inlet conditions of 650°C and 290 atm. Power block efficiencies near 60% are feasible with higher turbine inlet temperatures, however a design tradeoff to limit firing temperature to 650°C was made in order to use austenitic stainless steels for the high temperature pressure vessels and piping and to minimize the need for advanced turbomachinery features

  19. Utilization of spent dregs for the production of activated carbon for CO2 adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was preparation of activated carbon from spent dregs for carbon dioxide adsorption. A saturated solution of KOH was used as an activating agent. Samples were carbonized in the furnace at the temperature of 550°C. Textural properties of activated carbons were obtained based on the adsorption-desorption isotherms of nitrogen at −196°C and carbon dioxide at 0°C. The specific surface areas of activated carbons were calculated by the Brunauer – Emmett – Teller equation. The volumes of micropores were obtained by density functional theory method. The highest CO2 adsorption was 9.54 mmol/cm3 at 0°C – and 8.50 mmol/cm3 at 25°C.

  20. Hard template synthesis of porous carbon nitride materials with improved efficiency for photocatalytic CO_2 utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharov, M.; Shcherban, N.; Filonenko, S.; Mishura, A.; Skoryk, M.; Shvalagin, V.; Granchak, V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous carbon nitrides were obtained via bulk and matrix pyrolysis of melamine. • Carbon nitride obtained in MCF has the highest bandgap and photocatalytic activity. • Acetaldehyde was the major product of the photoreduction reaction of CO2. - Abstract: Porous carbon nitrides of different morphology were obtained via bulk and hard template (SBA-15 and MCF) pyrolysis of melamine. Matrix method allowed obtaining ordered porous C_3N_4 with higher bandgap (2.87 eV) in the contrary to the bulk sample (2.45 eV). Obtained carbon nitrides were found to be p-type semiconductors with catalytic activity towards photoreduction of carbon dioxide with water vapour. Carbon nitride obtained in MCF has the higher bandgap, developed surface, sponge-like morphology, spatially ordering and it's characterized by the highest photocatalytic activity.

  1. Carbon dots: Synthesis from renewable sources via hydrothermal carbonization, characterization and evaluation of their interaction with biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Liz Specian de; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon dots (CDs) constitute a new class of carbon-based nanomaterials with interesting photoluminescent properties that enable their potential use in bioimaging, sensing and drug delivery applications. They consist of quasi spherical nanoparticles with size below 10 nm. As a consequence of their low toxicity and biocompatibility, CDs have been considered as a promising alternative to traditional semiconductor-based quantum dots. In addition, they can be synthesized from accessible renewable sources in an environmentally friendly perspective. In this work, we report the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine plasma (BP) as precursors to synthesis of CDs applying hydrothermal carbonization method. The study also includes the physical chemical characterization and the evaluation of interaction between these nanomaterials and biosystems, using hemolytic assay. The morphology and size of the carbon nanoparticles were analyzed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. CDs obtained from BSA (BSA-CDs) and BP (BP-CDs) had spherical shape with an average size of 5.6 and 3.7 nm, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using quinine sulfate as reference. BSA-CDs and BP-CDs exhibited quantum yields of 4.9% and 4.0%, when they were excited at wavelength of 315 and 300 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the red-shift phenomenon was observed in the emission spectra of both synthesized CDs, indicating the formation of particles with different sizes or the presence of surface energy traps distribution. The composition of CDs was determined by Elemental Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Both nanomaterials contained C, N, O and S elements. The hemolytic assay demonstrated the synthesized CDs did not cause damage to red blood cell membrane at concentrations between 5 and 250 μg mL -1 . (author)

  2. Carbon dots: Synthesis from renewable sources via hydrothermal carbonization, characterization and evaluation of their interaction with biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Liz Specian de; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz, E-mail: liz.specian@hotmail.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon dots (CDs) constitute a new class of carbon-based nanomaterials with interesting photoluminescent properties that enable their potential use in bioimaging, sensing and drug delivery applications. They consist of quasi spherical nanoparticles with size below 10 nm. As a consequence of their low toxicity and biocompatibility, CDs have been considered as a promising alternative to traditional semiconductor-based quantum dots. In addition, they can be synthesized from accessible renewable sources in an environmentally friendly perspective. In this work, we report the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine plasma (BP) as precursors to synthesis of CDs applying hydrothermal carbonization method. The study also includes the physical chemical characterization and the evaluation of interaction between these nanomaterials and biosystems, using hemolytic assay. The morphology and size of the carbon nanoparticles were analyzed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. CDs obtained from BSA (BSA-CDs) and BP (BP-CDs) had spherical shape with an average size of 5.6 and 3.7 nm, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using quinine sulfate as reference. BSA-CDs and BP-CDs exhibited quantum yields of 4.9% and 4.0%, when they were excited at wavelength of 315 and 300 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the red-shift phenomenon was observed in the emission spectra of both synthesized CDs, indicating the formation of particles with different sizes or the presence of surface energy traps distribution. The composition of CDs was determined by Elemental Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Both nanomaterials contained C, N, O and S elements. The hemolytic assay demonstrated the synthesized CDs did not cause damage to red blood cell membrane at concentrations between 5 and 250 μg mL{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Sources and turnover of organic carbon and methane in fjord and shelf sediments off northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Simone; Hong, Wei-Li; Knies, Jochen; Lepland, Aivo; Forwick, Matthias; Klug, Martin; Eichinger, Florian; Baranwal, Soma; Crémière, Antoine; Chand, Shyam; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2016-10-01

    To better understand the present and past carbon cycling and transformation processes in methane-influenced fjord and shelf areas of northern Norway, we compared two sediment cores from the Hola trough and from Ullsfjorden. We investigated (1) the organic matter composition and sedimentological characteristics to study the sources of organic carbon (Corg) and the factors influencing Corg burial, (2) pore water geochemistry to determine the contribution of organoclastic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis to total organic carbon turnover, and (3) the carbon isotopic signature of hydrocarbons to identify the carbon transformation processes and gas sources. High sedimentation and Corg accumulation rates in Ullsfjorden support the notion that fjords are important Corg sinks. The depth of the sulfate-methane-transition (SMT) in the fjord is controlled by the supply of predominantly marine organic matter to the sediment. Organoclastic sulfate reduction accounts for 60% of the total depth-integrated sulfate reduction in the fjord. In spite of the presence of ethane, propane, and butane, we suggest a purely microbial origin of light hydrocarbons in the sediments based on their low δ13C values. In the Hola trough, sedimentation and Corg accumulation rates changed during the deglacial-to-post-glacial transition from approximately 80 cm ka-1 to erosion at present. Thus, Corg burial in this part of the shelf is presently absent. Low organic matter content in the sediment and low rates of organoclastic sulfate reduction (only 3% of total depth-integrated sulfate reduction) entail that the shallow depth of the SMT is controlled mostly by ascending thermogenic methane from deeper sources.

  4. The environmental convergence hypothesis: Carbon dioxide emissions according to the source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental convergence hypothesis in carbon dioxide emissions for a large group of developed and developing countries from 1980 to 2009. The novel aspect of this work is that we distinguish among carbon dioxide emissions according to the source of energy (coal, natural gas and petroleum) instead of considering the aggregate measure of per capita carbon dioxide emissions, where notable interest is given to the regional dimension due to the application of new club convergence tests. This allows us to determine the convergence behaviour of emissions in a more precise way and to detect it according to the source of energy used, thereby helping to address the environmental targets. More specifically, the convergence hypothesis is examined with a pair-wise test and another one is used to test for the existence of club convergence. Our results from using the pair-wise test indicate that carbon dioxide emissions for each type of energy diverge. However, club convergence is found for a large group of countries, although some still display divergence. These findings point to the need to apply specific environmental policies to each club detected, since specific countries converge to different clubs. - Highlights: • The environmental convergence hypothesis is investigated across countries. • We perform a pair-wise test and a club convergence test. • Results from the first of these two tests suggest that carbon dioxide emissions are diverging. • However, we find that carbon dioxide emissions are converging within groups of countries. • Active environmental policies are required

  5. [Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on 5-keto-gluconic acid production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhilei; Wang, Hongcui; Wei, Yuqiao; Li, Yanyan; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2014-01-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans is known to oxidize glucose to gluconic acid (GA), and subsequently, to 2-keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-gluconic acid (5KGA), while 5KGA can be converted to L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to increase the production of 5KGA, Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 that converts GA to 5KGA exclusively was chosen in this study, and effects of carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose, amylum and glucose) and nitrogen sources (yeast extract, fish meal, corn steep liquor, soybean meal and cotton-seed meal) on 5KGA production were investigated. Results of experiment in 500 mL shake-flask show that the highest yield of 5KGA (98.20 g/L) was obtained using 100 g/L glucose as carbon source. 5KGA reached 100.20 g/L, 109.10 g/L, 99.83 g/L with yeast extract, fish meal and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source respectively, among which the optimal nitrogen source was fish meal. The yield of 5KGA by corn steep liquor is slightly lower than that by yeast extract. For the economic reason, corn steep liquor was selected as nitrogen source and scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank fermentor, and the final concentration of 5KGA reached 93.80 g/L, with its maximum volumetric productivity of 3.48 g/(L x h) and average volumetric productivity of 1.56 g/(L x h). The result obtained in this study showed that carbon and nitrogen sourses for large-scale production of 5KGA by Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 were glucose and corn steep liquor, respectively, and the available glucose almost completely (85.93%) into 5KGA.

  6. Direct growth and patterning of multilayer graphene onto a targeted substrate without an external carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongseok; Kim, Won-Jun; Lim, Jung Ah; Song, Yong-Won

    2012-07-25

    Using only a simple tube furnace, we demonstrate the synthesis of patterned graphene directly on a designed substrate without the need for an external carbon source. Carbon atoms are absorbed onto Ni evaporator sources as impurities, and incorporated into catalyst layers during the deposition. Heat treatment conditions were optimized so that the atoms diffused out along the grain boundaries to form nanocrystals at the catalyst-substrate interfaces. Graphene patterns were obtained under patterned catalysts, which restricted graphene formation to within patterned areas. The resultant multilayer graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to verify the high crystallinity and two-dimensional nanomorphology. Finally, a metal-semiconductor diode with a catalyst-graphene contact structure were fabricated and characterized to assess the semiconducting properties of the graphene sheets with respect to the display of asymmetric current-voltage behavior.

  7. The Investments in Renewable Energy Sources: Do Low Carbon Economies Better Invest in Green Technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Angelo Romano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the driving of investment in renewable energy sources in low carbon and high carbon economies. To address these issues, a dynamic panel analysis of the renewable investment in a sample of 29 countries was proposed. Results demonstrate that the dynamic of investments in renewable sources is similar in the two panels, and depends by nuclear power generation, GDP and technological efficiency. Results show that countries try to reduce their environmental footprint, decreasing the CO2 intensity. Based on the estimation results, we think that energy sustainability passes through the use of renewable resources that can complement the nuclear technology on condition that both exceed their limits.

  8. Direct Synthesis of Co-doped Graphene on Dielectric Substrates Using Solid Carbon Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wang; Pingping Zhang; Qiqi Zhuo; Xiaoxin Lv; Jiwei Wang; Xuhui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Direct synthesis of high-quality doped graphene on dielectric substrates without transfer is highly desired for simplified device processing in electronic applications.However,graphene synthesis directly on substrates suitable for device applications,though highly demanded,remains unattainable and challenging.Here,a simple and transfer-free synthesis of high-quality doped graphene on the dielectric substrate has been developed using a thin Cu layer as the top catalyst and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as both carbon precursors and doping sources.N-doped and N,F-co-doped graphene have been achieved using TPB and F16Cu Pc as solid carbon sources,respectively.The growth conditions were systematically optimized and the as-grown doped graphene were well characterized.The growth strategy provides a controllable transfer-free route for high-quality doped graphene synthesis,which will facilitate the practical applications of graphene.

  9. Influence of protein source on amino acid uptake patterns and protein utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Holm, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    induces reduced growth performances that remain partly unexplained. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of exchanging the protein source on protein utilization. Marine (fish meal) and vegetable (pea protein) sources were used with or without supplementation of crystalline amino......Matrixes of different protein sources (fish and plant products) combined with the use of crystalline amino acids allow for formulation of diets that meet fish requirements with little or no effect on protein digestibility and/or feed intake. Despite this, a total or partial replacement of fish meal...... acids to the fishmeal diet level (see Table 1). Amino acid uptake patterns were assessed by the appearance of amino acids in the blood stream following the ingestion of a meal, while dietary protein utilization was evaluated by examining the metabolic response to digestion and ammonium and urea...

  10. Selective enhancement and verification of woody biomass digestibility as a denitrification carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongting; Zheng, Xilai; Xin, Jia; Sun, Zhaoyue; Zheng, Tianyuan

    2017-11-01

    The denitrification efficiency of woody biomass as carbon source is low because of its poor carbon availability. In this study, representative poplar sawdust was pretreated with lime and peracetic acid to enhance the biomass digestibility to different degrees; sawdust was then mixed with soil to investigate its denitrification efficiency. Under controllable conditions (25-95°C, 12-24h, varying dosages), sawdust digestibility (characterized by reducing sugar yield) was selectively enhanced 1.0-21.8 times over that of the raw sawdust (28.8mgeq.glucoseg -1 dry biomass). This increase was mainly attributed to the removal of lignin from the biomass. As a carbon source, the sawdust (digestibility enhanced by 5.4 times) increased the nitrate removal rate by 4.7 times, without N 2 O emission. However, the sawdust with high digestibility (12.6 or 18.0 times), despite releasing more dissolved organic carbon (DOC), did not exhibit further increase in denitrification efficiency, and emitted N 2 O. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of ion source 'SUPERSHYPIE' in the study of low energy ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, V.; Boduch, P.; Chesnel, J.Y.; Fremont, F.; Lecler, D.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Gaubert, G.; Leroy, R.

    1999-01-01

    Modifications in the ECR 4M ion source are described, which conducted to realization of the advanced source 'SUPERSHYPIE'. The Ar 8+ ion collision with Cs(6s,6p) were studied by photon spectroscopy at low energy, where the process is dominated by simple electron capture. Results obtained with 'SUPERSHYPIE' source are presented. The source was utilized also in ion-molecule collisions (CO, H 2 ) to study the spectra of recoil ions and Auger electron spectra in the Ar 17+ He collisions. The excellent performances of 'SUPERSHYPIE' in high charge production and concerning its accurate and fine control and stability are illustrated and underlined as compared with those of ECR 4M source

  12. Stationary scanning x-ray source based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, G.; Cheng, Y.; Gao, B.; Qiu, Q.; Lee, Y.Z.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2005-01-01

    We report a field emission x-ray source that can generate a scanning x-ray beam to image an object from multiple projection angles without mechanical motion. The key component of the device is a gated carbon nanotube field emission cathode with an array of electron emitting pixels that are individually addressable via a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor-based electronic circuit. The characteristics of this x-ray source are measured and its imaging capability is demonstrated. The device can potentially lead to a fast data acquisition rate for laminography and tomosynthesis with a simplified experimental setup

  13. Sustainable carbon sources for microbial organic acid production with filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörsam, Stefan; Fesseler, Jana; Gorte, Olga; Hahn, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The organic acid producer Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar are able to convert several alternative carbon sources to malic and fumaric acid. Thus, carbohydrate hydrolysates from lignocellulose separation are likely suitable as substrate for organic acid production with these fungi. Before lignocellulose hydrolysate fractions were tested as substrates, experiments with several mono- and disaccharides, possibly present in pretreated biomass, were conducted for their suitability for malic acid production with A. oryzae. This includes levoglucosan, glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, ribose, and cellobiose as well as cheap and easy available sugars, e.g., fructose and maltose. A. oryzae is able to convert every sugar investigated to malate, albeit with different yields. Based on the promising results from the pure sugar conversion experiments, fractions of the organosolv process from beechwood ( Fagus sylvatica ) and Miscanthus giganteus were further analyzed as carbon source for cultivation and fermentation with A. oryzae for malic acid and R. delemar for fumaric acid production. The highest malic acid concentration of 37.9 ± 2.6 g/L could be reached using beechwood cellulose fraction as carbon source in bioreactor fermentation with A. oryzae and 16.2 ± 0.2 g/L fumaric acid with R. delemar . We showed in this study that the range of convertible sugars for A. oryzae is even higher than known before. We approved the suitability of fiber/cellulose hydrolysate obtained from the organosolv process as carbon source for A. oryzae in shake flasks as well as in a small-scale bioreactor. The more challenging hemicellulose fraction of F. sylvatica was also positively evaluated for malic acid production with A. oryzae .

  14. Nanostructured current sources based on carbon nanotubes excited by β radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurov, A. N.; Bulyarskiy, S. V.; Risovaniy, V. D.; Pavlov, A. A.; Abanin, I. E.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Shamanaev, A. A.; Lebedev, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of available and promising developments is carried out in the field of power elements based on β decay. The possible fabrication technologies are described, and the efficiency of the power sources manufactured with them is calculated. The possibility of designing a self-charging supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes is considered with the use of "6"3Ni and "1"4C isotopes, and theoretical calculation confirms the promising nature of this line of research.

  15. Data for iTRAQ secretomic analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus in response to different carbon sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil S. Adav; Anita Ravindran; Siu Kwan Sze

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide data related to the research article entitled ?Quantitative proteomics study of Aspergillus fumigatus secretome revealed deamidation of secretory enzymes? by Adav et al. (J. Proteomics (2015) [1]). Aspergillus sp. plays an important role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling. To explore biomass hydrolyzing enzymes of A. fumigatus, we profiled secretome under different carbon sources such as glucose, cellulose, xylan and starch by high throughput quantitative proteomics using i...

  16. Study of hard diamond-like carbon films deposited in an inductively coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiji; Ma Tengcai

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition of the hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma source (ICPS). The microscopy, microhardness, deposition rate and structure characteristic of the DLC films were analyzed. It is shown that the ICPS is suitable for the hard DLC film deposition at relatively low substrate negative bias voltage, and the substrate negative bias voltage greatly affects chemical vapor deposition of the DLC film and its quality

  17. Nanostructured current sources based on carbon nanotubes excited by β radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurov, A. N. [SMC Technological Center (Russian Federation); Bulyarskiy, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Microelectronics Nanotechnology Institute, INME (Russian Federation); Risovaniy, V. D. [CJSC Science and Innovation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Microelectronics Nanotechnology Institute, INME (Russian Federation); Abanin, I. E.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Shamanaev, A. A. [SMC Technological Center (Russian Federation); Lebedev, E. A., E-mail: dr.beefheart@gmail.com [National Research University Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (MIET) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    An analysis of available and promising developments is carried out in the field of power elements based on β decay. The possible fabrication technologies are described, and the efficiency of the power sources manufactured with them is calculated. The possibility of designing a self-charging supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes is considered with the use of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 14}C isotopes, and theoretical calculation confirms the promising nature of this line of research.

  18. Estimation of pollutant source contribution to the Pampanga River Basin using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Solidad S.; Sta Maria, Efren J.; Ramirez, Jennyvi D.; Collado, Mario B.; Samar, Edna D.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and estimated the percentage contribution of potential pollution sources in Pampanga River Basin using carbon and nitrogen isotopes as environmental tracers. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were determined in particulate organic matter, surface sediment, and plant tissue samples from point and non-point sources from several land use areas, namely domestic, croplands, livestock, fishery and forestry. Investigations were conducted in the wet and dry seasons (2012 and 2013). Some N sources do not have unique δ 15 N and there is overlapping among different N- sources type. δ 13 C data from the N sources provided an additional dimension which distinguished animal manure, human waste (septic and sewage), leaf litter, and synthetic fertilizer. Characterization of the non-point N-sources based on the isotopic fingerprints obtained from the point sources revealed that domestic, cropland, livestock, and fishery, influenced the isotopic composition of the materials but domestic and cropland land use provided the most significant influence. Livestock also contributed to a lesser extent. Isotope mixing model revealed that cropland sources generally contributed the most to pollutant loading during the wet season, from 22% to 98%, while domestic waste contributed higher in the dry season, from 55% to 65%. (author)

  19. Starch as a source, starch as a sink: the bifunctional role of starch in carbon allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Gregory J; Mehrpouyan, Sahar; Minow, Mark A A; Patterson, Jenelle A; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J

    2017-07-20

    Starch commands a central role in the carbon budget of the majority of plants on earth, and its biological role changes during development and in response to the environment. Throughout the life of a plant, starch plays a dual role in carbon allocation, acting as both a source, releasing carbon reserves in leaves for growth and development, and as a sink, either as a dedicated starch store in its own right (in seeds and tubers), or as a temporary reserve of carbon contributing to sink strength, in organs such as flowers, fruits, and developing non-starchy seeds. The presence of starch in tissues and organs thus has a profound impact on the physiology of the growing plant as its synthesis and degradation governs the availability of free sugars, which in turn control various growth and developmental processes. This review attempts to summarize the large body of information currently available on starch metabolism and its relationship to wider aspects of carbon metabolism and plant nutrition. It highlights gaps in our knowledge and points to research areas that show promise for bioengineering and manipulation of starch metabolism in order to achieve more desirable phenotypes such as increased yield or plant biomass. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Thermal hydrolysis of sludge and the use of hydrolysate as carbon source for denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlindhaug, J

    1995-10-01

    As a consequence of the North Sea- and the Baltic Sea Treaties as well as the Wastewater Directive of the EU, several large wastewater treatment plants discharging to sensitive receiving waters have to include phosphorus as well as nitrogen removal. This thesis evaluates the so called NTH-process for nutrient removal. In this process pre-precipitation is used in front of a biological nitrogen removal step that is based on a combination of pre- and post-denitrification in moving bed biofilm reactors. The biological step is followed by a final separation step, possibly after coagulant addition. Carbon source for the post denitrification step is made available by hydrolysis of the sludge produced. The idea is that the particulate organic matter, which in a traditional pre-denitrification step would have to be enzymatically hydrolyzed, can be more efficiently hydrolyzed in a concentrated sidestream and used in a post-denitrification step. In the thesis hydrolyzed sludge is used as a carbon source for denitrification. The objective is to investigate the influence of varying hydrolysis conditions on the composition and amount of the thermal hydrolysate produced, as well as the quality of the hydrolysate as a carbon source for denitrification. 201 refs., 78 refs., 53 tabs.

  1. Carbon and Nitrogen Sources for Shrimp Postlarvae Fed Natural Diets from a Tropical Mangrove System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittel, A. I.; Epifanio, C. E.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1997-11-01

    Postlarvae ofPenaeus vannameiwere fed various diets in order to examine the importance of detritus and other possible prey items in supporting postlarval growth. Stable isotopes (C and N) were used to determine the carbon and nitrogen source of the prey in the various diets. The zooplankton diet contained mostly copepods. The subtidal detritus treatment consisted mostly of plant material whereas the diets from both intertidal sites contained a mixture of plant detritus and associated meiofauna. Postlarvae reared on zooplankton and detritus plus meiofauna diets more than tripled their weight during a 6-day period. In contrast, postlarvae fed the detritus diet barely doubled their weight. Based on isotopic composition, postlarvae appear to obtain their carbon and nitrogen from various food sources. Postlarvae were enriched by 0·4‰ in13C and 2·7‰ in15N relative to the zooplankton diet, which is consistent with isotopic fractionation between successive trophic levels. In turn, the isotopic signal of the zooplankton was consistent with phytoplankton being the initial source of organic matter. In contrast, mean δ13C values of the shrimp fed detritus plus meiofauna were significantly different from their respective diets. Isotopic ratios of the postlarvae fed the mixed diet from Chomes were two trophic levels above benthic algae suggesting that the shrimp preyed on organisms that derived their carbon and nitrogen from benthic algae and/or phytoplankton.

  2. Assessment of carbon sources on in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative approach for in vitro shoot regeneration by both direct and indirect means was developed in three tomato genotypes culturing hypocotyls and leaf discs explants on MS and N6 basal media fortified with various concentrations of carbon sources (sucrose and sorbitol) individually, accumulatively and also in amalgamation with various plant growth regulators. No response of in vitro shoot regeneration was recorded in all the genotypes by the individual application of carbon sources in both MS and N6 basal media. On the other hand, their accumulative effect rapidly enhanced the in vitro shoot regeneration frequency in all the genotypes. The highest shoot organogenesis frequency (100, 99.00 and 97.69%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker, respectively on MS medium fortified with carbon sources (30: 30 g/l) culturing hypocotyls. Supplementation of sucrose: sorbitol (30: 30 g/l) in N6 medium along with different PGRs (0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP) produced the highest shoot regeneration frequency (96.33, 92.69 and 88.74%) in Roma, Rio Grande and Moneymaker culturing leaf discs. Our findings suggest an alternative approach as hormone-free protocol for in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato that would save the resources with regard to hormonal costs and time. (author)

  3. Source brightness and useful beam current of carbon nanotubes and other very small emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruit, P.; Bezuijen, M.; Barth, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The potential application of carbon nanotubes as electron sources in electron microscopes is analyzed. The resolution and probe current that can be obtained from a carbon nanotube emitter in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope are calculated and compared to the state of the art using Schottky electron sources. Many analytical equations for probe-size versus probe-current relations in different parameter regimes are obtained. It is shown that for most carbon nanotube emitters, the gun lens aberrations are larger than the emitters' virtual source size and thus restrict the microscope's performance. The result is that the advantages of the higher brightness of nanotube emitters are limited unless the angular emission current is increased over present day values or the gun lens aberrations are decreased. For some nanotubes with a closed cap, it is known that the emitted electron beam is coherent over the full emission cone. We argue that for such emitters the parameter ''brightness'' becomes meaningless. The influence of phase variations in the electron wave front emitted from such a nanotube emitter on the focusing of the electron beam is analyzed

  4. The Effects of Different External Carbon Sources on Nitrous Oxide Emissions during Denitrification in Biological Nutrient Removal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Hongxun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different external carbon sources (acetate and ethanol) on the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during denitrification in biological nutrient removal processes. Results showed that external carbon source significantly influenced N2O emissions during the denitrification process. When acetate served as the external carbon source, 0.49 mg N/L and 0.85 mg N/L of N2O was produced during the denitrificaiton processes in anoxic and anaerobic/anoxic experiments, giving a ratio of N2O-N production to TN removal of 2.37% and 4.96%, respectively. Compared with acetate, the amount of N2O production is negligible when ethanol used as external carbon addition. This suggested that ethanol is a potential alternative external carbon source for acetate from the point of view of N2O emissions.

  5. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organic substrates in soil depends on their carbon oxidation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Smith, Andrew; Jones, Davey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Removal of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS), originating from plants and microorganisms, from soil solution is regulated by microbial uptake. In addition to the concentration of LMWOS in soil solution, the chemical properties of each substance (e.g. C oxidation state, number of C atoms, number of -COOH groups) can affect their uptake and subsequent partitioning of C within the soil microbial community. The aim of this study was to trace the initial fate of three dominant classes of LMWOS in soil (sugars, carboxylic and amino acids), including their removal from solution and utilization by microorganisms, and to reveal the effect of substance chemical properties on these processes. Soil solution, spiked at natural abundance levels with 14C-labelled glucose, fructose, malate, succinate, formate, alanine or glycine, was added to the soil and 14C was traced in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CO2, cytosol and soil organic carbon (SOC) over 24 hours. The half-life time of all LMWOS in the DOC (T1 /2-solution) varied between 0.6-5.0 min showing extremely fast initial uptake of LMWOS. The T1 /2-solution of substances was dependent on C oxidation state, indicating that less oxidized organic substances (with C oxidation state "0") were retained longer in soil solution than oxidized substances. The LMWOS-C T1 /2-fast, characterizing the half-life time of 14C in the fast mineralization pool, ranged between 30 and 80 min, with the T1 /2-fast of carboxylic acids (malic acid) being the fastest and the T1 /2-fast of amino acids (glycine) being the slowest. An absence of correlation between T1 /2-fast and either C oxidation state, number of C atoms, or number of -COOH groups suggests that intercellular metabolic pathways are more important for LMWOS transformation in soil than their basic chemical properties. The CO2 release during LMWOS mineralization accounted for 20-90% of 14C applied. Mineralization of LMWOS was the least for sugars and the greatest for

  6. Utilization of ancient permafrost carbon in headwaters of Arctic fluvial networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, Paul J.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Zimov, Nikita; Davydova, Anna; Vonk, Jorien E.; Holmes, Robert M.; Spencer, Robert G M

    2015-01-01

    Northern high-latitude rivers are major conduits of carbon from land to coastal seas and the Arctic Ocean. Arctic warming is promoting terrestrial permafrost thaw and shifting hydrologic flowpaths, leading to fluvial mobilization of ancient carbon stores. Here we describe 14 C and 13 C

  7. Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation : knowns and unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Lippke; Elaine Oneil; Rob Harrison; Kenneth Skog; Leif Gustavsson; Roger Sathre

    2011-01-01

    This review on research on life cycle carbon accounting examines the complexities in accounting for carbon emissions given the many different ways that wood is used. Recent objectives to increase the use of renewable fuels have raised policy questions, with respect to the sustainability of managing our forests as well as the impacts of how best to use wood from our...

  8. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess...

  9. Utilization of porous carbons derived from coconut shell and wood in natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porous carbons derived from cellulose are renewable and environmentally friendly. Coconut shell and wood derived porous carbons were characterized with elemental analysis, ash content, x-ray diffraction, infrared absorbance, particle size, surface area, and pore volume. The results were compared...

  10. The Application of Value Focused Thinking to Utilities Privatization Source Selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duncan, J

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Defense's utility systems have suffered from under-funding and lack of technology investment, thereby creating a service gap between these DoD systems and systems operated by commercial providers...

  11. Badlands and the Carbon cycle: a significant source of petrogenic organic carbon in rivers and marine environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copard, Yoann; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique; Radakovitch, Olivier; Poirel, Alain; Raimbault, Patrick; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Di-Giovanni, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A key issue in the study of carbon biogeochemical cycle is to well constrain each carbon origin in term of fluxes between all C-reservoirs. From continental surfaces to oceans, rivers convey particulate organic carbon originate from the biomass (biospheric OC) and /or from the sedimentary rocks (petrogenic OC). Existence and importance of this petrogenic OC export to oceans was debated for several decades (see Copard et al., 2007 and ref.), but it is now assumed that 20% of the global carbon export to ocean has a geological origin (Galy et al., 2015). The main current challenge is to constrain the major contributors to this petrogenic OC flux. Amongst the expected sedimentary sources of petrogenic OC in rivers, sedimentary rocks forming badlands can be rightly considered as some viable candidates. Indeed these rocks show a strong erosion rate, may exceed 50 kt km-2 y-1 and in addition, shales, marls and argillaceous rocks, frequently forming badlands (see Nadal-Romero et al., 2011 for the Mediterranean area), contain a significant amount of petrogenic OC (frequently over 0.50 wt. %, Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1976). Our work illustrates the contribution of badlands, mainly distributed within the Durance catchment (a main tributary of the Rhône river), in the petrogenic OC export to the Mediterranean Sea. The approach is based on (i) the use of previous and new data on radiogenic carbon, (ii) bulk organic geochemistry (Rock-Eval pyrolysis), (iii) optical quantification of particulate OM (palynofacies), performed on suspended sediments from the Durance, the Rhône rivers and from small rivers draining the badlands. A mean erosion rate of badlands, previously calculated for instrumented catchments (SOERE Draix-Bléone, Graz et al., 2012) was also applied to the badlands disseminated within the Durance catchment. These different methodologies converge to a petrogenic contribution of the OC export to the Mediterranean Sea close to 30 %. Badlands from the Durance catchment

  12. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  13. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Zou, Peter; Kokoszka, John

    2009-12-01

    The effective treatment and utilization of biowaste have been emphasized in our society for environmental and economic concerns. Recently, the eggshell waste in the poultry industry has been highlighted because of its reclamation potential. This study presents an economical treatment process to recover useful bioproducts from eggshell waste and their utilization in commercial products. We developed the dissolved air floatation (DAF) separation unit, which successfully recovered 96% of eggshell membrane and 99% of eggshell calcium carbonate (ECC) particles from eggshell waste within 2 h of operation. The recovered ECC particles were utilized as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper and their impact on the ink density and paper gloss were investigated. The addition of the ECC particles as coating pigments enhances the optical density of cyan, magenta and yellow inks while decreasing the black ink density and the gloss of the coated paper.

  14. Total organic carbon, an important tool in a holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, P.D.; Burns, W.A.; Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to verify the consistency of source allocation results for the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background of the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound where the Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in 1998. The samples used in the study were either pre-spill sediments or from the seafloor outside the spill path. It is assumed that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the area comes from either seep oil residues and shale erosion including erosion from petroleum source rock shales, or from coals including those of the Bering River coalfields. The objective of this study was to use the TOC calculations to discriminate between the two very different sources. TOC can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations, particularly when inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. The benthic sediments used in this study showed excellent agreement between measured TOC and calculated TOC from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. TOC and fingerprint matches confirmed that TOC sources were properly identified. The matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of different sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. It was concluded that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the sediments in the area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and oil seeps along the northern Gulf of Alaska coast. Thermally mature area coals are excluded from being important contributors to the background at Prince William Sound because of their high TOC content. 26 refs., 4 figs

  15. Total organic carbon, an important tool in a holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, P.D. [Battelle, Waltham, MA (United States); Burns, W.A. [W.A. Burns Consulting Services, Houston, TX (United States); Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States); Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S. [Battelle, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to verify the consistency of source allocation results for the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background of the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound where the Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in 1998. The samples used in the study were either pre-spill sediments or from the seafloor outside the spill path. It is assumed that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the area comes from either seep oil residues and shale erosion including erosion from petroleum source rock shales, or from coals including those of the Bering River coalfields. The objective of this study was to use the TOC calculations to discriminate between the two very different sources. TOC can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations, particularly when inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. The benthic sediments used in this study showed excellent agreement between measured TOC and calculated TOC from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. TOC and fingerprint matches confirmed that TOC sources were properly identified. The matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of different sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. It was concluded that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the sediments in the area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and oil seeps along the northern Gulf of Alaska coast. Thermally mature area coals are excluded from being important contributors to the background at Prince William Sound because of their high TOC content. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Utilization of oil palm fronds in producing activated carbon using Na2CO3 as an activator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, S.; Anwari, FN

    2018-02-01

    Oil Palm Frond is a waste in palm oil plantations that have the potential to be processed into more valuable products. This possibility is because of the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in oil palm fronds. Therefore, this study aimed to utilize oil palm fronds in manufacturing of activated carbon through pyrolysis and impregnation that meets the requirements of the Industrial National Standard 06-3730-1995. The palm-fringed oil palm fronds were pyrolyzed in reactors at 150°C, 200°C, and 250°C for 60 minutes. Subsequently, the charcoal produced from the pyrolysis was smoothed with a ball mill, sieved with a size of 140 meshes, and impregnated using a Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) for 24 hours at a concentration of 0 %, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5 % (w/v). The activated carbon has 35.13% of charcoal yield, 8.6% of water content, 14.25% of ash content, 24.75% of volatile matter, 72.75% of fixed carbon, and 492.29 of iodine number. Moreover, SEM analysis indicated that activated carbon porous are coarse and distributed.

  17. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Experimental Data and Model Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Nopens, I.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental data are presented that resulted from aerobic batch degradation experiments in activated sludge with simple carbon sources (acetate and dextrose) as substrates. Data collection was done using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements. The respirometer consists of an open aerated....... For acetate, protons were consumed during aerobic degradation, whereas for dextrose protons were produced. For both carbon sources, a linear relationship was found between the amount of carbon source added and the amount of protons consumed (in case of acetate: 0.38 meq/mmol) or produced (in case of dextrose...

  18. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.69�4.57, 135.23�1.73 and 134.74�1.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  19. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.694.57, 135.231.73 and 134.741.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  20. DES/CCHP: The best utilization mode of natural gas for China’s low carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yajun; Xia, Yan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, through the analysis of the great challenges faced by China’s energy industry in the development of low carbon economy, it is advisable that China increase the proportion of natural gas (NG) in primary energy as the main strategy of energy conservation and CO 2 reduction in the advancement of industrialization and urbanization. In the near future, NG will become one of the major energy suppliers for new towns and industrial parks, and work for electric peak shaving when used in distributed energy system/combined cold, heat and power (DES/CCHP). However, as an efficient approach to improve the energy utilization efficiency, DES/CCHP cannot only increase the current energy efficiency from 33% to 50.3% (the world’s average), but also reduce the cost of terminal supplies of power, cold, steam and hot water. It will become one of the most important means to control CO 2 emissions in the next 20 years, and is essential to China’s low carbon industrialization and urbanization. - Highlights: ► China’s high economic growth has lead to a huge amount of carbon emissions. ► Climate change calls for a low carbon economy in China. ► The pressure of carbon emission reduction requires China reduce the excessive dependency on coal and oil. ► Natural gas used in distributed energy system/combined cold, heat and power (NG DES/CCHP) is low in carbon emission. ► NG DES/CCHP is the optimal energy supplier for a low carbon economy in China.

  1. Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from...... the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants...

  2. Dual Nitrate Isotopes in Dry Deposition: Utility for Partitioning Nox Source Contributions to Landscape Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry deposition is a major component of total nitrogen deposition and thus an important source of bioavailable nitrogen to ecosystems. However, relative to wet deposition, less is known regarding the sources and spatial variability of dry deposition. This is in part due to diffi...

  3. Multinational Scanning: A Study of the Information Sources Utilized by Headquarters Executives in Multinational Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Warren J.

    1974-01-01

    Findings reveal the great importance of human sources of information and sources outside the organization. Divisional boundaries, functional specialization, and level were all found to act as significant barriers to information flows, and thus as limitations to organizational effectiveness. (Author/WM)

  4. Expanding Human Capabilities through the Adoption and Utilization of Free, Libre, and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Free, libre, and open source software (FLOSS) is software that is collaboratively developed. FLOSS provides end-users with the source code and the freedom to adapt or modify a piece of software to fit their needs (Deek & McHugh, 2008; Stallman, 2010). FLOSS has a 30 year history that dates to the open hacker community at the Massachusetts…

  5. Archival Theory and the Shaping of Educational History: Utilizing New Sources and Reinterpreting Traditional Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Information technology has spawned new evidentiary sources, better retrieval systems for existing ones, and new tools for interpreting traditional source materials. These advances have contributed to a broadening of public participation in civil society (Blouin and Rosenberg 2006). In these culturally unsettled and economically fragile times…

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Polyhydroxybutyrate Cycle Mutants Reveals Discrete Loci Connecting Nitrogen Utilization and Carbon Storage in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Maya; Nordeste, Ricardo; Doxey, Andrew C; Charles, Trevor C

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and glycogen polymers are produced by bacteria as carbon storage compounds under unbalanced growth conditions. To gain insights into the transcriptional mechanisms controlling carbon storage in Sinorhizobium meliloti , we investigated the global transcriptomic response to the genetic disruption of key genes in PHB synthesis and degradation and in glycogen synthesis. Under both nitrogen-limited and balanced growth conditions, transcriptomic analysis was performed with genetic mutants deficient in PHB synthesis ( phbA , phbB , phbAB , and phbC ), PHB degradation ( bdhA , phaZ , and acsA2 ), and glycogen synthesis ( glgA1 ). Three distinct genomic regions of the pSymA megaplasmid exhibited altered expression in the wild type and the PHB cycle mutants that was not seen in the glycogen synthesis mutant. An Fnr family transcriptional motif was identified in the upstream regions of a cluster of genes showing similar transcriptional patterns across the mutants. This motif was found at the highest density in the genomic regions with the strongest transcriptional effect, and the presence of this motif upstream of genes in these regions was significantly correlated with decreased transcript abundance. Analysis of the genes in the pSymA regions revealed that they contain a genomic overrepresentation of Fnr family transcription factor-encoding genes. We hypothesize that these loci, containing mostly nitrogen utilization, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation genes, are regulated in response to the intracellular carbon/nitrogen balance. These results indicate a transcriptional regulatory association between intracellular carbon levels (mediated through the functionality of the PHB cycle) and the expression of nitrogen metabolism genes. IMPORTANCE The ability of bacteria to store carbon and energy as intracellular polymers uncouples cell growth and replication from nutrient uptake and provides flexibility in the use of resources as they are available to

  7. In-Situ Resource Utilization: Carbon Dioxide Collection, Separation, and Pressurization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The atmosphere of Mars is predominantly carbon dioxide (95.5 percent), with nitrogen, argon, and trace gases comprising the remaining portion. KSC and GRC are...

  8. Utilization of turkey manure as granular activated carbon: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel; Marshall, Wayne E

    2005-01-01

    The high availability of large quantities of turkey manure generated from turkey production makes it an attractive feedstock for carbon production. Pelletized samples of turkey litter and cake were converted to granular activated carbons (GACs) by steam activation. Water flow rate and activation time were changed to produce a range of activation conditions. The GACs were characterized for select physical (yield, surface area, bulk density, attrition), chemical (pH, surface charge) and adsorptive properties (copper ion uptake). Carbon physical and adsorptive properties were dependent on activation time and quantity of steam used as activant. Yields varied from 23% to 37%, surface area varied from 248 to 472 m(2)/g and copper ion adsorption varied from 0.72 to 1.86 mmol Cu(2+)/g carbon. Copper ion adsorption greatly exceeded the values for two commercial GACs. GACs from turkey litter and cake show considerable potential to remove metal ions from water.

  9. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, G.; Schoenefeldt, J.; Mehring, I.

    1995-01-01

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author)

  10. Development of C{sup 6+} laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, T., E-mail: takayuki1.sako@toshiba.co.jp; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T. [Cancer Research Center, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A prototype C{sup 6+} injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  11. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  12. Development of C⁶⁺ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  13. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype C 6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4

  14. Carbon Transformations and Source - Sink Dynamics along a River, Marsh, Estuary, Ocean Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I. C.; Crosswell, J.; Czapla, K.; Van Dam, B.

    2017-12-01

    Estuaries, the transition zone between land and the coastal ocean, are highly dynamic systems in which carbon sourced from watersheds, marshes, atmosphere, and ocean may be transformed, sequestered, or exported. The net fate of carbon in estuaries, governed by the interactions of biotic and physical drivers varying on spatial and temporal scales, is currently uncertain because of limited observational data. In this study, conducted in a temperate, microtidal, and shallow North Carolina USA estuary, carbon exchanges via river, tributary, and fringing salt marsh, air-water fluxes, sediment C accumulation, and metabolism were monitored over two-years, with sharply different amounts of rainfall. Air-water CO2 fluxes and metabolic variables were simultaneously measured in channel and shoal by conducting high-resolution surveys at dawn, dusk and the following dawn. Marsh CO2 exchanges, sediment C inputs, and lateral exports of DIC and DOC were also measured. Carbon flows between estuary regions and export to the coastal ocean were calculated by quantifying residual transport of DIC and TOC down-estuary as flows were modified by sources, sinks and internal transformations. Variation in metabolic rates, CO2, TOC and DIC exchanges were large when determined for short time and limited spatial scales. However, when scaled to annual and whole estuarine scales, variation tended to decrease because of counteracting metabolic rates and fluxes between channel and shoal or between seasons. Although overall salt marshes accumulated OC, they were a negligible source of DIC and DOC to the estuary, and net inputs of C to the marsh were mainly derived from sediment OC. These results, as observed in other observational studies of estuaries, show that riverine input, light, temperature and metabolism are major controls on carbon cycling. Comparison of our results with other types of estuaries varying in depth, latitude, and nutrification demonstrates large discrepancies underscoring the

  15. Molasses as an efficient low-cost carbon source for biological Cr(VI) removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailides, Michail K. [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 G. Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G., E-mail: atekerle@upatras.gr [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 G. Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Akratos, Christos S.; Coles, Sandra [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 G. Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Pavlou, Stavros [Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, P.O. Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Vayenas, Dimitrios V. [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 G. Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, P.O. Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2015-01-08

    Highlights: • Suspended and attached growth reactors were examined for Cr(VI) bio-reduction. • Molasses was proved an efficient and very low cost carbon source. • Molasses was more efficient than sugar in enhancing Cr(VI) reduction. • SBR with recirculation was the most proper operating mode. - Abstract: In the present study, indigenous microorganisms from industrial sludge were used to reduce the activity of Cr(VI). Molasses, a by-product of sugar processing, was selected as the carbon source (instead of sugar used in a previous work) as it is a low-cost energy source for bioprocesses. Initially, experiments were carried out in suspended growth batch reactors for Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.5–110 mg/L. The time required for complete Cr(VI) reduction increased with initial Cr(VI) concentration. Initial molasses concentration was also found to influence the Cr(VI) reduction rate. The optimal concentration for all initial Cr(VI) concentrations tested was 0.8 gC/L. Experiments were also carried out in packed-bed reactors. Three different operating modes were used to investigate the optimal performance and efficiency of the filter, i.e. batch, continuous and SBR with recirculation. The latter mode with a recirculation rate of 0.5 L/min lead to significantly high Cr(VI) reduction rates (up to 135 g/m{sup 2} d). The results of this work were compared with those of a similar work using sugar as the carbon source and indicate that molasses could prove a feasible technological solution to a serious environmental problem.

  16. DEPLETION OF CCS IN A CANDIDATE WARM-CARBON-CHAIN-CHEMISTRY SOURCE L483

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out an observation of the CCS (J N = 2 1 -1 0 ) line with the Very Large Array in its D-configuration toward a protostellar core L483 (IRAS 18140-0440). This is a candidate source of the newly found carbon-chain-rich environment called 'Warm-Carbon-Chain-Chemistry (WCCC)', according to the previous observations of carbon-chain molecules. The CCS distribution in L483 is found to consist of two clumps aligned in the northwest-southeast direction, well tracing the CCS ridge observed with the single-dish radio telescope. The most remarkable feature is that CCS is depleted at the core center. Such a CCS distribution with the central hole is consistent with those of previously observed prestellar and protostellar cores, but it is rather unexpected for L483. This is because the distribution of CS, which is usually similar to that of CCS, is centrally peaked. Our results imply that the CCS (J N = 2 1 -1 0 ) line would selectively trace the outer cold envelope in the chemically less evolved phase that is seriously resolved out with the interferometric observation. Thus, it is most likely that the high abundance of CCS in L483 relative to the other WCCC sources is not due to the activity of the protostar, although it would be related to its younger chemical evolutionary stage, or a short timescale of the prestellar phase.

  17. Seasonal variability of organic matter composition in an Alaskan glacier outflow: insights into glacier carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Robert G M; Vermilyea, Andrew; Fellman, Jason; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter; Stubbins, Aron; Scott, Durelle

    2014-01-01

    Glacier ecosystems are a significant source of bioavailable, yet ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Characterizing DOC in Mendenhall Glacier outflow (southeast Alaska) we document a seasonal persistence to the radiocarbon-depleted signature of DOC, highlighting ancient DOC as a ubiquitous feature of glacier outflow. We observed no systematic depletion in Δ 14 C-DOC with increasing discharge during the melt season that would suggest mobilization of an aged subglacial carbon store. However, DOC concentration, δ 13 C-DOC, Δ 14 C-DOC and fluorescence signatures appear to have been influenced by runoff from vegetated hillslopes above the glacier during onset and senescence of melt. In the peak glacier melt period, the Δ 14 C-DOC of stream samples at the outflow (−181.7 to −355.3‰) was comparable to the Δ 14 C-DOC for snow samples from the accumulation zone (−207.2 to −390.9‰), suggesting that ancient DOC from the glacier surface is exported in glacier runoff. The pre-aged DOC in glacier snow and runoff is consistent with contributions from fossil fuel combustion sources similar to those documented previously in ice cores and thus provides evidence for anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Overall, our results emphasize the need to further characterize DOC inputs to glacier ecosystems, particularly in light of predicted changes in glacier mass and runoff in the coming century. (papers)

  18. Climate Narratives: Combing multiple sources of information to develop risk management strategies for a municipal water utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.; Basdekas, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Stewart, N.

    2013-12-01

    Municipal water utilities often develop Integrated Water Resource Plans (IWRP), with the goal of providing a reliable, sustainable water supply to customers in a cost-effective manner. Colorado Springs Utilities, a 5-service provider (potable and waste water, solid waste, natural gas and electricity) in Colorado USA, recently undertook an IWRP. where they incorporated water supply, water demand, water quality, infrastructure reliability, environmental protection, and other measures within the context of complex water rights, such as their critically important 'exchange potential'. The IWRP noted that an uncertain climate was one of the greatest sources of uncertainty to achieving a sustainable water supply to a growing community of users. We describe how historic drought, paleo-climate, and climate change projections were blended together into climate narratives that informed a suite of water resource systems models used by the utility to explore the vulnerabilities of their water systems.

  19. Fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC in Göteborg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szidat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter was collected at an urban site in Göteborg (Sweden in February/March 2005 and in June/July 2006. Additional samples were collected at a rural site for the winter period. Total carbon (TC concentrations were 2.1–3.6 μg m−3, 1.8–1.9 μg m−3, and 2.2–3.0 μg m−3 for urban/winter, rural/winter, and urban/summer conditions, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-insoluble OC (WINSOC, and water-soluble OC (WSOC were analyzed for 14C in order to distinguish fossil from non-fossil emissions. As wood burning is the single major source of non-fossil EC, its contribution can be quantified directly. For non-fossil OC, the wood-burning fraction was determined independently by levoglucosan and 14C analysis and combined using Latin-hypercube sampling (LHS. For the winter period, the relative contribution of EC from wood burning to the total EC was >3 times higher at the rural site compared to the urban site, whereas the absolute concentrations of EC from wood burning were elevated only moderately at the rural compared to the urban site. Thus, the urban site is substantially more influenced by fossil EC emissions. For summer, biogenic emissions dominated OC concentrations most likely due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. During both seasons, a more pronounced fossil signal was observed for Göteborg than has previously been reported for Zurich, Switzerland. Analysis of air mass origin using back trajectories suggests that the fossil impact was larger when local sources dominated, whereas long-range transport caused an enhanced non-fossil signal. In comparison to other European locations, concentrations of levoglucosan and other monosaccharide anhydrides were low for the urban and the rural site in the area of Göteborg during winter.

  20. A safe and cost-effective PMMA carbon source for MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranot, Mahipal; Shinde, K. P.; Oh, Y. S.; Kang, S. H.; Chung, K. C. [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, S. H. [Kiswire Advanced Technology Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sinha, B. B. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Mumbai (India); Bhardwaj, A. [Dept. of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Carbon is proven to be very effective in pinning the magnetic vortices and improving the superconducting performance of MgB2 at high fields. In this work, we have used polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer as a safe and cost effective carbon source. The effects of molecular weight of PMMA on crystal structure, microstructure as well as on superconducting properties of MgB2 were studied. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there is a noticeable shift in (100) and (110) Bragg reflections towards higher angles, while no shift was observed in (002) reflections for MgB2 doped with different molecular weights of PMMA. This indicates that carbon could be substituted in the boron honeycomb layers without affecting the interlayer interactions. As compared to undoped MgB2, substantial enhancement in Jc(H) properties was obtained for PMMA-doped MgB2 samples both at 5 K and 20 K. The enhancement could be attributed to the effective carbon substitution for boron and the refinement of crystallite size by PMMA doping.

  1. Preliminary study on preparation of BCNO phosphor particles using citric acid as carbon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuryadin, Bebeh W.; Pratiwi, Tripuspita; Faryuni, Irfana D.; Iskandar, Ferry, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi Hiroshima, Japan 739-8527 (Japan)

    2015-04-16

    A citric acid was used as a carbon source in the preparation of boron carbon oxy-nitride (BCNO) phosphor particles by a facile process. The preparation process was conducted at relatively low temperature 750 °C and at ambient pressure. The prepared BCNO phosphors showed a high photoluminescence (PL) performance at peak emission wavelength of 470 nm under excitation by a UV light 365 nm. The effects of carbon/boron and nitrogen/boron molar ratios on the PL properties were also investigated. The result showed that the emission spectra with a wavelength peak ranging from 444 nm to 496 nm can be obtained by varying carbon/boron ratios from 0.1 to 0.9. In addition, the observations showed that the BCNO phosphor material has two excitation peaks located at the 365 nm (UV) and 420 nm (blue). Based on these observations, we believe that the citric acid derived BCNO phosphor particles can be a promising inexpensive material for phosphor conversion-based white LED.

  2. Utility of routine data sources for feedback on the quality of cancer care: an assessment based on clinical practice guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Coory, Michael; Thompson, Bridie; Baade, Peter; Fritschi, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Not all cancer patients receive state-of-the-art care and providing regular feedback to clinicians might reduce this problem. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of various data sources in providing feedback on the quality of cancer care. Methods Published clinical practice guidelines were used to obtain a list of processes-of-care of interest to clinicians. These were assigned to one of four data categories according to their availability and the marginal ...

  3. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  4. High utilization platinum deposition on single-walled carbon nanotubes as catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.J.; Yin, G.P.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z.B.; Gao, Y.Z.

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to enhance the activity of Pt catalysts, thus to lower the loading of Pt metal in fuel cell. Highly dispersed platinum supported on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as catalyst was prepared by ion exchange method. The homemade Pt/SWNTs underwent a repetition of ion exchange and reduction process in order to achieve an increase of the metal loading. For comparison, the similar loading of Pt catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes was prepared by borohydride reduction method. The catalysts were characterized by using energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). Compared with the Pt/SWNTs catalyst prepared by borohydride method, higher Pt utilization was achieved on the SWNTs by ion exchange method. Furthermore, in comparison to the E-TEK 20 wt.% Pt/C catalyst with the support of carbon black, the results from electrochemical measurement indicated that the Pt/SWNTs prepared by ion exchange method displayed a higher catalytic activity for methanol oxidation and higher Pt utilization, while no significant increasing in the catalytic activity of the Pt/SWNTs catalyst obtained by borohydride method

  5. Paleotempestological chronology developed from gas ion source AMS analysis of carbonates determined through real-time Bayesian statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D. J.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Roberts, M. L.; Burton, J. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Woodruff, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Is a small quantity of high-precision ages more robust than a higher quantity of lower-precision ages for sediment core chronologies? AMS Radiocarbon ages have been available to researchers for several decades now, and precision of the technique has continued to improve. Analysis and time cost is high, though, and projects are often limited in terms of the number of dates that can be used to develop a chronology. The Gas Ion Source at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (NOSAMS), while providing lower-precision (uncertainty of order 100 14C y for a sample), is significantly less expensive and far less time consuming than conventional age dating and offers the unique opportunity for large amounts of ages. Here we couple two approaches, one analytical and one statistical, to investigate the utility of an age model comprised of these lower-precision ages for paleotempestology. We use a gas ion source interfaced to a gas-bench type device to generate radiocarbon dates approximately every 5 minutes while determining the order of sample analysis using the published Bayesian accumulation histories for deposits (Bacon). During two day-long sessions, several dates were obtained from carbonate shells in living position in a sediment core comprised of sapropel gel from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda. Samples were prepared where large shells were available, and the order of analysis was determined by the depth with the highest uncertainty according to Bacon. We present the results of these analyses as well as a prognosis for a future where such age models can be constructed from many dates that are quickly obtained relative to conventional radiocarbon dates. This technique currently is limited to carbonates, but development of a system for organic material dating is underway. We will demonstrate the extent to which sacrificing some analytical precision in favor of more dates improves age models.

  6. The utility of the historical record in assessing future carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, R.; Friedlingstein, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been known that the cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most physically relevant determiner of long-lived anthropogenic climate change, with an approximately linear relationship between CO2-induced global mean surface warming and cumulative emissions. The historical observational record offers a way to constrain the relationship between cumulative carbon dioxide emission and global mean warming using observations to date. Here we show that simple regression analysis indicates that the 1.5°C carbon budget would be exhausted after nearly three decades of current emissions, substantially in excess of many estimates from Earth System Models. However, there are many reasons to be cautious about carbon budget assessments from the historical record alone. Accounting for the uncertainty in non-CO2 radiative forcing using a simple climate model and a standard optimal fingerprinting detection attribution technique gives substantial uncertainty in the contribution of CO2 warming to date, and hence the transient climate response to cumulative emissions. Additionally, the existing balance between CO2 and non-CO2 forcing may change in the future under ambitious mitigation scenarios as non-CO2 emissions become more (or less) important to global mean temperature changes. Natural unforced variability can also have a substantial impact on estimates of remaining carbon budgets. By examining all warmings of a given magnitude in both the historical record and past and future ESM simulations we quantify the impact unforced climate variability may have on estimates of remaining carbon budgets, derived as a function of estimated non-CO2 warming and future emission scenario. In summary, whilst the historical record can act as a useful test of climate models, uncertainties in the response to future cumulative emissions remain large and extrapolations of future carbon budgets from the historical record alone should be treated with caution.

  7. Fees and Therapy: Clarification of the Relationship of Payment Source to Service Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, Nancy Marwick; Kamis, Edna

    1980-01-01

    Fee, sociodemographic, and provider characteristics contributed little unique variance to explaining the volume of services used. Clinical considerations were, as predicted, most important in explaining service utilization. Implications for national health insurance are also discussed, since public third-party reimbursement did not lead to…

  8. Technico-economic analysis of the utilization of inexhaustible energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salieva, R B

    1975-01-01

    An economic analysis is conducted concerning the design, construction and utilization of solar power plants and wind power plants. Methods are presented for determining operational costs, for reducing them, and for calculating the real cost of producing solar and wind energy. Criteria are presented for selecting cost-optimal output power.

  9. Quantitative iTRAQ-based secretome analysis reveals species-specific and temporal shifts in carbon utilization strategies among manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Wu, Si; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2017-09-01

    Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of iTRAQ proteomics and custom bioinformatic analyses to compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi over a three-week time course. We demonstrate that although the fungi produce a similar suite of extracellular enzymes, they exhibit striking differences in the regulation of these enzymes among species and over time, revealing species-specific and temporal shifts in C utilization strategies as they degrade the same substrate. Specifically, our findings suggest that Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a and Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f employ sequential enzyme secretion patterns concomitant with decreasing resource availability, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a preferentially degrades proteinaceous substrate before switching to carbohydrates, and Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a utilizes primarily peptidases to aggressively attack carbon sources in a concentrated burst. This work highlights the diversity of operative metabolic strategies among cellulose-degrading Ascomycetes and enhances our understanding of their role in C turnover in the environment.

  10. In silico carbon molecular beam epitaxial growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate: carbon source effect on van der Waals epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Park, Jeongho; Farmer, Barry L.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2016-05-01

    Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon molecular beam epitaxy (CMBE) techniques using solid carbon sublimation have reported relatively poor quality of the graphene. In this article, the CMBE growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate is numerically studied in order to identify the effect of the carbon source on the quality of the graphene film. The carbon molecular beam generated by the sublimation of solid carbon source materials such as graphite and glassy carbon is mostly composed of atomic carbon, carbon dimers and carbon trimers. Therefore, the graphene film growth becomes a complex process involving various deposition characteristics of a multitude of carbon entities. Based on the study of surface adsorption and film growth characteristics of these three major carbon entities comprising graphite vapour, we report that carbon trimers convey strong traits of vdW epitaxy prone to high quality graphene growth, while atomic carbon deposition is a surface-reaction limited process accompanied by strong chemisorption. The vdW epitaxial behaviour of carbon trimers is found to be substantial enough to nucleate and develop into graphene like planar films within a nanosecond of high flux growth simulation, while reactive atomic carbons tend to impair the structural integrity of the crystalline h-BN substrate upon deposition to form an amorphous interface between the substrate and the growing carbon film. The content of reactive atomic carbons in the molecular beam is suspected to be the primary cause of low quality graphene reported in the literature. A possible optimization of the molecular beam composition towards the synthesis of better quality graphene films is suggested.Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon

  11. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate...... production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100 mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11 g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio...... ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700 mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42 g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550 m...

  12. Deposition of diamond-like carbon films by plasma source ion implantation with superposed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on silicon wafer substrate by plasma source ion implantation with superposed negative pulse. Methane and acetylene gases were used as working gases for plasma. A negative DC voltage and a negative pulse voltage were superposed and applied to the substrate holder. The DC voltage was changed in the range from 0 to -4 kV and the pulse voltage was changed from 0 to -18 kV. The surface of DLC films was very smooth. The deposition rate of DLC films increased with increasing in superposed DC bias voltage. Carbon ion implantation was confirmed for the DLC film deposited from methane plasma with high pulse voltage. I D /I G ratios of Raman spectroscopy were around 1.5 independent on pulse voltage. The maximum hardness of 20.3 GPa was observed for the film prepared with high DC and high pulse voltage

  13. Constraints on primary and secondary particulate carbon sources using chemical tracer and 14C methods during CalNex-Bakersfield

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The present study investigates primary and secondary sources of organic carbon for Bakersfield, CA, USA as part of the 2010 CalNex study. The method used here...

  14. Development of Portable Venturi Kiln for Agricultural Waste Utilization by Carbonization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, S. E.; Chasanah, N.; Eris, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Many types of kiln or carbonization equipment have been developed, but most of them were designed for big capacity and some also having low performance. This research aims to develop kiln, especially portable metal kiln, which has higher performance, more environmental- friendly, and can be used for several kinds of biomass or agricultural waste (not exclusive for one kind of biomass) as feeding material. To improve the kiln performance, a venturi drum type of portable kiln has been designed with an optimum capacity of 12.45 kg coconut shells. Basic idea of those design is heat flow improvement causing by venturi effect. The performance test for coconut shell carbonization shows that the carbonization process takes about 60-90 minutes to produce average yields of 23.8%., and the highest temperature of the process was 441 °C. The optimum performance has been achieved in the 4th test, which was producing 24% yield of highest charcoal quality (represented by LHV) in 65 minutes process at average temperature level 485 °C. For pecan shell and palm shell, design modification has been done by adding 6 air inlet holes and 3 ignition column to get better performance. While operation procedure should be modified on loading and air supply, depending on each biomass characteristic. The result of performance test showed that carbonization process of pecan shell produce 17 % yield, and palm shell produce 15% yield. Based on Indonesian Standard (SNI), all charcoal produced in those carbonization has good quality level.

  15. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Olson; Mercedes Victoria Garcia; Michael A. Robinson; Paul Van Rooy; Mark A. Dietenberger; Michael Bergin; James Jay Schauer

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings....

  16. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma P. McCorkle; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson; Karis J. McFarlane; Marilyn L. Fogel; Stephen C. Hart

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance...

  17. BLACK Carbon Emissions from Diesel Sources in the Largest Arctic City: Case Study of Murmansk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Russia has very little data on its black carbon (BC) emissions. Because Russia makes up such a large share of the Arctic, understanding Russian emissions will improve our understanding of overall BC levels, BC in the Arctic and the link between BC and climate change. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up inventory of BC emissions from diesel sources in Murmansk, Russia, along with uncertainty estimates associated with these emissions. The research team developed a detailed data collection methodology. The methodology involves assessing the vehicle fleet and activity in Murmansk using traffic, parking lot and driver surveys combined with an existing database from a vehicle inspection station and statistical data. The team also assessed the most appropriate emission factors, drawing from both Russian and international inventory methodologies. The researchers also compared fuel consumption using statistical data and bottom-up fuel calculations. They then calculated emissions for on-road transportation, off-road transportation (including mines), diesel generators, fishing and other sources. The article also provides a preliminary assessment of Russia-wide emissions of black carbon from diesel sources.

  18. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-06

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2006-09-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Heintz, Y.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Ilconich, J.B. (Parsons)

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  1. Effects of nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of inulinase from strain Bacillus sp. SG113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrailov, Simeon; Ivanova, Viara

    2016-03-01

    The effects of the carbon and nitrogen substrates on the growth of Bacillus sp. SG113 strain were studied. The use of organic nitrogen sources (peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, casein) leads to rapid cellular growth and the best results for the Bacillus strain were obtained with casein hydrolysate. From the inorganic nitrogen sources studied, the (NH4) 2SO4 proved to be the best nitrogen source. Casein hydrolysate and (NH4) 2SO4 stimulated the invertase synthesis. In the presence of Jerusalem artichoke, onion and garlic extracts as carbon sources the strain synthesized from 6 to 10 times more inulinase.

  2. BIODEGRADATION POTENTIALS OF AUTOMOBILE WORKSHOP SOIL MYCOFLORA ON FLOW STATION PETROLEUM SLUDGE WITH AN EXTRA CARBON SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosa Omoregbe Obayagbona

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradation potentials of soil mycobiota isolated from six auto mechanic workshops and a farmland in Benin City on flow station crude oil sludge was investigated. Serial dilution and pour plate methods were utilized in the isolation and enumeration of the fungal bioload of the soil samples. The heterotrophic fungal counts ranged from 0.2×103 cfu/g to 3.2×103 cfu/g .Twenty (20 fungal species were identified from the soil samples; Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp., Moniliella sp., Pichia farinosa, Sporobolomyces sp., Candida sp., Rhodotorula sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium sp. , Penicillium sp.2, Penicillium italicum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. A. flavus and A. nidulans had the highest percentage prevalence (85.7%. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the soil samples were acidic (pH 5.81-6.40 and sandy (50.3%-64.8%. Turbidimeteric screening revealed that A. flavus, A. terrus, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., consortium of yeasts and the filamentous fungal consortium were able to maximally utilize the sludge as the sole source of carbon and energy. The growth profile results obtained for A. flavus revealed a decrease in pH (6.34 – 5.06 and an increase in turbidity (38 FAU – 625 FAU during the 20 day incubation period. Amongst the growth profile cultures, A. flavuscaused the highest percentage reduction in the residual TPH (DRO content of the inoculated sludge (96%. Soils within the premises of automobile workshops can serve as a source of hydrocarbonclastic fungi.

  3. Forensic utility of the carbon isotope ratio of PVC tape backings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L. A.; Thompson, A. H.; Mehltretter, A. H.; McLaskey, V.; Parish, A.; Aranda, R.

    2008-12-01

    Forensic interest in adhesive tapes with PVC-backings (polyvinyl chloride, electrical tapes) derives from their use in construction of improvised explosive devices, drug packaging and in a variety of other illicit activities. Due to the range of physical characteristics and chemical compositions of such tapes, traditional microscopic and chemical analysis of the tape backings and adhesives offer a high degree of discrimination between tapes from different manufacturers and products. To evaluate whether carbon isotope ratios may be able to increase discrimination of electrical tapes, particularly with regards to different tapes of the same product, we assessed the PVC-backings of 87 rolls of black electrical tape for their δ13C values. The adhesive on these tapes was physically removed with hexane, and plasticizers within the PVC tape backings were removed by three-20 minute extractions with chloroform. The δ13C values of the PVC tape backings ranged between -23.8 and -41.5 (‰ V-PDB). The carbon isotopic variation within a product (identical brand and product identification) is significant, based on five products with at least 3 rolls (ranges of 7.4‰ (n=3), 10.0‰ (n=6), 4.2‰ (n=16), 3.8‰ (n=6), and 11.5‰ (n=8), respectively). There was no measurable carbon isotope variation in regards to the following: a) along the length of a roll (4 samples from 1 roll); b) between the center and edge of a strip of tape (1 pair); c) between rolls assumed to be from the same lot of tape (2 pairs); d) between different rolls from the same batch of tape (same product purchased at the same time and place; 5 pairs); and e) between samples of a tape at room temperature, heated to 50° C and 80° C for 1 week. For each sample within the population of 87 tapes, carbon isotopes alone exclude 80 to 100% of the tapes as a potential match, with an average exclusion power of 92.5%, using a window of ± 0.4‰. Carbon isotope variations originate from variations in starting

  4. Relationship between Water and Carbon Utilization under Different Straw Mulching and Plant Density of Summer Maize in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanru; Du, Shoujian; Yin, Honglian; Wang, Juan

    2018-03-01

    To explore the relationship between water and carbon utilization and key factors to keep high water use efficiency (WUE), a 2-yr experiment was conduct by covering 0 and 0.6 kg m-2 straw to the surface of soil with plant densities of 1.0 × 105, 7.5 × 104, and 5.5 × 104 plants ha-1 in North China Plain during summer maize growing seasons of the 2012 and 2013. Results showed that straw mulching not only increased grain yield (GY), WUE, and carbon efficient ratio (CER) but also inhibited CO2 emission significantly. WUE positively correlated with CER, GY and negative correlated with evapotranspiration (ET) and CO2 emission. CER had the larger direct effect on WUE compared with ET and CO2 emission. The results indicate that straw mulching management in summer maize growing seasons could make sense for inhibiting CO2 emission.

  5. Peatlands in Finland accumulate carbon more than the peat production and utilization liberates it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maentymaa, E.

    1997-01-01

    The peatlands in Finland bind more carbon dioxide then it is liberated into the air in peat combustion and production. Because the carbon accumulation into peatlands is higher than that of liberation, the peat deposits increase all the time in spite of peat economy. The emissions of methane, which is tens of times worse greenhouse gas then CO 2 , have decreased by 40 % due to forest drainage. Very small amounts of methane is released into the atmosphere from peat production sites. This is proven by the national SILMU research programme investigating the atmospheric changes

  6. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, G; Schoenefeldt, J; Mehring, I [OeHMI Forschung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author) 5 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Utilization of Indonesia's Hot Spring Sources for Electricity using Kalina Cycle and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabumukti, Grano; Purwanto; Widodo, Wahyu

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia posses 40% of the world's geothermal energy sources. The existence of hydrothermal sources is usually characterized by their surface manifestations such as hot springs, geysers and fumarole. Hot spring has a potential to be used as a heat source to generate electricity especially in a rural and isolated area. Hot springs can be converted into electricity by binary thermodynamic cycles such as Kalina cycle and ORC. The aim of this study is to obtain the best performances of cycle configuration and the potential power capacity. Simulation is conducted using UNISIM software with working fluid and its operating condition as the decision variables. The simulation result shows that R1234yf and propene with simple ORC as desired working fluid and cycle configuration. It reaches a maximum thermal efficiency up to 9.6% with a specific turbine inlet pressure. Higher temperature heat source will result a higher thermal efficiency‥ Cycle thermal efficiency varies from 4.7% to 9.6% depends on source of hot spring temperature. Power capacity that can be generated using Indonesia's hot spring is ranged from 2 kWe to 61.2 kWe. The highest capacity located in Kawah Sirung and the least located in Kaendi.

  8. Rapid biological oxidation of methanol in the tropical Atlantic: significance as a microbial carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Dixon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is the second most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere after methane, and is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It plays a significant role in atmospheric oxidant chemistry and is biogeochemically active. Large uncertainties exist about whether the oceans are a source or sink of methanol to the atmosphere. Even less is understood about what reactions in seawater determine its concentration, and hence flux across the sea surface interface. We report here concentrations of methanol between 151–296 nM in parts of the oligotrophic North Atlantic, with corresponding microbial uptake rates between 2–146 nM d−1, suggesting turnover times as low as 1 day (1–25 days in surface waters of the oligotrophic tropical North East Atlantic. Methanol is mainly (≥97% used by microbes for obtaining energy in oligotrophic regions, which contrasts with shelf and coastal areas where between 20–50% can be used for cell growth. Comparisons of microbial methanol oxidation rates with parallel determinations of bacterial leucine uptake suggest that methanol contributes on average 13% to bacterial carbon demand in the central northern Atlantic gyre (maximum of 54%. In addition, the contribution that methanol makes to bacterial carbon demand varies as a power function of chlorophyll a concentrations; suggesting for concentrations <0.2 μg l−1 that methanol can make a significant contribution to bacterial carbon demand. However, our low air to sea methanol flux estimates of 7.2–13 μmol m−2 d−1 suggest that the atmosphere is not a major methanol source. We conclude that there must be a major, as yet unidentified, in situ oceanic methanol source in these latitudes which we suggest is sunlight driven decomposition of organic matter.

  9. Organic tracer-based source analysis of PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon: A case study at Dongguan in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong Qiong; Huang, X. H. Hilda; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qingyan; Feng, Yongming; Yuan, Zibing; Wu, Dui; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are major constituents of PM2.5 and their source apportionment remains a challenging task due to the great diversity of their sources and lack of source-specific tracer data. In this work, sources of OC and EC are investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of PM2.5 chemical composition data, including major ions, OC, EC, elements, and organic molecular source markers, for a set of 156 filter samples collected over three years from 2010 to 2012 at Dongguan in the Pearl River Delta, China. The key organic tracers include levoglucosan, mannosan, hopanes, C27-C33n-alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using these species as input for the PMF model, nine factors were resolved. Among them, biomass burning and coal combustion were significant sources contributing 15-17% of OC and 24-30% and 34-35% of EC, respectively. Industrial emissions and ship emissions, identified through their characteristic metal signatures, contributed 16-24% and 7-8% of OC and 8-11% and 16-17% of EC, respectively. Vehicle exhaust was a less significant source, accounting for 3-4% of OC and 5-8% of EC. Secondary OC, taken to be the sum of OC present in secondary sulfate and nitrate formation source factors, made up 27-36% of OC. Plastic burning, identified through 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene as a tracer, was a less important source for OC(≤4%) and EC (5-10%), but a significant source for PAHs at this site. The utility of organic source tracers was demonstrated by comparing PMF runs with different combinations of organic tracers removed from the input species list. Levoglucosan and mannosan were important additions to distinguish biomass burning from coal combustion by reducing collinearity among source profiles. Inclusion of hopanes and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene was found to be necessary in resolving the less significant sources vehicle exhaust and plastic burning. Inclusion of C27-C33n-alkanes and PAHs can influence the

  10. Process for carbonizing, distilling, and vaporizing of coal from any source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limberg, T

    1916-10-15

    A process is described for carbonizing, distilling, and vaporizing coal from any source, especially of humid and bituminous coals as well as bituminous shale and peat for recovering an especially light tar with a large aliphatic hydrocarbon content that is characterized in that it is exposed to internal heating under vacuum at a temperature below dull-red heat. The distillation products of the material are washed away by the heating gases for the whole length of the furnace and are removed immediately and carried into separate condensers.

  11. Effects of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on Lipase Production by Candida rugosa

    OpenAIRE

    ERKMEN, Sibel FADILOĞLU and Osman

    2014-01-01

    The production of lipase by Candida rugosa growing on media with various carbon and nitrogen sources was studied. While high yields of enzyme activity (5.58 U mL-1) were obtained with yeast extract and proteose-peptone in the medium with olive oil, the minimum lipase activity (2.81 U mL-1) was observed with tryptone and lactose. In the absence of olive oil, the media with proteose peptone and glucose gave the maximum enzyme activity (2.21 U mL-1). The best results in the production of lipa...

  12. Effects of added fertilizers and carbon source on the persistence of carbaryl in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, R.; Lord, K.A.; Luchini, L.C.; Mesquita, T.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of added fertilizers and carbon source on the persistence of carbaryl in two types of soils was investigated using the technique of liquid scintillation counting. In both soils, the addition of fertilzers (NPK) had little effect on the rate of degradation of carbaryl. In contrast, the addition of sucrose, with or without fertilizer increases degradation of carboryl in a yellow red latosol soil poor in organic matter but has little effect on the degradation in a humic gley soil rich in organic mutter. (Author) [pt

  13. A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogass station investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis whichshould be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources.The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clearand always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protectthe investor against a direct damage and disappointment.

  14. Utilization of carbon dioxide by Chlorella kessleri in outdoor open thin-layer culture units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lívanský, Karel; Doucha, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 201-212 ISSN 0342-1120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV104/97/S055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : chlorella kessleri * carbon dioxide * microalga Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Carbon-14 urea utilization in diagnosis of the presence Campylobacter pylori in stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chausson, Y.

    1989-01-01

    A new method to detect the Campylobacter pylori in the stomach, using carbon-14 urea is presented. The technique consists in after the tracer ingestion, the tracer is recuperated by the expiration way in organic hiamin and after counting and evaluating. (M.L.J.)

  16. The diversification value of nuclear power as part of a utility technology mix when gas and carbon prices are uncertain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien A.; Nuttall, William J.; Newbery, David M.; Neufville, Richard de; Connors, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent revived interest, the prospects for new nuclear power investment in liberalized electricity industries without government support do not seem promising. The objective of this paper is twofold. First it aims to identify the specific features of nuclear power technology that makes it an unattractive choice. The second objective is to estimate the value to a utility of a nuclear investment as a hedge against uncertain gas and carbon prices. A stylized 5-plant Real Option utility model shows that while the nuclear option value represents about 18% of the net present value (NPV) of the nuclear plant investment in the case where electricity and gas prices are uncorrelated, it reduces to nearly zero for correlation factors between electricity and gas price greater than 30%. These results suggest that the private diversification incentives in electricity markets might not be aligned with the social value of a diverse fuel-mix at the country level. (Author)

  17. Short-term utilization of carbon by the soil microbial community under future climatic conditions in a temperate heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Michelsen, Anders; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ13C pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heath/grassland to study the impacts of elevated CO2 concentration (510ppm), prolonged summer droughts (annual exclusion of 7.6±0.8%) and increased temperature (~1°C) on belowground carbon (C) utilization. Recently assimilated C...... (13C from the pulse-label) was traced into roots, soil and microbial biomass 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in different microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acid...... (PLFA) biomarker profiles. Climate treatments did not affect microbial abundance in soil or rhizosphere fractions in terms of total PLFA-C concentration. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy), but did not affect the abundance of decomposers (fungi...

  18. The Molecular Level Characterization of Biodegradable Polymers Originated from Polyethylene Using Non-Oxygenated Polyethylene Wax as a Carbon Source for Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David; Adamus, Grazyna; Kwiecień, Iwona; Zięba, Magdalena; Sikorska, Wanda; Green, Matthew; Kowalczuk, Marek; Radecka, Iza

    2017-08-28

    There is an increasing demand for bio-based polymers that are developed from recycled materials. The production of biodegradable polymers can include bio-technological (utilizing microorganisms or enzymes) or chemical synthesis procedures. This report demonstrates the corroboration of the molecular structure of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) obtained by the conversion of waste polyethylene (PE) via non-oxygenated PE wax (N-PEW) as an additional carbon source for a bacterial species. The N-PEW, obtained from a PE pyrolysis reaction, has been found to be a beneficial carbon source for PHA production with Cupriavidus necator H16. The production of the N-PEW is an alternative to oxidized polyethylene wax (O-PEW) (that has been used as a carbon source previously) as it is less time consuming to manufacture and offers fewer industrial applications. A range of molecular structural analytical techniques were performed on the PHAs obtained; which included nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Our study showed that the PHA formed from N-PEW contained 3-hydroxybutyrate (HB) with 11 mol% of 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) units.

  19. Utilizations of intense pulsed neutron source in radiochemistry and radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, Takanobu; Yoshihara, Kenji; Kaji, Harumi; Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tabata, Yoneho.

    1975-01-01

    Intense pulsed neutron sources is expected to supply more useful and fundamental informations in radiochemistry and radiation chemistry. Short-lived intermediate species may be detected and the mechanisms of radiation induced reactions will be elucidated more precisely. Analytical application of pulsed neutrons is also very useful. (auth.)

  20. Clinical utility of anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewang Angmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT, a noninvasive imaging modality that uses low-coherence light to obtain a high-resolution cross-section of biological structures, has evolved dramatically over the years. The Swept-source OCT (SS-OCT makes use of a single detector with a rapidly tunable laser as a light source. The Casia SS-1000 OCT is a Fourier-domain, SS-OCT designed specifically for imaging the anterior segment. This system achieves high resolution imaging of 10΅m (Axial and 30΅m (Transverse and high speed scanning of 30,000 A-scans per second. With a substantial improvement in scan speed, the anterior chamber angles can be imaged 360 degrees in 128 cross sections (each with 512 A-scans in about 2.4 seconds. We summarize the clinical applications of anterior segment SS-OCT in Glaucoma. Literature search: We searched PubMed and included Medline using the phrases anterior segment optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology, swept-source OCT, use of AS-OCT in glaucoma, use of swept-source AS-OCT in glaucoma, quantitative assessment of angle, filtering bleb in AS-OCT, comparison of AS-OCT with gonioscopy and comparison of AS-OCT with UBM. Search was made for articles dating 1990 to August 2015.

  1. Effects of source and level of nitrogen on the utilization of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intakes, CP, ADF and NDF digestibilities, digestible ADF and NDF intakes, stover intake and in vitro VFA concentration were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by either main effects of CP source and level or their interaction. The rams on the 16% CSC and 12% ...

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of chemical vapor deposition of amorphous carbon. Dependence on H/C ratio of source gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Atsushi M.; Takayama, Arimichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Saito, Seiki; Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin

    2011-01-01

    By molecular dynamics simulation, the chemical vapor deposition of amorphous carbon onto graphite and diamond surfaces was studied. In particular, we investigated the effect of source H/C ratio, which is the ratio of the number of hydrogen atoms to the number of carbon atoms in a source gas, on the deposition process. In the present simulation, the following two source gas conditions were tested: one was that the source gas was injected as isolated carbon and hydrogen atoms, and the other was that the source gas was injected as hydrocarbon molecules. Under the former condition, we found that as the source H/C ratio increases, the deposition rate of carbon atoms decreases exponentially. This exponential decrease in the deposition rate with increasing source H/C ratio agrees with experimental data. However, under the latter molecular source condition, the deposition rate did not decrease exponentially because of a chemical reaction peculiar to the type of hydrocarbon in the source gas. (author)

  3. The forest as a historic source and sink for carbon dioxide; Skogen som historisk kaella respektive saenka foer koldioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kander, A [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the present project is to quantify the changes in the growing stock of timber between 1800 and 1985 in order to find out under which periods and to what extent the forest has served as a source resp. sink for carbon dioxide. These data are compared to the carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels under the same period. Another goal of the project is to find the order of magnitude of the effect of other potential sinks and sources for carbon dioxide. 32 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  4. Xylanase Production from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3 with Alternative Carbon and Nitrogen Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Seyis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some natural wastes (orange pomace, orange peel, lemon pomace, lemon peel, apple pomace, pear peel, banana peel, melon peel and hazelnut shell on the production of xylanase from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3 has been studied and maximum activity has been observed on melon peel (26.5 U/mg of protein followed by apple pomace and hazelnut shell. Also, molasses could be used as an additional carbon source as it decreased the production time approximately by 50 %. Finally, potential alternatives of organic nitrogen source (cotton leaf and soybean residue wastes were analyzed and it was concluded that peptone could be replaced with these residues especially when economics of the process is the major objective.

  5. Study of cold and hot sources in a research reactor. (Physics, specifications, operation, utilization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safieh, J.

    1982-10-01

    A brief description of the reactor, sources and experimental channels (ORPHEE being taken as example) is first given. The first part deals with the hot neutron source, mainly made of a graphite block to be carried at a temperature of 1500 0 K by nuclear heating. The present study focused on the determination, with the code MERCURE IV, of heat sources generated in the graphite block. From these results the spatial distribution of temperatures have been calculated with two different methods. Mechanical and thermal stresses have been calculated for the hot points. Then, the outlet neutron spectra is determined by means of the code APOLLO. Finally, the operation of the device is presented and the risks and the safety measures are given. The second part deals with cold neutron sources comprising mainly a cold moderator (liquid hydrogen 20.4 0 K). The helium coolant circuit liquefies the hydrogen by means of heat exchange in a condenser. Cold neutron yields calculations are developed by means of the code THERMOS in the plane and cyclindrical geometries. Heat sources generated by nuclear radiations are calculated. A detailed description of the device and its coolant circuit is given, and a risk analysis is finally presented. The third part deals with the part of thermal cold and hot neutrons in the study of matter and its dynamics. Technical means needed to obtain a monochromatic beam, for diffraction experiments, are recalled emphasizing on the interest of these neutrons with regard to X radiation. Then, one deals with cold neutron guides. Finally, the efficiency of two neutron guides is calculated. 78 refs [fr

  6. Attributing Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Anthropogenic and Natural Sources Using AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Thompson, D. R.; Duren, R. M.; Aubrey, A. D.; Bue, B. D.; Green, R. O.; Gerilowski, K.; Krings, T.; Borchardt, J.; Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Conley, S. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dennison, P. E.; Ayasse, A.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) can map large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This capability is aided by real time detection and geolocation of gas plumes, permitting unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to ground teams for rapid follow up. We present results from AVIRIS-NG flight campaigns in the Four Corners region (Colorado and New Mexico) and the San Joaquin Valley (California). Over three hundred plumes were observed, reflecting emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources. Examples of plumes will be shown for a number of sources, including CH4 from well completions, gas processing plants, tanks, pipeline leaks, natural seeps, and CO2 from power plants. Despite these promising results, an imaging spectrometer built exclusively for quantitative mapping of gas plumes would have improved sensitivity compared to AVIRIS-NG. For example, an instrument providing a 1 nm spectral sampling (2,000-2,400 micron) would permit mapping CH4, CO2, H2O, CO, and N2O from more diffuse sources using both airborne and orbital platforms. The ability to identify emission sources offers the potential to constrain regional greenhouse gas budgets and improve partitioning between anthropogenic and natural emission sources. Because the CH4 lifetime is only about 9 years and CH4 has a Global Warming Potential 86 times that of CO2 for a 20 year time interval, mitigating these emissions is a particularly cost-effective approach to reduce overall atmospheric radiative forcing. Fig. 1. True color image subset with superimposed gas plumes showing concentrations in ppmm. Left: AVIRIS-NG observed CH4 plumes from natural gas processing plant extending over 500 m downwind of multiple emissions sources. Right: Multiple CO2 plumes observed from coal-fired power plant.

  7. Constraining the subsoil carbon source to cave-air CO2 and speleothem calcite in central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, Shelly J.; Carlson, Peter E.; Larson, Toti E.; Wood, Chris T.; Johnson, Kathleen R.; Banner, Jay L.; Breecker, Daniel O.

    2017-11-01

    Canonical models for speleothem formation and the subsurface carbon cycle invoke soil respiration as the dominant carbon source. However, evidence from some karst regions suggests that belowground CO2 originates from a deeper, older source. We therefore investigated the carbon sources to central Texas caves. Drip-water chemistry of two caves in central Texas implies equilibration with calcite at CO2 concentrations (PCO2_sat) higher than the maximum CO2 concentrations observed in overlying soils. This observation suggests that CO2 is added to waters after they percolate through the soils, which requires a subsoil carbon source. We directly evaluate the carbon isotope composition of the subsoil carbon source using δ13C measurements on cave-air CO2, which we independently demonstrate has little to no contribution from host rock carbon. We do so using the oxidative ratio, OR, defined as the number of moles of O2 consumed per mole of CO2 produced during respiration. However, additional belowground processes that affect O2 and CO2 concentrations, such as gas-water exchange and/or diffusion, may also influence the measured oxidative ratio, yielding an apparent OR (ORapparent). Cave air in Natural Bridge South Cavern has ORapparent values (1.09 ± 0.06) indistinguishable from those expected for respiration alone (1.08 ± 0.06). Pore space gases from soils above the cave have lower values (ORapparent = 0.67 ± 0.05) consistent with respiration and gas transport by diffusion. The simplest explanation for these observations is that cave air in NB South is influenced by respiration in open-system bedrock fractures such that neither diffusion nor exchange with water influence the composition of the cave air. The radiocarbon activities of NB South cave-air CO2 suggest the subsoil carbon source is hundreds of years old. The calculated δ13C values of the subsoil carbon source are consistent with tree-sourced carbon (perhaps decomposing root matter), the δ13C values of which

  8. An audit of the global carbon budget: identifying and reducing sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Tans, P. P.; Marland, G.; Stocker, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties in our carbon accounting practices may limit our ability to objectively verify emission reductions on regional scales. Furthermore uncertainties in the global C budget must be reduced to benchmark Earth System Models that incorporate carbon-climate interactions. Here we present an audit of the global C budget where we try to identify sources of uncertainty for major terms in the global C budget. The atmospheric growth rate of CO2 has increased significantly over the last 50 years, while the uncertainty in calculating the global atmospheric growth rate has been reduced from 0.4 ppm/yr to 0.2 ppm/yr (95% confidence). Although we have greatly reduced global CO2 growth rate uncertainties, there remain regions, such as the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics and Arctic, where changes in regional sources/sinks will remain difficult to detect without additional observations. Increases in fossil fuel (FF) emissions are the primary factor driving the increase in global CO2 growth rate; however, our confidence in FF emission estimates has actually gone down. Based on a comparison of multiple estimates, FF emissions have increased from 2.45 ± 0.12 PgC/yr in 1959 to 9.40 ± 0.66 PgC/yr in 2010. Major sources of increasing FF emission uncertainty are increased emissions from emerging economies, such as China and India, as well as subtle differences in accounting practices. Lastly, we evaluate emission estimates from Land Use Change (LUC). Although relative errors in emission estimates from LUC are quite high (2 sigma ~ 50%), LUC emissions have remained fairly constant in recent decades. We evaluate the three commonly used approaches to estimating LUC emissions- Bookkeeping, Satellite Imagery, and Model Simulations- to identify their main sources of error and their ability to detect net emissions from LUC.; Uncertainties in Fossil Fuel Emissions over the last 50 years.

  9. Assessing the potential of amino acid 13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T.; Bach, L. T.; Salvatteci, R.; Wang, Y. V.; Andersen, N.; Ventura, M.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has a profound influence in marine biogeochemical cycles and provides a sink for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. However, tracing organic carbon from primary production sources as well as its transformations in the sediment record remains challenging. Here we examine a novel but growing tool for tracing the biosynthetic origin of amino acid carbon skeletons, based on naturally occurring stable carbon isotope patterns in individual amino acids (δ13CAA). We focus on two important aspects for δ13CAA utility in sedimentary paleoarchives: first, the fidelity of source diagnostic of algal δ13CAA patterns across different oceanographic growth conditions, and second, the ability of δ13CAA patterns to record the degree of subsequent microbial amino acid synthesis after sedimentary burial. Using the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, we tested under controlled conditions how δ13CAA patterns respond to changing environmental conditions, including light, salinity, temperature, and pH. Our findings show that while differing oceanic growth conditions can change macromolecular cellular composition, δ13CAA isotopic patterns remain largely invariant. These results emphasize that δ13CAA patterns should accurately record biosynthetic sources across widely disparate oceanographic conditions. We also explored how δ13CAA patterns change as a function of age, total nitrogen and organic carbon content after burial, in a marine sediment core from a coastal upwelling area off Peru. Based on the four most informative amino acids for distinguishing between diatom and bacterial sources (i.e., isoleucine, lysine, leucine and tyrosine), bacterially derived amino acids ranged from 10 to 15 % in the sediment layers from the last 5000 years, and up to 35 % during the last glacial period. The greater bacterial contributions in older sediments indicate that bacterial activity and amino acid resynthesis progressed, approximately as a

  10. Purification of flue gases from biofuels for use in green houses as carbon dioxide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuopanportti, H.; Rissanen, R.; Vuollet, A.; Kanniainen, T.; Tikka, A.; Ramm-Schmidt, L.; Seppaelae, R.; Piira, T.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the project was to develop technologies by which the flue gases from burning bio fuels and peat can be purified for used in green houses as a low cost source of carbon dioxide. Traditionally carbon dioxide has been produced by burning propane or natural gas or by injecting bottled carbon dioxide gas directly into the green house. The new methods should be more affordable than the present ones. The flue gases from burning wood and peat need cleaning, because they contain substances that are harmful to plants. Also the food use of the plants may cause additional restrictions. Harmful substances are e.g. the nitrogen oxides, sulphur compounds and heavy metals. The most complex ones are the nitrogen oxides, as they cannot be sufficiently removed by traditional cleaning methods. A pilot plant was designed for testing the influence of with new methods cleaned combustion gases on commercially important crops. The project has started 01.04.2005 and was ended 30.06.2006. During the project time, commercial solutions were in construction, thus the pilot plant was decided to be built when the commercial application had been taken in use. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Minh, Doan; Lyczko, Nathalie; Sebei, Haroun; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Calcium hydroxyapatite was synthesized from CaCO 3 and four orthophosphates. ► Only H 3 PO 4 led to the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. ► H 3 PO 4 was also the most efficient for calcium dissolution. ► Reaction pathway was dissolution-precipitation accompanied by agglomeration step. - Abstract: The synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) starting from calcium carbonate and different orthophosphate sources, including orthophosphoric acid, potassium, sodium and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphates, was investigated under ambient conditions. The reaction started with calcium carbonate dissolution in an acid medium, followed by rapid precipitation of calcium cations with orthophosphate species to form calcium phosphate based particles which were in the size range of 0.4–1 μm. These particles then agglomerated into much larger ones, up to 350 μm in diameter (aggregates). These aggregates possessed an unstable porous structure which was responsible for the porosity of the final products. The highest specific surface area and pore volume were obtained with potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. On the other hand, orthophosphoric acid led to the highest dissolution of calcium carbonate and the complete precipitation of orthophosphate species. Under ambient conditions, calcium phosphate based solid products of low crystallinity were formed. Different intermediates were identified and a reaction pathway proposed.

  12. Utilization of phosphorus in poultry as influenced by dietary calcium and phosphorus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheideler, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Experiment one was a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of calcium (Ca) (3.0, 3.5, and 4.0%) fed with three phosphorus (p) feeding programs to two strains of laying hens for 336 days. In addition to production traits, measurements of P retention were made at 34, 42, 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age and phytate P retention and % P associated with excreted phytate at 34, 50, and 72 weeks of age. The phase feeding P programs adequately supported production characteristics. Experiment two involved feeding two levels of Ca (.8 and 1.2%) to one-week-old chicks for 7 days during which time 33 P was administered to each chick. Serum P and excreta 33 P activity were greater in chicks fed .8% Ca, while femur 33 P was greater in checks fed 1.2% Ca. The % P associated with excreted phytate ranged from 5.6 to 7.0% and phytate P utilization ranged from 31 to 48%. P retention and bone P deposition were greater in chicks fed 1.2% Ca. The final experiments were conducted utilizing isotope-dilution ( 33 P) and comparative-balance methods to estimate urinary and fecal P excretions by laying hens fed 3.46 or 4.2% Ca

  13. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki; Kalita, Golap

    2014-01-01

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  14. Influence of carbon and lipid sources on variation of mercury and other trace elements in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routti, Heli; Letcher, Robert J; Born, Erik W; Branigan, Marsha; Dietz, Rune; Evans, Thomas J; McKinney, Melissa A; Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonne, Christian

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the influence of carbon and lipid sources on regional differences in liver trace element (As, Cd, Cu, total Hg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se, and Zn) concentrations measured in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 121) from 10 Alaskan, Canadian Arctic, and East Greenland subpopulations. Carbon and lipid sources were assessed using δ(13) C in muscle tissue and fatty acid (FA) profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue as chemical tracers. A negative relationship between total Hg and δ(13) C suggested that polar bears feeding in areas with higher riverine inputs of terrestrial carbon accumulate more Hg than bears feeding in areas with lower freshwater input. Mercury concentrations were also positively related to the FA 20:1n-9, which is biosynthesized in large amounts in Calanus copepods. This result raises the hypothesis that Calanus glacialis are an important link in the uptake of Hg in the marine food web and ultimately in polar bears. Unadjusted total Hg, Se, and As concentrations showed greater geographical variation among polar bear subpopulations compared with concentrations adjusted for carbon and lipid sources. The Hg concentrations adjusted for carbon and lipid sources in Bering-Chukchi Sea polar bear liver tissue remained the lowest among subpopulations. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that carbon and lipid sources for polar bears should be taken into account when one is assessing spatial and temporal trends of long-range transported trace elements. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. An alternative technique for simulating volumetric cylindrical sources in the Morse code utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, W.J.; Mendonca, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In the solution of deep-penetration problems using the Monte Carlo method, calculation techniques and strategies are used in order to increase the particle population in the regions of interest. A common procedure is the coupling of bidimensional calculations, with (r,z) discrete ordinates transformed into source data, and tridimensional Monte Carlo calculations. An alternative technique for this procedure is presented. This alternative proved effective when applied to a sample problem. (F.E.) [pt

  16. Utilization of muddy detritus as organic matter source by the fan mussel Pinna nobilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TRIGOS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the feeding habits in marine species is fundamental to better understand their relationship with the environment. Although phytoplankton has been traditionally reported as the main food source consumed by the Mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis, recent studies have revealed that detritus represents an important food source for this species. We analysed the degree of acceptance of muddy detritus and the utilisation of its organic matter (OM by P. nobilis on a group of 21 individuals (30.3-59.7 cm of total shell height (Ht. The specimens were collected between July and September 2012 in two areas (43°04´25” N; 5°46´7” E and 43°04´34” N; 5°47´32” E of the Embiez archipelago, northwestern Mediterranean (France. Our studies show that P. nobilis retains high quantities of OM from muddy detritus (47.50 ± 11.23% of filtered OM irrespectively of shell size. Smaller individuals, however, actively filter more detritus than large ones. The values of retained OM, together with previous studies on stomach contents, suggest that muddy detritus is a more important OM source than phytoplankton for this species.

  17. The utility of satellite observations for constraining fine-scale and transient methane sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D.; Benmergui, J. S.; Brandman, J.; White, L.; Randles, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Resolving differences between top-down and bottom-up emissions of methane from the oil and gas industry is difficult due, in part, to their fine-scale and often transient nature. There is considerable interest in using atmospheric observations to detect these sources. Satellite-based instruments are an attractive tool for this purpose and, more generally, for quantifying methane emissions on fine scales. A number of instruments are planned for launch in the coming years from both low earth and geostationary orbit, but the extent to which they can provide fine-scale information on sources has yet to be explored. Here we present an observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) exploring the tradeoffs between pixel resolution, measurement frequency, and instrument precision on the fine-scale information content of a space-borne instrument measuring methane. We use the WRF-STILT Lagrangian transport model to generate more than 200,000 column footprints at 1.3×1.3 km2 spatial resolution and hourly temporal resolution over the Barnett Shale in Texas. We sub-sample these footprints to match the observing characteristics of the planned TROPOMI and GeoCARB instruments as well as different hypothetical observing configurations. The information content of the various observing systems is evaluated using the Fisher information matrix and its singular values. We draw conclusions on the capabilities of the planned satellite instruments and how these capabilities could be improved for fine-scale source detection.

  18. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Man-Jin; Moon, Dae Won

    2012-01-01

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Co