WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon oxides

  1. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Model of Manganese Carbonate Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝瑞霞; 彭省临

    1999-01-01

    Manganese carbonate can be converted to many kinds of manganese oxides when it is aerated in air and oxygen.Pure manganese carbonate can be changed into Mn3O4 and γ-MnOOH,and manganese carbonate ore can be converted to MnO2 under the air-aerating and oxygen-aerating circumstances.The oxidation process of manganese carbonate is a changing process of mineral association,and is also a converting process of valence of manganese itself.Not only equilibrium stat,but also nonequilibrium state are involved in this whole process,This process is an irreversible heterogeneous complex reaction,and oberys the nonequilibrium thermodynamic model,The oxidation rate of manganese cabonate is controlled by many factors,especially nonmanganese metallic ions which play an important role in the oxidation process of manganese carbonate.

  2. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...

  3. NDE for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter s thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using NDE methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating. The results of that study are briefly reviewed in this article as well. Additionally, a short discussion on the future role of simulation to aid in these studies is provided.

  4. Graphene oxide assisted hydrothermal carbonization of carbon hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Deepti; Raidongia, Kalyan; Shao, Jiaojing; Huang, Jiaxing

    2014-01-28

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass such as glucose and cellulose typically produces micrometer-sized carbon spheres that are insulating. Adding a very small amount of Graphene oxide (GO) to glucose (e.g., 1:800 weight ratio) can significantly alter the morphology of its HTC product, resulting in more conductive carbon materials with higher degree of carbonization. At low mass loading level of GO, HTC treatment results in dispersed carbon platelets of tens of nanometers in thickness, while at high mass loading levels, free-standing carbon monoliths are obtained. Control experiments with other carbon materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, carbon black, and reduced GO show that only GO has significant effect in promoting HTC conversion, likely due to its good water processability, amphiphilicity, and two-dimensional structure that may help to template the initially carbonized materials. GO offers an additional advantage in that its graphene product can act as an in situ heating element to enable further carbonization of the HTC products very rapidly upon microwave irradiation. Similar effect of GO is also observed for the HTC treatment of cellulose. PMID:24298909

  5. Surface-oxidized carbon black as a catalyst for the water oxidation and alcohol oxidation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanto, Bryan H R; Zhao, Chuan

    2016-05-11

    Carbon black (CB) is popularly used as a catalyst support for metal/metal oxide nanoparticles due to its large surface area, excellent conductivity and stability. Herein, we show that surface oxidized CB itself, after acidic treatment and electrochemical oxidation, exhibits significant catalytic activity for the electrochemical oxidation of water and alcohols. PMID:27097802

  6. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    1996-01-01

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...... done in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Ferrihydrite is formed and is stable at and below a temperature of 300 C. At 600 C small particles of maghemite is the dominant iron oxide. A transformation reaction is suggested....

  7. Vanadium oxide dissolution in sodium carbonate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkashin, V.I.; Doroshenko, V.P.; Goncharov, I.A.; Denisova, G.V. (Zaporozhskij Industrial' nyj Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1983-01-01

    Kinetics of dissolution process of powdered vanadium (5) oxide in sodium carbonate is studied. Activation energy of chemical dissolution of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ at sodium carbonate concentration up to 0.6 mol/dm/sup 3/ constitutes 35.2 kJ/mol. With sodium carbonate concentration increase the dissolution activation energy decreases to 32.5 kJ/mol. Absolute values of activation energy of the dissolution process, dependence of the reaction order on the temperature in the range of low sodium carbonate concentration, testify to the presence of kinetic difficulties in the process studied. Thus, the process of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ dissolution in sodium carbonate solutions proceeds in the mixed region and obeys regularities of the mixed kinetics.

  8. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-furnace carbon black is produced by pyrolysis of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons or their mixtures. The oil feedstock for the production of oil-furnace carbon black is mainly composed of high-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons, which are residues of petroleum cracking, while the gaseous raw material is commonly natural gas. Most of the oil-furnace carbon black production (> 99 % is used as a reinforcing agent in rubber compounds. Occasionally, oil-furnace carbon blacks are used in contact with other rubber compounds and fillers that have different pigments, particularly with the color white. It has been observed that frequently a migrating rubber soluble colorant would enter the white or light colored rubber composition from the adjacent carbon black filled rubber, resulting in a highly undesirable staining effect. Methods for determining non-oxidized residue on the surface of the oil-furnace carbon black include extraction of carbon black with the appropriate organic solvent, and measuring the color of the organic solvent by means of a colorimeter on 425 nm (ASTM D 1618-99. Transmittance values of 85 % or more are indicative of a practically non-staining carbon black, while transmittance values below 50 % generally lead to a carbon black with pronounced staining characteristics. Many oil-furnace carbon blacks, particularly those with a larger particle size (dp > 50 nm which are produced by pyrolysis, have strongly adsorbed non-reacted oil on their surfaces. Upon incorporation in a rubber compound, the colored materials are gradually dissolved by the rubber matrix and migrate freely into adjacent light colored rubber compounds, causing a highly objectionable staining effect. Adjusting furnace parameters in the industrial process of producing specific soft grades of carbon black cannot obtain minimal values of toluene discoloration. The minimal value of toluene discoloration is very important in special applications. Therefore, after-treatment of

  9. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Vykhodets, V B; Koester, U; Kondrat'ev, V V; Kesarev, A G; Hulsen, C; Kurennykh, T E

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000A degrees C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  10. Nanocrystalline cobalt oxides for carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2007-09-01

    Thin Films of nanocrystalline cobalt oxide were formed by sol-gel method. Structure, optical properties and surface properties of these films were investigated by numerous characterization techniques. These films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates below 500°C. . Micropatterns of cobalt oxide thin films were also fabricated on glass and silicon substrates by employing a lift-off method. Crystal size of these nanocrystalline cobalt films could be successfully controllable by varying the amount of cobalt precursors and number of layers. These films were used as the seeding layers for carbon nanotube growth in a CVD process By changing the concentration of monomer precursors in the solgel coating solutions, different size nanoclusters hence different size carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in CVD process. This method can be used for controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for many different applications. In this paper, detail of these experimental results will be presented.

  11. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  12. Oxidation reaction of pyrolytic carbon coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of pyrolytic carbon coatings on commercial grade graphite substrate in oxidizing environment is described. Specimens were examined under sputtering in plasma of oxygen and argon, or in an oxidizing solution of K2CrO7+H3PO4. Specimens of commercial grade graphite (ATJ) were quickly eroded under these conditions, compared to coated specimens. The erosion rate of the coating is dependent on its thickness and on the mean monticules diameter. The coatings disintegrated in the oxidizing environment in three steps: etching of monticules' boundaries; widening of the boundaries or cracking of the coating; falling off the coating. The degree of erosion decreased with increasing mean monticules diameter and increased where the diameter was non-homogeneous. The resistance of the coating to wear- under these oxidizing conditions- can be enhanced by homogenization of the coating and by its deposition in layered films. (author)

  13. Structural Evolution of Carbon During Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel F. Sarofim; Angelo Kandas

    1998-10-28

    The examination of the structural evolution of carbon during oxidation has proven to be of scientific interest. Early modeling work of fluidized bed combustion showed that most of the reactions of interest occurs iOn the micropores, and this work has concentrated on these pores. This work has concentrated on evolution of macroporosity and rnicroporosity of carbons during kinetic controlled oxidation using SAXS, C02 and TEM analysis. Simple studies of fluidized bed combustion of coal chars has shown that many of the events considered fragmentation events previously may in fact be "hidden" or nonaccessible porosity. This makes the study of the microporous combustion characteristics of carbon even more important. The generation of a combustion resistant grid, coupled with measurements of the SAXS and C02 surface areas, fractal analysis and TEM studies has confined that soot particles shrink during their oxidation, as previously suspected. However, this shrinkage results in an overall change in structure. This structure becomes, on a radial basis, much more ordered near the edges, while the center itself becomes transparent to the TEM beam, implying a total lack of structure in this region. Although complex, this carbon structure is probably burning as to keep the density of the soot particles nearly the same. The TEM techniques developed for examination of soots has also been applied to Spherocarb. The Spherocarb during oxidation also increases its ordering,. This ordering, by present theories, would imply that the reactivity would go. However, the reactivity goes up, implying that structure of carbon is secondary in importance to catalytic effects.

  14. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute alguns aspectos importantes relacionados à reação de eletrooxidação do monóxido de carbono sobre monocristais de platina, em meio ácido. Aspectos mecanísticos são discutidos em termos da formação das estruturas compactas que o CO forma quando este é adsorvido. As principais idéias aqui apresentadas, levam em consideração as existências dessas estruturas. Os clássicos mecanismos Lagmuir-Hinshelwood e Eley-Rideal são aqui discutidos, especialmente o primeiro considerando a mobilidade do CO e também a nucleação e crescimento de ilhas formadas por espécies adsorvidas contendo oxigênio.////////// This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  15. Coating Carbon Nanotubes with Europium Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Qun CAO; Guang Yan HONG; Jing Hui YAN; Ji Lin ZHANG; Gui Xia LIU

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTS) coating with europium oxide by a simple method is reported in this letter for the first time. The CNTS were refluxed in a solution of nitric acid containing europium nitrate, and the pH value was subsequently ajusted with ammonia solution. At last, the mixture was filtered and annealed. The TEM micrograph showed that the CNTS were covered with a uniform thin layer with thickness of about 15 nm. The XRD results revealed that the CNTS were coated with europium oxide.

  16. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, it is highly desirable to operate a CO2 laser in a sealed condition, for in an open system the laser requires a continuous flow of laser gas to remove the dissociation products that occur in the discharge zone of the laser, in order to maintain a stable power output. This adds to the operating cost of the laser, and in airborne or space applications, it also adds to the weight penalty of the laser. In a sealed CO2 laser, a small amount of CO2 gas is decomposed in the electrical discharge zone into corresponding quantities of CO and O2. As the laser continues to operate, the concentration of CO2 decreases, while the concentrations of CO and O2 correspondingly increase. The increasing concentration of O2 reduces laser power, because O2 scavenges electrons in the electrical discharge, thereby causing arcing in the electric discharge and a loss of the energetic electrons required to boost CO2 molecules to lasing energy levels. As a result, laser power decreases rapidly. The primary object of this invention is to provide a catalyst that, by composition of matter alone, contains chemisorbed water within and upon its structure. Such bound moisture renders the catalyst highly active and very long-lived, such that only a small quantity of it needs to be used with a CO2 laser under ambient operating conditions. This object is achieved by a catalyst that consists essentially of about 1 to 40 percent by weight of one or more platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Pt being preferred); about 1 to 90 percent by weight of one or more oxides of reducible metals having multiple valence states (such as Sn, Ti, Mn, Cu, and Ce, with SnO2 being preferred); and about 1 to 90 percent by weight of a compound that can bind water to its structure (such as silica gel, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hydrated alumina, and magnesium perchlorate, with silica gel being preferred). Especially beneficial results are obtained when platinum is present in the

  17. THE C2 OXIDATIVE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, N. E.

    1997-06-01

    The C2 oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle plus the C3 reductive photosynthetic carbon cycle coexist. Both are initiated by Rubisco, use about equal amounts of energy, must regenerate RuBP, and result in exchanges of CO2 and O2 to establish rates of net photosynthesis, CO2 and O2 compensation points, and the ratio of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. These concepts evolved from research on O2 inhibition, glycolate metabolism, leaf peroxisomes, photorespiration, 18O2/16O2 exchange, CO2 concentrating processes, and a requirement for the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Nearly 80 years of research on these topics are unified under the one process of photosynthetic carbon metabolism and its self-regulation. PMID:15012254

  18. Carbon and oxide nanostructures. Synthesis, characterisation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Fundamental and Applied Sciences

    2010-07-01

    This volume covers all aspects of carbon and oxide based nanostructured materials. The topics include synthesis, characterization and application of carbon-based namely carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, fullerenes, carbon filled composites etc. In addition, metal oxides namely, ZnO, TiO2, Fe2O3, ferrites, garnets etc., for various applications like sensors, solar cells, transformers, antennas, catalysts, batteries, lubricants, are presented. The book also includes the modeling of oxide and carbon based nanomaterials. The book covers the topics: - Synthesis, characterization and application of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, fullerenes - Synthesis, characterization and application of oxide based nanomaterials. - Nanostructured magnetic and electric materials and their applications. - Nanostructured materials for petro-chemical industry. - Oxide and carbon based thin films for electronics and sustainable energy. - Theory, calculations and modeling of nanostructured materials. (orig.)

  19. Oxidation of carbon monoxide by perferrylmyoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libardi, Silvia H; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Perferrylmyoglobin is found to oxidize CO in aerobic aqueous solution to CO2. Tryptophan hydroperoxide in the presence of tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrinate-iron(III) or simple iron(II)/(III) salts shows similar reactivity against CO. The oxidation of CO is for tryptophan hydroperoxide concluded...... to depend on the formation of alkoxyl radicals by reductive cleavage by iron(II) or on the formation of peroxyl radicals by oxidative cleavage by iron(III). During oxidation of CO, the tryptophan peroxyl radical was depleted with a rate constant of 0.26 ± 0.01 s(-1) for CO-saturated aqueous solution of pH 7.......4 at 25 °C without concomitant reduction of the iron(IV) center. Carbon monoxide is as a natural metabolite accordingly capable of scavenging tryptophan radicals in myoglobin activated by peroxides with a second-order rate constant of (3.3 ± 0.6) × 10(2) L mol(-1) s(-1), a reaction that might...

  20. Ductile mode electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining for glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a new mechanical machining process using electrochemical oxidation was reported. Electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining was applied to the machining of glassy carbon. The material removal process of the electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining consists of repeated cycles of oxidation followed by removal of the oxide layer. In this paper, we experimentally investigate and compare the critical chip thickness for ductile mode cutting in mechanical machining and electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining of glassy carbon. The theoretical critical chip thickness is calculated for mechanical machining of glassy carbon and experimentally verified. The effect of electrochemical oxidation on the critical chip thickness for ductile mode micromachining is also studied for glassy carbon. It is found that the critical chip thickness is increased for the electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining. (paper)

  1. Determination of carbon in amorphous carbon and uranium monocarbide by oxidation with lead(IV) oxide, copper(II) oxide or barium sulfate in an inert atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidation behavior was studied on amorphous carbon and carbon in uranium monocarbide when lead(IV) oxide, copper(II) oxide and barium sulfate were used as the oxidizing fluxes in helium. The amorphous carbon and the carbon in the carbide were completely extracted with lead oxide in 5 min at 10000C and in 8 min at 700 and 5000C, respectively. Carbon in two samples was quantitatively extracted at 10000C with copper oxide in 8 and 5 min, and with barium sulfate in 7 and 5 min, respectively. The rate of extraction of carbon with copper oxide decreased with decreasing temperature. It was found that the mixing ratio of the oxidizing flux to the amorphous carbon or carbide gave effect on the recovery of carbon. The conventional capillary-trap method which is used for the determination of carbon has a disadvantage that, when carbon dioxide is caught in a cold trap (liquid nitrogen), oxygen is also trapped. This disadvantage was eliminated when a stream of helium was used in place of oxygen. Carbon in the sample can be determined with lead oxide, copper oxide or barium sulfate by extracting carbon dioxide at 10000C for 10 min. (auth.)

  2. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of nitric oxidation of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some generalities about carbon blacks (preparation by various processes, structure, industrial use), the author notices that carbon black is often dispersed in aqueous solutions and, as it is hydrophobic, must therefore be submitted to treatment to become hydrophilic. Oxidation in liquid phase suits perfectly, and oxidation by nitric acid gives good results. Thus, this research thesis reports the study of the oxidation reaction mechanism in the case of oxidation of carbon black by nitric acid in aqueous solution. After having defined the different types of carbon blacks used in this study, and given an overview of the oxidation process (methods, purification and purity control of the obtained blacks, determination of the efficiency in terms of oxidised or purified black, difficulties faced during the elemental analysis of oxidised blacks), the author discusses the mechanism of formation of carbon dioxide during the oxidation of Philblack 0 carbon black by nitric acid. He reports the study of the oxidation kinetics, and the study of a thermal treatment of oxidised carbon blacks. The last part reports the study of the evolution of various properties of carbon blacks during oxidation: specific surface (BET method), density, examination by electronic microscopy and X-rays, magnetic susceptibility

  4. Inhibition of trichloroethylene oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, S M; Grbić-Galić, D

    1991-01-01

    Inhibition of trichloroethylene (TCE) oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide (CO) was evaluated with the aquifer methanotroph Methylomonas sp. strain MM2. CO was a TCE transformation intermediate. During TCE oxidation, approximately 9 mol% of the TCE was transformed to CO. CO was oxidized by Methylomonas sp. strain MM2, and when formate was provided as an electron donor, the CO oxidation rate doubled. The rate of CO oxidation without formate was 4.6 liter mg (dry weight)...

  5. Copper-cerium oxides supported on carbon nanomaterial for preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高美怡; 江楠; 赵宇宏; 徐长进; 苏海全; 曾尚红

    2016-01-01

    The CuxO-CeO2/Fe@CNSs, CuxO-CeO2/MWCNTs-Co and CuxO-CeO2/MWCNTs-Ni catalysts were prepared by the im-pregnation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffrac-tion, H2-temperature programmed reduction and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. It was found that the Fe nanoparticles were encapsulated into the multi-layered carbon nanospheres (CNSs). However, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) were generated on the Co/Al2O3 and Ni/Al2O3 precursor. The addition of carbon nanomaterial as supports could improve structural properties and low-temperature activity of the CuO-CeO2 catalyst, and save the used amount of metal catalysts in the temperature range with high selectivity for CO oxidation. The copper-cerium oxides supported on carbon nanomaterial had good resistence to H2O and CO2.

  6. Interaction of terbium group metal oxides with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanism of carbothermal reduction of terbium group metals from oxides is investigated using thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. Interaction of metal oxides with carbon covers dissociation of metal oxides and reduction by carbon monoxide, which contribution into general reduction depends on CO pressure. Temperatures of reaction beginning for batch initial components at P=1.3x10-4 and PCO=0.1 MPa and of formation of oxycarbide melts are determined

  7. Carbon mediated catalysis:A review on oxidative dehydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Chen; Anders Holmen; Zhijun Sui; Xinggui Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Carbon mediated catalysis has gained an increasing attention in both areas of nanocatalysis and nanomaterials. The progress in carbon nanomaterials provides many new opportunities to manip-ulate the types and properties of active sites of catalysts through manipulating structures, function-alities and properties of carbon surfaces. The present review focuses on progresses in carbon medi-ated oxidative dehydrogenation reactions of ethylbenzene, propane, and butane. The state-of-the-art of the developments of carbon mediated catalysis is discussed in terms of fundamental studies on adsorption of oxygen and hydrocarbons, reaction mechanism as well as effects of carbon nano-material structures and surface functional groups on the catalytic performance. We highlight the importance and challenges in tuning of the electron density of carbon and oxygen on carbon surfac-es for improving selectivity in oxidative dehydrogenation reactions.

  8. Oxidation of ultra low carbon and silicon bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Lucia [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lucia.suarez@ctm.com.es; Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: pablo.rodriguez@ctm.com.es; Houbaert, Yvan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Yvan.Houbaert@UGent.be; Colas, Rafael [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)], E-mail: rcolas@mail.uanl.mx

    2010-06-15

    Oxidation tests were carried out in samples from an ultra low carbon and two silicon bearing steels to determine the distribution and morphology of the oxide species present. The ultra low carbon steel was oxidized for short periods of time within a chamber designed to obtain thin oxide layers by controlling the atmosphere, and for longer times in an electric furnace; the silicon steels were reheated only in the electric furnace. The chamber was constructed to study the behaviour encountered during the short period of time between descaling and rolling in modern continuous mills. It was found that the oxide layers formed on the samples reheated in the electric furnace were made of different oxide species. The specimens treated in the chamber had layers made almost exclusively of wustite. Selected oxide samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy to obtain electron backscattered diffraction patterns, which were used to identify the oxide species in the layer.

  9. Oxidation behaviour of ribbon shape carbon fibers and their composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon fibers, though important constituent as reinforcements for high performance carbon/carbon composites, are shadowed by their oxidation in air at temperatures beginning 450 deg. C. Owing to tailorable properties of carbon fibers, efforts are underway to explore structural modification possibilities to improve the oxidation resistance of the fibers and their composites. The pitch based ribbon shape carbon fibers are found to have highly preferential oriented graphitic structure resulting in high mechanical properties and thermal conductivity. In the present work oxidation behaviour of ribbon shape carbon fibers and their composites heat treated to 1000-2700 deg. C has been studied. SEM examination of these composites exhibits development of graphitic texture and ordering within the fibers with increase in heat treatment temperature. Oxidation studies made by thermogravimetric analysis in air show that matrix has faster rate of oxidation and in the initial stages the matrix gets oxidized at faster rate with slower rate of oxidation of the fibers depending on processing conditions of fibers and composites

  10. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 μmol min−1 mg of wet cells−1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 (35°C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was “ping-pong,” indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  11. Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Fossing, Henrik;

    1993-01-01

    important and of a similar magnitude. Overall, most of the measured O2 flux into the sediment was used to oxidized reduced inorganic species and not organic carbon. We suspect that the importance of O2 respiration in many coastal sediments has been overestimated, whereas metal oxide reduction (both Fe and......We have combined several different methodologies to quantify rates of organic carbon mineralization by the various electron acceptors in sediments from the coast of Denmark and Norway. Rates of NH4+ and Sigma CO2 liberation sediment incubations were used with O2 penetration depths to conclude that...... O2 respiration accounted for only between 3.6-17.4% of the total organic carbon oxidation. Dentrification was limited to a narrow zone just below the depth of O2 penetration, and was not a major carbon oxidation pathway. The processes of Fe reduction, Mn reduction and sulfate reduction dominated...

  12. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.; George, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; DeSousa, S.N.

    The understanding of biogeochemical cycling of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the oceans is essential for predicting the fate of anthropogenically emitted components. The North Indian Ocean, with its diverse regimes, provides us with a natural...

  13. Preparation of anti-oxidative carbon fiber at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su Yeun; Kim, Chang Hyo; Yang, Kap Seung; Lee, Young-Jun

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, carbon fibers with improved thermal stability and oxidation resistive properties were prepared and evaluated their physical performances under oxidation condition. Carbon fibers were coated with SiC particles dispersed in a polyacrylonitrile solution and then followed by pyrolyzed at 1400 °C to obtain the SiC nanoparticle deposition on the surface of the carbon fiber. The SiC coated carbon fiber showed extended oxidation resistive property as remaining 80-88% of the original weight even at high temperature 1000 °C under air, as compared with the control of zero weight at 600 °C. The effects of the coating conditions on the oxidation resistive properties of the coated fibers were studied in detail.

  14. Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua@dlou.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023 (China); Su, Yan [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: shuochen@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ► This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ► Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

  15. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I.

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. Therefore the diffusion capacity of the lung for nitric oxide (DLNO) should reflect the alveolocapillary membrane diffusing capacity only, and should not be influenced by the vascular component. In this...

  16. Tin oxide-carbon nanotube composite for NOx sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Mi; Jung, Hyuck; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Kim, Dojin; Hong, Soon-Ku; Kim, Hyojin

    2012-02-01

    Tin oxide-single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) nano composites are synthesized for gas sensor application. The fabrication includes deposition of porous SWCNTs on thermally oxidized SiO2 substrates followed by rheotaxial growth of Sn and thermal oxidation at 300, 400, 500, and 600 degrees C in air. The effects of oxidation temperature on morphology, microstructure, and gas sensing properties are investigated for process optimization. The tin monoxide oxidized at 400 degrees C showed the highest response at the operating temperature of 200 degrees C. Under the optimized test condition, the composite structure showed better response than both structures of SWCNTs and thin film SnO. PMID:22629971

  17. Reduction of vanadium oxide by carbon in stainless steelmaking slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divakar, M.; Lahiri, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Metallurgy; Goernerup, M. [Uddeholm Technology AB (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Simultaneous reduction of chromium, iron and vanadium oxides by carbon has been studied by conducting experiments on typical stainless steelmaking slags in the temperature range of 1823 to 1923 K. In-situ gas generated due to the reduction led to several phenomena such as foam/emulsion formation, change in foam height, size of gas bubbles and rate of gas generation. The kinetics of vanadium oxide reduction by carbon are studied under the influence of the above mentioned phenomena and the presence of chromium and iron oxides. (orig.)

  18. Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, D. E.; Jorgensen, B. B.; Fossing, H.; Glud, R.; Gundersen, J.; Ramsing, N. B.; Thamdrup, B.; Hansen, J. W.; Nielsen, L. P.; Hall, P. O.

    1993-01-01

    We have combined several different methodologies to quantify rates of organic carbon mineralization by the various electron acceptors in sediments from the coast of Denmark and Norway. Rates of NH4+ and Sigma CO2 liberation sediment incubations were used with O2 penetration depths to conclude that O2 respiration accounted for only between 3.6-17.4% of the total organic carbon oxidation. Dentrification was limited to a narrow zone just below the depth of O2 penetration, and was not a major carbon oxidation pathway. The processes of Fe reduction, Mn reduction and sulfate reduction dominated organic carbon mineralization, but their relative significance varied depending on the sediment. Where high concentrations of Mn-oxide were found (3-4 wt% Mn), only Mn reduction occurred. With lower Mn oxide concentrations more typical of coastal sediments, Fe reduction and sulfate reduction were most important and of a similar magnitude. Overall, most of the measured O2 flux into the sediment was used to oxidized reduced inorganic species and not organic carbon. We suspect that the importance of O2 respiration in many coastal sediments has been overestimated, whereas metal oxide reduction (both Fe and Mn reduction) has probably been well underestimated.

  19. Catalytic Formation of Propylene Carbonate from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide/Propylene Oxide Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Propylene carbonate was synthesized from supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2)/ propylene oxide mixture with phthalocyaninatoaluminium chloride (ClAlPc)/ tetrabutylammon-ium bromide (n-Bu4NBr) as catalyst. The high rate of reaction was attributed to rapid diffusion and the high miscibility of propylene oxide in SC-CO2 under employed conditions. Various reaction periods present different formation rate of propylene carbonate, mainly due to the existence of phase change during the reaction. The experimental results demonstrate that SC-CO2 could be used as not only an environmentally benign solvent but also a carbon precursor in synthesis.

  20. A nine-atom rhodium–aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium–aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  1. A nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  2. Comparative DEMS study on the electrochemical oxidation of carbon blacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Sean James; Arenz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    heat-treated between 2100 and 3200 °C, such as those typically used as corrosion resistant carbon (CRC) supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. A methodology combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) is used, which allows...... subsequent oxidation; however, CRC samples graphitised =2800 °C did not exhibit this same behaviour. Highlights ¿ We quantitatively determine electrooxidation of carbon support materials. ¿ We can distinguish between the total and partial electrooxidation. ¿ Non or mildly heat treated carbon forms...... passivating layer. ¿ Heat treated carbons are less sensitive to oxidation–reduction cycles....

  3. Kinetic Analysis of the Anodic Carbon Oxidation Mechanism in a Molten Carbonate Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation mechanism for carbon in a carbonate melt was modelled using an electrochemical kinetic approach. Through the Butler-Volmer equation for electrode kinetics, a series of expressions was derived assuming each step of the proposed carbon oxidation mechanism is in turn the rate determining step (RDS). Through the derived expressions the transfer coefficient and Tafel slope were calculated for each possible RDS of the proposed mechanism and these were compared with real data collected on carbon based electrodes including graphite and coal. It was established that the RDS of the electrochemical oxidation process is dependent on both the carbon type and the potential region of oxidation. The simplified kinetic analysis suggested that the RDS in the main oxidation region is likely to be the first or second electron transfer on a graphite electrode surface, which occurs following initial adsorption of an oxygen anion to an active carbon site. This is contrary to previous suggestions that adsorption of the second anion to the carbon surface will be rate determining. It was further shown that use of a coal based carbon introduces a change in mechanism with an additional reaction region where a different mechanism is proposed to be operating

  4. Selective stabilization of aliphatic organic carbon by iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Dinesh; Yang, Yu

    2015-06-01

    Stabilization of organic matter in soil is important for natural ecosystem to sequestrate carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emission. It is largely unknown what factors govern the preservation of organic carbon in soil, casting shadow on predicting the response of soil to climate change. Iron oxide was suggested as an important mineral preserving soil organic carbon. However, ferric minerals are subject to reduction, potentially releasing iron and decreasing the stability of iron-bound organic carbon. Information about the stability of iron-bound organic carbon in the redox reaction is limited. Herein, we investigated the sorptive interactions of organic matter with hematite and reductive release of hematite-bound organic matter. Impacts of organic matter composition and conformation on its sorption by hematite and release during the reduction reaction were analyzed. We found that hematite-bound aliphatic carbon was more resistant to reduction release, although hematite preferred to sorb more aromatic carbon. Resistance to reductive release represents a new mechanism that aliphatic soil organic matter was stabilized by association with iron oxide. Selective stabilization of aliphatic over aromatic carbon can greatly contribute to the widely observed accumulation of aliphatic carbon in soil, which cannot be explained by sorptive interactions between minerals and organic matter.

  5. Oxidation Behavior of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    2008-01-01

    OXIMAP is a numerical (FEA-based) solution tool capable of calculating the carbon fiber and fiber coating oxidation patterns within any arbitrarily shaped carbon silicon carbide composite structure as a function of time, temperature, and the environmental oxygen partial pressure. The mathematical formulation is derived from the mechanics of the flow of ideal gases through a chemically reacting, porous solid. The result of the formulation is a set of two coupled, non-linear differential equations written in terms of the oxidant and oxide partial pressures. The differential equations are solved simultaneously to obtain the partial vapor pressures of the oxidant and oxides as a function of the spatial location and time. The local rate of carbon oxidation is determined at each time step using the map of the local oxidant partial vapor pressure along with the Arrhenius rate equation. The non-linear differential equations are cast into matrix equations by applying the Bubnov-Galerkin weighted residual finite element method, allowing for the solution of the differential equations numerically.

  6. Effect of carbon on the oxidation of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of specimens contaminated by different amounts of carbon shows a deleterious effect of this element in the resistance of zirconium to high temperature oxidation (700 to 900 deg. C). We drew the following results: a) the white spots or 'pimples' observed by numerous authors seem to be caused by the oxidation of precipitated carbides. We suggest a mechanism of formation and growth of these pimples; b) for a certain carbon content, the resistance to oxidation is increased by an uniform dispersion of the carbide phase and decreased, for instance, by extrusion textures. In this case, for the more marked textures, the more oriented corrosion was observed; c) by burning of the carbide phase it can result a second reaction increasing the corrosion rate; d) thin zirconium foils undergoes dimensional changes when scaling in oxygen. This unusual feature is also subordinated to carbon content and specially to the carbide phase dispersion. (author)

  7. Thermo-Oxidation of Tokamak Carbon Dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Davis; B.W.N. Fitzpatrick; J.P. Sharpe; A.A. Haasz

    2008-04-01

    The oxidation of dust and flakes collected from the DIII-D tokamak, and various commercial dust specimens, has been measured at 350 ºC and 2.0 kPa O2 pressure. Following an initial small mass loss, most of the commercial dust specimens showed very little effect due to O2 exposure. Similarly, dust collected from underneath DIII-D tiles, which is thought to comprise largely Grafoil™ particulates, also showed little susceptibility to oxidation at this temperature. However, oxidation of the dust collected from tile surfaces has led to ~ 18% mass loss after 8 hours; thereafter, little change in mass was observed. This suggests that the surface dust includes some components of different composition and/or structure – possibly fragments of codeposited layers. The oxidation of codeposit flakes scraped form DIII-D upper divertor tiles showed an initial 25% loss in mass due to heating in vacuum, and the gradual loss of 30-38% mass during the subsequent 24 hours exposure to O2. This behavior is significantly different from that observed for the oxidation of thinner DIII-D codeposit specimens which were still adhered to tile surfaces, and this is thought to be related to the low deuterium content (D/C ~ 0.03 – 0.04) of the flakes.

  8. Catalytic Enhancement of Solid Carbon Oxidation in HDCFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) consisting of a solid carbon (carbon black)-molten carbonate ((62-38 wt% Li-K)2CO3) mixtures in the anode chamber of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-type full-cell (NiO-yttria-stablized zirconia (YSZ)|YSZ|lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM...... in the carbon-carbonate mixture in the anode chamber of an HDCFC. 96-4 vol% N2-CO2 (anode), air (cathode), 755°C, 0-600 mA, 50 mA/step. Power density corrected to cathode geometric surface area. [Formula]...... impedance data as a function of temperature, anode and cathode atmospheres, and their flow rates are discussed. In the anode chamber, catalysts are mixed with the carbon-carbonate mixture. These catalysts include various manganese oxides (MnO2, Mn2O3, and Mn3O4, Fig. 1) and doped-ceria (CeO2, Ce1-xGdxO2, Ce...

  9. Surface State of Carbon Fibers Modified by Electrochemical Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxia GUO; Jie LIU; Jieying LIANG

    2005-01-01

    Surface of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers was modified by electrochemical oxidation. The modification effect on carbon fibers surface was explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that on the modified surface of carbon fibers, the carbon contents decreased by 9.7% and the oxygen and nitrogen contents increased by 53.8% and 7.5 times, respectively. The surface roughness and the hydroxyl and carbonyl contents also increased. The surface orientation index was reduced by 1.5%which decreased tensile strength of carbon fibers by 8.1%, and the microcrystalline dimension also decreased which increased the active sites of carbon fiber surface by 78%. The physical and chemical properties of carbon fibers surface were modified through the electrochemical oxidative method, which improved the cohesiveness between the fibers and resin matrix and increased the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy composite (CFRP) over 20%.

  10. Characterization and Oxidation Behavior of Rayon-Derived Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Hull, David

    2010-01-01

    Rayon-derived fibers are the central constituent of reinforced carbon/ carbon (RCC) composites. Optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-fabricated fibers and the fibers after oxidation. Oxidation rates were measured with weight loss techniques in air and oxygen. The as-received fibers are approximately 10 micron in diameter and characterized by grooves or crenulations around the edges. Below 800 C, in the reaction-controlled region, preferential attack began in the crenulations and appeared to occur down fissures in the fibers.

  11. Catalytic Enhancement of Solid Carbon Oxidation in HDCFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    was investigated using current-potential-power density curves. In the anode chamber, catalysts are mixed with the carbon-carbonate mixture. These catalysts include various manganese oxides (MnO2, Mn2O3, and Mn3O4) and dopedceria (CeO2, Ce1-xGdxO2-x/2, Ce1-xRExO2-delta (RE = Pr, Sm)), the effectiveness...

  12. Production of graphene oxide from pitch-based carbon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Miyeon Lee; Jihoon Lee; Sung Young Park; Byunggak Min; Bongsoo Kim; Insik In

    2015-01-01

    Pitch-based graphene oxide (p-GO) whose compositional/structural features are comparable to those of graphene oxide (GO) was firstly produced by chemical exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber rather than natural graphite. Incorporation of p-GO as nanofillers into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a matrix polymer resulted in excellent mechanical reinforcement. p-GO/PMMA nanocomposite (1 wt.-% p-GO) demonstrated 800% higher modulus of toughness of neat PMMA.

  13. Investigation of Structure and Oxidation Behavior of Pitch and Resin Resultant Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUBo-quan; LINan

    1996-01-01

    The structure and oxidation behaviors of pitch carbon,resin carbon and their mixture re-sultant carbon have been investigated.The results indicate that the pitch carbon has relative higher true specific gravity,well developed crystalline and better oxidation resistance than resin carbon,With 20%-35% resin added to pitch,the structure of the resultant carbon can be modified and oxidation resistance will be improved significantly.

  14. USE OF CARBON CATALYSTS FOR OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION OF WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana S. Stavitskaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility of using the catalytic action of the carbonaceous adsorbents modified by different ways for the purification of various solutions, natural and wastewaters. It has been found that the oxidative destruction of organic (phenols, dyes, pesticides, etc. and inorganic (H2S contaminants in water solutions is considerably intensified in the presence of both ordinary activated carbons and especially, carbons with specially introduced catalytic additives. It is shown that the sewage treatment level is strongly affected by the amount and nature of a modifying agent introduced on the carbon surface.

  15. Oxidizing attack process of uranium ore by a carbonated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous process for digesting a uraniferous ore by oxidation with a recycling aqueous liquor containing alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates in solution as well as uranium in a concentration close to its solubility limit at digestion temperature, and of recuperation of the precipitated uranium within the solid phase remaining after digestion. The digestion is carried out by spraying oxygen into the hot reactional medium in order not only to permit oxidation of the uranium and its solubilization but also to ensure that the sulphides of impurities and organic substances present in the ore are oxidized

  16. Zinc oxide catalyzed growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that zinc oxide can catalyze the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with high efficiency by a chemical vapor deposition process. The zinc oxide nanocatalysts, prepared using a diblock copolymer templating method and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), were uniformly spaced over a large deposition area with an average diameter of 1.7 nm and narrow size distribution. Dense and uniform SWNTs films with high quality were obtained by using a zinc oxide catalyst, as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, AFM, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

  17. Membrane topography of anaerobic carbon monoxide oxidation in Rhodocyclus gelatinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodocyclus gelatinosus 1 grows anaerobically in the dark at the expense of carbon monoxide. Topographical studies with methyl viologen as the membrane probe indicated that CO oxidation and H2 production sites were on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Membrane-associated hydrogen gas production appeared to be a unidirectional reaction. In the dark, strain 1 whole cells oxidized CO and incorporated about 306 pmol of 32P/sub i/ into ATP per min per mg of protein. With CO as the sole energy-yielding substrate, cells grew with a low growth yield coefficient of 3.7 g (dry weight) of cells per mg of CO oxidized

  18. On vanadium oxide dissolution in sodium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of dissolution process of powdered vanadium (5) oxide in sodium carbonate is studied. Activation energy of chemical dissolution of V2O5 at sodium carbonate concentration up to 0.6 mol/dm3 constitutes 35.2 kJ/mol. With sodium carbonate concentration increase the dissolution activation energy decreases to 32.5 kJ/mol. Absolute values of activation energy of the dissolution process, dependence of the reaction order on the temperature in the range of low sodium carbonate concentration, testify to the presence of kinetic difficulties in the process studied. Thus, the process of V2O5 dissolution in sodium carbonate solutions proceeds in the mixed region and obeys regularities of the mixed kinetics

  19. Modelling carbon for industry: radiolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, P.; Ewels, C.P.; Heggie, M.I. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chem., Phys. and Environ. Sci.; Jones, R. [Exeter Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Briddon, P.R. [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    2000-01-01

    An ab initio density functional technique (AIMPRO) has been employed to investigate the structure, vibrational properties, and dissociation mechanisms of CO{sub 3}{sup 0}, the important radical anion CO{sub 3}{sup -} and the interaction of this species with the graphite basal plane. The results are discussed in the context of the radiolytic oxidation of graphite: a process of relevance to the British nuclear industry, which relies for the most part on graphite-cored, CO{sub 2}-cooled reactors. The radiation field splits coolant molecules and produces, amongst other things, a very reactive radical anion CO{sub 3}{sup -}, which has been suggested as the main agent for the accelerated oxidation of graphite. This paper shows that CO{sub 3}{sup -} binds strongly to graphite after combining with an electronic hole and forming a long and strong ionic bond. It still remains mobile on the basal plane and can diffuse to a graphite edge and oxidize it. (orig.)

  20. Carbon monoxide-induced reduction and healing of graphene oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayanan, B.; Weeks, S. L.; Jariwala, B. N.; Macco, B.; Weber, J.; Rathi, S. J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Sutter, P.; Agarwal, S.; Ciobanu, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide holds promise as a carbon-based nanomaterial that can be produced inexpensively in large quantities. However, its structural and electrical properties remain far from those of the graphene sheets obtained by mechanical exfoliation or by chemical vapor deposition unless efficient reduc

  1. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  2. Carbon nanotube transistors with graphene oxide films as gate dielectrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials,including the one-dimensional(1-D) carbon nanotube(CNT) and two-dimensional(2-D) graphene,are heralded as ideal candidates for next generation nanoelectronics.An essential component for the development of advanced nanoelectronics devices is processing-compatible oxide.Here,in analogy to the widespread use of silicon dioxide(SiO2) in silicon microelectronic industry,we report the proof-of-principle use of graphite oxide(GO) as a gate dielectrics for CNT field-effect transistor(FET) via a fast and simple solution-based processing in the ambient condition.The exceptional transistor characteristics,including low operation voltage(2 V),high carrier mobility(950 cm2/V-1 s-1),and the negligible gate hysteresis,suggest a potential route to the future all-carbon nanoelectronics.

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Cracked Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Cracked Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Rauser, Richard W.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 C and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used because they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with X-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating.

  5. Structural evolution of carbon during oxidation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, A.F.

    1998-04-01

    The examination of the structural evolution of carbon during oxidation has proven to be of scientific interest. Early modeling work of fluidized bed combustion showed that most of the reactions of interest occurs in the micropores, and this work has concentrated on these pores. This work has concentrated on evolution of macroporosity and microporosity of carbons during kinetic controlled oxidation using SAXS, CO{sub 2} and TEM analysis. Simple studies of fluidized bed combustion of coal chars has shown that many of the events considered fragmentation events previously may in fact be {open_quotes}hidden{close_quotes} or nonaccessible porosity. This makes the study of the microporous combustion characteristics of carbon even more important. The generation of a combustion resistant grid, coupled with measurements of the SAXS and CO{sub 2} surface areas, fractal analysis and TEM. Studies has confirmed that soot particles shrink during their oxidation, as previously suspected. However, this shrinkage results in an overall change in structure. This structure becomes, on a radial basis, much more ordered near the edges, while the center itself becomes transparent to the TEM beam, implying a total lack of structure in this region. Although complex, this carbon structure is probably burning as to keep the density of the soot particles nearly the same. The TEM techniques developed for examination of soots has also been applied to Spherocarb. The Spherocarb during oxidation also increases its ordering. This ordering, by present theories, would imply that the reactivity would go. However, the reactivity goes up, implying that structure of carbon is secondary in importance to catalytic effects.

  6. Oxidation behavior of a kind of carbon black

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The DTG curves of a kind of carbon black during TPO tests were found to have multiple peaks with an unusual sharp peak after the main peak.TPO tests with different sample loads,oxygen fractions and heating rates were carried out to study the influence of the experimental parameters on the sharp peak.The results show that the sharp peak is not caused by heat and mass transfer limitations,but by the intrinsic oxidation kinetics of the carbon black.The evolution of the specific surface area during the intrinsic kinetic controlled oxidation process was then analyzed using isothermal oxidation at low temperatures which showed that the sharp peak is caused by the increase of the specific surface area.The pore structure changes greatly influence the oxidation process when the reaction is controlled by the intrinsic kinetics.When there were no heat and mass transfer limitations,the different oxidation processes result in the same specific surface area evolution.

  7. Forest soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio responses to elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, William C.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Norby, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the biosphere is the stoichiometric ratio (O2/CO2) of gas exchange by photosynthesis and respiration—a key parameter in budgeting calculations of the land and ocean carbon sinks. Carbon cycle-climate feedbacks could alter the OR of the biosphere by affecting the quantity and quality of organic matter in plant biomass and soil carbon pools. This study considers the effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) on the OR of a hardwood forest after nine growing seasons of Free-Air CO2 Enrichment. We measured changes in the carbon oxidation state (Cox) of biomass and soil carbon pools as a proxy for the ecosystem OR. The OR of net primary production, 1.039, was not affected by elevated [CO2]. However, the Cox of the soil carbon pool was 40% higher at elevated [CO2], and the estimated OR values for soil respiration increased from 1.006 at ambient [CO2] to 1.054 at elevated [CO2]. A biochemical inventory of the soil organic matter ascribed the increases in Cox and OR to faster turnover of reduced substrates, lignin and lipids, at elevated [CO2]. This implicates the heterotrophic soil community response to elevated [CO2] as a driver of disequilibrium in the ecosystem OR. The oxidation of soil carbon pool constitutes an unexpected terrestrial O2 sink. Carbon budgets constructed under the assumption of OR equilibrium would equate such a terrestrial O2 sink to CO2 uptake by the ocean. The potential for climate-driven disequilibriua in the cycling of O2 and CO2 warrants further investigation.

  8. Nickel Oxide/Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite for Electrochemical Capacitance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui LIANG; Kayhyeok AN; Younghee LEE

    2005-01-01

    A nanocomposite of nickel oxide/carbon nanotubes was prepared through a simple chemical precipitation followed by thermal annealing. The electrochemical capacitance of this electrode material was studied. When the mass fraction of CNTs (carbon nanotubes) in NiO/CNT composites increases, the electrical resistivity of nanocomposites decreases and becomes similar to that of pure CNTs when it reaches 30%. The specific surface area of composites increases with increasing CNT mass fraction and the specific capacitance reaches 160 F/g under 10 mA/g discharge current density at CNT mass fraction of 10%.

  9. Electrolysis of carbon dioxide in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide electrolysis was studied in Ni/YSZ electrode supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOECs) consisting of a Ni-YSZ support, a Ni-YSZ electrode layer, a YSZ electrolyte, and a LSM-YSZ O2 electrode (YSZ = Yttria Stabilized Zirconia). The results of this study show that long term CO2...... current density and irreversible when operated at conditions that would oxidise carbon. This clearly shows that the passivation was not caused by coke formation. On the other hand, the passivation was partly reversible when introducing hydrogen. The passivation may be a consequence of impurities in the...

  10. Thermal Oxidation of Tail Gases from the Production of Oil-furnace Carbon Black

    OpenAIRE

    Bosak, Z.; Barta, D; Zečević, N.; Šiklušić, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the production technology of oil-furnace carbon black, as well as the selected solution for preventing the emissions of this process from contaminating the environment.The products of industrial oil-furnace carbon black production are different grades of carbon black and process tail gases. The qualitative composition of these tail gases during the production of oil-furnace carbon black are: carbon(IV) oxide, carbon(II) oxide, hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen...

  11. Indium Tin Oxide@Carbon Core–Shell Nanowire and Jagged Indium Tin Oxide Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports two new indium tin oxide (ITO-based nanostructures, namely ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire. The ITO@carbon core–shell nanowires (~50 nm in diameter, 1–5 μm in length, were prepared by a chemical vapor deposition process from commercial ITO nanoparticles. A carbon overlayer (~5–10 in thickness was observed around ITO nanowire core, which was in situ formed by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene gas. This carbon overlayer could be easily removed after calcination in air at an elevated temperature of 700°C, thus forming jagged ITO nanowires (~40–45 nm in diameter. The growth mechanisms of ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire were also suggested.

  12. Fluid phase equilibria during propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide in carbon dioxide medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharnati, Loubna; Musko, Nikolai; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the influence of the amount of carbon dioxide on the catalytic performance during the propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide and CO2 was investigated. The reaction was performed in high-pressure batch autoclaves using immobilized 1-hydroxyethyl-9-propyl......-phase region where a CO2-expanded reactant/product phase (larger volume due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the liquid phase) is present. Optimal conditions for performing the reaction have been derived which requires consideration not only of the phase behavior of the starting phase but also of the...

  13. Strings of polymer microspheres stabilized by oxidized carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guannan; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Haitao; Du, Qiangguo; Zhang, Hongdong

    2014-07-15

    Oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTOs) with hydrophilic oxygen-containing functional groups and hydrophobic conjugated structure are prepared by the oxidation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). After the polymerization of styrene with CNTOs dispersed in aqueous phase, polystyrene (PS) microspheres with string-like structure are obtained. Thermogravimetic analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Raman results indicate the strong interaction between the separated PS chains from the oil phase and CNTOs during the initial stage of the polymerization. These adsorbed PS chains on the surface of CNTOs are quickly swollen by the monomer and they grow in size during the further polymerization. The pH value and the ion strength of aqueous phase obviously affect the stability of PS microspheres. The particle size of microspheres is also determined by the pH. We demonstrate that the one-dimensional structure of CNTOs is responsible for the formation of polymer microspheres with special architecture. PMID:24863776

  14. Catalytic conversion of methane: Carbon dioxide reforming and oxidative coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas conversion remains one of the essential technologies for current energy needs. This review focuses on the mechanistic aspects of the development of efficient and durable catalysts for two reactions, carbon dioxide reforming and the oxidative coupling of methane. These two reactions have tremendous technological significance for practical application in industry. An understanding of the fundamental aspects and reaction mechanisms of the catalytic reactions reviewed in this study would support the design of industrial catalysts. CO 2 reforming of methane utilizes CO 2, which is often stored in large quantities, to convert as a reactant. Strategies to eliminate carbon deposition, which is the major problem associated with this reaction, are discussed. The oxidative coupling of methane directly produces ethylene in one reactor through a slightly exothermic reaction, potentially minimizing the capital cost of the natural gas conversion process. The focus of discussion in this review will be on the attainable yield of C 2 products by rigorous kinetic analyses.

  15. Exergy parametric study of carbon monoxide oxidation in moist air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Ferhat; Benmalek, Toufik; Yesaad, Billel; Baik, Mouloud

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide in moist air from the second thermodynamic law aspect. A mathematical model of laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow has been achieved by numerical solution of the boundary layer equation using a self-made code. The chemical kinetic mechanism for flameless combustion of fuel, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water vapor, is modeled by 34 elementary reactions that incorporate (09) nine chemical species: CO, O, CO2, O2, H2O, H, H2, HO2, and OH. The salient point is that for all the parameters we considered, the exergy of the process is completely destroyed by irreversibilities. From the chemical viewpoint, the OH radical plays an essential role in CO oxidation. This latter point has already been mentioned by previous investigators.

  16. Memory Effects on Iron Oxide Filled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Cava, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In this Licentiate Thesis, the properties and effects of iron and iron oxide filled carbon nanotube (Fe-CNT) memories are investigated using experimental characterization and quantum physical theoretical models. Memory devices based on the simple assembly of Fe-CNTs between two metallic contacts are presented as a possible application involving the resistive switching phenomena of this material. It is known that the electrical conductivity of these nanotubes changes significantly when the mat...

  17. Nitric oxide increases carbon monoxide production by piglet cerebral microvessels

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, Charles W.; Balabanova, Liliya; Fedinec, Alexander L.; Parfenova, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) can be involved in regulation of cerebral circulation. Inhibition of production of either one of these gaseous intercellular messengers inhibits newborn pig cerebral arteriolar dilation to the excitatory amino acid glutamate. Glutamate can increase NO production. Therefore, the present study tests the hypothesis that NO, which is increased by glutamate, stimulates the production of CO by cerebral microvessels. Experiments used freshly isolated cerebr...

  18. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mark A.; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated.

  19. Liquid Phase Plasma Synthesis of Iron Oxide/Carbon Composite as Dielectric Material for Capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Iron oxide/carbon composite was synthesized using a liquid phase plasma process to be used as the electrode of supercapacitor. Spherical iron oxide nanoparticles with the size of 5~10 nm were dispersed uniformly on carbon powder surface. The specific capacitance of the composite increased with increasing quantity of iron oxide precipitate on the carbon powder up to a certain quantity. When the quantity of the iron oxide precipitate exceeds the threshold, however, the specific capacitance was ...

  20. The oxidation of moderator graphites irradiated in carbon dioxide containing carbon monoxide, methane and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) was introduced for the second generation of British nuclear power stations. It was recognised that problems of compatibility between the carbon dioxide coolant and the moderator graphite would arise because of the increased power rating of the reactor compared with the first generation MAGNOX system. This led to the realisation that it would be necessary to reduce the rate of oxidation of the moderator to acceptable levels by the addition of inhibitors to the coolant and to this end carbon monoxide and methane were chosen. This paper describes experiments which have been made in a materials testing reactor at AERE Harwell in which moderator graphite reaction rates have been measured in carbon dioxide containing carbon monoxide at concentrations between 0.03% and 2% and methane concentrations up to 600 vpm. The effect of impressing a flow of coolant through the graphite structure, the so-called ventilation effect, and the role of coolant temperature and pressure have also been assessed. The results confirm the inhibiting power of methane and carbon monoxide on the graphite/CO2 reaction and demonstrate that the application of ventilation in the presence of these inhibitors enhances their effect. A minimum or 'terminal' oxidation rate may be achieved by the CAGR Gilso carbon graphites when irradiated in the presence of 200 vpm methane, or more, under appropriate conditions. (author)

  1. High purity samarium oxide from mixed rare earth carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and economical chemical process for the production of highly pure samarium oxides is discussed. The raw material, which was used in the form of rare earth carbonates was produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography was performed using a strong cationic resin that is typically employed in water treatment processes to fractionate rare earth elements (REE) without the use of retention ions. Under these conditions, 99.9% pure Sm2O3 was eluted using the ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at a controlled pH. The EDTA-samarium complex was separated from EDTA and then precipitated as oxalate and fired to samarium oxide. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the samarium content during the proposed process, and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the samarium oxide. Typical samarium oxide obtained from the proposed procedure contained the following contaminants in micrograms per gram: Sc (20.90); Y (11.80); La (8.4); Ce (4.3); Pr (2.5); Nd (5.1); Eu (94); Gd (114); Tb (3.6); Dy (2.5), Ho (2.3); Er (3.0); Tm (2.3); Yb (38,2); Lu (25.6). The high-purity samarium oxides produced in the present study can be used as an alternative to imported products in research and development applications. (author)

  2. Spectroscopic investigations on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, C. M. S.; Premkumar, S.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    The pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were oxidized by the ultrasonication process. The oxidized MWCNTs were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform -Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques. The XRD analysis confirms that the oxidized MWCNTs exist in a hexagonal structure and the sharp XRD peak corresponds to the (002) Bragg's reflection plane, which indicates that the MWCNTs have higher crystalline nature. The UV-Vis analysis confirms that the MWCNTs functionalized with the carboxylic acid. The red shift was observed corresponds to the D band in the Raman spectrum, which reveals that the reduced disordered graphitic structure of oxidized MWCNTs. The strong Raman peak was observed at 2563 cm-1 corresponds to the overtone of the D band, which is the characteristic vibrational mode of oxidized MWCNTs. The carboxylic acid functionalization of MWCNTs enhances the dispersibility, which paves the way for potential applications in the field of biosensors and targeted drug delivery.

  3. High purity samarium oxide from mixed rare earth carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da S.; Seneda, Jose A.; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de, E-mail: cqueiroz@ipen.br, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.br, E-mail: mstela@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pedreira Filho, Walter dos R., E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.br [Fundaco Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for the production of highly pure samarium oxides is discussed. The raw material, which was used in the form of rare earth carbonates was produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography was performed using a strong cationic resin that is typically employed in water treatment processes to fractionate rare earth elements (REE) without the use of retention ions. Under these conditions, 99.9% pure Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} was eluted using the ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at a controlled pH. The EDTA-samarium complex was separated from EDTA and then precipitated as oxalate and fired to samarium oxide. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the samarium content during the proposed process, and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the samarium oxide. Typical samarium oxide obtained from the proposed procedure contained the following contaminants in micrograms per gram: Sc (20.90); Y (11.80); La (8.4); Ce (4.3); Pr (2.5); Nd (5.1); Eu (94); Gd (114); Tb (3.6); Dy (2.5), Ho (2.3); Er (3.0); Tm (2.3); Yb (38,2); Lu (25.6). The high-purity samarium oxides produced in the present study can be used as an alternative to imported products in research and development applications. (author)

  4. INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT ON OXIDATION PROPERTIES OF C/C COMPOSITES FABRICATED BY HIGH PRESSURE IMPREGNATION CARBONIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q.Chen; H.J.Li; A.J.Li; H.M.Han; K.Z.Li

    2004-01-01

    Felt base carbon/carbon composites fabricated by super-high pressure impregnation carbonization process (SPIC) were heat treated at high temperature 2773K. The oxidation properties of felt base carbon/carbon composites were investigated at different temperatures (773-1173K), and the microstructures of carbon/carbon composites were studied by SEM and X-ray diffraction. The experimental results showed that the interlaminar distance of (002) plane (doo2) deceased while the microcrystalline stack height (Lc) increased. The oxidation rate of felt base carbon/carbon composites was invariable at certain temperatures. The oxidation mechanism of carbon/carbon composites changed remarkably at the oxidation temperature 973K. At the initial oxidation stage of carbon/carbon composites, carbon matrix was oxidized much more rapidly than carbon felt.

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of organic carbonate based electrolyte solutions at lithium metal oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, R.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The oxidative decomposition of carbonate based electrolyte solutions at practical lithium metal oxide composite electrodes was studied by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry. For propylene carbonate (PC), CO{sub 2} evolution was detected at LiNiO{sub 2}, LiCoO{sub 2}, and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite electrodes. The starting point of gas evolution was 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} at LiNiO{sub 2}, whereas at LiCoO{sub 2} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} evolution was only observed above 4.8 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. In addition, various other volatile electrolyte decomposition products of PC were detected when using LiCoO{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O4, and carbon black electrodes. In ethylene carbonate / dimethyl carbonate, CO{sub 2} evolution was only detected at LiNiO{sub 2} electrodes, again starting at about 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  6. Enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes by acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chensha Li; Baoyou Zhang; Xingjuan Chen; Xiaoqing Hu; Ji Liang

    2005-01-01

    Three approaches of treating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment at high temperature were studied to enhance the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. High temperature heat-treatment elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. Acid treatment removes parts of amorphous carbonaceous matter through its oxidization effect.Air oxidization disperses carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbonaceous matter. The treatment of combining acid treatment with heat-treatment further elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes comparing with acid treatment or heat-treatment. The combination of the three treatments creates the thorough effects of enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes.

  7. Electrocatalytic oxidation of deferiprone and its determination on a carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadegari, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimian, K. [Arasto Pharmaceutical Chemicals Inc., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The electrochemical behavior of the anti-thalassemia and anti-HIV replication drug, deferiprone, was investigated on a carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon (GC-CNT) electrode in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.40 (PBS). During oxidation of deferiprone, two irreversible anodic peaks, with E{sub 1}{sup 0}=452 and E{sub 2}{sup 0}=906mV, appeared, using GC-CNT. Cyclic voltammetric study indicated that the oxidation process is irreversible and diffusion controlled. The number of exchanged electrons in the electro-oxidation process was obtained, and the data indicated that deferiprone is oxidized via two two-electron steps. The results revealed that carbon nanotube (CNT) promotes the rate of oxidation by increasing the peak current, so that deferiprone is oxidized at lower potentials, which thermodynamically is more favorable. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements. The diffusion coefficient, electron-transfer coefficient and heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant of deferiprone were found to be 1.49 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 0.44, and 3.83 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1}, respectively. A sensitive, simple and time-saving differential-pulse voltammetric procedure was developed for the analysis of deferiprone. Using the proposed method, deferiprone can be determined with a detection limit of 5.25 x 10{sup -7} M. The applicability of the method to direct assays of spiked human serum and urine fluids is described.

  8. Carbon Nanomaterial Produced by Microwave Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga Y.M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-based graphene-like material was obtained through microwave stimulated exfoliation of graph-ite oxide (GO. Properties of this material were investigated by multiple techniques including element analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, mass-spectroscopy, infrared (IR and Raman spectrosco-py, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Specific surface area and volume of microwave exfoliated graphite oxide (MEGO reached 600 m2/g and 6 cm3/g, respectively. It is shown that during such explosive reduction process the sample emits CO2, CO and H2O and, in some cases, SO2 gases. The resulting reduced material exhibits IR spectra similar to that of graphite and a dc-conductivity of 0.12 S/cm. It is also shown that prolonged storage in ambient conditions leads to elevated oxygen content and decrease of specific surface area of the samples.

  9. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Larrude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs synthesized by spray pyrolysis were decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a simple synthesis route. This wet chemistry method yielded nanoparticles randomly anchored to the surface of the nanotubes by decomposition of cobalt nitrate hexahydrate diluted in acetone. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that dispersed particles were formed on the MWCNTs walls. The average size increased with the increasing concentration of cobalt nitrate in acetone in the precursor mixture. TEM images indicated that nanoparticles were strongly attached to the tube walls. The Raman spectroscopy results suggested that the MWCNT structure was slightly damaged after the nanoparticle growth.

  10. Kinetic study of pyrite oxidation in basic carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general goal of this experimental study was to find ways to control the unwanted oxidation of pyrite during the in situ leaching of uranium ores. The authors investigated the effect of particle size, leaching pH, flow rate, total carbonate concentration, and cation type of column leaching rates. The work appears to be the first dealing with pyrite leaching in test columns at high pH in which the identity and percentages of the various eluted sulfur compounds was measured. The most interesting of the experimental observations was the ultimate ceasing of the pyrite reaction when using an ammonia leachant

  11. Carbon and Redox Tolerant Infiltrated Oxide Fuel-Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Blennow, P.;

    2016-01-01

    To solve issues of coking and redox instability related to the presence of nickel in typical fuel electrodes in solid oxide cells,Gd-doped CeO2 (CGO) electrodes were studied using symmetriccells. These electrodes showed high electro-catalytic activity, butlow electronic conductivity. When infiltr...... deposition in a CO/CO2-atmosphere, while none of the non-nickel cells catalyzed carbon.Stability towards redox cycles was also proven....

  12. Carbon nanotubes/tin oxide nanocomposite-supported Pt catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingwei; Wei, Jiadi; Chai, Yuzheng; Zhang, Shuo

    2015-07-15

    Carbon nanotubes/tin oxide nanocomposite (MWCNTs-SnO2) was obtained via the hydrolysis of SnCl4 in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and subsequent calcinations. And carbon nanotubes/tin oxide nanocomposite-supported Pt catalysts (Pt/MWCNTs-SnO2) were prepared by in-situ liquid phase reduction using H2PtCl6 as a metal precursor. As-prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their catalytic performances were evaluated by chronoamperometry (CA) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Desirable catalytic performance for methanol electro-oxidation was observed with a reduced size and an improved dispersion of Pt catalysts on the MWCNTs-SnO2 nanocomposite. The calcination temperature of MWCNTs-SnO2 nanocomposite was a key factor for controlling the catalytic performance of Pt/MWCNTs-SnO2 catalysts. PMID:25801135

  13. Electrochemically oxidized carbon anode in direct L-ascorbic acid fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode was investigated in the operation of a direct L-ascorbic acid fuel cell anode. The surface oxygen species placed on electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation process of carbon electrode can facilitate the pore-filling process (i.e., wetting) of the electrolyte into the microstructure of the carbon electrode by increasing the number of more polar functional groups on the electrode surface. The electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode exhibited significantly enhanced electro-catalytic oxidation activity of L-ascorbic acid compared to an unmodified carbon electrode. Moreover, the simplified electrode structure using carbon paper without an additional powder-based precious catalyst layer is very favorable in creating percolation network and generates power density of 18 mW/cm2 at 60 deg. C

  14. Measurement of soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, W.C.; Masiello, C.A.; Randerson, J.T.; Smernik, R.J.; Baldock, J.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Harden, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) of the net ecosystem carbon balance is the ratio of net O2 and CO2 fluxes resulting from photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and other lateral and vertical carbon flows. The OR of the terrestrial biosphere must be well characterized to accurately estimate the terrestrial CO2 sink using atmospheric measurements of changing O2 and CO2 levels. To estimate the OR of the terrestrial biosphere, measurements are needed of changes in the OR of aboveground and belowground carbon pools associated with decadal timescale disturbances (e.g., land use change and fire). The OR of aboveground pools can be measured using conventional approaches including elemental analysis. However, measuring the OR of soil carbon pools is technically challenging, and few soil OR data are available. In this paper we test three solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for measuring soil OR, all based on measurements of the closely related parameter, organic carbon oxidation state (Cox). Two of the three techniques make use of a molecular mixing model which converts NMR spectra into concentrations of a standard suite of biological molecules of known C ox. The third technique assigns Cox values to each peak in the NMR spectrum. We assess error associated with each technique using pure chemical compounds and plant biomass standards whose Cox and OR values can be directly measured by elemental analyses. The most accurate technique, direct polarization solid-state 13C NMR with the molecular mixing model, agrees with elemental analyses to ??0.036 Cox units (??0.009 OR units). Using this technique, we show a large natural variability in soil Cox and OR values. Soil Cox values have a mean of -0.26 and a range from -0.45 to 0.30, corresponding to OR values of 1.08 ?? 0.06 and a range from 0.96 to 1.22. We also estimate the OR of the carbon flux from a boreal forest fire. Analysis of soils from nearby intact soil profiles imply that soil carbon losses associated

  15. Carbon nanotubes: a suitable material for catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of organic pollutants?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Rui; Silva, Adrián; Faria, Joaquim; Gomes, Helder

    2012-01-01

    Carbon materials, such as activated carbons (AC), graphite and activated carbon xerogels, have been explored as metal-free catalysts for the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of bio-refractory organic compounds, such as azo dyes and phenolic compounds [1-3]. At the same time, the application of carbon nanomaterials in catalysis, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT), has grown exponentially [4]. In the present work, commercial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were used in the CWPO of 2-nitr...

  16. Carbon-coated magnetic palladium: applications in partial oxidation of alcohols and coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic carbon supported Pd catalyst has been synthesized via in situ generation of nanoferrites and incorporation of carbon from renewable cellulose via calcination; catalyst can be used for oxidation of alcohols, amination reaction and arylation of aryl halides (cross coupli...

  17. A Study on the Oxidative-dissolution Leaching of Fission Product Oxides in the carbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of an oxidativedissolution leaching of FP co-dissolved with U in a carbonate solution of Na2CO3- H2O2 and (NH4)2CO3-H2O2, respectively. Simulated FP-oxides which contained 12 components have been added to the solution to examine their oxidative dissolution characteristics. It was found that H2O2 was an effective oxidant to minimize the dissolution of FP in a carbonate solution. In 0.5M Na2CO3-0.5M H2O2 and 0.5M (NH4)2CO3-0.5M H2O2 solution, some elements such as Re, Te, Cs and Mo seem to be dissolved together with U. It is revealed that dissolution rates of Re, Te and Cs are high (completely dissolved within 10∼20 minutes) due to their high solubility in Na2CO3 and (NH4)2CO3 solution regardless of the addition of H2O2, and independent of the concentrations of Na2CO3 and H2O2. However, Mo was slowly dissolved by an oxidative dissolution with H2O2. It is found that the most important factor for the oxidative dissolution of FP is the pH of the solution and an effective oxidative dissolution is achieved at a pH between 10∼12 for Na2CO3 and a pH between 9∼10 for (NH4)2CO3, respectively, in order to minimize the dissolution of FP

  18. Copper on activated carbon for catalytic wet air oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Dolores Martínez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is an important source of water contamination. Some of the organic contaminants cannot be eliminated by nature in a reasonable period. Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation is one of the most effective methods to purify wastewater with organic contaminants. In this work, catalysts based on copper supported on activated carbon were synthesized. The activated carbons were obtained from industrial wastes (apricot core and grape stalk of San Juan, Argentina. These were impregnated with a copper salt and thermically treated in an inert atmosphere. Analysis of specific surface, pore volume, p zc, acidity, basicity and XRD patterns were made in order to characterize the catalysts. The catalytic activity was tested in the oxidation of methylene blue (MB and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA in aqueous phase with pure oxygen. Reaction tests were carried out in a Parr batch reactor at different temperatures, with a 0.2 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. The amount of unconverted organics was measured by spectrophotometry. Higher temperatures were necessary for the degradation of PVA compared to those for methylene blue.

  19. Thermal and radiation induced polymerisation of carbon sub-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the study of the polymerisation of carbon sub-oxide (C3O2) in gaseous phase. As this work is related to other researches dealing with the reactions of the graphite-CO2 system which occur in graphite-moderated nuclear reactors, a first intention was to study the behaviour of C3O2 when submitted to radiations. Preliminary tests showed that the most remarkable result of this action was the formation of a polymer. It was also noticed that the polymerisation of this gas was spontaneous however slower at room temperature. The research thus focused on this polymerisation, and on the formula of the obtained polymer. After some generalities, the author reports the preparation, purification and storage and conservation of the carbon sub-oxide. The next parts report the kinetic study of thermal polymerisation, the study of polymerisation under γ rays, the study of the obtained polymer by using visible, UV and infrared spectroscopy, electronic paramagnetic resonance, and semi-conductivity measurements

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of Zirconium Oxide on Carbon Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we describe preparation of structures containing carbon nanoparticles for potential applications in nonvolatile memories. The carbon nanoparticles were synthesized from 5-methylresorcinol and formaldehyde via base catalysed polycondensation reaction, and were distributed over substrates by dip-coating the substrates into an organic solution. Before deposition of nanoparticles the substrates were covered with 2 nm thick Al2O3 layer grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from Al(CH3)3 and O3. After deposition of nanoparticles the samples were coated with ZrO2 films grown from C5H5Zr[N(CH3)2]3 and H2O. Both dielectrics were grown in two-temperature ALD processes starting deposition of Al2O3 at 25 °C and ZrO2 at 200 °C, thereafter completing both processes at a substrate temperature of 300 °C. Deposition of ZrO2 changed the structure of C-nanoparticles, which still remained in a Si/Al2O3/C/ZrO2 structure as a separate layer. Electrical characterization of nanostructures containing Al2O3 as tunnel oxide, C-nanoparticles as charge traps and ZrO2 as control oxide showed hysteretic flat-band voltage shift of about 1V

  1. Metal Oxide-Carbon Nanocomposites for Aqueous and Nonaqueous Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I effort focuses on development of novel metal-oxide-carbon nanocomposites for application in pseudocapacitive...

  2. Oxidation of carbon based first wall materials of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety relevance of oxidation reactions on carbon materials in fusion reactors is discussed. Because tritium codeposited in ITER will probably exceed tolerable limits, countermeasures have to be developed: In this paper ozone is tested as oxidising agent for removal of codeposited layers on thick a-C:D-flakes from TEXTOR. In preceeding experiments the advantageous features of using ozonised air instead of ozonised oxygen, reported in literature for reactions with graphite, is not found for nuclear grade graphite. At 185 deg. C = 458 K ozone (0.8-3.4 vol-% in oxygen) is able to gasify the carbon content of these flakes with initial rates, comparable to initial rates in oxygen (21 kPa) for the same material at >200K higher temperatures. The layer reduction rate in ozone drops with increasing burn-off rapidly from about 0.9-2.0 μm/h to 0.20-0.25 μm/h, but in oxygen it drops to zero for all temperatures ≤ 450 deg. C = 723 K, before carbon is completely gasified. Altogether, ozone seems to be a promising oxidising agent for removal of codeposited layers, but further studies are necessary with respect to rate dependence on temperature and ozone concentration even on other kinds of codeposited layers. Further on, the optimum reaction temperature considering the limited thermal stability of ozone has to be found out and studies on the general reaction mechanism have to be done. Besides these examinations on codeposited layers, a short overview on the status of our oxidation studies on different types of fusion relevant C-based materials is given; open problems in this field are outlined. (author)

  3. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J., E-mail: jesuskuh@live.com.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Nistal, A. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Rubio, F.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Cinvestav, Unidad Mérida, C.P., 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  4. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible

  5. Complete reaction mechanisms of mercury oxidation on halogenated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungnim, Chompoonut; Promarak, Vinich; Hannongbua, Supa; Kungwan, Nawee; Namuangruk, Supawadee

    2016-06-01

    The reaction mechanisms of mercury (Hg) adsorption and oxidation on halogenated activated carbon (AC) have been completely studied for the first time using density functional theory (DFT) method. Two different halogenated AC models, namely X-AC and X-AC-X (X=Cl, Br, I), were adopted. The results revealed that HgX is found to be stable-state on the AC edge since its further desorption from the AC as HgX, or further oxidation to HgX2, are energetically unfavorable. Remarkably, the halide type does not significantly affect the Hg adsorption energy but it strongly affects the activation energy barrier of HgX formation, which obviously increases in the order HgIelimination significantly decreases as I-AC>Br-AC>Cl-AC. Thus, the study of the complete reaction mechanism is essential because the adsorption energy can not be used as a guideline for the rational material design in the halide impregnated AC systems. The activation energy is an important descriptor for the predictions of sorbent reactivity to the Hg oxidation process. PMID:26943019

  6. Synthesis, characterization and formation process of transition metal oxide nanotubes using carbon nanofibers as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mono and binary transition metal oxide nanotubes could be synthesized by the immersion of carbon nanofiber templates into metal nitrate solutions and removal of the templates by heat treatment in air. The transition metal oxide nanotubes were composed of nano-crystallites of metal oxides. The functional groups on the carbon nanofiber templates were essential for the coating of these templates: they acted as adsorption sites for the metal nitrates, ensuring a uniform metal oxide coating. During the removal of the carbon nanofiber templates by calcination in air, the metal oxide coatings promoted the combustion reaction between the carbon nanofibers and oxygen. - Graphical abstract: Mono and binary transition metal-oxide nanotubes could be synthesized by the immersion of carbon nanofiber templates into metal nitrate solutions and removal of the templates by heat treatment in air.

  7. Selective Oxidation of Amorphous Carbon Layers without Damaging Embedded Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Chul; Lim, Seong Chu

    2013-11-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by arc discharge, and then purified by selective oxidation of amorphous carbon layers that were found to encase SWCNT bundles and catalyst metal particles. In order to remove selectively the amorphous carbon layers with SWCNTs being intact, we have systematically investigated the thermal treatment conditions; firstly, setting the temperature by measuring the activation energies of SWCNTs and amorphous carbon layers, and then, secondly, finding the optimal process time. As a consequence, the optimal temperature and time for the thermal treatment was found to be 460 °C and 20 min, respectively. The complete elimination of surrounding amorphous carbon layers makes it possible to efficiently disperse the SWCNT bundles, resulting in high absorbance of SWCNT-ink. The SWCNTs which were thermal-treated at optimized temperature (460 °C) and duration (20 min) showed much better crystallinity, dispersibility, and transparent conducting properties, compared with as-synthesized and the nanotubes thermal-treated at different experimental conditions.

  8. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon–i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid mediated by carbon nano tubes/ Li+/ carbon paste modified solid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was used to modify BPPG electrode because of its unique structure and extraordinary properties. MWCNT modified electrode exhibited obvious enhancing and electro catalyzing effects to the oxidation of ascorbic acid using cyclic voltammetry technique. MWCNT was bonded on BPPG electrode surface using carbon paste with ratio of 30 % (w/ W) carbon paste (binder): 70 % (w/ w) MWCNT. This method of modification has lowered the capacitance background current and enabled lower detection limit of ascorbic acid concentration. The electrical conductivity property of MWCNT modified electrode was further improved with the intercalation with lithium ion and resulted in current enhancement of 2 times on the oxidation current of ascorbic acid. Parameters of pH and temperature showed significant relation to the sensitivity of MWCNT modified electrode. Under the optimized parameters, the calibration curve constructed was linear up from 50 μM to 5 mM with sensitivity of 34.5 mA M-1. The practical application of MWCNT modified electrode was demonstrated with Vitamin C pill and orange juice. Good reproducibility and recovery of ascorbic acid concentration showed the feasibility of MWCNT modified electrode to be used in the detection of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution. This also proposed MWCNT modified BPPG electrode possessed advantages such as low detection limit, high stability, low cost and simplicity in fabrication. (author)

  10. Generation of nitric oxide from nitrite by carbonic anhydrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamand, Rasmus; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Jensen, Frank B;

    2009-01-01

    In catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a crucial role in CO2 transport, in acid-base balance, and in linking local acidosis to O2 unloading from hemoglobin. Considering the structural similarity between...... bicarbonate and nitrite, we hypothesized that CA uses nitrite as a substrate to produce the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) to increase local blood flow to metabolically active tissues. Here we show that CA readily reacts with nitrite to generate NO, particularly at low pH, and that the NO produced in...... effectively in catalysis. Taken together, our results reveal a novel nitrous anhydrase enzymatic activity of CA that would function to link the in vivo main end products of energy metabolism (CO2/H+) to the generation of vasoactive NO. The CA-mediated NO production may be important to the correlation between...

  11. Generation of nitric oxide from nitrite by carbonic anhydrase:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamand, Rasmus; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Jensen, Frank Bo;

    2009-01-01

    In catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a crucial role in CO2 transport, in acid-base balance, and in linking local acidosis to O2 unloading from hemoglobin. Considering the structural similarity between...... bicarbonate and nitrite, we hypothesized that CA uses nitrite as a substrate to produce the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) to increase local blood flow to metabolically active tissues. Here we show that CA readily reacts with nitrite to generate NO, particularly at low pH, and that the NO produced in...... effectively in catalysis. Taken together, our results reveal a novel nitrous anhydrase enzymatic activity of CA that would function to link the in vivo main end products of energy metabolism (CO2/H+) to the generation of vasoactive NO. The CA-mediated NO production may be important to the correlation between...

  12. Upgrading non-oxidized carbon nanotubes by thermally decomposed hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng, E-mail: wangpc@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yu-Chun [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Liu, Li-Hung [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yu-Ling; Lin, Ying-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yao-Jane [Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-01

    We found that the electrical properties of conductive thin films based on non-oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could be further improved when the CNTs consecutively underwent a mild hydrazine adsorption treatment and then a sufficiently effective thermal desorption treatment. We also found that, after several rounds of vapor-phase hydrazine treatments and baking treatments were applied to an inferior single-CNT field-effect transistor device, the device showed improvement in I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio and reduction in the extent of gate-sweeping hysteresis. Our experimental results indicate that, even though hydrazine is a well-known reducing agent, the characteristics of our hydrazine-exposed CNT samples subject to certain treatment conditions could become more graphenic than graphanic, suggesting that the improvement in the electrical and electronic properties of CNT samples could be related to the transient bonding and chemical scavenging of thermally decomposed hydrazine on the surface of CNTs.

  13. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  14. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  15. Plasma-Chemical Synthesis of Nanosized Powders-Nitrides, Carbides, Oxides, Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the plasma-chemical synthesis of nanosized powders (nitrides, carbides, oxides, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes) is reviewed. Nanosized powders - nitrides, carbides, oxides, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes have been successfully produced using different techniques, technological apparatuses and conditions for their plasma-chemical synthesis. (plasma technology)

  16. Carbon dioxide reduction in a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell for a carbon recycling energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new energy transformation system based on carbon recycling is proposed called the active carbon recycling energy system (ACRES). A high-temperature gas reactor was used as the main energy source for ACRES. An experimental study based on the ACRES concept of carbon monoxide (CO) regeneration via high-temperature reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) was carried out using a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell employing Ni-LSM cermet|YSZ|YSZ-LSM as the cathode|electrolyte|anode. The current density increased with increasing CO2 concentration at the cathode, which was attributed to a decrease in cathode activation and concentration overpotential. Current density, as well as the CO and oxygen (O2) production rates, increased with increasing operating temperature. The highest CO and O2 production rates of 1.24 and 0.64 μmol/min cm2, respectively, were measured at 900 °C. Based on the electrolytic characteristics of the cell, the scale of a combined ACRES CO2 electrolysis/iron production facility was estimated

  17. Electrolysis of carbon dioxide for carbon monoxide production in a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An experimental study for the CO regeneration was demonstrated. • Higher current densities at higher temperatures were obtained. • The scale of the combined system was estimated experimentally at 800 °C. • The required surface area of the cells was estimated to be 65.6 km2/BF unit. • The combined system may contribute to establishing a low-carbon society. - Abstract: An active carbon recycling energy system (ACRES) based on carbon recycling has been proposed as a new energy transformation system. This energy transformation system reduces the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere during the iron-making process. An experimental study for electrochemical CO production by CO2 electrolysis based on the ACRES concept was carried out using a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell. Experimental results show that the CO and oxygen (O2) production rates at 800, 850, and 900 °C were almost proportional to the current passing through the cell. Both ionic conductivity and the chemical kinetics of CO2 decomposition increased with increasing temperature. The highest current density and CO production rate at 900 °C were 2.97 mA/cm2 and 0.78 μmol/(min cm2), respectively. On the basis of the electrolytic characteristics of the cell, the scale of the combined ACRES CO2 electrolysis/iron-making system was estimated

  18. Carbon dioxide reduction in a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell for a carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipu, Arnoldus Lambertus, E-mail: dipu.a.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ujisawa, Yutaka [Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 16-1, Sunayama, Kamisu, Ibaraki 314-0255 (Japan); Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-22, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    A new energy transformation system based on carbon recycling is proposed called the active carbon recycling energy system (ACRES). A high-temperature gas reactor was used as the main energy source for ACRES. An experimental study based on the ACRES concept of carbon monoxide (CO) regeneration via high-temperature reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was carried out using a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell employing Ni-LSM cermet|YSZ|YSZ-LSM as the cathode|electrolyte|anode. The current density increased with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration at the cathode, which was attributed to a decrease in cathode activation and concentration overpotential. Current density, as well as the CO and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production rates, increased with increasing operating temperature. The highest CO and O{sub 2} production rates of 1.24 and 0.64 μmol/min cm{sup 2}, respectively, were measured at 900 °C. Based on the electrolytic characteristics of the cell, the scale of a combined ACRES CO{sub 2} electrolysis/iron production facility was estimated.

  19. Determination of carbon in ceramic oxides - Al sub(2)O sub(3) and UO sub(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon determination in ceramics oxides is the objective of the present work. The amount of carbon in aluminium oxide (Al sub(2)O sub(3)) and uranium oxide (UO sub(2)) is determined by fusion/infrared cell technique. A carbon determinator (IECO - CS244) was used to test the performance of the analytical results. The determinator was calibrated using steel standards instead of ceramics oxides, and a special flux mix (W, Sn and Fe) was used. The details of the analysis technique and the data obtained are discussed. (author)

  20. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly ( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  1. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku-Herrera, J. J.; Avilés, F.; Nistal, A.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J. V.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.

    2015-03-01

    Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as "sizing"), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  2. Experimental kinetic study and modeling of calcium oxide carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, major contributors to the greenhouse effect, are considered as the main cause of global warming. So, decrease of CO2 emitted by large industrial combustion sources or power plants, is an important scientific goal. One of the approaches is based on CO2 separation and capture from flue gas, followed by sequestration in a wide range of geological formations. In this aim, CO2 is captured by sorbents like calcium oxide (CaO) in multi-cycle process of carbonation/de-carbonation. However, it was shown that the most important limitations of such process are related to the reversibility of reaction. CaO rapidly loses activity towards CO2, so the maximum extent of carbonation decreases as long as the number of cycles increases. In order to well understand the processes and parameters influencing the capture capacity of CaO-based sorbents, it appears important to get details on the kinetic law governing the reaction, which have not been really studied up to now. To investigate this reaction, CaO carbonation kinetics was followed by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on divided materials. Special care was given to the validation of the usual kinetic assumptions such as steady state and rate-determining step assumptions. The aim was to obtain a model describing the reaction in order to explain the influence of intensive variables such as carbonation temperature and CO2 partial pressure. TGA curves obtained under isothermal and isobaric conditions showed an induction period linked to the nucleation process and a strong slowing down of the reaction rate once a given fractional conversion was reached. Both phenomena were observed to depend on carbonation temperature and CO2 partial pressure. To explain these results, the evolution of texture and microstructure of the solid during the reaction was regarded as essential. Reaction at the grain scale induces a volume increase from CaO to CaCO3 which causes a change in the porosity

  3. CuO impregnated activated carbon for catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an original approach to the removal of phenol in synthetic wastewater by catalytic wet peroxide oxidation with copper binding activated carbon (CuAC) catalysts. The characteristics and oxidation performance of CuAC in the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation of phenol were studied in a batch reactor at 80 deg. C. Complete conversion of the oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, was observed with CuAC catalyst in 20 min oxidation, and a highly efficient phenol removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement were achieved in the first 30 min. The good oxidation performance of CuAC catalyst was contributed to the activity enhancement of copper oxide, which was binding in the carbon matrix. It can be concluded that the efficiency of oxidation dominated by the residual H2O2 in this study. An over 90% COD removal was achieved by using the multiple-step addition in this catalytic oxidation.

  4. Evaluating two experimental approaches for measuring ecosystem carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Randerson, J. T.; Deco, R. M.; Chadwick, O. A.

    2008-09-01

    Degree of oxidation of organic carbon (Cox) is a fundamental property of the carbon cycle, reflecting the synthesis and decomposition of natural organic matter. Cox is also related to ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR), the molar ratio of O2 to CO2 fluxes associated with net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Here we compare two methods for measuring Cox and OR: (1) %C, %H, %N, and %O elemental analysis, and (2) heat of combustion (ΔHc) measured by means of bomb calorimetry coupled with %C elemental analysis (hereafter referred to as calorimetry). Compared with %C, %N, %H, and %O elemental analysis, calorimetry generates Cox and OR data more rapidly and cheaply. However, calorimetric measurements yield less accurate Cox and OR data. We additionally report Cox and OR data for a pair of biomass standards and a suite of biomass samples. The OR values we measured in these samples were less variable than OR data reported in the literature (generated by simultaneous measurement of ecosystem O2 and CO2 gas mixing ratios). Our biomass OR values had a mean of 1.03 and range of 0.99-1.06. These estimates are lower than the OR value of 1.10 that is often used to partition uptake of fossil fuel CO2 between the ocean and the terrestrial biosphere.

  5. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the plan does not...) and carbon monoxide in the San Francisco Bay Area, San Diego, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin...

  6. Novel Carbon Dioxide Microsensor Based on Tin Oxide Nanomaterial Doped With Copper Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major indicators of fire and therefore its measurement is very important for low-false-alarm fire detection and emissions monitoring. However, only a limited number of CO2 sensing materials exist due to the high chemical stability of CO2. In this work, a novel CO2 microsensor based on nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) doped with copper oxide (CuO) has been successfully demonstrated. The CuO-SnO2 based CO2 microsensors are fabricated by means of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and sol-gel nanomaterial-synthesis processes. At a doping level of CuO: SnO2 = 1:8 (molar ratio), the resistance of the sensor has a linear response to CO2 concentrations for the range of 1 to 4 percent CO2 in air at 450 C. This approach has demonstrated the use of SnO2, typically used for the detection of reducing gases, in the detection of an oxidizing gas.

  7. Enhancing the capacitances of electric double layer capacitors based on carbon nanotube electrodes by carbon dioxide activation and acid oxidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polarizable electrodes of electric double layer capacitors(EDLCs) were made from carbon nanotubes(CNTs).Effect of carbon dioxide activation together with acid oxidation for the electrodes on the characteristics and performances of electrodes and EDLCs was studied.Carbon dioxide activation changed the microstructure of the electrodes,increased the effective surface area of CNTs and optimized the distribution of apertures of the electrodes.Acid oxidization modified the surface characteristics of CNTs.Based on the polarizable electrodes treated by carbon dioxide activation and acid oxidization,the performances of EDLCs were greatly enhanced.The specific capacitance of the electrodes with organic electrolyte was increased from 21.8 F/g to 60.4 F/g.

  8. Gold catalysts supported on nanosized iron oxide for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Yi; Huang, Zuming; Guo, Huishan; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize synthesis of gold catalyst supported on nanosized iron oxide and to evaluate the activity in oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared from a colloidal dispersion of hydrous iron oxide through a dispersion-precipitation method. Gold was adsorbed onto nanosized iron oxide under self-generated basic conditions. Characterization results indicate that the iron oxide consisted of hematite/maghemite composite with primary particle sizes of 6-8 nm. Gold was highly dispersed on the surface of the support. The catalysts showed good activity in the oxidation of airborne carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The optimal pH for their synthesis was ∼7. The catalytic performance could be enhanced by extending the adsorption time of gold species on the support within 21 h. The optimized catalyst was capable of achieving complete oxidation of 1% carbon monoxide at -20 °C and 33% conversion of 450 ppm formaldehyde at ambient temperature. The catalyst may be applicable to indoor air purification.

  9. Electrochemical oxidation and nanomolar detection of acetaminophen at a carbon-ceramic electrode modified by carbon nanotubes: A comparison between multi walled and single walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-ceramic electrodes (CCE) modified with carbon nanotubes were prepared, and the electrochemical behavior towards acetaminophen (ACOP) was investigated using both a bare CCE and electrodes modified with either single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) or multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in an effort to understand which of them is the better choice in terms of electrocatalyzing the oxidation of ACOP, and thus for sensing it. The SWCNT are found to be the better material in significantly enhancing the oxidation peak current and improving the reversibility of the oxidation. Under optimal conditions, linearity between the oxidation peak current and the concentration of ACOP is obtained for the concentration range from 40 nM to 85 μM, with a detection limit of 25 nM. Finally, ACOP was successfully determined with the SWCNT modified electrode in pharmaceutical samples. (author)

  10. Enhanced electro-oxidation resistance of carbon electrodes induced by phosphorus surface groups

    OpenAIRE

    Berenguer Betrián, Raúl; Ruiz Rosas, Ramiro; Gallardo, Aurora; Cazorla Amorós, Diego; Morallón Núñez, Emilia; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kyotani, Takashi; Rodríguez-Mirasol, José; Cordero, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    The electro-oxidation of carbon materials enormously degrades their performance and limits their wider utilization in multiple electrochemical applications. In this work, the positive influence of phosphorus functionalities on the overall electrochemical stability of carbon materials has been demonstrated under different conditions. We show that the extent and selectivity of electroxidation in P-containing carbons are completely different to those observed in conventional carbons without P. T...

  11. Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Catalyze Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-Butane

    OpenAIRE

    J. Zhang; Liu, X; Blume, R.; Zhang, A; Schlögl, R.; Su, D.

    2008-01-01

    Butenes and butadiene, which are useful intermediates for the synthesis of polymers and other compounds, are synthesized traditionally by oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over complex metal oxides. Such catalysts require high O2/butane ratios to maintain the activity, which leads to unwanted product oxidation. We show that carbon nanotubes with modified surface functionality efficiently catalyze the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane to butenes, especially butadiene. For low O2/...

  12. Activated carbon and tungsten oxide supported on activated carbon catalysts for toluene catalytic combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Merino, M A; Ribeiro, M F; Silva, J M; Carrasco-Marín, F; Maldonado-Hódar, F J

    2004-09-01

    We have used activated carbon (AC) prepared from almond shells as a support for tungsten oxide to develop a series of WOx/AC catalysts for the catalytic combustion of toluene. We conducted the reaction between 300 and 350 degrees C, using a flow of 500 ppm of toluene in air and space velocity (GHSV) in the range 4000-7000 h(-1). Results show that AC used as a support is an appropriate material for removing toluene from dilute streams. By decreasing the GHSV and increasing the reaction temperature AC becomes a specific catalyst for the total toluene oxidation (SCO2 = 100%), but in less favorable conditions CO appears as reaction product and toluene-derivative compounds are retained inside the pores. WOx/AC catalysts are more selective to CO2 than AC due to the strong acidity of this oxide; this behavior improves with increased metal loading and reaction temperature and contact time. The catalytic performance depends on the nonstoichiometric tungsten oxide obtained during the pretreatment. In comparison with other supports the WOx/AC catalysts present, at low reaction temperatures, higher activity and selectivity than WO, supported on SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, or Y zeolite. This is due to the hydrophobic character of the AC surface which prevents the adsorption of water produced from toluene combustion thus avoiding the deactivation of the active centers. However, the use of WOx/AC system is always restricted by its gasification temperature (around 400 degrees C), which limits the ability to increase the conversion values by increasing reaction temperatures. PMID:15461177

  13. An experimental and modeling study of diethyl carbonate oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an attractive biofuel that can be used to displace petroleum-derived diesel fuel, thereby reducing CO2 and particulate emissions from diesel engines. A better understanding of DEC combustion characteristics is needed to facilitate its use in internal combustion engines. Toward this goal, ignition delay times for DEC were measured at conditions relevant to internal combustion engines using a rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube. The experimental conditions investigated covered a wide range of temperatures (660-1300K), a pressure of 30bar, and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in air. To provide further understanding of the intermediates formed in DEC oxidation, species concentrations were measured in a jet-stirred reactor at 10atm over a temperature range of 500-1200K and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. These experimental measurements were used to aid the development and validation of a chemical kinetic model for DEC.The experimental results for ignition in the RCM showed near negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. Six-membered alkylperoxy radical (RO˙2) isomerizations are conventionally thought to initiate low-temperature branching reactions responsible for NTC behavior, but DEC has no such possible 6- and 7-membered ring isomerizations. However, its molecular structure allows for 5-, 8- and 9-membered ring RO˙2 isomerizations. To provide accurate rate constants for these ring structures, ab initio computations for RO˙2⇌Q˙OOH isomerization reactions were performed. These new RO˙2 isomerization rate constants have been implemented in a chemical kinetic model for DEC oxidation. The model simulations have been compared with ignition delay times measured in the RCM near the NTC region. Results of the simulation were also compared with experimental results for ignition in the high-temperature region and for species concentrations in the jet-stirred reactor. Chemical kinetic insights into the

  14. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U3O8) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U3O8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  15. Carbon-13 kinetic isotope effects in CO oxidation by Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over silver wool the 13C kinetic isotope effects in the 343--453 K temperature range were experimentally determined and the following temperature dependence was found: 100 ln(k12/k13) = (3.398--630/T) ± 0.083. A reaction CO/O2gas mixture of 1:2 ratio was used in a static system with initial pressures ranging from 20 to 40 kPa. Under these conditions the reaction is of order 1 with respect to CO and order 0 with respect to O2 and CO2 pressure. The apparent activation energy is 59.3 ± 1.7 kJ/mol. In the authors theoretical interpretation of the experimental data various geometries of (CO2)* and (CO3)* transition states were applied, and only a (CO2)* with an interbond angle of 110degree and CO stretching force constants of 1,700 and 1,000--1,400 N/m, respectively, with an asymmetric reaction coordinate was found to be acceptable

  16. Metal oxide coating of carbon supports for supercapacitor applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Tribby, Louis, J (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Han, Sang M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lambert, Timothy N.; Fleig, Patrick F. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-01

    The global market for wireless sensor networks in 2010 will be valued close to $10 B, or 200 M units. TPL, Inc. is a small Albuquerque based business that has positioned itself to be a leader in providing uninterruptible power supplies in this growing market with projected revenues expected to exceed $26 M in 5 years. This project focused on improving TPL, Inc.'s patent-pending EnerPak{trademark} device which converts small amounts of energy from the environment (e.g., vibrations, light or temperature differences) into electrical energy that can be used to charge small energy storage devices. A critical component of the EnerPak{trademark} is the supercapacitor that handles high power delivery for wireless communications; however, optimization and miniaturization of this critical component is required. This proposal aimed to produce prototype microsupercapacitors through the integration of novel materials and fabrication processes developed at New Mexico Technology Research Collaborative (NMTRC) member institutions. In particular, we focused on developing novel ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and placed them into carbon supports to significantly increase the energy density of the supercapacitor. These improvements were expected to reduce maintenance costs and expand the utility of the TPL, Inc.'s device, enabling New Mexico to become the leader in the growing global wireless power supply market. By dominating this niche, new customers were expected to be attracted to TPL, Inc. yielding new technical opportunities and increased job opportunities for New Mexico.

  17. Coaxial carbon/metal oxide/aligned carbon nanotube arrays as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Fengliu; Zhou, Haitao; Tran, Trung Dung; Melandsø Buan, Marthe Emelie; Vullum-Bruer, Fride; Rønning, Magnus; Walmsley, John Charles; Chen, De

    2014-05-01

    Coaxial carbon/metal oxide/aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) arrays over stainless-steel foil are reported as high-performance binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries. The coaxial arrays were prepared by growth of ACNTs over stainless-steel foil followed by coating with metal oxide and carbon. The carbon/manganese oxide/ACNT arrays can deliver an initial capacity of 738 mAh g(-1) with 99.9 % capacity retention up to 100 cycles and a capacity of 374 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 6000 mA g(-1). The external carbon layer was recognized as a key component for high performance, and the mechanism of performance enhancement was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer increases rate capability by enhancing electrical conductivity and maintaining a low mass-transfer resistance and also improves cyclic stability by avoiding aggregation of metal-oxide particles and stabilizing the solid electrolyte interface. The resultant principle of rational electrode design was applied to an iron oxide-based system, and similar improvements were found. These coaxial nanotube arrays present a promising strategy for the rational design of high-performance binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries. PMID:24578068

  18. Study of the catalytic activity of mixed non-stoichiometric uranium-thorium oxides in carbon monoxide oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work has been to study the catalytic properties of non-stoichiometric uranium-thorium oxides having the general formula UxTh1-xO2+y, for the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The preparation of pure, homogeneous, isotropic solids having good structural stability and a surface area as high as possible calls for a strict control of the conditions of preparation of these oxides right from the preparation of 'mother salts': the mixed oxalates UxTh1-x(C2O4)2, 2H2O. A study has been made of their physico-chemical properties (overall and surface chemical constitution, texture, structure, electrical conductivity), as well as of their adsorption properties with respect to gaseous species occurring in the catalytic reaction. This analysis has made it possible to put forward a reaction mechanism based on successive oxidations and reductions of the active surface by the reactants. A study of the reactions kinetics has confirmed the existence of this oxidation-reduction mechanism which only occurs for oxides having a uranium content of above 0.0014. The carbon dioxide produced by the reaction acts as an inhibitor by blocking the sites on which carbon monoxide can be adsorbed. These non-stoichiometric mixed oxides are a particularly clear example of catalysis by oxygen exchange between the solid and the gas phase. (author)

  19. Carbon oxidation in ceramic composites and the evaluation of interfacial sealing for oxidation resistant fiber-reinforced composite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glime, William Harrison, III

    1997-11-01

    Carbon offers desirable properties as a fiber-matrix interphase material in ceramic matrix composites (CMC's), but oxidation of carbon at temperatures above 500sp°C has limited its utility. In an effort to better understand the kinetics associated with carbon oxidation pertaining to CMC applications, the origin of non-planar morphologies observed in the reaction front of carbon fibers and interphases receding into a ceramic matrix in the temperature range of 700sp°C to 1000sp°C was analyzed. A numerical simulation based on the finite difference method is utilized to evaluate the parameters which govern the morphology of the receding carbon reaction front. The study indicates that the morphology of the reaction front contains information regarding the interplay between oxidation behavior and microstructural features of the carbon. Carbon oxidation was found to obey "weak-link" behavior, that is, a sub-component which is more susceptible to oxidation governs the recession kinetics. The implications of weak link oxidation to preservation of a carbon interphase in a ceramic composite are discussed. Interrupted interphases have demonstrated the ability to confine oxidation of a carbon interphase to a localized region adjacent to a matrix crack. Commercial SiC mono-filaments (SCS-6, Textron Specialty Materials) were modified with a laser to produce fibers with discontinuous carbon coatings that were used in experiments to study mechanical properties. The laser-scribed fibers were tested in isolation, used in single-fiber microcomposites, or incorporated into small bulk composite specimens using a powder processing route to produce the matrix. The mechanical performance of the various types of specimens prepared using the laser scribing technique is presented and these results are used in a simulation of ultimate composite properties. The effect of fiber matrix fusion, by direct bonding or through a reaction product which seals the interface, was investigated with

  20. Oxidation protection and behavior of in-situ zirconium diboride–silicon carbide coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu; Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Yin, Xuemin; Chu, Yanhui; Chen, Xi; Fu, Qiangang, E-mail: fuqiangang@nwpu.edu.cn

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • ZrB{sub 2}–SiC coating was prepared on C/C composite by in-situ reaction. • A two-layered structure was obtained when the coating was oxidized at 1500 °C. • The formation and collapse of bubbles influenced the coating oxidation greatly. • The morphology evolution of oxide scale during oxidation was illuminated. - Abstract: To protect carbon/carbon (C/C) composites against oxidation, zirconium diboride–silicon carbide (ZrB{sub 2}–SiC) coating was prepared by in-situ reaction using ZrC, B{sub 4}C and Si as raw materials. The in-situ ZrB{sub 2}–SiC coated C/C presented good oxidation resistance, whose weight loss was only 0.15% after isothermal oxidation at 1500 °C for 216 h. Microstructure evolution of coating at 1500 °C was studied, revealing a two-layered structure: (1) ZrO{sub 2} (ZrSiO{sub 4}) embedded in SiO{sub 2}-rich glass, and (2) unaffected ZrB{sub 2}–SiC. The formation and collapse of bubbles influenced the coating oxidation greatly. A model based on the evolution of oxide scale was proposed to explain the failure mechanism of coating.

  1. Thermal Oxidation of Tail Gases from the Production of Oil-furnace Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosak, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the production technology of oil-furnace carbon black, as well as the selected solution for preventing the emissions of this process from contaminating the environment.The products of industrial oil-furnace carbon black production are different grades of carbon black and process tail gases. The qualitative composition of these tail gases during the production of oil-furnace carbon black are: carbon(IV oxide, carbon(II oxide, hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.The quantitative composition and lower caloric value of process tail gases change depending on the type of feedstock used in the production, as well as the type of process. The lower caloric value of process tail gases is relatively small with values ranging between 1500 and 2300 kJ m–3.In the conventional production of oil-furnace carbon black, process tail gases purified from carbon black dust are freely released into the atmosphere untreated. In this manner, the process tail gases pollute the air in the town of Kutina, because their quantitative values are much higher than the prescribed emissions limits for hydrogen sulfide and carbon(II oxide. A logical solution for the prevention of such air pollution is combustion of the process tail gases, i. e. their thermal oxidation. For this purpose, a specially designed flare system has been developed. Consuming minimum amounts of natural gas needed for oxidation, the flare system is designed to combust low caloric process tail gases with 99 % efficiency. Thus, the toxic and flammable components of the tail gases (hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, carbon(II oxide, methane and other trace hydrocarbons would be transformed into environmentally acceptable components (sulfur(IV oxide, water, carbon(IV oxide and nitrogen(IV oxide, which are in compliance with the emissions limit values prescribed by law.Proper operation of this flare system in the production of oil-furnace carbon black would solve

  2. Platinum-Niobium(V Oxide/Carbon Nanocomposites Prepared By Microwave Synthesis For Ethanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija KEPENIENĖ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Pt nanoparticles were deposited by means of microwave synthesis on the primary carbon supported Nb2O5 composite which was prepared in two different ways: (A by dispersion of Nb2O5 and carbon with the mass ratio equal to 1:1 in a 2-propanol solution by ultrasonication for 30 min. with further desiccation of the mixture and (B by heating the Nb2O5/C composite obtained according to the procedure (A at 500 °C for 2 h. The transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the shape and the size of catalyst particles. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy were employed to characterize the structure and composition of the synthesized catalysts. The electrocatalytic activity of the synthesized catalysts towards the oxidation of ethanol in an alkaline medium was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.8609

  3. Toxicity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene Oxide, and Reduced Graphene Oxide to Zebrafish Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao Tong; MU Xi Yan; WU Xiao Li; MENG Li Xuan; GUAN Wen Bi; MA Yong Qiang; SUN Hua; WANG Cheng Ju; LI Xue Feng

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects of 3 nanomaterials, i.e. multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), on zebrafish embryos. Methods The 2-h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to MWCNTs, GO, and RGO at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 mg/L) for 96 h. Afterwards, the effects of the 3 nanomateria on spontaneous movement, heart rate, hatching rate, length of larvae, mortality, and malformations ls were evaluated. Results Statistical analysis indicated that RGO significantly inhibited the hatching of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, RGO and MWCNTs decreased the length of the hatched larvae at 96 hpf. No obvious morphological malformation or mortality was observed in the zebrafish embryos after exposure to the three nanomaterials. Conclusion MWCNTs, GO, and RGO were all toxic to zebrafish embryos to influence embryos hatching and larvae length. Although no obvious morphological malformation and mortality were observed in exposed zebrafish embryos, further studies on the toxicity of the three nanomaterials are still needed.

  4. Ferric oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers: From synthesis to enhanced removal of phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza A. Asmaly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, ferric oxide nanoparticle decorated carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNF/Fe2O3 and CNT/Fe2O3 were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, zeta potential and BET surface area analyzer. The prepared nanocomposites were evaluated or the removal of phenol ions from aqueous solution. The effects of experimental parameters, such as shaking speed, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration, were evaluated for the phenol removal efficiency. The adsorption experimental data were represented by both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model best fitted the data on the adsorption of phenol, with a high correlation coefficient. The adsorption capacities, as determined by the Langmuir isotherm model were 0.842, 1.098, 1.684 and 2.778 mg/g for raw CNFs, raw CNTs, CNF–Fe2O3 and CNT–Fe2O3, respectively.

  5. Analyzing the kinetic response of tin oxide-carbon and tin oxide-CNT composites gas sensors for alcohols detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using solution combustion technique and tin oxidecarbon composite thick films are fabricated with amorphous carbon as well as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and porosity measurements show that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are having rutile phase with average crystallite size ∼7 nm and ∼95 m2/g surface area. The difference between morphologies of the carbon doped and CNT doped SnO2 thick films, are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption-desorption kinetics and transient response curves are analyzed using Langmuir isotherm curve fittings and modeled using power law of semiconductor gas sensors

  6. Theranostic carbon dots derived from garlic with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Hansen, Line;

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages....

  7. Selective removal of methyl mercaptan in coffee aroma using oxidized microporous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakano, T. [Ajinomoto General Foods Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Laboratoties; Tamon, H.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Coffee aroma recovered from the extraction process of roasted coffee beans is used to improve the quality of soluble coffee products. Coffee aroma often has an irritating sulfurous odor. In the present work, it is experimentally elucidated that methyl mercaptan could be selectively removed from the coffee aroma-containing gas by the oxidized microporous carbon. Breakthrough curves of coffee aroma-containing gas on zeolite 5A, microporous carbon (MSC 5A), and MSC 5A oxidized with 13.2N HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution revealed that the adsorption capacity of methyl mercaptan on the oxidized carbon was 4.2 times of that on the zeolite. The loss of desired coffee aroma was decreased using the oxidized carbon in the removal of methyl mercaptan. (author)

  8. Metal Oxide-Carbon Nanocomposites for Aqueous and Nonaqueous Supercapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Technology Transfer Phase 2 effort focuses on development of a supercapacitor energy storage device based on novel metal oxide-carbon...

  9. Promotion of water-mediated carbon removal by nanostructured barium oxide/nickel interfaces in solid oxide fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lei; Choi, YongMan; Qin, Wentao; Chen, Haiyan; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Ping; Bai, Jianming; Trevor A. Tyson; Liu, Meilin

    2011-01-01

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C3H8, CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750°C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni su...

  10. A supercritical carbon dioxide plasma process for preparing tungsten oxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Takemori, Toshihiko; Mukasa, Shinobu; Maehara, Tsunehiro

    2007-12-12

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (CO(2)) plasma process for fabricating one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowires coated with amorphous carbon is presented. High-frequency plasma was generated in supercritical carbon dioxide at 20 MPa by using tungsten electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell, and subsequently an organic solvent was introduced with supercritical carbon dioxide into the plasma. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations of the deposited materials showed the production of tungsten oxide nanowires with or without an outer layer. The nanowires with an outer layer exhibited a coaxial structure with an outer concentric layer of amorphous carbon and an inner layer of tungsten oxide with a thickness and diameter of 20-30 and 10-20 nm, respectively. PMID:20442477

  11. A supercritical carbon dioxide plasma process for preparing tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) plasma process for fabricating one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowires coated with amorphous carbon is presented. High-frequency plasma was generated in supercritical carbon dioxide at 20 MPa by using tungsten electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell, and subsequently an organic solvent was introduced with supercritical carbon dioxide into the plasma. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations of the deposited materials showed the production of tungsten oxide nanowires with or without an outer layer. The nanowires with an outer layer exhibited a coaxial structure with an outer concentric layer of amorphous carbon and an inner layer of tungsten oxide with a thickness and diameter of 20-30 and 10-20 nm, respectively

  12. Study of the processes of carbonization and oxidation of porous silicon by Raman and IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous silicon layers were produced by electrochemical etching of single-crystal silicon wafers with the resistivity 10 Ω cm in the aqueous-alcohol solution of hydrofluoric acid. Raman spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy are used to study the processes of interaction of porous silicon with undiluted acetylene at low temperatures and the processes of oxidation of carbonized porous silicon by water vapors. It is established that, even at the temperature 550°C, the silicon-carbon bonds are formed at the pore surface and the graphite-like carbon condensate emerges. It is shown that the carbon condensate inhibits oxidation of porous silicon by water vapors and contributes to quenching of white photoluminescence in the oxidized carbonized porous silicon nanocomposite layer.

  13. Influence of selected coal contaminants on graphitic carbon electro-oxidation for application to the direct carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, John; Allen, Jessica; Wibberley, Louis; Donne, Scott

    2014-08-01

    A novel method examining the fundamental electrochemical behaviour of carbon is outlined here involving the use of a half cell set-up and solid sacrificial anode. Using this method, electrochemical oxidation of graphite is assessed using selective contamination of a graphite electrode with major coal contaminants identified in selected Australian black coals using X-ray diffraction. Contaminants identified include anatase, alumina, pyrite, quartz, kaolin and montmorillonite. From the systematic introduction of these contaminants it is shown that clay materials, such as kaolin and montmorillonite, act catalytically to increase the rate of graphite oxidation. Metal oxides and sulfides such as anatase, alumina and pyrite give a limited increase in the normalised current, whereas quartz gives a significant decrease in performance. This demonstrates a clear effect of the solid phase interaction of these contaminants on the electrochemical oxidation of graphite since the same effect is not observed when the contaminants are added instead to the molten carbonate electrolyte.

  14. A Facile Route to Metal Oxides/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Macrofilm Nanocomposites for Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zeyuan; Wei, Bingqing

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of transition-metal oxides and carbon nanomaterials with a desired size and structure are highly demanded for high-performance energy storage devices. Here, a facile two-step and cost-efficient approach relying on directly thermal treatment of chemical vapor deposition products is developed as a general synthetic method to prepare a family of metal oxides [MxOy (M = Fe, Co, Ni)]/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) macrofilm nanocomposites. The MxOy nanoparticles obt...

  15. Synthesis of Heteroaromatic Compounds by Oxidative Aromatization Using an Activated Carbon/Molecular Oxygen System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Hayashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of heteroaromatic compounds, such as substituted pyridines, pyrazoles, indoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-substituted imidazoles, 2-arylbenzazoles and pyrimidin-2(1H-ones are synthesized by oxidative aromatization using the activated carbon and molecular oxygen system. Mechanistic study focused on the role of activated carbon in the synthesis of 2-arylbenzazoles is also discussed. In the final section, we will disclose the efficient synthesis of substituted 9,10-anthracenes via oxidative aromatization.

  16. Effect of oxygen adsorption on the electrochemical oxidative corrosion of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Tominaga, Masato; Yatsugi, Yuto; Togami, Makoto; トミナガ, マサト; ヤツギ, ユウト; トガミ, マコト; 冨永, 昌人; 矢次, 祐人; 戸上, 純

    2014-01-01

    The effect of adsorbed molecular oxygen on the oxidative corrosion of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solution was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Adsorbed molecular oxygen affected nucleation and growth in the electrochemical oxidative corrosion of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous electrolyte. Nucleation and growth began at defect sites in the presence of adsorbed oxygen, but occurred randomly in the absence of adsorbed oxygen. This insight furthers our understanding o...

  17. CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF NANOFIBROUS CARBON IN SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennady G. Kuvshinov; Vasiliy V. Shinkarev; Alexey M. Glushenkov; Maxim N. Boyko; Dmitriy G. Kuvshinov

    2006-01-01

    Nanofibrous carbonaceous materials (NFC) as a new class of materials having many applications, can catalyze the selective oxidation of H2S to sulfur. The correlation between NFC structure and its activity and selectivity in H2S oxidation was determined. It is demonstrated that selectivity can be improved if NFC with more ordered structure be synthesized and the portion of the original catalyst in carbon be reduced by increasing the carbon accumulated in the catalyst.

  18. Autotrophy as a predominant mode of carbon fixation in anaerobic methane-oxidizing microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kellermann, M. Y.; Wegener, G.; Elvert, M; Yoshinaga, M. Y.; Lin, Y.-S.; Holler, T.; Mollar, X. P.; Knittel, K; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2012-01-01

    The methane-rich, hydrothermally heated sediments of the Guaymas Basin are inhabited by thermophilic microorganisms, including anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (mainly ANME-1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., HotSeep-1 cluster). We studied the microbial carbon flow in ANME-1/ HotSeep-1 enrichments in stable-isotope–probing experiments with and without methane. The relative incorporation of 13C from either dissolved inorganic carbon or methane into lipids revealed that methane-oxidizing...

  19. Pressure oxidation processing for sulphide-bearing carbonate type uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the possibility of pressure oxidation processing for the sulphide-bearing carbonate type complex uranium ore is expounded proceeding from the chemical behaviours of pyrite sulphide and carbonate minerals in leaching process and through analysis of orthogonal array test results. The consumption of leaching reagent was decreased and the extraction rate of uranium was increased after pressure oxidation treatment of the complex uranium ore

  20. Electro-Oxidation of Concentrated Ce(Ⅲ) at Carbon Felt Anode in Nitric Acid Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of Ce( Ⅲ) to Ce( Ⅳ ) in parallel plate flow type electrolyzer divided with cation exchange membrane was carried out in nitric acid media at carbon felt anode under galvanostatic conditions. Carbon felt was used as an anode for its high specific surface area and high oxygen evolution overpotential. Pt coated Ti plates were used as cathcurrent efficiency (92%) until about 80% of Ce( Ⅲ) was oxidized. Then, oxygen evolution, accompanied by terminal voltage jump, took place, lowering current efficiency. Ce( Ⅲ ) was oxidized up to 90% with current efficiency of 62%. In this mode, strong carbon felt anode oxidation was observed. The wear out of carbon felt was 46% in six consequent runs (6 h of operation). After each run, carbon felt surface had to be renewed with slightly alkaline solution to remove carbon oxidation products and ensure regular operational conditions. When anode surface was blocked, oxygen evolution took place from the beginning of electrolysis due to higher actual current density. The wear out of carbon felt anode could be minimized by means of oxygen evolution prevention. In the case when electrolysis had been stopped before oxygen evolution started (at Ce( Ⅳ ) conversion of about 80% ), the wear out of anode was less than 2% during 6 consequent runs (4 h of operation).

  1. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube as a potential metal-free catalyst for CO oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Huan; Chen, Hsin-Tsung

    2016-04-28

    We elucidate the possibility of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube as a robust catalyst for CO oxidation. We have performed first-principles calculations considering the spin-polarization effect to demonstrate the reaction of CO oxidation catalyzed by the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube. The calculations show that O2 species can be partially reduced with charge transfer from the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube and directly chemisorbed on the C-N sites of the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube. The partially reduced O2 species at the C-N sites can further directly react with a CO molecule via the Eley-Rideal mechanism with the barriers of 0.45-0.58 eV for the different diameter of nanotube. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations were performed and showed that the oxidation of CO occurs by the Eley-Rideal mechanism. The relationship between the curvature and reactivity of the nitrogen doped carbon nanotube was also unraveled. It appears that the barrier height of the rate-limiting step depends on the curvature of the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube in the trend of (3,3)-NCNT carbon nanotubes with different tube diameters. Our results reveal that the nitrogen doped carbon nanomaterials can be a good, low-cost, and metal-free catalyst for CO oxidation. PMID:27074831

  2. On the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation on the surface of gold nanoclusters supported on titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvauri, I. V.; Remar, D. F.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2010-05-01

    The process of carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation on the surface of a system comprising nanodimensional gold clusters deposited onto thin films of titanium oxide of variable stoichiometry formed on a Re(1000) single crystal surface has been studied by methods of thermodesorption, IR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is established that oxygen contained in titanium oxide plays an important role in the conversion of CO into CO2. The efficiency of this process on the Au/TiO x ( x < 2) system surface is significantly higher that that on the Au/TiO2 system.

  3. Catalytic Reduction of Nitrous Oxide with Carbon Monoxide over Calcined Co–Mn–Al Hydrotalcite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacultová, K.; Obalová, L.; Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 137, 2-4 (2008), s. 358-389. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * carbon monoxide * mixed oxide catalysts Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2008

  4. Persulfate Oxidation Regeneration of Granular Activated Carbon: Reversible Impacts on Sorption Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical oxidation regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) is a developing technology that can be carried out utilizing thermally-activated persulfate. During chemical regeneration of GAC, aggressive oxidative conditions lead to high acidity (pH < 2) and the accumulation ...

  5. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, Anil; Groenland, Alforns W.; Kumar Chinthaginjala, J.; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon; Gardeniers, J.G.E. (Han)

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution sc

  6. Preparation of PtRu/C Electrocatalysts by Hydrothermal Carbonization Process for Methanol Electro-oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Tusi; M. Brandalise; Correa, O. V.; A. O. Neto; M. Linardi; E. V. Spinacé

    2009-01-01

    PtRu/C electrocatalysts were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization process using starch as carbon sources and reducing agents and platinum and ruthenium salts as catalysts of carbonization process and metals source. pH of the reaction medium was adjusted using KOH or TPAOH (tetrapropylammonium hydroxide). The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were characterized by SEM/EDX, TGA, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometr...

  7. Dissolution of actinide oxides in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide, containing various organic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of actinide oxides in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide containing a complex of tri-n-butyl phosphate with nitric acid was investigated. It was shown for the first time that milligram amounts of uranium dioxide can be quantitatively dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide containing this reagent and efficiently separated from plutonium, neptunium, and thorium on its supercritical fluid extraction from a mixture of their oxides. The quantitative dissolution of milligram amounts of uranium trioxide in supercritical carbon dioxide containing thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tri-n-butyl phosphate was first performed using ultrasonication. (author)

  8. Preparation of Platinum Implanted Glassy Carbon Electrode and Electro-oxidation of Formic Acid and Formaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The glassy carbon substrates were bombarded with 5×1017 ions/cm2 of platinum.The surface composition of implanted electrode and concentration-depth profiles of various elements were measured by AES.The chemical state of Pt in glassy carbon electrode implanted with platinum (Pt/GC) was detected by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).The electro-oxidation of HCOOH and HCHO have been investigated on Pt/GC and smooth Pt electrodes.The results show that the platinum implanted into glassy carbon is much more active than the smooth platinum metal for electro-oxidation of HCOOH and HCHO.

  9. Functionalization of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Photo-Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    new technique for carbon nanotube oxidation was developed based upon the photo-oxidation of organic compounds. The resulting method is more benign than conventional oxidation approaches and produces single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with higher levels of oxidation. In this procedure, an oxygen saturated suspension of SWNTs in a suitable solvent containing a singlet oxygen sensitizer, such as Rose Bengal, is irradiated with ultraviolet light. The resulting oxidized tubes are recovered by filtering the suspension, followed by washing to remove any adsorbed solvent and sensitizer, and drying in a vacuum oven. Chemical analysis by FT-infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the oxygen content of the photo-oxidized SWCNT was 11.3 atomic % compared to 6.7 atomic % for SWCNT that had been oxidized by standard treatment in refluxing acid. The photo-oxidized SWCNT produced by this method can be used directly in various polymer matrixes, or can be further modified by chemical reactions at the oxygen functional groups and then used as additives. This method may also be suitable for use in oxidation of multiwall carbon nanotubes and graphenes.

  10. Effect of acid oxidization of carbon nanotube electrode on the capacitances of double layer capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chensha; WANG; Dazhi; LIANG; Tongxiang; WANG; Xiaofen

    2004-01-01

    Polarizable electrode of electric double layer capacitor was made from carbon nanotubes. The effect of acid oxidation of electrode on the specific capacitance was studied. Oxidation removed the redundant carbon, expanded the pore size and introduced some kinds of functional groups on the surface of CNTs. The specific capacit ance of the electrodes with organic electrolyte was increased from 21.4 to 49.6 F/gafter being oxidized at a volume ratio of H2SO4 to HNO3 of 3:1.

  11. Studies on non-oxide coating on carbon fibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Sharma, S.; Prajapati, K. K.; Vyas, M. M.; Batra, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    A new way of improving the oxidative behavior of carbon fibers coated with SiC through Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition technique. The complete study includes coating of SiC on glass slab and Stainless steel specimen as a starting test subjects but the major focus was to increase the oxidation temperature of carbon fibers by PECVD technique. This method uses relatively lower substrate temperature and guarantees better stoichiometry than other coating methods and hence the substrate shows higher resistance towards mechanical and thermal stresses along with increase in oxidation temperature.

  12. Autotrophy as a predominant mode of carbon fixation in anaerobic methane-oxidizing microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Matthias Y; Wegener, Gunter; Elvert, Marcus; Yoshinaga, Marcos Yukio; Lin, Yu-Shih; Holler, Thomas; Mollar, Xavier Prieto; Knittel, Katrin; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2012-11-20

    The methane-rich, hydrothermally heated sediments of the Guaymas Basin are inhabited by thermophilic microorganisms, including anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (mainly ANME-1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., HotSeep-1 cluster). We studied the microbial carbon flow in ANME-1/ HotSeep-1 enrichments in stable-isotope-probing experiments with and without methane. The relative incorporation of (13)C from either dissolved inorganic carbon or methane into lipids revealed that methane-oxidizing archaea assimilated primarily inorganic carbon. This assimilation is strongly accelerated in the presence of methane. Experiments with simultaneous amendments of both (13)C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon and deuterated water provided further insights into production rates of individual lipids derived from members of the methane-oxidizing community as well as their carbon sources used for lipid biosynthesis. In the presence of methane, all prominent lipids carried a dual isotopic signal indicative of their origin from primarily autotrophic microbes. In the absence of methane, archaeal lipid production ceased and bacterial lipid production dropped by 90%; the lipids produced by the residual fraction of the metabolically active bacterial community predominantly carried a heterotrophic signal. Collectively our results strongly suggest that the studied ANME-1 archaea oxidize methane but assimilate inorganic carbon and should thus be classified as methane-oxidizing chemoorganoautotrophs. PMID:23129626

  13. Investigations into the effect of spinel oxide composition on rate of carbon deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of carbon on fuel cladding and other steels results in a reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Methane and carbon monoxide are added to the gaseous coolant in the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) to reduce the radiolytic oxidation of the graphite moderator and this is known to increase the rate of carbon deposition. However, the composition of oxides formed on steel surfaces within the reactor may also influence deposition. In this investigation carefully characterised spinel type oxides of varying composition have been subjected to γ radiation under conditions of temperature, pressure and atmosphere similar to those experienced in the reactor. The rate of carbon deposition has been studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX). (U.K.)

  14. Oxidation of iron and steels by carbon dioxide under pressure (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having developed one of the first thermo-balances to operate under pressure, we have studied the influence of the pressure on the corrosion of iron and steels by carbon dioxide. The corrosion was followed by three different methods simultaneously: by the oxidation kinetics, by micrographs, and by radiocrystallography. We have been able to show that the influence of the pressure is not negligible and we have provided much experimental evidence: oxidation kinetics, micrographic aspects, surface precipitation of carbon, metal carburization, the texture of the magnetite layer. All these phenomena are certainly modified by changes in the carbon dioxide pressure. In order to interpret most of our results we have been led to believe that the phenomenon of corrosion by CO2 depends on secondary reactions localised at the oxide-gas interface. This would constitute a major difference between the oxidation by CO2 and that by oxygen. (author)

  15. Effect of PAN Oxidation on the Electrochemical Lithium Insertion/Deinsertion Behavior of Resultant Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Piotrowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polyacrylonitrile (PAN oxidation on the properties and electrochemical lithium insertion/deinsertion behavior of carbons produced in the temperature range of 1000–1150°C has been assessed. Air-treatment at 220 and 240°C modifies essentially the carbonization behavior of polymer leading to materials with developed microporosity and enhanced oxygen content in contrast to practically nonporous pristine PAN-based carbon. The extent of the modification increases with the oxidation depth and decreases with HTT. Galvanostatic charge/discharge reveals typical hard carbons characteristics of all the materials. PAN-based carbon heat-treated at 1050°C represents most promising anodic performance. It gives reversible capacity (Crev near 420 mAh g−1 with a reasonable coulombic efficiency during cycling of ~99% and a moderate low voltage capacity of 100 mAh g−1. Extensive oxidation enhances overall 1st discharge cycle capacity to 870 mAh g−1 and Crev to 560 mAh g−1; however, large irreversible capacity (Cirr and poor cycleability are serious drawbacks of all carbons from oxidized PAN. Pyrolytic carbon coating using methane CVD at 830°C is effective in suppressing Cirr by about 30% but the cycleability remains nonacceptable.

  16. Growth and morphology of carbon nanostructures on nickel oxide nanoparticles in catalytic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, M.; Sil, A.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The present study explores the conditions favorable for the growth of cylindrical carbon nanostructures such as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and carbon nanofiber by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method using nickel oxide-based catalyst nanoparticles of different average sizes as well as different levels of doping by copper oxide. The role of doping and the average size have been related to the observed melting behavior of nanoparticles of nickel oxide by thermal and diffraction analysis, and the importance of melting has been highlighted in the context of growth of cylindrical nanostructures. In the reducing environment prevailing in the CCVD chamber due to decomposition of flowing acetylene gas at elevated temperature, there is extensive reduction of oxide nanoparticles. Lack of melting and faster flow of carbon-bearing gases favor the formation of a carbon deposit cover over the catalyst nanoparticles giving rise to the formation of nanobeads. Melting allows rapid diffusion of carbon from the surface to inside catalyst particles, and reduced flow of gas lowers the rate of carbon deposit, both creating conditions favorable for the formation of cylindrical nanostructures, which grows around the catalyst particles. Smaller particle size and lower doping favor growth of MWCNT, while growth of fiber is commonly observed on larger particles having relatively higher level of doping.

  17. The emission carbonate crystallite and oxide cathode performance in electron tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Don; Turnbull, John

    Emission from an oxide cathode is dependent upon the ratio of alkaline earth carbonates present at the cathodes surface. The method by which each carbonate is made plays a key role in its function in a cathode. Other factors effecting the performance of the oxide cathode are the type of constituents in the base metal. These constituents play key roles in barium diffusion and evaporation. It has been found that the crystalline structure of the alkaline earth carbonates affects the life of oxide cathode tubes. The rates of diffusion and evaporation of alkaline earth oxides, were studied with the use of the SEM-electron beam probe and energy dispersive X-ray Edax. Cathode surfaces to the depths of 1000 Å (approximately 200 atomic layers) were scanned. Many cathodes were studied after conversion from carbonates to oxides. It was found that barium oxide evaporated to 1/3 of the original formulation at oxide conversion. This diffusion and evaporation reaction took place throughout tube life. This work has shown that the crystal size, structure, and composition may be modified to lengthen the BaO half life and therefore lengthen the overall life of the electron tube.

  18. Preparation and Microstructure of a Si-Mo Fused Slurry Coating on Carbon/Carbon Composites for Oxidation Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A coating of composition Si-40Mo (wt pct) was prepared by fused slurry coating method on the two-dimensional carbon/carbon (2D-C/C) composite to improve oxidation resistance. In the procedure of the fabrication, pure Si slurry inner layer in the pre-coating was necessary to apply because of infiltration of liquid Si into the substrate during the sintering. The coating consists of Si continuous phase and MoSi2 particles. In addition, the infiltration of Si into the substrate and the SiC reaction layer between the coating and the C/C composite were observed. Oxidation behavior of coated and uncoated C/C composites was studied in cyclic mode. The oxidation resistance and the thermal shock resistance of the Si-Mo fused slurry coating were quite excellent at 1370°C.

  19. Advanced Catalysts for the Ambient Temperature Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalette, Tim; Eldridge, Christopher; Yu, Ping; Alpetkin, Gokhan; Graf, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary applications for ambient temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts include emergency breathing masks and confined volume life support systems, such as those employed on the Shuttle. While Hopcalite is typically used in emergency breathing masks for terrestrial applications, in the 1970s, NASA selected a 2% platinum (Pt) on carbon for use on the Shuttle since it is more active and also more tolerant to water vapor. In the last 10-15 years there have been significant advances in ambient temperature CO oxidation catalysts. Langley Research Center developed a monolithic catalyst for ambient temperature CO oxidation operating under stoichiometric conditions for closed loop carbon dioxide (CO2) laser applications which is also advertised as having the potential to oxidize formaldehyde (HCHO) at ambient temperatures. In the last decade it has been discovered that appropriate sized nano-particles of gold are highly active for CO oxidation, even at sub-ambient temperatures, and as a result there has been a wealth of data reported in the literature relating to ambient/low temperature CO oxidation. In the shorter term missions where CO concentrations are typically controlled via ambient temperature oxidation catalysts, formaldehyde is also a contaminant of concern, and requires specially treated carbons such as Calgon Formasorb as untreated activated carbon has effectively no HCHO capacity. This paper examines the activity of some of the newer ambient temperature CO and formaldehyde (HCHO) oxidation catalysts, and measures the performance of the catalysts relative to the NASA baseline Ambient Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer (ATCO) catalyst at conditions of interest for closed loop trace contaminant control systems.

  20. Surface functionalization of carbon nanofibers by sol-gel coating of zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the functional carbon nanofibers were prepared by the carbonization of ZnO coated PAN nanofibers to expand the potential applications of carbon nanofibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning. The electrospun PAN nanofibers were then used as substrates for depositing the functional layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the PAN nanofiber surfaces by sol-gel technique. The effects of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization on the surface morphology and structures of the nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results of SEM showed a significant increase of the size of ZnO nanograins on the surface of nanofibers after the treatments of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization. The observations by SEM also revealed that ZnO nanoclusters were firmly and clearly distributed on the surface of the carbon nanofibers. FTIR examination also confirmed the deposition of ZnO on the surface of carbon nanofibers. The XRD analysis indicated that the crystal structure of ZnO nanograins on the surface of carbon nanofibers

  1. Surface functionalization of carbon nanofibers by sol gel coating of zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dongfeng; Wei, Qufu; Zhang, Liwei; Cai, Yibing; Jiang, Shudong

    2008-08-01

    In this paper the functional carbon nanofibers were prepared by the carbonization of ZnO coated PAN nanofibers to expand the potential applications of carbon nanofibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning. The electrospun PAN nanofibers were then used as substrates for depositing the functional layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the PAN nanofiber surfaces by sol-gel technique. The effects of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization on the surface morphology and structures of the nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results of SEM showed a significant increase of the size of ZnO nanograins on the surface of nanofibers after the treatments of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization. The observations by SEM also revealed that ZnO nanoclusters were firmly and clearly distributed on the surface of the carbon nanofibers. FTIR examination also confirmed the deposition of ZnO on the surface of carbon nanofibers. The XRD analysis indicated that the crystal structure of ZnO nanograins on the surface of carbon nanofibers.

  2. Impact of carbon on the surface and activity of silica-carbon supported copper catalysts for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassova, I.; Stoeva, N.; Nickolov, R.; Atanasova, G.; Khristova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Composite catalysts, prepared by one or more active components supported on a support are of interest because of the possible interaction between the catalytic components and the support materials. The supports of combined hydrophilic-hydrophobic type may influence how these materials maintain an active phase and as a result a possible cooperation between active components and the support material could occur and affects the catalytic behavior. Silica-carbon nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel, using different in specific surface areas and porous texture carbon materials. Catalysts were obtained after copper deposition on these composites. The nanocomposites and the catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, TG, XRD, TEM- HRTEM, H2-TPR, and XPS. The nature of the carbon predetermines the composite's texture. The IEPs of carbon materials and silica is a force of composites formation and determines the respective distribution of the silica and carbon components on the surface of the composites. Copper deposition over the investigated silica-carbon composites leads to formation of active phases in which copper is in different oxidation states. The reduction of NO with CO proceeds by different paths on different catalysts due to the textural differences of the composites, maintaining different surface composition and oxidation states of copper.

  3. Enzyme-catalyzed oxidation facilitates the return of fluorescence for single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheuk Fai; Barth, Brian A; Kotchey, Gregg P; Zhao, Yong; Gogick, Kristy A; Saidi, Wissam A; Petoud, Stéphane; Star, Alexander

    2013-09-11

    In this work, we studied enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) produced by the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) method. While oxidation via strong acids introduced defect sites on SWCNTs and suppressed their near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence, our results indicated that the fluorescence of SWCNTs was restored upon enzymatic oxidation, providing new evidence that the reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of H2O2 is mainly a defect-consuming step. These results were further supported by both UV-vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopy. Therefore, when acid oxidation followed by HRP-catalyzed enzyme oxidation was employed, shortened (applications in cellular NIR imaging and drug delivery systems. PMID:23672715

  4. Ethanol oxidation on carbon supported platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platinum is the most investigated catalyst for the electrochemical oxidation of small organic molecules. This metal presents high overpotentials for the oxidation of organic compounds and the poisoning of active sites by strongly adsorbed intermediates, mainly CO, which decrease the efficiency of a direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC). Ethanol is an ideal fuel for these DAFC systems due to its high energy density, but one of the problems with the electro-oxidation of this fuel is the low yield for the total oxidation to CO2. The purpose of the work reported here was to study the influence of the composition of Pt-Rh/C catalysts on the CO2 yields. In addition, using the differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) technique, it is shown that Pt-Rh/C catalysts enhance the total ethanol oxidation with respect to pure Pt/C by driving the reaction via the CO2 route. The faradaic current efficiency for the oxidation of ethanol to CO2 increased from 0.08 on pure Pt/C to 0.5 on the Pt47Rh53/C catalyst at 0.7 V vs. RHE. It was concluded that electronic effects play a key role in the mechanism of ethanol oxidation on Pt-Rh/C electrodes

  5. Adsorption of carbon oxide and nitrogen oxide molecules on the surface of the Ni/MgO(111) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkoev, T. T.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Pantileev, D. G.

    2009-10-01

    The coadsorption of carbon oxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NO) molecules on the surface of nickel nanoclusters formed on a thin magnesium oxide MgO(111) film grown on the Mo(110) face in an ultrahigh vacuum is studied by reflective infrared spectroscopy and thermodesorption spectroscopy (TDS). The adsorption of NO molecules is found to substantially change the state of the initially adsorbed CO molecules. The TDS and IR spectra suggest that the adsorption of NO molecules stimulates the surface migration of CO molecules from the surface of metallic clusters to the cluster-oxide interface, which is accompanied by a decrease in the angle of inclination of the molecular axis to the surface.

  6. An analysis of carbon nanotube structure wettability before and after oxidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work contact angle measurements have been carried out on different carbon nanotube-based materials. Thin layers of entangled carbon nanotubes have been considered, together with thick mats of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Pressed single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite have also been considered, for comparison. In particular, the properties of the as-grown thick carpets have been compared to those of the oxidized material. Oxidation treatments have been performed either by chemical oxidation with a nitric/sulfuric acid mixture or by applying a bias voltage of 10 V on the material. Tests have been performed using three liquids with differing polarity (water, dimethylsulfoxide and diiodomethane). Very high hydrophobicity was observed for the top surface of the aligned carbon nanotube mats, but after oxidation a dramatic reduction in the contact angle was observed, bringing about a hydrophilic behaviour. Theoretical calculations of the bulk pore distribution of the material have been made to estimate the liquid percolation through the oxidized carpet's surface.

  7. Fractionation of carbon and hydrogen isotopes by methane-oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.D.; Risatti, J.B.; Schoell, M.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon isotopic analysis of methane has become a popular technique in the exploration for oil and gas because it can be used to differentiate between thermogenic and microbial gas and can sometimes be used for gas-source rock correlations. Methane-oxidizing bacteria, however, can significantly change the carbon isotopic composition of methane; the origin of gas that has been partially oxidized by these bacteria could therefore be misinterpreted. We cultured methane-oxidizing bacteria at two different temperatures and monitored the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of the residual methane. The residual methane was enriched in both 13C and D. For both isotopic species, the enrichment at equivalent levels of conversion was greater at 26??C than at 11.5??C. The change in ??D relative to the change in ??13C was independent of temperature within the range studied. One culture exhibited a change in the fractionation pattern for carbon (but not for hydrogen) midway through the experiment, suggesting that bacterial oxidation of methane may occur via more than one pathway. The change in the ??D value for the residual methane was from 8 to 14 times greater than the change in the ??13C value, indicating that combined carbon and hydrogen isotopic analysis may be an effective way of identifying methane which has been subjected to partial oxidation by bacteria. ?? 1981.

  8. Large discharge capacity from carbon electrodes in sulfuric acid with oxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, M.; Iwashita, N.

    The discharge performance of the graphite intercalation compounds in sulfuric acid containing nitric acid (H 2SO 4-GICs) was studied by focusing on the effects of oxidant and carbon nanotexture. A large discharge capacity from H 2SO 4-GICs synthesized by using an excess amount of HNO 3, more than 150 times of the theoretical value (93 mAh/g carbon), was obtained depending on the amount of oxidant added, the discharge current, and the nanotexture of carbon electrode. The experimental results are explained in terms of competition between the de-intercalation of sulfuric acid due to galvanostatic reduction and the re-intercalation due to chemical oxidation by HN03 during discharging. However, a subsidiary reaction decreases the effective amount of HNO 3 on the discharge by a small current and also on the cycle of chemical charging and electrochemical discharging. The oxidant KMnO 4 gave only a little larger capacity for discharge than the theoretical one, because it was reduced to the manganese oxide precipitates during the oxidation of the carbon electrode.

  9. Electrochemical performance of nickel oxide/KOH/active carbon super-capacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of new type Nickel oxide/KOH/Active carbon super-capacitor have been described. Porous nickeloxide was prepared by hydrolysis of nickel acetate and heated in air at 300℃. The resulting nickel oxide behaved as an electrochemical capacitor electrode with a specific capacitance (50-70F/g) superior to most active carbon electrodes. This kind of nickel oxide maintained highutilization at high rate of discharge (i.e., high power density) and had excellent cycle life more than 1000 times, while the capacitance of the cell composed of two identical nickel oxide electrodes was poor at high discharge current density and the maximum operational voltage of this type capacitor was limited to 0.5V. A new type super-capacitorwas designed in which the nickel oxide and the active carbon were applied to the positive and negative electrodes respectively. The breakdown voltage of this type super-capacitor was improved effectively to 0.8V and excellent characteristic of high power discharge was attained in this way. The Nickel oxide/KOH/Active carbon super-capacitor has promising potentials in portable telecommunications, uninterruptable power supplies and battery load leveling applications.

  10. Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation and sequential adsorption – Catalytic wet air oxidation on activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three activated carbons (AC) compared as adsorbents and oxidation catalysts. ► Similar evolution for catalytic and adsorptive properties of AC over reuses. ► Acidic and mesoporous AC to be preferred, despite lower initial efficiency. ► Oxidative degradation of paracetamol improves biodegradability. ► Convenient hybrid adsorption–regenerative oxidation process for continuous treatment. - Abstract: The concern about the fate of pharmaceutical products has raised owing to the increasing contamination of rivers, lakes and groundwater. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two different processes for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of paracetamol on activated carbon was investigated both as a water treatment technique using an autoclave reactor and as a regenerative treatment of the carbon after adsorption in a sequential fixed bed process. Three activated carbons (ACs) from different source materials were used as catalysts: two microporous basic ACs (S23 and C1) and a meso- and micro-porous acidic one (L27). During the first CWAO experiment the adsorption capacity and catalytic performance of fresh S23 and C1 were higher than those of fresh L27 despite its higher surface area. This situation changed after AC reuse, as finally L27 gave the best results after five CWAO cycles. Respirometry tests with activated sludge revealed that in the studied conditions the use of CWAO enhanced the aerobic biodegradability of the effluent. In the ADOX process L27 also showed better oxidation performances and regeneration efficiency. This different ageing was examined through AC physico-chemical properties.

  11. Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation and sequential adsorption - Catalytic wet air oxidation on activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada-Penate, I. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France); Julcour-Lebigue, C., E-mail: carine.julcour@ensiacet.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France); Jauregui-Haza, U.J. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Habana (Cuba); Wilhelm, A.M.; Delmas, H. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three activated carbons (AC) compared as adsorbents and oxidation catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar evolution for catalytic and adsorptive properties of AC over reuses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidic and mesoporous AC to be preferred, despite lower initial efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative degradation of paracetamol improves biodegradability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convenient hybrid adsorption-regenerative oxidation process for continuous treatment. - Abstract: The concern about the fate of pharmaceutical products has raised owing to the increasing contamination of rivers, lakes and groundwater. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two different processes for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of paracetamol on activated carbon was investigated both as a water treatment technique using an autoclave reactor and as a regenerative treatment of the carbon after adsorption in a sequential fixed bed process. Three activated carbons (ACs) from different source materials were used as catalysts: two microporous basic ACs (S23 and C1) and a meso- and micro-porous acidic one (L27). During the first CWAO experiment the adsorption capacity and catalytic performance of fresh S23 and C1 were higher than those of fresh L27 despite its higher surface area. This situation changed after AC reuse, as finally L27 gave the best results after five CWAO cycles. Respirometry tests with activated sludge revealed that in the studied conditions the use of CWAO enhanced the aerobic biodegradability of the effluent. In the ADOX process L27 also showed better oxidation performances and regeneration efficiency. This different ageing was examined through AC physico-chemical properties.

  12. Chemistry and electronics of oxides from carbon dioxide to perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxides are thermodynamic stable form of materials in terrestrial conditions to exist as final products of energy consumption proceeding in nature as well as in civilization. The accumulation of heat capacitive CO2 in atmosphere is becoming a serious environmental problem. Solid oxides as minerals in the earth shell had been used mainly for heat resistant structural materials as well as for raw materials of metals, but recent advanced chemistry and physics have been manifesting new electronic and chemical potentials hidden in oxides. Current interest and studies on oxides are directed towards two main areas: (1) prevention of CO2 increase in atmosphere by its fixation and/or by saving the consumption of fossil fuels and (2) discovery and utilization of superfunctionality in oxides. Triggered by Bednorz and Muller's discovery of high Tc superconductor, the latter topics have been attracting rapidly growing interest from viewpoints of both fundamental research and practical application. In commemoration of WOE homecoming to the place of inauguration, a founder of WOE appreciates much to the program committee for providing him with this opportunity of briefing the workshop motivation and of reviewing his research career on oxide materials

  13. Oxidation of amino groups by hydroxyl radicals in relation to the oxidation degree of the alpha-carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, N Karpel Vel; Berger, P; Legube, B

    2002-07-15

    Nitrogen organic compounds constitute a large class of aqueous pollutants. These compounds include not only azoic structures, nitrogen heterocycles, and nitrous groups but also amides and amines. This work consisted in studying the OH* induced oxidation of simple primary amines in dilute aqueous solution with special attention to mineralization of the nitrogen group as a function of the nature of the alpha-carbon. H2O2/UV and gamma-irradiation processes were used for the production of OH* radicals, and the molecules studied were one alpha-amino acid i.e., glycine (HOOCCH2NH2), and two primary amides i.e., acetamide (CH3CONH2) and oxamic acid (HOOCCONH2). It was shown that the oxidation of glycine leads to the formation of ammonia, whereas the acetamide molecule is first oxidized into oxamic acid ending in complete mineralization with production of nitrates. Reaction mechanisms are proposed which account for the observed inorganic nitrogen end product depending on the oxidation degree of the carbon atoms of the molecules. It follows that the present study will allow for prediction of the fate of nitrogen resulting from the oxidation of primary amino groups by OH* radicals. PMID:12141487

  14. Tribochemistry of Carbon Films in Oxygen and Humid Environments: Oxidative Wear and Galvanic Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazizi, Ala; Draskovics, Andrew; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Kim, Seong H

    2016-03-01

    The effects of oxidation on wear of carbon/steel tribological interfaces were studied. When mechanical wear was small, the oxidation behavior of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) and stainless steel (SS) sliding interface varied depending on the nature of the oxidizing environment. In dry air or oxygen, both H-DLC and SS wore readily. The wear debris of SS did not form iron oxide in dry air and oxygen. In humid nitrogen, however, the wear of H-DLC diminished with increasing humidity, and the SS surface showed mild wear and iron oxide debris accumulated around the sliding contact region. These results revealed that different tribochemical reactions occur in dry oxygen and humid environments. In the absence of water, oxygen oxidizes the H-DLC surface, making it susceptible to wear, creating debris, and inducing wear on both H-DLC and SS. In contrast, adsorbed water molecules at less than 40% RH act as a molecular lubricant of the oxidized DLC surface, while multiwater layers adsorbed at near-saturation act as electrolyte inducing electrochemical galvanic corrosion reactions on the SS surface. When hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) was used in tribo-tests, severe wear of the SS surface occurs, in addition to the tribochemical wear observed for H-DLC, due to the high hardness of the a-C film. PMID:26844949

  15. Highly n-Type Titanium Oxide as an Electronically Active Support for Platinum in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Baker, L. Robert

    2011-08-18

    The role of the oxide-metal interface in determining the activity and selectivity of chemical reactions catalyzed by metal particles on an oxide support is an important topic in science and industry. A proposed mechanism for this strong metal-support interaction is electronic activation of surface adsorbates by charge carriers. Motivated by the goal of using electronic activation to drive nonthermal chemistry, we investigated the ability of the oxide support to mediate charge transfer. We report an approximately 2-fold increase in the turnover rate of catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum nanoparticles supported on stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2) when the TiO2 is made highly n-type by fluorine (F) doping. However, for nonstoichiometric titanium oxide (TiOX<2) the effect of F on the turnover rate is negligible. Studies of the titanium oxide electronic structure show that the energy of free electrons in the oxide determines the rate of reaction. These results suggest that highly n-type TiO2 electronically activates adsorbed oxygen (O) by electron spillover to form an active O- intermediate. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. The influence of soluble carbon and nitrogen fertilizer on nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emissions from two contrasting agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Martín, Laura; Vallejo Garcia, Antonio; Dick, Jan; Skiba, Ute M.

    2008-01-01

    Contradictory effects of simultaneous available organic C and N sources on nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes are reported in the literature. In order to clarify this controversy, laboratory experiments were conduced on two different soils, a semiarid arable soil from Spain (soil I, pH ¼ 7.5, 0.8%C) and a grassland soil from Scotland (soil II, pH ¼ 5.5, 4.1%C). Soils were incubated at two different moisture contents, at a water filled pore space (WFPS) of 9...

  17. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu].

  18. Electro-catalytic effect of manganese oxide on oxygen reduction at teflonbonded carbon electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen reduction(OR)on Teflon-bonded carbon electrodes with manganese oxide as catalyst in 6 mol/L KOH solution was investigated using AC impedance spectroscopy combined with other techniques. For OR at this electrode, the Tafel slope is-0.084V/dec and the apparent exchange current density is (1.02-3.0)×10-7 A/cm2. In the presence of manganese oxide on carbon electrode,the couple Mn3+/Mn4+ reacts with the O2 adsorbed on carbon sites forming O2- radicals and acceletes the dismutation of O2-, which contributes to the catalytic effect of manganese oxide for OR reaction.

  19. Decorating multiwalled carbon nanotubes with zinc oxide nano-crystallines through hydrothermal growth process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChenSha; QIAO YingJie; LI YuMing

    2012-01-01

    Multiwalled-carbon nanotubes coated with nano-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) was prepared by in situ growth of nano zinc oxide on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes through hydrothermal method.X-ray diffraction,transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis techniques were used to characterize the samples.It was observed that a layer of nano-crystalline ZnO with the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure was uniformly coated on the nanotube surfaces with good adhesion,which resulted in the formation of a novel ZnO-nanotube nano composite.In this work,the carbon nanotubes decorated by metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple chemical-solution route which is suitable for the large-scale production with low cost.

  20. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  1. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu]. PMID:26744146

  2. Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-11-21

    The oxidation processes at the interface between different types of typical carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries and carbonates electrolyte above 5 V versus Li/Li+ were investigated. Depending on the nature and surface area of the carbon additive, the irreversible capacity during galvanostatic cycling between 2.75 and 5.25 V versus Li/Li+ could be as high as 700 mAh g-1 (of carbon). In the potential region below 5 V versus Li/Li+, high surface carbon additives also showed irreversible plateaus at about 4.1-4.2 and 4.6 V versus Li/Li+. These plateaus disappeared after thermal treatments at or above 150 °C in inert gas. The influence of the irreversible capacity of carbon additives on the overall performances of positive electrodes was discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Kinetics of reactions of oxidation of carbon by carbon dioxide and water steam at high temperatures and low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first objective of this research thesis was to obtain new and reliable experimental results about the reaction kinetics of the oxidation of carbon by carbon dioxide and water steam, and to avoid some disturbing phenomena, for example and more particularly the appearance of electric discharges beyond 1900 K initiated by the filament thermoelectric emission. The author tried to identify the mechanism of the accelerating effect. It appears that previous experiments had been performed only in these disturbed conditions. At the lowest temperatures, the author highlighted the existence of a surface contamination by the desorption products from the apparatus

  4. Sensing nitric oxide with a carbon nanofiber paste electrode modified with a CTAB and nafion composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for nitric oxide that was obtained by modifying the surface of a nanofiber carbon paste microelectrode with a film composed of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide and nafion. The modified microelectrode displays excellent catalytic activity in the electrochemical oxidation of nitric oxide. The mechanism was studied by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current at a working voltage of 0.75 V (vs. SCE) is related to the concentration of nitric oxide in the 2 nM to 0.2 mM range, and the detection limit is as low as 2 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of nitric oxide released from mouse hepatocytes. (author)

  5. Electrocatalytic Activity of Carbonized Nanostructured Polyanilines for Oxidation Reactions: Sensing of Nitrite Ions and Ascorbic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Carbonized PANIs prepared from various nanostructured PANI precursors • Electroanalytical performances of carbonized PANIs evaluated using voltammetry • Study of carbonized PANIs physico-chemical properties related to electroactivity • The lowest over-potential for NO2− oxidation at c-PANI (+0.87 V vs. SCE) • The lowest over-potential for ascorbic acid oxidation at both c-PANI and c-PANI-SSA - Abstract: A comparative study of the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-containing carbon nanomaterials, prepared by the carbonization of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) salts, for the electrooxidation reactions is presented. Nanostructured PANI salts were synthesized by the oxidative polymerization of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in an aqueous solution in the presence of 5-sulfosalicylic acid (PANI-SSA), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (PANI-DNSA) as well as without added acid (PANI), and subsequently carbonized to c-PANI-SSA, c-PANI-DNSA and c-PANI, respectively. Glassy carbon tip was modified with nanostructured c-PANIs and used for the investigation of sensing of nitrite and ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions as model analytes by linear sweep voltammetry. All three types of the investigated c-PANIs gave excellent response to the nitrite ions and ascorbic acid electrooxidation. The lowest peak potential for nitrite ion oxidation exhibited c-PANI (+0.87 V vs. SCE), and for ascorbic acid oxidation both c-PANI and c-PANI-SSA (ca. + 0.13 V vs. SCE). Electrochemical data were correlated with structural and textural data obtained by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental and nitrogen sorption analysis

  6. Influence of oxidation on the preparation of porous carbons from phenol-formaldehyde resins with KOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, H.; Wang, S.C.

    2000-03-01

    The influence of oxidation on the production of high-porosity carbons from phenol-formaldehyde resins with KOH activation were examined under various preparation conditions. The activation process principally consisted of KOH impregnation followed by carbonization. Experimental results showed that prior to carbonization treating the resins with oxygen at 120 C, either before or after KOH impregnation, enabled the enhancement of the yield of the carbon products. The porosity development was found to be hindered by conducting oxidation prior to the impregnation. For oxidation performed after the impregnation, at a low KOH/resin ratio the porosity was found to decrease upon oxidation, whereas the oxidation enhanced porosity development for activation performed at higher ratios. Varying the carbonization temperature and time did not show obvious influence on the effects of the oxidation.

  7. Electro-catalytic oxidation of ethanol on platinum-iridium mixtures supported on glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electro-catalytic oxidation of ethanol on platinum-iridium mixtures supported on glassy carbon was studied, in acid media at different temperatures and concentrations. During the maturation time of deposited iridium, the surface is covered by an irreversible oxide formation, which affects the behavior of the catalytic mixture. The Pt70 Ir30 and Pt90 Ir10 mixtures seem to be a little more active than the Pt/C electrode at potentials below 800 mV (vs. HRE). In all electrodes appears two reactions: partial ethanol oxidation to produce acetaldehyde (main path of reaction at low temperatures and high electrode coverage with ethanol adsorption residues) and the total oxidation to carbon dioxide which is considerable at potential above 800 mV and it is increased with increasing temperature

  8. Application of diffusion barriers to the refractory fibers of tungsten, columbium, carbon and aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, F. C.; Paradis, E. L.; Veltri, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A radio frequency powered ion-plating system was used to plate protective layers of refractory oxides and carbide onto high strength fiber substrates. Subsequent overplating of these combinations with nickel and titanium was made to determine the effectiveness of such barrier layers in preventing diffusion of the overcoat metal into the fibers with consequent loss of fiber strength. Four substrates, five coatings, and two metal matrix materials were employed for a total of forty material combinations. The substrates were tungsten, niobium, NASA-Hough carbon, and Tyco sapphire. The diffusion-barrier coatings were aluminum oxide, yttrium oxide, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide with 14% cobalt addition, and zirconium carbide. The metal matrix materials were IN 600 nickel and Ti 6/4 titanium. Adhesion of the coatings to all substrates was good except for the NASA-Hough carbon, where flaking off of the oxide coatings in particular was observed.

  9. Carbon-Supported Silver Catalysts for CO Selective Oxidation in Excess Hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin Chen; Ding Ma; Barbara Pietruszka; Xinhe Bao

    2006-01-01

    Carbon materials were used as supports for Ag catalysts that are prepared using the conventional wet impregnation method, and their catalytic properties for CO selective oxidation in excess hydrogen at temperatures below 483 K were tested. A variety of techniques, e.g. N2 adsorption, XPS, TPD, UV-Vis DRS, TEM and SEM, were used to determine the influence of physical and chemical properties of the carbon on the properties of Ag catalyst. It was found that defects on the carbon surface served as nucleation sites for silver ions, while functional groups on carbon surface induced their reduction to the metallic form. The formation of silver particles on carbon was governed by homogeneous and/or heterogeneous nucleation during the impregnation and subsequent activation processes. The best catalytic performance was obtained with a Ag/carbon black catalyst with a uniform size distribution of silver nanoparticles (about 12 nm), moderate BET surface area (with a mesoporous structure), and a limited amount of carbon-oxygen groups. The research indicates that carbon materials are potentially good supports for silver catalysts for preferential oxidation of CO in excess hydrogen.

  10. Thorium oxide dissolution kinetics for hydroxide and carbonate complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project was to determine the kinetics and thermodynamics of thorium oxide dissolution in the environment. Solubility is important because it establishes an upper concentration limit on the concentration of a dissolved radionuclide in solution L1. While understanding the behavior of thorium fuels in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is most applicable, a more rigorous study of thorium solubility over a wide pH range was performed so that the data could also be used to model the behavior of thorium fuels in any environmental system. To achieve this, the kinetics and thermodynamics of thorium oxide dissolution under both pure argon and argon with PCO2 of 0. 1 were studied under the full pH range available in each atmosphere. In addition, thorium oxide powder remnants were studied after each experiment to examine structural changes that may affect kinetics

  11. Synthesis and oxidation behavior of boron-substituted carbon powders by hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Boron-substituted carbon powder, BxC1-x with x up to 0.17, has been successfully synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The boron concentration in prepared BxC1-x samples can be controlled by varying the relative proportions of methane and diborane. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectrum confirm the successful synthesis of an amorphous BC5 compound, which consists of 10―20 nm particles with disk-like morphology. Thermogravimetry measurement shows that BC5 compound starts to oxidize ap-proximately at 620℃ and has a higher oxidation resistance than carbon.

  12. Application of infiltrated LSCM-GDC oxide anode in direct carbon/coal fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiangling; Arenillas, Ana; Irvine, John T S

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid direct carbon/coal fuel cells (HDCFCs) utilise an anode based upon a molten carbonate salt with an oxide conducting solid electrolyte for direct carbon/coal conversion. They can be fuelled by a wide range of carbon sources, and offer higher potential chemical to electrical energy conversion efficiency and have the potential to decrease CO2 emissions compared to coal-fired power plants. In this study, the application of (La, Sr)(Cr, Mn)O3 (LSCM) and (Gd, Ce)O2 (GDC) oxide anodes was explored in a HDCFC system running with two different carbon fuels, an organic xerogel and a raw bituminous coal. The electrochemical performance of the HDCFC based on a 1-2 mm thick 8 mol% yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and the GDC-LSCM anode fabricated by wet impregnation procedures was characterized and discussed. The infiltrated oxide anode showed a significantly higher performance than the conventional Ni-YSZ anode, without suffering from impurity formation under HDCFC operation conditions. Total polarisation resistance (Rp) reached 0.8-0.9 Ω cm(2) from DCFC with an oxide anode on xerogel and bituminous coal at 750 °C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values in the range 1.1-1.2 V on both carbon forms. These indicated the potential application of LSCM-GDC oxide anode in HDCFCs. The chemical compatibility of LSCM/GDC with carbon/carbonate investigation revealed the emergence of an A2BO4 type oxide in place of an ABO3 perovskite structure in the LSCM in a reducing environment, due to Li attack as a result of intimate contact between the LSCM and Li2CO3, with GDC being stable under identical conditions. Such reaction between LSCM and Li2CO3 was not observed on a LSCM-YSZ pellet treated with Li-K carbonate in 5% H2/Ar at 700 °C, nor on a GDC-LSCM anode after HDCFC operation. The HDCFC durability tests of GDC-LSCM oxide on a xerogel and on raw bituminous coal were performed under potentiostatic operation at 0.7 V at 750 °C. The degradation mechanisms were

  13. Synthesis and characterization of tin oxide/carbon aerogel composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung-Woo; Hyun, Sang-Hoon [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2007-10-11

    Two types of carbon aerogel-based functional electrodes for supercapacitor applications are developed. To improve the electrochemical performance of the electrodes, carbon aerogels are doped with pseudocapacitive tin oxide either by impregnating tin oxide sol into resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) wet gels (Method I), or by impregnating tin tetrachloride solution into carbon aerogel electrodes (Method II). The electrodes are heat-treated to 450 C in air to activate the electrode surface and complete the oxidation of tin-precursors in the network structure of the aerogel. The effects of different impregnation methods on the physical/electrochemical properties of the composite electrodes are investigated. Microstructural and compositional variations of the electrodes with tin oxide doping are also examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The tin oxide/carbon aerogel composite electrodes synthesized by both methods have similar specific capacitances (66-70 F g{sup -1}). Composite electrodes synthesized via Method II showed better cyclic stability compared with electrodes synthesized via Method I. (author)

  14. Doped carbon nanostructures as metal-free catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes

    OpenAIRE

    Jenssen, Kaia Andersson

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic reactions are often carried out on various supported metals, these usually being noble metals or metal oxides. Even though metal based catalysts plays a major role in today s industrial processes, they still have several disadvantages, including high cost, proneness to gas poisoning, as well as disadvantageous effect on the environment. Recently, certain carbon nanomaterials have been in the spotlight of several research groups, as carbon has the advantages of wide availability, env...

  15. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, ...

  16. Thermal sensitivity of carbon nanotube and graphene oxide containing responsive hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    E. Manek; B. Berke; N. Miklosi; M. Sajban; A. Doman; Fukuda, T; O. Czakkel; K. LASZLO

    2016-01-01

    Comparative investigations are reported on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) gels of various carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene oxide (GO) contents synthesized under identical conditions. The kind and concentration of the incorporated carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) influence the swelling and stress-strain behaviour of the composites. Practically independently of the filler content, incorporation of CNPs appreciably improves the fracture stress properties of the gels. The time constant and the ...

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Dihydromyrcene to Citronellal in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN, Xue-Guang(冉学光); JIANG, Huan-Feng(江焕峰); ZHU, Xin-Hai(朱新海)

    2004-01-01

    Citronellal was the major product of catalytic oxidation of dihydromyrcene with oxygen using the catalyst comprised of (MeCN)2PdClNO2 and CuCl2 in a tertiary alcohol in supercritical carbon dioxide. It was found that the chemoselectivity of the reaction and the yield of citronellal were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the molar ratio of Pd/Cu.

  18. CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS USING A Pt CATALIST SUPPORTED ON MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ovejero; José L. Sotelo; Araceli Rodríguez; Ana Vallet; Juan García

    2011-01-01

    In this work, catalytic wet air oxidation in a batch reactor was studied by catalytic wet air oxidation to treat industrial wastewater. Basic Yellow 11, a basic dye, was employed as a model compound and platinum supported over multi-walled nanotubes (Pt/MWNT) was used as catalyst. Additionally, two different industrial wastewaters were tested. The results prove the high effectivity of this treatment, showing high extents of total organic carbon and toxicity removal of the final effluent. We c...

  19. Application of Silver and Silver Oxide Nanoparticles Impregnated on Activated Carbon to the Degradation of Bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J S; Lee, H; Park, Y K; Kim, S J; Kim, B J; An, K H; Kim, B H; Jung, S C

    2016-05-01

    Silver and silver oxide nanoparticles were impregnated on the surface of powdered activated carbon (PAC) using a single-step liquid phase plasma (LPP) method. Spherical silver and silver oxide nanoparticles of 20 to 100 nm size were dipersed evenly on the surface of PAC. The impregnated PAC exhibited a higher activity for the decomposition of bromate than bare PAC. The XPS, Raman and EDX analyses showed that the Ag/PAC composites synthesized by the LPP process. PMID:27483780

  20. Using carbon oxidation state and ecosystem oxidative ratio to understand terrestrial ecosystem response to elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockaday, W. C.; Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Here we show that an easily-measured biogeochemical tracer, carbon oxidation state (Cox) can be used to understand ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We briefly review the use of Cox in understanding C sink estimates, and its role in understanding the coupled nature of carbon and oxygen cycles, which derives from its relationship with ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR). The Cox of a carbon pool provides an integrated measure of all processes that create and destroy organic matter (e.g. photosynthesis, respiration, fire) and therefore, can be used to estimate the oxidative ratio (O2/CO2) of biosphere-atmosphere exchange. Our preliminary data suggest that the OR of temperate hardwood forest and grassland ecosystems are influenced by atmospheric CO2 concentration. The variation in ecosystem Cox with atmospheric CO2 concentration suggest that OR is not a conservative property of terrestrial ecosystems on annual or decadal timescales. In the grassland ecosystem, the Cox of plant biomass increased by as much as 50% across a CO2 concentration gradient of 190 ppm, but the response was highly dependent upon soil properties. In the temperate forest, the Cox of the soil C pool increased by 40% after 9 seasons of CO2 enrichment (by 175 ppm). We will discuss our interpretation of Cox as a proxy and its potential use in studies of coupled O2 and CO2 cycling.

  1. Nitrogen oxide reduction by carbon monoxide in the presence of oxygen over a fresh and aged Pd/alumina catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of nitrogen oxide with carbon monoxide in presence of oxygen over a palladium based catalyst is studied. Metal dispersion decreases with the thermal aging of the fresh solid in a wet and oxidant atmosphere. However, the aged solid shows a catalytic activity for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and the reduction of nitrogen oxide higher than the fresh solid. After reaction, particle sizes and surface state were determined. The state of oxidation and the kind of surface oxide are different for the fresh and aged solids

  2. Graphene Oxide as an Electrophile for Carbon Nucleophiles

    OpenAIRE

    Swager, Timothy Manning; Schmois, Ezequiel; Collins, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The covalent, surface functionalization of graphene oxide with the malononitrile anion has been demonstrated. Once installed, these surface-bound “molecular lynchpins” can be chemically modified to increase the solubility of the graphene derivative in either organic or aqueous environments.

  3. Aqueous stabilization of carbon nanotubes: effects of surface oxidization and solution chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingchen; Wu, Fengchang; Lin, Daohui; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-03-01

    Surface oxygen functional groups can affect the morphological characteristics, aggregation kinetics, and adsorption capacity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). However, little is known about the quantitative relationship between oxygen content and the dispersion stability of MWCNTs. To investigate the effects of surface oxidization, MWCNTs were oxidized using concentrated H2SO4/HNO3 acids for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h, respectively. Experimental results showed that the oxygen content of MWCNTs increased with surface oxidization time. Linear correlations were found to exist between the oxygen content, critical coagulation concentration (CCC) for NaCl, and critical coagulation pH values of MWCNTs detected by optical density at 800 nm. The CCC values for CaCl2 increased with oxygen contents for unmodified MWCNTs and lowly oxidized MWCNTs, while which decreased after further increasing the surface oxidization. CCC ratios in the presence of Ca(2+) to Na(+) were consistent with the empirical Schulze-Hardy rule for unmodified MWCNTs and lowly oxidized MWCNTs; however, which were much lower than the expected values for highly oxidized MWCNTs. Fulvic acid can clearly increase the stability of MWCNT suspension with unmodified MWCNTs and lowly oxidized MWCNTs, while it cannot affect the dispersion of highly oxidized MWCNTs. This study implied that the oxidation and presence of fulvic acid will possibly increase the mobility, exposure, bioavailability, and toxicity of MWCNTs. PMID:24323322

  4. Oxidative dissolution of unirradiated Mimas MOX fuel (U/Pu oxides) in carbonated water under oxic and anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorowski, Mélina; Jégou, Christophe; De Windt, Laurent; Broudic, Véronique; Peuget, Sylvain; Magnin, Magali; Tribet, Magaly; Martin, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Few studies exist concerning the alteration of Mimas Mixed-OXide (MOX) fuel, a mixed plutonium and uranium oxide, and data is needed to better understand its behavior under leaching, especially for radioactive waste disposal. In this study, two leaching experiments were conducted on unirradiated MOX fuel with a strong alpha activity (1.3 × 109 Bq.gMOX-1 reproducing the alpha activity of spent MOX fuel with a burnup of 47 GWd·tHM-1 after 60 years of decay), one under air (oxic conditions) for 5 months and the other under argon (anoxic conditions with [O2] plutonium and americium were analyzed by a radiochemical route, and H2O2 generated by the water radiolysis was quantified by chemiluminescence. Surface characterizations were performed before and after leaching using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) and Raman spectroscopy. Solubility diagrams were calculated to support data discussion. The uranium releases from MOX pellets under both oxic and anoxic conditions were similar, demonstrating the predominant effect of alpha radiolysis on the oxidative dissolution of the pellets. The uranium released was found to be mostly in solution as carbonate species according to modeling, whereas the Am and Pu released were significantly sorbed or precipitated onto the TiO2 reactor. An intermediate fraction of Am (12%) was also present as colloids. SEM and EPMA results indicated a preferential dissolution of the UO2 matrix compared to the Pu-enriched agglomerates, and Raman spectroscopy showed the Pu-enriched agglomerates were slightly oxidized during leaching. Unlike Pu-enriched zones, the UO2 grains were much more sensitive to oxidative dissolution, but the presence of carbonates did not enable observation of an oxidized layer by Raman spectroscopy with the exception of a few areas revealing the presence of U4O9. This data shows the heterogeneous nature of the alteration and the need to combine information from different techniques to

  5. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimeng; Zhu, Mengfu; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Hong; Deng, Cheng; Li, Kui

    2016-05-01

    A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2)/carbon aerogel (CA) for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  6. Adsorption/oxidation of sulfur-containing gases on nitrogen-doped activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Qiang; Ke Ming; Yu Pei; Hu Hai Qiang; Yan Xi Ming

    2016-01-01

    Coconut shell-based activated carbon (CAC) was used for the removal of methyl mercaptan (MM). CAC was modified by urea impregnation and calcined at 450°C and 950°C. The desulfurization activity was determined in a fixed bed reactor under room temperature. The results showed that the methyl mercaptan adsorption/oxidation capacity of modified carbon caicined at 950°C is more than 3 times the capacity of original samples. On the other hand, the modified carbon caicined at 950°C also has a high c...

  7. Concurrent Formation of Carbon-Carbon Bonds and Functionalized Graphene by Oxidative Carbon-Hydrogen Coupling Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioku, Kumika; Morimoto, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nishina, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative C-H coupling reactions were conducted using graphene oxide (GO) as an oxidant. GO showed high selectivity compared with commonly used oxidants such as (diacetoxyiodo) benzene and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone. A mechanistic study revealed that radical species contributed to the reaction. After the oxidative coupling reaction, GO was reduced to form a material that shows electron conductivity and high specific capacitance. Therefore, this system could concurrently achieve two important reactions: C-C bond formation via C-H transformation and production of functionalized graphene. PMID:27181191

  8. Catalytic NO Oxidation in the Presence of Moisture Using Porous Polymers and Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Atkinson, John D

    2016-05-17

    NO oxidation catalyzed by porous materials is difficult to implement under industrial conditions because moisture in combustion exhaust streams blocks oxidation sites, decreasing NO conversion. In this work, hydrophobic cross-linked polymers are tested as NO oxidation catalysts to overcome these negative impacts associated with moisture. Although activated carbons (ACs) outperform hyper-cross-linked polymers by >88% and low-cross-linked polymers by >463% under dry conditions, their NO conversion drops to 0% when 50% relative humidity is added. Performance of hyper-cross-linked and low-cross-linked polymers, however, decreases by only 19-35% and reactivity and hydrophilicity. PMID:27075697

  9. Increased oxidation-related glutathionylation and carbonic anhydrase activity in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Brunati, Anna Maria; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Ambrosini, Guido; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the possible involvement of carbonic anhydrase activation in response to an endometriosis-related increase in oxidative stress. Peripheral blood samples obtained from 27 healthy controls and 30 endometriosis patients, classified as having endometriosis by histological examination of surgical specimens, were analysed by multiple immunoassay and carbonic anhydrase activity assay. Red blood cells (RBC) were analysed for glutathionylated protein (GSSP) content in the membrane, total glutathione (GSH) in the cytosol and carbonic anhydrase concentration and activity. In association with a membrane increase of GSSP and a cytosolic decrease of GSH content in endometriosis patients, carbonic anhydrase significantly increased (P < 0.0001) both monomerization and activity compared with controls. This oxidation-induced activation of carbonic anhydrase was positively and significantly correlated with the GSH content of RBC (r = 0.9735, P < 0.001) and with the amount of the 30-kDa monomer of carbonic anhydrase (r = 0.9750, P < 0.001). Because carbonic anhydrase activation is implied in many physiological and biochemical processes linked to pathologies such as glaucoma, hypertension, obesity and infections, carbonic anhydrase activity should be closely monitored in endometriosis. These data open promising working perspectives for diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis and hopefully of other oxidative stress-related diseases. Endometriosis is a chronic disease associated with infertility and local inflammatory response, which is thought to spread rapidly throughout the body as a systemic subclinical inflammation. One of the causes in the pathogenesis/evolution of endometriosis is oxidative stress, which occurs when reactive oxygen species are produced faster than the endogenous antioxidant defence systems can neutralize them. Once produced, reactive oxygen species can alter the morphological and functional properties of endothelial cells, including

  10. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis oxidation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irreversible kinetic surface-reaction model, based upon the reaction of carbon monoxide nd oxygen on a catalyst surface is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The adsorbed molecules/atoms on the surface undergo both first and second order kinetic phase transitions. The first order transition is found to occur at x/sub/co=x/sub/2=0.5255 with an error bar of 0.0003, where x/sub/co is the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gas phase. The time evolution of this catalytic reaction is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. Slightly above x/sub/2, the oxygen coverage relaxation time for the oxygen is found to diverage as the inverse of 3.54 times the absolute of the difference of x/sub/2 and x/sub/co. (orig./A.B.)

  11. Antibacterial activity of carbon-coated zinc oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Jun; Yamamoto, Osamu; Ozkal, Burak; Nakagawa, Zenbe-E

    2007-03-01

    Particles of ZnO coated with carbon (ZnOCC) were prepared and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. ZnO powder and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (polymerization degree: 2,000-95,000) were mixed at a mass ratio (ZnO/PVA) of 1, and then heated at 500-650 degree C for 3 h under argon gas with a flow rate of 50ml/min. Carbon deposited on the ZnOCC surface was amorphous as revealed by X-ray diffraction studies. The ZnOCC particles maintained their shape in water, even under agitation. The antibacterial activity of ZnOCC powder against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated quantitatively by measuring the change in the electrical conductivity of the growth medium caused by bacterial metabolism (conductimetric assay). The conductivity curves obtained were analyzed using the growth inhibition kinetic model proposed by Takahashi for calorimetric evaluation, allowing the estimation of the antibacterial efficacy and kinetic parameters of ZnOCC. In a previous study, when ZnO was immobilized on materials, such as activated carbon, the amount of ZnO immobilized was approximately 10-50%, and the antibacterial activity markedly decreased compared to that of the original ZnO. On the other hand, the ZnOCC particles prepared in this study contained approximately 95% ZnO and possessed antibacterial activity similar to that of pure ZnO. The carbon-coating treatment could maintain the antibacterial efficacy of the ZnO and may be useful in the develop-ment of multifunctional antimicrobial materials. PMID:17408004

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  13. Versatile Oxidation Methods for Organic and Inorganic Substrates Catalyzed by Platinum-Group Metals on Carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Asai, Shota; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2016-02-01

    Platinum-group metals on activated carbon catalysts, represented by Pd/C, Ru/C, Rh/C, etc., are widely utilized to accomplish green and sustainable organic reactions due to their favorable features, such as easy handling, recoverability, and reusability. The efficient oxidation methods of various organic compounds using heterogeneous platinum-group metals on carbons with or without added oxidants are summarized in this Personal Account. The oxidation of internal alkynes into diketones was effectively catalyzed by Pd/C in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and molecular oxygen or pyridine N-oxide. The Pd/C-catalyzed mild combustion of gaseous hydrogen with molecular oxygen provided hydrogen peroxide, which could be directly utilized for the oxidation of sulfide derivatives into sulfoxides. Furthermore, the Ru/C-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols gave the corresponding aldehydes and ketones, respectively. On the other hand, the dehydrogenative oxidation of secondary alcohols into ketones was achieved using Rh/C in water, and primary alcohols were effectively dehydrogenated by Pd/C in water under mildly reduced pressure to produce carboxylic acids. PMID:26666634

  14. Highly Efficient Oxidative Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Double Bond over meso-Tetraphenyl Cobalt Porphyrin Catalyst in the Presence of Molecular Oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤太; 纪红兵

    2012-01-01

    Highly efficient and selective carbon-carbon double bond aerobic cleavage of olefins catalyzed by metallopor- phyrins was investigated, and carbonyl compounds and epoxide were produced as the main products. CoTPP (co- balt meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin) showed excellent activity for the oxidative cleavage of carbon-carbon double bond by using styrene as model compound, in which the TOF (turnover frequency) and selectivity toward benzaldehyde was obtained with 2×10^4h-1 and 86%,respectively.

  15. Complete Enzymatic Oxidation of Methanol to Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Selin; Schrittwieser, J.H.; Gargiulo, Serena; Ni, Yan; Yanase, Hideshi; Opperman, D.J.; Berkel, van, G.; Hollmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The inside back cover picture, provided by Selin Kara et al., illustrates an in situ NADH regeneration cascade comprising alcohol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dismutase and formate dehydrogenase. This system principally enables complete oxidation of methanol to CO2 thereby yielding 3 equivalents on NADH per mole of methanol employed, thereby representing a very atom efficient regeneration system (artwork designed by Verena A. Resch). Details can be found in the communication on pages XXXX-XXXX...

  16. One-electron oxidation in irradiated carbon tetrachloride solutions of ZnTPP, TMPD, and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-electron oxidation of phenol, p-methoxphenol, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, chlorpromazine, and zinc tetraphenolporphyrin (ZnTPP) was studied by pulse radiolysis in carbon tetrachloride solutions. Phenols form phenoxyl radicals and the other compounds form cation radicals with yields strongly dependent on solute concentration. The highest yield in deoxygenated solutions approached G = 4. In the presence of oxygen an additional oxidation step is observed owing to CCl3O2 radicals and the overall oxidation yield approached G = 8. ZnTPP was found to be oxidized to the cation radical without any side effects, unlike oxidation in 1,2-dichloroethane which was accompanied by demetallation owing to HCl production

  17. Efficient and facile one pot carboxylation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by using oxidation with ozone under mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, oxidation of carbon nanotubes with ozone in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was studied. The reactions were performed under clean and mild conditions and oxidized products with high concentration of oxygenated groups were yielded. The reaction products were characterized with attenuated total reflectance (ATR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), back titration, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the dispersion behavior of the oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was also studied. The results confirmed the presence of high concentrations of oxidative groups on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) treated by the method of the present work.

  18. Preparation and Electrochemistry of Hydrous Ruthenium Oxide/Active Carbon Electrode materials for Supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jianrong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we reported a new method to directly prepare the amorphous hydrous ruthenium oxide/active carbon powders. The relationship between the specific capacitance and ruthenium content in powders was studied in detail. Physical properties of the powders such as crystallinity、 particle size, and electrochemical characteristics of electrodes were reported along with the capacitor performance.  ……

  19. Preparation and Electrochemistry of Hydrous Ruthenium Oxide/Active Carbon Electrode materials for Supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jianrong; Jiang Dechen; Chen Bin; Zhu Junjie; Jiang Liping; Fang Huiqun

    2001-01-01

    @@ In this paper, we reported a new method to directly prepare the amorphous hydrous ruthenium oxide/active carbon powders. The relationship between the specific capacitance and ruthenium content in powders was studied in detail. Physical properties of the powders such as crystallinity、 particle size, and electrochemical characteristics of electrodes were reported along with the capacitor performance.

  20. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Waseem; Shafiee, Hadi; Velasco, Vanessa; Sah, Vasu R; Guo, Shirui; El Assal, Rami; Inci, Fatih; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Jahangir, Muntasir; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1-25 μg/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25 μg/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure. PMID:27538480

  1. Atomic scale observation of oxygen delivery during silver-oxygen nanoparticle catalysed oxidation of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yonghai; Yuchi, Datong; Guan, Pengfei; Xu, Jia; Guo, Lin; Liu, Jingyue

    2016-07-01

    To probe the nature of metal-catalysed processes and to design better metal-based catalysts, atomic scale understanding of catalytic processes is highly desirable. Here we use aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy to investigate the atomic scale processes of silver-based nanoparticles, which catalyse the oxidation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. A direct semi-quantitative estimate of the oxidized carbon atoms by silver-based nanoparticles is achieved. A mechanism similar to the Mars-van Krevelen process is invoked to explain the catalytic oxidation process. Theoretical calculations, together with the experimental data, suggest that the oxygen molecules dissociate on the surface of silver nanoparticles and diffuse through the silver nanoparticles to reach the silver/carbon interfaces and subsequently oxidize the carbon. The lattice distortion caused by oxygen concentration gradient within the silver nanoparticles provides the direct evidence for oxygen diffusion. Such direct observation of atomic scale dynamics provides an important general methodology for investigations of catalytic processes.

  2. Immobilisation of Alkylamine-Functionalised Osmium Redox Complex on Glassy Carbon using Electrochemical Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical oxidation of alkylamines provides a method for modification of carbon, and other surfaces via formation of a radical amine that reacts with the surface. Direct electrochemical oxidation of an alkylamine functional group of a redox complex provides a simple route to preparation of a redox active layer on carbon surfaces. Here we report on oxidation of an osmium redox complex, containing an alkylamine ligand distal to the metal co-ordination site, on carbon electrodes to directly produce a redox active film on the surface. The presence of the redox-active layer of osmium complexes is confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The average surface coverage of the attached film upon electrolysis of an [Os(2,2′-bipyridine)2(4-aminomethylpyridine)Cl].PF6 complex is 0.84 (± 0.3) × 10−10 moles cm−2, demonstrating that coverages close to that predicted for a close-packed monolayer of complex is attained. The bioelectrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode was evaluated for oxidation of glucose in presence of glucose oxidase in solution. Hence, electrochemical coupling of alkylamine functionalised osmium redox complexes provides a simple and efficient methodology for obtaining redox active monolayers on carbon surfaces with potential applications to biosensor and biofuel cell device development

  3. Preparation and characterization of nanomaterials based on bifacial carbon nanotubes and iron oxides: Application in catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafour-Hadj-Ziane A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of magnetic particles technology for the development of new nanomaterials has received considerable attention in recent years. In this context, the objective of this study is firstly, to prepare new catalytic materials that gather the strong adsorption capacities of carbon nanotubes and magnetic properties of iron, it concerns nanocomposites based on a mixture of carbon nanotubes in a very small amounts and iron oxide. Secondly we want to appear their capacities in catalytic oxidation reactions of phenol. Synthesis under the optimal conditions was carried out at different pH. And the characterization of this new nanomaterial reveals a good specific surface area BET, the identification of carbon nanotubes within the matrix was performed by infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The use of this new material as a catalytic support in catalytic oxidation reactions of phenol indicates the high selectivity of this latter and a yield better than this obtained with iron oxide supported by activated carbon. The good catalyst regeneration of the new catalysis and the improvement in their properties are the interesting parameters for the new type nanomaterials.

  4. Cobalt oxide and nitride particles supported on mesoporous carbons as composite electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Shao, Leng-Leng; Gao, Ze-Min; Ren, Tie-Zhen; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2015-07-01

    The composite electrocatalysts of cobalt oxide/mesoporous carbon and cobalt nitride/mesoporous carbon are synthesized via a convenient oxidation and subsequent ammonia nitridation of cobalt particles-incorporated mesoporous carbon, respectively. The cobalt oxide and nitride particles are uniformly imbedded in mesoporous carbon matrix, forming the unique composites with high surface area and mesopore architecture, and the resultant composites are evaluated as counter electrode materials, exhibiting good catalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide. The composites of cobalt nitride and mesoporous carbon are superior to the counterparts of cobalt oxide and mesoporous carbon in catalyzing the triiodide reduction, and the dye-sensitized solar cell with the composites achieves an optimum power conversion efficiency of 5.26%, which is comparable to the one based on the conventional Pt counter electrode (4.88%).

  5. Simulation of RCC Crack Growth Due to Carbon Oxidation in High-Temperature Gas Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, E. V.; Levin, D. A.; Picetti, Donald J.; Anderson, Brian P.

    2009-01-01

    The carbon wall oxidation technique coupled with a CFD technique was employed to study the flow in the expanding crack channel caused by the oxidation of the channel carbon walls. The recessing 3D surface morphing procedure was developed and tested in comparison with the arcjet experimental results. The multi-block structured adaptive meshing was used to model the computational domain changes due to the wall recession. Wall regression rates for a reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples, that were tested in a high enthalpy arcjet environment, were computationally obtained and used to assess the channel expansion. The test geometry and flow conditions render the flow regime as the transitional to continuum, therefore Navier-Stokes gas dynamic approach with the temperature jump and velocity slip correction to the boundary conditions was used. The modeled mechanism for wall material loss was atomic oxygen reaction with bare carbon. The predicted channel growth was found to agree with arcjet observations. Local gas flow field results were found to affect the oxidation rate in a manner that cannot be predicted by previous mass loss correlations. The method holds promise for future modeling of materials gas-dynamic interactions for hypersonic flight.

  6. Covalent modification of carbon surfaces with cyclodextrins by mediated oxidation of β-cyclodextrin monoanions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • >Covalent grafting of carbon surfaces by mediated oxidation of cyclodextrin monoanions > The use of ferrocene as redox catalyst to prepare electrochemically modified electrodes. • EPR spectrum of electrochemically generated cyclodextrin radicals. • Electrochemical polymerization of cyclodextrine over glassy carbon surfaces. • Formation of inclusion complexes between ferrocene and β-cyclodextrin in dimethylsulfoxide. - Abstract: The covalent grafting of glassy carbon and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with cyclodextrins is reported in this work. The modification procedure is based in the concept that oxidation of organic anions generates radicals which react with carbon surfaces. These radical species are generated through a redox catalysis mechanism involving the formation of ferrocenium ion, which in turn oxidizes the cyclodextrin monoanion to afford an oxygen-centered free radical that ultimately reacts either in solution or with the surface, affording a strong attachment of cyclodextrin molecules to the carbon surface. The intervention of this radical was established from spectroelectrochemical EPR experiments. Atomic force microscopy imaging showed that the attached organic layer is thick while cyclic voltammetry experiments confirmed that this modified surface behaves as an ultramicroelectrode array. This kind of modification allows incorporate cyclodextrin to an electrode surface without a binder, making the modified electrode useful to be tested in forthcoming sensor studies

  7. Sintering uranium oxide in the reaction product of hydrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide alone or containing one or more additives such as plutonium dioxide, gadolinium oxide, titanium dioxide, silica, and alumina are heated to 900 to 15990C in the presence of a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, either alone or with an inert carrier gas and held at the desired temperature in this atmosphere to sinter the pellets. The sintered pellets are then cooled in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of 10-4 to 10-18 atm of oxygen such as dry hydrogen, wet hydrogen, dry carbon monoxide, wet carbon monoxide, inert gases such as nitrogen, argon, helium, and neon and mixtures of ayny of the foregoing including a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon dioxide in the gas mixture fed to the furnace is controlled to give a ratio of oxygen to uranium atoms in the sintered particles within the range of 1.98:1 to about 2.10:1. The water vapor present in the reaction products in the furnace atmosphere acts as a hydrolysis agent to aid removal of fluoride should such impurity be present in the uranium oxide. (U.S.)

  8. Interference of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahs, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    The interference of small concentrations (less than 4 percent by volume) of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor on the analysis for oxides of nitrogen by chemiluminescence was measured. The sample gas consisted primarily of nitrogen, with less than 100 parts per million concentration of nitric oxide, and with small concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor added. Results obtained under these conditions indicate that although oxygen does not measurably affect the analysis for nitric oxide, the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor causes the indicated nitric oxide concentration to be too low. An interference factor - defined as the percentage change in indicated nitric oxide concentration (relative to the true nitric oxide concentration) divided by the percent interfering gas present - was determined for carbon dioxide to be -0.60 + or - 0.04 and for water vapor to be -2.1 + or - 0.3.

  9. Pd nanoparticles supported on phenanthroline modified carbon as high active electrocatalyst for ethylene glycol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Phenanthroline as nitrogen source to modify traditional carbon support. • Synthesized a novel catalyst of Pd supported on PMC. • Pd/PMC catalyst shows excellent activity and stability. - Abstract: Modified carbon is fabricated by applying phenanthroline as nitrogen source and used as support (PMC) to immobilize Pd nanoparticles. Because the nitrogen-doping not only changes physicochemical and electronic properties of carbon but also serves as basic or coordination sites to stabilize and produce additional electronic activation for Pd, the Pd/PMC exhibits excellent electrochemcial performance for ethylene glycol oxidation. Compared to conventional Pd/C catalyst, the Pd/PMC catalyst has a larger electrochemically active surface area, 50 mV more negative onset potential, 1.77 times oxidation current and superior stability

  10. Chlorination of niobium oxide in the presence of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination kinetics of niobium pentoxide in the presence of carbon monoxide between 500-8000C of temperature is studied. The following variable that influences on the reaction rate are analysed: gas flow, geometry and volume of the Nb2O5 samples, reaction temperature and composition of the chlorinated mixture. At the same time, two other materials were studied: the CaO.Nb2O5 (synthetized in laboratory) and pyrochlorine concentrates. The three materials are compared for the chlorination method used. (M.A.C.)

  11. Oxidation Mechanisms of Diflunisal on Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tiribilli, Ch.; Giannarelli, S.; Sokolová, Romana; Valášek, M.

    Ústí nad Labem : Best Servis, 2014 - (Navrátil, T.; Fojta, M.; Pecková, K.), s. 202-206 ISBN 978-80-905221-2-1. [Moderní Elektrochemické Metody /34./. Jetřichovice (CZ), 19.05.2014-23.05.2014] Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR M200401201 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : diflunisal * Cyclic Voltammetry * Oxidation Mechanism Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  12. Genetics of Bacteria That Oxidize On-Carbon Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    Facultative methanol oxidizing bacteria contain large amounts of methanol dehydrogenase which is expressed only in the presence of methanol. This technical report describes two-two component regulatory systems encoding histidine kinases and response regulators and another response regulator all of which are required for the expression of mxaF, the open reading frame encoding methanol dehydrogenase. The response regulators bind to sequences upstream of the mxaF when phosphoryled in a reaction catalyzed by the histidine kinases. The binding of the response regulators is required for the transcription of mxaF.

  13. A Tracer Analysis Study on the Redistribution and Oxidization of Endogenous Carbon Monoxide in the Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Sawano, Makoto; Shimouchi, Akito

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that some carbon monoxide (CO) moves from blood haemoglobin to tissue cells and that mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase oxidizes CO to carbon dioxide (CO2). However, no study has demonstrated this redistribution and oxidization of CO under physiological conditions. The objective of this study was to trace the redistribution and oxidization of CO in the human body by detecting 13CO2 production after the inhalation of 13CO. In Experiment 1, we asked a healthy subject...

  14. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in <0.05-mm aggregates. Organic carbon stability in micro-aggregates was higher than that in macro-aggregates and became more stable. Organic carbon contents in total residues, and within different aggregate sizes, were all negatively correlated with PAD. It indicated that organic materials had a more significant effect on macro-aggregate stability and the effects of iron-aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates. PMID:26832865

  15. Effect of air-oxidation on the thermal diffusivity of the nuclear grade 2-dimensional carbon fiber reinforced carbon/carbon composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2D-C/C composite is one of the promising materials as a next-generation core material in gas-cooled reactors. Effect of air-oxidation on the thermal diffusivity of the 2D-C/C composite was investigated in this study. Tested composite consists of 6K plain-woven fabrics with PAN-based carbon fiber and graphite matrix. Final heat-treatment of around 3073 K was applied to the composite. The C/C composite specimens for measurement of thermal diffusivity were oxidized from 1 to 11% weight loss in air at 823 K. Oxidation loss of the composite preferentially occurred at matrix part near the fiber bundles, and then occurred at fiber bundles. This composite exhibited large anisotropy in thermal diffusivity, higher value for parallel to lamina direction and lower value for perpendicular, e.g. thermal diffusivity of 1.1 cm2/s for parallel to lamina and 0.2 cm2/s for perpendicular at room temperature. Thermal diffusivity at room temperature declined 10∼20% for parallel to lamina direction and 5∼9% for that of perpendicular within 11% weight loss by oxidation. Thermal diffusivity tended to decrease gradually as the increase of oxidation loss in parallel to lamina, however, it decreased in the beginning of oxidation pretty much and not so changed by further oxidation loss in perpendicular to lamina. The different behavior due to air-oxidation on the thermal diffusivity in two directions was discussed from the fiber and/or matrix texture changes due to air-oxidation. Change in thermal conductivity under oxidation condition was also estimated from the obtained thermal diffusivity. (author)

  16. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage;

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...

  17. Amplified electrochemical determination of maltol in food based on graphene oxide-wrapped tin oxide@carbon nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Sun, Junyong; Yu, Miaomiao; Wang, Kaili; Lv, Zhen; Liu, Yanming

    2017-01-01

    The study presents a new approach for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of maltol using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with graphene oxide-wrapped tin oxide@carbon nanospheres (SnO2@C@GO). The morphological and components properties of SnO2@C@GO nanocomposites were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. SnO2@C@GO nanocomposite on a GCE had a synergetic effect on the electrochemical oxidation of maltol by means of square wave voltammetry. Under the optimum conditions, anodic peak current response of maltol was linear with its concentration in the range of 80nM-10μM, and a detection limit of 12nM was achieved for maltol. The experiment results presented that the method showed good selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, as well as excellent potential for use as an ideal inexpensive voltammetric method applicable for complex food matrices. PMID:27507451

  18. Study of carbon monoxide oxidation on mesoporous platinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterle, Thomas F; Russell, Andrea E; Bartlett, Philip N

    2010-09-10

    H(1) mesoporous platinum surfaces formed by electrodeposition from lyotropic liquid crystalline templates have high electroactive surface areas (up to 60 m(2) g(-1)) provided by the concave surface within their narrow (≈2 nm diameter) pores. In this respect, they are fundamentally different from the flat surfaces of ordinary Pt electrodes or the convex surfaces of high-surface-area Pt nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry of H(1) mesoporous Pt films in acid solution is identical to that for polycrystalline Pt, suggesting that the surfaces of the pores are made up of low-index Pt faces. In contrast, CO stripping voltammetry on H(1) mesoporous Pt is significantly different from the corresponding voltammetry on polycrystalline Pt and shows a clear prewave for CO oxidation and the oxidation CO at lower overpotential. These differences in CO stripping are related to the presence of trough sites where the low-index Pt faces that make up the concave surface of the pore walls meet. PMID:20578119

  19. Carbon to electricity in a solid oxide fuel cell combined with an internal catalytic gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Konsolakis; G. E. Marnellos; A. Al-Musa; N. Kaklidis; I. Garagounis; V. Kyriakou

    2015-01-01

    This study explores strategies to develop highly efficient direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) by com‐bining a solid‐oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a catalyst‐aided carbon‐gasification process. This system employs Cu/CeO2 composites as both anodic electrodes and carbon additives in a cell of the type:carbon|Cu‐CeO2/YSZ/Ag|air. The study investigates the impact on in situ carbon‐gasification and DCFC performance characteristics of catalyst addition and variation in the carrier gas used (inert He versus reactive CO2). The results indicate that cell performance is significantly improved by infusing the catalyst into the carbon feedstock and by employing CO2 as the carrier gas. At 800 °C, the maxi‐mum power output is enhanced by approximately 40% and 230% for carbon/CO2 and car‐bon/catalyst/CO2 systems, respectively, compared with that of the carbon/He configuration. The increase observed when employing the catalyst and CO2 as the carrier gas can be primarily at‐tributed to the pronounced effect of the catalyst on carbon‐gasification through the re‐verse‐Boudouard reaction, and the subsequent in situ electro‐oxidation of CO at the anode three‐phase boundary.

  20. Nacre-like calcium carbonate controlled by ionic liquid/graphene oxide composite template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures have been mediated by an ionic liquid (IL)-graphene oxide (GO) composite template. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that either 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) or graphene oxide can act as a soft template for calcium carbonate formation with unusual morphologies. Based on the time-dependent morphology changes of calcium carbonate particles, it is concluded that nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures can be formed gradually utilizing [BMIM]BF4/GO composite template. During the process of calcium carbonate formation, [BMIM]BF4 acted not only as solvents but also as morphology templates for the fabrication of calcium carbonate materials with nacre-like morphology. Based on the observations, the possible mechanisms were also discussed. - Highlights: • Nacre-like CaCO3/GO were prepared by gas diffusion. • Ionic liquid/GO served as composite templates. • The interaction of Ca2+ ions and GO played a very important role in the formation of nacre-like CaCO3

  1. Isotope effects for carbon and hydrogen with bacterial oxidation of oils and certain petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhtiyeva, V.L.; Guriyeva, S.M.; Kondrat' yeva, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of experiments on bacterial oxidation of oils, decane and hexadecane. Oxidation of oils was done by natural biocenosis isolated from bed waters, hydrocarbons by pure culture of bacteria from the river Pseudomonas. As a result of bacterial transformation, the methane oils were enriched with the isotope C/sup 12/, the methane-naphthene by isotope C/sup 13/. The carbon dioxide formed during oxidation of oils was fairly close in deltaC/sup 13/ values to the original oils. The oils exposed to biodegradation in aerobic conditions were enriched with deuterium, in anaerobic--they were slightly depleted. With oxidation of individual hydrocarbons, the isotope effects for carbon were extremely small, and for hydrogen were missing altogether. As a result of analysis of the presented data, as well as the previously published materials, conclusions were drawn about the nature of the isotope effects with bacterial oxidation of the oils and scales were defined with different degree of oxidation of the oils.

  2. Enhanced oxidation and detection of toxic ractopamine using carbon nanotube film-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The enhanced oxidation of ractopamine on MWCNT film surface was firstly studied. ► The oxidation occurred at phenolic hydroxyl groups and transferred two electrons. ► A sensitive and effective electrochemical sensor was developed for ractopamine. ► It was used to detect ractopamine in animal tissues, the recovery was satisfactory. - Abstract: Insoluble multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was readily dispersed into water in the presence of dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate, and then used to modify the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by means of solvent evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy test indicated that the GCE surface was coated with uniform MWCNT film. The resulting MWCNT film-modified GCE greatly enhanced the oxidation signal of ractopamine. The oxidation mechanism was studied, and it was found that the oxidation of ractopamine occurred at two phenolic hydroxyl groups, involving two protons and two electrons. Moreover, the influences of pH value, amount of MWCNT, accumulation potential and time were investigated on the oxidation signal of ractopamine. Based on the strong enhancement effect of MWCNT, a sensitive, rapid and simple electrochemical method was developed for the detection of ractopamine. The linear range was from 50 μg L−1 to 2 mg L−1, and the detection limit was 20 μg L−1. Finally, this method was successfully used to detect the content of ractopamine in pork and liver samples, and the recovery was in the range from 93.1% to 107.2%.

  3. Self-flocculated powdered activated carbon with different oxidation methods and their influence on adsorption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zailin; Li, Shujin; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-03-01

    The commercial powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been selectively oxidized by two methods. The two oxidized methods are wet oxidation with ammonium persulfate and thermal treatment after acidification with hydrochloride acid, respectively. The two oxidized PAC were then functionalized with thermoresponsive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) in aqueous solution at ambient temperature. Comparing the two oxidized PAC products and their grafted derivatives, the oxidized PAC modified with thermal treatment after acidification shows larger surface area of 1184 m(2)/g and better adsorption of bisphenol A. Its derivative also exhibits relatively large surface area and adsorption capacity after grafted with PNIPAM. The maximum surface adsorption capacity simulated under Langmuir Models reached 156 mg/g. In addition, the grafted PAC products show self-flocculation behaviors with rapid response to temperature because of the thermal phase transition and entanglement behaviors of PNIPAM. The present study provides a new way to obtain carboxyl-rich activated carbon with large surface area and better adsorption capacity. The retrievable grafted PAC with good self-flocculation effect responsive to temperature will have high potential application in water remediation which requires pre-heating and emergency water treatment in the wild. PMID:26551226

  4. Identification of carbon sensitization for the visible-light photocatalytic titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors successfully synthesized titanium oxide (TiO2) nanopowder with visible-light photocatalytic ability by low-pressure flat-flame metal organic chemical vapor condensation method. In order to confirm that carbon doping is a viable mechanism for the visible-light absorption of the powder prepared by this method, they modify the process by total exclusion of nitrogen usage to eliminate the nitrogen doping possibility. Since nitrogen is avoided in the process, the visible-light absorption cannot be due to nitrogen doping. They also found that the nanopowder formed has a single phase of anatase. Thus the nanopowder does not have anatase/rutile interface, and the authors can eliminate the possibility of visible-light absorption by the anatase/rutile interface. The visible-light absorption should thus be resort to the carbon doping. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies show the presence of several carbon related bonds except Ti-C bond. This suggests that the carbon does not incorporate into the TiO2 crystal and should locate on the surface of the nanopowder. Thus the carbon species act as a visible-light sensitizer for the TiO2 as a photocatalyst. Among all carbon bonds the C-C bond is believed to be responsible for the light absorption, since all other carbon related bonds are not chromophores. The visible-light TiO2 photocatalysis induced by carbon doping is confirmed and explained.

  5. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Angel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF approximately 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

  6. Carbon Nanostructure: Its Evolution During its Impact Upon Soot Growth and Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The proposed work is a ground-based study to define and quantify soot nanostructural changes in response to growth conditions, thermal and oxidative treatments and to quantify their impact upon further oxidation and growth of highly ordered carbon materials. Experimental data relating soot oxidation rates to multiple oxidizing species concentrations will directly test for additive or synergistic soot oxidation rates. Such validation is central for assessing the applicability of individual soot oxidation rates and designing oxidative strategies for controlling soot loadings in and emissions from turbulent combustion processes. Through these experiments, new insights into soot nanostructure evolution during and its impact upon oxidation by O2 and OH will be realized. It is expected that the results of this effort will spawn new research directions in future microgravity and 1g environments. Issues raised by positive or even negative demonstration of the hypotheses of this proposal have direct bearing on modelling and controlling soot formation and its destruction in nearly every combustion process producing soot.

  7. Synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon and hydrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different mechanisms for synthesizing hydrocarbons (UV) from CO and H2 are examined. The basic attention is devoted to process catalysts (Kt). A special group of catalysts is made up of certain reducible oxides which have dehydrating properties, in the presence of which at a pressure of greater than 10 megapascals and temperatures of 400 to 500 degrees an isohydrocarbon is formed from CO and H2 (isosynthesis). The Fisher Tropsh catalyst carrier provides for the optimal contact porosity, effects the dispersity of the metal and its distribution along the surface (Pv) and prevents the caking of the active substance during the reduction and synthesis. To a significant degree the selectivity of the catalyst is determined by the nature of the added promoter. To a significant degree the activity of the catalyst is a function of the metal to promoter ratio and the conditions of preparation, especially complex for sedimented catalysts.

  8. Emissions to air in Sweden: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and sulphur dioxide 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gases - Carbon dioxide from combustion and motor fuels, Methane and Laughing gas from agriculture Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Sweden amounted to 56 million tonnes in 2000, which is minor decrease since 1990. Combustion of fossil fuels and the use of fuels in vehicles are the major sources of CO2 emissions. Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas, and it is emitted when bacteria degrade organic matter. In Sweden the main source is enteric fermentation from cattle. The emissions of methane were 324 000 tonnes 1990. In 2000 the emissions amounted to 280 000 tonnes, or a 14 per cent decrease. The third greenhouse gas, N2O is mostly emitted from agriculture. N2O emissions have fallen somewhat. Total emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, counted as NO2) in Sweden were 58,000 and 247,000 tonnes respectively in 2000. International air and maritime traffic is not included. The major source of SO2 emissions is combustion of fossil fuels. Road traffic is the major source of NOX emissions. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are also presented in this report. The main source of CO is road traffic, while NMVOCs come from household combustion and road traffic. Emission trends for fluoride carbon greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 are also presented. These gases mainly emit from refrigerators, freezing and air conditioning equipment (e.g. in cars and buildings) and from heat pumps

  9. Carbon combustion synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide as cathode material for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongle Gan; Li Zhang; Yanxuan Wen; Fan Wang; Haifeng Su

    2008-01-01

    Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) was synthesized by carbon combustion synthesis (CCS) using carbon as fuel. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements showed that carbon combustion led to the formation of layered structure of LiCoO2 and the particle size could be controlled by carbon content. For the LiCoO2 sample prepared at 800 ℃ for 2 h, at molar ratio of C/Co= 0.5, the particle-size distribution fell in the narrow range of 3-5 μm. Electrochemical tests indicated this LiCoO2 sample delivered an initial discharge capacity of 148 mAh/g with capacity retention rate higher than 97% after 10 cycles.

  10. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  11. Electro-oxidation of ascorbic acid catalyzed on cobalt hydroxide-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHASEM KARIM-NEZHAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of ascorbic acid on a cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon (CHM–GC electrode in alkaline solution was investigated. The process of the involved oxidation and its kinetics were established using the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry techniques, as well as by steady state polarization measurements. The results revealed that cobalt hydroxide promotes the rate of oxidation by increasing the peak current; hence ascorbic acid is oxidized at lower potentials, which is thermodynamically more favorable. The cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometry indicate a catalytic EC mechanism is operative with the electrogeneration of Co(IV as the electrochemical process. Also, the process is diffusion-controlled and the current–time responses follow Cottrellian behavior. This result was confirmed by steady state measurements. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid and the electron-transfer coefficient are reported.

  12. Low-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysed by regenerable atomically dispersed palladium on alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric J.; Delariva, Andrew T.; Lin, Sen; Johnson, Ryan S.; Guo, Hua; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hun Kwak, Ja; Peden, Charles H. F.; Kiefer, Boris; Allard, Lawrence F.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2014-09-01

    Catalysis by single isolated atoms of precious metals has attracted much recent interest, as it promises the ultimate in atom efficiency. Most previous reports are on reducible oxide supports. Here we show that isolated palladium atoms can be catalytically active on industrially relevant γ-alumina supports. The addition of lanthanum oxide to the alumina, long known for its ability to improve alumina stability, is found to also help in the stabilization of isolated palladium atoms. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the presence of intermingled palladium and lanthanum on the γ-alumina surface. Carbon monoxide oxidation reactivity measurements show onset of catalytic activity at 40 °C. The catalyst activity can be regenerated by oxidation at 700 °C in air. The high-temperature stability and regenerability of these ionic palladium species make this catalyst system of potential interest for low-temperature exhaust treatment catalysts.

  13. Catalytic and capacity properties of nanocomposites based on cobalt oxide and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Yu. Podyacheva; Andrei I. Stadnichenko; Svetlana A. Yashnik; Olga A. Stonkus; Elena M. Slavinskaya; Andrei I. Boronin; Andrei V. Puzynin; Zinfer R. Ismagilov

    2014-01-01

    The nanocomposites based on cobalt oxide and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) with cobalt oxide contents of 10-90 wt%were examined as catalysts in the CO oxidation and superca-pacity electrodes. Depending on Со3О4 content, such nanocomposites have different morphologies of cobalt oxide nanoparticles, distributions over the bulk, and ratios of Со3+/Co2+ cations. The 90%Со3О4-N-CNFs nanocomposite showed the best activity because of the increased concentration of defects in N-CNFs. The capacitance of electrodes containing 10%Со3О4-N-CNFs was 95 F/g, which is 1.7 times higher than electrodes made from N-CNFs.

  14. Catalytic oxidation of pulping effluent by activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bholu Ram; Garg, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the non-catalytic and catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) for the removal of persistent organic compounds from the pulping effluent. Two activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts (Cu/Ce/AC and Cu/Mn/AC) were used for CWO after characterization by the following techniques: temperature-programmed reduction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The oxidation reaction was performed in a batch high-pressure reactor (capacity = 0.7  L) at moderate oxidation conditions (temperature = 190°C and oxygen pressure = 0.9 MPa). With Cu/Ce/AC catalyst, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and lignin removals of 79%, 77% and 88% were achieved compared to only 50% removal during the non-catalytic process. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD ratio (a measure for biodegradability) of the pulping effluent was improved to 0.52 from an initial value of 0.16. The mass balance calculations for solid recovered after CWO reaction showed 8% and 10% deduction in catalyst mass primarily attributed to the loss of carbon and metal leaching. After the CWO process, carbon deposition was also observed on the recovered catalyst which was responsible for around 3-4% TOC reduction. PMID:26508075

  15. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Hatzell, Marta C; Cook, Kevin M; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M; McBride, Alexander; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-01

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. Chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) was examined here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (∼21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g(-1)) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ∼18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (∼60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system. PMID:25633260

  16. Adsorption/oxidation of sulfur-containing gases on nitrogen-doped activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shell-based activated carbon (CAC was used for the removal of methyl mercaptan (MM. CAC was modified by urea impregnation and calcined at 450°C and 950°C. The desulfurization activity was determined in a fixed bed reactor under room temperature. The results showed that the methyl mercaptan adsorption/oxidation capacity of modified carbon caicined at 950°C is more than 3 times the capacity of original samples. On the other hand, the modified carbon caicined at 950°C also has a high capacity for the simultaneous adsorption/oxidation of methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide.The introduce of basic nitrogen groups siginificantly increases the desulfurization since it can facilitate the electron transfer process between sulfur and oxygen. The structure and chemical properties are characterized using Boehm titration, N2 adsorption-desorption method, thermal analysis and elemental analysis. The results showed that the major oxidation products were dimethyl disulfide and methanesulfonic acid which adsorbed in the activated carbon.

  17. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  18. Nondestructive covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes by selective oxidation of the original defects with K2FeO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-yang; Xu, Xue-cheng

    2015-08-01

    Chemical oxidation is still the major approach to the covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Theoretically, the defects on CNTs are more reactive than skeletal hexagons and should be preferentially oxidized, but conventional oxidation methods, e.g., HNO3/H2SO4 treatment, have poor reaction selectivity and inevitably consume the Cdbnd C bonds in the hexagonal lattices, leading to structural damage, π-electrons loss and weight decrease. In this work, we realized the nondestructive covalent functionalization of CNTs by selective oxidation of the defects. In our method, potassium ferrate K2FeVIO4 was employed as an oxidant for CNTs in H2SO4 medium. The CNT samples, before and after K2FeO4/H2SO4 treatment, were characterized with colloid dispersibility, IR, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM and XPS. The results indicated that (i) CNTs could be effectively oxidized by Fe (VI) under mild condition (60 °C, 3 h), and hydrophilic CNTs with abundant surface sbnd COOH groups were produced; and (ii) Fe (VI) oxidation of CNTs followed a defect-specific oxidation process, that is, only the sp3-hybridized carbon atoms on CNT surface were oxidized while the Cdbnd C bonds remained unaffected. This selective/nondestructive oxidation afforded oxidized CNTs in yields of above 100 wt%. This paper shows that K2FeO4/H2SO4 is an effective, nondestructive and green oxidation system for oxidative functionalization of CNTs and probably other carbon materials as well.

  19. Removal of ammonia from air on molybdenum and tungsten oxide modified activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Camille; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2008-04-15

    Microporous coconut-based activated carbon was impregnated with solutions of ammonium metatungstate or ammonium molybdate and then calcined in air in order to convert the salts into their corresponding oxides. The surface of those materials was characterized using adsorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis. The results indicated a significant increase in surface acidity related to the presence of tungsten or molybdenum oxides. On the materials obtained, adsorption of ammonia from either dry or moist air was carried out. The oxides distributed on the surface provided Lewis and/or Brønsted centers for interactions with ammonia molecules or ammonium ions. Water on the surface of carbon or in the gas phase increased the amount of ammonia adsorbed via involvement of Brønsted-type interactions and/or by leading to the formation of molybdate or tungstate salts on the surface. Although the amount of ammonia adsorbed is closely related to the number of moles of oxides and their acidic centers, the carbon surface also contributes to the adsorption via providing small pores where ammonia can be dissolved in the water film. PMID:18497162

  20. Three-dimensional crisscross porous manganese oxide/carbon composite networks for high performance supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional inter-connected porous networks of manganese oxide/carbon composites were successfully developed. • The powdery composite possesses good conductivity and favorable porosity. • The composite electrode delivers an outstanding specific capacitance of 807 F g−1 at 1 A g−1. - Abstract: Manganese oxide/carbon (MnOx/C) composites have been successfully prepared via a high temperature heat treatment method followed by the electrochemical oxidation. The presence of carbon not only enhances the electronic conductivity of manganese oxides (MnOx), but also provides more active sites for the transformation of manganese monoxide (MnO) during the galvanostatic charge–discharge process. Simultaneity, the interconnected porous structures of MnOx/C samples are believed to provide a continuous channel for the diffusion of electrolyte ion and shorten the diffusion length of ions involved in the charge/discharge cycling processes. Consequently, these advantages endow the MnOx/C electrode a better capacitance performance, a superior long-term cyclic stability and outstanding rate capability compared with pristine MnOx. More importantly, the composites show a fascinating capacitance of 807 F g−1 at 1 A g−1, which is much higher than the reported hydrous RuO2 electrodes. It can be easily speculated that MnOx/C composites will act as a promising electrode materials for designing high-performance supercapacitors

  1. Direct Electrochemical Oxidation of NADPH at a Low Potential on the Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Jing(陈静); CAI, Chen-Xin(蔡称心)

    2004-01-01

    NADPH can be directly oxidized on a carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon (CNT/GC) electrode in phosphate buffer solution (pH=6.0) with a diminution of the overpotential of more than 700 mV. The anodic peak currents increase linearly with the increase of concentration of NADPH in the range of 5×10-7 to 1×10-3 mol/L with a detection limit of about 1×10-7 mol/L. The CNT/GC electrode exhibits high sensitivity, low potential and stability in detecting NADPH and thus might be used in biosensors to study the electrocatalytic reaction of important dehydrogenase-based biological systems.

  2. Investigation of electrodeposited cerium oxide based films on carbon steel and of the induced formation of carbonated green rusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium oxide based films on carbon steel were deposited using a cathodic electrodeposition approach and from relatively concentrated solutions. The effects of the relatively high cerium nitrate concentrations (0.1 and 0.25 M) and of applied current density (0.25 mA cm-2 ≤ j ≤ 3 mA cm-2) on the composition and microstructure of the films were thoroughly investigated with the support of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The results showed that the use of 0.25 M solutions brought about immediate formation of the films compared to the 0.1 M. As the applied current density was increased, the time elapsed for achieving a stabilisation of the potential decreased. Also, the CeO2 crystallite size decreased with increasing applied current density. However, at high cathodic current densities, the crystallite size was similar regardless of the concentration, hence suggesting that the precipitation mechanisms became predominant. CeO2 was the major species deposited on carbon steel. Ce(OH)3 was also well distinguished in the deposits elaborated from 0.25 M solutions. Both concentrations led to the formation of a carbonated green rust in which some carbonates were probably replaced by nitrate anions. The mechanisms of formation of the green rust and its evolution with time are also elucidated in this work

  3. Investigation of electrodeposited cerium oxide based films on carbon steel and of the induced formation of carbonated green rusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlaoui, Y. [Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux en Milieux Agressifs (LEMMA), Pole Sciences et Technologie, Universite de La Rochelle Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle Cedex 1 (France); Pedraza, F. [Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux en Milieux Agressifs (LEMMA), Pole Sciences et Technologie, Universite de La Rochelle Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle Cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: fpedraza@univ-lr.fr; Tifouti, L. [Laboratoire de Genie de l' Environnement, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 1223, 23020 El Hadjar-Annaba (Algeria)

    2008-08-15

    Cerium oxide based films on carbon steel were deposited using a cathodic electrodeposition approach and from relatively concentrated solutions. The effects of the relatively high cerium nitrate concentrations (0.1 and 0.25 M) and of applied current density (0.25 mA cm{sup -2} {<=} j {<=} 3 mA cm{sup -2}) on the composition and microstructure of the films were thoroughly investigated with the support of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The results showed that the use of 0.25 M solutions brought about immediate formation of the films compared to the 0.1 M. As the applied current density was increased, the time elapsed for achieving a stabilisation of the potential decreased. Also, the CeO{sub 2} crystallite size decreased with increasing applied current density. However, at high cathodic current densities, the crystallite size was similar regardless of the concentration, hence suggesting that the precipitation mechanisms became predominant. CeO{sub 2} was the major species deposited on carbon steel. Ce(OH){sub 3} was also well distinguished in the deposits elaborated from 0.25 M solutions. Both concentrations led to the formation of a carbonated green rust in which some carbonates were probably replaced by nitrate anions. The mechanisms of formation of the green rust and its evolution with time are also elucidated in this work.

  4. Application of Moessbauer Spectroscopy to the Carbon Oxides Hydrogenation Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron-based catalysts have favorable activity and selectivity properties for the CO and CO2 hydrogenation reactions. Several Fe phases (oxides and carbides) can be present in these catalysts. The interaction of Fe with the other components of the catalyst (support, promoters) can affect the ease of reduction and also its transformation during the reactions. In this work, the relationship between catalytic behavior in the CO and CO2 hydrogenation reactions and the Fe phase composition of fresh and reacted catalysts was studied. Two types of catalysts were tested: a laterite and the other one made of iron supported on alumina, both unpromoted and promoted with K and Mn. Only those Fe species which can be reduced-carburized, by means of a pretreatment or by an in situ transformation under the reaction, seem to be able to perform the CO or CO2 hydrogenation. The reoxidation of the Fe carbide to magnetite was not associated to deactivation. The selectivity seems to be more affected by Fe species difficult to reduce than by magnetite produced by reoxidation

  5. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituyi, E.; Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O. [University of Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry; Marufu, L.; Andreae, M.O.; Helas, G. [Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2001-09-01

    Emission ratios (ER) of CO and NO relative to CO{sub 2} are reported from real time emission measurements on biofuel fires in Kenya. The experiments were based on available fuels burning in local popular traditional and improved stoves. The mean dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratios were 71, 79 and 74 mmol mol{sup -1} for firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues, respectively, while the corresponding mean dNO/dCO{sub 2} ratios for these fuels, in the same order, were 1.8, 2 and 2.2 mmol mol{sup -1}, respectively. Whereas stove design characteristics largely influenced the dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratios, the fuel nitrogen content was the major factor determining the dNO/dCO{sub 2} ratios. The dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratio for fuel derived NO is not affected by fire temperature but linearly depend on the fuel nitrogen content. Other important fuel parameters that influenced the observed emission ratio patterns include fuel moisture content, size and volatile matter content in the case of charcoal. In comparison to savanna and forest fires, biofuel fires tend to favour formation of reduced or partially oxidized compounds. It is clear that a change in energy preference up the ''energy ladder'' leads to a reduction in the CO ER, and important results for emission mitigation policy design. (author)

  6. Variable carbon isotope fractionation expressed by aerobic CH 4-oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alexis S.; Chu, Kung-Hui; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Conrad, Mark E.

    2006-04-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation factors reported for aerobic bacterial oxidation of CH 4(α) range from 1.003 to 1.039. In a series of experiments designed to monitor changes in the carbon isotopic fractionation of CH 4 by Type I and Type II methanotrophic bacteria, we found that the magnitude of fractionation was largely due to the first oxidation step catalyzed by methane monooxygenase (MMO). The most important factor that modulates the (α) is the fraction of the total CH 4 oxidized per unit time, which strongly correlates to the cell density of the growth cultures under constant flow conditions. At cell densities of less than 0.1 g/L, fractionation factors greater than 1.03 were observed, whereas at cell densities greater than 0.5 g/L the fractionation factors decreased to as low as 1.002. At low cell densities, low concentrations of MMO limit the amount of CH 4 oxidized, while at higher cell densities, the overall rates of CH 4 oxidation increase sufficiently that diffusion of CH 4 from the gaseous to dissolved state and into the cells is likely the rate-determining step. Thus, the residual CH 4 is more fractionated at low cell densities, when only a small fraction of the total CH 4 has been oxidized, than at high cell densities, when up to 40% of the influent CH 4 has been utilized. Therefore, since Rayleigh distillation behavior is not observed, δ 13C values of the residual CH 4 cannot be used to infer the amount oxidized in either laboratory or field-studies. The measured (α) was the same for both Type I and Type II methanotrophs expressing particulate or soluble MMO. However, large differences in the δ 13C values of biomass produced by the two types of methanotrophs were observed. Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (Type II) produced biomass with δ 13C values about 15‰ higher than the dissimilated CO 2, whereas Methylomonas methanica (Type I) produced biomass with δ 13C values only about 6‰ higher than the CO 2. These effects were independent of the

  7. The effect of oxidation on structural and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Zoran M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs represent an important group of nanomaterials with attractive electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties. In this work we have investigated the structural, optical and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube films deposited on copper substrate and then transferred to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA. The properties of deposited films were varied by changing different parameters: substrate temperature, deposition time and electric field strength. Atomic force microscopy (AFM has been used to study the deposition process of SWCNT films on copper substrate. AFM analysis has shown that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS micellas were deposited on copper substrate before carbon nanotubes because of their higher mobility. Raman spectroscopy revealed that SWCNTs deposited at elevated temperatures are oxidized. FTIR results showed that COOH groups and Cu2O were generated during electrophoretic process. The SWCNT films were transferred to PMMA substrate and they achieved a sheet resistance of 360 Ω/sq with 79% transparency at 550 nm wavelength and a strong adhesion to the substrate. The main reasons for higher values of sheet resistances of SWCNT thin films compared to those of other authors are oxidation of carbon nanotubes during electrophoresis and the presence of used surfactans in carbon matrix of deposited films.

  8. TiO2-sludge carbon enhanced catalytic oxidative reaction in environmental wastewaters applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalathil, Sunil; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Stüber, Frank; Bengoa, Christophe; Font, Josep; Fortuny, Agusti; Pintar, Albin; Fabregat, Azael

    2015-12-30

    The enhanced oxidative potential of sludge carbon/TiO2 nano composites (SNCs), applied as heterogeneous catalysts in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), was studied. Fabrification of efficient SNCs using different methods and successful evaluation of their catalytic oxidative activity is reported for the first time. Surface modification processes of hydrothermal deposition, chemical treatment and sol-gel solution resulted in improved catalytic activity and good surface chemistry of the SNCs. The solids obtained after chemical treatment and hydrothermal deposition processes exhibit excellent crystallinity and photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic rate was obtained for the material prepared using hydrothermal deposition technique, compared to other nanocomposites. Further, improved removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous phase by means of catalytic ozonation and catalytic wet air oxidation processes is achieved over the solid synthesized using chemical treatment method. The present results demonstrate that the addition of TiO2 on the surface of sludge carbon (SC) increases catalytic oxidative activity of SNCs. The latter produced from harmful sludge materials can be therefore used as cost-effective and efficient sludge derived catalysts for the removal of hazardous pollutants. PMID:26223014

  9. Hierarchical porous nickel oxide-carbon nanotubes as advanced pseudocapacitor materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Aldwin D.; Zhang, Xiang; Rinaldi, Ali; Nguyen, Son T.; Liu, Huihui; Lei, Zhibin; Lu, Li; Duong, Hai M.

    2013-03-01

    Hierarchical porous carbon anode and metal oxide cathode are promising for supercapacitor with both high energy density and high power density. This Letter uses NiO and commercial carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors with high energy storage capacities. Experimental results show that the specific capacitance of the electrode materials for 10%, 30% and 50% CNTs are 279, 242 and 112 F/g, respectively in an aqueous 1 M KOH electrolyte at a charge rate of 0.56 A/g. The maximum specific capacitance is 328 F/g at a charge rate of 0.33 A/g.

  10. Carbon monoxide oxidation on lithium fluoride supported gold nanoparticles: A significance of F-centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvauri, I. V.; Gergieva, B. E.; Magkoeva, V. D.; Grigorkina, G. S.; Bliev, A. P.; Ashkhotov, O. G.; Sozaev, V. A.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2015-07-01

    Oxidation of carbon monoxide on ultrasmall Au particles supported on LiF film has been studied by means of vibrational and thermal desorption spectroscopy. It is found that the efficiency of this process is dramatically enhanced when Au is deposited on defect LiF film obtained by electron bombardment to produce Fx--centers. Local electronic charge of the Fx- center is a key point determining formation of an (C-O-O*) intermediate on (Au-Fx-) adsorption site as carbon dioxide precursor.

  11. Oxidation of a Single Carbon Monoxide Molecule Manipulated and Induced with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon monoxide molecule (CO) was positioned with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at various distances from an oxygen atom (O) on the Ag(110) surface at 13K. At the closest separation, carbon dioxide (CO2) production was induced by tunneling electrons. Direct reaction of a CO desorbed from the STM tip with an O atom on Ag(110) illustrates another catalytic oxidation mechanism. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with the STM was used to monitor the vibrations of CO in its different environment

  12. Carbon dioxide electrolysis with solid oxide electrolyte cells for oxygen recovery in life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The direct electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) is achieved without catalysts and at sufficiently high temperatures to avoid carbon formation. The tubular electrolysis cell consists of thin layers of anode, electrolyte, cathode and cell interconnection. The electrolyte is made from yttria-stabilized zirconia which is an oxygen ion conductor at elevated temperatures. Anode and cell interconnection materials are complex oxides and are electronic conductors. The cathode material is a composite metal-ceramic structure. Cell performance characteristics have been determined using varying feed gas compositions and degrees of electrochemical decomposition. Cell test data are used to project the performance of a three-person CO2-electrolysis breadboard system.

  13. Effects of Syngas Components on the Carbon Formation in Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    YU Jian-Guo, WANG Yu-Zhang, WENG Shi-Lie

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of syngas as the fuel of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is one of the main ways to use the coal efficiently and cleanly. However, the possibility of carbon formation in Ni/YSZ anode may reduce the performance of SOFC. According to the fully three―dimensional models of chemical/electrochemical, heat/mass transfer and overpotential, the effects of fuel components on the performance and carbon formation of SOFC were obtained. The results shows that the increments o...

  14. Study on the efficiency of ceramic coating for avoiding oxidation in carbon refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ceramic coating made of sodium phosphossilicate and clay was developed to the protection of refractories against carbon oxidation during the pre-heating of siderurgical equipment. This search has the objective of comparing the refractory behaviour with and without coating, according to temperature, time and atmosphere. The results show that the coating is more efficient at higher temperatures. An important point is that the efficiency is smaller after long thermal is that the efficiency is smaller after long thermal treatments and at very aggressive conditions. In spite of this the oxidation is still smaller than in refractory without coating. (author)

  15. Synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and propylene glycol over zinc oxide: A homogeneous reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dengfeng Wang; Xuelan Zhang; Tingting Cheng; Jing Wu; Qijun Xue

    2014-01-01

    In this work, several metal oxides and zinc salts were used to catalyze propylene carbonate (PC) synthesis from urea and propylene glycol (PG). According to the results of catalytic test and characterization, the catalytic pattern of ZnO was different from that of other metal oxides such as CaO, MgO and La2O3, but similar to that of zinc salts. In fact, the leaching of Zn species took place during reaction for ZnO. And ZnO was found to be the precursor of homogenous catalyst for reaction of u...

  16. Reduction of N2O over carbon fibers promoted with transition metal oxides/hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reductions of N2O on oxides/hydroxides of nickel, cobalt or manganese supported on carbon fibers were studied. Supports and catalysts were characterized by low temperature argon sorption, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of surface oxides and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (TPAD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). Conversion of N2O depended on the initial pretreatment of the support, the origin of the effect lying in a different distribution of active material. The differences in distribution influenced also the mobility of surface oxygen. The presence of more labile oxygen resulted in its easier transfer and faster formation of CO2

  17. Single-walled carbon nanotube buckypapers as electrocatalyst supports for methanol oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Sieben, J.M.; Ansón Casaos, Alejandro; Martínez, M.Teresa; E. Morallón

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the use of various single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) buckypapers as catalyst supports for methanol electro-oxidation in acid media. Buckypapers were obtained by vacuum filtration from pristine and oxidized SWCNT suspensions in different liquid media. Pt-Ru catalysts supported on the buckypapers were prepared by multiple potentiostatic pulses using a diluted solution of Pt and Ru salts (2 mM H2PtCl6 + 2 mM RuCl3) in acid media. The resulting materials were characterized v...

  18. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of porous metal oxides nanowires based on carbon nanofiber template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiqiang; Li, Meng; Xu, Jinfu; Bai, Hongye; Zhang, Rongxian; Chen, Chao

    2015-11-01

    A series of porous metal oxides nanowires (Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO and CuO) have been successfully synthesized, where commercial carbon nanofibers were used as the template. The obtained samples were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-Vis DR) spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM). According to the photodegradation data, the porous metal oxides nanowires exhibit significantly photocatalytic activity for degrading tetracycline (TC). Furthermore, the porous Fe2O3 nanowires show the best photocatalytic performance among all the samples.

  19. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, K P; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1–50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 ± 3 and 2204 ± 1 cm−1, which are ascribed to CO adsorbed on copper(II) oxide and on isolated copper(II) ions in the silica surface, respectively. Reduction and reoxidation removed the band at 2204 cm−1...

  20. Nonenzymatic sensing of glucose using a carbon ceramic electrode modified with a composite film made from copper oxide, over oxidized polypyrrole and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon ceramic electrode was modified with a thin film composed of over oxidized polypyrrole, CuO and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The surface morphology, electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose of the modified electrode were studied in detail. Benefiting from the high electrocatalytic activity of CuO, the selectivity of OPpy film, and the fast electron transfer rate promoted by MWCNTs, this modified electrode displays good stability, selectivity, high electrocatalytic activity and a low detection limit for the determination of glucose in pH 13 solution. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the determination of glucose by cyclic voltammetry is from 20 μM to 10 mM, and the detection limit is 4.0 μM (at an SNR of 3). The amperometric calibration plot covers the 0.20 μM to 2.0 mM concentration range, and the detection limit is 50 nM. The highest sensitivity for the determination of glucose is 3922.6 μA mM−1 cm2. (author)

  1. Emissions to air in Sweden: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for calculating emissions to air has been revised, which has led to adjustments. Because of this, emissions in 1999 cannot yet be compared with previous years. Emissions in 1990 - 1998 are being recalculated now using the new method and are expected to be ready during 2001. Emissions to air of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Sweden was 56.58 million tonnes in 1999, not including emissions from biofuels and international bunkers. The major sources of CO2 emissions are the combustion of fossil fuels and the use of fuels for mobile sources. Total emissions to air of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, counted as NO2) in Sweden was 66 000 and 263 000 tonnes respectively in 1999. International bunkers are not included. The major source of SO2 emissions is combustion of fossil fuels. Road traffic is the major source of NOx emissions. Emissions to air of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in 1999 were 253 000, 26 000, 924 000 and 430 000 tonnes respectively, not including international bunkers. Agriculture is the major source of CH4 and N2O emissions. CO mainly derives from road traffic and NMVOC mainly derives from household combustion and road traffic

  2. Polydopamine-graphene oxide derived mesoporous carbon nanosheets for enhanced oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Konggang; Zheng, Yao; Dai, Sheng; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Composite materials combining nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) with active species represent a paramount breakthrough as alternative catalysts to Pt for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to their competitive activity, low cost and excellent stability. In this paper, a simple strategy is presented to construct graphene oxide-polydopamine (GD) based carbon nanosheets. This approach does not need to modify graphene and use any catalyst for polymerization under ambient conditions, and the obtained carbon nanosheets possess adjustable thicknesses and uniform mesoporous structures without using any template. The thickness of GD hybrids and the carbonization temperature are found to play crucial roles in adjusting the microstructure of the resulting carbon nanosheets and, accordingly their ORR catalytic activity. The optimized carbon nanosheet generated by a GD hybrid of 5 nm thickness after 900 °C carbonization exhibits superior ORR activity with an onset potential of -0.07 V and a kinetic current density of 13.7 mA cm-2 at -0.6 V. The unique mesoporous structure, high surface areas, abundant defects and favorable nitrogen species are believed to significantly benefit the ORR catalytic process. Furthermore, it also shows remarkable durability and excellent methanol tolerance outperforming those of commercial Pt/C. In view of the physicochemical versatility and structural tunability of polydopamine (PDA) materials, our work would shed new light on the understanding and further development of PDA-based carbon materials for highly efficient electrocatalysts.Composite materials combining nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) with active species represent a paramount breakthrough as alternative catalysts to Pt for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to their competitive activity, low cost and excellent stability. In this paper, a simple strategy is presented to construct graphene oxide-polydopamine (GD) based carbon nanosheets. This approach does not need to modify graphene and use

  3. Phosphorus mobilization by sulfide oxidation in carbonate sediments from seagrass and unvegetated sites in the US Virgin Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning; Pedersen, Ole; Koch, M. R.;

    sources of nutrients compared to pristine sites. These results, along with those from our earlier studies in Florida Bay, a carbonate seagrass-dominated estuary, highlight the potential importance of P release from acid dissolution of carbonate-bound P pools. Session #:046 Date: 01-29-09 Time: 16:45......PHOSPHORUS MOBILIZATION BY SULFIDE OXIDATION IN CARBONATE SEDIMENTS FROM SEAGRASS AND UNVEGETATED SITES IN THE US VIRGIN ISLANDS Sulfide produced by sulfate reduction (SR) can be oxidized by seagrass root O2 flux in shallow carbonate sediments low in Fe. The sulfuric acid produced from sulfide...

  4. Study of FAC rate of carbon steels based on characterization of oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cr content and environmental factors, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, on removal rate of carbon steels due to flow accelerated corrosion have been examined by experiments. Cr content holds a strong impact on the FAC rate regardless of pH values from 6.84 to 10.4. Addition of 1% Cr to carbon steel reduces the FAC rate by one order of magnitude under the environmental conditions, where magnetite forms. Detailed characterizations of oxide film formed on the specimen have been carried out by using SEM and TEM. Preferential corrosion of pearlite phase has been observed at specimen surface of low Cr content steel in early stage of FAC. It has been suggested that oxide structure and porosity were obviously different between low and high Cr content steels. (author)

  5. A Ni-Fe Layered Double Hydroxide-Carbon Nanotube Complex for Water Oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Ming; Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Wu, Justin Zachary; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Highly active, durable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation to evolve oxygen gas hold a key to a range of renewable energy solutions including water splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report the synthesis of ultrathin nickel iron layered double hydroxide nanoplates on mildly oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Incorporation of Fe into the nickel hydroxide induced the formation of NiFe-layered double hydroxide. The nanoplates were covalently attached to a network of nanotubes, affording excellent electrical wiring to the nanoplates. The ultra-thin Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide nanoplates/carbon nanotube complex was found to exhibit unusually high electro-catalytic activity and stability for oxygen evolution and outperformed commercial precious metal Ir catalysts.

  6. Electrocatalytically Active MOF/Graphite Oxide Hybrid for Electrosynthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Electrochemical oxidative carbonylation of methanol with CO to dimethyl carbonate from heterogeneous electrocatalyst was studied at normal temperature and pressure. For the purpose of decrease the crystalline size and the agglomerative force of metal-organic framework (MOF), this paper first introduced graphite oxide (GO) into MOF/GO hybrid material with enhanced electrocatalytic performance and the stability of electrocatalyst for the dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis. The introduction of GO is important to build the hybrid materials with synergistic properties. The composite materials and its parent materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and the electrochemical property of the samples was measured. The results show that the MOF/GO was active for the electrolytic reaction and could be reused at least five times. A plausible Cu(II)/Cu(I) electrocatalytic cycle mechanism was proposed

  7. Influence of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria on the corrosion of low carbon steel: Local electrochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rebeca; Schütz, Marta K; Libert, Marie; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Low carbon steel has been considered a suitable material for component of the multi-barrier system employed on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). A non negligible amount of dihydrogen (H2) is expected to be produced over the years within the geological repository due to the anoxic corrosion of metallic materials and also to the water radiolysis. The influence of the activity of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) on carbon steel corrosion is considered in this study because of the high availability of energetic nutriments (H2, iron oxides and hydroxides) produced in anoxic disposal conditions. Local electrochemical techniques were used for investigating the activity of IRB as a promoter of local corrosion in the presence of H2 as electron donor. A local consumption of H2 by the bacteria has been evidenced and impedance measurements indicate the formation of a thick layer of corrosion products. PMID:24177135

  8. Electrochemical energy storage devices using electrodes incorporating carbon nanocoils and metal oxides nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-07-28

    Carbon nanocoil (CNC) based electrodes are shown to be promising candidates for electrochemical energy storage applications, provided the CNCs are properly functionalized. In the present study, nanocrystalline metal oxide (RuO 2, MnO2, and SnO2) dispersed CNCs were investigated as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using different electrochemical methods. In the two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with values reaching up to 311, 212, and 134 F/g for RuO2/CNCs, MnO2/CNCs, and SnO2/CNCs, respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be superior to those reported for metal oxide dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two electrode configuration. In addition, the fabricated supercapacitors retained excellent cycle life with ∼88% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 2000 cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. A simple synthesis method to produce metal oxide loaded carbon paper using bacterial cellulose gel and characterization of its electrochemical behavior in an aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Naoya; Jinguji, Ken; Matsumura, Taiyu; Matsubara, Toshihiro; Sakane, Hideto; Akatsu, Takashi; Tanaike, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    A simple synthetic chemical process to produce metal oxide loaded carbon papers was developed using bacterial cellulose gel, which consisted of nanometer-sized fibrous cellulose and water. Metal ions were successfully impregnated into the gel via aqueous solution media before drying and carbonization methods resulting in metal oxide contents that were easy to control through variations in the concentration of aqueous solutions. The papers loaded by molybdenum oxides were characterized as pseudocapacitor electrodes preliminary, and the large redox capacitance of the oxides was followed by a conductive fibrous carbon substrate, suggesting that a binder and carbon black additive-free electrode consisting of metal oxides and carbon paper was formed.

  10. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets doped graphene oxide for electrochemical simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic drawing of electrochemical oxidize AA, DA and UA on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite modified electrode. - Highlights: • Synthesize g-C3N4, GO and CNNS-GO composite. • CNNS-GO composite was the first time for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA. • CNNS-GO/GCE displays fantastic selectivity and sensitivity for AA, DA and UA. • CNNS-GO/GCE was applied to detect real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets with a graphite-like structure have strong covalent bonds between carbon and nitride atoms, and nitrogen atoms in the carbon architecture can accelerate the electron transfer and enhance electrical properties effectually. The graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite was synthesized. And the electrochemical performance of the composite was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry ulteriorly. Due to the synergistic effects of layer-by-layer structures by π-π stacking or charge-transfer interactions, graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite can improved conductivity, electro-catalytic and selective oxidation performance. The proposed graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite modified electrode was employed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid in their mixture solution, it exhibited distinguished sensitivity, wide linear range and low detection limit. Moreover, the modified electrode was applied to detect urine and dopamine injection sample, and then the samples were spiked with certain concentration of three substances with satisfactory recovery results

  11. Electrochemical properties of tin oxide flake/reduced graphene oxide/carbon composite powders as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Min; Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-11-10

    Hierarchically structured tin oxide/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon composite powders are prepared through a one-pot spray pyrolysis process. SnO nanoflakes of several hundred nanometers in diameter and a few nanometers in thickness are uniformly distributed over the micrometer-sized spherical powder particles. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the tin oxide/RGO/carbon composite powders at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1) are 1543 and 1060 mA h g(-1), respectively. The discharge capacity of the tin oxide/RGO/carbon composite powders after 175 cycles is 844 mA h g(-1), and the capacity retention measured from the second cycle is 80%. The transformation during cycling of SnO nanoflakes, uniformly dispersed in the tin oxide/RGO/carbon composite powder, into ultrafine nanocrystals results in hollow nanovoids that act as buffers for the large volume changes that occur during cycling, thereby improving the cycling and rate performances of the tin oxide/RGO/carbon composite powders. PMID:25266199

  12. In situ TEM tensile testing of carbon-linked graphene oxide nanosheets using a MEMS device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changhong; Howe, Jane Y.; Perovic, Doug; Filleter, Tobin; Sun, Yu

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile testing of carbon-linked graphene oxide nanosheets using a monolithic TEM compatible microelectromechanical system device. The set-up allows direct on-chip nanosheet thickness mapping, high resolution electron beam linking of a pre-fractured nanosheet, and mechanical tensile testing of the nanosheet. This technique enables simultaneous mechanical and high energy electron beam characterization of 2D nanomaterials.

  13. Catalytic production of carbon nanotubes over first row transition metal oxides supported on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay-carbon nanotube composites were prepared by employing the catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD) over different transition metal oxides supported on montmorillonite. Various analytical techniques including SEM, TEM, XRD and DTA/TGA were used for the characterization of the final composite materials. The morphology, quality and structure of the produced nanotubes is shown to be dependent on the type of transition metals

  14. Determination of thiourea using a carbon paste electrode decorated with copper oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a novel sensor for the electrochemical determination of thiourea (TU). It is based on an active carbon paste electrode modified with copper oxide nanoparticles. The modified electrode and the electrochemical properties of thiourea on its surface were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit is 20 μg L−1 of TU. The method was applied to the determination of thiourea in fruit juice, orange peel and industrial waste water. (author)

  15. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela; Mohammed Eid M. Ali; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2016-01-01

    The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC). The effects of operating condition on Fento...

  16. Kinetics of wet oxidation of phenol over an Fe/activated carbon catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintanilla, A.; Casas, J.A.; Rodriquez, J.J.; Kreutzer, M.T.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Wet oxidation of phenol over an Fe/activated carbon catalyst has been studied in a trickle-bed reactor in the following operational window: inlet C phenol=0.5 and 1 g/L, T=100-127 ºC, PT=3-8 atm, W=0-4.8 g, QL=0.125-2 mL/min and QO2=91.6 NmL/min. The experiments were carried out in the absence of ma

  17. Global warming and carbon dynamics in permafrost soils: methane production and oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Wagner; Susanne Liebner;  ,

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic plays a key role in the Earths climate system, because global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes, and one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. The degradation of permafrost and the associated intensified release of methane, a climate-relevant trace gas, represent potential environmental hazards. The microorganisms driving methane production and oxidation in Arctic permafrost soils have remained poorly investiga...

  18. Electromechanical Behavior of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Material

    OpenAIRE

    Benchirouf, Abderrahmane; Müller, Christian; Kanoun, Olfa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose strain-sensitive thin films based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without adding any further surfactants. In spite of the insulating properties of the thin-film-based GO due to the presence functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, and carbonyl groups in its atomic structure, a significant enhancement of the film conductivity was reached by chemical reduction with hydro-iodic acid. By optimizing the MWCNT content,...

  19. Electrochromic iridium oxide films: Compatibility with propionic acid, potassium hydroxide, and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous thin films of It oxide were prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering onto unheated substrates. The crystallite size was similar to 5 nm, and a small amount of unoxidized Ir was present. The electrochromic performance was studied by optical transmittance measurements and cyclic voltammetry applied to films in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes, specifically being 1 M propionic acid, 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li-PC). Cyclic v...

  20. Methanol Electro-Oxidation on Pt-Ru Alloy Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Yangchuan Xing; Liang Li

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated in recent years as a catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Improved catalyst activities were observed and attributed to metal-support interactions. We report a study on the kinetics of methanol electro-oxidation on CNT supported Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles. Alloy catalysts with different compositions, Pt 53 Ru 47 /CNT, Pt 69 Ru 31 /CNT and Pt 77 Ru 23 /CNT, were prepared and investigated in detail. Experiments were conducted at ...

  1. Carbon Monoxide Reduces Neuropathic Pain and Spinal Microglial Activation by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hervera, Arnau; Leánez, Sergi; Negrete, Roger; Motterlini, Roberto; Pol, Olga

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized by heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) exerts antinociceptive effects during inflammation but its role during neuropathic pain remains unknown. Our objective is to investigate the exact contribution of CO derived from HO-1 in the modulation of neuropathic pain and the mechanisms implicated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of CO following sciatic nerve injury in wild type (WT) or inducible nitric oxide...

  2. Coupling carbon dioxide reduction with water oxidation in nanoscale photocatalytic assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooyul; McClure, Beth Anne; Edri, Eran; Frei, Heinz

    2016-06-01

    The reduction of carbon dioxide by water with sunlight in an artificial system offers an opportunity for utilizing non-arable land for generating renewable transportation fuels to replace fossil resources. Because of the very large scale required for the impact on fuel consumption, the scalability of artificial photosystems is of key importance. Closing the photosynthetic cycle of carbon dioxide reduction and water oxidation on the nanoscale addresses major barriers for scalability as well as high efficiency, such as resistance losses inherent to ion transport over macroscale distances, loss of charge and other efficiency degrading processes, or excessive need for the balance of system components, to mention a few. For the conversion of carbon dioxide to six-electron or even more highly reduced liquid fuel products, introduction of a proton conducting, gas impermeable separation membrane is critical. This article reviews recent progress in the development of light absorber-catalyst assemblies for the reduction and oxidation half reactions with focus on well defined polynuclear structures, and on novel approaches for optimizing electron transfer among the molecular or nanoparticulate components. Studies by time-resolved optical and infrared spectroscopy for the understanding of charge transfer processes between the chromophore and the catalyst, and of the mechanism of water oxidation at metal oxide nanocatalysts through direct observation of surface reaction intermediates are discussed. All-inorganic polynuclear units for reducing carbon dioxide by water at the nanoscale are introduced, and progress towards core-shell nanotube assemblies for completing the photosynthetic cycle under membrane separation is described. PMID:27121982

  3. Biocatalytic anode for glucose oxidation utilizing carbon nanotubes for direct electron transfer with glucose oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaze, Abhay; Hussain, Nighat; Tang, Chi [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Rusling, James [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06032 (United States); School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Covalently linked layers of glucose oxidase, single-wall carbon nanotubes and poly-L-lysine on pyrolytic graphite resulted in a stable biofuel cell anode featuring direct electron transfer from the enzyme. Catalytic response observed upon addition of glucose was due to electrochemical oxidation of FADH{sub 2} under aerobic conditions. The electrode potential depended on glucose concentration. This system has essential attributes of an anode in a mediator-free biocatalytic fuel cell. (author)

  4. One step hydrothermal synthesis of a carbon nanotube/cerium oxide nanocomposite and its electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalubarme, Ramchandra S.; Kim, Yong-Han; Park, Chan-Jin

    2013-09-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT)/cerium oxide composite was prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal reaction in the presence of KOH and capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone. The nanocomposite displayed pronounced capacitive behaviour with very small diffusion resistance. The electrochemical performance of the composite electrode in a symmetric supercapacitor displayed a high energy density of 35.9 Wh kg-1 corresponding to a specific capacitance of 289 F g-1. These composite electrodes also demonstrated a long cycle life with better capacity retention.

  5. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM) affects public health, visibility, climate, and influences ecosystem productivity and species diversity. Diesel engines are an important source of air pollution and will face a variety of new regulations, so emissions from these vehicles are expected to undergo changes over the next decade that will have important effects on primary PM emissions, especially black carbon (BC) emissions, as well as nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and therefore secondary pollutants su...

  6. The influence of carbon material properties on the efficiency of catalytic wet peroxide oxidation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Helder; R. Ribeiro; Silva, Adrián; Figueiredo, José; Faria, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Carbon materiais are well known catalysts for activatin§ H^O^ into hydroxyl radicais (HO'), which are efficient oxidizin § agents. By making use of highly reactive HO" radicais, the elimination of organic compounds can be accomplished by catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO), a water treatment technology operating under mild conditions of pressure and temperature that hás gained importance due to the decreasing cost of H;0; and its increasing use in wastewater treatm...

  7. Luminescence Properties of Nanostructure ZnO-Covered Carbon Fibers Prepared by Thermal Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jun; WANG Sen; TAO Peng; HUA Wei; XU Jin-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We report on ZnO nanosheets and nanorods synthesized by thermal oxidation of zinc films deposited on carbon fiber surfaces. The structure and optical properties are characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectrum. An orange-red emission around 683 nm is found in the PL spectrum when the sample prepars at 400℃ for four hours in air. With annealing temperature increasing from 400℃ to 500℃, the blue shift is observed.

  8. Evaluating the Catalytic Effects of Carbon Materials on the Photocatalytic Reduction and Oxidation Reactions of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO2 composites with seven different carbon materials (activated carbons, graphite, carbon fibers, single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene oxides, and reduced graphene oxides) that are virgin or treated with nitric acid are prepared through an evaporation method. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples are evaluated in terms of H2 production from aqueous methanol solution (photo-catalytic reduction: PCR) and degradation of aqueous pollutants (phenol, methylene blue, and rhodamine B) (photocatalytic oxidation: PCO) under AM 1.5-light irradiation. Despite varying effects depending on the kinds of carbon materials and their surface treatment, composites typically show enhanced PCR activity with maximum 50 times higher H2 production as compared to bare TiO2. Conversely, the carbon-induced synergy effects on PCO activities are insignificant for all three substrates. Colorimetric quantification of hydroxyl radicals supports the absence of carbon effects. However, platinum deposition on the binary composites displays the enhanced effect on both PCR and PCO reactions. These differing effects of carbon materials on PCR and PCO reactions of TiO2 are discussed in terms of physicochemical properties of carbon materials, coupling states of TiO2/carbon composites, interfacial charge transfers. Various surface characterizations of composites (UV-Vis diffuse reflectance, SEM, FTIR, surface area, electrical conductivity, and photoluminescence) are performed to gain insight on their photocatalytic redox behaviors

  9. The effect of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. as manganese oxidizing bacterium on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated the role of manganese oxidizing bacterium (MOB), namely Pseudoxanthomonas sp. on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. This bacterium was isolated from sewage treatment plants and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. The electrochemical techniques such as open circuit potentiometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic and cyclic polarization were used to measure the corrosion rate and observe the corrosion mechanism. Also, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies were applied to surface analysis. This study revealed the strong adhesion of the biofilm on the metal surface in the presence of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. that enhanced the corrosion of carbon steel. X-ray diffraction patterns identified a high content of MnO2 deposition within these biofilms. This is the first report that discloses the involvement of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. as manganese oxidizing bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel. - Highlights: ► A new type of manganese oxidizing bacteria, namely Pseudoxanthomonas sp. was indicated. ► This bacterium can create a biofilm on the part of metal surface and affect localized corrosion. ► In the presence of biofilm, the diffusion of oxygen vacancies and manganese ions has occurred.

  10. Hydrothermally Oxidized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks for High Volumetric Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyuan; Davijani, Amir A Bakhtiary; Sun, Jingying; Chen, Shuo; Kumar, Satish; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-07-01

    Improving volumetric energy density is one of the major challenges in nanostructured carbon electrodes for electrochemical energy storage device applications. Herein, a simple hydrothermal oxidation process of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks in dilute nitric acid is reported, enabling simultaneous physical densification and chemical functionalization of the as-assembled randomly-packed SWNT films. After the hydrothermal oxidation process, the density of the SWNT films increases from 0.63 to 1.02 g cm(-3) and a considerable amount of redox-active oxygen functional groups are introduced on the surface of the SWNTs. The functionalized SWNT films are used as positive electrodes against Li metal negative electrodes for potential Li-ion capacitors or Li-ion battery applications. The functionalized SWNT electrodes deliver high volumetric as well as gravimetric capacities, 154 Ah L(-1) and 152 mAh g(-1) , respectively, owing to the surface redox reactions between the introduced oxygen functional groups and Li ions. In addition, these electrodes exhibit a remarkable rate-capability by retaining its high capacity of 94 Ah L(-1) (92 mAh g(-1) ) at a high discharge rate of 10 A g(-1) . These results demonstrate the simple hydrothermal oxidation process as an attractive strategy for improving the volumetric performance of nanostructured carbon electrodes. PMID:27200509

  11. How surface reparation prevents catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on atomic gold at defective magnesium oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpfer, Kai; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-07-21

    In this contribution, we study using first principles the co-adsorption and catalytic behaviors of CO and O2 on a single gold atom deposited at defective magnesium oxide surfaces. Using cluster models and point charge embedding within a density functional theory framework, we simulate the CO oxidation reaction for Au1 on differently charged oxygen vacancies of MgO(001) to rationalize its experimentally observed lack of catalytic activity. Our results show that: (1) co-adsorption is weakly supported at F(0) and F(2+) defects but not at F(1+) sites, (2) electron redistribution from the F(0) vacancy via the Au1 cluster to the adsorbed molecular oxygen weakens the O2 bond, as required for a sustainable catalytic cycle, (3) a metastable carbonate intermediate can form on defects of the F(0) type, (4) only a small activation barrier exists for the highly favorable dissociation of CO2 from F(0), and (5) the moderate adsorption energy of the gold atom on the F(0) defect cannot prevent insertion of molecular oxygen inside the defect. Due to the lack of protection of the color centers, the surface becomes invariably repaired by the surrounding oxygen and the catalytic cycle is irreversibly broken in the first oxidation step. PMID:27345190

  12. Effect of photochemically oxidized carbon nanotubes on the deposition of platinum nanoparticles for fuel cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, In Young; Lee, Sun Hyung; Park, Ki Chul; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Teshima, Katsuya [Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Kim, Chan [Department of Oral Biochemistry, Collage of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea); Oishi, Shuji; Endo, Morinobu [Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Kim, Yong Jung [Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The applicability of photochemically oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to support materials for fuel cell catalysts has been examined in comparison with the MWCNTs treated and untreated by nitric acid. The photochemical oxidation of MWCNTs under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, {lambda} = 172 nm) irradiation introduces oxygen functional groups onto the surface of the nanotubes with generating new defects on their structure. The VUV-induced photochemical oxidation more preferentially introduces carbonyl and carboxyl groups, compared with nitric acid oxidation. The deposition manner of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles from their precursor ions (PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}) is positively correlated with the proportion of surface oxygen groups. This implies that the anchoring sites for the PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} are not the {pi} electron regions of the basal plane but the surface oxygen groups. For the electrochemical evaluation of Pt-deposited MWCNT catalysts, the photochemically oxidized MWCNTs have enhanced the active surface area and the performance of methanol oxidation, which is due to the high dispersion and dense deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the oxygen groups-rich surface. (author)

  13. Influence of size and oxidative treatments of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on their electrocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of chemical oxidation on the electrochemical behavior against hydrogen peroxide of long and short multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been investigated. Different degrees of oxidation with a sulfo-nitric mixture and with nitric acid were used and a complete physical and oxygen functional group characterization was performed by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), acid group titration, transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM/SEM), elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption isotherms and cyclic voltammetry. The results revealed that electrodes modified using pristine short CNT (s-NC) present higher amperometric response against hydrogen peroxide than that obtained using long CNT (l-NC), which correlates with the greater degree of packing observed for l-NC by SEM and the long and thin structures observed in s-NC. On the other hand, the chemical oxidation process increases slightly the sensitivity of resulting electrodes, in about 25%, for both s-NC and l-NC indicating that for hydrogen peroxide oxidation the metal catalyst impurities, that are removed in the oxidation process, are not as relevant in the electrocatalysis as the increase in the capacitance values observed in the oxidized CNTs. The presence of oxygen groups introduces (a) new sites for redox reaction (pseudocapacitance) and (b) strong polar sites that would adsorb water molecules favoring double-layer formation (double-layer capacitance).

  14. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  15. Physical and chemical study of the influence of oxidation on the structure of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study of the influence of an oxidising attack on carbon black particles by using chemical, physical and electrochemical methods to highlight the oxidation process. The carbon black particle is a spherical set essentially made of amorphous and crystalline carbon. It appears that the oxidising attack mainly occurs against the amorphous parts which surround the crystallites. If the attack is strong enough, crystallites are freed and the particle collapses. This process has been observed by using electronic microscopy, X rays, the BET nitrogen absorption method, and infra-reds. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and quinone functional groups on the oxidised particle surface. These groups have been dosed by different methods (methylation, calcium acetate dosing, polarography and potassium borohydride reduction)

  16. Influence of oxidation process on the adsorption capacity of activated carbons from lignocellulosic precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, P.A.M.; Laginhas, C.; Custodio, F.; Nabais, J.M.V.; Carrott, P.J.M.; Carrott, M.M.L. Ribeiro [Evora Univ. (Portugal). Centro de Quimica de Evora

    2011-02-15

    A set of activated carbon materials non-oxidised and oxidised, were successfully prepared from two different lignocellulosic precursors, almond shell and vine shoot, by physical activation with carbon dioxide and posterior oxidation with nitric acid. All samples were characterised in relation to their structural properties and chemical composition, by different techniques, namely nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, elemental analysis (C, H, N, O and S), point of zero charge (PZC) and FTIR. A judicious choice was made to obtain carbon materials with similar structural properties (apparent BET surface area {proportional_to} 850-950 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}, micropore volume {proportional_to} 0.4 cm{sup 3}g{sup -1}, mean pore width {proportional_to} 1.2 nm and external surface area {proportional_to} 14-26 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}). After their characterisation, these microporous activated carbons were also tested for the adsorption of phenolic compounds (p-nitrophenol and phenol) in the liquid phase at room temperature. The performance in liquid phase was correlated with their structural and chemical properties. The oxidation had a major impact at a chemical level but only a moderate modification of the porous structure of the samples. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations were applied to the experimental adsorption isotherms of phenolic compounds with good agreement for the different estimated parameters. (author)

  17. Improved quantification of microbial CH4 oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils using carbon isotope fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Preuss

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost-affected tundra soils are significant sources of the climate-relevant trace gas methane (CH4. The observed accelerated warming of the arctic will cause deeper permafrost thawing, followed by increased carbon mineralization and CH4 formation in water-saturated tundra soils, thus creating a positive feedback to climate change. Aerobic CH4 oxidation is regarded as the key process reducing CH4 emissions from wetlands, but quantification of turnover rates has remained difficult so far. The application of carbon stable isotope fractionation enables the in situ quantification of CH4 oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils. The aim of the current study is to quantify CH4 oxidation efficiency in permafrost-affected tundra soils in Russia's Lena River delta based on stable isotope signatures of CH4. Therefore, depth profiles of CH4 concentrations and δ13CH4 signatures were measured and the fractionation factors for the processes of oxidation (αox and diffusion (αdiff were determined. Most previous studies employing stable isotope fractionation for the quantification of CH4 oxidation in soils of other habitats (such as landfill cover soils have assumed a gas transport dominated by advection (αtrans = 1. In tundra soils, however, diffusion is the main gas transport mechanism and diffusive stable isotope fractionation should be considered alongside oxidative fractionation. For the first time, the stable isotope fractionation of CH4 diffusion through water-saturated soils was determined with an αdiff = 1.001 ± 0.000 (n = 3. CH4 stable isotope fractionation during diffusion through air-filled pores of the investigated polygonal tundra soils was αdiff = 1.013 ± 0.003 (n = 18. Furthermore, it was found that αox differs widely between sites and horizons (mean αox = 1.017 ± 0.009 and needs to be determined on a case by case basis. The impact of both fractionation factors on the quantification of CH4 oxidation was analyzed by

  18. Pathways of Organic-Carbon Oxidation in 3 Continental-Margin Sediments Rid A-8010-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CANFIELD, DE; JØRGENSEN, BB; FOSSING, H.;

    1993-01-01

    We have combined several different methodologies to quantify rates of organic carbon mineralization by the various electron acceptors in sediments from the coast of Denmark and Norway. Rates of NH4+ and SIGMACO2 liberation in sediment incubations were used with O2 penetration depths to conclude...... that O2 respiration accounted for only between 3.6-17.4% of the total organic carbon oxidation. Dentrification was limited to a narrow zone just below the depth of O2 penetration, and was not a major carbon oxidation pathway. The processes of Fe reduction, Mn reduction and sulfate reduction dominated...... organic carbon mineralization, but their relative significance varied depending on the sediment. Where high concentrations of Mn-oxide were found (3-4 wt% Mn), only Mn reduction occurred. With lower Mn oxide concentrations more typical of coastal sediments, Fe reduction and sulfate reduction were most...

  19. Potential impact of microbial activity on the oxidant capacity and organic carbon budget in clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaïtilingom, Mickael; Deguillaume, Laurent; Vinatier, Virginie; Sancelme, Martine; Amato, Pierre; Chaumerliac, Nadine; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Within cloud water, microorganisms are metabolically active and, thus, are expected to contribute to the atmospheric chemistry. This article investigates the interactions between microorganisms and the reactive oxygenated species that are present in cloud water because these chemical compounds drive the oxidant capacity of the cloud system. Real cloud water samples with contrasting features (marine, continental, and urban) were taken from the puy de Dôme mountain (France). The samples exhibited a high microbial biodiversity and complex chemical composition. The media were incubated in the dark and subjected to UV radiation in specifically designed photo-bioreactors. The concentrations of H(2)O(2), organic compounds, and the ATP/ADP ratio were monitored during the incubation period. The microorganisms remained metabolically active in the presence of ()OH radicals that were photo-produced from H(2)O(2). This oxidant and major carbon compounds (formaldehyde and carboxylic acids) were biodegraded by the endogenous microflora. This work suggests that microorganisms could play a double role in atmospheric chemistry; first, they could directly metabolize organic carbon species, and second, they could reduce the available source of radicals through their oxidative metabolism. Consequently, molecules such as H(2)O(2) would no longer be available for photochemical or other chemical reactions, which would decrease the cloud oxidant capacity. PMID:23263871

  20. Catalytic oxidation of albendazole using molybdenum supported on carbon nanotubes as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic oxidation reaction of the thioether group (-S-) in the structure to the drug albendazole (C12H15N3O2S) was studied in order to obtain a pharmacologically active molecule known as albendazole sulfoxide. With this purpose, three heterogeneous catalysts were prepared using molybdenum (Mo) as active phase and carbon nanotubes as a multiple-layer catalyst support. The incorporation of the active phase was performed by wet impregnation, with subsequent calcination for 4 hours at 400 oC. For the catalytic oxidation reaction was employed hydrogen peroxide-urea (H2NCONH2·H2O2) as oxidizing agent and methanol (CH3OH) as reaction medium. The textural and morphology characterization of carbon nanoparticles and catalysts was carried out by adsorption-desorption of N2 (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The identification and quantification of the reaction products were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. With the yield, selectivity and conversion higher than 90% after 60 minutes of reaction, albendazole sulphoxide was obtained as major product of oxidation reaction. (author)

  1. Manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod anodes for high capacity lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhengyang; Xu, Lin; Yan, Mengyu; Han, Chunhua; He, Liang; Hercule, Kalele Mulonda; Niu, Chaojiang; Yuan, Zefan; Xu, Wangwang; Qu, Longbing; Zhao, Kangning; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-01-14

    Transition metal oxides have attracted much interest for their high energy density in lithium batteries. However, the fast capacity fading and the low power density still limit their practical implementation. In order to overcome these challenges, one-dimensional yolk-shell nanorods have been successfully constructed using manganese oxide as an example through a facile two-step sol-gel coating method. Dopamine and tetraethoxysilane are used as precursors to obtain uniform polymer coating and silica layer followed by converting into carbon shell and hollow space, respectively. As anode material for lithium batteries, the manganese oxide/carbon yolk-shell nanorod electrode has a reversible capacity of 660 mAh/g for initial cycle at 100 mA/g and exhibits excellent cyclability with a capacity of 634 mAh/g after 900 cycles at a current density of 500 mA/g. An enhanced capacity is observed during the long-term cycling process, which may be attributed to the structural integrity, the stability of solid electrolyte interphase layer, and the electrochemical actuation of the yolk-shell nanorod structure. The results demonstrate that the manganese oxide is well utilized with the one-dimensional yolk-shell structure, which represents an efficient way to realize excellent performance for practical applications. PMID:25490409

  2. Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Codoped Hierarchically Porous Carbon for Adsorptive and Oxidative Removal of Pharmaceutical Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenjie; Zhang, Huayang; Duan, Xiaoguang; Sun, Hongqi; Tade, Moses O; Ang, Ha Ming; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-03-23

    Heteroatom (nitrogen and sulfur)-codoped porous carbons (N-S-PCs) with high surface areas and hierarchically porous structures were successfully synthesized via direct pyrolysis of a mixture of glucose, sodium bicarbonate, and thiourea. The resulting N-S-PCs exhibit excellent adsorption abilities and are highly efficient for potassium persulfate activation when employed as catalysts for the oxidative degradation of sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) solutions. The adsorption capacities of N-S-PC-2 (which contains 4.51 atom % nitrogen and 0.22 atom % sulfur and exhibits SBET of 1608 m(2) g(-1)) are 73, 7, and 3 times higher than those of graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and commercial single-walled carbon nanotube, respectively. For oxidation, the reaction rate constant of N-S-PC-2 is 0.28 min(-1). This approach not only contributes to the large-scale production and application of high-quality catalysts in water remediation but also provides an innovative strategy for the production of heteroatom-doped PCs for energy applications. PMID:26937827

  3. The influence of Cr and Al pack cementation on low carbon steel to improve oxidation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik; Sugiarti, Eni; Destyorini, Fredina; Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Pack chromizing and aluminizing has been widely used for many years to improve hot temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance of metals. The coating process involves packing the steel in a powder mixture which contain aluminum and chromium source, and inert filler (usually alumina), and halide activator NH4Cl. Al and Cr were deposited onto carbon steel by pack cementation process using elemental Al and Cr powder as Al and Cr source, whereas NiCo alloys codeposited by electrodeposition. The position of Al and Cr could be under or over Ni-Co alloys deposited. Pack cementation was heated on dry inert gas at temperature 800 °C about 5 hours and 20 minute for Cr and Al respectively. Al and Cr was successfully deposited. Laying down effect of Al and Cr onto carbon steel whether up and down toward NiCo alloys coating have affected to oxidation resistance. The pack aluminizing as top layer given best resitance to restrain excessive oxide scale, in contrast pack chromizing reveal bad oxidation resistance, moreover occured spallation on layer.

  4. Inkjet printed ambipolar transistors and inverters based on carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Dodabalapur, Ananth, E-mail: ananth.dodabalapur@engr.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Geier, Michael L.; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We report ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of inkjet printed semiconductor bilayer heterostructures utilizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO). The bilayer structure allows for electron transport to occur principally in the amorphous oxide layer and hole transport to occur exclusively in the SWCNT layer. This results in balanced electron and hole mobilities exceeding 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at low operating voltages (<5 V) in air. We further show that the SWCNT-ZTO hybrid ambipolar FETs can be integrated into functional inverter circuits that display high peak gain (>10). This work provides a pathway for realizing solution processable, inkjet printable, large area electronic devices, and systems based on SWCNT-amorphous oxide heterostructures.

  5. Contribution to the study of the influence of porosity on carbon oxidation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first part, this research thesis presents and described experiments of carbon oxidation which comprised the measurement of combustion rate in function of the BET surface of new types of graphite samples, and measurements of other kinetic quantities (reaction rate, Arrhenius activation energy, concentration of various gaseous oxides in reaction products). The second part reports a theoretical and experimental study of the possibility of limitation of the reaction rate, by using the slowness of oxygen diffusion within graphite pores. Results are related to the Thiele-Wheeler theory on chemical reactions in catalyst pores. The third part presents and discusses suggested solutions to replace this 'porosity hypothesis', and to explain why oxidation rate is almost never proportional to the BET surface all along the combustion process of a same graphite sample

  6. Mechanochemically Activated, Calcium Oxide-Based, Magnesium Oxide-Stabilized Carbon Dioxide Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlov, Alexey; Broda, Marcin; Hosseini, Davood; Mitchell, Sharon J; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Müller, Christoph R

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a promising approach to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions and mitigate climate change. However, the costs associated with the capture of CO2 using the currently available technology, that is, amine scrubbing, are considered prohibitive. In this context, the so-called calcium looping process, which relies on the reversible carbonation of CaO, is an attractive alternative. The main disadvantage of naturally occurring CaO-based CO2 sorbents, such as limestone, is their rapid deactivation caused by thermal sintering. Here, we report a scalable route based on wet mechanochemical activation to prepare MgO-stabilized, CaO-based CO2 sorbents. We optimized the synthesis conditions through a fundamental understanding of the underlying stabilization mechanism, and the quantity of MgO required to stabilize CaO could be reduced to as little as 15 wt %. This allowed the preparation of CO2 sorbents that exceed the CO2 uptake of the reference limestone by 200 %. PMID:27529608

  7. Carbon nanofiber mesoporous films: efficient platforms for bio-hydrogen oxidation in biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Poulpiquet, Anne; Marques-Knopf, Helena; Wernert, Véronique; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie Thérèse; Gadiou, Roger; Lojou, Elisabeth

    2014-01-28

    The discovery of oxygen and carbon monoxide tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases was the first necessary step toward the definition of a novel generation of hydrogen fed biofuel cells. The next important milestone is now to identify and overcome bottlenecks limiting the current densities, hence the power densities. In the present work we report for the first time a comprehensive study of herringbone carbon nanofiber mesoporous films as platforms for enhanced biooxidation of hydrogen. The 3D network allows mediatorless hydrogen oxidation by the membrane-bound hydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. We investigate the key physico-chemical parameters that enhance the catalytic efficiency, including surface chemistry and hierarchical porosity of the biohybrid film. We also emphasize that the catalytic current is limited by mass transport inside the mesoporous carbon nanofiber film. Provided hydrogen is supplied inside the carbon film, the combination of the hierarchical porosity of the carbon nanofiber film with the hydrophobicity of the treated carbon material results in very high efficiency of the bioelectrode. By optimization of the whole procedure, current densities as high as 4.5 mA cm(-2) are reached with a turnover frequency of 48 s(-1). This current density is almost 100 times higher than when hydrogenase is simply adsorbed at a bare graphite electrode, and more than 5 times higher than the average of the previous reported current densities at carbon nanotube modified electrodes, suggesting that carbon nanofibers can be efficiently used in future sustainable H2/O2 biofuel cells. PMID:24296569

  8. Carbon-layer-protected cuprous oxide nanowire arrays for efficient water reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-02-26

    In this work, we propose a solution-based carbon precursor coating and subsequent carbonization strategy to form a thin protective carbon layer on unstable semiconductor nanostructures as a solution to the commonly occurring photocorrosion problem of many semiconductors. A proof-of-concept is provided by using glucose as the carbon precursor to form a protective carbon coating onto cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowire arrays which were synthesized from copper mesh. The carbon-layer-protected Cu2O nanowire arrays exhibited remarkably improved photostability as well as considerably enhanced photocurrent density. The Cu2O nanowire arrays coated with a carbon layer of 20 nm thickness were found to give an optimal water splitting performance, producing a photocurrent density of -3.95 mA cm-2 and an optimal photocathode efficiency of 0.56% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2). This is the highest value ever reported for a Cu 2O-based electrode coated with a metal/co-catalyst-free protective layer. The photostability, measured as the percentage of the photocurrent density at the end of 20 min measurement period relative to that at the beginning of the measurement, improved from 12.6% on the bare, nonprotected Cu2O nanowire arrays to 80.7% on the continuous carbon coating protected ones, more than a 6-fold increase. We believe that the facile strategy presented in this work is a general approach that can address the stability issue of many nonstable photoelectrodes and thus has the potential to make a meaningful contribution in the general field of energy conversion. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Purifications of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, AMoRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is going to use calcium molybdate crystals to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo isotope. In order to make the crystal, we use calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders as raw materials. Therefore it is highly necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th in the powders. In this talk, we will present our studies for purification of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders

  10. The efficiency of magnetic carbon activated by iron oxide nanoparticles in removing of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Salehe Salehnia; Behnam Barikbin; Hadighe Dorri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Copper ions, due to forming complexes with organic and mineral compounds, can have worrying effects on health and environment. In the present study, the effect of powdered magnetic carbon activated by iron-oxide nanoparticles in removing of CU (V; II) from aqueous solutions was assessed. Materials and Methods: This experimental study aimed at determining the effect of powdered magnetic carbon activated  by iron-oxide nanoparticles  parameters including PH, co...

  11. Persistent cyclestability of carbon coated Zn–Sn metal oxide/carbon microspheres as highly reversible anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of high-capacity anode materials equipped with strong cyclestability is a great challenge for use as practical electrode for high-performance lithium-ion rechargeable battery. In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Zn–Sn metal nanocomposite oxide and carbon spheres (ZTO@C/CSs) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. The carbon coated ZTO/carbon microspheres composite maintained a reversible capacity of 680 mAh g−1 after 345 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1, and furthermore the cell based on the composite exhibited an excellent rate capability of 470 mAh g−1 even when the cell was cycled at 2000 mA g–1. The thick carbon layer formed on the ZTO nanoparticles and carbon spheres effectively buffered the volumetric change of the particles, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the electrodes

  12. Fabrication and oxidation resistance of titanium carbide-coated carbon fibres by reacting titanium hydride with carbon fibres in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using carbon fibres and titanium hydride as a reactive carbon source and a metal source, respectively, a protective titanium carbide (TiC) coating was formed on carbon fibres in molten salts, composed of LiCl-KCl-KF, at 750-950 oC. The structure and morphology of the TiC coatings were characterised by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The oxidation resistance of the TiC-coated carbon fibres was measured by thermogravimetric analysis. The results reveal that control of the coating thickness is very important for improvement of the oxidation resistance of TiC-coated carbon fibres. The oxidative weight loss initiation temperature for the TiC-coated carbon fibres increases significantly when an appropriate coating thickness is used. However, thicker coatings lead to a decrease of the carbon fibres' weight loss initiation temperature due to the formation of cracks in the coating. The TiC coating thickness on carbon fibres can be controlled by adjusting the reaction temperature and time of the molten salt synthesis.

  13. The effect of surface oxides on multi-walled carbon nanotube aqueous colloidal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Billy

    Carbonaceous nanomaterials are being produced and integrated into consumer products and specialized applications at an accelerating rate. Recently, however, concerns have increased about the environmental, health and safety risks of these nanomaterials, particularly those chemically functionalized to enhance their aqueous colloidal stability and biocompatibility. In this dissertation research, I have investigated the role that surface-oxide concentration plays in the aqueous colloidal stability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), a prominent class of engineered nanomaterials. To vary the concentration of surface oxides on the MWCNTs' surface, pristine (unmodified) tubes were treated with a wet-chemical oxidant (e.g., HNO3, H2SO4 /HNO3, KMnO4); the concentration of surface oxides imparted was measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In conjunction with XPS, previously developed chemical derivatization techniques were used to determine the distribution of hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl functional groups present on the MWCNTs' surface. The length distribution and structural integrity of pristine and oxidized MWCNTs were characterized using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. To examine the aqueous colloidal stability and aggregation properties of oxidized MWCNTs, sedimentation and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) experiments were conducted on neat (i.e., ideal) suspensions prepared by prolonged sonication of MWCNTs in Milli-Q water. Over a range of environmentally relevant pH values (4--9) and electrolyte (NaCL, CaCl2) concentrations (0.001--1.000 M), the aggregation and colloidal properties of MWCNTs were found to agree with the basic tenants of DLVO theory, in that ( i) more highly oxidized, negatively charged MWCNTs remained stable over a wider range of solution conditions than lowly oxidized tubes, ( ii) oxidized MWCNTs adhered to the empirical Schulze-Hardy rule, and (iii) in early

  14. Functionalized Carbon Nanomaterial Supported Palladium Nano-Catalysts for Electrocatalytic Glucose Oxidation Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Glucose oxidation reaction (GOR) catalyzed by Pd on carbon nano-supports. • Polyol reduction used for nano-size Pd catalyst synthesis. • Effect of carbon support’s functionality on nano-Pd GOR catalysis disclosed. • Carboxylated MWCNT found to be the best carbon nano-support. • Peak current density of 5.5 mA cm−2 attained for alkaline GOR. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles (nPd) are grown on six carbon nanomaterials with different functionalities by one-pot, high-pH polyol reduction of PdCl2. The nanomaterials include pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (pMWCNT), carboxylated MWCNT (cMWCNT), amine-modified MWCNT (nMWCNT), hydroxyl-modified MWCNT (oMWCNT), XC72 carbon black (XC72), and carboxylated graphene (cGraphene). The effects of the carbon functionality on Pd-catalyzed glucose oxidation reaction (GOR) in an alkaline medium are studied. From the experimental data of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it reveals that nPds with a particle size ranging from 4.5 nm to 7.4 nm are grown on carbon nanomaterials with a weight loading percentage from 11.1% to 18.6%. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), Tafel analysis, and chronoamperomtry (CA) are used to compare the electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), GOR onset potential, GOR peak current density, Tafel slope, poisoning rate, and cycling stability between the six nPd/C electrocatalysts for GOR. It is found that nPd grown on a functionalized carbon nano-support had better GOR performance than that grown on pMWCNT. Compared to nPd/pMWCNT, nPd/cMWCNT shows a 6.2-fold higher peak current density (5.6 mA cm−2) and a 100 mV lower over-potential (-0.55 V vs. Hg/HgO) for GOR. Besides, the data are among the best for nPd-catalyzed GOR reported to date

  15. Effect of carbon oxide and carbon dioxide atmosphere on ther rate of yttrium oxalate thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of yttrium oxalate thermal decomposition in carbon monoxide and dioxide atmosphere is studied. It is shown that yttrium oxalate pyrolysis proceeds in two stages and each stage is characterized by a certain rate and activation energy. The rate constant of the first stage of the process has higher values for CO atmosphere than for CO2 atmosphere in the whole range of investigated temperatures (400-1000 deg C). But the difference is not considerable and, thus, the effect of atmosphere composition on the rate of the first stage of the process is insignificant. Carbon dioxide atmosphere slows down the second stage of the process and increases the total time required for yttrium oxalate complete decomposition. However, the composition of the atmosphere does not affect the activation energy of the both stages of the process. The activation energy of the first stage equals 18.2 kJ/mol, and that of the second stage - 33.3 kJ/mol

  16. Improved quantification of microbial CH4 oxidation efficiency in Arctic wetland soils using carbon isotope fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-M. Pfeiffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost-affected tundra soils are significant sources of the climate-relevant trace gas methane (CH4. The observed accelerated warming of the Arctic will cause a deeper permafrost thawing followed by increased carbon mineralization and CH4 formation in water saturated tundra soils which might cause a positive feedback to climate change. Aerobic CH4 oxidation is regarded as the key process reducing CH4 emissions from wetlands, but quantification of turnover rates has remained difficult so far. The application of carbon stable isotope fractionation enables the in situ quantification of CH4 oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils. The aim of the current study is to quantify CH4 oxidation efficiency in permafrost-affected tundra soils in Russia's Lena River Delta based on stable isotope signatures of CH4. Therefore, depth profiles of CH4 concentrations and δ13CH4-signatures were measured and the fractionation factors for the processes of oxidation (αox and diffusion (αdiff were determined. Most previous studies employing stable isotope fractionation for the quantification of CH4 oxidation in soils of other habitats (e.g. landfill cover soils have assumed a gas transport dominated by advection (αtrans = 1. In tundra soils, however, diffusion is the main gas transport mechanism, aside from ebullition. Hence, diffusive stable isotope fractionation has to be considered. For the first time, the stable isotope fractionation of CH4 diffusion through water-saturated soils was determined with an αdiff = 1.001 ± 0.000 (n = 3. CH4 stable isotope fractionation during diffusion through air-filled pores of the investigated polygonal tundra soils was αdiff = 1.013 ± 0.003 (n = 18. Furthermore, it was found that αox differs widely between sites and horizons (mean αox, = 1.017 ± 0.009 and needs to be determined individually. The impact of both fractionation factors on the quantification of CH4 oxidation was analyzed by considering both the

  17. A rational design approach to nanostructured catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacki, Christopher

    The extraordinary energetic properties of subnanometer (model for the nanosciences, where molecular species are synthesized, scaled, and engineered into functional materials. Gold nanoparticles as isolated structures are not useful as real catalysts and must co-exist with supports that provide enhanced stability and activity. Support oxides such as TiO2, Fe2O 3, CeO2, SiO2, Al2O3, ZrO 2, and graphitic (active) carbons have been shown to increase the active nature of AuNP and have been the subject of several thousand publications in the past decade. Zirconia compared to titania as a support for Au NP catalysis has been studied with limited success. In fact, the majority of observations show that zirconia is one of the lowest performing metal oxide supports involving Au NP oxidation catalysis. The likely reason for these observations is a lack of understanding of the relationship between structure and surface functionality as it pertains to ambient temperature oxidation catalysis (ATOC). Furthermore, virtually all substrate and catalyst preparations in earlier work were performed at high temperatures, typically 400--900°C, thus forming progressively monomorphic structures containing larger crystals with reduced surface functionality and porosity. In this research, I established the hypothesis based on a structural model that surface functional hydroxides are important to sustained hydrolytic reactions, such as those involving Au NP for the oxidation of CO to CO 2. Theoretical calculations by Ignatchenko, Vittadini, et al. show that zirconia readily dissociates adsorbed water on the most active and stable crystal structures (111) compared to other metal oxides, such as the common anatase (101) form of titania. Also, the support must provide a source of activated oxygen as a means to oxidize intermediate carbonates with CO 2 formation. The role of the support is to provide lattice oxygen in an activated state (O2-) for oxidation of adsorbed CO the Au NP

  18. Catalytic wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol over sewage sludge-derived carbon-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yuting [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), CNRS – Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiong, Ya; Tian, Shuanghong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Kong, Lingjun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Descorme, Claude, E-mail: claude.descorme@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), CNRS – Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared. • FeSC exhibited high catalytic activity in the wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol. • A strong correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the iron leaching and the pH. • Using an acetate buffer, the iron leaching was suppressed while keeping some catalytic activity. • A simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst. - Abstract: A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared and used in the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The catalysts were characterized in terms of elemental composition, surface area, pH{sub PZC}, XRD and SEM. The performances of the FeSC catalyst in the CWAO of 2-CP was assessed in a batch reactor operated at 120 °C under 0.9 MPa oxygen partial pressure. Complete decomposition of 2-CP was achieved within 5 h and 90% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 h of reaction. Quite a straight correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the amount of iron leached in solution and the pH of the reaction mixture at a given reaction time, indicating a strong predominance of the homogeneous catalysis contribution. The iron leaching could be efficiently prevented when the pH of the solution was maintained at values higher than 4.5, while the catalytic activity was only slightly reduced. Upon four successive batch CWAO experiments, using the same FeSC catalyst recovered by filtration after pH adjustment, only a very minor catalyst deactivation was observed. Finally, based on all the identified intermediates, a simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst.

  19. Catalytic wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol over sewage sludge-derived carbon-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared. • FeSC exhibited high catalytic activity in the wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol. • A strong correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the iron leaching and the pH. • Using an acetate buffer, the iron leaching was suppressed while keeping some catalytic activity. • A simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst. - Abstract: A sewage sludge derived carbon-supported iron oxide catalyst (FeSC) was prepared and used in the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The catalysts were characterized in terms of elemental composition, surface area, pHPZC, XRD and SEM. The performances of the FeSC catalyst in the CWAO of 2-CP was assessed in a batch reactor operated at 120 °C under 0.9 MPa oxygen partial pressure. Complete decomposition of 2-CP was achieved within 5 h and 90% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 h of reaction. Quite a straight correlation was observed between the 2-CP conversion, the amount of iron leached in solution and the pH of the reaction mixture at a given reaction time, indicating a strong predominance of the homogeneous catalysis contribution. The iron leaching could be efficiently prevented when the pH of the solution was maintained at values higher than 4.5, while the catalytic activity was only slightly reduced. Upon four successive batch CWAO experiments, using the same FeSC catalyst recovered by filtration after pH adjustment, only a very minor catalyst deactivation was observed. Finally, based on all the identified intermediates, a simplified reaction pathway was proposed for the CWAO of 2-CP over the FeSC catalyst

  20. Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation during nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation by Methylomirabilis oxyfera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasigraf, Olivia; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Ettwig, Katharina F.

    2012-07-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to nitrite reduction is a recently discovered methane sink of as yet unknown global significance. The bacteria that have been identified to carry out this process, Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, oxidize methane via the known aerobic pathway involving the monooxygenase reaction. In contrast to aerobic methanotrophs, oxygen is produced intracellularly and used for the activation of methane by a phylogenetically distinct particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Here we report the fractionation factors for carbon and hydrogen during methane oxidation by an enrichment culture of M. oxyfera bacteria. In two separate batch incubation experiments with different absolute biomass and methane contents, the specific methanotrophic activity was similar and the progressive isotope enrichment identical. Headspace methane was consumed up to 98% with rates showing typical first order reaction kinetics. The enrichment factors determined by Rayleigh equations were -29.2 ± 2.6‰ for δ13C (εC) and -227.6 ± 13.5‰ for δ2H (εH), respectively. These enrichment factors were in the upper range of values reported so far for aerobic methanotrophs. In addition, two-dimensional specific isotope analysis (Λ = ( α H - 1 - 1)/( α C - 1 - 1)) was performed and also the determined Λ value of 9.8 was within the range determined for other aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs. The results showed that in contrast to abiotic processes biological methane oxidation exhibits a narrow range of fractionation factors for carbon and hydrogen irrespective of the underlying biochemical mechanisms. This work will therefore facilitate the correct interpretation of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane with implications for modeling of global carbon fluxes.

  1. Mass Transfer and Reaction Kinetics in the Carbonization of Magnesium Oxide from Light Calcined Magnesia with Mechanical Force Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕军; 朱国才

    2004-01-01

    The carbonization of magnesium oxide particles by CO2 was investigated using a stirring mill reactor.The effects of the system temperature, stirring rotation speed, influx rate of CO2 and initial diameter of the magnesium oxide particles on the carbonization process were determined. The results show that the system temperature and the stirring rotation speed are the most significant influencing factors on the carbonization rate. The determination of critical decomposition temperature (CDT) gives the maximum carbonization rate with other conditions fixed. A theoretical model involving mass transfer and reaction kinetics was presented for the carbonization process.The apparent activation energy was calculated to be 32.8kJ·mo1-1. The carbonization process is co-controlled by diffusive mass transfer and chemical reaction. The model fits well with the experimental results.

  2. Complex formation during dissolution of metal oxides in molten alkali carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Borup, Flemming; Petrushina, Irina;

    1999-01-01

    as the partial pressure of carbon dioxide varies. By combination of solubility and electromotive force measurements, a model is constructed assuming the dissolution involves complex formation. The possible species for lead are proposed to be [Pb(CO3)(2)](-2) and/or [Pb(CO3)(3)](-4). A similar complex......Dissolution of metal oxides in molten carbonates relates directly to the stability of materials for electrodes and construction of molten carbonate fuel cells. In the present work the solubilities of PbO, NiO, Fe2O3,and Bi2O3 in molten Li/K carbonates have been measured at 650 degrees C under...... carbon dioxide atmosphere. It is found that the solubilities of NiO and PbO decrease while those of Fe2O3 and Bi2O3 remain approximately constant as the lithium mole fraction increases from 0.43 to 0.62 in the melt. At a fixed composition of the melt, NiO and PbO display both acidic and basic dissolution...

  3. Copolymerisation of Propylene Oxide and Carbon Dioxide by Dinuclear Cobalt Porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, Carly E.

    2013-09-18

    Two dinuclear cobalt porphyrins comprising different structural tethering motifs at the porphyrin periphery were synthesised, along with a representative mononuclear cobalt porphyrin, and their catalytic activities tested towards carbon dioxide-propylene oxide copolymerisation in the presence of bis(triphenylphosphoranyl)ammonium chloride cocatalyst. The catalytic activities of the mononuclear and the bis-para-tethered dinuclear cobalt porphyrin with selective formation of poly(propylene carbonate) are largely comparable, showing no benefit of dinuclearity in contrast to the case of cobalt salen complexes and suggesting that polymer growth proceeds exclusively from one metal centre. The alternative bis-ortho-tethered porphyrin demonstrated considerably reduced activity, with dominant formation of cyclic propylene carbonate, as a result of hindered substrate approach at the metal centre. Time-resolved UV/Vis spectroscopic studies suggested a general intolerance of the cobalt(III) porphyrin catalysts towards the copolymerisation conditions in the absence of carbon dioxide pressure, leading to catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species. In the presence of carbon dioxide, the bis-ortho-tethered catalyst showed the fastest deactivation, which is related to an unfavourable steric arrangement of the linker fragment, as was also confirmed by NMR spectroscopic measurements. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on Nitrobenzene-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube as Efficient Electrocatalysts for Methanol Oxidation Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotube was functionalized with nitrobenzene as a promising support material for Pt-based electrocatalysts (Pt-NB-MWCNT) for methanol oxidation. The as-prepared catalysts have higher electrocatalytic activity in terms of both mass and specific activities, and improved durability for methanol oxidation reaction than as compared to the undoped materials. - Highlights: • Multiwalled carbon nanotube was functionalized with nitrobenzene as a support material for Pt-based electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. • The electronic properties of carbon nanotubes were modified by the nitrobenzene functionalization. • Nitrobenzene-functionalized electrocatalysts revealing the improved electrocatalytic performance of Pt-NB-MWCNT catalyst for the methanol oxidation reaction. - Abstract: A novel method of molecular covalently functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube using nitrobenzene group is prepared and used as a promising support material of Pt-based electrocatalysts (denoted as Pt-NB-MWCNT) for methanol oxidation reaction. The physical and chemical characteristics are performed by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. Compared with the un-functionalized Pt-MWCNT catalyst, Pt-NB-MWCNTs show more uniform particle dispersion, smaller particle size, improved activity and durability for methanol oxidation reaction. The nitrobenzene group is demonstrated to promote the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-MWCNT for methanol oxidation significantly. The results represent a novel approach to functionalize MWCNT in a simple and economic way to prepare efficient electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation

  5. Physiological and Metabolic Effects of Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in the Model Marine Bacterioplankton Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3

    OpenAIRE

    Cunliffe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ruegeria pomeroyi expresses carbon monoxide (CO) dehydrogenase and oxidizes CO; however, CO has no effect on growth. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed that CO has no effect on cellular metabolite profiles. These data support ecosystem models proposing that, even though bacterioplankton CO oxidation is biogeochemically significant, it has an insignificant effect on bacterioplankton productivity.

  6. Thermodynamics of Modifying Effect of Rare Earth Oxide on Inclusions in Hardfaci ng Metal of Medium-High Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆祥; 赵研辉; 李艳丽; 姚枚

    2002-01-01

    The modifying effect of rare earth (RE) oxide on inclusions in hardfacing metals of medium-high carbon steel was investigated by means of thermodynamics. The t hermodynamic analysis for inclusion formation shows that RE oxide can be redu ced to RE element by carbon, then the RE element can react with oxygen and sulfu r to form the RE oxide, RE sulfide and RE oxide-sulfide in hardfacing molten po ol. The deoxidization and the desulphurization can be carried out and the liquid metal can be purified. In addition, RE oxide can also react with sulfur to form RE oxide-sulfide directly. Therefore, the harmful effect of sulfur can be decr eased.

  7. Thermodynamics of Modifying Effect of Rare Earth Oxide on Inclusions in Hardfacing Metal of Medium—High Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆祥; 赵研辉; 等

    2002-01-01

    The modifying effect of rare earth(RE)oxide on inclusions in hardfacing metals of medium-high carbon steel was investigated by means of thermodynamics,The thermodynamic analsys for inclusion formation shows that RE oxide can be reduced to RE element by carbon,then the RE element can react with oxygen and sulfur to form the RE oxide,RE sulfide and RE oxide-sulfide in hardfacing molten pool.The deoxidization and the desulphurization can be carried otu and the liquid metal can be purified.In addition,RE oxide can also react with sulfur to form RE oxide-sulfide dirdctly.Therefore,the harmful effect of sulfur can be decreased.

  8. Mechanisms of carbon nanotube-induced toxicity: Focus on oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Pietroiusti, Antonio [Department of Biopathology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Fadeel, Bengt [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kagan, Valerian E. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Nanotechnologies are emerging as highly promising technologies in many sectors in the society. However, the increasing use of engineered nanomaterials also raises concerns about inadvertent exposure to these materials and the potential for adverse effects on human health and the environment. Despite several years of intensive investigations, a common paradigm for the understanding of nanoparticle-induced toxicity remains to be firmly established. Here, the so-called oxidative stress paradigm is scrutinized. Does oxidative stress represent a secondary event resulting inevitably from disruption of biochemical processes and the demise of the cell, or a specific, non-random event that plays a role in the induction of cellular damage e.g. apoptosis? The answer to this question will have important ramifications for the development of strategies for mitigation of adverse effects of nanoparticles. Recent examples of global lipidomics studies of nanoparticle-induced tissue damage are discussed along with proteomics and transcriptomics approaches to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the complex and interrelated molecular changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles. We also discuss instances of non-oxidative stress-mediated cellular damage resulting from direct physical interference of nanomaterials with cellular structures. -- Highlights: ► CNT induced non-random oxidative stress associated with apoptosis. ► Non-oxidative mechanisms for cellular toxicity of carbon nanotubes. ► Biodegradation of CNT by cells of innate immune system. ► “Omics”-based biomarkers of CNT exposures.

  9. Electro-oxidation of perfluorooctanoic acid by carbon nanotube sponge anode and the mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, An; Yuan, Zi-Wen; Sun, Yan; Cao, An-Yuan; Zhao, Hua-Zhang

    2015-12-01

    As an emerging persistent organic pollutant (POPs), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exists widely in natural environment. It is of particular significance to develop efficient techniques to remove low-concentration PFOA from the contaminated waters. In this work, we adopted a new material, carbon nanotube (CNT) sponge, as electrode to enhance electro-oxidation and achieve high removal efficiency of low-concentration (100μgL(-1)) PFOA from water. CNT sponge was pretreated by mixed acids to improve the surface morphology, hydrophilicity and the content of carbonyl groups on the surface. The highest removal efficiencies for low-concentration PFOA electrolyzed by acid-treated CNT sponge anode proved higher than 90%. The electro-oxidation mechanism of PFOA on CNT sponge anode was also discussed. PFOA is adsorbed on the CNT sponge rapidly increasing the concentration of PFOA on anode surface. When the potential on the anode is adjusted to more than 3.5V, the adsorbed PFOA undergoes electrochemically oxidation and hydrolysis to produce shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids with less CF2 unit. The efficient electro-oxidation of PFOA by CNT sponge anode is due to the combined effect of adsorption and electrochemical oxidation. These findings provide an efficient method to remove actual concentration PFOA from water. PMID:26172515

  10. Enhanced Strain-Dependent Electrical Resistance of Polyurethane Composites with Embedded Oxidized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Benlikaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different chemical oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with H2O2, HNO3, and KMnO4 on the change of electrical resistance of polyurethane composites with embedded oxidized nanotube networks subjected to elongation and bending has been studied. The testing has shown about twenty-fold increase in the electrical resistance for the composite prepared from KMnO4 oxidized nanotubes in comparison to the composites prepared from the pristine and other oxidized nanotubes. The evaluated sensitivity of KMnO4 treated composite in terms of the gauge factor increases with strain to nearly 175 at the strain 11%. This is a substantial increase, which ranks the composite prepared from KMnO4 oxidized nanotubes among materials as strain gauges with the highest electromechanical sensitivity. The observed differences in electromechanical properties of the composites are discussed on basis of their structure which is examined by the measurements of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope. The possible practical use of the composites is demonstrated by monitoring of elbow joint flexion during two different physical exercises.

  11. Electrochemical studies on nanometal oxide-activated carbon composite electrodes for aqueous supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mui Yen; Khiew, Poi Sim; Isa, Dino; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2014-11-01

    In present study, the electrochemical performance of eco-friendly and cost-effective titanium oxide (TiO2)-based and zinc oxide-based nanocomposite electrodes were studied in neutral aqueous Na2SO3 electrolyte, respectively. The electrochemical properties of these composite electrodes were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results reveal that these two nanocomposite electrodes achieve the highest specific capacitance at fairly low oxide loading onto activated carbon (AC) electrodes, respectively. Considerable enhancement of the electrochemical properties of TiO2/AC and ZnO/AC nanocomposite electrodes is achieved via synergistic effects contributed from the nanostructured metal oxides and the high surface area mesoporous AC. Cations and anions from metal oxides and aqueous electrolyte such as Ti4+, Zn2+, Na+ and SO32- can occupy some pores within the high-surface-area AC electrodes, forming the electric double layer at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Additionally, both TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles can provide favourable surface adsorption sites for SO32- anions which subsequently facilitate the faradaic processes for pseudocapacitive effect. These two systems provide the low cost material electrodes and the low environmental impact electrolyte which offer the increased charge storage without compromising charge storage kinetics.

  12. Modeling and parametric simulations of solid oxide fuel cells with methane carbon dioxide reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A 2D model is developed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). ► CH4 reforming by CO2 (MCDR) is included. ► SOFC with MCDR shows comparable performance with methane steam reforming SOFC. ► Increasing CO electrochemical oxidation greatly enhances the SOFC performance. ► Effects of potential and temperature on SOFC performance are also discussed. - Abstract: A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fed with CO2 and CH4 mixture. The electrochemical oxidations of both CO and H2 are included. Important chemical reactions are considered in the model, including methane carbon dioxide reforming (MCDR), reversible water gas shift reaction (WGSR), and methane steam reforming (MSR). It’s found that at a CH4/CO2 molar ratio of 50/50, MCDR and reversible WGSR significantly influence the cell performance while MSR is negligibly small. The performance of SOFC fed with CO2/CH4 mixture is comparable to SOFC running on CH4/H2O mixtures. The electric output of SOFC can be enhanced by operating the cell at a low operating potential or at a high temperature. In addition, the development of anode catalyst with high activity towards CO electrochemical oxidation is important for SOFC performance enhancement. The model can serve as a useful tool for optimization of the SOFC system running on CH4/CO2 mixtures

  13. The inclusion of MgH2 into iron oxide and nickel oxide modified mesoporous carbon sorbent, an investigation on hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Seyyed Ershad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we investigated the hydrogen desorption properties of nano-sized MgH2 that was loaded on ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC surface that had been already modified with nickel and iron oxide nanoparticles. The surface modified mesoporous carbon was characterized by BET surface area and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The amount of MgH2 on the carbon surface was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Dehydrogenation data of MgH2 on the ordered mesoporous carbon were collected for the pressure up to 8 MPa (80 bar at 500 K. The incorporated MgH2 on nickel oxide-mesoporous carbon nanocomposite had faster dehydrogenation kinetics compared to incorporated MgH2 on iron oxide-mesoporous carbon nanocomposite as well as incorporated MgH2 on mesoporous carbon. This can be attributed to the particle size of the former being smaller than that of the latter, as well as much accessible nanosized surface of loaded MgH2.

  14. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the Earth's early atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J F

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical model was used to examine the effect of bolide impacts on the oxidation state of Earth's primitive atmosphere. The impact rate should have been high prior to 3.8 Ga before present, based on evidence derived from the Moon. Impacts of comets or carbonaceous asteroids should have enhanced the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by bringing in CO ice and/or organic carbon that can be oxidized to CO in the impact plume. Ordinary chondritic impactors would contain elemental iron that could have reacted with ambient CO2 to give CO. Nitric oxide (NO) should also have been produced by reaction between ambient CO2 and N2 in the hot impact plumes. High NO concentrations increase the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by increasing the rainout rate of oxidized gases. According to the model, atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios of unity or greater are possible during the first several hundred million years of Earth's history, provided that dissolved CO was not rapidly oxidized to bicarbonate in the ocean. Specifically, high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios are possible if either: (1) the climate was cool (like today's climate), so that hydration of dissolved CO to formate was slow, or (2) the formate formed from CO was efficiently converted into volatile, reduced carbon compounds, such as methane. A high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio may have helped to facilitate prebiotic synthesis by enhancing the production rates of hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde may have been produced even more efficiently by photochemical reduction of bicarbonate and formate in Fe(++)-rich surface waters. PMID:11537523

  15. Comparative study of the oxidation of various qualities of uranium in carbon dioxide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium samples of six different qualities were subjected, in the temperature range 400 - 1000 C, to the action of carbon dioxide carefully purified to eliminate oxygen and water vapour; the resulting oxidation was followed micro-graphically and also (but only in the range 400 - 700 C) gravimetrically using an Ugine-Eyraud microbalance. A comparison of the results leads to the following 3 observations. First, the oxidation of the six uraniums studied obeys a linear law, (followed at 700 C by an accelerating law). The rates of reaction differ by a maximum of 100 per cent, the higher purity grades being oxidized more slowly except at 700 C when the reverse is true. Secondly, simultaneously with the growth, of an approximately uniform film of uranium dioxide on the metal, there occurs a localized attack in the form of blisters in the immediate neighbourhood of the monocarbide inclusions in the uranium. The relative importance of this attack is greater for lower oxidation temperatures and for a larger size, number and inequality of distribution of the inclusions, that is to say for higher carbon concentrations in the uranium (which have values from 7 to 1000 ppm in our tests). Thirdly, for oxidation temperatures above 600 C blistering is much less pronounced, but at 700 C the beginning of a general deformation of the sample occurs, which, above 750 C, becomes much greater; this leads to an acceleration of the reaction rate with respect to the linear law. In view of the over-heating, the sample must already be in the γ-phase which is particularly easily deformed; furthermore this expansion phenomenon is more pronounced when the sample is more plastic and therefore purer. (authors)

  16. Influence of the different oxidation treatment on the performance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanotubes were used as catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol. ► Four chemical oxidants (HNO3/H2SO4, H2O2, O3 and air) were used to modify the CNTs. ► The O3-functionalized CNTs exhibit the highest activity and the perfect stability. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized by different oxidants (HNO3/H2SO4, H2O2, O3 and air) have been used as catalysts for the wet air oxidation of phenol. To investigate the effect of the oxidation conditions on the structure of the functionalized MWCNTs, various characterization techniques, e.g., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used. The MWCNTs treated with O3 and H2O2 show higher amounts of oxygen-containing functional groups and carboxylic acid groups, and a weaker acidic nature, in comparison with those treated with other oxidizing agents. All the functionalized MWCNTs exhibit good activity in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol. However, the MWCNTs treated with O3 show the highest activity with desirable stability in comparison with other functionalized MWCNTs, indicating that the functionalization of carbon nanotubes with O3 is a very promising strategy in synthesizing efficient catalysts for CWAO.

  17. General Preparation of Three-Dimensional Porous Metal Oxide Foams Coated with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for Enhanced Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ke; Xu, Jiantie; Zhang, Jintao; Song, Bin; Ma, Houyi

    2016-07-13

    Porous metal oxide architectures coated with a thin layer of carbon are attractive materials for energy storage applications. Here, a series of porous metal oxide (e.g., vanadium oxides, molybdenum oxides, manganese oxides) foams with/without nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) coating have been synthesized via a general surfactant-assisted template method, involving the formation of porous metal oxides coated with 1-hexadecylamine (HDA) and a subsequent thermal treatment. The presence of HDA is of importance for the formation of a porous structure, and the successive pyrolysis of such a nitrogen-containing surfactant generates nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) coated on the surface of metal oxides, which also provides a facile way to adjust the valence states of metal oxides via the carbothermal reduction reaction. When used as electrode materials, the highly porous metal oxides with N-C coating exhibited enhanced performance for lithium ion storage, thanks to the unique 3D structures associated with highly porous structure and thin N-C coating. Typically, the porous metal oxides (V2O5, MoO3, MnO2) exhibited discharge capacities of 286, 303, and 463 mAh g(-1) at current densities of 30 and 100 mA g(-1), respectively. In contrast, the metal oxides with low valences and carbon coating (VO2@N-C, MoO2@N-C, and MnO@N-C) exhibited improved capacities of 461, 613, and 892 mAh g(-1). The capacity retentions of about 87.5, 80.2, and 85.0% for VO2@N-C, MoO2@N-C, and MnO@N-C were achieved after 600 cycles, suggesting the acceptable cycling stability. The present strategy would provide general guidance for preparing porous metal oxide foams with enhanced lithium storage performances. PMID:27322176

  18. Uranium value leaching with ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate plus nitrate oxidant and optionally oxidation-catalytic metal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention, uranium values are extracted from solid materials containing uranium in lower valence states than its hexavalent state comprising contacting the solid materials containing uranium with an alkaline leach solution containing the ionic species NH4+ and NO3- in an amount sufficient to convert at least a portion of the uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state to its hexavalent state. In another embodiment of the present invention, the aqueous alkaline leach solution is an aqueous solution of a carbonate selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and mixtures thereof. In a further embodiment, ionic species NO3- is supplied by an alkaline nitrate. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the aqueous alkaline leach solution additionally contains at least one catalytic compound of a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, iron, nickel, chromium and mixtures thereof adapted to assure the pesence of the ionic species Cu++, Co++, Fe+++, Ni++, Cr+++ and mixtures thereof, respectively, is present during the contacting of the solid materials containing uranium with the aqueous alkaline leach solution in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of at least a part of the uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state to its hexavalent state

  19. Pull-test adhesion measurements of diamondlike carbon films on silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, and zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon or diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were formed by 400 eV methane (CH4) ion bombardment of various smooth and rough ceramics, as well as ceramics coated with a layer of Si or Ti. Adhesion was measured by a bonded-pin method. Excellent adhesion was measured for smooth SiC and Si3N4, but adhesion of DLC to smooth Al2O3 and ZrO2 was negligible. The use of a Si bonding interlayer produced good adhesion to all the substrates, but a Ti layer was ineffective due to poor bonding between the DLC film and Ti. Bulk thermodynamic calculations are not directly applicable to bonding at the interface because the interface is two dimensional and the compositions of interfacial phases are generally not known. If the standard enthalpy ΔH degree for the reaction between CH4 and the substrate material is calculated under the assumption that a carbide phase is produced, a relationship is seen between the reaction enthalpy and the relative adhesion. Large positive enthalpies are associated with poor adhesion; negative or small positive enthalpies are associated with good adhesion. This relation between enthalpy and adhesion was also observed for DLC deposited on Si. The lack of adhesion to the Ti was attributed to inadvertent formation of a surface oxide layer that rendered the enthalpy for the reaction with CH4 positive

  20. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  1. Assisted deposition of nano-hydroxyapatite onto exfoliated carbon nanotube oxide scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, H; Rosa, C M R; Eliaz, N; May, P W; Marciano, F R; Lobo, A O

    2015-06-14

    Electrodeposited nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) is more similar to biological apatite in terms of microstructure and dimension than apatites prepared by other processes. Reinforcement with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enhances its mechanical properties and increases adhesion of osteoblasts. Here, we carefully studied nHAp deposited onto vertically aligned multi-walled CNT (VAMWCNT) scaffolds by electrodeposition and soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). VAMWCNTs are porous biocompatible scaffolds with nanometric porosity and exceptional mechanical and chemical properties. The VAMWCNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method, and then oxidized and exfoliated by oxygen plasma etching (OPE) to produce graphene oxide (GO) at the VAMWCNT tips. The attachment of oxygen functional groups was found to be crucial for nHAp nucleation during electrodeposition. A thin layer of plate-like and needle-like nHAp with high crystallinity was formed without any need for thermal treatment. This composite (henceforth referred to as nHAp-VAMWCNT-GO) served as the scaffold for in vitro biomineralization when soaked in the SBF, resulting in the formation of both carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor globular-like nHAp. Different steps in the deposition of biological apatite onto VAMWCNT-GO and during the short-term biomineralization process were analysed. Due to their unique structure and properties, such nano-bio-composites may become useful in accelerating in vivo bone regeneration processes. PMID:25990927

  2. Assisted deposition of nano-hydroxyapatite onto exfoliated carbon nanotube oxide scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, H.; Rosa, C. M. R.; Eliaz, N.; May, P. W.; Marciano, F. R.; Lobo, A. O.

    2015-05-01

    Electrodeposited nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) is more similar to biological apatite in terms of microstructure and dimension than apatites prepared by other processes. Reinforcement with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enhances its mechanical properties and increases adhesion of osteoblasts. Here, we carefully studied nHAp deposited onto vertically aligned multi-walled CNT (VAMWCNT) scaffolds by electrodeposition and soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). VAMWCNTs are porous biocompatible scaffolds with nanometric porosity and exceptional mechanical and chemical properties. The VAMWCNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method, and then oxidized and exfoliated by oxygen plasma etching (OPE) to produce graphene oxide (GO) at the VAMWCNT tips. The attachment of oxygen functional groups was found to be crucial for nHAp nucleation during electrodeposition. A thin layer of plate-like and needle-like nHAp with high crystallinity was formed without any need for thermal treatment. This composite (henceforth referred to as nHAp-VAMWCNT-GO) served as the scaffold for in vitro biomineralization when soaked in the SBF, resulting in the formation of both carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor globular-like nHAp. Different steps in the deposition of biological apatite onto VAMWCNT-GO and during the short-term biomineralization process were analysed. Due to their unique structure and properties, such nano-bio-composites may become useful in accelerating in vivo bone regeneration processes.

  3. Removal of carbon films by oxidation in narrow gaps: Thermo-oxidation and plasma-assisted studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanarro, I., E-mail: itanarro@iem.cfmac.csic.e [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, C/Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ferreira, J.A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, As. Euratom/Ciemat, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrero, V.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, C/Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Tabares, F.L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, As. Euratom/Ciemat, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Aleixandre, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The removal of hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films from narrow gaps simulating the macro-brush structures present in controlled fusion devices has been investigated. Films with a thickness of 50-150 nm were generated through plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) in glow discharges of CH{sub 4}/He on Si and stainless steel plates. The deposited plates were then arranged to form sandwich structures building narrow gaps and were subjected to erosion by exposure to O{sub 2}/He plasmas and to thermal oxidation by O{sub 2} and by a NO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (1:1) mixture. In the plasma etching experiments, the deposited layers were only partially removed by the plasma at the side wall gap surfaces, but were efficiently removed at the bottom of the gap. In the thermo-oxidation experiments, the deposited films were effectively and homogeneously removed with oxygen at 670 K and with the NO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture at T > 570 K.

  4. Pseudo-capacitance of ruthenium oxide/carbon black composites for electrochemical capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hydrous ruthenium oxide was formed by a new process.The precursor was obtained by mixing the aqueous solutions of RuCl3·xH20 and NaHCO3.The addition of NaHCO3 led to the formation of an oxide with extremely free RuO2 particles forming a porous network structure in the oxide electrode.Polyethylene glycol was added as a controller to partly inhibit the sol-gel reaction.The rate capacitance of 530 F·g-1 was measured for the powder formed at an optimal annealing temperature of 210~C.Several details concerning this new material,including crystal structure,particle size as a function of temperature,and electrochemical properties,were also reported.In addition,the rote capacitance of the composite electrode reached 800 F·g-1 after carbon black was added.By using the modified electrode of a RuO2/carbon black composite electrode,the electrochemical capacitor exhibits high energy density and stable power characteristics.The values of specific energy and maximum specific power of 24 Wh·kg-1 and 4 kW·kg-1,respectively,are demonstrated for a cell voltage between 0 and 1 V.

  5. Nitric Oxide Detection with Glassy Carbon Electrodes Coated with Charge-different Polymer Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Lei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace amounts of nitric oxide (NO have been determined in aqueous phosphate buffersolutions (pH=7.4 by using a glassy carbon electrode coated with three charge-different polymerfilms. The glassy carbon electrode was coated first with negatively charged Nafion film containingtetrakis(pentafluorophenylporphyrin iron(III chloride (Fe(IIITPFPP as the NO oxidation catalyst,and then with positively charged poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PADDAand with neutral poly(dimethylsiloxane (silicone at the outermost layer. This polymer-coatedelectrode showed an excellent selectivity towards NO against possible concomitants in blood such asnitrite, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dopamine. All current ratios between each concomitant and NOat the cyclic voltammogram was in 10-3 ~ 10-4. This type of electrode showed a detection limit of80 nM for NO. It was speculated from the electrochemical study in methanol that high-valent oxoiron(IV of Fe(TPFPP participated in the catalytic oxidation of NO.

  6. Methanol Electro-Oxidation on Pt-Ru Alloy Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangchuan Xing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been investigated in recent years as a catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Improved catalyst activities were observed and attributed to metal-support interactions. We report a study on the kinetics of methanol electro-oxidation on CNT supported Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles. Alloy catalysts with different compositions, Pt53Ru47/CNT, Pt69Ru31/CNT and Pt77Ru23/CNT, were prepared and investigated in detail. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures, electrode potentials, and methanol concentrations. It was found that the reaction order of methanol electro-oxidation on the PtRu/CNT catalysts was consistent with what has been reported for PtRu alloys with a value of 0.5 in methanol concentrations. However, the electro-oxidation reaction on the PtRu/CNT catalysts displayed much lower activation energies than that on the Pt-Ru alloy catalysts unsupported or supported on carbon black (PtRu/CB. This study provides an overall kinetic evaluation of the PtRu/CNT catalysts and further demonstrates the beneficial role of CNTs.

  7. Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation by microbial methane oxidation: Improved determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope fractionation is a promising tool for quantifying methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. For good quantification an accurate determination of the isotope fractionation factor (α) of methane oxidation based on independent batch experiments with soil samples from the landfill cover is required. Most studies so far used data analysis methods based on approximations of the Rayleigh model to determine α. In this study, the two most common approximations were tested, the simplified Rayleigh approach and the Coleman method. To do this, the original model of Rayleigh was described in measurable variables, methane concentration and isotopic abundances, and fitted to batch oxidation data by means of a weighted non-linear errors-in-variables regression technique. The results of this technique were used as a benchmark to which the results of the two conventional approximations were compared. Three types of batch data were used: simulated data, data obtained from the literature, and data obtained from new batch experiments conducted in our laboratory. The Coleman approximation was shown to be acceptable but not recommended for carbon fractionation (error on α - 1 up to 5%) and unacceptable for hydrogen fractionation (error up to 20%). The difference between the simplified Rayleigh approach and the exact Rayleigh model is much smaller for both carbon and hydrogen fractionation (error on α - 1 13C, or D, were developed for the validity of the simplified Rayleigh approach when using labelled compounds

  8. Dopamine sensor based on a hybrid material composed of cuprous oxide hollow microspheres and carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a novel electrochemical dopamine (DA) sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a hybrid material composed of Cu(I) oxide hollow microspheres and carbon black. The hybrid material was synthesized in a mixed solvent composed of water and the deep eutectic solvent choline chloride/urea, and by in-situ reduction of Cu(II) by ascorbic acid. The surface morphology and structure of the materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to evaluate the electrocatalytic properties of the modified GCE toward DA oxidation in phosphate buffer solution of pH 5.7. The sensor displays a higher electrocatalytic activity toward DA oxidation compared to other modified electrodes. At a working potential of 0.25 V (vs. SCE), the sensor exhibits a rapid response (<3 s) and a wide linear range from 9.9 × 10−8 to 7.08 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit is as low as 3.96 × 10−8 mol L−1 (S/N = 3). In addition to its high sensitivity, the sensor displays good reproducibility, long-term stability and fair selectivity. (author)

  9. Activated carbon electrodes: electrochemical oxidation coupled with desalination for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Feng; Li, Yuping; Cao, Hongbin; Wang, Yi; Crittenden, John C; Zhang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    The wastewater usually contains low-concentration organic pollutants and some inorganic salts after biological treatment. In the present work, the possibility of simultaneous removal of them by combining electrochemical oxidation and electrosorption was investigated. Phenol and sodium chloride were chosen as representative of organic pollutants and inorganic salts and a pair of activated carbon plate electrodes were used as anode and cathode. Some important working conditions such as oxygen concentration, applied potential and temperature were evaluated to reach both efficient phenol removal and desalination. Under optimized 2.0 V of applied potential, 38°C of temperature, and 500 mL min(-1) of oxygen flow, over 90% of phenol, 60% of TOC and 20% of salinity were removed during 300 min of electrolysis time. Phenol was removed by both adsorption and electrochemical oxidation, which may proceed directly or indirectly by chlorine and hypochlorite oxidation. Chlorophenols were detected as degradation intermediates, but they were finally transformed to carboxylic acids. Desalination was possibly attributed to electrosorption of ions in the pores of activated carbon electrodes. The charging/regeneration cycling experiment showed good stability of the electrodes. This provides a new strategy for wastewater treatment and recycling. PMID:25585871

  10. Effect of impurities (carbon and manganese) on iron oxidation at high temperature: impurities-rare earth element (cerium) interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After oxidation of ceria coated iron specimens, (T = 700 C, pO2 = 0.04 Pa), cerium is located inside the wustite matrix as a CeFeO3 phase. The CeFeO3 formation is attributed to an oxido-reduction process between the CeO2 coating and the FeO nuclei at the beginning of the oxidation test. On ceria coated Fe-Mn-C steel samples, carbon and manganese impurities have a strong influence on the oxidation rate and on the rare-earth element location. After the coated steel oxidation, cerium is located at the scale-gas interface as a CeO2 phase and it is not incorporated inside the iron oxide scale. The role of each impurity is established : manganese prevents the formation of CeFeO3 because no contact between the reducing FeO germs and the oxidant CeO2 phase is permitted. This lack of contact is due to the high vapor pressure of manganese oxides which evaporate at the beginning of the reaction and promote the CeO2 coating spallation. On the other hand, carbon does not hinder the CeFeO3 formation but it always favours the wustite scale spallation after some hours oxidation, due to the carbon segregation in the metal at the steel-oxide interface. (orig.)

  11. Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Using an Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Peik-See

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA and ascorbic acid (AA is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1–9 mM and 0.5–100 µM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3 was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 µM for AA and DA, respectively.

  12. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'This report summarizes the results of work done during the first 1.3 years of a three year project. During the first nine months effort focussed on the design, construction and testing of a closed recirculating system that can be used to study photochemistry in supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures up to 5,000 psi and temperatures up to about 50 C. This was followed by a period of work in which the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene and acetone in supercritical, liquid, and gaseous carbon dioxide containing dissolved oxygen was demonstrated. The photocatalyst was titanium dioxide supported on glass spheres. This was the first time it was possible to observe photocatalytic oxidation in a supercritical fluid and to compare reaction in the three fluid phases of a solvent. This also demonstrated that it is possible to purify supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide using photochemical oxidation with no chemical additions other than oxygen. The oxidation of benzene produced no intermediates detectable using on line spectroscopic analysis or by gas chromatographic analysis of samples taken from the flow system. The catalyst surface did darken as the reaction proceeded indicating that oxidation products were accumulating on the surface. This is analogous to the behavior of aromatic compounds in air phase photocatalytic oxidation. The reaction of acetone under similar conditions resulted in the formation of low levels of by-products. Two were identified as products of the reaction of acetone with itself (4-methyl-3-penten-2-one and 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone) using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector. Two other by-products also appear to be from the self-reaction of acetone. By-products of this type had not been observed in prior studies of the gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation of acetone. The by-products that have been observed can also be oxidized under the treatment conditions. The above results establish that photocatalytic oxidation of

  13. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability of supported Pt nanopartciles for methanol electro-oxidation through the optimized oxidation degree of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meiling; Zhu, Jianbing; Ge, Junjie; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different oxidation degrees are synthesized by the modified Hummer's method and used as the support materials for platinum (Pt) catalysts. The effect of their oxidation degree on the catalytic activity and stability of the supported Pt catalysts for methanol electrooxidation is investigated for the first time. The electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction increases with increasing the oxidation degree due to more oxygen-containing species introduced to CNTs, which improves the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles and also modifies the electronic structure of Pt catalysts. However, under more severe oxidation condition, the stability of Pt catalysts decreases due to the destruction of graphitic structure of CNTs. Therefore, the optimized treatment condition for the CNTs is mild oxidation, which provides the supported Pt catalysts with both excellent catalytic activity and stability.

  14. A sensitive DNA biosensor fabricated from gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and zinc oxide nanowires on a glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jie [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Li Shuping [College of Environment Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Zhang Yuzhong, E-mail: zhyz65@mail.ahnu.edu.c [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2010-06-01

    We outline here the fabrication of a sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of sequence-specific target DNA. Zinc oxide nanowires (ZnONWs) were first immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl groups were then dropped onto the surface of the ZnONWs. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were subsequently introduced to the surface of the MWNTs/ZnONWs by electrochemical deposition. A single-stranded DNA probe with a thiol group at the end (HS-ssDNA) was covalently immobilized on the surface of the AuNPs by forming an Au-S bond. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to investigate the film assembly process. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor DNA hybridization by measuring the electrochemical signals of [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+} bounding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The incorporation of ZnONWs and MWCNTs in this sensor design significantly enhances the sensitivity and the selectivity. This DNA biosensor can detect the target DNA quantitatively in the range of 1.0 x 10{sup -13} to 1.0 x 10{sup -7} M, with a detection limit of 3.5 x 10{sup -14} M (S/N = 3). In addition, the DNA biosensor exhibits excellent selectivity, even for single-mismatched DNA detection.

  15. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics for dibenzothiophene on activated carbon and carbon nanotube doped with nickel oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAZEN K NAZAL; GHASSAN A OWEIMREEN; MAZEN KHALED; MUATAZ A ATIEH; ISAM H ALJUNDI; ABDALLA M ABULKIBASH

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) doped with 1, 5 and 10% Ni in the form of nickel oxide nanoparticles were prepared using the wetness impregnation method. These percentages were denoted by the endings NI1, NI5 and NI10 in the notations ACNI1, ACNI5, ACNI10 and CNTNI1, CNTNI5, CNTNIL10, respectively. The physicochemical properties for these adsorbents were characterized using N$_2$ adsorption–desorption surface area analyzer, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectrometre. Adsorption isotherms were obtained and desulphurization kinetics were carried out on solutions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and thiophene in a model fuel. The efficiencies of DBT and thiophene removal were reported. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The highest adsorption capacity for DBT was $74\\pm 5$ mg g$^{−1}$ on ACNI5; the maximum adsorption capacities of the other adsorbents followed the trend ${\\rm ACNI1 > ACNI10 > AC > CNTNI5 > CNTNI1 > CNTNI10 > CNT}$. The adsorption rates for DBT and thiophene followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The selective removal by these adsorbents of DBT relative to thiophene and naphthalene was evaluated. The adsorbents’ reusability and the effect of the percentage of aromaticcompounds on their adsorption capacity were also reported.

  16. Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Dai, Zhenxue; Keating, Elizabeth; Brown, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphase, reactive transport modeling was used to identify the mechanisms controlling trace metal release under elevated CO2 conditions from a well-characterized carbonate aquifer. Modeling was conducted for two experimental scenarios: batch experiments to simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived release of CO2 as would occur in the case of well failure during injection, and column experiments to simulate more gradual leaks such as those occurring along undetected faults, fractures, or well linings. Observed and predicted trace metal concentrations are compared to groundwater concentrations from this aquifer to determine the potential for leaking CO2 to adversely impact drinking water quality. Finally, a three-dimensional multiphase flow and reactive-transport simulation of CO2 leakage from an abandoned wellbore into a generalized model of the shallow, unconfined portion of the aquifer is used to determine potential impacts on groundwater quality. As a measure of adverse impacts on groundwater quality, both the EPA’s MCL limits and the maximum trace metal concentration observed in the aquifer were used as threshold values.

  17. Oxidative Treatment to Improve Coating and Electrochemical Stability of Carbon Fiber Paper with Niobium Doped Titanium Dioxide Sols for Potential Applications in Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solution coating of metal oxide layer directly onto carbon paper. • Most uniform Metal oxide coating on functionalized carbon paper. • Highest electrochemical stability for metal oxide coated functionalized carbon paper. - Abstract: Regular hydrophobized carbon paper cannot be used for unitized regenerative fuel cell applications as it corrodes at high potentials on the oxygen electrode side. Reported here are the oxidative treatment and dip-coating of carbon paper (Spectracarb™ 2050A-0850) with Nb-doped TiO2 sols (anatase phase) to increase the corrosion resistance of the carbon paper at the interface between catalyst layer and gas diffusion backing layer. Coating of carbon paper with Nb-doped TiO2 sols generates a reasonably uniform layer of TiO2 and covers the individual carbon fibers well only if the carbon paper is oxidatively functionalized prior to coating. This can be reasoned with a better wetting of the functionalized carbon paper by the sol-gel and the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and the large number of functional groups on the surface of oxidized carbon paper, which is in good agreement with previous observation for carbon nanotubes. The resistance towards oxidation of coated and uncoated samples of untreated and functionalized carbon paper was probed by cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 at 1.2 V versus Ag/AgCl for up to 72 hours to mimic the conditions in a unitized regenerative fuel cell. Among these four cases studied here, functionalized carbon paper coated with a layer of Nb-doped TiO2 shows the highest stability towards electrochemical oxidation while uncoated functionalized carbon paper is the least stable due to the large number of available oxidation sites. These results clearly demonstrate that a coating of carbon fibers with TiO2 generates a lasting protection against oxidation under conditions encountered at the oxygen electrode side of unitized regenerative fuel cells

  18. Iron oxide/carbon microsphere lithium-ion battery electrode with high capacity and good cycling stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide/carbon composite microspheres were prepared by a simple solution polymerization followed by pyrolysis in flowing nitrogen atmosphere at high temperature. The composites were characterized using various characterization techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, N2 physical adsorption and the electrochemical performance test. The results show that the iron oxide/carbon composites consist of uniform microspheres with an average diameter of ∼2.1 μm. These iron oxide/carbon composite microspheres exhibit high capacity and good cycle stability when used as a lithium-ion battery anode. When the iron oxide content is 66%, the composite reveals the best electrochemical performance with an initial charge capacity of 730 mAh g−1, and even after ninety cycles the electrode still maintains a capacity of 664 mAh g−1, giving high capacity retention of 91%. The good electrochemical performance of the composite anode is close related with its structure, in which Fe2O3 particles are uniformly dispersed in the spherical carbon matrix; hence the volume change and aggregation of the Fe2O3 particles during lithium ion insertion/extraction process can be effectively hindered by the carbon matrix. On the other hand, carbon itself is an electronic conductor, the carbon layer and Fe2O3 particles connect closely, which ensures a good electrical contact during lithium insertion and extraction.

  19. Preparation of uranium oxide powder for nuclear fuel pellet fabrication with uranium peroxide recovered from uranium oxide scraps by using a carbonate-hydrogen peroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studied a way to reclaim uranium from contaminated UO2 oxide scraps as a sinterable UO2 powder for UO2 fuel pellet fabrication, which included a dissolution of the uranium oxide scraps in a carbonate solution with hydrogen peroxide and a UO4 precipitation step. Dissolution characteristics of reduced and oxidized uranium oxides were evaluated in a carbonate solution with hydrogen peroxide, and the UO4 precipitation were confirmed by acidification of uranyl peroxo-carbonate complex solution. An agglomerated UO4 powder obtained by the dissolution and precipitation of uranium in the carbonate solution could not be pulverized into fine UO2 powder by the OREOX process, because of submicron-sized individual UO4 particles forming the agglomerated UO4 precipitate. The UO2 powder prepared from the UO4 precipitate could meet the UO2 powder specifications for UO2 fuel pellet fabrication by a series of steps such as dehydration of UO4 precipitate, reduction, and milling. The sinterability of the reclaimed UO2 powder for fuel pellet fabrication was improved by adding virgin UO2 powder in the reclaimed UO2 powder. A process to reclaim the contaminated uranium scraps as UO2 fuel powder using a carbonate solution was finally suggested. (author)

  20. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water with carbon nanotube supported manganese oxides as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Minghao, E-mail: suiminghao.sui@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xing, Sichu; Sheng, Li; Huang, Shuhang; Guo, Hongguang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ciprofloxacin in water was degraded by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx were supported on MWCNTs to serve as catalyst for ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT exhibited highly catalytic activity on ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT resulted in effective antibacterial activity inhibition on ciprofloxacin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-supported manganese oxides (MnOx/MWCNT) were used as catalysts to assist ozone in degrading ciprofloxacin in water. Manganese oxides were successfully loaded on multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces by simply impregnating the carbon nanotube with permanganate solution. The catalytic activities of MnOx/MWCNT in ciprofloxacin ozonation, including degradation, mineralization effectiveness, and antibacterial activity change, were investigated. The presence of MnOx/MWCNT significantly elevated the degradation and mineralization efficiency of ozone on ciprofloxacin. The microbiological assay with a reference Escherichia coli strain indicated that ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT results in more effective antibacterial activity inhibition of ciprofloxacin than that in ozonation alone. The effects of catalyst dose, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, and initial pH conditions on ciprofloxacin ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT were surveyed. Electron spin resonance trapping was applied to assess the role of MnOx/MWCNT in generating hydroxyl radicals (HO{center_dot}) during ozonation. Stronger 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide-OH signals were observed in the ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT compared with those in ozonation alone, indicating that MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The degradation of ciprofloxacin was studied in drinking water and wastewater process samples to gauge the potential effects of water background matrix on

  1. Electronic Sputtering of Nanodimensional Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon and Copper Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghosh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic sputtering of carbon from hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H/Si film and oxygen from copper oxide (CuO/Si film at different electronic energy loss (Se value is reported. The sputtering is monitored by online elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA technique and the yield (sputtered atoms/incident ion is determined. Two important results emerging out from this study are: (i much higher yield of C and O from a-C:H and CuO films as compared to conventional kinetic sputtering and (ii sputtering yield increases with increase in Se in both the cases. These observations are understood on the basis of thermal spike model of ion-solid interaction.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.370-376, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1536

  2. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on electrodeposition of zinc oxide nanoflowers onto carbon nanotubes film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Ping Bai; Xu Xiao Lu; Guang Ming Yang; Yun Hui Yang

    2008-01-01

    A new amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide was developed based on adsorption of horseradish peroxidase at the glassy carbon electrode modified with zinc oxide nanoflowers produced by electrodeposition onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) firm. The morphology of the MWNTs/nano-ZnO electrode has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrochemical performance of the electrode has also been studied by amperometric method. The resulting electrode offered an excellent detection for hydrogen peroxide at -0.11 V with a linear response range of 9.9 × 10(-7) to 2.9 × 10(-3) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.991, and response time <5 s. The biosensor displays rapid response and expanded linear response range, and excellent stability.

  3. Enhancing denitrification using a carbon supplement generated from the wet oxidation of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, P J; McDonald, B; Gapes, D J

    2011-05-01

    This study compared the effect of four pure carbon supplements on biological denitrification to a liquor derived as a by-product from the wet oxidation (WO) of waste activated sludge. Sequencing batch reactors were used to acclimate sludge biomass, which was used in batch assays. Acetate, WO liquor and ethanol-supplementation generated the fastest denitrification rates. Acetate and WO liquor were efficiently utilised by all acclimated biomass types, while poor rates were achieved with methanol and formate. When comparing an inoculum from an ethanol-supplemented and non-supplemented wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the ethanol-acclimated sludge obtained superior denitrification rates when supplemented with ethanol. Similarly high nitrate removal rates were achieved with both sludge types with acetate and WO liquor supplementation, indicating that WO liquors could achieve excellent rates of nitrate removal. The performance of the WO liquor was attributed to the variety of organic carbon substrates (particularly acetic acid) present within the liquor. PMID:21196117

  4. Catalytic and electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on a Fe electrode in a solid electrolyte cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on Fe catalyst was studied at 300-500C and atmospheric total pressure. The reaction was studied under both open- and closed-circuit operation in an yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte cell. The technique of Solid Electrolyte Potentiometry (SEP) was used to monitor the thermodynamic activity of oxygen adsorbed on the Fe electrode under open circuit. Kinetic and potentiometric measurements were combined in order to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The results are in agreement with a Langmuir-Hinselwood type of adsorption-reaction with two different adsorption sites for carbon monoxide and oxygen. Under closed circuit, the effect of electrochemical oxygen 'pumping' to the catalyst was examined. The operation of the cell was almost Faradaic as the rate enhancement factor (λ) values measured were close to unity

  5. Voltammetric sensor for caffeine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a voltammetric sensor for caffeine that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide (GO). It exhibits a good affinity for caffeine (resulting from the presence of Nafion), and excellent electrochemical response (resulting from the pressence of GO) for the oxidation of caffeine. The electrode enables the determination of caffeine in the range from 4.0 x 10-7 to 8.0 x 10-5 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10-7 mol L-1. The sensor displays good stability, reproducibility, and high sensitivity. It was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of caffeine in beverages. (author)

  6. Synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and propylene glycol over zinc oxide: A homogeneous reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several metal oxides and zinc salts were used to catalyze propylene carbonate (PC synthesis from urea and propylene glycol (PG. According to the results of catalytic test and characterization, the catalytic pattern of ZnO was different from that of other metal oxides such as CaO, MgO and La2O3, but similar to that of zinc salts. In fact, the leaching of Zn species took place during reaction for ZnO. And ZnO was found to be the precursor of homogenous catalyst for reaction of urea and PG. Thus, the relationship between the amount of dissolved zinc species and the catalytic performance of employed ZnO was revealed. In addition, a possible reaction mechanism over ZnO was discussed based on the catalytic runs and the characterization of XRD, FTIR, and element analysis.

  7. Surface Palladium rich CuxPdy/carbon catalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we prepare a series of surface Pd rich CuxPdy/C catalysts with different Pd to Cu ratios which may be applied in methanol and ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. TEM images show that they are well dispersed on the carbon support and the diameters of CuxPdy nanoparticles are concentrated on 3–5 nm. XPS results confirm there exist obvious interactive electron effect between Cu and Pd. Electrochemical measurements show the CuxPdy/C catalysts demonstrate better catalytic activity and stability toward ethanol than that of methanol in alkaline media. Cu1Pd2/C stands out from the four as-prepared catalysts, whose forward anodic peak current densities for methanol and ethanol oxidation are about 220 mA mg−1 Pd and 520 mA mg−1 Pd, respectively

  8. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability. PMID:27474635

  9. Wall-like hierarchical metal oxide nanosheet arrays grown on carbon cloth for excellent supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zongyu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Xiang; Ren, Xiaohui; Xu, Guanghua; Wan, Pengbo; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhang, Han

    2016-07-01

    Recently, considerable efforts have been made to satisfy the future requirements of electrochemical energy storage using novel functional electrode materials. Binary transition metal oxides (BTMOs) possess multiple oxidation states that enable multiple redox reactions, showing higher supercapacitive properties than single component metal oxides. In this work, a facile hydrothermal method is provided for the synthesis of wall-like hierarchical metal oxide MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) nanosheet arrays, which are directly grown on flexible carbon cloth for use as advanced binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. By virtue of their intriguing structure, the resulted active material nanosheets with a high specific surface area can provide a large electroactive region, which could facilitate easy accession of electrolyte ions and fast charge transport, resulting in an enhanced electrochemical performance. Separately, the as-synthesized MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) samples have exhibited superior specific capacitances (1483 F g-1 of NiMoO4 and 452 F g-1 of CoMoO4 at a current density of 2 A g-1), as well as excellent cycling stability (93.1% capacitance retention of NiMoO4 and 95.9% capacitance retention of CoMoO4 after 2000 cycles). The results show that the binder-free electrodes constructed by deposition of MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) nanosheets on carbon cloth are promising candidates for the application of supercapacitors.Recently, considerable efforts have been made to satisfy the future requirements of electrochemical energy storage using novel functional electrode materials. Binary transition metal oxides (BTMOs) possess multiple oxidation states that enable multiple redox reactions, showing higher supercapacitive properties than single component metal oxides. In this work, a facile hydrothermal method is provided for the synthesis of wall-like hierarchical metal oxide MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) nanosheet arrays, which are directly grown on flexible carbon cloth for use as advanced binder

  10. Organometallic Complexes Anchored to Conductive Carbon for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methane at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Madhura; Nguyen, Vinh; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Ngo, Chilan; Li, Quanning; O'Reilly, Matthew E; Gray, Tristan S; Hubbard, William A; Gunnoe, T Brent; Herring, Andrew M; Trewyn, Brian G

    2016-01-13

    Low-temperature direct methane fuel cells (DMEFCs) offer the opportunity to substantially improve the efficiency of energy production from natural gas. This study focuses on the development of well-defined platinum organometallic complexes covalently anchored to ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) for electrochemical oxidation of methane in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at 80 °C. A maximum normalized power of 403 μW/mg Pt was obtained, which was 5 times higher than the power obtained from a modern commercial catalyst and 2 orders of magnitude greater than that from a Pt black catalyst. The observed differences in catalytic activities for oxidation of methane are linked to the chemistry of the tethered catalysts, determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemistry/activity relationships demonstrate a tangible path for the design of electrocatalytic systems for C-H bond activation that afford superior performance in DMEFC for potential commercial applications. PMID:26492385

  11. Platinum catalyst on ordered mesoporous carbon with controlled morphology for methanol electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordered mesoporous carbons CMK-3 with various morphologies are synthesized by using various mesoporous silica SBA-15 as template and then support to prepare Pt/CMK-3 catalyst. The obtained catalysts are compared in terms of the electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation in sulfuric acidic solutions. The structure characterizations and electrochemical analysis reveal that Pt catalysts with the CMK-3 support of large particle size and long channel lengths possess larger electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) and higher activity toward methanol oxidation than those with the other two supports. The better performance of Pt/CMK-3 catalyst may be due to the larger area of electrode/electrolyte interface and larger ECSA value of Pt catalyst, which will provide better structure in favor of the mass transport and the electron transport.

  12. Synthesis of carbon nanotube arrays using ethanol in porous anodic aluminum oxide template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guojun; WANG Sen; GONG Jinlong; ZHU Dezhang; HE Suixia; LI Yulan; ZHU Zhiyuan

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays confined by porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template were synthesized using ethanol as reactant carbon source at low pressure. Images by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low magnification transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that these CNTs have highly uniform outer diameter and length, absolutely controlled by the diameter and depth of nano-channel arrays of the AAO. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging indicates that the graphitization of the CNT walls is better than the results reported on this kind of template-based CNT arrays, although it is not so good as that of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by catalysis. CNTs synthesized using acetylene as reactant gas show much less graphitization than those prepared using ethanol by comparing the results of HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy. The etching effects of decomposed OH radicals on the amorphous carbon and the roughness of AAO nano-channel arrays on the CNTs growth were employed to explain the graphitization and growth of the CNTs.

  13. Photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Yasser A.; El Sayed, Mohamed A.; El Maradny, Amr A.; Al Farawati, Radwan Kh.; Al Zobidi, Mosa I.; Khan, Shahed U. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the sonicated sol-gel method was used for synthesizing carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Carbon incorporation was achieved by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a titanium and carbon-containing precursor. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized photocatalyst was assessed by examining the photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from aqueous solution. For comparison, unmodified (regular) titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) was used as a reference catalyst. To confirm the carbon incorporation in CM-n-TiO2 nanoparticles, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used. Significantly, the bandgap energy was found to be reduced from 2.99 eV for n-TiO2 to 1.8 eV for CM-n-TiO2, which in turn improved the performance of CM-n-TiO2 toward the photocatalytic removal of PCBs. The effects of CM-n-TiO2 loading, PCBs concentration, and pH of the solution on the photodegradation rate of PCBs were investigated. The highest removal rate was found to be at pH 5 and CM-n-TiO2 loading of 0.5 g L-1. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the photodegradation of PCBs using CM-n-TiO2 followed a pseudo-first order reaction kinetics.

  14. Raman Spectroscopy of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technique Overview and Application to Carbon Deposition Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Maher, R. C.

    2013-07-30

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful characterization tool for improving the understanding of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), capable of providing direct, molecularly specific information regarding the physical and chemical processes occurring within functional SOFCs in real time. In this paper we give a summary of the technique itself and highlight ex situ and in situ studies that are particularly relevant for SOFCs. This is followed by a case study of carbon formation on SOFC Ni-based anodes exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) using both ex situ and in situ Raman spectroscopy combined with computational simulations. In situ measurements clearly show that carbon formation is significantly reduced for polarized SOFCs compared to those held at open circuit potential (OCP). Ex situ Raman mapping of the surfaces showed clear variations in the rate of carbon formation across the surface of polarized anodes. Computational simulations describing the geometry of the cell showed that this is due to variations in gas access. These results demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy in combination with traditional characterization tools, to provide detailed understanding of critical processes occurring within functional SOFCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Roles of Oxidized Diacylglycerol for Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Liver Injury and Fibrosis in Mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since there is a report that an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) effectively suppresses the development of hepatic fibrosis, it is suggested that the PKC signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. We reported that oxidized diacylglycerol (DAG), which is an activator of PKC, had a remarkably stronger PKC-activating action than un-oxidized DAG. In the present study, we explored the roles of oxidized DAG in hepatic fibrogenesis using mice, the livers of which developed fibrosis by long-term administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Liver fibrosis models were created by 4- or 8-week repetitive subcutaneous injections of CCl4 to the backs of C57BL/6J mice. The amount of oxidized DAG was significantly increased in the CCl4-treated group. Moreover, it was found that PKCα, βI, βII and δ were activated. In the CCl4-treated group, phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, which are downstream signal transmitters in the PKC pathway, was increased. It was also found in this group that there was an increase in TIMP-1, which is a fibrogenesis-promoting factor whose expression is enhanced by activated JNK, and of TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine. Analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that expressions of αSMA, collagen I, TNF-α and IL-10 were remarkably increased in the 8-week CCl4-treated group. The above results strongly suggested that oxidized DAG, which is increased by augmented oxidative stress, activated PKCα, βI, βII and δ molecular species and that these molecular species in turn stimulated the phosphorylation of MAP kinases including ERK and JNK, resulting in enhancement of hepatic fibrogenesis

  16. Kinetics of wet peroxide oxidation of phenol with a gold/activated carbon catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, Carmen M.; Quintanilla, Asunción; Casas, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on activated carbon (Au/AC) have been tested in catalytic wet peroxide oxidation using phenol as target pollutant. In the current work, the effect of several operating conditions, including initial pH (3.5–10.5), catalyst load (0–6 g/L), initial phenol concentration (0.1–5 g/L), hydrogen peroxide dose (4–100% of the theoretical stoichiometric amount) and reaction temperature (50–80 °C) has been investigated. The results show that the Au/AC catalyst would be useful...

  17. Improved electro-mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes network embedded in elastic polyurethane by oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petráš, D.; Slobodian, P.; Olejník, R.; Říha, Pavel

    Stevens Point, Wisconsin: WSEAS Press, 2012 - (Choras, R.; Oprisan, S.), s. 73-76. (Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering Series. 6). ISBN 978-1-61804-119-7. ISSN 1790-5117. [WSEAS International Conference on Sensors and Signals (SENSIG '12) /5./. Sliema (MT), 07.09.2012-09.09.2012] Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111; UTB Zlín(CZ) IGA/FT/2012/ 022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : carbon nanotube s * oxidation * flexible composites * strain sensor * resistance Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  18. Dynamic measurement of mercury adsorption and oxidation on activated carbon in simulated cement kiln flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    of the sulfite converter is short and typically within 2min. Dynamic mercury adsorption and oxidation tests on commercial activated carbons Darco Hg and HOK standard were performed at 150°C using simulated cement kiln gas and a fixed bed reactor system. It is shown that the converter and analyzer...... applied. A sodium sulfite-based converter material was prepared by dry impregnation of sodium sulfite and calcium sulfate powders on zeolite pellets using water glass as binder. The sulfite converter works well at 500°C with less than 10ppmv HCl in the simulated cement kiln flue gas. The 95% response time...

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Magnesium Oxide Coated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-Peng Du; Hao Tang; De-Yong Huang

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium oxide coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MgO@MWNT) were fabricated and dispersed into epoxy matrix. The microstructures of MgO@MWNT and epoxy/MgO@MWNT nanocomposites were characterized by TEM and SEM. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of epoxy nanocomposites were investigated with high resistance meter and thermal conductivity meter, respectively. MgO@MWNT has core-shell structure with MgO as shell and nanotube as core, and the thickness of MgO shell is ca. 15 nm. Mg...

  20. Field emission properties of low-density carbon nanotubes prepared on anodic aluminum-oxide template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodic aluminum-oxide (AAO) templates were fabricated by two-step anodizing an Al film. After the Co catalyst had been electrochemically deposited onto the bottom of the AAO template, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by using catalytic pyrolysis of C2H2 and H2 at 650 .deg. C. Overgrowth of CNTs with low density on the AAO templates was observed. The field-emission measurements on the samples showed a turn-on field of 2.17 V/μm and a field enhancement factor of 5700. The emission pattern on a phosphor screen was quite homogeneous over the area at a relatively low electric field.

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of some basic alcohols on multiwalled carbon nanotube–platinum composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minsoo Koo; Jong-Seong Bae; Hyun-Chul Kim; Dae-Geun Nam; Chang Hyun Ko; Jeong Hyun Yeum; Weontae Oh

    2012-08-01

    Some composites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which were chemically treated in acidic and/or hydrogen peroxide solution, and platinum nanoparticles were prepared by the simple reduction in glycerol solution. Carboxylated and/or hydroxyl MWNTs were structurally analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, the MWNT–Pt composites were characterized by XRD and TEM in detail. The electrochemical oxidation of some basic alcohols, which was catalyzed by the MWNT–Pt composites, was analysed by cyclic voltammetry. Their catalytic activities were studied with cyclic voltammograms of alcohols.

  2. Characteristic features of the thermophysical properties of a system based on polyethylene oxide and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental and computational investigations of the thermophysical characteristics of polymer nanocomposites based on polyethylene oxide and carbon nanotubes are presented. It has been established that the thermal conductivity of a system depends substantially on the structure of the polymer matrix and content of nanotubes. It is shown that the thermal conductivity displays percolation behavior and is described within the framework of the percolation theory. The percolation threshold equals 0.6%. It has been revealed that before the percolation threshold the thermal conductivity correlates well with the degree of crystallinity of the polymer matrix. (authors)

  3. Coaxial nanocable: silicon carbide and silicon oxide sheathed with boron nitride and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang; Suenaga; Colliex; Iijima

    1998-08-14

    Multielement nanotubes comprising multiple phases, with diameters of a few tens of nanometers and lengths up to 50 micrometers, were successfully synthesized by means of reactive laser ablation. The experimentally determined structure consists of a beta-phase silicon carbide core, an amorphous silicon oxide intermediate layer, and graphitic outer shells made of boron nitride and carbon layers separated in the radial direction. The structure resembles a coaxial nanocable with a semiconductor-insulator-metal (or semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor) geometry and suggests applications in nanoscale electronic devices that take advantage of this self-organization mechanism for multielement nanotube formation. PMID:9703508

  4. Fabrication and electrocatalytic application of functionalized nanoporous carbon material with different transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of highly ordered functionalized nanoporous carbon material with different types of transition metal oxides. ► Novel electrocatalytic activity of functionalized nanoporous carbon material. ► Simultaneous effect of surface area and surface reactivity parameters on electrocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In the work presented here, an attempt is made to study the effect of functionalization with different transition metal oxides on the mesostructural properties as well as electrochemical behavior of Pt/nanoporous carbon supports. In this respect, the functionalized samples have been synthesized by using CMK-3 and metallocene as transition metal sources. The platinum catalysts (5 wt% Pt) obtained through a conventional wet impregnation method. All the materials have been characterized by XRD (low and high), N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution field emission scanning electron, EDX mapping images and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. The results showed that the mesostructural order has been destroyed by functionalization of CMK-3 with CoO, whereas it is not that much affected in NiO and CuO functionalized samples. EDX image mapping exhibited the good and uniform dispersion of functionalizing elements (Ni, Cu, Fe and Co), Pt in the carbon supports. Moreover, XRD studies revealed the formation of smaller platinum crystallite sizes in NiO and CuO functionalized samples in relative to other functionalized supports. Electrochemical measurements were performed using CV and RDE method. Kinetic analysis revealed an activity increases in the following order: CMK-3-NiO-Pt > CMK-3-CuO-Pt > CMK-3-CoO-Pt > CMK-3-Fe2O3-Pt which is showing of simultaneous effect of surface area and surface reactivity parameters.

  5. Adsorption of SO2 onto oxidized and heat-treated activated carbon fibers (ACFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M.A.; Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Riha, S.; Lizzio, A.A.; Donnals, G.L.; Economy, J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and heat-treated oxidized ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume for the adsorption of SO2 and its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. For untreated ACFs, the initial rate of SO2 adsorption from flue gas was shown to be inversely related to pore size. At longer times, the amount of SO2 adsorbed from flue gas was dependent on both the pore size and pore volume. Oxidation of the ACFs, using an aqueous oxidant, decreased their adsorption capacity for SO2 from flue gas due to a decrease in pore volume and repulsion of the SO2 from acidic surface groups. If these samples were heat-treated to desorb the oxygen containing function groups, the amount of SO2 adsorption increased. This increase in adsorption capacity was directly correlated to the amount of CO2 evolved during heat-treatment of the oxidized ACFs. The amount of SO2 adsorbed for these samples was related to the pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume. This analysis is explained in more detail in this paper. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some amino acids on a nickel-curcumin complex modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdi, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the electrocatalytic oxidation of alanine, L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine and glycine on poly-Ni(II)-curcumin film (curcumin: 1,7-bis [4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solution. The process of oxidation and its kinetics were established by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of amino acids the anodic peak current of low valence nickel species increased, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This indicates that amino acids were oxidized on the redox mediator which was immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. Using Laviron's equation, the values of {alpha} and k {sub s} for the immobilized redox species were determined as 0.43 {+-} 0.03 and 2.47 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, respectively. The rate constant, the electron transfer coefficient and the diffusion coefficients involved in the electrocatalytic oxidation of amino acids were determined.

  7. Hybrid ternary rice paper-manganese oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposites for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Kaixi; Wei, Li; Yu, Dingshan; Wei, Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2013-11-21

    Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two-electrode supercapacitors demonstrated high capacitance (260.2 F g(-1)), energy (9.0 W h kg(-1)), power (59.7 kW kg(-1)), and cycle stability (12% drop after 3000 cycles). In addition, the nanocomposites show good strength and excellent mechanical flexibility, and their capacitance shows negligible changes after bending more than 100 times. These findings suggest that opportunities exist to further explore the rich chemistry of cellulose fibers for innovative energy applications. PMID:24077360

  8. A new apparatus for carbon monoxide oxidation studies performed over thin film catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we describe the apparatus developed in our laboratory for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation studies dedicated to test thin film catalysts deposited on flat substrates. Our apparatus is original for its unique technical solutions, especially in continuous gas flow mode, and specifically as: (i) the sample holder is designed such that it can allow the gas flow to interact with the entire surface of the catalyst film to be utilized for the CO oxidation reaction, (ii) three different mass flow controllers permit a gas mixture of any composition during the measurement, (iii) CO to CO2 conversion is continuously monitored for long periods of time and can be tested in a wide range of temperatures (30–500 °C) with high accuracy on-line gas chromatography, and (iv) several security measures are guaranteed during the handling of CO gas. To test the efficiency of the apparatus, an experiment for CO oxidation was carried out at various temperatures using cobalt oxide cluster-assembled thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition over a glass substrate. (paper)

  9. Oxidation behaviour of carbon monoxide at the photostimulated surface of ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally carbon monoxide is considered to be a reducing agent, which can be used for CO detection. However, oxidizing behaviour of CO, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported. In this work, we find that CO can also act as oxidizing gas at room temperature on photostimulated ZnO nanowires. For photostimulation, the low intensity of light emitting diodes is used to induce a very low photocurrent, which, however, leads to a large resistance change due to the ultraviolet light interaction with the nanowire surface. During CO detection, the oxygen vacancies enhance the CO adsorption on the nanowire surface even at room temperature. CO molecules adsorbing on the surface are presumably bound to a zinc-oxygen vacancy complex, causing a reduction in free electron concentration, which leads to an oxidizing effect of CO gas. An adsorption model for CO is proposed to explain the experimental observations. These results shed light on developing room-temperature CO sensor using oxide nanostructures with the help of high energetic photon replacing the high-temperature process normally used in traditional gas sensors.

  10. Partial oxidation of municipal sludge with activited carbon catalyst in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partial oxidation (POX) characteristics of municipal sludge in supercritical water (SCW) were investigated by using batch reactor. Effects of reaction parameters such as oxidant equivalent ratio (OER), reaction time and temperature were investigated. Activated carbon (AC) could effectively improve the mole fraction of H2 in gas product at low OER. However, high OER (greater than 0.3) not only led to the combustion reaction of CO and H2, but also caused corrosion of reactor inner wall. Hydrogenation and polymerization of the intermediate products are possible reasons for the relative low COD removal rate in our tests. Metal oxide leached from the reactor inner wall and the main components of the granular sludge were deposited in the AC catalyst. Reaction time had more significant effect on BET surface area of AC than OER had. Long reaction time led to the methanation reaction following hydrolysis and oxidation reaction of AC in SCW in the presence of oxygen. Correspondingly, the possible reaction mechanisms were proposed.

  11. Preparation of graphene oxide/polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite and its application in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel method for synthesizing graphene oxide/polypyrrole/multi-walled nanotube composites. • Investigation of the effects of the mass ratio of GO, CM and Py on the capacitance of prepared composites. • Excellent electrochemical performance of PCMG composites. - Abstract: We report a novel method for preparing graphene oxide/polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites (PCMG). The MWCNTs are treated by sulfuric acid, nitric acid and thionyl chloride, and then composite with graphene oxide and PPy by in suit polymerization. Transition electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that in 3-D structure of PCMG composites, PPy chains act as the “bridge” between graphene oxide and chlorinated-MWCNTs. Electrochemical tests reveal that the PCMG1-1 composite has high capacitance of 406.7 F g−1 at current density of 0.5 A g−1, and the capacitance retention of PCMG1-1 composite is 92% after 1000 cycles

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some amino acids on a nickel-curcumin complex modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the electrocatalytic oxidation of alanine, L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine and glycine on poly-Ni(II)-curcumin film (curcumin: 1,7-bis [4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solution. The process of oxidation and its kinetics were established by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of amino acids the anodic peak current of low valence nickel species increased, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This indicates that amino acids were oxidized on the redox mediator which was immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. Using Laviron's equation, the values of α and k s for the immobilized redox species were determined as 0.43 ± 0.03 and 2.47 ± 0.02 x 106 s-1, respectively. The rate constant, the electron transfer coefficient and the diffusion coefficients involved in the electrocatalytic oxidation of amino acids were determined

  13. Metal-Organic Frameworks to Metal/Metal Oxide Embedded Carbon Matrix: Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Sorption Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Jen Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three isostructural metal-organic frameworks, (MOFs, [Fe(OH(1,4-NDC] (1, [Al(OH(1,4-NDC] (2, and [In(OH(1,4-NDC] (3 have been synthesized hydrothermally by using 1,4-naphthalene dicarboxylate (1,4-NDC as a linker. The MOFs were characterized using various techniques and further used as precursor materials for the synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles inserted in a carbon matrix through a simple thermal conversion method. The newly synthesized carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and BET analysis. The results showed that the MOF-derived carbon composite materials maintained the morphology of the original MOF upon carbonization, and confirmed the insertion of metal/metal oxide particles in the carbon matrix.

  14. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for COPROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 22nd October 2010, Revised: 12nd January 2011, Accepted: 19th January 2011[How to Cite: A. Mishra, R. Prasad. (2011. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (1: 1-14. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/191] | View in 

  15. Effect of material and environmental factors on FAC rate and on characteristics of oxide film of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined effects of Cr content and pH on corrosion rate of carbon steels due to flow accelerated corrosion have been examined by experiments and their relation to oxide scale characteristics based on detailed oxide layer characterizations using transmission electron microscope with X-ray analyzer have been discussed. Effect of Cr content on FAC mitigation decrease continuously as pH is increased from neutral to 10.4 and effect of pH on that increase significantly from pH 9.1 to 9.4. Obvious Cr enrichment has been observed in the oxide layer of 1.01 wt % Cr content steel regardless pH condition. Cr concentration is highest at top surface of oxide layer, and that decrease from surface to oxide / metal interface gradually. It has been suggested that Cr enrichment stabilize oxide layer (decrease solubility and defect density of oxide layer), as a result, FAC suppressed. (author)

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon supported metal/metal oxide nanocomposites and their application in water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Gunawan

    A novel, easy, and cost effective method for synthesizing carbon supported metal/metal oxide nanocomposites has been studied. Carbon supported metal/metal oxide nanocomposites have niche applications in the area of catalysis, fuel cells, electrodes, and more. The method utilizes a commercial microwave and features the addition of a developed graphite-jacket technique with renewable carbon resources, tannin and lignin. The method has been successfully used to synthesize carbon/nickel, carbon/iron oxide, and carbon/nickel phosphide nanocomposites. The method has shown its versatility in the synthesis of carbon nanocomposites. The process is much simpler when compared with the available methods for synthesizing carbon nanocomposites. The synthesized nanocomposites were classified using several characterization techniques, such as electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and spectrophotometric studies. One application of the carbon nanocomposite is in wastewater remediation. The synthesized carbon/iron oxide nanocomposite was noted as being useful for removing arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) from contaminated water. The adsorption process of the nanocomposite was critically studied in order to understand the process of removing pollutants from contaminated water. The study shows that the nanocomposites are capable of removing As and P from contaminated water. Kinetic and adsorption isotherm studies were applied to understand the adsorption of As and P onto the adsorbent. Several methods, such as pseudo-first and second order kinetic models, Elovich's equation, and the Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model were used to explain the kinetic aspects of the adsorption process. For the adsorption isotherm study, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied.

  17. Thermal stability and oxidizing properties of mixed alkaline earth-alkali molten carbonates: A focus on the lithium-sodium carbonate eutectic system with magnesium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TG/DSC analysis was conducted on magnesium-containing eutectic Li/Na eutectic carbonates. • Magnesium influence on the oxygen solubility properties of carbonate was also experimentally determined at 600 °C and 650 °C. • A reproducible partial decarbonation process in premelting region caused formation of magnesium oxycarbonate-like phases. • The acidobase buffering action of magnesium oxycarbonate species could explain the high basic/oxidizing properties of such carbonate melts. • A general correlation between thermal instability in premelting region and basic/oxidizing melt properties was established. - Abstract: A comparative study on thermal behavior and oxygen solubility properties of eutectic 52/48 lithium/sodium carbonate salt containing minor additions of magnesium up to 10 mol% has been made in order to determine whether a general correlation between these two properties can be found or not. Consecutive TG/DSC heating/cooling thermal cycles carried out under alternating CO2 and N2 gas flows allowed to assign thermal events observed in the premelting region to a partial decarbonation process of the magnesium-alkali mixed carbonates. The observed decarbonation process at 460 °C is believed to come from initial stage of thermal decomposition of magnesium carbonate resulting in the metastable formation of magnesium oxycarbonate-like phases MgO·2MgCO3, in a similar manner as previously reported for lanthanum. Reversible formation and decomposition of the magnesium carbonate phase has been observed under a CO2 gas atmosphere. The intensity of the decomposition process shows a maximum for a 3 mol% MgO addition that gives also the highest oxygen solubility, suggesting therefore that instability thermal analysis in the premelting region can be considered as providing an effective measure of the basicity/oxidizing properties of alkali carbonate melts with magnesium or, in more general terms, with cations that are strong modifiers of the

  18. Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl- CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during à-oxidation of 3- methyl-branched fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Foulon, V; Croes, K; Waelkens, E

    1999-01-01

    Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl- CoA lyase, a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carbon-carbon bond cleavage during à-oxidation of 3- methyl-branched fatty acids

  19. Supercritical fluid deposition of vanadium oxide on multi-walled carbon nanotube buckypaper for supercapacitor electrode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite electrodes were fabricated for supercapacitor applications by depositing vanadium oxide onto multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) buckypaper using supercritical fluid deposition (SFD). The deposited thin vanadium oxide layer showed amorphous structure with excellent uniformity. In aqueous KCl electrolyte, the vanadium oxide exhibited a constant pseudo-capacitance of ∼ 1024 F g-1, which was independent of the oxide material loading (up to 6.92 wt%) and voltage scan rate (up to 100 mV s-1). The highest specific electrode capacitance achieved was ∼ 85 F g-1, which was almost four times that of the pristine buckypaper electrode.

  20. Carbon isotope analysis of dissolved organic carbon in fresh and saline (NaCl) water via continuous flow cavity ring-down spectroscopy following wet chemical oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thomas, Randal B.; Saad, Nabil; Thordsen, James J.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the performance and limitations of a wet chemical oxidation carbon analyser interfaced with a cavity ring-down spectrometer (WCO-CRDS) in a continuous flow (CF) configuration for measuring δ13C of dissolved organic carbon (δ13C-DOC) in natural water samples. Low-chloride matrix (22.5 µg C/aliquot) may be analysed. The WCO-CRDS approach requires more total carbon (µg C/aliquot) than conventional CF-isotope ratio mass spectrometer, but is nonetheless applicable to a wide range of DOC concentration and water types, including brackish water, produced water, and basinal brines.

  1. Synthesis of Mesoporous Metal Oxides by Structure Replication: Thermal Analysis of Metal Nitrates in Porous Carbon Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Weinberger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of metal nitrates were filled into the pores of an ordered mesoporous CMK-3 carbon matrix by solution-based impregnation. Thermal conversion of the metal nitrates into the respective metal oxides, and subsequent removal of the carbon matrix by thermal combustion, provides a versatile means to prepare mesoporous metal oxides (so-called nanocasting. This study aims to monitor the thermally induced processes by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, coupled with mass ion detection (MS. The highly dispersed metal nitrates in the pores of the carbon matrix tend to react to the respective metal oxides at lower temperature than reported in the literature for pure, i.e., carbon-free, metal nitrates. The subsequent thermal combustion of the CMK-3 carbon matrix also occurs at lower temperature, which is explained by a catalytic effect of the metal oxides present in the pores. This catalytic effect is particularly strong for oxides of redox active metals, such as transition group VII and VIII metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ce.

  2. MODELING AND DESIGN FOR A DIRECT CARBON FUEL CELL WITH ENTRAINED FUEL AND OXIDIZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan A. Kornhauser; Ritesh Agarwal

    2005-04-01

    The novel molten carbonate fuel cell design described in this report uses porous bed electrodes. Molten carbonate, with carbon fuel particles and oxidizer entrained, is circulated through the electrodes. Carbon may be reacted directly, without gasification, in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The cathode reaction is 2CO{sub 2} + O{sub 2} 4e{sup -} {yields} 2CO{sub 3}{sup =}, while the anode reaction can be either C + 2CO{sub 3}{sup =} {yields} 3CO{sub 2} + 4e{sup -} or 2C + CO{sub 3}{sup =} {yields} 3CO + 2e{sup -}. The direct carbon fuel cell has an advantage over fuel cells using coal-derived synthesis gas in that it provides better overall efficiency and reduces equipment requirements. Also, the liquid electrolyte provides a means for transporting the solid carbon. The porous bed cell makes use of this carbon transport ability of the molten salt electrolyte. A one-dimensional model has been developed for predicting the performance of this cell. For the cathode, dependent variables are superficial O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes in the gas phase, superficial O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} fluxes in the liquid phase, superficial current density through the electrolyte, and electrolyte potential. The variables are related by correlations, from the literature, for gas-liquid mass transfer, liquid-solid mass transfer, cathode current density, electrode overpotential, and resistivity of a liquid with entrained gas. For the anode, dependent variables are superficial CO{sub 2} flux in the gas phase, superficial CO{sub 2} flux in the liquid phase, superficial C flux, superficial current density through the electrolyte, and electrolyte potential. The same types of correlations relate the variables as in the cathode, with the addition of a correlation for resistivity of a fluidized bed. CO production is not considered, and axial dispersion is neglected. The model shows behavior typical of porous bed electrodes used in electrochemical processes. Efficiency is comparable to that of

  3. Nondestructive covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes by selective oxidation of the original defects with K2FeO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nondestructive covalent CNT functionalization is realized by defect oxidation. • A green oxidant K2FeVIO4 is used for CNT oxidation for the first time. • Effective CNT oxidation can be achieved at 60 °C in 3 h. • Oxidized CNTs are obtained in yields of above 100 wt%. • FeO3, an unusual Fe (VI) specie, is produced when K2FeO4 is dissolved in H2SO4. - Abstract: Chemical oxidation is still the major approach to the covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Theoretically, the defects on CNTs are more reactive than skeletal hexagons and should be preferentially oxidized, but conventional oxidation methods, e.g., HNO3/H2SO4 treatment, have poor reaction selectivity and inevitably consume the C=C bonds in the hexagonal lattices, leading to structural damage, π-electrons loss and weight decrease. In this work, we realized the nondestructive covalent functionalization of CNTs by selective oxidation of the defects. In our method, potassium ferrate K2FeVIO4 was employed as an oxidant for CNTs in H2SO4 medium. The CNT samples, before and after K2FeO4/H2SO4 treatment, were characterized with colloid dispersibility, IR, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM and XPS. The results indicated that (i) CNTs could be effectively oxidized by Fe (VI) under mild condition (60 °C, 3 h), and hydrophilic CNTs with abundant surface −COOH groups were produced; and (ii) Fe (VI) oxidation of CNTs followed a defect-specific oxidation process, that is, only the sp3-hybridized carbon atoms on CNT surface were oxidized while the C=C bonds remained unaffected. This selective/nondestructive oxidation afforded oxidized CNTs in yields of above 100 wt%. This paper shows that K2FeO4/H2SO4 is an effective, nondestructive and green oxidation system for oxidative functionalization of CNTs and probably other carbon materials as well

  4. Dispersion medium modulates oxidative stress response of human lung epithelial cells upon exposure to carbon nanomaterial samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their large specific surface area, the potential of nanoparticles to be highly reactive and to induce oxidative stress is particularly high. In addition, some types of nanoparticles contain transition metals as trace impurities which are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems. This study investigates the potential of two types of single-walled carbon nanotube samples, nanoparticulate carbon black and crocidolite asbestos to induce ROS in lung epithelial cells in vitro. Carbon nanotube and carbon black samples were used as produced, without further purification or processing, in order to best mimic occupational exposure by inhalation of airborne dust particles derived from carbon nanomaterial production. Intracellular ROS were measured following short-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and A549 alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells using the redox sensitive probe carboxydichlorofluorescin (carboxy-DCFDA). The oxidative potential of agglomerated nanomaterial samples was compared following dispersion in cell culture medium with and without foetal calf serum (FCS) supplement. In addition, samples were dispersed in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component of lung surfactant. It could be illustrated that in vitro exposure of lung epithelial cells to carbon nanomaterial samples results only in moderate or low oxidative stress under the exposure conditions employed. However, cell responses are strongly dependent on the vehicle used for dispersion. Whereas the presence of DPPC increased intracellular ROS formation, FCS seemed to protect the cells from oxidative insult.

  5. Contribution to the study of the oxidation reaction of the carbon oxide in contact with catalysts issued from the decomposition of nickel hydro-aluminates at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addressing the study of the oxidation reaction of carbon oxide which produces carbon dioxide, this research thesis reports the study of this reaction in presence of catalysts (2NiO + Al2O3, NiAl2O4 and NiO + NiAl2O4) issued from the decomposition of nickel hydro-aluminates at different temperatures. The first part describes experimental techniques and the nature of materials used in this study. The second part reports the study of the catalytic activity of the 2NiO+Al2O3 catalyst during the oxidation of CO. Preliminary studies are also reported: structure and texture of nickel hydro-aluminate which is the raw material used to produce catalysts, activation of this compound to develop the catalytic activity in CO oxidation, chemisorption of CO, O2 and CO2 on the 2NiO+Al2O3 solid, interaction of adsorbed gases at the solid surface, and kinetic study of the oxidation reaction. The third part reports the study of the catalytic activity in the oxidation reaction of CO of spinel catalysts (NiAl2O4 and NiO+NiAl2O4) obtained by calcination of nickel hydro-aluminates at high temperature. The formation of the spinel phase, the chemisorption of CO, O2 and CO2 on NiAl2O4, and the kinetic of the oxidation reaction are herein studied

  6. Heterogeneous catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badstube, T.; Papp, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Kustrowski, P.; Dziembaj, R. [Jagiellonian Univ., Crakow (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Alkaline promoted active carbon supported iron catalysts are very active in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in the presence of carbon dioxide. The best results were obtained at 550 C for a Li-promoted catalyst with a conversion of ethylbenzene of 75% and a selectivity towards styrene of nearly 95%. These results are better than those obtained with industrial catalysts which perform the dehydrogenation process with an excess of water. The main product of the dehydrogenation reaction with CO{sub 2} was styrene, but the following by-products were detected - benzene and toluene. The selectivity towards toluene was always higher than towards benzene. We observed also the formation of carbon monoxide and water, which were produced with a constant molar ratio of about 0.8. The weight of the catalysts increased up to 20% during the reaction due to deposition of carbon. Using a too large excess of CO{sub 2} (CO{sub 2}/EB>10) was harmful for the styrene yield. The most favorable molar ratio of CO{sub 2} to EB was 10:1. No correlation between the molar ratios of reactants and the amount of deposited coke on the surface of catalysts was observed. The highest catalytic activity showed iron loaded D-90 catalysts which were promoted with alkali metals in a molar ratio of 1:10. Iron, nickel and cobalt loaded carbonized PPAN, PC, inorganic supports like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} or TiO{sub 2} respectively and commercial iron catalysts applied for styrene production did not show comparable catalytic activity in similar conditions. (orig.)

  7. Highly efficient antibacterial iron oxide@carbon nanochains from wüstite precursor nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Shu F; Samia, Anna Cristina S

    2014-11-26

    A new hydrothermal synthesis approach involving the carbonization of glucose in the presence of wüstite (FeO) nanoparticles is presented, which leads to the fabrication of rapidly acting and potent antibacterial agents based on iron oxide@carbon (IO@C) nanochains. By using nonmagnetic FeO precursor nanoparticles that slowly oxidize into the magnetic Fe3O4 crystal structure under hydrothermal conditions, we were able to prepare well-defined and short-length IO@C nanochains that are highly dispersed in aqueous media and readily interact with bacterial cells, leading to a complete loss in bacterial cell viability within short incubation times at minimal dosage. The smaller IO@C nanochains synthesized using the FeO precursor nanoparticles can reach above 2-fold enhancement in microbe-killing activity when compared to the larger nanochains fabricated directly from Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In addition, the synthesized IO@C nanochains can be easily isolated using an external magnet and be subsequently recycled to effectively eradicate Escherichia coli cells even after five separate treatment cycles. PMID:25347201

  8. Tailoring copper oxide semiconductor nanorod arrays for photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshwar, Krishnan; de Tacconi, Norma R; Ghadimkhani, Ghazaleh; Chanmanee, Wilaiwan; Janáky, Csaba

    2013-07-22

    Solar photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol in aqueous media was driven on hybrid CuO/Cu2O semiconductor nanorod arrays for the first time. A two-step synthesis was designed and demonstrated for the preparation of these hybrid copper oxide one-dimensional nanostructures on copper substrates. The first step consisted in the growth of CuO nanorods by thermal oxidation of a copper foil at 400 °C. In the second step, controlled electrodeposition of p-type Cu2O crystallites on the CuO walls was performed. The resulting nanorod morphology with controllable wall thickness by adjusting the Cu2O electrodeposition time as well as their surface/bulk chemical composition were probed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Photoelectrosynthesis of methanol from carbon dioxide was demonstrated at -0.2 V vs SHE under simulated AM1.5 solar irradiation on optimized hybrid CuO/Cu2O nanorod electrodes and without assistance of any homogeneous catalyst (such as pyridine or imidazole) in the electrolyte. The hybrid composition, ensuring double pathway for photoelectron injection to CO2, along with high surface area were found to be crucial for efficient performance in methanol generation under solar illumination. Methanol formation, tracked by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, indicated Faradaic efficiencies of ~95%. PMID:23712877

  9. Synthesis and characterization of amorphous poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(trimethylene carbonate) polymer blend electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have been proposed as substitutes for conventional non-aqueous electrolytes in various electrochemical devices. These promising materials may be of interest in various practical devices including batteries, sensors and electrochromic displays as they can offer high performance in terms of specific energy and specific power (batteries), safe operation, form flexibility in device arquitecture and low manufacturing costs. Many different host polymers have been characterized over the last 30 years, however a relatively un-explored strategy involves the use of interpenetrating blends incorporating two or more polymers. Electrolyte systems based on interpenetrating blends of known host polymers, poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(trimethylene carbonate), doped with lithium perchlorate, were prepared by co-dissolution in acetonitrile. This combination of polymer components results in the formation of a material that may be applicable in batteries and electrochromic devices. The results of characterization of polymer electrolyte systems based on interpenetrating blends of amorphous poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(trimethylene carbonate) host matrices, with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as guest salt, are described in this study. Electrolytes with compositions of n between 5 and 15 (where n represents the total number of cation-coordinating units per lithium ion) were obtained as flexible, transparent and free-standing films that were characterized by measurements of conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry.

  10. Protein Biosensors Based on Polymer Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes and Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeksoo Ji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of biosensors using electrochemical methods is a promising application in the field of biotechnology. High sensitivity sensors for the bio-detection of proteins have been developed using several kinds of nanomaterials. The performance of the sensors depends on the type of nanostructures with which the biomaterials interact. One dimensional (1-D structures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanorods are proven to have high potential for bio-applications. In this paper we review these three different kinds of nanostructures that have attracted much attention at recent times with their great performance as biosensors. Materials such as polymers, carbon and zinc oxide have been widely used for the fabrication of nanostructures because of their enhanced performance in terms of sensitivity, biocompatibility, and ease of preparation. Thus we consider polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide nanorods for discussion in this paper. We consider three stages in the development of biosensors: (a fabrication of biomaterials into nanostructures, (b alignment of the nanostructures and (c immobilization of proteins. Two different methods by which the biosensors can be developed at each stage for all the three nanostructures are examined. Finally, we conclude by mentioning some of the major challenges faced by many researchers who seek to fabricate biosensors for real time applications.

  11. Chemically Modified Activated Carbons as Catalysts of Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-Butane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial availability and low price of light alkanes make them very attractive in many branches of industry. Potentially interesting is their use in the process of oxidative dehydrogenation leading to production of olefins. This study was undertaken to characterise the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane to 1,3-butadiene (important substrate in production of synthetic rubber and polyamides) taking place over the modified carbon catalysts obtained from peach stones precursor. The catalytic tests were performed in the temperature range 250-450oC at oxygen/n-butane ratio of 1:1. For the majority of the activated carbon samples studied at the lowest temperature the only product was CO2. At 300oC the products of dehydrogenation of n-butane and side products appeared. With increasing temperature the amount of compounds generated increased and in the group of C4 hydrocarbons the dominant were 1-butene and 1,3-butadiene. The most effective catalyst was the sample oxidised with air, the least effective was the sample modified with ammonium peroxydisulphate. (authors)

  12. Reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide on the Al-Mo(110) surface alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorkina, G. S.; Tvauri, I. V.; Kaloeva, A. G.; Burdzieva, O. G.; Sekiba, D.; Ogura, S.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2016-05-01

    Coadsorption and reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) on Al-Mo(110) surface alloy have been studied by means of Auger electron, reflection-absorption infrared and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopies (AES, RAIRS, TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and work function measurements. The Al-Mo(110) surface alloy was obtained by thermal annealing at 800 K of aluminum film deposited on Mo(110) held at room temperature. Upon annealing Al penetrates the surface, most likely forming stoichiometric hexagonal surface monolayer of the compound Al2Mo. The NO and CO adsorb molecularly on this alloy surface at 200 K, unlike totally dissociative adsorption on bare Mo(110) and Al(111) film. Adsorption of CO on NO precovered Al-Mo(110) substrate dramatically affects the state of NO molecules, most probably displacing them to higher-coordinated sites with their simultaneous tilting to the surface plane. Heating to about room temperature (320 K) causes reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide, yielding CO2, and substrate nitridation. This behavior can be associated with the surface reconstruction providing additional Al/Mo interface reaction sites and change of the d-band upon alloying.

  13. Ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate plus alkaline chlorate oxidant for recovery of uranium values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention, uranium values are extracted from materials containing uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state by contacting the materials containing uranium with an aqueous alkaline leach solution containing an alkaline chlorate in an amount sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state to its hexavalent state. In a further embodiment of the present invention, the alkaline leach solution is an aqueous solution of a carbonate selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and mixtures thereof. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, at least one catalytic compound of a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, iron, nickel, chromium and mixtures thereof adapted to assure the presence of the ionic species Cu++, Co++, Fe+++, Ni++, Cr+++ and mixtures thereof, respectively, during the contacting of the material containing uranium with the alkaline leach solution and in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of at least a portion of the uranium in its lower valence states to its hexavalent state, is present

  14. A Facile Route to Metal Oxides/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Macrofilm Nanocomposites for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan eCao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites consisting of transition-metal oxides and carbon nanomaterials with a desired size and structure are highly demanded for high performance energy storage devices. Here, a facile two-step and cost-efficient approach relying on directly thermal treatment of chemical-vapor-deposition products is developed as a general synthetic method to prepare a family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co, Ni/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT macrofilm nanocomposites. The MxOy nanoparticles obtained are of 3-17 nm in diameter and homogeneously anchor on the free-standing SWNT macrofilms. NiO/SWNT also exhibits a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 and fast charge-transfer Faradaic redox reactions to achieve asymmetric supercapacitors with a high power and energy density. All MxOy/SWNT nanocomposites could deliver a high capacity beyond 1000 mAh g-1 and show excellent cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. The impressive results demonstrate the promise for energy storage devices and the general approach may pave the way to synthesize other functional nanocomposites.

  15. Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from partial nitrification process by using innovative carbon source (mannitol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Dong; Lan, Wei; Hu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol as carbon source on nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during partial nitrification (PN) process. Laboratory-scale PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with mannitol and sodium acetate as carbon sources, respectively. Results showed that mannitol could remarkably reduce N2O-N emission by 41.03%, without influencing the removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N. However, it has a significant influence on nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) and TN removal, which were 19.97% and 13.59% lower than that in PN with sodium acetate, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that the introduction of mannitol could increase the abundance of bacteria encoding nosZ genes. In addition, anti-oxidant enzymes (T-SOD, POD and CAT) activities were significantly reduced and the dehydrogenase activity had an obvious increase in mannitol system, indicating that mannitol could alleviate the inhibition of N2O reductase (N2OR) activities caused by high NO2(-)-N concentration. PMID:27423546

  16. The impact of Southwest Airline's contribution to atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide totals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Cody L.

    Over the last century, aviation has grown to become an economical juggernaut. The industry creates innovation, connects people, and maintains a safety goal unlike any other field. However, as the world becomes more populated with technology and individuals, a general curiosity as to how human activity effects the planet is becoming of greater interest. This study presents what one domestic airline in the United States, Southwest Airlines, contributes to the atmospheric make-up of the planet. Utilizing various sources of quantifiable data, an outcome was reached that shows the amount of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide produced by Southwest Airlines from 2002 to 2013. This topic was chosen due to the fact that there are no real quantifiable values of emission statistics from airlines available to the public. Further investigation allowed for Southwest Airlines to be compared to the overall Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide contributions of the United States for the year 2011. The results showed that with the absence of any set standard on emissions, it is vital that one should be established. The data showed that the current ICAO standard emission values showed a higher level of emissions than when Southwest Airline's fleet was analyzed using their actual fleet mix.

  17. Dehydrogenation of propane in the presence of carbon dioxide over chromium and gallium oxides catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Nekrasov, N.V.; Menshova, M.V.; Kunusova, R.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Effective chromium and gallium oxides supported catalysts were prepared and tested in longduration experiments for propane dehydrogenation in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The optimal concentrations of active metals were found. It was shown that the activity, selectivity and stability of chromium oxides catalysts were higher than these parameters for gallium ones. Mechanism of propane oxidative dehydrogenation was studied over both catalysts using unstationary and spectroscopic methods. The employment of these methods allowed to establish the differences in process mechanism. It was shown that surface hydroxides took participation in propene formation over Cr-catalysts and hydrides - over Ga-ones. Propane and carbon dioxide participated in the reaction from the adsorbed state over both catalysts but they were differed by the adsorption capacity of the reaction components: CO2 was tied more firmly than C{sub 3}H{sub 6} over both catalysts, CO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} were tied more strongly with Cr-catalysts than with Ga-ones. It was shown that CO{sub 2} took active participation in reverse watergas shift reaction and in oxidation of catalyst surface over chromium oxides catalysts. The main role of CO{sub 2} in propane dehydrogenation over gallium catalysts consisted in a decrease of coke formation. Step-schemes of propene and cracking products formation were proposed on the basis of literature and obtained data: via the redox mechanism over Cr-catalysts and through a heterolytic dissociation reaction pathway over Ga-ones. (orig.)

  18. Influences of Organic Carbon Supply Rate on Uranium Bioreduction in Initially Oxidizing, Contaminated Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Daly, Rebecca A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Herman, Don; Firestone, Mary K.

    2008-06-10

    Remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sediments through in-situ stimulation of bioreduction to insoluble UO{sub 2} is a potential treatment strategy under active investigation. Previously, we found that newly reduced U(IV) can be reoxidized under reducing conditions sustained by a continuous supply of organic carbon (OC) because of residual reactive Fe(III) and enhanced U(VI) solubility through complexation with carbonate generated through OC oxidation. That finding motivated this investigation directed at identifying a range of OC supply rates that is optimal for establishing U bioreduction and immobilization in initially oxidizing sediments. The effects of OC supply rate, from 0 to 580 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1}, and OC form (lactate and acetate) on U bioreduction were tested in flow-through columns containing U-contaminated sediments. An intermediate supply rate on the order of 150 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1} was determined to be most effective at immobilizing U. At lower OC supply rates, U bioreduction was not achieved, and U(VI) solubility was enhanced by complexation with carbonate (from OC oxidation). At the highest OC supply rate, resulting highly carbonate-enriched solutions also supported elevated levels of U(VI), even though strongly reducing conditions were established. Lactate and acetate were found to have very similar geochemical impacts on effluent U concentrations (and other measured chemical species), when compared at equivalent OC supply rates. While the catalysts of U(VI) reduction to U(IV) are presumably bacteria, the composition of the bacterial community, the Fe reducing community, and the sulfate reducing community had no direct relationship with effluent U concentrations. The OC supply rate has competing effects of driving reduction of U(VI) to low solubility U(IV) solids, as well as causing formation of highly soluble U(VI)-carbonato complexes. These offsetting influences will require careful control of OC

  19. Probing the Interfacial Interaction in Layered-Carbon-Stabilized Iron Oxide Nanostructures: A Soft X-ray Spectroscopic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jinyin; Zhao, Guanqi; Gao, Yongjun; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Ma, Ding; Sun, Xu-Hui; Zhong, Jun

    2015-04-22

    We have stabilized the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes on layered carbon materials (Fe-oxide/C) that show excellent catalytic performance. From the characterization of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (XMCD), a strong interfacial interaction in the Fe-oxide/C hybrids has been observed between the small iron oxide NPs and layered carbon in contrast to the weak interaction in the large iron oxide NPs. The interfacial interaction between the NPs and layered carbon is found to link with the improved catalytic performance. In addition, the Fe L-edge XMCD spectra show that the large iron oxide NPs are mainly γ-Fe2O3 with a strong ferromagnetic property, whereas the small iron oxide NPs with strong interfacial interaction are mainly α-Fe2O3 or amorphous Fe2O3 with a nonmagnetic property. The results strongly suggest that the interfacial interaction plays a key role for the catalytic performance, and the experimental findings may provide guidance toward rational design of high-performance catalysts. PMID:25839786

  20. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haw-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chin-Shiu [Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Li, Chien-Chun [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Ju [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Shing [Department of Biomedical Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yao, Hsien-Tsung, E-mail: htyao@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lii, Chong-Kuei, E-mail: cklii@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl{sub 4}-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense

  1. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water with carbon nanotube supported manganese oxides as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin in water was degraded by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. ► MnOx were supported on MWCNTs to serve as catalyst for ozonation. ► MnOx/MWCNT exhibited highly catalytic activity on ozonation of ciprofloxacin in water. ► MnOx/MWCNT resulted in effective antibacterial activity inhibition on ciprofloxacin. ► MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. - Abstract: Carbon nanotube-supported manganese oxides (MnOx/MWCNT) were used as catalysts to assist ozone in degrading ciprofloxacin in water. Manganese oxides were successfully loaded on multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces by simply impregnating the carbon nanotube with permanganate solution. The catalytic activities of MnOx/MWCNT in ciprofloxacin ozonation, including degradation, mineralization effectiveness, and antibacterial activity change, were investigated. The presence of MnOx/MWCNT significantly elevated the degradation and mineralization efficiency of ozone on ciprofloxacin. The microbiological assay with a reference Escherichia coli strain indicated that ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT results in more effective antibacterial activity inhibition of ciprofloxacin than that in ozonation alone. The effects of catalyst dose, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, and initial pH conditions on ciprofloxacin ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT were surveyed. Electron spin resonance trapping was applied to assess the role of MnOx/MWCNT in generating hydroxyl radicals (HO·) during ozonation. Stronger 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide–OH signals were observed in the ozonation with MnOx/MWCNT compared with those in ozonation alone, indicating that MnOx/MWCNT promoted the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The degradation of ciprofloxacin was studied in drinking water and wastewater process samples to gauge the potential effects of water background matrix on MnOx/MWCNT catalytic ozonation.

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Jacob M; Favela, Carlos A; Stevenson, Keith J

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) substantially lower the overpotential necessary for dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation compared to nondoped CNTs or traditional carbon electrodes such as glassy carbon (GC). We observe a 370 mV shift in the peak potential (Ep) from GC to CNTs and another 170 mV shift from CNTs to 7.4 atom % N-CNTs in a sodium phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) with 2.0 mM NADH (scan rate 10 mV/s). The sensitivity of 7.4 atom % N-CNTs to NADH was measured at 0.30 ± 0.04 A M(-1) cm(-2), with a limit of detection at 1.1 ± 0.3 μM and a linear range of 70 ± 10 μM poised at a low potential of -0.32 V (vs Hg/Hg2SO4). NADH fouling, known to occur to the electrode surface during NADH oxidation, was investigated by measuring both the change in Ep and the resulting loss of electrode sensitivity. NADH degradation, known to occur in phosphate buffer, was characterized by absorbance at 340 nm and correlated with the loss of NADH electroactivity. N-CNTs are further demonstrated to be an effective platform for dehydrogenase-based biosensing by allowing glucose dehydrogenase to spontaneously adsorb onto the N-CNT surface and measuring the resulting electrode's sensitivity to glucose. The glucose biosensor had a sensitivity of 0.032 ± 0.003 A M(-1) cm(-2), a limit of detection at 6 ± 1 μM, and a linear range of 440 ± 50 μM. PMID:23991631

  3. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrographolide, a bioactive diterpenoid, is identified in Andrographis paniculata. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of andrographolide in rats and studied whether andrographolide enhances antioxidant defense in a variety of tissues and protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage. After a single 50-mg/kg administration, the maximum plasma concentration of andrographolide was 1 μM which peaked at 30 min. The bioavailability of andrographolide was 1.19%. In a hepatoprotection study, rats were intragastrically dosed with 30 or 50 mg/kg andrographolide for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that andrographolide up-regulated glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic and modifier subunits, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase (GST) Ya/Yb protein and mRNA expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys. The activity of SOD, GST, and GSH reductase was also increased in rats dosed with andrographolide (p < 0.05). Immunoblot analysis and EMSA revealed that andrographolide increased nuclear Nrf2 contents and Nrf2 binding to DNA, respectively. After the 5-day andrographolide treatment, one group of animals was intraperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at day 6. Andrographolide pretreatment suppressed CCl4-induced plasma aminotransferase activity and hepatic lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05). These results suggest that andrographolide is quickly absorbed in the intestinal tract in rats with a bioavailability of 1.19%. Andrographolide protects against chemical-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating the gene transcription and activity of antioxidant enzymes in various tissues. - Highlights: • The bioavailability of andrographolide is 1.19% in rats. • Plasma concentration reaches 1 μM after giving 50 mg/kg andrographolide. • Andrographolide up-regulates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes. • Andrographolide increases antioxidant defense in various

  4. Rapid biological oxidation of methanol in the tropical Atlantic: significance as a microbial carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Dixon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is the second most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere after methane, and is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It plays a significant role in atmospheric oxidant chemistry and is biogeochemically active. Large uncertainties exist about whether the oceans are a source or sink of methanol to the atmosphere. Even less is understood about what reactions in seawater determine its concentration, and hence flux across the sea surface interface. We report here concentrations of methanol between 151–296 nM in parts of the oligotrophic North Atlantic, with corresponding microbial uptake rates between 2–146 nM d−1, suggesting turnover times as low as 1 day (1–25 days in surface waters of the oligotrophic tropical North East Atlantic. Methanol is mainly (≥97% used by microbes for obtaining energy in oligotrophic regions, which contrasts with shelf and coastal areas where between 20–50% can be used for cell growth. Comparisons of microbial methanol oxidation rates with parallel determinations of bacterial leucine uptake suggest that methanol contributes on average 13% to bacterial carbon demand in the central northern Atlantic gyre (maximum of 54%. In addition, the contribution that methanol makes to bacterial carbon demand varies as a power function of chlorophyll a concentrations; suggesting for concentrations <0.2 μg l−1 that methanol can make a significant contribution to bacterial carbon demand. However, our low air to sea methanol flux estimates of 7.2–13 μmol m−2 d−1 suggest that the atmosphere is not a major methanol source. We conclude that there must be a major, as yet unidentified, in situ oceanic methanol source in these latitudes which we suggest is sunlight driven decomposition of organic matter.

  5. Silylesterification of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling between carboxylic and hydrosilane functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffer, J.-F.; Detriche, S.; Nagy, J. B.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2014-06-01

    Surface modification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs) with silicon based anchoring groups (R-SiR3) is a relatively uncommon approach of the CNTs functionalization. Hydrosilane derivatives constitute an attractive subclass of compounds for silanization reactions on the CNTs surface. In this work, we report on the ZnCl2 catalytically controlled reaction (hydrosilane dehydrogenative cross-coupling, DHCC) of fluorinated hydrosilane probes with the carboxylic functions present on the surface of oxidized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with essentially alcohol groups are also used to compare the selectivity of zinc chloride toward carboxylic groups. To assess the efficiency of functionalization, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the different samples. Solubility tests on the oxidized and silanized MWNTs are also carried out in the framework of the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) theory to apprehend at another scale the effect of DHCC.

  6. Growth of carbon nanofibers on aligned zinc oxide nanorods and their field emission properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers were grown by electrodeposition technique onto aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods deposited by hybrid wet chemical route on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction traces indicated very strong peak for reflections from (0 0 2) planes of ZnO. The Raman spectra were dominated by the presence of G band at about 1597 cm-1 corresponding to the E2g tangential stretching mode of an ordered graphitic structure with sp2 hybridization and a D band at about 1350 cm-1 originating from disordered carbon. Fourier transformed infrared studies indicated the presence of a distinct characteristic absorption peak at ∼511 cm-1 for Zn-O stretching mode. Photoluminescence spectra indicated band edge luminescence of ZnO at ∼3.146 eV along with a low intensity peak at ∼0.877 eV arising out of carbon nanofibers. Field emission properties of these films and their dependence on the CNF coverage on ZnO nanorods are reported here. The average field enhancement factor as determined from the slope of the FN plot was found to vary between 1 x 103 and 3 x 103. Both the values of turn-on field and threshold field for CNF/ZnO were lower than pure ZnO nanorods.

  7. Electroless deposition of conformal nanoscale iron oxide on carbon nanoarchitectures for electrochemical charge storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassin, Megan B; Mansour, Azzam N; Pettigrew, Katherine A; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2010-08-24

    We describe a simple self-limiting electroless deposition process whereby conformal, nanoscale iron oxide (FeO(x)) coatings are generated at the interior and exterior surfaces of macroscopically thick ( approximately 90 microm) carbon nanofoam paper substrates via redox reaction with aqueous K(2)FeO(4). The resulting FeO(x)-carbon nanofoams are characterized as device-ready electrode structures for aqueous electrochemical capacitors and they demonstrate a 3-to-7 fold increase in charge-storage capacity relative to the native carbon nanofoam when cycled in a mild aqueous electrolyte (2.5 M Li(2)SO(4)), yielding mass-, volume-, and footprint-normalized capacitances of 84 F g(-1), 121 F cm(-3), and 0.85 F cm(-2), respectively, even at modest FeO(x) loadings (27 wt %). The additional charge-storage capacity arises from faradaic pseudocapacitance of the FeO(x) coating, delivering specific capacitance >300 F g(-1) normalized to the content of FeO(x) as FeOOH, as verified by electrochemical measurements and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The additional capacitance is electrochemically addressable within tens of seconds, a time scale of relevance for high-rate electrochemical charge storage. We also demonstrate that the addition of borate to buffer the Li(2)SO(4) electrolyte effectively suppresses the electrochemical dissolution of the FeO(x) coating, resulting in <20% capacitance fade over 1000 consecutive cycles. PMID:20731433

  8. Aligned carbon nanotube webs as a replacement for indium tin oxide in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated with flexible webs of aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). These webs were drawn from a forest of MWNTs and placed directly onto the device substrate to form the hole collecting electrode. Devices were fabricated on glass substrates with one or two MWNT web layers to study the trade-off between transparency and resistivity on device performance. Devices with two web layers performed better with a fill factor of 0.47 and a device power conversion efficiency of 1.66% due to their higher conductivity. Flexible devices on Mylar substrates were also demonstrated with an efficiency of 1.2% indicating the potential of MWNT webs as a flexible alternative to the more conventional indium tin oxide. - Highlights: ► Drawable carbon nanotube webs were used as an anode in bulk heterojunction cells. ► One and two layers of carbon nanotube webs were compared. ► A thick active layer of ∼ 530 nm was needed to avoid shunting through nanotubes. ► Two layers of web gave the better efficiency of 1.6%. ► Flexible devices on Mylar were demonstrated with 1.2% efficiency

  9. Graphene oxide-mediated electrochemistry of glucose oxidase on glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2016-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) as a model system for the interaction between GO and biological molecules. Lyotropic properties of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) were used to stabilize the enzymatic layer on the electrode surface resulting in a markedly improved electrochemical response of the immobilized GOD. Transmission electron microscopy images of the GO with DDAB confirmed the distribution of the GO in a two-dimensional manner as a foil-like material. Although it is known that glassy carbon surfaces are not ideal for hydrogen peroxide detection, successful chronoamperometric titrations of the GOD in the presence of GO with β-d-glucose were performed on glassy carbon electrodes, whereas no current response was detected upon β-d-glucose addition in the absence of GO. The GOD-DDAB-GO system displayed a high turnover efficiency and substrate affinity as a glucose biosensor. The simplicity and ease of the electrode preparation procedure of this GO/DDAB system make it a good candidate for immobilizing other biomolecules for fabrication of amperometric biosensors. PMID:25939764

  10. Highly-active copper oxide/copper electrocatalysts induced from hierarchical copper oxide nanospheres for carbon dioxide reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel hierarchical copper oxide (CuXO) nanosphere particles are synthesized, and then coated onto gas diffusion layer (carbon) to form a working electrode for catalyzing CO2 electroreduction. When applying a negative voltage to the working electrode, the metal Cu nanoparticles which are induced by the CuXO nanospheres appear. CuXO and metal Cu together form the CuXO/Cu nanocatalysts which show high catalytic activity for CO2 electroreduction. The morphology, composition, crystal structure and surface area of the CuXO/Cu electrocatalysts are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The CuXO/Cu nanoparticles are tested as the catalysts for CO2 electroreduction using cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry in CO2-saturated 0.5 M KHCO3 aqueous electrolyte. It is found that the CO2 electroreduction activity is highly improved using this CuXO/Cu nanocatalyst, which remains stable during 20 h of electrolysis, along with the high selectivity with a ∼62% of Faradaic efficiency for formate production. Detailed kinetic information relevant to the catalysis is also discussed

  11. Specifically Grafting Hematin on MPTS-Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Catalyzing the Oxidation of Aniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunkun Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts supported on nanomaterials have been widely investigated for the treatment of hazardous materials. This work has developed a novel method for grafting hematin on nanomaterials for catalyzing the oxidation of aniline in order to remove aniline from wastewater. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M-MWCNTs were coated with a layer formed through the hydrolysis and condensation of 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTS. Hematin was specifically grafted on the MPTS-coated M-MWCNTs through thiol-alkene reaction. Hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs were used to catalyze the oxidation of aniline, and a high efficiency has been obtained. Consecutive use of the conjugate of hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs has been investigated, and the activity has been retained to a significant extent after five reaction/cleaning cycles. The result demonstrates that hematin-MPTS-M-MWCNTs are efficient for catalyzing the oxidation of aniline. The methodology for the specific grafting of hematin is of general utility, it is an easy-to-operate method and can be extended to other supports. Potentially, hematin-MPTS-based conjugates have a widespread application in catalyzing the removal of aniline from wastewater.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics and toxic effects of ozone-oxidized black carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shang, Jing; Zhu, Tong

    2013-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) or soot particles formed by combustion are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have a significant effect on climate and human health. Oxidation can change the physicochemical characteristics of BC, thereby increasing its toxicity. The physicochemical properties of BC and ozone-oxidized BC are investigated in this study through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance. The contents of oxygen-containing functional groups, hydrophilicity, water-soluble organic compounds, and free radicals increased after ozone treatment. The redox capacity and cytotoxicity of BC particles were enhanced by ozone oxidation as detected by dithiothreitol (DTT) and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assays. The redox activities of different BC particles are compared. Particle phase contributed significantly to total redox activity as detected by the DTT assay. Results indicate that BC particles that have undergone aging in the atmosphere may be more toxic and harmful to human health.

  13. An electrochemical dopamine aptasensor incorporating silver nanoparticle, functionalized carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide for signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Shokoh; Abbasi, Amir Reza; Roushani, Mahmoud; Derikvand, Zohreh; Azadbakht, Azadeh

    2016-10-01

    In this work, immobilization of a dopamine (DA) aptamer was performed at the surface of an amino functionalized silver nanoparticle-carbon nanotube graphene oxide (AgNPs/CNTs/GO) nanocomposite. A 58-mer DA-aptamer was immobilized through the formation of phosphoramidate bonds between the amino group of chitosan and the phosphate group of the aptamer at the 5' end. An AgNPs/CNTs/GO nanocomposite was employed as a highly catalytic label for electrochemical detection of DA based on electrocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Interaction of DA with the aptamer caused conformational changes of the aptamer which, in turn, decreased H2O2 oxidation and reduction peak currents. On the other hand, the presumed folding of the DA-aptamer complexes on the sensing interface inhibited the electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs/CNTs/GO toward H2O2. Sensitive quantitative detection of DA was carried out by monitoring the decrease of differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) responses of AgNPs/CNTs/GO nanocomposite toward H2O2 oxidation. The DPV signal linearly decreased with increased concentration of DA from 3 to 110nmolL(-1) with a detection limit of 700±19.23pmolL(-1). Simple preparation, low operation cost, speed and validity are the decisive factors of this method motivating its application to biosensing investigation. PMID:27474313

  14. Impact of future nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions on the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric levels of human-produced chlorocarbons and bromocarbons are projected to make only small contributions to ozone depletion by 2100. Increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) will become increasingly important in determining the future of the ozone layer. N2O increases lead to increased production of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contributing to ozone depletion. CO2 increases cool the stratosphere and affect ozone levels in several ways. Cooling decreases the rate of many photochemical reactions, thus slowing ozone loss rates. Cooling also increases the chemical destruction of nitrogen oxides, thereby moderating the effect of increased N2O on ozone depletion. The stratospheric ozone level projected for the end of this century therefore depends on future emissions of both CO2 and N2O. We use a two-dimensional chemical transport model to explore a wide range of values for the boundary conditions for CO2 and N2O, and find that all of the current scenarios for growth of greenhouse gases project the global average ozone to be larger in 2100 than in 1960. (letter)

  15. Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on Ni and NiCu alloy modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danaee, I.; Jafarian, M.; Forouzandeh, F.; Mahjani, M.G. [Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran); Gobal, F. [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-08-15

    Nickel and nickel-copper alloy modified glassy carbon electrodes (GC/Ni and GC/NiCu) prepared by galvanostatic deposition were examined for their redox process and electrocatalytic activities towards the oxidation of methanol in alkaline solutions. The methods of cyclic voltammetery (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) were employed. The cyclic voltammogram of NiCu alloy demonstrates the formation of {beta}/{beta} crystallographic forms of the nickel oxyhydroxide under prolonged repetitive potential cycling in alkaline solution. In CV studies, in the presence of methanol NiCu alloy modified electrode shows a significantly higher response for methanol oxidation. The peak current of the oxidation of nickel hydroxide increase is followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current in presence of methanol. The anodic peak currents show linear dependency with the square root of scan rate. This behavior is the characteristic of a diffusion controlled process. Under the CA regime the reaction followed a Cottrellian behavior and the diffusion coefficient of methanol was found to be 2 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in agreement with the values obtained from CV measurements. (author)

  16. Redox Response of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Anzai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a glassy carbon (GC electrode was modified with reduced graphene oxide (rGO to evaluate the electrochemical response of the modified GC electrodes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydrazine. The electrode potential of the GC electrode was repeatedly scanned from −1.5 to 0.6 V in an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO to deposit rGO on the surface of the GC electrode. The surface morphology of the modified GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. SEM and AFM observations revealed that aggregated rGO was deposited on the GC electrode, forming a rather rough surface. The rGO-modified electrodes exhibited significantly higher responses in redox reactions of H2O2 as compared with the response of an unmodified GC electrode. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity of the rGO-modified electrode to hydrazine oxidation was also higher than that of the unmodified GC electrode. The response of the rGO-modified electrode was rationalized based on the higher catalytic activity of rGO to the redox reactions of H2O2 and hydrazine. The results suggest that rGO-modified electrodes are useful for constructing electrochemical sensors.

  17. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet for determination of gallic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fereshteh Chekin; Samira Bagheri; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid

    2015-12-01

    A simple approach for the preparation of gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet (Gel-RGONS) by chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using gelatin as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent in an aqueous solution was developed. The morphology and structure of the Gel-RGONS were examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Gelatin acted as a functionalizing reagent to guarantee good dispersibility and stability of the r in distilled water. Moreover, a new electrochemical sensor was developed based on Gel-RGONS modified glassy carbon electrode (Gel-RGONS/GCE). Gel-r exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity to gallic acid (GA) oxidation. The experimental conditions such as pH, adsorption time and scan rate were optimized for the determination of GA. Under optimum conditions, the sensor responded linearly to GA in the concentration of 1.0 × 10−6 to 1.1 × 10−4 M with detection limit of 4.7 × 10−7 M at 3 using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of GA in sample of black tea.

  18. Low-Field Emission from Iron Oxide-Filled Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Yang; YU Li-Gang; WANG Ming-Sheng; ZHANG Qi-Feng; WU Jin-Lei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) filled with iron oxide have been fabricated by a one-step route based on the pyrolysis of ferrocene under a well-chosen synthesis condition.The MWCNT arrays were observed with a scanning electron microscope, with which an energy dispersive x-ray spectrum (EDXS) was also acquired, and they are analysed by x-ray diffraction.Furthermore, individual MWCNTs were studied by using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and the EDXS in a transmission electron microscopy observation.All the observation and analysis confirmed that the MWCNTs were filled with iron oxide.Field emission from these arrays of iron oxide-filled MWCNTs was measured and the turn-on field was determined to range from 0.83-1.01 V/μm, appearing to be much lower than those of arrays of pure MWCNTs and arrays of nitrogen-doped MWCNTs fabricated in similar ways.The possible reasons of the observed low-field emission are discussed.

  19. Carbon nanotube-supported bimetallic palladium-gold electrocatalysts for electro-oxidation of formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng-Han; Liou, Wei-Jen; Lin, Hong-Ming; Wu, She-Huang [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei (China); Mikolajczuk, Anna; Borodzinski, Andrzej; Kedzierzawski, Piotr [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Stobinski, Leszek [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    It is known that palladium-based catalysts are initially very active in direct formic acid oxidation but they suffer from fast deactivation caused by a strongly adsorbed CO intermediate. Reactivation of the catalysts involving application of anodic potential may cause palladium dissolution. The aim of the present study is to increase the stability and performance of palladium-based catalysts in direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). Preparation and characterization of palladium/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd/MWCNTs) and towards formic acid oxidation via different treatments are described. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was shown that the Pd and Pd-Au MWCNTs supported catalysts after reduction in H{sub 2}-Ar at 200 C (R200 treatment) were highly active in formic acid electro-oxidation, whereas the catalysts after heating in argon at 250 C (C250 treatment) were inactive. The catalysts after hydrogen treatment have smaller metal particles and better contact with MWCNTs support. CV, simulating reactivation of the catalysts, showed that the Pd catalyst suffers from severe Pd dissolution, whereas for the Pd-Au selective leaching of Pd is considerably slower. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Perforated Metal Oxide-Carbon Nanotube Composite Microspheres with Enhanced Lithium-Ion Storage Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-10-27

    Metal oxide-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite microspheres with a novel structure were fabricated using a one-step spray pyrolysis process. Metal oxide-CNT composite microspheres with a uniform distribution of void nanospheres were prepared from a colloidal spray solution containing CNTs, metal salts, and polystyrene (PS) nanobeads. Perforated SnO2-CNT composite microspheres with a uniform distribution of void nanospheres showed excellent lithium storage properties as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Bare SnO2 microspheres and SnO2-CNT composite microspheres with perforated and filled structures had a discharge capacity of 450, 1108, and 590 mA h g(-1) for the 250th cycle at a current density of 1.5 A g(-1), and the corresponding capacity retention compared to the second cycle was 41, 98, and 55%, respectively. The synergetic combination of void nanospheres and flexible CNTs improved the electrochemical properties of SnO2. This effective and innovative strategy could be used for the preparation of perforated metal oxide-CNT composites with complex elemental compositions for many applications. PMID:26355350

  1. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Cellulose to Gluconate on Carbon Aerogel Supported Gold Nanoparticles Anode in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanshuang Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of high efficient and low energy consumption approaches for the transformation of cellulose is of high significance for a sustainable production of high value-added feedstocks. Herein, electrocatalytic oxidation technique was employed for the selective conversion of cellulose to gluconate in alkaline medium by using concentrated HNO3 pretreated carbon aerogel (CA supported Au nanoparticles as anode. Results show that a high gluconate yield of 67.8% and sum salts yield of 88.9% can be obtained after 18 h of electrolysis. The high conversion of cellulose and high selectivity to gluconate could be attributed to the good dissolution of cellulose in NaOH solution which promotes its hydrolysis, the surface oxidized CA support and Au nanoparticles catalyst which possesses high amount of active sites. Moreover, the bubbled air also plays important role in the enhancement of cellulose electrocatalytic conversion efficiency. Lastly, a probable mechanism for electrocatalytic oxidation of cellulose to gluconate in alkaline medium was also proposed.

  2. Effect of commercial metals (Al, Cu, carbon steel, and Zn) on the oxidation of soy-biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ballote, L.; Castillo-Atoche, A.; Maldonado, L.; Ruiz-Gómez, M. A.; Hernández, E.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of aluminum, copper, low carbon steel and zinc on the oxidation of biodiesel derived from soybean oil is studied using residual mass curves from thermogravimetry. Biodiesel is oxidized in the presence and absence of each metal in static conditions and exposed to ambient air. Oxidized biodiesel parameters are confirmed by viscosity measurements, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the metals do not negatively influence the oxidative stability of biodiesel and it can even be considered that they slightly inhibit the oxidation process. This behavior was ascribed to a depletion of dissolved oxygen in biodiesel due to oxidation of the metal and the low solubility of oxygen at high temperature.

  3. Effect of SiC whiskers on the oxidation protective properties of SiC coatings for carbon/carbon composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to effectively employ the unique high temperature mechanical properties of carbon/carbon composite substrates, SiC coatings reinforced by SiC whiskers were prepared by pack cementation method. The effect of SiC whiskers on the oxidation resistance properties of the single-layer coating and double-layer coating was investigated. SiC whiskers in the single-layer SiC coating have little effect on the anti-oxidation property but obviously improve the thermal shock property. The double-layer coating with inner-layer reinforced coating exhibits more perfect anti-oxidation ability than the double-layer coating with SiC inner-layer coating.

  4. Multivariate regression models for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of calcium and magnesium carbonates and magnesium oxide through drifts data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work multivariate regression models were developed for the quantitative analysis of ternary systems using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS to determine the concentration in weight of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide. Nineteen spectra of standard samples previously defined in ternary diagram by mixture design were prepared and mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded. The partial least squares (PLS regression method was applied to the model. The spectra set was preprocessed by either mean-centered and variance-scaled (model 2 or mean-centered only (model 1. The results based on the prediction performance of the external validation set expressed by RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction demonstrated that it is possible to develop good models to simultaneously determine calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide content in powdered samples that can be used in the study of the thermal decomposition of dolomite rocks.

  5. Magnetic graphene oxide-polystyrene and magnetic activated carbon-polystyrene nanocomposites as sorbents for bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekos, Kyriazis; Kampouraki, Zoi Christina; Samanidou, Victoria; Deliyanni, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic graphene oxide-polystyrene and magnetic activated carbon-polystyrene nanocomposites as sorbents for bisphenol A. Kyriazis Rekos1, Zoi Christina Kampouraki1, Victoria Samanidou2, Eleni Deliyanni1 1 Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize novel composites of magnetic activated carbon or magnetic graphene oxide with polystyrene (GO/PSm), through one step simple and effective route. Μagnetite nanoparticles, prepared in the laboratory, were dispersed in the presence of activated carbon (C) or graphene oxide (GO) in a polystyrene (PS) solution in dimethylformamide, at elevated temperature, for the fabrication of the magnetite-Carbon-PS (C-PSm) and magnetite- Graphene Oxide-PS (GO-PSm) hybrid-nanoparticles. For comparison, C-PS and GO-PS composites were also prepared in the same route. The nanocomposites were tested for their sorption ability for an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A. The effect of solution pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were examined. The magnetic graphite oxide-polystyrene presented higher adsorption capacity (100 mg/g) than the non magnetic composites (70 mg/g), as well as than initial graphite oxide (20 mg/g). FTIR, XRD, BET, TGA, VSM and SEM were performed in order to investigate the role of the PS on the better adsorption performance of the mGO-PS nanocomposites. The characterization with these techniques revealed the possible interactions of the surface functional groups of activated carbon and/or graphite oxide with polystyrene that resulted in the better performance of the magnetic nanocomposites for bisphenol A adsorption.

  6. The reactivity of stoichiometric tungsten oxide clusters towards carbon monoxide: the effects of cluster sizes and charge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Juan; Cheng, Jing; Zhang, Chang-Fu; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yong-Fan; Huang, Xin

    2015-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are employed to investigate the reactivity of tungsten oxide clusters towards carbon monoxide. Extensive structural searches show that all the ground-state structures of (WO3)n(+) (n = 1-4) contain an oxygen radical center with a lengthened W-O bond which is highly active in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. Energy profiles are calculated to determine the reaction mechanisms and evaluate the effect of cluster sizes. The monomer WO3(+) has the highest reactivity among the stoichiometric clusters of different sizes (WO3)n(+) (n = 1-4). The reaction mechanisms for CO with mono-nuclear stoichiometric tungsten oxide clusters with different charges (WO3(-/0/+)) are also studied to clarify the influence of charge states. Our calculated results show that the ability to oxidize CO gets weaker from WO3(+) to WO3(-) as the negative charge accumulates progressively. PMID:25854200

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction and temperature-programmed desorption of phenol and its oxidative coupling products from activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humayun, R.; Karakas, G.; Dahlstrom, P.R.; Ozkan, U.S.; Tomasko, D.L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-08-01

    Activated carbon remains one of the most economical adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from water. In particular, activated carbon is known to have an extremely high affinity for phenol and its derivatives. This has been shown to be the result of a catalytic process wherein activated carbon catalyzes the oxidative coupling reactions of phenol in aqueous solution when molecular oxygen is present. These reactions are believed to be the source of the difficulty of regenerating activated carbon loaded with phenol. This paper reports on efforts toward using supercritical fluids to regenerate activated carbon combined with a concurrent temperature-programmed desorption study to identify reaction products and their binding strength to the carbon surface. The results show unequivocally that part of the phenol is chemisorbed on the surface and part of it undergoes polymerization. Dihydroxybiphenyls and phenoxyphenols are the major reaction products present on the surface. Isotope studies showed that surface carbon atoms do not directly participate in these reactions. Supercritical extraction was found to perform as well as solvent extraction for the regeneration of activated carbon loaded with phenol. However, due to the chemisorbed nature of these oxidative coupling products, the reduced mass-transfer limitations afforded by supercritical extraction cannot improve the overall extent of extraction even though the rate is improved with the addition of cosolvents.

  8. Chemically Synthesised Pt Particles on Surface Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes as an Effective Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; yari; Sajjad; Sadaghat; Sharehjini

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The synthesis, physical characterization and electrochemical analysis of Pt particles prepared using the surface oxidized carbon nanotubes prepared by chemically anchoring Pt onto the surface of the CNTs with 2.0 mol/L HNO3 by refluxing for 10 h to introduce surface functional groups.The particles of Pt are synthesized by reduction with sodium borohydride of H2PtCl6. The electro-oxidation of liquid methanol of this catalyst as a thin layer on glassy carbon electrode is investigated at room te...

  9. Growth of bridging carbon nanofibers in cracks formed by heat-treating iron oxide thin sheets in acetylene gas

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Hikata; Soichiro Okubo; Yugo Higashi; Teruaki Matsuba; Risa Utsunomiya; Sadahiro Tsurekawa; Katsuhisa Murakami; Jun-ichi Fujita

    2013-01-01

    We produced novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by oxidizing high-purity iron foil and then carburizing it in acetylene gas flow. This formed cracks in the heat-treated iron foil with CNFs bridging the two walls of each crack. The CNFs were drawn out from the walls as the crack opened during heat treatment. This will be a new method to grow and arrange carbon nanotubes and nanosheets without using metal nanoparticles or template substrates.

  10. Growth of bridging carbon nanofibers in cracks formed by heat-treating iron oxide thin sheets in acetylene gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hikata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We produced novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs by oxidizing high-purity iron foil and then carburizing it in acetylene gas flow. This formed cracks in the heat-treated iron foil with CNFs bridging the two walls of each crack. The CNFs were drawn out from the walls as the crack opened during heat treatment. This will be a new method to grow and arrange carbon nanotubes and nanosheets without using metal nanoparticles or template substrates.

  11. Influent of Carbonization of Sol Solution at the External Gelation Process on the Quality of Uranium Oxide Kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influent of carbonization of sol solution at the external gelation process on the quality of uranium oxide kernel was done. Variables observed are the influent of carbon, temperature and time of reduction process of U3O8 kernel resulted from carbonization of sol solution. First of all, uranyl nitrate was reacted with 1 M NH4OH solution, producing the colloid of UO3. Then by mixing and heating up to the temperature of 60-80 °C, the colloid solution was reacted with PVA, mono sorbitol oleate and paraffin producing of uranium-PVA sol. Then sol solution was carbonized with carbon black of mol ratio of carbon to uranium =2.32-6.62, produce of carbide gel. Gel then washed, dried and calcined at 800 °C for 4 hours to produce of U3O8 kernel containing carbon. Then the kernel was reduced by H2 gas in the medium of N2 gas at 500-800 °C, 50 mmHg pressure for 3 hours. The process was repeated at 700 °C, 50 mmHg pressure for 1-4 hours. The characterization of chemical properties of the gel grains and uranium oxide kernel using FTIR covering the analysis of absorption band of infra red spectrum of UO3, C-OH, NH3, C-C, C-H and OH functional group. The physical properties of uranium oxide covering specific surface area, void volume, mean diameter using surface area meter Nova-1000 and as N2 gas an absorbent. And O/U ratio of uranium dioxide kernel by gravimetry method. The result of experiment showed that carbonization of sol solution at the external gelation process give influencing the quality of uranium oxide kernel. (author)

  12. Enhanced microbial decolorization of methyl red with oxidized carbon fiber as redox mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) act as redox mediator. • Electron accepting capacity increased with oxidation time of ACF. •ACFs increased 8-fold the reduction of methyl red in biological assays. •Biofilm formed on the ACFs partly blocked their redox mediator capacity. -- Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions is possible but at a slow rate. Redox mediators (quinones, activated carbon) are used to improve the reduction rate. The aim of this work was to use activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a redox mediator for the anaerobic reduction of the azo dye methyl red. ACF was chemically modified with 8 M HNO3 to increase its redox-mediating capacity and used in chemical and anaerobic biological batch assays for the reduction of methyl red. ACF increased its redox-mediating capacity up to 3-fold in chemical assays; in biological assays ACF increased the reduction rate up to 8-fold compared to controls without ACF. However, since the ACF served as support for biomass, a biofilm formed on the fiber significantly reduced its redox-mediating capacity; substrate consumption suggested that the electron transport from ACF to methyl red was the rate-limiting step in the process. These results are the first evidence of the role of ACF as a redox mediator in the reductive decolorization of methyl red, in addition to the effect of biofilm attached to ACF on methyl red reduction. Due to the versatile characteristics of ACF and its redox-mediating capacity, carbon fibers could be used in biological wastewater treatment systems to accelerate the reductive transformation of pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents

  13. A novel method for metal oxide deposition on carbon aerogels with potential application in capacitive deionization of saline water

    OpenAIRE

    Zafra, M.C.; Lavela, P.; Rasines, G.; Macías, C.; Tirado, J.L.; Ovín Ania, María Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Carbon aerogels doped with manganese or iron oxides were prepared by the resorcinol-formaldehyde method as potential electrodes for the capacitive deionization of sodium chloride from saline water. The solution containing the metal precursors was mixed with the hydrogel before the supercritical drying step ensuring a highly homogeneous dispersion of the nanometric metal oxides as determined by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. XPS spectra revealed the increased contribution of hydrox...

  14. CO oxidation at nickel centres by N2O or O2 to yield a novel hexanuclear carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Bettina; Limberg, Christian; Herwig, Christian; Feist, Michael; Mebs, Stefan

    2012-08-25

    Reaction of a nickel(0) carbonyl complex, K(2)[L(tBu)NiCO](2), with N(2)O generates a cyclic carbonate compound composed of six [Ni(II)(CO(3))K](+) units. The same product can also be obtained using O(2) as the oxidant in a solid-state/gas reaction. These conversions represent unique examples of a nickel-bound CO oxidation by N(2)O and O(2), respectively. PMID:22785444

  15. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Assies, J.; Mocking, R J T; Lok, A; Ruhé, H.G.; Pouwer, F.; Schene, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive responses, might underlie comorbidity between CVD and psychiatric disorders. Method We conducted a literature search and integrated data in a narrative review. Results Oxidative stress, mainly generated in...

  16. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: Lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Ángel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdere...

  17. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate neurons in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured changes in nitric oxide (·NO) concentration in the cerebral cortex during experimental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and assessed the role for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a glutamate receptor subtype, with progression of CO-mediated oxidative stress. Using microelectrodes, ·NO concentration was found to nearly double to 280 nM due to CO exposure, and elevations in cerebral blood flow, monitored as laser Doppler flow (LDF), were found to loosely correlate with ·NO concentration. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity was the cause of the ·NO elevation based on the effects of specific NOS inhibitors and observations in nNOS knockout mice. Activation of nNOS was inhibited by the NMDARs inhibitor, MK 801, and by the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, thus demonstrating a link to excitatory amino acids. Cortical cyclic GMP concentration was increased due to CO poisoning and shown to be related to ·NO, versus CO, mediated guanylate cyclase activation. Elevations of ·NO were inhibited when rats were infused with superoxide dismutase and in rats depleted of platelets or neutrophils. When injected with MK 801 or 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, rats did not exhibit CO-mediated nitrotyrosine formation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) elevation (indicative of neutrophil sequestration), or impaired learning. Similarly, whereas CO-poisoned wild-type mice exhibited elevations in nitrotyrosine and myeloperoxidase, these changes did not occur in nNOS knockout mice. We conclude that CO exposure initiates perivascular processes including oxidative stress that triggers activation of NMDA neuronal nNOS, and these events are necessary for the progression of CO-mediated neuropathology

  18. Carbon supported Pt-NiO nanoparticles for ethanol electro-oxidation in acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comignani, Vanina; Sieben, Juan Manuel; Brigante, Maximiliano E.; Duarte, Marta M. E.

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, the influence of nickel oxide as a co-catalyst of Pt nanoparticles for the electro-oxidation of ethanol in the temperature range of 23-60 °C was investigated. The carbon supported nickel oxide and platinum nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and microwave-assisted polyol process respectively, and characterized by XRD, EDX, TEM and ICP analysis. The electrocatalytic activity of the as-prepared materials was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Small metal nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 3.5-4.5 nm were obtained. The nickel content in the as-prepared Pt-NiO/C catalysts was between 19 and 35 at.%. The electrochemical experiments showed that the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-NiO/C materials increase with NiO content in the entire temperature range. The apparent activation energy (Ea,app) for the overall ethanol oxidation reaction was found to decrease with NiO content (24-32 kJ mol-1 at 0.3 V), while for Pt/C the activation energy exceeds 48 kJ mol-1. The better performance of the Pt-NiO/C catalysts compared to Pt/C sample is ascribed to the activation of both the C-H and O-H bonds via oxygen-containing species adsorbed on NiO molecules and the modification of the surface electronic structure (changes in the density of states near the Fermi level).

  19. Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David Adams [The University of Alabama

    2013-07-02

    This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

  20. Oxidation state, bioavailability & biochemical pathway define the fate of carbon in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Apostel, Carolin; Gunina, Anna; Herrmann, Anke M.; Dippold, Michaela

    2015-04-01

    Numerous experiments under laboratory and field conditions analyzed microbial utilization and mean residence time (MRT) of carbon (C) from plant and microbial residues as well as root exudates in soil. Most of these studies tested the effects of various environmental factors, such as temperature, soil moisture, texture etc. on these parameters. However, only a few studies compared the properties of the substances themselves and there is no conceptual framework based on biochemical pathways. We hypothesize that the fate of C from organic substances in soil strongly depends on the first step of their microbial utilization, specifically, on biochemical pathway and initial C oxidation state, as well as its bioavailability in soils, defined by its hydrophobicity and molecular weight. Here we introduce and evaluate a new conceptual framework based on the following parameters: 1) C oxidation state, 2) molecular weight and hydrophobicity, 3) initial biochemical pathway of a substance class in microbial cells. To assess these parameters, two databases were prepared based on the literature and own studies. The first database included only the studies with 14C or 13C position specific labeled sugars, amino acids, carboxylic acids, phenols and lipids in soil. This database allowed us to analyze microbial utilization and mineralization of organics to CO2 depending on their C oxidation state (OS) and on functional groups. Additionally, we calculated data on the bond electronegativity of all compounds investigated in these studies. The second data base included the results of 14C and 13C studies with uniformly labeled substances of various classes. This database considered the free enthalpie (Delta H) per C unit from a variety of substrates differing in their aromaticity, hydrophobicity/electronegativity and location of the substance on the van Krevelen diagram. In addition, we calculated the hydrophobicity from the electronegativity of the individual bonds and recorded their