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Sample records for carbon nanotube transistors

  1. Multiscale simulation of carbon nanotube transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Maneux, Cristell; Roche, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the understanding and accurate simulation of carbon nanotube-based transistors has become very challenging. Conventional simulation tools of microelectronics are necessary to predict the performance and use of nanotube transistors and circuits, but the models need to be refined to properly describe the full complexity of such novel type of devices at the nanoscale. Indeed, many issues such as contact resistance, low dimensional electrostatics and screening effects, demand for...

  2. Gigahertz frequency flexible carbon nanotube transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimot, N.; Derycke, V.; Goffman, M. F.; Bourgoin, J. P.; Happy, H.; Dambrine, G.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the high frequency performances of flexible field-effect transistors based on carbon nanotubes. A large density of mostly aligned carbon nanotubes deposited on a flexible substrate by dielectrophoresis serves as the channel. The transistors display a constant transconductance up to at least 6GHz and a current gain cutoff frequency (fT) as high as 1GHz at VDS=-700mV. Bending tests show that the devices can withstand a high degree of flexion characterized by a constant transconductance for radius of curvature as small as 3.3mm.

  3. Optical switching of functionalized carbon nanotube transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Julien; Derycke, Vincent; Chenevier, Pascale; Filoramo, Arianna; Goffman, Marcello; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Lenfant, Stephane; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2006-03-01

    Carbon Nanotube (CNT) transistors can emit or detect photons at wavelengths defined by the CNT chirality. To extend their capabilities in optoelectronics, it is important to be able to tune this wavelength independently of the CNT structure. A way to achieve such a goal is to chemically functionalize the CNT. In the present study, we demonstrate that drastic photo-induced modifications of the electrical characteristics of self-assembled CNT transistors functionalized by photoactive polymers can be achieved. We show that the polymer film acts as a wavelength dependent 'optical gate', which is much more efficient than a conventional electrostatic gate and can induce changes in conductance exceeding four orders of magnitude. The switching mechanism involves the creation and separation of photo-excited charges in the polymer, the spatial distribution and relaxation rates of which are studied taking advantage of the very high charge sensitivity of the CNT transistor.

  4. Drain Voltage Scaling in Carbon Nanotube Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljevic, M.; Heinze, S.; Tersoff, J.; Avouris, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    While decreasing the oxide thickness in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) improves the turn-on behavior, we demonstrate that this also requires scaling the range of the drain voltage. This scaling is needed to avoid an exponential increase in Off-current with drain voltage, due to modulation of the Schottky barriers at both the source and drain contact. We illustrate this with results for bottom-gated ambipolar CNFETs with oxides of 2 and 5 nm, and give an explicit scaling rul...

  5. Carbon nanotubes field effect transistors biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Marco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube transistor arrays (CNTFETs wereused as biosensors to detect DNA hybridization andto recognize two anabolic steroids, stanozolol (Stzand methylboldenone (MB. Single strand DNA andantibodies specific for STz and MB were immobilizedon the carbon nanotubes (CNTs in situ in the deviceusing two different approaches: direct noncovalentbonding of antibodies to the devices and covalentlytrough a polymer previously attached to theCNTFETs. A new approach to ensure specificadsorption of the biomolecules to the nanotubeswas developed. The polymer poly(methylmethacrylate0.8-co-poly (ethyleneglycolmethacrylate0.8-co-N-succinimidyl methacrylate0.1was synthesized and bonded noncovalently to thenanotube. Aminated single-strand DNA or antibodiesspecific for Stz and MB were then attached covalentlyto the polymer. Statistically significant changes wereobserved in key transistor parameters for both DNAhybridization and steroids recognition. Regardingthe detection mechanism, in addition to chargetransfer, Schottky barrier, SB, modification, andscattering potential reported by other authors, anelectron/hole trapping mechanism leading tohysteresis modification has been determined. Thepresence of polymer seems to hinder the modulationof the electrode-CNT contact.

  6. Stretchable transistors with buckled carbon nanotube films as conducting channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael S; Xu, Feng

    2015-03-24

    Thin-film transistors comprising buckled films comprising carbon nanotubes as the conductive channel are provided. Also provided are methods of fabricating the transistors. The transistors, which are highly stretchable and bendable, exhibit stable performance even when operated under high tensile strains.

  7. Carbon nanotube transistor optimization by chemical control of the nanotube-metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, S.; Borghetti, J.; Goffman, M. F.; Filoramo, A.; Derycke, V.; Bourgoin, J. P.; Jost, O.

    2004-06-01

    Most carbon nanotube transistors work as Schottky barrier transistors. We show that chemical treatment of operational p-type nanotube transistors by trifluoro-acetic acid (TFA) leads to the drastic improvement of all the key device parameters. This effect is due to the highly polar nature of the TFA molecule which, once adsorbed at the metal-nanotube interface, lowers the Schottky barrier for the holes and thus favors their injection.

  8. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2012-10-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been developed using pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes. The source and drain were vertically stacked, separated by a dielectric, and the carbon nanotubes were placed on the sidewall of the stack to bridge the source and drain. Both the effective gate dielectric and gate electrode were normal to the substrate surface. The channel length is determined by the dielectric thickness between source and drain electrodes, making it easier to fabricate sub-micrometer transistors without using time-consuming electron beam lithography. The transistor area is much smaller than the planar CNTFET due to the vertical arrangement of source and drain and the reduced channel area. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resonant optical gating of suspended carbon nanotube transistor

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Robert; Anderson, Fredrick; Carter, Eric L.; Smith, Robinson L.

    2016-01-01

    Building smaller transistors with enhanced functionality is critical in extending the limits of Moores law and meeting the demands of the electronics industry. Here we demonstrate transistor operation in a suspended single carbon nanotube (CNT) using feedback-enabled radiation pressure of a near-field focused laser that enabled significant changes in conductivity of the CNT. Further, using in-situ tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, we show that the change in conductivity of over five orders in ...

  10. Tunneling phenomena in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Knoch, Joachim; Appenzeller, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    In the present article we will discuss the electronic transport properties of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs). Three different device concepts will be studied in more detail: Schottky-barrier CNFETs with metallic source and drain contacts, conventional-type CNFETs with doped nanotube segments as source and drain electrodes and finally a new concept, the tunneling CNFET. As it turns out, tunneling phenomena play a prominent role in all three CNFET designs and determine their ...

  11. Thin film transistors of single-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a transistor of randomly networked single-walled carbon nanotubes on a glass substrate. The carbon nanotube networks acting as the active components of the thin film transistor were selectively formed on the transistor channel areas that were previously patterned with catalysts to avoid the etching process for isolating nanotubes. The nanotube density was more than 50 μm-2, which is much larger than the percolation threshold. Transistors were successfully fabricated with a conducting and transparent ZnO for the back-side gate and the top-side gate. This allows the transparent electronics or suggests thin film applications of nanotubes for future opto-electronics

  12. Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  13. Carbon nanotube transistors with graphene oxide films as gate dielectrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials,including the one-dimensional(1-D) carbon nanotube(CNT) and two-dimensional(2-D) graphene,are heralded as ideal candidates for next generation nanoelectronics.An essential component for the development of advanced nanoelectronics devices is processing-compatible oxide.Here,in analogy to the widespread use of silicon dioxide(SiO2) in silicon microelectronic industry,we report the proof-of-principle use of graphite oxide(GO) as a gate dielectrics for CNT field-effect transistor(FET) via a fast and simple solution-based processing in the ambient condition.The exceptional transistor characteristics,including low operation voltage(2 V),high carrier mobility(950 cm2/V-1 s-1),and the negligible gate hysteresis,suggest a potential route to the future all-carbon nanoelectronics.

  14. Imaging dissipation and hot spots in carbon nanotube network transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, David; Pop, Eric

    2011-02-01

    We use infrared thermometry of carbon nanotube network (CNN) transistors and find the formation of distinct hot spots during operation. However, the average CNN temperature at breakdown is significantly lower than expected from the breakdown of individual nanotubes, suggesting extremely high regions of power dissipation at the CNN junctions. Statistical analysis and comparison with a thermal model allow the estimate of an upper limit for the average tube-tube junction thermal resistance, ˜4.4×1011 K/W (thermal conductance of ˜2.27 pW/K). These results indicate that nanotube junctions have a much greater impact on CNN transport, dissipation, and reliability than extrinsic factors such as low substrate thermal conductivity.

  15. Ultra-short suspended single-wall carbon nanotube transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Island, J. O.; Tayari, V.; Yigen, S.; McRae, A. C.; Champagne, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to fabricate clean suspended single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transistors hosting a single quantum dot ranging in length from a few 10s of nm down to $\\approx$ 3 nm. We first align narrow gold bow-tie junctions on top of individual SWCNTs and suspend the devices. We then use a feedback-controlled electromigration to break the gold junctions and expose nm-sized sections of SWCNTs. We measure electron transport in these devices at low temperature and show that they form ...

  16. Measurement of ionizing radiation using carbon nanotube field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are a new class of highly promising nanomaterials for future nano-electronics. Here, we present an initial investigation of the feasibility of using SWNT field effect transistors (SWNT-FETs) formed on silicon-oxide substrates and suspended FETs for radiation dosimetry applications. Electrical measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the intactness of SWNT-FET devices after exposure to over 1 Gy of 6 MV therapeutic x-rays. The sensitivity of SWNT-FET devices to x-ray irradiation is elucidated by real-time dose monitoring experiments and accumulated dose reading based on threshold voltage shift. SWNT-FET devices exhibit sensitivities to x-rays that are at least comparable to or orders of magnitude higher than commercial MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) dosimeters and could find applications as miniature dosimeters for microbeam profiling and implantation. (note)

  17. Carbon nanotube thin film transistors based on aerosol methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a fabrication method for high-performance field-effect transistors (FETs) based on dry-processed random single-walled carbon nanotube networks (CNTNs) deposited at room temperature. This method is an advantageous alternative to solution-processed and direct CVD grown CNTN FETs, which allows using various substrate materials, including heat-intolerant plastic substrates, and enables an efficient, density-controlled, scalable deposition of as-produced single-walled CNTNs on the substrate directly from the aerosol (floating catalyst) synthesis reactor. Two types of thin film transistor (TFT) structures were fabricated to evaluate the FET performance of dry-processed CNTNs: bottom-gate transistors on Si/SiO2 substrates and top-gate transistors on polymer substrates. Devices exhibited on/off ratios up to 105 and field-effect mobilities up to 4 cm2 V-1 s-1. The suppression of hysteresis in the bottom-gate device transfer characteristics by means of thermal treatment in vacuum and passivation by an atomic layer deposited Al2O3 film was investigated. A 32 nm thick Al2O3 layer was found to be able to eliminate the hysteresis.

  18. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics.

  19. Potential of carbon nanotube field effect transistors for analogue circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hayat, Khizar

    2013-05-11

    This Letter presents a detailed comparison of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with special focus on carbon nanotube FET\\'s potential for implementing analogue circuits in the mm-wave and sub-terahertz range. The latest CNFET lithographic dimensions place it at-par with complementary metal oxide semiconductor in terms of current handling capability, whereas the forecasted improvement in the lithography enables the CNFETs to handle more than twice the current of MOSFETs. The comparison of RF parameters shows superior performance of CNFETs with a g m , f T and f max of 2.7, 2.6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively. MOSFET- and CNFET-based inverter, three-stage ring oscillator and LC oscillator have been designed and compared as well. The CNFET-based inverters are found to be ten times faster, the ring oscillator demonstrates three times higher oscillation frequency and CNFET-based LC oscillator also shows improved performance than its MOSFET counterpart.

  20. Self-assembled molecular monolayers as ultrathin gate dielectric in carbon nanotube transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Gaël; Derycke, Vincent; Goffman, Marcelo F.; Lenfant, Stéphane; Vuillaume, Dominique; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate the use of a self-assembled monolayer of octadecanethiol on gold as thin gate dielectric for a single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. P-type transistors display very steep subthreshold slopes, greatly reduced hysteresis, and band-to-band tunneling. The suppression of the gate efficiency for n-type transistors emphasizes the key role of the electrical dipole of the molecular layer in controlling the switching. Combining the versatility of organic dielectrics with the exceptional electronic and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes opens interesting ways toward the realization of fully organic nanoscale transistors.

  1. Microwave Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The quantum transport property of a carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET is investigated under the effect of microwave radiation and magnetic field. The photon-assisted tunneling probability is deduced by solving Dirac equation. Then the current is deduced according to Landauer-Buttiker formula. Oscillatory behavior of the current is observed which is due to the Coulomb blockade oscillations. It was found, also, that the peak heights of the dependence of the current on the parameters under study are strongly affected by the interplay between the tunneled electrons and the photon energy. This interplay affects on the sidebands resonance. The results obtained in the present paper are found to be in concordant with those in the literature, which confirms the correctness of the proposed model. This study is valuable for nanotechnology applications, e.g., photo-detector devices and solid state quantum computing systems and quantum information processes.

  2. Exploration of vertical scaling limit in carbon nanotube transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chenguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Yingjun; Xiao, Mengmeng; Ding, Li; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-05-01

    Top-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT FETs) were fabricated by using ultra-thin (4.5 nm or thinner) atomic-layer-deposition grown HfO2 as gate insulator, and shown to exhibit high gate efficiency, i.e., all examined (totally 76) devices present very low room temperature subthreshold swing with an averaged value of 64 mV/Dec, without observable carrier mobility degradation. The gate leakage of the CNT FET under fixed gate voltage is dependent not only on the thickness of HfO2 insulator, but also on the diameter of the CNT. The vertical scaling limit of CNT FETs is determined by gate leakage standard in ultra large scale integrated circuits. HfO2 film with effective oxide thickness of 1.2 nm can provide both excellent gate electrostatic controllability and small gate leakage for sub-5 nm FETs based on CNT with small diameter.

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies Attached to Carbon Nanotube Transistors for Paclitaxel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonbae; Lau, Calvin; Richardson, Mark; Rajapakse, Arith; Weiss, Gregory; Collins, Philip; UCI, Molecular Biology; Biochemistry Collaboration; UCI, Departments of Physics; Astronomy Collaboration

    Paclitaxel is a naturally-occurring pharmaceutical used in numerous cancer treatments, despite its toxic side effects. Partial inhibition of this toxicity has been demonstrated using weakly interacting monoclonal antibodies (3C6 and 8A10), but accurate monitoring of antibody and paclitaxel concentrations remains challenging. Here, single-molecule studies of the kinetics of antibody-paclitaxel interactions have been performed using single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The devices were sensitized with single antibody attachments to record the single-molecule binding dynamics of paclitaxel. This label-free technique recorded a range of dynamic interactions between the antibody and paclitaxel, and it provided sensitive paclitaxel detection for pM to nM concentrations. Measurements with two different antibodies suggest ways of extending this working range and uncovering the mechanistic differences among different antibodies.

  4. Carbon nanotubes field-effect transistor for rapid detection of DHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of DNA sensor based on a network carbon nanotubes field effect transistor (CNTFETs) for Escherichia coli bacteria detection. The DNA sequences were immobilized on single-walled carbon nanotubes of transistor CNTFETs by using absorption. The hybridization of the DNA probe sequences and complementary DNA strands was detected by electrical conductance change from the electron doping by DNA hybridization directly on the carbon nanotubes leading to the change in the metal-CNTs barrier energy through the modulation of the electrode work function of carbon nanotubes field effect transistor. The results showed that the response time of DNA sensor was approximately 1 min and the sensitivity of DNA sensor was at 0.565 μA/nM; the detection limit of the sensor was about 1 pM of E. coli bacteria sample. (author)

  5. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Gerald J.; Joo, Yongho; Singha Roy, Susmit; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S., E-mail: msarnold@wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1509 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ∼50 s-SWCNTs μm{sup −1}. At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 10{sup 7} and 46 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm{sup −1} and the on/off ratio is 4 × 10{sup 5}. These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices.

  6. High performance transistors via aligned polyfluorene-sorted carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the performance of exceptionally electronic-type sorted, semiconducting, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) in field effect transistors (FETs). High on-conductance and high on/off conductance modulation are simultaneously achieved at channel lengths which are both shorter and longer than individual s-SWCNTs. The s-SWCNTs are isolated from heterogeneous mixtures using a polyfluorene-derivative as a selective agent and aligned on substrates via dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly at densities of ∼50 s-SWCNTs μm−1. At a channel length of 9 μm the s-SWCNTs percolate to span the FET channel, and the on/off ratio and charge transport mobility are 2.2 × 107 and 46 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. At a channel length of 400 nm, a large fraction of the s-SWCNTs directly span the channel, and the on-conductance per width is 61 μS μm−1 and the on/off ratio is 4 × 105. These results are considerably better than previous solution-processed FETs, which have suffered from poor on/off ratio due to spurious metallic nanotubes that bridge the channel. 4071 individual and small bundles of s-SWCNTs are tested in 400 nm channel length FETs, and all show semiconducting behavior, demonstrating the high fidelity of polyfluorenes as selective agents and the promise of assembling s-SWCNTs from solution to create high performance semiconductor electronic devices

  7. Self aligned hysteresis free carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafman, M.; Tabachnik, T.; Shtempluk, O.; Razin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Yaish, Y. E.

    2016-04-01

    Hysteresis phenomenon in the transfer characteristics of carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNT FET) is being considered as the main obstacle for successful realization of electronic devices based on CNTs. In this study, we prepare four kinds of CNTFETs and explore their hysteretic behavior. Two kinds of devices comprise on-surface CNTs (type I) and suspended CNTs (type II) with thin insulating layer underneath and a single global gate which modulates the CNT conductance. The third and fourth types (types III and IV) consist of suspended CNT over a metallic local gate underneath, where for type IV the local gate was patterned self aligned with the source and drain electrodes. The first two types of devices, i.e., type I and II, exhibit substantial hysteresis which increases with scanning range and sweeping time. Under high vacuum conditions and moderate electric fields ( |E |>4 ×106 V /cm ), the hysteresis for on-surface devices cannot be eliminated, as opposed to suspended devices. Interestingly, type IV devices exhibit no hysteresis at all at ambient conditions, and from the different roles which the global and local gates play for the four types of devices, we could learn about the hysteresis mechanism of this system. We believe that these self aligned hysteresis free FETs will enable the realization of different electronic devices and sensors based on CNTs.

  8. Imperceptible and Ultraflexible p-Type Transistors and Macroelectronics Based on Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-01-26

    Flexible thin-film transistors based on semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are promising for flexible digital circuits, artificial skins, radio frequency devices, active-matrix-based displays, and sensors due to the outstanding electrical properties and intrinsic mechanical strength of carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, previous research effort only led to nanotube thin-film transistors with the smallest bending radius down to 1 mm. In this paper, we have realized the full potential of carbon nanotubes by making ultraflexible and imperceptible p-type transistors and circuits with a bending radius down to 40 μm. In addition, the resulted transistors show mobility up to 12.04 cm(2) V(-1) S(-1), high on-off ratio (∼10(6)), ultralight weight (<3 g/m(2)), and good mechanical robustness (accommodating severe crumpling and 67% compressive strain). Furthermore, the nanotube circuits can operate properly with 33% compressive strain. On the basis of the aforementioned features, our ultraflexible p-type nanotube transistors and circuits have great potential to work as indispensable components for ultraflexible complementary electronics. PMID:26624921

  9. Intrinsic current gain cutoff frequency of 30 GHz with carbon nanotube transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louarn, A.; Kapche, F.; Bethoux, J.-M.; Happy, H.; Dambrine, G.; Derycke, V.; Chenevier, P.; Izard, N.; Goffman, M. F.; Bourgoin, J.-P.

    2007-06-01

    High frequency capabilities of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are investigated. Structures with a large number of single-walled carbon nanotubes were fabricated using dielecrophoresis to increase the density of nanotubes in the device channel. The authors obtained an intrinsic current gain cutoff frequency of 30GHz establishing state-of-the-art high frequency (hf) potentialities of CNTFETs. The device also showed a maximum stable gain above 10dB at 20GHz. Finally, the parameters of an equivalent circuit model of multitube CNTFET at 20GHz are determined, which open the route to the modeling of nanotubes-based hf electronics.

  10. Towards Multi-Scale Modeling of Carbon Nanotube Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jing; Datta, Supriyo; Lundstrom, Mark; Anantam, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiscale simulation approaches are needed in order to address scientific and technological questions in the rapidly developing field of carbon nanotube electronics. In this paper, we describe an effort underway to develop a comprehensive capability for multiscale simulation of carbon nanotube electronics. We focus in this paper on one element of that hierarchy, the simulation of ballistic CNTFETs by self-consistently solving the Poisson and Schrodinger equations using the non-equilibrium Gr...

  11. High-performance carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible paper substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Na; Yun, Ki Nam; Yu, Hyun-Yong; Lee, Cheol Jin, E-mail: cjlee@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Joon Hyung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are promising materials as active channels for flexible transistors owing to their excellent electrical and mechanical properties. However, flexible SWCNT transistors have never been realized on paper substrates, which are widely used, inexpensive, and recyclable. In this study, we fabricated SWCNT thin-film transistors on photo paper substrates. The devices exhibited a high on/off current ratio of more than 10{sup 6} and a field-effect mobility of approximately 3 cm{sup 2}/V·s. The proof-of-concept demonstration indicates that SWCNT transistors on flexible paper substrates could be applied as low-cost and recyclable flexible electronics.

  12. High-performance carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible paper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are promising materials as active channels for flexible transistors owing to their excellent electrical and mechanical properties. However, flexible SWCNT transistors have never been realized on paper substrates, which are widely used, inexpensive, and recyclable. In this study, we fabricated SWCNT thin-film transistors on photo paper substrates. The devices exhibited a high on/off current ratio of more than 106 and a field-effect mobility of approximately 3 cm2/V·s. The proof-of-concept demonstration indicates that SWCNT transistors on flexible paper substrates could be applied as low-cost and recyclable flexible electronics

  13. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  14. Local-gated single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors assembled by AC dielectrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Paul; Khondaker, Saiful I.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple and scalable technique for the fabrication of solution processed & local gated carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNT-FETs). The approach is based on directed assembly of individual single wall carbon nanotube from dichloroethane via AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) onto pre-patterned source and drain electrodes with a local aluminum gate in the middle. Local-gated CNT-FET devices display superior performance compared to global back gate with on-off ratios 10^4 and maximu...

  15. Hysteresis in Carbon Nanotube Transistors: Measurement and Analysis of Trap Density, Energy Level, and Spatial Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rebecca Sejung; Shulaker, Max Marcel; Hills, Gage; Suriyasena Liyanage, Luckshitha; Lee, Seunghyun; Tang, Alvin; Mitra, Subhasish; Wong, H-S Philip

    2016-04-26

    We present a measurement technique, which we call the Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement, for characterizing hysteresis in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, and demonstrate its applicability for a broad range of 1D and 2D nanomaterials beyond carbon nanotubes. The Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement enables the quantification (density, energy level, and spatial distribution) of charged traps responsible for hysteresis. A physics-based model of the charge trapping process for a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor is presented and experimentally validated using the Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement. Leveraging this model, we discover a source of traps (surface traps) unique to devices with low-dimensional channels such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires (beyond interface traps which exist in today's silicon field-effect transistors). The different charge trapping mechanisms for interface traps and surface traps are studied based on their temperature dependencies. Through these advances, we are able to quantify the interface trap density for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (∼3 × 10(13) cm(-2) eV(-1) near midgap), and compare this against a range of previously studied dielectric/semiconductor interfaces. PMID:27002483

  16. DESIGN OF MODULO-6-COUNTER USING CARBON NANOTUBE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Saravanan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In many digital applications like digital clock, frequency divider circuit and nano applications etc., designing of low power modulo counters is highly desirable. Designing of such a counters using existing technology i.e., CMOS technology has the limitations in-terms of power consumption, device scaling limitations andfabrications difficulties in nanometre range. This paper proposes the new design technique for modulo counters using the carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET. Counter performance is analyzed interms of speed and power consumption. This paper also analyses carbon nanotube (CNT types, how the carbon nanotube is formed, and scaling limitations of the CMOS technology in nanometre range.

  17. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yun, H.; McAllister, K.; Lee, S. W., E-mail: leesw@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.; Kim, G. T. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. J.; Jeong, G. H. [Department of Nano Applied Engineering, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, I.; Kim, K. S. [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems.

  18. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems

  19. Electric Characteristics of the Carbon Nanotube Network Transistor with Directly Grown ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Bae, Gi Yoon; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We report on the electrical characteristics of field effect transistors fabricated with random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes with surfaces modified by ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles are directly grown on single-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water. Electrical observations show that ZnO nanoparticles act as charge transfer sources that provide electrons to the nanotube channel. The valley position in ambipolar transport of nanotube transistors is negatively shifted for 3V due to the electronic n-typed property of ZnO nanoparticles. However, the Raman resonance remains invariant despite the charge transfer effect produced by ZnO nanoparticles. PMID:27455727

  20. Coupled mode space approach for the simulation of realistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Gianluca; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    A coupled mode space approach within the nonequiibriurn Green's function formalism is presented, which allows to perform simulations of realistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) with no spatial symmetry. Computing :time is significantly reduced with respect to the real space ap)roach, since only few modes are needed in order to obtain accurate results. The advantage of the method increases with increasing nanotube diameter, and is a factor of 20 in computing time for a (25...

  1. Solution processed large area field effect transistors from dielectrophoreticly aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Paul; Silbar, Eliot; Zayas, Yashira M.; Khondaker, Saiful I.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate solution processable large area field effect transistors (FETs) from aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Commercially available, surfactant free CNTs suspended in aqueous solution were aligned between source and drain electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis technique. After removing the metallic nanotubes using electrical breakdown, the devices displayed p-type behavior with on-off ratios up to ~ 2X10^4. The measured field effect mobilities are as high as 123 cm2/Vs, which...

  2. Electrostatic Simulation of Charge Trapping in Carbon Nanotube Vertical Organic Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer; Rinzler, Andrew; Hershfield, Selman

    The carbon nanotube vertical organic field effect transistor is a vertical sequence consisting of a gate electrode, gate dielectric, thin nanotube network source electrode, organic semiconducting channel and finally the drain electrode. The drain current is modulated by the gate voltage which varies a Schottky barrier between source and channel layers. Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristic has been observed when a electret charge trapping layer is placed between the nanotube source and the gate dielectric. We provide a model for charge injection into a trapping layer placed in contact with the carbon nanotube film and solve self-consistently for the electrostatics and the occupancy of the traps. For a range of applied gate voltages the simulations demonstrate hysteresis of the carbon nanotubes' charge as a result of the electric field produced by the trapped charge. This affects the current by modulating the Schottky barrier. This work was supported by the NSF Grant DMR-1461019.

  3. Negative Quantum Capacitance of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Latessa, L.; Pecchia, A.; Di Carlo, A.; P. Lugli

    2004-01-01

    Atomistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the capacitance between a metallic cylindric gate and a carbon nanotube (CNT) are reported. Results stressing the predominant effect of quantum capacitance in limiting or even enhancing screening properties of the CNT are shown. Other contributions to the quantum capacitance beyond the electronic density of state (DOS) are pointed out. Negative values of the quantum capacitance are obtained for low-density systems, which correspondingl...

  4. Modelling of Chirality-Dependent Current-Voltage Characteristics of Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xu; WANG Yan; YU Zhi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Current-voltage characteristics of ballistic carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors are characterized with an it-erative simulation program. The influence of carbon-nanotube chirality and diameter on the output current is considered. An analytical current-voltage expression under the quantum capacitance limit and low-voltage application is derived. Our simulation results are compared with actual measurement data.

  5. Detecting Lyme Disease Using Antibody-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Mitchell B; Goldsmith, Brett R; Brisson, Dustin; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2013-01-01

    We examined the potential of antibody-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) for use as a fast and accurate sensor for a Lyme disease antigen. Biosensors were fabricated on oxidized silicon wafers using chemical vapor deposition grown carbon nanotubes that were functionalized using diazonium salts. Attachment of Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) flagellar antibodies to the nanotubes was verified by Atomic Force Microscopy and electronic measurements. A reproducible shift in the turn-off voltage of the semiconducting SWNT FETs was seen upon incubation with Borrelia burgdorferi flagellar antigen, indicative of the nanotube FET being locally gated by the residues of flagellar protein bound to the antibody. This sensor effectively detected antigen in buffer at concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml, and the response varied strongly over a concentration range coinciding with levels of clinical interest. Generalizable binding chemistry gives this biosensing platform the potential to...

  6. Controlled n-Type Doping of Carbon Nanotube Transistors by an Organorhodium Dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Michael L; Moudgil, Karttikay; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-07-13

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transistors are among the most developed nanoelectronic devices for high-performance computing applications. While p-type SWCNT transistors are easily achieved through adventitious adsorption of atmospheric oxygen, n-type SWCNT transistors require extrinsic doping schemes. Existing n-type doping strategies for SWCNT transistors suffer from one or more issues including environmental instability, limited carrier concentration modulation, undesirable threshold voltage control, and/or poor morphology. In particular, commonly employed benzyl viologen n-type doping layers possess large thicknesses, which preclude top-gate transistor designs that underlie high-density integrated circuit layouts. To overcome these limitations, we report here the controlled n-type doping of SWCNT thin-film transistors with a solution-processed pentamethylrhodocene dimer. The charge transport properties of organorhodium-treated SWCNT thin films show consistent n-type behavior when characterized in both Hall effect and thin-film transistor geometries. Due to the molecular-scale thickness of the organorhodium adlayer, large-area arrays of top-gated, n-type SWCNT transistors are fabricated with high yield. This work will thus facilitate ongoing efforts to realize high-density SWCNT integrated circuits. PMID:27253896

  7. Operation Mechanism of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Transistors Investigated By ab initio Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN nai-Ping; ZHANG Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a new switching characteristic of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) transistors is found in during experiments. We carry out a series of ab intio calculations on DWNTs' electronic properities, together with verification on the electronic response under the electric field. Our results reveal that the peculiar energy states relation in DWNTs and related contact modes should account for the distinct switching behavior of DWNT transistors. We believe these results have important implications in the fabrication and understanding of electronic devices with DWNTs.

  8. DFT modelling of bulk-modulated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Latessa, L.; Pecchia, A.; Di Carlo, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report density-functional theory (DFT), atomistic simulations of the non-equilibrium transport properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Results have been obtained within a self-consistent approach based on the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) scheme. Our attention has been focused on a new kind of devices, the so called bulk-modulated CNTFETs. Recent experimental realizations \\cite{Chen,Lin_condMat} have shown that such devices can exhibit excellent perf...

  9. Temperature Dependence of Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors: A Quantum Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naderi; S. Mohammad Noorbakhsh; Hossein Elahipanah

    2012-01-01

    By developing a two-dimensional (2D) full quantum simulation, the attributes of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) in different temperatures have been comprehensively investigated. Simulations have been performed by employing the self-consistent solution of 2D Poisson-Schrödinger equations within the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. Principal characteristics of CNTFETs such as current capability, drain conductance, transconductance, and subthreshold swing (SS)...

  10. Determination of the electrostatic lever arm of carbon nanotube field effect transistors using Kelvin Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Brunel, David; Deresmes, Dominique; Melin, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    We use Kelvin Force Microscopy (KFM) to study the electrostatic properties of single-walled Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor devices (CNTFETs) with backgate geometry at room temperature. We show that KFM maps recorded as a function of the device backgate polarization enable a complete phenomenological determination of the averaging effects associated with the KFM probe side capacitances, and thus, to obtain KFM measurements with quantitative character. The value of the electrostatic le...

  11. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube and Chemically Synthesized Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Patrick B.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess great potential as high performance semiconducting channels due to their one-dimensional nature, extremely high mobility, and their demonstrated ability to transport electrons ballistically in transistors. However, the presence of metallic CNTs in CNT films and arrays represents a major impediment towards large-scale integration. Methods of solution purification have demonstrated partial success in metallic CNT removal, although their effects on device perfor...

  12. Ink-jet printing of thin film transistors based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiantong

    2010-01-01

    The outstanding electrical and mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) may offer solutions to realizing high-mobility and high-bendability thin-film transistors (TFTs) for the emerging flexible electronics. This thesis aims to develop low-cost ink-jet printing techniques for high-performance TFTs based on pristine SWCNTs. The main challenge of this work is to suppress the effects of “metallic SWCNT contamination” and improve the device electrical performance. To this ...

  13. The performance of in situ grown Schottky-barrier single wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhixian [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Jin, Rongying [ORNL; Subedi, Alaska P [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL; Kim, Eugene [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Electrical transport measurements were used to study device behavior that results from the interplay of defects and inadvertent contact variance that develops in as-grown semiconducting single wall carbon nanotube devices with nominally identical Au contacts. The transport measurements reveal that as-grown nanotubes contain defects that limit the performance of field-effect transistors with ohmic contacts. In Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors the device performance is dominated by the Schottky barrier and the nanotube defects have little effect. We also observed strong rectifying behavior attributed to extreme contact asymmetry due to the different nanoscale roughness of the gold contacts formed during nanotube growth.

  14. The performance of in situ grown Schottky-barrier single wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Zhixian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Eres, Gyula; Jin Rongying; Subedi, Alaska; Mandrus, David [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kim, Eugene H [Department of Physics, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4 (Canada)], E-mail: zxzhou@wayne.edu

    2009-02-25

    Electrical transport measurements were used to study device behavior that results from the interplay of defects and inadvertent contact variance that develops in as-grown semiconducting single wall carbon nanotube devices with nominally identical Au contacts. The transport measurements reveal that as-grown nanotubes contain defects that limit the performance of field-effect transistors with ohmic contacts. In Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors the device performance is dominated by the Schottky barrier and the nanotube defects have little effect. We also observed strong rectifying behavior attributed to extreme contact asymmetry due to the different nanoscale roughness of the gold contacts formed during nanotube growth.

  15. The performance of in situ grown Schottky-barrier single wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical transport measurements were used to study device behavior that results from the interplay of defects and inadvertent contact variance that develops in as-grown semiconducting single wall carbon nanotube devices with nominally identical Au contacts. The transport measurements reveal that as-grown nanotubes contain defects that limit the performance of field-effect transistors with ohmic contacts. In Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors the device performance is dominated by the Schottky barrier and the nanotube defects have little effect. We also observed strong rectifying behavior attributed to extreme contact asymmetry due to the different nanoscale roughness of the gold contacts formed during nanotube growth.

  16. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networked Field-Effect Transistors Functionalized with Thiolated Heme for NO2 Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated. After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme, the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below 100ppb. It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Enhancement of minority carrier injection in ambipolar carbon nanotube transistors using double-gate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongjun; Liang, Kelly; Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2016-07-01

    We show that double-gate ambipolar thin-film transistors can be operated to enhance minority carrier injection. The two gate potentials need to be significantly different for enhanced injection to be observed. This enhancement is highly beneficial in devices such as light-emitting transistors where balanced electron and hole injections lead to optimal performance. With ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube semiconductors, we demonstrate that higher ambipolar currents are attained at lower source-drain voltages, which is desired for portable electronic applications, by employing double-gate structures. In addition, when the two gates are held at the same potential, the expected advantages of the double-gate transistors such as enhanced on-current are also observed.

  18. Evaluation of Aromatic Boronic Acids as Ligands for Measuring Diabetes Markers on Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Steingrimur Stefansson; Lára A. Stefansson; Suk-won Chung; Kevin Ko; Hena H. Kwon; Saeyoung Nate Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Biomolecular detections performed on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) frequently use reactive pyrenes as an anchor to tether bioactive ligands to the hydrophobic nanotubes. In this paper, we explore the possibility of directly using bioactive aromatic compounds themselves as CNT-FET ligands. This would be an efficient way to functionalize CNT-FETs since many aromatic compounds bind avidly to nanotubes, and it would also ensure that ligand-binding molecules would be brought ...

  19. A comparative analysis of thin-film transistors using aligned and random-network carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Yan [School of Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Mechanical Engineering (United States); Juhala, Jason L.; Griffith, Benjamin W. [School of Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Electrical Engineering (United States); Xue Wei, E-mail: wxue@wsu.edu [School of Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University, Mechanical Engineering (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the characterization of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin-film transistors based on two solution-based fabrication methods: dielectrophoretic deposition of aligned CNTs and self-assembly of random-network CNTs. The electrical characteristics of aligned and random-network CNT transistors are studied comparatively. In particular, the selection effect of metallic and semiconducting CNTs in the dielectrophoresis process is evaluated experimentally by comparing the output characteristics of the two transistors. Our results demonstrate that the self-assembly method produces a stronger field effect with a much higher on/off ratio (I{sub on}/I{sub off}). This phenomenon provides evidence that the metallic CNTs are more responsive to dielectrophoretic forces than their semiconducting counterparts under common deposition conditions. In addition, the nanotube-nanotube cross-junctions in random-network CNT films create additional energy barriers and result in a reduced electric current. Thus, additional consideration must be applied when using different fabrication methods in building CNT-based electronic devices.

  20. A simple drain current model for Schottky-barrier carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a new computational model to efficiently simulate carbon nanotube-based field effect transistors (CNT-FET). In the model, a central region is formed by a semiconducting nanotube that acts as the conducting channel, surrounded by a thin oxide layer and a metal gate electrode. At both ends of the semiconducting channel, two semi-infinite metallic reservoirs act as source and drain contacts. The current-voltage characteristics are computed using the Landauer formalism, including the effect of the Schottky barrier physics. The main operational regimes of the CNT-FET are described, including thermionic and tunnel current components, capturing ambipolar conduction, multichannel ballistic transport and electrostatics dominated by the nanotube capacitance. The calculations are successfully compared to results given by more sophisticated methods based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF)

  1. Light-emitting polymer/carbon nanotube hybrid transistors: below and above the percolation limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Jakubka, Florian; Gannott, Florentina; Zaumseil, Jana

    2013-09-01

    Hybrids of semiconducting polymers and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are interesting for organic electronic devices such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes and field-effect transistors (FETs). They are easily produced by selective dispersion of SWNTs in polymer solutions by ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. We demonstrate that nanotubes at concentration levels well below the percolation limit significantly improve charge injection of both holes and electrons into semiconducting polymers in top-gate FETs. This leads to lower contact resistances and reduced threshold voltages, thus the maximum ambipolar currents and visible light emission due to electron-hole recombination are considerably enhanced. The improved injection of holes and electrons allows for a much wider range of accessible polymers for ambipolar and light-emitting transistors. The same conjugated polymers can also be used to enrich specific semiconducting SWNT and to produce high-performance ambipolar nanotube network FETs. These show efficient nearinfrared electroluminescence. Mapping the emission from these networks during a gate voltage sweep allows us to visualize preferential current paths and investigate percolation models for purely semiconducting nanotube networks.

  2. Single-WalledCarbon Nanotube Networked Field-Effect Transistors Functionalized with Thiolated Heme for NO2 Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏昂; 李维维; 汪静霞; 龙庆; 王钊; 熊莉; 董晓臣; 黄维

    2011-01-01

    The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated. After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme, the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below Woppb. It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption.%The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated.After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme,the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below 100ppb.It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption.

  3. Local-gated single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors assembled by AC dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple and scalable technique for the fabrication of solution processed and local-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNT-FETs). The approach is based on the directed assembly of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes from dichloroethane via AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) onto pre-patterned source and drain electrodes with a local aluminum gate in the middle. Local-gated CNT-FET devices display superior performance compared to a global back gate with on-off ratios >104 and maximum subthreshold swings of 170 mV/dec. The local bottom-gated DEP-assembled CNT-FETs will facilitate large-scale fabrication of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible nanoelectronic devices

  4. Terahertz response in single-walled carbon nanotube transistor: a real-time quantum dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use time-dependent quantum wavepacket methods to simulate ballistic electron transport in a single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor at terahertz frequencies (∼100 GHz-10 THz). We observe an electron resonance phenomenon in a sub-picosecond-scale time domain. Our simulation results clearly show that the electron resonance corresponds to the formation of the resonance cavity and the interference of the electron wavepackets, which is directly supported by recent experimental measurements (Zhong et al 2008 Nat. Nanotechnol. 3 201).

  5. Dynamic response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors analyzed by S-parameters measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CN-FET) with a metallic back gate have been fabricated. By assembling a number of CNs in parallel, driving currents in the mA range have been obtained. The dynamic response of the CN-FETs has been investigated through S-parameters measurements. A current gain (|H 21|2) cut-off frequency (f t) of 8 GHz, and a maximum stable gain (MSG) value of 10 dB at 1 GHz have been obtained. The extraction of an equivalent circuit is proposed

  6. Dynamic response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors analyzed by S-parameters measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethoux, J.-M. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Happy, H. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)]. E-mail: henri.happy@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Dambrine, G. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Derycke, V. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goffman, M. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bourgoin, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CN-FET) with a metallic back gate have been fabricated. By assembling a number of CNs in parallel, driving currents in the mA range have been obtained. The dynamic response of the CN-FETs has been investigated through S-parameters measurements. A current gain (|H {sub 21}|{sup 2}) cut-off frequency (f {sub t}) of 8 GHz, and a maximum stable gain (MSG) value of 10 dB at 1 GHz have been obtained. The extraction of an equivalent circuit is proposed.

  7. Performances of carbon nanotube field effect transistors with altered channel length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The influence of channel length on the performances of carbon nanotube field effect transistors(CNT-FETs) has been studied.Buffered oxide etching was used to remove approximately a 60 nm layer from the original 100 nm silicon dioxide layer,to thin the dielectric layer of the back gate.Channel length of the CNT-FETs was changed along with the etching process.The dependence of drain-source current on gate voltage was measured to analyze the performance of the CNT-FETs,including the transconductance,carrier mobility,current ON/OFF ratio,etc.The results indicate that the devices still keep good quality.

  8. Floating electrode transistor based on purified semiconducting carbon nanotubes for high source–drain voltage operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report floating-electrode-based thin-film transistors (F-TFTs) based on a purified semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (swCNT) network for a high source–drain voltage operation. At a high source–drain voltage, a conventional swCNT-TFT exhibited poor transistor performance with a small on–off ratio, which was attributed to the reduced Schottky barrier modulation at a large bias. In the F-TFT device, an swCNT network channel was separated into a number of channels connected by floating electrodes. The F-TFTs exhibited a much higher on–off ratio than a conventional swCNT-TFT with a single channel. This work should provide an important guideline in designing swCNT-TFTs for high voltage applications such as displays. (paper)

  9. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Network Field Effect Transistor as a Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasantha R. Mudimela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotube network field effect transistors were fabricated and studied as humidity sensors. Sensing responses were altered by changing the gate voltage. At the open channel state (negative gate voltage, humidity pulse resulted in the decrease of the source-drain current, and, vice versa, the increase in the source-drain current was observed at the positive gate voltage. This effect was explained by the electron-donating nature of water molecules. The operation speed and signal intensity was found to be dependent on the gate voltage polarity. The positive or negative change in current with humidity pulse at zero-gate voltage was found to depend on the previous state of the gate electrode (positive or negative voltage, respectively. Those characteristics were explained by the charge traps in the gate dielectric altering the effective gate voltage, which influenced the operation of field effect transistor.

  10. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Centre Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1ère Avenue, Val d' Or, Quebec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Kroeger, J. [NanoIntegris & Raymor Nanotech, Raymor Industries Inc., 3765 La Vérendrye, Boisbriand, Quebec J7H 1R8 (Canada); Haddad, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8 (Canada); Rosei, F. [Centre Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-09-28

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 10{sup 4} and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 10{sup 4} s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices.

  11. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 104 and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 104 s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices

  12. Influence of contact height on the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been experimentally demonstrated (J. Li et al., Carbon, 2012, 50, 4628-4632). The source and drain contact heights in vertical CNTFETs could be much higher than in flat CNTFETs if the fabrication process is not optimized. To understand the impact of contact height on transistor performance, we use a semi-classical method to calculate the characteristics of CNTFETs with different contact heights. The results show that the drain current decreases with increasing contact height and saturates at a value governed by the thickness of the oxide. The current reduction caused by the increased contact height becomes more significant when the gate oxide is thicker. The higher the drain voltage, the larger the current reduction. It becomes even worse when the band gap of the carbon nanotube is larger. The current can differ by a factor of more than five between the CNTEFTs with low and high contact heights when the oxide thickness is 50 nm. In addition, the influence of the contact height is limited by the channel length. The contact height plays a minor role when the channel length is less than 100 nm. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Highly stretchable carbon nanotube transistors enabled by buckled ion gel gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) are expected to facilitate new technologies like stretchable displays, conformal devices, and electronic skins. We previously demonstrated stretchable FETs based on buckled thin films of polyfluorene-wrapped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as the channel, buckled metal films as electrodes, and unbuckled flexible ion gel films as the dielectric. The FETs were stretchable up to 50% without appreciable degradation in performance before failure of the ion gel film. Here, we show that by buckling the ion gel, the integrity and performance of the nanotube FETs are extended to nearly 90% elongation, limited by the stretchability of the elastomer substrate. The FETs maintain an on/off ratio of >104 and a field-effect mobility of 5 cm2 V−1 s−1 under elongation and demonstrate invariant performance over 1000 stretching cycles

  14. Unique Characteristics of Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistors on Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2014-07-01

    A vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) based on silicon (Si) substrate has been proposed and simulated using a semi-classical theory. A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and an n-type Si nanowire in series construct the channel of the transistor. The CNTFET presents ambipolar characteristics at positive drain voltage (Vd) and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The current is significantly influenced by the doping level of n-Si and the SWNT band gap. The n-branch current of the ambipolar characteristics increases with increasing doping level of the n-Si while the p-branch current decreases. The SWNT band gap has the same influence on the p-branch current at a positive Vd and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The lower the SWNT band gap, the higher the current. However, it has no impact on the n-branch current in the ambipolar characteristics. Thick oxide is found to significantly degrade the current and the subthreshold slope of the CNTFETs.

  15. Impact of Scaling Gate Insulator Thickness on the Performance of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (CNTFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Dass

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As scaling down Si MOSFET devices degrade device performance in terms of short channel effects. Carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET is one of the novel nanoelectronics devices that overcome those MOSFET limitations. The carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs have been explored and proposed to be the promising candidate for the next generation of integrated circuit (IC devices. To explore the role of CNTFETs in future integrated circuits, it is important to evaluate their performance. However, to do that we need a model that can accurately describe the behavior of the CNTFETs so that the design and evaluation of circuits using these devices can be made. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of scaling gate insulator thickness on the device performance of cylindrical shaped ballistic CNTFET in terms of transfer characteristics, output characteristics, average velocity, gm/Id ratio, mobile charge, quantum capacitance/insulator capacitance, drive current (Ion, Ion / Ioff ratio, transconductance, and output conductance. We concluded that the device metrics such as Ion, Ion / Ioff ratio, transconductance, and output conductance increases with the decrease in gate insulator thickness. Also, we concluded that the gate insulator thickness reduction causes subthreshold slope close to the theoretical limit of 60 mV/decade and DIBL close to zero at room temperature.

  16. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors; Toward all carbon electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Wook; Seo, Miri; Na, Junhong; Kim, Yong Hyeon; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Kim, Jin-Ju; Yun, Hoyeol; Kim, Hakseong; Yoon, Ho-Ang; Kim, Keun Soo; Jeong, Goo-Hwan; Kim, Gyu Tae

    2014-03-01

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode array on top of the pre-deposited SWNTs which were aligned along one direction. Aligned arrays of SWNTs were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method on quartz substrate. The micro scale contact electrodes and following circuit structures were defined by photo lithography on the large area graphene produced by CVD. Both of the single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials. In this presentation, the device fabrication procedure, the contact properties, and the transistor performances of the device structures were discussed. This work was supported by NRF.

  17. Electrical properties and memory effects of field-effect transistors from networks of single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study field-effect transistors made of single- and double-walled carbon nanotube networks for applications as memory devices. The transfer characteristics of the transistors exhibit a reproducible hysteresis which enables their use as nano-sized memory cells with operations faster than 10 ms, endurance longer than 10+4 cycles and charge retention of a few hours in air. We propose water enhanced charge trapping at the SiO2/air interface close to the nanotubes as the dominant mechanism for charge storage. We show that charge storage can be improved by limiting exposure of the device to air.

  18. Vacuum filtration based formation of liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and high performance transistor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report ultra-thin liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes using a simple vacuum filtration process. Vacuum filtration of nanotubes in aqueous surfactant solution formed nematic domains on the filter membrane surface and exhibited local ordering. A 2D fast Fourier transform was used to calculate the order parameters from scanning electron microscopy images. The order parameter was observed to be sensitive to the filtration time demonstrating different regions of transformation namely nucleation of nematic domains, nanotube accumulation and large domain growth.Transmittance versus sheet resistance measurements of such films resulted in optical to dc conductivity of σ opt/σ dc = 9.01 indicative of purely semiconducting nanotube liquid crystal network.Thin films of nanotube liquid crystals with order parameters ranging from S = 0.1–0.5 were patterned into conducting channels of transistor devices which showed high I on/I off ratios from 10–19 800 and electron mobility values μ e = 0.3–78.8 cm2 (V-s)−1, hole mobility values μ h = 0.4–287 cm2 (V-s)−1. High I on/I off ratios were observed at low order parameters and film mass. A Schottky barrier transistor model is consistent with the observed transistor characteristics. Electron and hole mobilities were seen to increase with order parameters and carbon nanotube mass fractions. A fundamental tradeoff between decreasing on/off ratio and increasing mobility with increasing nanotube film mass and order parameter is therefore concluded. Increase in order parameters of nanotubes liquid crystals improved the electronic transport properties as witnessed by the increase in σ dc/σ opt values on macroscopic films and high mobilities in microscopic transistors. Liquid crystal networks of semiconducting nanotubes as demonstrated here are simple to fabricate, transparent, scalable and could find wide ranging device applications. (papers)

  19. Device and circuit-level performance of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor with benchmarking against a nano-MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michael Loong Peng; Lentaris, Georgios; Amaratunga Aj, Gehan

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT) is assessed and tabulated for parameters against those of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Both CNT and MOSFET models considered agree well with the trends in the available experimental data. The results obtained show that nanotubes can significantly reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering effect and subthreshold swing in silicon channel replacement while sustaining smaller channel area at higher current density. Performance metrics of both devices such as current drive strength, current on-off ratio (Ion/Ioff), energy-delay product, and power-delay product for logic gates, namely NAND and NOR, are presented. Design rules used for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are compatible with the 45-nm MOSFET technology. The parasitics associated with interconnects are also incorporated in the model. Interconnects can affect the propagation delay in a CNTFET. Smaller length interconnects result in higher cutoff frequency. PMID:22901374

  20. Performance analysis of junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistors using NEGF formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbastegan, Saber; Shahhoseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the simulation study of a junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor (JL-CNTFET) and a comparison is made with the conventional CNTFET using the atomistic scale simulation, within the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism. In order to have a comprehensive analysis, both analog and digital parameters of the device are studied. Results have shown that JL-CNTFET with respect to C-CNTFET shows slightly higher ION/IOFF ratio about two times larger than that of C-CNTFET, smaller electric field along channel more than three order of magnitude and reduced tunneling current about 100 times. In addition, the investigation of analog properties of both devices has exhibited that junctionless structure has a transconductance about two times and an intrinsic gain of 15 dB larger than C-CNTFET in same bias condition which makes JL-CNTFET a promising candidate for low voltage analog applications.

  1. Field-effect transistors with multiple channels constructed by carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Changxin; ZHANG; Yafei

    2005-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) pre-decorated with functional molecules are directly aligned in the AC electric field, which makes SWNTs parallelly bridge the source and drain electrodes and act as the multiple conduction channels of the field-effect transistor (FET). The method avoids the mutual tanglement of SWNTs and makes them align between the source and drain electrodes abreast and dispersedly. It is indicated that aligning SWNTs in the high-volatility solvents can decrease the contaminant around the electrodes and has a function to purify the raw SWNTs. The obtained multi-channel FET not only takes on a high transconductance, but also holds the good reliability and stability.

  2. Inkjet printed ambipolar transistors and inverters based on carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Dodabalapur, Ananth, E-mail: ananth.dodabalapur@engr.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Geier, Michael L.; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We report ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of inkjet printed semiconductor bilayer heterostructures utilizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO). The bilayer structure allows for electron transport to occur principally in the amorphous oxide layer and hole transport to occur exclusively in the SWCNT layer. This results in balanced electron and hole mobilities exceeding 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at low operating voltages (<5 V) in air. We further show that the SWCNT-ZTO hybrid ambipolar FETs can be integrated into functional inverter circuits that display high peak gain (>10). This work provides a pathway for realizing solution processable, inkjet printable, large area electronic devices, and systems based on SWCNT-amorphous oxide heterostructures.

  3. Suspended single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistor for gas sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yukiko; Fujita, Yoshihiro; Takei, Kuniharu; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the pressure dependence of transfer characteristics of suspended single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors. We find that the gate bias around the charge neutral point with low drain current is appropriate for gas sensing application, while the high gate bias condition with high drain current that induces Joule heating in the suspended region for the desorption of the adsorbed molecules is preferable for the vacuum gauge application based on the heat exchange surrounding gas molecules, where the temperature at the suspended channel is investigated based on the simple one-dimensional heat transport model. We also revealed that the pressure dependence of the channel conductance at the gate bias around the charge neutral point can be explained by the Langmuir isotherm.

  4. Modeling a Schottky-barrier carbon nanotube field-effect transistor with ferromagnetic contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a model of a Schottky-barrier carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET), with ferromagnetic contacts, has been developed. The emphasis is put on analysis of current-voltage characteristics as well as shot (and thermal) noise. The method is based on the tight-binding model and the non-equilibrium Green's function technique. The calculations show that, at room temperature, the shot noise of the CNT-FET is Poissonian in the sub-threshold region, whereas in elevated gate and drain/source voltage regions the Fano factor gets strongly reduced. Moreover, transport properties strongly depend on relative magnetization orientations in the source and drain contacts. In particular, one observes quite a large tunnel magnetoresistance, whose absolute value may exceed 50%

  5. Intrinsic memory function of carbon nanotube-based ferroelectric field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wangyang; Xu, Zhi; Bai, Xuedong; Gu, Changzhi; Wang, Enge

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the intrinsic memory function of ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) based on an integration of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and epitaxial ferroelectric films. In contrast to the previously reported "charge-storage" CNT-FET memories, whose operations are haunted by a lack of control over the "charge traps", the present CNT-FeFETs exhibit a well-defined memory hysteresis loop induced by the reversible remnant polarization of the ferroelectric films. Large memory windows approximately 4 V, data retention time up to 1 week, and ultralow power consumption (energy per bit) of femto-joule, are highlighted in this report. Further simulations and experimental results show that the memory device is valid under operation voltage less than 1 V due to an electric-field enhancement effect induced by the ultrathin SWCNTs. PMID:19206218

  6. Metal contact effect on the performance and scaling behavior of carbon nanotube thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Tian, Boyuan; Yan, Qiuping; Zhang, Han; Liang, Xuelei; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-05-01

    Metal-tube contact is known to play an important role in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) which are fabricated on individual CNTs. Less attention has been paid to the contact effect in network type carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs). In this study, we demonstrate that contact plays an even more important role in CNT-TFTs than in CNT-FETs. Although the Schottky barrier height at the metal-tube contact can be tuned by the work function of the metal, similar to the case in CNT-FETs, the contact resistance (Rc) forms a much higher proportion of the total resistance in CNT-TFTs. Interestingly, the contact resistivity was found to increase with channel length, which is a consequence of the percolating nature of the transport in CNT films, and this behavior does not exist in CNT-FETs and normal 2D Ohmic conductors. Electrical transport in CNT-TFTs has been predicted to scale with channel length by stick percolation theory. However, the scaling behavior is also impacted, or even covered up by the effect of Rc. Once the contact effect is excluded, the covered scaling behavior can be revealed correctly. A possible way of reducing Rc in CNT-TFTs was proposed. We believe the findings in this paper will strengthen our understanding of CNT-TFTs, and even accelerate the commercialization of CNT-TFT technology.Metal-tube contact is known to play an important role in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) which are fabricated on individual CNTs. Less attention has been paid to the contact effect in network type carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs). In this study, we demonstrate that contact plays an even more important role in CNT-TFTs than in CNT-FETs. Although the Schottky barrier height at the metal-tube contact can be tuned by the work function of the metal, similar to the case in CNT-FETs, the contact resistance (Rc) forms a much higher proportion of the total resistance in CNT-TFTs. Interestingly, the contact

  7. All-printed and transparent single walled carbon nanotube thin film transistor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajed, Farzam; Rutherglen, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    We present fully transparent single-walled all-carbon nanotube thin film transistors (SWCNT TFT) fabricated using low-cost inkjet printing methods. Such a demonstration provides a platform towards low cost fully printed transparent electronics. The SWCNT TFTs were printed with metallic and semiconducting SWCNT using a room temperature printing process, without the requirement of expensive cleanroom facilities. The unoptimized SWCNT TFTs fabricated exhibited an Ion/off ratio of 92 and mobility of 2.27 cm2V-1s-1 and transmissivity of 82%. The combination of both high electrical performance and high transparency make all-SWCNT TFTs desirable for next generation transparent display backplanes and products such as Google Glass.

  8. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs. (paper)

  9. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  10. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube and Chemically Synthesized Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Patrick Bryce

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess great potential as high performance semiconducting channels due to their one-dimensional nature, extremely high mobility, and their demonstrated ability to transport electrons ballistically in transistors. However, the presence of metallic CNTs in CNT films and arrays represents a major impediment towards large-scale integration. Methods of solution purification have demonstrated partial success in metallic CNT removal, although their effects on device performance are unknown. While this problem may be solvable, new synthesis techniques have recently resulted in the creation of high-density films of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with atomically smooth edges, uniform widths, and uniform band structure. These may ultimately supplant CNTs in device applications due to their theoretically similar, but uniform electronic properties. This work aims to study the effects of purification of semiconducting CNTs in thin film transistors (TFTs) and to develop methods to increase device performance when metallic CNTs are present. Devices consisting of large networks of CNTs as well as short channel, single CNT devices are characterized to determine the effects of solution processing on CNTs themselves. Short channel, bottom-up GNR devices are fabricated to compare their performance to CNT transistors. The first half of this dissertation describes the methods of integrating CNTs from various sources into transistors. Growth and transfer are described, as well as methods of creating aqueous suspensions for solution processing. Development of novel surfactant materials based on biomimetic polymers used to suspend CNTs in solution are reported and characterized. Methods of deposition out of solution and onto insulating substrates are covered. Device fabrication from start to finish is detailed, with the subtleties of processing required to produce sub 10-nm channel length devices explained. The second half reports devices produced via these techniques

  11. Energy Efficient Full Adder Cell Design with Using Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors in 32 Nanometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghorbani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Full Adder is one of the critical parts of logical and arithmetic units. So, presenting a low power full adder cell reduces the power consumption of the entire circuit. Also, using Nano-scale transistors, because of their unique characteristics will save energy consumption and decrease the chip area. In this paper we presented a low power full adder cell by using carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs. Simulation results were carried out using HSPICE based on the CNTFET model in 32 nanometer technology in Different values of temperature and VDD.

  12. All-Printed Thin-Film Transistor Based on Purified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Linear Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiru Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an all-printed thin-film transistor (TFT on a polyimide substrate with linear transconductance response. The TFT is based on our purified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT solution that is primarily consists of semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs with low metal impurities. The all-printed TFT exhibits a high ON/OFF ratio of around 103 and bias-independent transconductance over a certain gate bias range. Such bias-independent transconductance property is different from that of conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs due to the special band structure and the one-dimensional (1D quantum confined density of state (DOS of CNTs. The bias-independent transconductance promises modulation linearity for analog electronics.

  13. Numerical Modeling of the I-V Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Marulanda, Jose Mauricio; Srivastava, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Previous works in carbon nanotubes describing a relationship between the gate voltage and the carbon nanotube potential have made possible the implementation of a current equation, which can be solved numerically using any mathematical software, in order to find the current voltage characteristic for any given CNT-FET. The results presented provide designers with useful mathematical relations describing the properties of conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their response in circuit applicati...

  14. Simulation of Phonon-Assisted Band-to Band Tunneling in Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Koswatta, Siyuranga O.; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Anantram, M. P.; Nikonov, Dmitri E.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic transport in a carbon nanotube (CNT) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is simulated using the non-equilibrium Green's functions method with the account of electron-phonon scattering. For MOSFETs, ambipolar conduction is explained via phonon-assisted band-to-band (Landau-Zener) tunneling. In comparison to the ballistic case, we show that the phonon scattering shifts the onset of ambipolar conduction to more positive gate voltage (thereby increasing the off c...

  15. Raman microscopy mapping for the purity assessment of chirality enriched carbon nanotube networks in thin- film transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Li; Jianfu Ding; Paul Finnie; Jacques Lefebvre; Fuyong Cheng; ChristopherT. Kingston; Patrick R. L. Malenfant

    2015-01-01

    With recent improvements in carbon nanotube separation methods, the accurate determination of residual metallic carbon nanotubes in a purified nanotube sample is important, particularly for those interested in using semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in electronic device applications such as thin-film transistors (TFTs). This work demonstrates that Raman microscopy mapping is a powerful characterization tool for quantifying residual metallic carbon nanotubes present in highly enriched semiconducting nanotube networks. Raman mapping correlates well with absorption spectroscopy, yet it provides greater differentiation in purity. Electrical data from TFTs with channel lengths of 2.5 and 5μ m demonstrate the utility of the method. By comparing samples with nominal purities of 99.0% and 99.8%, a clear differentiation can be made when evaluating the current on/off ratio as a function of channel length, and thus the Raman mapping method provides a means to guide device fabrication by correlating SWCNT network density and purity with TFT channel scaling.

  16. Fabrication of air-stable n-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrates using bilayer dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanhong; Li, Qunqing; Jin, Yuanhao; Zhao, Yudan; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-11-14

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin-film transistors hold great potential for flexible electronics. However, fabrication of air-stable n-type devices by methods compatible with standard photolithography on flexible substrates is challenging. Here, we demonstrated that by using a bilayer dielectric structure of MgO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 or HfO2, air-stable n-type devices can be obtained. The mechanism for conduction type conversion was elucidated and attributed to the hole depletion in SWNT, the decrease of the trap state density by MgO assimilating adsorbed water molecules in the vicinity of SWNT, and the energy band bending because of the positive fixed charges in the ALD layer. The key advantage of the method is the relatively low temperature (120 or 90 °C) required here for the ALD process because we need not employ this step to totally remove the absorbates on the SWNTs. This advantage facilitates the integration of both p-type and n-type transistors through a simple lift off process and compact CMOS inverters were demonstrated. We also demonstrated that the doping of SWNTs in the channel plays a more important role than the Schottky barriers at the metal contacts in carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, unlike the situation in individual SWNT-based transistors. PMID:26451806

  17. Strain on field effect transistors with single–walled–carbon nanotube network on flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have systematically analyzed the effect of strain on the electrical properties of flexible field effect transistors with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network on a polyethersulfone substrate. The strain was applied and estimated at the microscopic scale (<1 μm) by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with indigenously designed special bending jig. Interestingly, the strain estimated at the microscopic scale was found to be significantly different from the strain calculated at the macroscopic scale (centimeter-scale), by a factor of up to 4. Further in-depth analysis using SEM indicated that the significant difference in strain, obtained from two different measurement scales (microscale and macroscale), could be attributed to the formation of cracks and tears in the SWCNT network, or at the junction of SWCNT network and electrode during the strain process. Due to this irreversible morphological change, the electrical properties, such as on current level and field effect mobility, lowered by 14.3% and 4.6%, respectively

  18. Wafer scale fabrication of carbon nanotube thin film transistors with high yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Boyuan; Liang, Xuelei; Yan, Qiuping; Zhang, Han; Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Peng, Lianmao; Xie, Sishen

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs) are promising candidates for future high performance and low cost macro-electronics. However, most of the reported CNT-TFTs are fabricated in small quantities on a relatively small size substrate. The yield of large scale fabrication and the performance uniformity of devices on large size substrates should be improved before the CNT-TFTs reach real products. In this paper, 25 200 devices, with various geometries (channel width and channel length), were fabricated on 4-in. size ridged and flexible substrates. Almost 100% device yield were obtained on a rigid substrate with high out-put current (>8 μA/μm), high on/off current ratio (>105), and high mobility (>30 cm2/V.s). More importantly, uniform performance in 4-in. area was achieved, and the fabrication process can be scaled up. The results give us more confidence for the real application of the CNT-TFT technology in the near future.

  19. Evaluation of interface trap densities and quantum capacitance in carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Choi, B.; Choi, S.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Jeon, M.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, D. M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S.; Choi, S.-J.

    2016-07-01

    The interface trap density in single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network thin-film transistors (TFTs) is a fundamental and important parameter for assessing the electronic performance of TFTs. However, the number of studies on the extraction of interface trap densities, particularly in SWNT TFTs, has been insufficient. In this work, we propose an efficient technique for extracting the energy-dependent interface traps in SWNT TFTs. From the measured dispersive, frequency-dependent capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics, the dispersive-free, frequency-independent C–V curve was obtained, thus enabling the extraction and analysis of the interface trap density, which was found to be approximately 8.2 × 1011 eV‑1 cm‑2 at the valence band edge. The frequency-independent C–V curve also allows further extraction of the quantum capacitance in the SWNT network without introducing any additional fitting process or parameters. We found that the extracted value of the quantum capacitance in SWNT networks is lower than the theoretical value in aligned SWNTs due to the cross point of SWNTs on the SWNT network. Therefore, the method proposed in this work indicates that the C–V measurement is a powerful tool for obtaining deep physical insights regarding the electrical performance of SWNT TFTs.

  20. Variability and Reliability of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ehteshamul Islam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excellent electrical performance and extreme sensitivity to chemical species in semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon NanoTubes (s-SWCNTs motivated the study of using them to replace silicon as a next generation field effect transistor (FET for electronic, optoelectronic, and biological applications. In addition, use of SWCNTs in the recently studied flexible electronics appears more promising because of SWCNTs’ inherent flexibility and superior electrical performance over silicon-based materials. All these applications require SWCNT-FETs to have a wafer-scale uniform and reliable performance over time to a level that is at least comparable with the currently used silicon-based nanoscale FETs. Due to similarity in device configuration and its operation, SWCNT-FET inherits most of the variability and reliability concerns of silicon-based FETs, namely the ones originating from line edge roughness, metal work-function variation, oxide defects, etc. Additional challenges arise from the lack of chirality control in as-grown and post-processed SWCNTs and also from the presence of unstable hydroxyl (–OH groups near the interface of SWCNT and dielectric. In this review article, we discuss these variability and reliability origins in SWCNT-FETs. Proposed solutions for mitigating each of these sources are presented and a future perspective is provided in general, which are required for commercial use of SWCNT-FETs in future nanoelectronic applications.

  1. Advantages of flattened electrode in bottom contact single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistor (FET) devices on flattened electrodes, in which there are no height difference between metal electrodes and the substrate. SWNT-FET fabricated using bottom contact technique have some advantages, such that the SWNTs are free from electron irradiation, have direct contact with the desired metal electrodes, and can be functionalized before or after deposition. However, the SWNTs can be bent at the contact point with the metal electrodes leading to a different electrical characteristic of the devices. The number of SWNT direct junctions in short channel length devices is drastically increased by the use of flattened electrodes due to strong attractive interaction between SWNT and the substrate. The flattened electrodes show a better balance between their hole and electron mobility compared to that of the non-flattened electrodes, that is, ambipolar FET characteristic. It is considered that bending of the SWNTs in the non-flattened electrode devices results in a higher Schottky barrier for the electrons.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor for cholesterol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Md. Abdul, E-mail: abdulnpl@gmail.com; Dutta, Jiten Ch. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2014-08-04

    We have reported fabrication and characterization of polyaniline (PANI)/zinc oxide (ZnO) membrane-based junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor deposited on indium tin oxide glass plate for the detection of cholesterol (0.5–22.2 mM). Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been immobilized on the PANI/ZnO membrane by physical adsorption technique. Electrical response has been recorded using digital multimeter (Agilent 3458A) in the presence of phosphate buffer saline of 50 mM, pH 7.0, and 0.9% NaCl contained in a glass pot. The results of response studies for cholesterol reveal linearity as 0.5–16.6 mM and improved sensitivity of 60 mV/decade in good agreement with Nernstian limit ∼59.2 mV/decade. The life time of this sensor has been found up to 5 months and response time of 1 s. The limit of detection with regression coefficient (r) ∼ 0.998 and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) were found to be ∼0.25 and 1.4 mM, respectively, indicating high affinity of ChOx to cholesterol. The results obtained in this work show negligible interference with glucose and urea.

  3. Diameter dependence of 1/f noise in carbon nanotube field effect transistors using noise spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have many interesting properties for nano devices such as high sensitive sensors or noise enhanced nonlinear devices. A field effect transistor (FET) structure is one of the key features for these applications, and the control of noise in FETs is important for the actual operation of the application. Several origins of noise have been proposed, and defects and/or surface adsorption of molecules seem to be dominant for the 1/f type noise in CNTs. To study the origins of noise, the diameter dependence of noise properties was studied. We analyzed the noise properties in CNTs using noise spectroscopy with different fabrication parameters or ambient environments. We observed the crossover of noise properties in CNTs, which involved transition between different origins of noise depending on their diameter. Additionally, noise spectroscopy was used to observe such crossover between air and vacuum environments. We can control noise intensity using the gate voltage, and noise properties can be controlled by the fabrication parameters. These phenomena are useful for the stochastic operation of CNT-FETs.

  4. Strain effects on the performance of zero-Schottky-barrier double-walled carbon nanotube transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Md. Abdul; Khosru, Quazi D. M.

    2010-08-01

    Schrodinger's equation is solved using recursive Green's function algorithm self-consistently with Poisson's equation to study the transport physics of uniaxial and torsional strained double-walled (DW) carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) and to analyze their performance. The characteristics and performance of proposed DW CNTFET are compared with existing single-walled (SW) CNTFET. The strain has great impact on the I-V characteristics of both SW and DW CNT devices. Tensile and torsional strains improve greatly the off-state current and on/off current ratio of both devices. Compressive strain improves on-state current, but this improvement is comparatively small. The effect of strain on off-state current, on-state current, and on/off current ratio is higher in SW CNTFET. The inverse subthreshold slope of DW CNTFET is better than SW CNTFET. But the variation in inverse subthreshold slope with strain is smaller in DW CNTFET. Unlike SW CNTFET the on-state transconductance of DW CNTFET improves with tensile and torsional strains, and degrades with compressive strain. The on-state cut-off frequency of DW CNTFET also shows opposite behavior to SW CNTFET with strain following on-state transconductance. Concrete Physical description is provided to explain all above changes with strain.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor for cholesterol detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have reported fabrication and characterization of polyaniline (PANI)/zinc oxide (ZnO) membrane-based junctionless carbon nanotube field effect transistor deposited on indium tin oxide glass plate for the detection of cholesterol (0.5–22.2 mM). Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been immobilized on the PANI/ZnO membrane by physical adsorption technique. Electrical response has been recorded using digital multimeter (Agilent 3458A) in the presence of phosphate buffer saline of 50 mM, pH 7.0, and 0.9% NaCl contained in a glass pot. The results of response studies for cholesterol reveal linearity as 0.5–16.6 mM and improved sensitivity of 60 mV/decade in good agreement with Nernstian limit ∼59.2 mV/decade. The life time of this sensor has been found up to 5 months and response time of 1 s. The limit of detection with regression coefficient (r) ∼ 0.998 and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) were found to be ∼0.25 and 1.4 mM, respectively, indicating high affinity of ChOx to cholesterol. The results obtained in this work show negligible interference with glucose and urea

  6. DC modeling and the source of flicker noise in passivated carbon nanotube transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC and intrinsic low-frequency noise properties of p-channel depletion-mode carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are investigated. To characterize the intrinsic noise properties, a thin atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO2 gate dielectric is used as a passivation layer to isolate CNT-FETs from environmental factors. The ALD HfO2 gate dielectric in these high-performance top-gated devices is instrumental in attaining hysteresis-free current-voltage characteristics and minimizes low-frequency noise. Under small drain-source voltage, the carriers in the CNT channel are modulated by the gate electrode and the intrinsic 1/f noise is found to be correlated with charge trapping/detrapping from the oxide substrate as expected. When thermionic emission is the dominant carrier transport mechanism in CNT-FETs under large drain-source voltages, the excess 1/f noise is attributed to the noise stemming from metal-CNT Schottky barrier contacts as revealed by the measurements.

  7. Enzyme assays using sensor arrays based on ion-selective carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, K; Bhatt, V Deep; Jaworska, E; Mittermeier, R; Maksymiuk, K; Michalska, A; Lugli, P

    2016-10-15

    In the fields of clinical diagnostics and point-of-care diagnosis as well as food and environmental monitoring there is a high demand for reliable high-throughput, rapid and highly sensitive assays for a simultaneous detection of several analytes in complex and low-volume samples. Sensor platforms based on solution-processable electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are a simple and cost-effective alternative for conventional assays. In this work we demonstrate a selective as well as direct detection of the products of an enzyme-substrate interaction, here the for metabolic processes important urea-urease system, with sensors based on spray-coated CNT-FETs. The selective and direct detection is achieved by immobilizing the enzyme urease via certain surface functionalization techniques on the sensor surface and further modifying the active interfaces with polymeric ion-selective membranes as well as pH-sensitive layers. Thereby, we can avoid the generally applied approach for a field-effect based detection of enzyme reactions via detecting changes in the pH value due to an on-going enzymatic reaction and directly detect selectively the products of the enzymatic conversion. Thus, we can realize a buffering-capacity independent monitoring of changes in the substrate concentration. PMID:27140308

  8. Simulation of diode characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with symmetric source and drain contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2011-09-01

    The diode characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) with symmetric source and drain contacts have been experimentally found at zero gate voltage (Li J. et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92 (2008) 133111). We calculate this characteristic using a semiclassical method based on Schottky barrier transistor mechanism. The influences of metal work function, the diameter of the carbon nanotubes and the dielectric thickness on the rectification behavior have been studied. The calculation results show that the metal with a higher work function results in a better diode characteristics for a p-type CNTFET. For single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with different band gaps, both forward current and reverse current increase with decreasing band gap, but the ratio of forward current to reverse current decreases with decreasing band gap. This result is well consistent with the experimental observations reported previously. The simulation of the dielectric thickness effect indicates that the thinner the dielectric layer, the better the rectification behavior. The CNTFETs without a bottom gate could not show the diode characteristics, which is consistent with the reported experimental observation. © 2011 Europhysics Letters Association.

  9. Physical and Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Network Field-Effect Transistors Synthesized by Alcohol Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lung Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been explored in nanoelectronics to realize desirable device performances. Thus, carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (CNTNFETs have been developed directly by means of alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD method using Co-Mo catalysts in this work. Various treated temperatures, growth time, and Co/Mo catalysts were employed to explore various surface morphologies of carbon nanotube networks (CNTNs formed on the SiO2/n-type Si(100 stacked substrate. Experimental results show that most semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube networks with 5–7 nm in diameter and low disorder-induced mode (D-band were grown. A bipolar property of CNTNFETs synthesized by ACCVD and using HfO2 as top-gate dielectric was demonstrated. Various electrical characteristics, including drain current versus drain voltage (Id-Vd, drain current versus gate voltage (Id-Vg, mobility, subthreshold slope (SS, and transconductance (Gm, were obtained.

  10. Radiation hardness of the electrical properties of carbon nanotube network field effect transistors under high-energy proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high-energy proton irradiation on the physical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated. The focus of the study was on the electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network devices exposed to proton beams. Field-effect transistors (FETs) of network type were fabricated using SWNTs and were then irradiated by high-energy proton beams of 10-35 MeV with a fluence of 4 x 1010-4 x 1012 cm-2 that are comparable to the aerospace radiation environment. The electrical properties of both metallic and semiconducting CNT network FET devices underwent no significant change after the high-energy proton irradiation, indicating that the CNT network devices are very tolerant in proton beams. Raman spectra confirm the proton-radiation hardness of CNT network FET devices. The radiation hardness of CNT network FET devices promises therefore the potential usefulness of CNT-based electronics for future space application

  11. Carbon nanotube macroelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialu

    In this dissertation, I discuss the application of carbon nanotubes in macroelectronis. Due to the extraordinary electrical properties such as high intrinsic carrier mobility and current-carrying capacity, single wall carbon nanotubes are very desirable for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications such as flat panel display, transparent electronics, as well as flexible and stretchable electronics. Compared with other popular channel material for TFTs, namely amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon and organic materials, nanotube thin-films have the advantages of low-temperature processing compatibility, transparency, and flexibility, as well as high device performance. In order to demonstrate scalable, practical carbon nanotube macroelectroncis, I have developed a platform to fabricate high-density, uniform separated nanotube based thin-film transistors. In addition, many other essential analysis as well as technology components, such as nanotube film density control, purity and diameter dependent semiconducting nanotube electrical performance study, air-stable n-type transistor fabrication, and CMOS integration platform have also been demonstrated. On the basis of the above achievement, I have further demonstrated various kinds of applications including AMOLED display electronics, PMOS and CMOS logic circuits, flexible and transparent electronics. The dissertation is structured as follows. First, chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes, which serves as the background knowledge for the following chapters. In chapter 2, I will present our approach of fabricating wafer-scale uniform semiconducting carbon nanotube thin-film transistors and demonstrate their application in display electronics and logic circuits. Following that, more detailed information about carbon nanotube thin-film transistor based active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is discussed in chapter 3. And in chapter 4, a technology to

  12. Improving Contact Interfaces in Fully Printed Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changyong; Andrews, Joseph B; Kumar, Abhinay; Franklin, Aaron D

    2016-05-24

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) printed into thin films have been shown to yield high mobility, thermal conductivity, mechanical flexibility, and chemical stability as semiconducting channels in field-effect, thin-film transistors (TFTs). Printed CNT-TFTs of many varieties have been studied; however, there has been limited effort toward improving overall CNT-TFT performance. In particular, contact resistance plays a dominant role in determining the performance and degree of variability in the TFTs, especially in fully printed devices where the contacts and channel are both printed. In this work, we have systematically investigated the contact resistance and overall performance of fully printed CNT-TFTs employing three different printed contact materials-Ag nanoparticles, Au nanoparticles, and metallic CNTs-each in the following distinct contact geometries: top, bottom, and double. The active channel for each device was printed from the dispersion of high-purity (>99%) semiconducting CNTs, and all printing was carried out using an aerosol jet printer. Hundreds of devices with different channel lengths (from 20 to 500 μm) were fabricated for extracting contact resistance and determining related contact effects. Printed bottom contacts are shown to be advantageous compared to the more common top contacts, regardless of contact material. Further, compared to single (top or bottom) contacts, double contacts offer a significant decrease (>35%) in contact resistance for all types of contact materials, with the metallic CNTs yielding the best overall performance. These findings underscore the impact of printed contact materials and structures when interfacing with CNT thin films, providing key guidance for the further development of printed nanomaterial electronics. PMID:27097302

  13. Printed thin film transistors and CMOS inverters based on semiconducting carbon nanotube ink purified by a nonlinear conjugated copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenya; Dou, Junyan; Zhao, Jianwen; Tan, Hongwei; Ye, Jun; Tange, Masayoshi; Gao, Wei; Xu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiang; Guo, Wenrui; Ma, Changqi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Zhang, Kai; Cui, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Two innovative research studies are reported in this paper. One is the sorting of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and ink formulation by a novel semiconductor copolymer and second is the development of CMOS inverters using not the p-type and n-type transistors but a printed p-type transistor and a printed ambipolar transistor. A new semiconducting copolymer (named P-DPPb5T) was designed and synthesized with a special nonlinear structure and more condensed conjugation surfaces, which can separate large diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) from arc discharge SWCNTs according to their chiralities with high selectivity. With the sorted sc-SWCNTs ink, thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated by aerosol jet printing. The TFTs displayed good uniformity, low operating voltage (+/-2 V) and subthreshold swing (SS) (122-161 mV dec-1), high effective mobility (up to 17.6-37.7 cm2 V-1 s-1) and high on/off ratio (104-107). With the printed TFTs, a CMOS inverter was constructed, which is based on the p-type TFT and ambipolar TFT instead of the conventional p-type and n-type TFTs. Compared with other recently reported inverters fabricated by printing, the printed CMOS inverters demonstrated a better noise margin (74% 1/2 Vdd) and was hysteresis free. The inverter has a voltage gain of up to 16 at an applied voltage of only 1 V and low static power consumption.Two innovative research studies are reported in this paper. One is the sorting of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and ink formulation by a novel semiconductor copolymer and second is the development of CMOS inverters using not the p-type and n-type transistors but a printed p-type transistor and a printed ambipolar transistor. A new semiconducting copolymer (named P-DPPb5T) was designed and synthesized with a special nonlinear structure and more condensed conjugation surfaces, which can separate large diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) from arc discharge

  14. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2 V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits

  15. Radio Frequency Transistors Using Aligned Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes with Current-Gain Cutoff Frequency and Maximum Oscillation Frequency Simultaneously Greater than 70 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Brady, Gerald J; Gui, Hui; Rutherglen, Chris; Arnold, Michael S; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we report record radio frequency (RF) performance of carbon nanotube transistors based on combined use of a self-aligned T-shape gate structure, and well-aligned, high-semiconducting-purity, high-density polyfluorene-sorted semiconducting carbon nanotubes, which were deposited using dose-controlled, floating evaporative self-assembly method. These transistors show outstanding direct current (DC) performance with on-current density of 350 μA/μm, transconductance as high as 310 μS/μm, and superior current saturation with normalized output resistance greater than 100 kΩ·μm. These transistors create a record as carbon nanotube RF transistors that demonstrate both the current-gain cutoff frequency (ft) and the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) greater than 70 GHz. Furthermore, these transistors exhibit good linearity performance with 1 dB gain compression point (P1dB) of 14 dBm and input third-order intercept point (IIP3) of 22 dBm. Our study advances state-of-the-art of carbon nanotube RF electronics, which have the potential to be made flexible and may find broad applications for signal amplification, wireless communication, and wearable/flexible electronics. PMID:27327074

  16. Emerging Carbon Nanotube Electronic Circuits, Modeling, and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Srivastava; Yao Xu; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    2010-01-01

    Current transport and dynamic models of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are presented. A model of single-walled carbon nanotube as interconnect is also presented and extended in modeling of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. These models are applied in studying the performances of circuits such as the complementary carbon nanotube inverter pair and carbon nanotube as interconnect. Cadence/Spectre simulations show that carbon nanotube field-effect transistor circuits can operate a...

  17. A multi-scale model for mobile and localized electroluminescence in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-scale model is presented that captures the experimentally observed behaviour of electroluminescence (EL) in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) under ambipolar bias conditions, namely variations in mobile EL intensity, localized EL at a contact, and localized EL at a charge defect. A full, quantum mechanical approach is used to describe tunnelling and thermionic emission at the contacts, and the drift-diffusion equations, with a field-dependent mobility, are used for transport in the long devices (CN length ≥10 μm). We find that contact-localized EL is only present when the height of the Schottky barrier at the ends of the CN favours the injection of one type of carrier. Charge defects on the CN surface also lead to localized EL, which is present only under certain bias conditions

  18. Effect of channel length on the electrical response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors to deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Krishna Salila Vijayalal Mohan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT in a field-effect transistor (FET configuration provides an ideal electronic path for label-free detection of nucleic acid hybridization. The simultaneous influence of more than one response mechanism in hybridization detection causes a variation in electrical parameters such as conductance, transconductance, threshold voltage and hysteresis gap. The channel length (L dependence of each of these parameters necessitates the need to include them when interpreting the effect of L on the response to hybridization. Using the definitions of intrinsic effective mobility (µe and device field-effect mobility (µf, two new parameters were defined to interpret the effect of L on the FET response to hybridization. Our results indicate that FETs with ≈300 µm long SWCNT exhibited the most appreciable response to hybridization, which complied with the variation trend in response to the newly defined parameters.

  19. Single charge detection in capacitively coupled integrated single electron transistors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Ishibashi, Koji

    2012-09-01

    Single charge detection is demonstrated in the capacitively coupled integrated single electron transistors (SETs) in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) quantum dots. Two SETs are fabricated based on two different SWCNTs aligned in parallel, by taking advantage of the aligned growth of SWCNTs and subsequent transfer-printed techniques. In order to make both two SETs be capacitively coupled, a metal finger is fabricated on the top of them. The charge sensing is proved by the response of a detector current in one SWCNT-SET when the number of electrons in the other SWCNT-SET is changed by sweeping the corresponding gate voltages. In this integrated device, shifts of Coulomb oscillation peaks due to the single electron event are also observed.

  20. Accurate extraction of mobility in carbon nanotube network transistors using C-V and I-V measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Chaewon; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Bongsik; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Mijung; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2014-11-01

    The mobility of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network thin-film transistors (TFTs) is an essential parameter. Previous extraction methods for mobility encountered problems in extracting accurate intrinsic mobility due to the uncertainty of the SWNT density in the network channel and the existence of contact resistance at the source/drain electrodes. As a result, efficient and accurate extraction of the mobility in SWNT TFTs is challenging using previous methods. We propose a direct method of extracting accurate intrinsic mobility in SWNT TFTs by employing capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. Consequently, we simply obtain accurate intrinsic mobility within the ink-jet printed SWNT TFTs without any complicated calculations.

  1. The fabrication of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with semiconductors as the source and drain contact materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Z [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35726 (United States); Camino, F E [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: zhigang.xiao@aamu.edu

    2009-04-01

    Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se semiconductor materials were used as the source and drain contact materials in the fabrication of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). Ultra-purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were ultrasonically dispersed in N-methyl pyrrolidone solvent. Dielectrophoresis was used to deposit and align SWCNTs for fabrication of CNTFETs. The Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}- and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se-based CNTFETs demonstrate p-type metal-oxide-silicon-like I-V curves with high on/off drain-source current ratio at large drain-source voltages and good saturation of drain-source current with increasing drain-source voltage. The fabrication process developed is novel and has general meaning, and could be used for the fabrication of SWCNT-based integrated devices and systems with semiconductor contact materials.

  2. A facile and low-cost length sorting of single-wall carbon nanotubes by precipitation and applications for thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Hui; Chen, Haitian; Khripin, Constantine Y.; Liu, Bilu; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Zhou, Chongwu; Zheng, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with long lengths are highly desirable for many applications such as thin-film transistors and circuits. Previously reported length sorting techniques usually require sophisticated instrumentation and are hard to scale up. In this paper, we report for the first time a general phenomenon of a length-dependent precipitation of surfactant-dispersed carbon nanotubes by polymers, salts, and their combinations. Polyelectrolytes such as polymethacrylate (PMAA) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) are found to be especially effective on cholate and deoxycholate dispersed SWCNTs. By adding PMAA to these nanotube dispersions in a stepwise fashion, we have achieved nanotube precipitation in a length-dependent order: first nanotubes with an average length of 650 nm, and then successively of 450 nm, 350 nm, and 250 nm. A similar effect of nanotube length sorting has also been observed for PSS. To demonstrate the utility of the length fractionation, the 650 nm-long nanotube fraction was subjected to an aqueous two-phase separation to obtain semiconducting enriched nanotubes. Thin-film transistors fabricated with the resulting semiconducting SWCNTs showed a carrier mobility up to 18 cm2 (V s)-1 and an on/off ratio up to 107. Our result sheds new light on the phase behavior of aqueous nanotube dispersions under high concentrations of polymers and salts, and offers a facile, low-cost, and scalable method to produce length sorted semiconducting nanotubes for macroelectronics applications.Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with long lengths are highly desirable for many applications such as thin-film transistors and circuits. Previously reported length sorting techniques usually require sophisticated instrumentation and are hard to scale up. In this paper, we report for the first time a general phenomenon of a length-dependent precipitation of surfactant-dispersed carbon nanotubes by polymers, salts, and their

  3. Energy Efficient Full Adder Cell Design with Using Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors in 32 Nanometer Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghorbani; Ghazaleh Ghorbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Adder is one of the critical parts of logical and arithmetic units. So, presenting a low power fu ll adder cell reduces the power consumption of the entire ci rcuit. Also, using Nano-scale transistors, because of their unique characteristics will save energy consu mption and decrease the chip area. In this paper we presented a low power full adder cell by using carb on nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs). ...

  4. Contact and channel resistances of ballistic and non-ballistic carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Myeon; Hong, Shin-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many research has been conducted on the carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) in expectation that the CNFETs could replace metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in the sub-10-nm era. In consideration of both ballistic conduction and nonballistic conduction, including elastic scattering, optical phonon scattering, and acoustic phonon scattering, this paper presents the simulated dependence of the coaxially-gated single-walled semiconducting CNFET characteristics on the contact and the channel lengths. When the contact length was longer than 100 nm, the CNFETs showed a constant minimal value of the contact resistance. In this case, the saturated drain current was higher than that of CNFETs with a shorter contact length. When the channel was longer than 600 nm, the channel resistance was significantly increased due to acoustic phonon scattering. When the channel was shorter than 200 - 250 nm with optical scattering, acoustic scattering or all three scattering mechanisms taken into account, the contact resistance began to become larger than channel resistance.

  5. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  6. A Three-dimensional simulation study of the performance of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors with doped reservoirs and realistic geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, G.; Iannaccone, G.; Klimeck, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we simulate the expected device performance and the scaling perspectives of Carbon nanotube Field Effect Transistors (CNT-FETs), with doped source and drain extensions. The simulations are based on the self-consistent solution of the 3D Poisson-Schroedinger equation with open boundary conditions, within the Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism, where arbitrary gate geometry and device architecture can be considered. The investigation of short channel effects for different ...

  7. Modélisation compacte des transistors à nanotube de carbone à contacts Schottky et application aux circuits numériques

    OpenAIRE

    Najari, Montassar

    2010-01-01

    This PhD work presents a computationally efficient physics-based compact model for the Schottky barrier (SB) carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET). This compact model includes a new analytical formulation of the channel charge, taking into account the influence of the source and drain SBs. Compact model simulation results (I–V characteristic and channel density of charge) as well as Monte Carlo simulation results, which are provided by a recent work, will be given and compared to e...

  8. Driving High-Performance n- and p-type Organic Transistors with Carbon Nanotube/Conjugated Polymer Composite Electrodes Patterned Directly from Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2010-07-12

    We report patterned deposition of carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer composites from solution with high nanotube densities and excellent feature resolution. Such composites are suited for use as electrodes in high-performance transistors of pentacene and C60, with bottom-contact mobilities of ?0.5 and ?1 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. This represents a clear step towards development of inexpensive, high-performance all-organic circuits. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. High yield assembly and electron transport investigation of semiconducting-rich local-gated single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormondy, Kristy J; Stokes, Paul; Khondaker, Saiful I, E-mail: saiful@ucf.edu [Nanoscience Technology Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    We report the fabrication and electron transport investigation of individual local-gated single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (SWNT-FET) with high yield using a semiconducting-rich carbon nanotube solution. The individual semiconducting nanotubes were assembled at the selected position of the circuit via dielectrophoresis. Detailed electron transport investigations on 70 devices show that 99% display good FET behavior, with an average threshold voltage of 1 V, subthreshold swing as low as 140 mV/dec, and on/off current ratio as high as 8 x 10{sup 5}. The high yield directed assembly of local-gated SWNT-FET will facilitate large scale fabrication of CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) compatible nanoelectronic devices.

  10. High-performance local back gate thin-film field-effect transistors using sorted carbon nanotubes on an amino-silane treated hafnium oxide surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafer-scale fabrication and characterization of local back gate semiconducting nanotube thin-film transistors (SN-TFTs) are reported in this paper. The local back gate voltage of the corresponding SN-TFT controls the individual transistor switching. In order to achieve high performance, a high-k dielectric material is employed as a gate oxide and this helped to achieve low-voltage operations, much steeper sub-threshold voltage swings and higher transconductance values. A simple procedure to deposit a high-density single-walled carbon nanotube thin film on an amino-silane-treated hafnium oxide (HfOX) surface is suggested such that a good density of nanotubes is realized without degrading the device on–off current ratio and mobility values. The density of the nanotubes achieved on the silanized HfOX surface is about 40–45 nanotubes µm−2. SN-TFTs exhibit an excellent p-type output characteristic with distinct linear and saturation regions. Local back gate SN-TFTs exhibit an on–off current ratio exceeding 104 and a steep sub-threshold slope of 400 mV/decade. SN-TFTs achieve a maximum current density of 13 μA µm−1, an average threshold voltage of −0.5 V, a maximum normalized transconductance of 18.5 μS µm−1 and exhibit a maximum carrier mobility of 60.6 cm2(Vs)−1

  11. Energy Efficient Full Adder Cell Design with Using Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors in 32 Nanometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghorbani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Full Adder is one of the critical parts of logical and arithmetic units. So, presenting a low power fu ll adder cell reduces the power consumption of the entire ci rcuit. Also, using Nano-scale transistors, because of their unique characteristics will save energy consu mption and decrease the chip area. In this paper we presented a low power full adder cell by using carb on nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs. Simulation results were carried out using HSPICE ba sed on the CNTFET model in 32 nanometer technology in Different values of temperature and V DD

  12. Hybrids of a Genetically Engineered Antibody and a Carbon Nanotube Transistor for Detection of Prostate Cancer Biomarkers

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Mitchell B; Pazina, Tatiana; Dailey, Jennifer; Goldsmith, Brett R; Robinson, Matthew K; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2013-01-01

    We developed a novel detection method for osteopontin (OPN), a new biomarker for prostate cancer, by attaching a genetically engineered single chain variable fragment (scFv) protein with high binding affinity for OPN to a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (NTFET). Chemical functionalization using diazonium salts is used to covalently attach scFv to NT-FETs, as confirmed by atomic force microscopy, while preserving the activity of the biological binding site for OPN. Electron transport measurements indicate that functionalized NT-FET may be used to detect the binding of OPN to the complementary scFv protein. A concentration-dependent increase in the source-drain current is observed in the regime of clinical significance, with a detection limit of approximately 30 fM. The scFv-NT hybrid devices exhibit selectivity for OPN over other control proteins. These devices respond to the presence of OPN in a background of concentrated bovine serum albumin, without loss of signal. Based on these observations, the d...

  13. A voltage-controlled chaotic oscillator based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistor for low-power embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a compact and low-power-based discrete-time chaotic oscillator based on a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor implemented using Wong and Deng's well-known model. The chaotic circuit is composed of a nonlinear circuit that creates an adjustable chaos map, two sample and hold cells for capture and delay functions, and a voltage shifter that works as a buffer and adjusts the output voltage for feedback. The operation of the chaotic circuit is verified with the SPICE software package, which uses a supply voltage of 0.9 V at a frequency of 20 kHz. The time series, frequency spectra, transitions in phase space, sensitivity with the initial condition diagrams, and bifurcation phenomena are presented. The main advantage of this circuit is that its chaotic signal can be generated while dissipating approximately 7.8 μW of power, making it suitable for embedded systems where many chaos-signal generators are required on a single chip. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Sdc-Cntfet Stepwise Doping Channel Design in Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors for Improving Short Channel Effects Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalabadi, Zahra; Keshavarzi, Parviz; Naderi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A novel carbon nanotube field-effect transistor with stepwise doping profile channel (SDC-CNTFET) is introduced for short-channel effects (SCEs) improvement. In SDC-CNTFET, the channel is divided into five sections of equal length. Impurity concentration was reduced from 0.8 nm-1 to zero from the source side to the drain side of the channel, with stepwise profile. The devices have been simulated by the self-consistent solution of two-dimensional (2D) Poisson-Schrödinger equations, within the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. We demonstrate that the proposed structure for CNTFETs shows considerable improvement in device performance focusing on leakage current and ON-OFF current ratio. In addition, the investigation of SCEs for the proposed structure shows the improved drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (SS). Moreover, we will prove that the proposed structure has acceptable performance at different values of channel impurity concentration in terms of delay and power-delay product (PDP). All these investigations introduce SDC-CNTFET as a more reliable device structure in short-channel regime.

  15. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm2 V‑1 sec‑1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 104), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process.

  16. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm(2) V(-1) sec(-)1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 10(4)), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process. PMID:27184121

  17. Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped inverters for disintegratable, transient electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sung Hun, E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu; Shin, Jongmin; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho, E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Youn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Display R and D Center, Samsung Display Co., Yongin-city, Gyeongki-do 446–711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Joon; Lee, Chi Hwan; Rogers, John A., E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    This paper presents materials, device designs, and physical/electrical characteristics of a form of nanotube electronics that is physically transient, in the sense that all constituent elements dissolve and/or disperse upon immersion into water. Studies of contact effects illustrate the ability to use water soluble metals such as magnesium for source/drain contacts in nanotube based field effect transistors. High mobilities and on/off ratios in transistors that use molybdenum, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide enable full swing characteristics for inverters at low voltages (∼5 V) and with high gains (∼30). Dissolution/disintegration tests of such systems on water soluble sheets of polyvinyl alcohol demonstrate physical transience within 30 min.

  18. Scalability of carbon-nanotube-based thin film transistors for flexible electronic devices manufactured using an all roll-to-roll gravure printing system

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunmo Koo; Wookyu Lee; Younchang Choi; Junfeng Sun; Jina Bak; Jinsoo Noh; Vivek Subramanian; Yasuo Azuma; Yutaka Majima; Gyoujin Cho

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate that roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing is a suitable advanced manufacturing method for flexible thin film transistor (TFT)-based electronic circuits, three different nanomaterial-based inks (silver nanoparticles, BaTiO3 nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) were selected and optimized to enable the realization of fully printed SWNT-based TFTs (SWNT-TFTs) on 150-m-long rolls of 0.25-m-wide poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). SWNT-TFTs with 5 different chann...

  19. Chemically Functionalized, Well-Dispersed Carbon Nanotubes in Lithium-Doped Zinc Oxide for Low-Cost, High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Gi-Cheol; Chee, Sang-Soo; Jun, Ji-Hyun; Son, Myungwoo; Lee, Sun Sook; Choi, Youngmin; Jeong, Sunho; Ham, Moon-Ho

    2016-04-13

    Surface-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are introduced into lithium-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) as an alternative to the conventional incorporation of an expensive element, indium. The crucial role of surface functionalization of CNTs is clarified with the demonstration of indium-free ZnO-based TFTs with a field-effect mobility of 28.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off current ratio of 9 × 10(6) for low-cost, high-performance electronics. PMID:26856958

  20. Sensors based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors and molecular recognition approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cid Salavert, Cristina Carlota

    2009-01-01

    La unión de las propiedades de los CNT con los principios de reconocimiento molecular se presenta como una base adecuada para el desarrollo de sensores altamente específicos. El objetivo de la presente tesis ha sido desarrollar sensores químicos, del tipo transistores de efecto campo (CNTFET), basados en interacciones receptor-analito, mediante el empleo de los nanotubos de pared sencilla (SWCNT), que actúan como transductores de la señal analítica.Las principales etapas de la parte experimen...

  1. A study of junction effect transistors and their roles in carbon nanotube field emission cathodes in compact pulsed power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Qiong

    This thesis is focusing on a study of junction effect transistors (JFETs) in compact pulsed power applications. Pulsed power usually requires switches with high hold-off voltage, high current, low forward voltage drop, and fast switching speed. 4H-SiC, with a bandgap of 3.26 eV (The bandgap of Si is 1.12eV) and other physical and electrical superior properties, has gained much attention in high power, high temperature and high frequency applications. One topic of this thesis is to evaluate if 4H-SiC JFETs have a potential to replace gas phase switches to make pulsed power system compact and portable. Some other pulsed power applications require cathodes of providing stable, uniform, high electron-beam current. So the other topic of this research is to evaluate if Si JFET-controlled carbon nanotube field emitter cold cathode will provide the necessary e-beam source. In the topic of "4H-SiC JFETs", it focuses on the design and simulation of a novel 4H-SiC normally-off VJFET with high breakdown voltage using the 2-D simulator ATLAS. To ensure realistic simulations, we utilized reasonable physical models and the established parameters as the input into these models. The influence of key design parameters were investigated which would extend pulsed power limitations. After optimizing the key design parameters, with a 50-mum drift region, the predicted breakdown voltage for the VJFET is above 8kV at a leakage current of 1x10-5A/cm2 . The specific on-state resistance is 35 mO·cm 2 at VGS = 2.7 V, and the switching speed is several ns. The simulation results suggest that the 4H-SiC VJFET is a potential candidate for improving switching performance in repetitive pulsed power applications. To evaluate the 4H-SiC VJFETs in pulsed power circuits, we extracted some circuit model parameters from the simulated I-V curves. Those parameters are necessary for circuit simulation program such as SPICE. This method could be used as a test bench without fabricating the devices to

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of electron and proton irradiation of carbon nanotube and graphene transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzikyriakou, Eleni; Smyrnis, Chris; Chatwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-based nanotechnology electronics can provide high performance, low-power and low-weight solutions, which are very suitable for innovative aerospace applications. However, its application in the space environment where there is a radiation hazard, requires an assessment of the response of such electronic products to the background irradiance. To explore the potential of carbon-based nanotechnology, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation interacting with a gate-all-around carbo...

  3. Cylindrical-shaped nanotube field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-29

    A cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may be manufactured on silicon (Si) substrates as a ring etched into a gate stack and filled with semiconductor material. An inner gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack inside the inner circumference of the ring. An outer gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack outside the outer circumference of the ring. The multi-gate cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET operates in volume inversion for ring widths below 15 nanometers. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET demonstrates better short channel effect (SCE) mitigation and higher performance (I.sub.on/I.sub.off) than conventional transistor devices. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may also be manufactured with higher yields and cheaper costs than conventional transistors.

  4. High-performance thin-film-transistors based on semiconducting-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes processed by electrical-breakdown strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1" è" r" e Avenue, Val d’Or, Québec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Habib, M.A. [Computer Sciences and Engineering Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Abdul-Hafidh, E.H. [High Energy Physics Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Rosei, F. [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We selectively burn metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by electrical breakdown. • We successfully achieve a semiconducting enriched-SWCNT in TFT configuration. • High performance, like On/Off of 10{sup 5} and a subthreshold swing of 165 mV/decades were obtained. • After PMMA coating, the SWCNT–TFTs were found stables for more than 4 months. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, among remarkable variety of nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remain the most intriguing and uniquely well suited materials for applications in high-performance electronics. The most advanced technologies require the ability to form purely semiconducting SWCNTs. Here, we report on our strategy based on the well known progressive electrical breakdown process that offer this capability and serves as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous random networks, deposited on silicon substrates in a thin film transistor (TFT) configuration. We demonstrate the successful achievement of semiconducting enriched-SWCNT networks in TFT scheme that reach On/Off switching ratios of ∼100,000, on-conductance of 20 μS, and a subthreshold swing of less than 165 mV/decades. The obtained TFT devices were then protected with thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to keep the percolation level of the SWCNTs network spatially and temporally stable, while protecting it from atmosphere exchanges. TFT devices were found to be air-stable and maintained their excellent characteristics in ambient atmosphere for more than 4 months. This approach could work as a platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics.

  5. High-performance thin-film-transistors based on semiconducting-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes processed by electrical-breakdown strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We selectively burn metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by electrical breakdown. • We successfully achieve a semiconducting enriched-SWCNT in TFT configuration. • High performance, like On/Off of 105 and a subthreshold swing of 165 mV/decades were obtained. • After PMMA coating, the SWCNT–TFTs were found stables for more than 4 months. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, among remarkable variety of nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remain the most intriguing and uniquely well suited materials for applications in high-performance electronics. The most advanced technologies require the ability to form purely semiconducting SWCNTs. Here, we report on our strategy based on the well known progressive electrical breakdown process that offer this capability and serves as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous random networks, deposited on silicon substrates in a thin film transistor (TFT) configuration. We demonstrate the successful achievement of semiconducting enriched-SWCNT networks in TFT scheme that reach On/Off switching ratios of ∼100,000, on-conductance of 20 μS, and a subthreshold swing of less than 165 mV/decades. The obtained TFT devices were then protected with thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to keep the percolation level of the SWCNTs network spatially and temporally stable, while protecting it from atmosphere exchanges. TFT devices were found to be air-stable and maintained their excellent characteristics in ambient atmosphere for more than 4 months. This approach could work as a platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics

  6. The effect of local polarized domains of ferroelectric P(VDF/TrFE) copolymer thin film on a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We produced local polarized domains of ferroelectric P(VDF/TrFE) copolymer thin films on a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CN-FET) channel by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The drain current versus gate voltage (Id-Vg) curves measured after forming the local polarized domains showed a shift in the threshold voltages. We also found that the amount of the shifts in the threshold voltages gradually decreased during the measurement of this characteristic over 100 h after forming the polarized domains. The mechanisms of the shifts in the threshold voltages and their decreasing behaviour were explained in terms of the excessive charges that were induced upon the formation of the polarized domains

  7. The effect of local polarized domains of ferroelectric P(VDF/TrFE) copolymer thin film on a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Taichi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Miyato, Yuji [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kei [Innovative Collaboration Centre, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Ishida, Kenji [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Matsushige, Kazumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2008-01-23

    We produced local polarized domains of ferroelectric P(VDF/TrFE) copolymer thin films on a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CN-FET) channel by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The drain current versus gate voltage (I{sub d}-V{sub g}) curves measured after forming the local polarized domains showed a shift in the threshold voltages. We also found that the amount of the shifts in the threshold voltages gradually decreased during the measurement of this characteristic over 100 h after forming the polarized domains. The mechanisms of the shifts in the threshold voltages and their decreasing behaviour were explained in terms of the excessive charges that were induced upon the formation of the polarized domains.

  8. The effect of local polarized domains of ferroelectric P(VDF/TrFE) copolymer thin film on a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Taichi; Miyato, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kei; Ishida, Kenji; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2008-01-23

    We produced local polarized domains of ferroelectric P(VDF/TrFE) copolymer thin films on a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CN-FET) channel by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The drain current versus gate voltage (I(d)-V(g)) curves measured after forming the local polarized domains showed a shift in the threshold voltages. We also found that the amount of the shifts in the threshold voltages gradually decreased during the measurement of this characteristic over 100 h after forming the polarized domains. The mechanisms of the shifts in the threshold voltages and their decreasing behaviour were explained in terms of the excessive charges that were induced upon the formation of the polarized domains. PMID:21817562

  9. Is vacuum annealing converts p-type single wall carbon nanotube field effect transistor (in air to n-type (in vacuum is universially true (?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash R. Somani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study on nickel silicide and gold contacted single-wall-carbon-nanotube field effect transistors (SWCN-FETs is in sharp contrast to earlier published reports of type conversion in SWCN-FETs (from p- to n- when cycled between air and vacuum, and indicates that (1 band gap of SWCN (2 the extent to which Fermi level of the metal contact gets shifted due to adsorption/desorption of oxygen and (3 relative position of the Fermi level of the metal contact with respect to the top of the valance band of SWCN (in an oxygen-free environment are some of the important factors that governs such phenomena.

  10. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  11. Plumbing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures-from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes-regardless of their diameters-to form new nanotube structures.

  12. Low-frequency noise in individual carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with top, side and back gate configurations: effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the influence of low gamma irradiation (104 Gy) on the noise properties of individual carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) with different gate configurations and two different dielectric layers, SiO2 and Al2O3. Before treatment, strong generation–recombination (GR) noise components are observed. These data are used to identify several charge traps related to dielectric layers of the FETs by determining their activation energy. Investigation of samples with a single SiO2 dielectric layer as well as with two dielectric layers allows us to separate traps for each of the two dielectric layers. We reveal that each charge trap level observed in the side gate operation splits into two levels in top gate operation due to a different potential profile along the CNT channel. After gamma irradiation, only reduced flicker noise is registered in the noise spectra, which indicates a decrease of the number of charge traps. The mobility, which is estimated to be larger than 2 × 104 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature, decreases only slightly after radiation treatment, demonstrating high radiation hardness of the CNTs. Finally, we study the influence of Schottky barriers at the metal–nanotube interface on the transport properties of FETs, analyzing the behavior of the flicker noise component. (paper)

  13. Electrical Transport in Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Gang

    2010-01-01

    This thesis summarizes our work in the past few years in the field of transport studies of carbon nanotubes and graphene. The first half of the thesis focuses on carbon nanotube (CNT) Josephson junctions (JJ) formed by coupling CNTs to superconducting electrodes. They exhibited Fabry Perot resonance patterns, enhanced differential conductance peaks, multiple Andreev reflection peaks, gate-tunable supercurrent transistor behaviors, hysteretic current-voltage line shape and "superconductor-insu...

  14. Caractérisation électrique et électro-optique de transistor à base de nanotube de carbone en vue de leur modélisation compacte

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Si-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This PhD thesis presents a computationally efficient physics-based compact model for optically-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistors (OG-CNTFETs), especially in the non-volatile memory application. This model includes memory operations such as "read", "write", "erase" or "program", and "reset" which are modeled using trapping and detrapping mechanisms at the polymer/oxide interface. The relaxation of the memory state is taken into account. Furthermore, the self-consistent modeling of...

  15. High frequency carbon nanotube devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, M. F.; Chimot, N.; Mile, E.; Monteverde, M. C.; Bourgoin, J.-P.; Derycke, V.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate high frequency electrical and mechanical performances of carbon nanotube based devices. Using configurations with multiple single-wall nanotubes in parallel, we show that HF nanotube transistors with intrinsic cut-off frequencies as high as 30 GHz can be obtained on rigid substrates. Adapting our process to plastic substrates, we also obtained highly flexible HF transistors showing constant transconductances up to at least 6 GHz, as-measured cut-off frequencies as high as 1 GHz (5-8 GHz after de-embedding) and stable DC performances upon bending. We probed electromechanical properties of individual suspended carbon multiwall nanotubes by using a modified AFM. DC deflection measurements on different devices are in agreement with a continuum model prediction and consistent with a Young's modulus of 0.4 TPa. Preliminary HF measurements on a doubly clamped device showed a resonant frequency of 200MHz consistent with a Young's modulus of 0.43 TPa. This implies that built-in mechanical stress in the case of MWNTs is negligeable.

  16. Carbon nanotubes decorating methods

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz; D. Łukowiec; D. Cichock; W. Wolany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The work is to present and characterise various methods of depositing carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles of precious metals, and also to present the results of own works concerning carbon nanotubes coated with platinum nanoparticles.Design/methodology/approach: Electron transmission and scanning microscopy has been used for imaging the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites obtained and the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes.Findings: The studie...

  17. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have an enormous potential due to their outstanding electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. However, any technological application is still hindered due to problems regarding the processibility of the pristine carbon nanotubes. In the past few years, it has been shown that the chemical modification of the carbon nanotubes is an inevitable step prior to their application. The first part of this work (chapter 3.1) was focused on the purification of pristine laser ablati...

  18. Scalability of carbon-nanotube-based thin film transistors for flexible electronic devices manufactured using an all roll-to-roll gravure printing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyunmo; Lee, Wookyu; Choi, Younchang; Sun, Junfeng; Bak, Jina; Noh, Jinsoo; Subramanian, Vivek; Azuma, Yasuo; Majima, Yutaka; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-09-01

    To demonstrate that roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing is a suitable advanced manufacturing method for flexible thin film transistor (TFT)-based electronic circuits, three different nanomaterial-based inks (silver nanoparticles, BaTiO3 nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) were selected and optimized to enable the realization of fully printed SWNT-based TFTs (SWNT-TFTs) on 150-m-long rolls of 0.25-m-wide poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). SWNT-TFTs with 5 different channel lengths, namely, 30, 80, 130, 180, and 230 μm, were fabricated using a printing speed of 8 m/min. These SWNT-TFTs were characterized, and the obtained electrical parameters were related to major mechanical factors such as web tension, registration accuracy, impression roll pressure and printing speed to determine whether these mechanical factors were the sources of the observed device-to-device variations. By utilizing the electrical parameters from the SWNT-TFTs, a Monte Carlo simulation for a 1-bit adder circuit, as a reference, was conducted to demonstrate that functional circuits with reasonable complexity can indeed be manufactured using R2R gravure printing. The simulation results suggest that circuits with complexity, similar to the full adder circuit, can be printed with a 76% circuit yield if threshold voltage (Vth) variations of less than 30% can be maintained.

  19. Electrical transport properties of single wall carbon nanotube/polyurethane composite based field effect transistors fabricated by UV-assisted direct-writing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the fabrication and transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polyurethane (PU) nanocomposite microfiber-based field effect transistors (FETs). UV-assisted direct-writing technology was used, and microfibers consisting of cylindrical micro-rods, having different diameters and various SWCNT loads, were fabricated directly onto SiO2/Si substrates in a FET scheme. The room temperature dc electrical conductivities of these microfibers were shown to increase with respect to the SWCNT concentrations in the nanocomposite, and were about ten orders of magnitude higher than that of the pure polyurethane, when the SWCNT load ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 wt% only. Our results show that for SWCNT loads ≤ 1.5 wt%, all the microfibers behave as a FET with p-type transport. The resulting FET exhibited excellent performance, with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 105 and a maximum on-state current (Ion) exceeding 70 µA. Correlations between the FET performance, SWCNTs concentration, and the microfiber diameters are also discussed. (paper)

  20. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhou, Otto Z.

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists worldwide. The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a very unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review we describe some of the important materials science applications of carbon nanotubes. Specifically we discuss the electronic and electrochemical applications of nanotubes, nanotubes as mechanical reinforcements in high performance composites, nanotube-based field emitters, and their use as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations, and as templates for the creation of other nanostructures. Electronic properties and device applications of nanotubes are treated elsewhere in the book. The challenges that ensue in realizing some of these applications are also discussed from the point of view of manufacturing, processing, and cost considerations.

  1. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  2. Investigation of light doping and hetero gate dielectric carbon nanotube tunneling field-effect transistor for improved device and circuit-level performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a comparative study (both for device and circuit simulations) of three carbon nanotube tunneling field-effect transistor (CNT-TFET) designs: high-K gate dielectric TFETs (HK-TFETs), hetero gate dielectric TFETs (HTFETs) and a novel CNT-TFET-based combination of light doping and hetero gate dielectric TFETs (LD-HTFETs). At device level, the effects of channel and gate dielectric engineering on the switching and high-frequency characteristics for CNT-TFET have been theoretically investigated using a quantum kinetic model. This model is based on two-dimensional non-equilibrium Green’s functions solved self-consistently with Poisson’s equations. It is revealed that the proposed LD-HTFET structure can significantly reduce leakage current, enhance control ability of the gate on the channel, improve the switching speed, and is more suitable for use in low-power, high-frequency circuits. At circuit level, using HSPICE with look-up table-based Verilog-A models, the performance and reliability of CNT-TFET logic gate circuits is evaluated on the basis of power consumption, average delay, stability, energy consumption and power-delay product (PDP). Simulation results indicate that, compared to a traditional CNT-TFET-based circuit, the one based on LD-HTFET has a significantly better performance (static noise margin, energy, delay, PDP). It is also observed that our proposed design exhibits better robustness under different operational conditions by considering power supply voltage and temperature variations. Our results may be useful for designing and optimizing CNTFET devices and circuits. (paper)

  3. Investigation of light doping and hetero gate dielectric carbon nanotube tunneling field-effect transistor for improved device and circuit-level performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Huan; Xu, Hongsong; Xu, Min; Jiang, Sitao; Yue, Gongshu

    2016-03-01

    We perform a comparative study (both for device and circuit simulations) of three carbon nanotube tunneling field-effect transistor (CNT-TFET) designs: high-K gate dielectric TFETs (HK-TFETs), hetero gate dielectric TFETs (HTFETs) and a novel CNT-TFET-based combination of light doping and hetero gate dielectric TFETs (LD-HTFETs). At device level, the effects of channel and gate dielectric engineering on the switching and high-frequency characteristics for CNT-TFET have been theoretically investigated using a quantum kinetic model. This model is based on two-dimensional non-equilibrium Green’s functions solved self-consistently with Poisson’s equations. It is revealed that the proposed LD-HTFET structure can significantly reduce leakage current, enhance control ability of the gate on the channel, improve the switching speed, and is more suitable for use in low-power, high-frequency circuits. At circuit level, using HSPICE with look-up table-based Verilog-A models, the performance and reliability of CNT-TFET logic gate circuits is evaluated on the basis of power consumption, average delay, stability, energy consumption and power-delay product (PDP). Simulation results indicate that, compared to a traditional CNT-TFET-based circuit, the one based on LD-HTFET has a significantly better performance (static noise margin, energy, delay, PDP). It is also observed that our proposed design exhibits better robustness under different operational conditions by considering power supply voltage and temperature variations. Our results may be useful for designing and optimizing CNTFET devices and circuits.

  4. High Speed Capacitor-Inverter Based Carbon Nanotube Full Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Rashtian M; Khatir A; Keshavarzian P; Navi K; Hashemipour O

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Carbon Nanotube filed-effect transistor (CNFET) is one of the promising alternatives to the MOS transistors. The geometry-dependent threshold voltage is one of the CNFET characteristics, which is used in the proposed Full Adder cell. In this paper, we present a high speed Full Adder cell using CNFETs based on majority-not (Minority) function. Presented design uses eight transistors and eight capacitors. Simulation results show significant improvement in terms of delay and power-delay...

  5. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-06-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 °C min-1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 °C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 µm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 µm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm-1, increased to 0.7 S cm-1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  6. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  7. FLUIDIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wei; Cang Huang; Yao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fluidized in the form of fluidlike agglomerates made of many three-dimensional sub-agglomerates, having a multi-stage agglomerate (MSA) structure and containing large amounts of twisting CNTs of micrometer magnitude.

  8. Carbon nanotubes: Fibrillar pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms by which chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes flow in blood and are excreted through the kidneys illustrate the unconventional behaviour of these fibrillar nanostructures, and the opportunities they offer as components for the design of advanced delivery vehicles.

  9. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  10. Carbon nanotube solar cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klinger

    Full Text Available We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement.

  11. Automated circuit fabrication and direct characterization of carbon nanotube vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, G; Shlafman, M; Tabachnik, T; Rogachevsky, Z; Rechnitz, S; Goldshtein, I; Shlafman, S; Gordon, N; Alchanati, G; Itzhak, M; Moshe, Y; Hajaj, E M; Nir, H; Milyutin, Y; Izraeli, T Y; Razin, A; Shtempluck, O; Kotchtakov, V; Yaish, Y E

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have fascinated many researchers due to their unprecedented properties. However, a major drawback in utilizing carbon nanotubes for practical applications is the difficulty in positioning or growing them at specific locations. Here we present a simple, rapid, non-invasive and scalable technique that enables optical imaging of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotube scaffold serves as a seed for nucleation and growth of small size, optically visible nanocrystals. After imaging the molecules can be removed completely, leaving the surface intact, and thus the carbon nanotube electrical and mechanical properties are preserved. The successful and robust optical imaging allowed us to develop a dedicated image processing algorithm through which we are able to demonstrate a fully automated circuit design resulting in field effect transistors and inverters. Moreover, we demonstrate that this imaging method allows not only to locate carbon nanotubes but also, as in the case of suspended ones, to study their dynamic mechanical motion. PMID:27396506

  12. Carbon nanotubes decorating methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work is to present and characterise various methods of depositing carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles of precious metals, and also to present the results of own works concerning carbon nanotubes coated with platinum nanoparticles.Design/methodology/approach: Electron transmission and scanning microscopy has been used for imaging the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites obtained and the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes.Findings: The studies carried out with the HRTEM and SEM techniques have confirmed differences in morphology, homogeneity and density of depositing platinum nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes and its structure.Research limitations/implications: The studies conducted pertained to the process of decorating carbon nanotubes with platinum nanoparticles. Further works are planned aimed at extending the application scope of the newly developed methodology to include the methods of nanotubes decorating with the nanoparticles of other precious metals (mainly palladium and rhodium.Practical implications: CNTs-NPs (Carbon NanoTube-NanoParticles composites can be used as the active elements of sensors featuring high sensitivity, fast action, high selectivity and accuracy, in particular in medicine as cholesterol and glucoses sensors; in the automotive industry for the precision monitoring of working parameters in individual engine components; in environmental conservation to examine CO2, NOx, and CH4 concentrations and for checking leak-tightness and detecting hazardous substances in household and industrial gas installations.Originality/value: The comprehensive characterisation of the methods employed for fabricating nanocomposites consisting of carbon nanotubes deposited with Pt, Pd, Rh, Au, Ag nanoparticles with special consideration to the colloidal process.

  13. Ambipolar transistors based on random networks of WS2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Mitsunari; Kawai, Hideki; Yomogida, Yohei; Maniwa, Yutaka; Okada, Susumu; Yanagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-07-01

    WS2 nanotubes are rolled multiwalled nanotubes made of a layered material, tungsten disulfide. Their fibril structures enable the fabrication of random network films; however, these films are nonconducting, and thus have not been used for electronic applications. Here, we demonstrate that carrier injection into WS2 networks using an electrolyte gating approach could cause these networks to act as semiconducting channels. We clarify the Raman characteristics of WS2 nanotubes under electrolyte gating and confirm the feasibility of the injection of electrons and holes. We reveal ambipolar behaviors of the WS2 nanotube networks in field-effect transistor setups with electrolyte gating.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Suspended Carbon Nanotube Devices in Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artyukhin, A; Stadermann, M; Stroeve, P; Bakajin, O; Noy, A

    2006-10-30

    Suspended carbon nanotube devices are a promising platform for future bio-electronic applications. Suspended carbon nanotube transistors have been previously fabricated in air; however all previous attempts to bring them into liquid failed. We analyze forces acting on the suspended nanotube devices during immersion into liquids and during device operation and show that surface tension forces acting on the suspended nanotubes during transfer into the liquid phase are responsible for the nanotube damage. We have developed a new strategy that circumvents these limitations by coating suspended nanotubes with a rigid inorganic shell in the gas phase. The coating reinforces the nanotubes and allows them to survive transfer through the interface. Subsequent removal of the coating in the solution phase restores pristine suspended nanotubes. We demonstrate that devices fabricated using this technique preserve their original electrical characteristics.

  16. Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochik Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of growing carbon nanotubes uses a synthesized mesoporous si lica template with approximately cylindrical pores being formed there in. The surfaces of the pores are coated with a carbon nanotube precu rsor, and the template with the surfaces of the pores so-coated is th en heated until the carbon nanotube precursor in each pore is convert ed to a carbon nanotube.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes for Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As an electrical energy storage device, supercapacitor finds attractive applications in consumer electronic products and alternative power source due to its higher energy density, fast discharge/charge time, low level of heating, safety, long-term operation stability, and no disposable parts. This work reviews the recent development of supercapacitor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs and their composites. The purpose is to give a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of carbon nanotubes-related supercapacitor materials and to find ways for the improvement in the performance of supercapacitor. We first discussed the effects of physical and chemical properties of pure carbon nanotubes, including size, purity, defect, shape, functionalization, and annealing, on the supercapacitance. The composites, including CNTs/oxide and CNTs/polymer, were further discussed to enhance the supercapacitance and keep the stability of the supercapacitor by optimally engineering the composition, particle size, and coverage.

  18. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate

  19. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Hye-Mi [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jin Woo [Advanced Nano Technology Ltd., Seoul 132-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jinhyeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Department of Energy Science and School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won Seok, E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabr...

  1. Carbon nanotube junctions and devices

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, H. W. Ch.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Postma presents transport experiments performed on individual single-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are molecules entirely made of carbon atoms. The electronic properties are determined by the exact symmetry of the nanotube lattice, resulting in either metallic or semiconducting behaviour. Due to their small diameter, electronic motion is directed in the length direction of the nanotube, making them ideal systems to study e.g. one-dimensional transport phenomena. First...

  2. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S.; Al-Marzouki, F.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Daiem, A.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc. For commercial applications, large quantities and high purity of carbon nanotubes are needed. Different types of carbon nanotubes can be synthesized in various ways. The most common techniques currently practiced are arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition and flame synthesis. The purification of CNTs is carried out using various techniques mainly oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering chemical functionalization, etc. However, high-purity purification techniques still have to be developed. Real applications are still under development. This paper addresses the current research on the challenges that are associated with synthesis methods, purification methods, and dispersion and toxicity of CNTs within the scope of different engineering applications, energy, and environmental impact.

  3. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Lerner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (<1000 cfu/ml. In contrast, the carrier mobility is affected comparably by Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml.

  4. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  5. Carbon nanotubes: synthesis and functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on two of the major challenges of carbon nanotube (CNT) research: understanding the growth mechanism of nanotubes by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and the positioning of nanotubes on surfaces. The mechanism of growth of single–walled nanotubes (SWNTs) has been studied in two ways. Firstly, a novel iron nanoparticle catalyst for the production of single–walled nanotubes was developed. CVD conditions were established that produced high quality tubes. These optimised C...

  6. Carbon nanotube network varactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling. (paper)

  7. Carbon nanotube network varactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalov, A. A.; Anoshkin, I. V.; Erdmanis, M.; Lioubtchenko, D. V.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Räisänen, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling.

  8. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  9. Flexible high-performance carbon nanotube integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong-ming; Timmermans, Marina Y; Tian, Ying; Nasibulin, Albert G; Kauppinen, Esko I; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Mizutani, Takashi; Ohno, Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    Carbon nanotube thin-film transistors are expected to enable the fabrication of high-performance, flexible and transparent devices using relatively simple techniques. However, as-grown nanotube networks usually contain both metallic and semiconducting nanotubes, which leads to a trade-off between charge-carrier mobility (which increases with greater metallic tube content) and on/off ratio (which decreases). Many approaches to separating metallic nanotubes from semiconducting nanotubes have been investigated, but most lead to contamination and shortening of the nanotubes, thus reducing performance. Here, we report the fabrication of high-performance thin-film transistors and integrated circuits on flexible and transparent substrates using floating-catalyst chemical vapour deposition followed by a simple gas-phase filtration and transfer process. The resulting nanotube network has a well-controlled density and a unique morphology, consisting of long (~10 µm) nanotubes connected by low-resistance Y-shaped junctions. The transistors simultaneously demonstrate a mobility of 35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off ratio of 6 × 10(6). We also demonstrate flexible integrated circuits, including a 21-stage ring oscillator and master-slave delay flip-flops that are capable of sequential logic. Our fabrication procedure should prove to be scalable, for example, by using high-throughput printing techniques. PMID:21297625

  10. From Carbon Nanotube Crystals to Carbon Nanotube Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhengjun; ZHAO Ye; ZHOU Ya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the very initial deposition stages of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) and xylene (C8H10) for growing carbon nanotubes, and made clear that the mechanism for the self-organization behaviors of nanotubes at different growth stages by this approach. For instance, the organization of nanotubes into flower-like structures at prolonged deposition is developed from the crystal-like structures formed at early growth stages, both of which are closely related to and determined by the very initial deposition stages of this CVD approach. Based on this approach, ways have been established to build up different architectures of carbon nanotubes, by controlling the initial deposition stages of the CVD process, with which we have realized the selective growth of self-organized carbon nanotube structures. This study provides a new idea for growing carbon nanotube architectures by CVD.

  11. Carbon nanotube core graphitic shell hybrid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Hart, Amelia H C; Song, Sung Moo; Nam, Jaewook; Jung, Hyun Young; Hashim, Daniel Paul; Li, Bo; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Park, Chi-Dong; Zhao, Yao; Vajtai, Robert; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Hayashi, Takuya; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Endo, Morinobu; Barrera, Enrique; Jung, Yung Joon; Thomas, Edwin L; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-12-23

    A carbon nanotube yarn core graphitic shell hybrid fiber was fabricated via facile heat treatment of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8) on carbon nanotube yarn. The effective encapsulation of carbon nanotube yarn in carbon fiber and a glassy carbon outer shell determines their physical properties. The higher electrical conductivity (than carbon fiber) of the carbon nanotube yarn overcomes the drawbacks of carbon fiber/glassy carbon, and the better properties (than carbon nanotubes) of the carbon fiber/glassy carbon make up for the lower thermal and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube yarn via synergistic hybridization without any chemical doping and additional processes. PMID:24224730

  12. Two novel low-power and high-speed dynamic carbon nanotube full-adder cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eshghi Mohammad; Bagherizadeh Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, two novel low-power and high-speed carbon nanotube full-adder cells in dynamic logic style are presented. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are efficient in designing a high performance circuit. To design our full-adder cells, CNFETs with three different threshold voltages (low threshold, normal threshold, and high threshold) are used. First design generates SUM and COUT through separate transistors, and second design is a multi-output dynamic full adde...

  13. MoS2 nanotube field effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    M. Strojnik; A. Kovic; Mrzel, A; J. Buh; Strle, J.; Mihailovic, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on electric field effects on electron transport in multi-walled MoS2 nanotubes (NTs), fabricated using a two-step synthesis method from Mo6SxI9-x nanowire bundle precursors. Transport properties were measured on 20 single nanotube field effect transistor (FET) devices, and compared with MoS2 layered crystal devices prepared using identical fabrication techniques. The NTs exhibited mobilities of up to 0.014 cm2V−1s−1 and an on/off ratio of up to 60. As such they are comparable with p...

  14. Simulation of transport and 1/f noise in carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a simulator for electrical properties of carbon nanotube film field-effect transistors. The simulator, based on carbon nanotube physics uses Landauer formalism and Poisson equation. The total film is described as an electrical network. A modified nodal analysis provides DC and noise characteristics. These simulations are in good agreement with experimental results.

  15. High Speed Capacitor-Inverter Based Carbon Nanotube Full Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashtian M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon Nanotube filed-effect transistor (CNFET is one of the promising alternatives to the MOS transistors. The geometry-dependent threshold voltage is one of the CNFET characteristics, which is used in the proposed Full Adder cell. In this paper, we present a high speed Full Adder cell using CNFETs based on majority-not (Minority function. Presented design uses eight transistors and eight capacitors. Simulation results show significant improvement in terms of delay and power-delay product in comparison to contemporary CNFET Adder Cells. Simulations were carried out using HSPICE based on CNFET model with 0.6 V VDD.

  16. Studies of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneba, Gerard T.

    2005-01-01

    The fellowship experience for this summer for 2004 pertains to carbon nanotube coatings for various space-related applications. They involve the following projects: (a) EMI protection films from HiPco-polymers, and (b) Thermal protection nanosilica materials. EMI protection films are targeted to be eventually applied onto casings of laptop computers. These coatings are composites of electrically-conductive SWNTs and compatible polymers. The substrate polymer will be polycarbonate, since computer housings are typically made of carbon composites of this type of polymer. A new experimental copolymer was used last year to generate electrically-conductive and thermal films with HiPco at 50/50 wt/wt composition. This will be one of the possible formulations. Reference films will be base polycarbonate and neat HiPco onto polycarbonate films. Other coating materials that will be tried will be based on HiPco composites with commercial enamels (polyurethane, acrylic, polyester), which could be compatible with the polycarbonate substrate. Nanosilica fibers are planned for possible use as thermal protection tiles on the shuttle orbiter. Right now, microscale silica is used. Going to the nanoscale will increase the surface-volume-per-unit-area of radiative heat dissipation. Nanoscale carbon fibers/nanotubes can be used as templates for the generation of nanosilica. A sol-gel operation is employed for this purpose.

  17. Teslaphoresis of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R; Castillo, Aida C; Smalley, Preston R; Kittrell, Carter; James, Dustin K; Brinson, Bruce E; Rybolt, Thomas R; Johnson, Bruce R; Cherukuri, Tonya K; Cherukuri, Paul

    2016-04-26

    This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil's antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (>30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale. PMID:27074626

  18. MoS2 nanotube field effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Strojnik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on electric field effects on electron transport in multi-walled MoS2 nanotubes (NTs, fabricated using a two-step synthesis method from Mo6SxI9-x nanowire bundle precursors. Transport properties were measured on 20 single nanotube field effect transistor (FET devices, and compared with MoS2 layered crystal devices prepared using identical fabrication techniques. The NTs exhibited mobilities of up to 0.014 cm2V−1s−1 and an on/off ratio of up to 60. As such they are comparable with previously reported WS2 nanotube FETs, but materials defects and imperfections apparently limit their performance compared with multilayer MoS2 FETs with similar number of layers.

  19. MoS2 nanotube field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on electric field effects on electron transport in multi-walled MoS2 nanotubes (NTs), fabricated using a two-step synthesis method from Mo6SxI9-x nanowire bundle precursors. Transport properties were measured on 20 single nanotube field effect transistor (FET) devices, and compared with MoS2 layered crystal devices prepared using identical fabrication techniques. The NTs exhibited mobilities of up to 0.014 cm2V−1s−1 and an on/off ratio of up to 60. As such they are comparable with previously reported WS2 nanotube FETs, but materials defects and imperfections apparently limit their performance compared with multilayer MoS2 FETs with similar number of layers

  20. Luminescence of carbon nanotube bulbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuanGang; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; WEI BingQing; ZHU HongWei; WANG ZhiCheng; LUO JianBin; LIU WenJin; ZHENG MingXin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bulbs made of decimeter-scale double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) strands and films were fabricated and their luminescence properties, including the lighting efficiency, voltage-current relation and thermal stability were investigated. The results show that the DWCNT bulb has a comparable spectrum of visible light with tungsten bulb and its average efficiency is 40% higher than that of a tungsten filament at the same temperature (1400-2300 K). The nanotube filaments show both resistance and thermal stability over a large temperature region. No obvious damage was found for a nanotube bulb illuminating at 2300 K for more than 24 hours in vacuum.

  1. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Flexible Electronics and Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyun SUN; Yugang SUN

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the use of electronic quality single-walled carbon nanotubes grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approaches at high temperatures as building blocks for fabricating flexible field-effect devices, such as thin-film transistors (TFTs) and chemical sensors. Dry transfer printing technique is developed for forming films of CVD nanotubes on low-temperature plastic substrates. Examples of TFTs with the use of nanotubes and thin dielectrics and hydrogen sensors with the use of nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles are discussed in detail to demonstrate the promising potentiality of single-walled carbon nanotubes for building high performance flexible devices, which can find applications where traditional devices on rigid substrates are not suitable.

  2. Simulation of Carbon Nanotube Welding through Ar bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Kucukkal, Mustafa U

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes show promise as nanoscale transistors, for nanocomputing applications. This use will require appropriate methods for creating electrical connections between distinct nanotubes, analogous to welding of metallic wires at larger length scales, but methods for performing nanoscale chemical welding are not yet sufficiently understood. This study examined the effect of Ar bombardment on the junction of two crossed single-walled carbon nanotubes, to understand the value and limitations of this method for generating connections between nanotubes. A geometric criterion was used to assess the quality of the junctions formed, with the goal of identifying the most productive conditions for experimental ion bombardment. In particular, the effects of nanotube chirality, Ar impact kinetic energy, impact particle flux and fluence, and annealing temperature were considered. The most productive bombardment conditions, leading to the most crosslinking of the tubes with the smallest loss of graphit...

  3. Preparation of isolated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Carbon nanotubes are of great interest for a large range of applications from physical chemistry, solid state physics to molecular quantum optics. We propose the preparation of molecular beams of isolated carbon nanotubes for future matter wave experiments, as well as for applications in the material sciences and spectroscopy. Carbon nanotubes may be particularly interesting for quantum experiments because of their low ionization threshold, high mechanical stability and high polarizability. This is expected to facilitate the cooling, coherent manipulation and efficient detection of such molecular beams. For this purpose we are investigating different methods of solvation, isolation and shortening of carbon nanotubes from commercial bundles. Length and diameter distributions are recorded by SPM whereas the unbundling of the tubes is determined by absorption spectroscopy. Established methods from physical chemistry, such as laser desorption are currently being modified and studied as potential tools for generating beams of nanotubes in the mass range of around 50.000-100.000 amu. (author)

  4. Application of Field-effect Transistor Based on Carbon Nanotube in Biosensors%碳纳米管场效应晶体管在生物传感器中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹娜; 王林; 谌志强

    2011-01-01

    随着禽流感、甲流和其他疾病的出现,发展快速、实时、免标记的生物传感器在早期发现和治疗各种疾病方面有重要的作用.由于单壁碳纳米管(SWNTs)具有独特的一维纳米结构、特殊的电性能、良好的生物相容性和尺寸相容性,这些优点使其在生物传感器领域有巨大的潜力.本文综述了近年来碳纳米管场效应晶体管(CNTFET)作为免标记的生物传感器在检测各种生物大分子,如蛋白质、酶、DNA、癌细胞、病毒、糖类物质等方面的应用.%With the emergence of avian flu. Influence A virus and other diseases, the development of rapid, real-time, label-free biological sensors has become increasingly significant at the early detection and clinical diagnoses of various diseases. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have unique one-dimensional structure, special electrical properties, good biocompatibility and size compatibility, so that the SWNTs have great potential uses in the biosensor fields due to these advantages. This article reviews recent examples of carbon nanotubes field-effect transistor (CNTFET) as a label-free biosensors for detecting a variety of biological macromolecules, such as protein, enzyme, DNA, cancer, virus, carbohydrate and so on.

  5. Boron carbide nanolumps on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, J. Y.; Li, W. Z.; Wen, J. G.; Ren, Z. F.

    2002-01-01

    Boron carbide nanolumps are formed on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes by a solid-state reaction between boron and carbon nanotubes. The reaction is localized so that the integrity of the structure of carbon nanotubes is maintained. Inner layers of multiwall carbon nanotubes are also bonded to boron carbide nanolumps. These multiwall carbon nanotubes with boron carbide nanolumps are expected to be the ideal reinforcing fillers for high-performance composites because of the favorable morphology.

  6. Electronic and Ionic Transport in Carbon Nanotubes and Other Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di

    This thesis describes several experiments based on carbon nanotube nanofludic devices and field-effect transistors. The first experiment detected ion and molecule translocation through one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs. The electrical ionic current is measured. Translocation of small single stranded DNA oligomers is marked by large transient increases in current through the tube and confirmed by a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis. Carbon nanotubes simplify the construction of nanopores, permit new types of electrical measurement, and open new avenues for control of DNA translocation. The second experiment constructed devices in which the interior of a single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET) acts as a nanofluidic channel that connects two fluid reservoirs, permitting measurement of the electronic properties of the SWCNT as it is wetted by an analyte. Wetting of the inside of the SWCNT by water turns the transistor on, while wetting of the outside has little effect. This finding may provide a new method to investigate water behavior at nanoscale. This also opens a new avenue for building sensors in which the SWCNT functions as an electronic detector. This thesis also presents some experiments that related to nanofabrication, such as construction of FET with tin sulfide (SnS) quantum ribbon. This work demonstrates the application of solution processed IV-VI semiconductor nanostructures in nanoscale devices.

  7. Torsional Electromechanics of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joselevich, Ernesto; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Segev, Lior; Srur-Lavi, Onit; Cohen, Sidney R.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are known to be distinctly metallic or semiconducting depending on their diameter and chirality. Here we show that continuously varying the chirality by mechanical torsion can induce conductance oscillations, which can be attributed to metal-semiconductor periodic transitions. The phenomenon is observed in multi-walled carbon nanotubes, where both the torque and the current are shown to be carried predominantly by the outermost wall. The oscillation period with torsion is consistent with the theoretical shifting of the corners of the first Brillouin zone of graphene across different subbands allowed in the nanotube. Beyond a critical torsion, the conductance irreversibly drops due to torsional failure, allowing us to determine the torsional strength of carbon nanotubes. Our experiments indicate that carbon nanotubes could be used as self-sensing torsional springs for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). [1] E. Joselevich, Twisting nanotubes: From torsion to chirality, ChemPhysChem 2006, 7, 1405. [2] T. Cohen-Karni, L. Segev, O. Srur-Lavi, S. R. Cohen, E. Joselevich, Torsional electromechanical quantum oscillations in carbon nanotubes, Nature Nanotechnology, 2006, 1, 36.

  8. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  9. Carbon nanotube optical mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes (CNT) embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation. Moreover, as the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and three-dimensional printing. Therefore, the technology holds promise for the development of a new generation of lightweight, compact "smart" telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics, active optics experiments, and numerical modeling. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  11. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Ahmed, Rajib [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-03-23

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2–3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  12. Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the...

  13. Molybdenum Disulfide Sheathed Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chun SONG; Zhu De XU; Yi Fan ZHENG; Gui HAN; Bo LIU; Wei Xiang CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Single and double layered MoS2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNs) were successfully prepared by pyrolyzing (NH4)2MoS4-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes in an H2 atmosphere at 900℃. MoS2-coated MWCNs would be expected to have different tribological and mechanical properties compared to MoS2, so it may have potential applications in many fields.

  14. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  15. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Churchill, H O H; Herring, P K;

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual......, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications....

  16. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kuemmeth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications.

  17. CARBON NANOTUBES AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Pavani; Kodithyala Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often described as a graphene sheet rolled up into the shape of a cylinder. These have fascinated scientists with their extraordinary properties. These compounds have become increasingly popular in various fields simply because of their small size and amazing optical, electric and magnetic properties when used alone or with additions of metals. Carbon nanotubes have potential therapeutic applications in the field of drug delivery, diagnostics, and biosensing. Funct...

  18. Connecting carbon nanotubes using Sn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Jagjiwan; Lin, Kwang Lung

    2013-08-01

    Process of Sn coating on mutiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and formation of interconnections among nanotubes are studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Surface oxidation of nanotubes during heating with HNO3 prior to the SnCl2 treatment and the bonding between functional groups and Sn are found to be responsible for the coating and its stability. Open nanotubes are filled as well as coated during tin chloride treatment. Coating and filling are converted into the coatings on the inner as well as outer walls of the nanotubes during reduction with H2/N2. EDX studies show the formation of intermetallic compounds e.g., Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn at the joints between nanotubes. Formation of intermetallic compounds is supposed to be responsible for providing the required strength for bending and twisting of nanotubes joining of nanotubes. Paper presents a detailed mechanism of coating and filling processes, and interconnections among nanotubes. PMID:23882800

  19. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  20. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries, enabled by sophisticated fabrication, have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin...... of Pauli blockade. This can be exploited to read out spin and valley qubits, and to measure the decay of these states through coupling to nuclear spins and phonons. A second unique property of carbon nanotubes is that the combination of valley freedom and electron-electron interactions in one...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the...

  1. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and the nanotube heterojunctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for nanoscale molecular electronic device components. Experimental measurements on the conductivity, rectifying behavior and conductivity-chirality correlation have also been made. While quasi-one dimensional simple heterojunctions between nanotubes with different electronic behavior can be generated by introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise all hexagon graphene sheet. Other complex 3- and 4-point junctions may require other mechanisms. Structural stability as well as local electronic density of states of various nanotube junctions are investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GDBMD) scheme that incorporates non-orthogonality of the orbitals. The junctions investigated include straight and small angle heterojunctions of various chiralities and diameters; as well as more complex 'T' and 'Y' junctions which do not always obey the usual pentagon-heptagon pair rule. The study of local density of states (LDOS) reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap. The proposed three and four pointjunctions are one of the smallest possible tunnel junctions made entirely of carbon atoms. Furthermore the electronic behavior of the nanotube based device components can be taylored by doping with group III-V elements such as B and N, and BN nanotubes as a wide band gap semiconductor has also been realized in experiments. Structural properties of heteroatomic nanotubes comprising C, B and N will be discussed.

  2. Multiscale Modeling with Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A

    2006-02-21

    Technologically important nanomaterials come in all shapes and sizes. They can range from small molecules to complex composites and mixtures. Depending upon the spatial dimensions of the system and properties under investigation computer modeling of such materials can range from equilibrium and nonequilibrium Quantum Mechanics, to force-field-based Molecular Mechanics and kinetic Monte Carlo, to Mesoscale simulation of evolving morphology, to Finite-Element computation of physical properties. This brief review illustrates some of the above modeling techniques through a number of recent applications with carbon nanotubes: nano electromechanical sensors (NEMS), chemical sensors, metal-nanotube contacts, and polymer-nanotube composites.

  3. Kondo physics in carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Nygard, Jesper; Cobden, David Henry; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    The connection of electrical leads to wire-like molecules is a logical step in the development of molecular electronics, but also allows studies of fundamental physics. For example, metallic carbon nanotubes are quantum wires that have been found to act as one-dimensional quantum dots, Luttinger-liquids, proximity-induced superconductors and ballistic and diffusive one-dimensional metals. Here we report that electrically-contacted single-wall nanotubes can serve as powerful probes of Kondo ph...

  4. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying; LI WenXin

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale production and application at large scale, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may cause ad-verse response to the environment and human health. Thus, study on bio-effects and safety of CNTs has attracted great attention from scientists and governments worldwide. This report briefly summa-rizes the main results from the in vitro toxicity study of CNTs. The emphasis is placed on the descrip-tion of a variety of factors affecting CNTs cytotoxicity, including species of CNTs, impurities contained,lengths of CNTs, aspect ratios, chemical modification, and assaying methods of cytotoxicity. However,experimental information obtained thus far on CNTs' cytotoxicity is lacking in comparability, and some-times there is controversy about it. In order to assess more accurately the potential risks of CNTs to human health, we suggest that care should be taken for issues such as chemical modification and quantitative characterization of CNTa in cytotoxicity assessment. More importantly, studies on physical and chemical mechanisms of CNTs' cytotoxicity should be strengthened; assaying methods and evaluating criteria characterized by nanotoxicology should be gradually established.

  5. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale production and application at large scale, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may cause ad-verse response to the environment and human health. Thus, study on bio-effects and safety of CNTs has attracted great attention from scientists and governments worldwide. This report briefly summa-rizes the main results from the in vitro toxicity study of CNTs. The emphasis is placed on the descrip-tion of a variety of factors affecting CNTs cytotoxicity, including species of CNTs, impurities contained, lengths of CNTs, aspect ratios, chemical modification, and assaying methods of cytotoxicity. However, experimental information obtained thus far on CNTs’ cytotoxicity is lacking in comparability, and some-times there is controversy about it. In order to assess more accurately the potential risks of CNTs to human health, we suggest that care should be taken for issues such as chemical modification and quantitative characterization of CNTs in cytotoxicity assessment. More importantly, studies on physical and chemical mechanisms of CNTs’ cytotoxicity should be strengthened; assaying methods and evaluating criteria characterized by nanotoxicology should be gradually established.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Based Spike Neuromorphic Devices and Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of carbon nanotube (CNT) based electronic devices called "synapstors," with the goal of emulating the functions of biological synapses, are reported. These synapstors have a structure akin to field-effect transistors, utilizing a random network of single-wall semiconducting CNTs as its conducting channel. Analog spike signal processing with low power consumption was demonstrated. These synaptic devices are capable of carrying out logic, learning, and memory functions...

  7. Hybrid Composite of Polyaniline Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polyaniline hybrid material was synthesized by emulsion polymerization in-situ. The morphology of hybrid material was studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity of nanocomposite increases with the increasing of carbon nanotube content because of the new conductivity passageways formed by carbon nanotubes.

  8. Synthesis and Application of Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Zeng; Zhenhua Li; Yuhong Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the unique structure, the superior physical and chemical properties, the super strong mechanical performances, and so on, carbon nanotubes have attracted the attention of researchers all over the world. In this article, the basic properties and the main production processes of carbon nanotubes are introduced in brief, and the progress of applied research for carbon nanotubes is reviewed.

  9. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  10. Controllable Hysteresis and Threshold Voltage of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-tube Transistors with Ferroelectric Polymer Top-Gate Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Lin; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhang, Cheng; Dai, Rui-Xuan; Li, Xian; Meng, Xiang-Jian; Zhu, Hong-Wei

    2016-03-01

    Double-gated field effect transistors have been fabricated using the SWCNT networks as channel layer and the organic ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) film spin-coated as top gate insulators. Standard photolithography process has been adopted to achieve the patterning of organic P(VDF-TrFE) films and top-gate electrodes, which is compatible with conventional CMOS process technology. An effective way for modulating the threshold voltage in the channel of P(VDF-TrFE) top-gate transistors under polarization has been reported. The introduction of functional P(VDF-TrFE) gate dielectric also provides us an alternative method to suppress the initial hysteresis of SWCNT networks and obtain a controllable ferroelectric hysteresis behavior. Applied bottom gate voltage has been found to be another effective way to highly control the threshold voltage of the networked SWCNTs based FETs by electrostatic doping effect.

  11. Adsorption on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; YANG Xiao-bao; NI Jun

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is a subject of growing experimental and theoretical interest.The possible adsorbed patterns of atoms and molecules on the single-walled carbon nanotubes vary with the diameters and chirality of the tubes due to the confinement.The curvature of the carbon nanotube surface enlarges the distance of the adsorbate atoms and thus enhances the stability of high coverage structures of adsorbate.There exist two novel high-coverage stable structures of potassium adsorbed on SWCNTs,which are not stable on graphite.The electronic properties of SWCNTs can be modified by adsorbate atoms and metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semi-conductor transitions can be achieved by the doping of alkali atoms.

  12. Characterization of field effect transistor with TiO{sub 2} nanotube channel fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M; Yoshimura, T; Fujimura, N [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Terauchi, M; Nakayama, T, E-mail: tyoshi@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Extreme Energy-Density Research Institute, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Field effect transistor with TiO{sub 2} nanotube channel was fabricated by dielectrophoresis. Although TiO{sub 2} nanotube channel is not formed at 10 MHz of the dielectrophoresis, the channel is formed at 100 kHz. It is suggested that migration distance is not enough at 10MHz. The drain current-drain voltage characteristics of the transistor and the temperature dependence indicate that the electric transport is dominated by double Schottky barrier.

  13. Characterization of field effect transistor with TiO2 nanotube channel fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field effect transistor with TiO2 nanotube channel was fabricated by dielectrophoresis. Although TiO2 nanotube channel is not formed at 10 MHz of the dielectrophoresis, the channel is formed at 100 kHz. It is suggested that migration distance is not enough at 10MHz. The drain current-drain voltage characteristics of the transistor and the temperature dependence indicate that the electric transport is dominated by double Schottky barrier.

  14. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  15. Carbon nanotube chemistry and assembly for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Vincent; Auvray, Stéphane; Borghetti, Julien; Chung, Chia-Ling; Lefèvre, Roland; Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Nguyen, Khoa; Robert, Gaël; Schmidt, Gregory; Anghel, Costin; Chimot, Nicolas; Lyonnais, Sébastien; Streiff, Stéphane; Campidelli, Stéphane; Chenevier, Pascale; Filoramo, Arianna; Goffman, Marcelo F.; Goux-Capes, Laurence; Latil, Sylvain; Blase, Xavier; Triozon, François; Roche, Stephan; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional physical properties that make them one of the most promising building blocks for future nanotechnologies. They may in particular play an important role in the development of innovative electronic devices in the fields of flexible electronics, ultra-high sensitivity sensors, high frequency electronics, opto-electronics, energy sources and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). Proofs of concept of several high performance devices already exist, usually at the single device level, but there remain many serious scientific issues to be solved before the viability of such routes can be evaluated. In particular, the main concern regards the controlled synthesis and positioning of nanotubes. In our opinion, truly innovative use of these nano-objects will come from: (i) the combination of some of their complementary physical properties, such as combining their electrical and mechanical properties; (ii) the combination of their properties with additional benefits coming from other molecules grafted on the nanotubes (this route being particularly relevant for gas- and bio-sensors, opto-electronic devices and energy sources); and (iii) the use of chemically- or bio-directed self-assembly processes to allow the efficient combination of several devices into functional arrays or circuits. In this article, we review our recent results concerning nanotube chemistry and assembly and their use to develop electronic devices. In particular, we present carbon nanotube field effect transistors and their chemical optimization, high frequency nanotube transistors, nanotube-based opto-electronic devices with memory capabilities and nanotube-based nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). The impact of chemical functionalization on the electronic properties of CNTs is analyzed on the basis of theoretical calculations. To cite this article: V. Derycke et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  16. Gears Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Deardorff, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Gears based on carbon nanotubes (see figure) have been proposed as components of an emerging generation of molecular- scale machines and sensors. In comparison with previously proposed nanogears based on diamondoid and fullerene molecules, the nanotube-based gears would have simpler structures and are more likely to be realizable by practical fabrication processes. The impetus for the practical development of carbon-nanotube- based gears arises, in part, from rapid recent progress in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes with prescribed diameters, lengths, chiralities, and numbers of concentric shells. The shafts of the proposed gears would be made from multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The gear teeth would be rigid molecules (typically, benzyne molecules), bonded to the nanotube shafts at atomically precise positions. For fabrication, it may be possible to position the molecular teeth by use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) or other related techniques. The capability to position individual organic molecules at room temperature by use of an STM tip has already been demonstrated. Routes to the chemical synthesis of carbon-nanotube-based gears are also under investigation. Chemical and physical aspects of the synthesis of molecular scale gears based on carbon nanotubes and related molecules, and dynamical properties of nanotube- based gears, have been investigated by computational simulations using established methods of quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics. Several particularly interesting and useful conclusions have been drawn from the dynamical simulations performed thus far: The forces acting on the gears would be more sensitive to local molecular motions than to gross mechanical motions of the overall gears. Although no breakage of teeth or of chemical bonds is expected at temperatures up to at least 3,000 K, the gears would not work well at temperatures above a critical range from about 600 to about 1,000 K. Gear temperature could probably be controlled by

  17. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  18. Study of Carbon Nanotube-Substrate Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Jaqueline S.; Ado Jorio

    2012-01-01

    Environmental effects are very important in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This work reviews the importance of the substrate in single-wall carbon nanotube properties. Contact with a substrate can modify the nanotube properties, and such interactions have been broadly studied as either a negative aspect or a solution for developing carbon nanotube-based nanotechnologies. This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental studies where the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the ...

  19. Epoxide composite materials with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of formation and physical properties of epoxide composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes are considered. An analogy is made between the relaxation properties of carbon nanotubes and macromolecules. The concentration dependences of the electrical conductivity of the epoxy polymers filled with single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes are discussed. Modern views on the mechanism of reinforcement of polymers with nanotubes are outlined. The bibliography includes 143 references.

  20. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-06-04

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (< 20 nm) fins has enhanced the scaling trend to facilitate doubling performance. However, this performance gain happens at the expense of arraying multiple devices (fins) per operation bit, due to their ultra-narrow dimensions (width) originated limited number of charges to induce appreciable amount of drive current. Additionally arraying degrades device off-state leakage and increases short channel characteristics, resulting in reduced chip level energy-efficiency. In this paper, a novel nanotube device (NTFET) topology based on conventional group IV (Si, SiGe) channel materials is discussed. This device utilizes a core/shell dual gate strategy to capitalize on the volume-inversion properties of an ultra-thin (< 10 nm) group IV nanotube channel to minimize leakage and short channel effects while maximizing performance in an area-efficient manner. It is also shown that the NTFET is capable of providing a higher output drive performance per unit chip area than an array of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining the leakage and short channel characteristics similar to that of a single gate-all-around nanowire, the latter being the most superior in terms of electrostatic gate control. In the age of big data and the multitude of devices contributing to the internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  1. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube forests on copper catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of carbon nanotubes on bulk copper is studied. We show for the first time, that super growth chemical vapor deposition method can be successfully applied for preparation of nanotubes on copper catalyst, and the presence of hydrogen is necessary. Next, different methods of copper surface activation are studied, to improve catalyst efficiency. Among them, applied for the first time for copper catalyst in nanotubes synthesis, sulfuric acid activation is the most promising. Among tested samples the surface modified for 10 min is the most active, causing the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests. Obtained results have potential importance in application of nanotubes and copper in electronic chips and nanodevices. (paper)

  2. Modified carbon nanotubes and methods of forming carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Amy M.; Risser, Steven; Elhard, Joel D.; Moore, Bryon P.; Liu, Tao; Vijayendran, Bhima R.

    2016-06-14

    In this invention, processes which can be used to achieve stable doped carbon nanotubes are disclosed. Preferred CNT structures and morphologies for achieving maximum doping effects are also described. Dopant formulations and methods for achieving doping of a broad distribution of tube types are also described.

  3. Electrical conductance of carbon nanotubes with misaligned ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.pantano@unipa.it; Muratore, Giuseppe; Montinaro, Nicola [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica e Meccanica (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    During a manufacturing process, when a straight carbon nanotube is placed on a substrate, e.g., production of transistors, its two ends are often misaligned. In this study, we investigate the effects of multiwall carbon nanotubes' (MWCNTs) outer diameter and chirality on the change in conductance due to misalignment of the two ends. The length of the studied MWCNTs was 120 nm, while the diameters ranged between 4 and 7 nm. A mixed finite element-tight-binding approach was carefully designed to realize reduction in computational time by orders of magnitude in calculating the deformation-induced changes in the electrical transport properties of the nanotubes. Numerical results suggest that armchair MWCNTs of small diameter should work better if used as conductors, while zigzag MWCNTs of large diameter are more suitable for building sensors.Graphical Abstract.

  4. Fabrication of spintronics device by direct synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from ferromagnetic electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an alternative method for realizing a carbon nanotube spin field-effect transistor device by the direct synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on substrates by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition. We observed hysteretic magnetoresistance (MR) at low temperatures due to spin-dependent transport. In these devices, the maximum ratio in resistance variation of MR was found to be 1.8%.

  5. Fabrication of spintronics device by direct synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from ferromagnetic electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ambri Mohamed, Nobuhito Inami, Eiji Shikoh, Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Hidenobu Hori and Akihiko Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an alternative method for realizing a carbon nanotube spin field-effect transistor device by the direct synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs on substrates by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition. We observed hysteretic magnetoresistance (MR at low temperatures due to spin-dependent transport. In these devices, the maximum ratio in resistance variation of MR was found to be 1.8%.

  6. High Speed Multiple Valued Logic Full Adder Using Carbon Nano Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Khatir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High speed Full-Adder (FA module is a critical element in designing high performance arithmeticcircuits. In this paper, we propose a new high speed multiple-valued logic FA module. The proposed FAis constructed by 14 transistors and 3 capacitors, using carbon nano-tube field effect transistor (CNFETtechnology. Furthermore, our proposed technique has been examined in different voltages (i.e., 0.65v and0.9v. The observed results reveal power consumption and power delay product (PDP improvementscompared to existing FA counterparts.

  7. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This revie

  8. Carbon nanotube-chalcogenide composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Š.; Orava, J.; Kohoutek, T.; Wágner, T.; Frumar, M.; Zima, Vítězslav; Hara, T.; Matsui, Y.; Ueda, K.; Pumera, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 1 (2010), s. 144-149. ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chalcogenide glasses * composites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2010

  9. CARBON NANOTUBES AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Pavani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are often described as a graphene sheet rolled up into the shape of a cylinder. These have fascinated scientists with their extraordinary properties. These compounds have become increasingly popular in various fields simply because of their small size and amazing optical, electric and magnetic properties when used alone or with additions of metals. Carbon nanotubes have potential therapeutic applications in the field of drug delivery, diagnostics, and biosensing. Functionalized carbon nanotubes can also act as vaccine delivery systems.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered to be one of the innovative resources in nanotechnology with possible use in wide range of biomedical applications viz. cancer treatment, bioengineering, cardiac autonomic regulation, platelet activation and tissue regeneration. The effect of CNTs on cells and tissues are extremely important for their use in various complex biological systems. With the increasing interest shown by the nanotechnology research community in this field, it is expected that plenty of applications of CNTs will be explored in future.

  10. Thermoelectrics: Carbon nanotubes get high

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispin, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Waste heat can be converted to electricity by thermoelectric generators, but their development is hindered by the lack of cheap materials with good thermoelectric properties. Now, carbon-nanotube-based materials are shown to have improved properties when purified to contain only semiconducting species and then doped.

  11. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  12. Carbon nanotubes and graphene towards soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although silicon technology has been the main driving force for miniaturizing device dimensions to improve cost and performance, the current application of Si to soft electronics (flexible and stretchable electronics) is limited due to material rigidity. As a result, various prospective materials have been proposed to overcome the rigidity of conventional Si technology. In particular, nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are promising due to outstanding elastic properties as well as an excellent combination of electronic, optoelectronic, and thermal properties compared to conventional rigid silicon. The uniqueness of these nano-carbon materials has opened new possibilities for soft electronics, which is another technological trend in the market. This review covers the recent progress of soft electronics research based on CNTs and graphene. We discuss the strategies for soft electronics with nano-carbon materials and their preparation methods (growth and transfer techniques) to devices as well as the electrical characteristics of transparent conducting films (transparency and sheet resistance) and device performances in field effect transistor (FET) (structure, carrier type, on/off ratio, and mobility). In addition to discussing state of the art performance metrics, we also attempt to clarify trade-off issues and methods to control the trade-off on/off versus mobility). We further demonstrate accomplishments of the CNT network in flexible integrated circuits on plastic substrates that have attractive characteristics. A future research direction is also proposed to overcome current technological obstacles necessary to realize commercially feasible soft electronics.

  13. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.; Grove-Rasmussen, Kasper; Nygârd, Jesper; Flensberg, Karsten; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2015-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike in conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and valley freedom. The interplay between the two is the focus of this review. The energy levels associated with each degree of freedom, and the spin-orbit coupling between them, are explained, together with their consequences for transport measurements through nanotube quantum dots. In double quantum dots, the combination of quantum numbers modifies the selection rules of Pauli blockade. This can be exploited to read out spin and valley qubits and to measure the decay of these states through coupling to nuclear spins and phonons. A second unique property of carbon nanotubes is that the combination of valley freedom and electron-electron interactions in one dimension strongly modifies their transport behavior. Interaction between electrons inside and outside a quantum dot is manifested in SU(4) Kondo behavior and level renormalization. Interaction within a dot leads to Wigner molecules and more complex correlated states. This review takes an experimental perspective informed by recent advances in theory. As well as the well-understood overall picture, open questions for the field are also clearly stated. These advances position nanotubes as a leading system for the study of spin and valley physics in one dimension where electronic disorder and hyperfine interaction can both be reduced to a low level.

  14. Roping and wrapping carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Kevin D.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Boul, Peter; Ericson, Lars M.; Casavant, Michael J.; Walters, Deron A.; Huffman, Chad; Saini, Rajesh; Wang, Yuhuang; Haroz, Erik; Billups, Edward W.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be dispersed into solvents by ultrasonication to the point that primarily individual tubes, cut to a few hundred nanometers in length, are present. However, when such dispersions are filtered to a thick mat, or paper, only tangles of uniform, seemingly endless ropes are observed. The factors contributing to this "roping" phenomenon, akin to aggregation or crystallization, will be discussed. We have developed methods for generating "super-ropes" more than twenty times the diameter of those formed by filtration, involving the extraction of nanotube material from an oleum dispersion. Nanotubes have been solubilized in water, largely individually, by non-covalently wrapping them with linear polymers. The general thermodynamic drive for this wrapping involves the polymer disrupting both the hydrophobic interface with water and the smooth tube-tube interaction in aggregates. The nanotubes can be recovered from their polymeric wrapping by changing their solvent system. This solubilization process opens the door to solution chemistry on pristine nanotubes, as well as their introduction into biologically relevant systems.

  15. Carbon Nanotubes - Polymer Composites with Enhanced Conductivity using Functionalized Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, Rajagopal; Chen, Jian; Gupta, Rishi

    2003-03-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes show superior electrical, mechanical and thermal properties [1]. Composite materials using carbon nanotubes as fillers are predicted to show similar superior properties. However, realization of such composites has been plagued by poor dispersion of carbon nanotubes in solvents and in polymer matrices. We have developed a method to homogenously disperse carbon nanotubes in polymer matrices using functionalized nanotubes [2]. Thin films of functionalized single walled nanotubes (SWNT) - polystyrene composites and functionalized SWNT - polycarbonate composites were prepared using solution evaporation and spin coating. Both of the composites show several orders of magnitude increase in conductivity for less than 1 wt thresholds of the composites are less than 0.2 wt nanotubes. We attribute the enhanced conduction to the superior dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes in the polymer matrix and to the reduced nanotube waviness resulting from the rigid backbone of the conjugated polymer. References: [1]. R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov and W. A. de Heer, Science v297, p787 (2002); [2]. J. Chen, H. Liu, W. A. Weimer, M. D. Halls, D. H. Waldeck and G. C. Walker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. v124, p9034 (2002).

  16. Characterization methods of carbon nanotubes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes due to their specific atomic structure have interesting chemical and physical properties according to those of graphite and diamond. This review covers the characterization methods of carbon nanotubes which are most employed today. The structure of carbon nanotubes is first briefly summarized followed by a description of the characterization methods such as STM, TEM, neutron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The most interesting features are indexed for each technique

  17. Structure and properties of carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    MEYER, Jannik

    2006-01-01

    The properties of nanoscopic objects depend critically on the position of each atom, since finite-size and quantization effects play an important role. For carbon nanotubes, the electronic, mechanical, and vibrational properties vary significantly depending on their structure. For example, a carbon nanotube can be metallic or semiconducting with varying band-gaps depending on its lattice structure. Yet, most investigations on individual carbon nanotubes are carried out on objects with unknown...

  18. Photonics based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Qingyuan; Gicquel-Guézo, Maud; Loualiche, Slimane; Pouliquen, Julie Le; Batte, Thomas; Folliot, Hervé; Dehaese, Olivier; Grillot, Frederic; Battie, Yann; Loiseau, Annick; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Among direct-bandgap semiconducting nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit strong quasi-one-dimensional excitonic optical properties, which confer them a great potential for their integration in future photonics devices as an alternative solution to conventional inorganic semiconductors. In this paper, we will highlight SWCNT optical properties for passive as well as active applications in future optical networking. For passive applications, we directly compare the effi...

  19. Photoluminescence Study of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, H. X.; Li, G. H.; Ge, W. K.; Wang, Z. P.; Xu, Z. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Chang, B H; Sun, L. F.; Wang, B S; G. Xu; Su, Z.B.

    2000-01-01

    ultiwalled carbon nanotubes, prepared by both electric arc discharge and chemical vapor deposition methods, show a strong visible light emission in photoluminescence experiments. All the samples employed in the experiments exhibit nearly same super-linear intensity dependence of the emission bands on the excitation intensity, and negligible temperature dependence of the central position and the line shapes of the emission bands. Based upon theoretical analysis of the electronic band structure...

  20. OPPORTUNITIES OF BIOMEDICAL USE OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Mitrofanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials  –  materials,  whouse  structure  elements  has  proportions  doesn’t  exceed  100  nm.  In superdispersed state matter acquire new properties. In the last decade, carbon nanotubes become the most popular nanomaterials, that cause attention of representatives of various scientific field. The сarbon nanotubes offer new opportunities for biological and medical applications: imaging at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels, biosensors and electrodes based on carbon nanotubes, target delivery of various substances, radiation and photothermal therapy. The most promising of carbon nanotubes in the context of biomedical applications is their ability to penetrate the various tissues of the body and carry large doses of agents, providing diagnostic and therapeutic effects. Functionalized nanotubes are biodegradable. Other current direction of using carbon nanotubes in medicine and biology is to visualize objects on the molecular, cellular and tissue level. Associated with carbon nanotubes contrasting substances improve the visualization of cells and tissues, which can detected new patterns of development of the pathological process. Due to the vagueness of the question of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes possibility of their practical application is hampered. Before the introduction of carbon nanotubes into practical health care is necessary to provide all the possible consequences of using nanotubes. High rates of properties and development of new nanostructures based on carbon nanotubes in the near future will lead to new advances related to the application and development of new parameters that will determine their properties and effects. In these review attention is paid to the structure, physico-chemical properties of nanotubes, their functionalization, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and all aspects of using of carbon nanotubes.

  1. Carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Shigenobu; Okawa, Takashi; Akita, Seiji; Nakayama, Yoshikazu

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a carbon nanotube atomic force microscope probe. Because the carbon nanotube are well known to have high aspect ratios, small tip radii and high stiffness, carbon nanotube probes have a long lifetime and can be applied for the observation deep trenches. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by a well-controlled DC arc discharge method, because this method can make nanotubes to have straight shape and high crystalline. The nanotubes were aligned on the knife-edge using an alternating current electrophoresis technique. A commercially available Si probe was used for the base of the nanotube probe. The nanotube probe was fabricated by the SEM manipulation method. The nanotube was then attached tightly to the Si probe by deposition of amorphous carbon. We demonstrate the measurement of a fine pith grating that has vertical walls. However, a carbon nanotube has a problem that is called "Sticking". The sticking is a chatter image on vertical like region in a sample. We solved this problem by applying 2 methods, 1. a large cantilever vibration amplitude in tapping mode, 2. an attractive mode measurement. We demonstrate the non-sticking images by these methods.

  2. Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives using self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoying; Comeras, Jose Miguel M. Lobez; Park, Hongsik; Tang, Jianshi; Afzali, Ali; Tulevski, George S.; Hannon, James B.; Liehr, Michael; Han, Shu-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Information security underpins many aspects of modern society. However, silicon chips are vulnerable to hazards such as counterfeiting, tampering and information leakage through side-channel attacks (for example, by measuring power consumption, timing or electromagnetic radiation). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are a potential replacement for silicon as the channel material of transistors due to their superb electrical properties and intrinsic ultrathin body, but problems such as limited semiconducting purity and non-ideal assembly still need to be addressed before they can deliver high-performance electronics. Here, we show that by using these inherent imperfections, an unclonable electronic random structure can be constructed at low cost from carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are self-assembled into patterned HfO2 trenches using ion-exchange chemistry, and the width of the trench is optimized to maximize the randomness of the nanotube placement. With this approach, two-dimensional (2D) random bit arrays are created that can offer ternary-bit architecture by determining the connection yield and switching type of the nanotube devices. As a result, our cryptographic keys provide a significantly higher level of security than conventional binary-bit architecture with the same key size.

  3. Heteronuclear carbon nanotubes: applications to study carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Synthesis of heteronuclear carbon nanotubes and their application for a variety of studies is presented. SWCNTs peapods encapsulating highly 13C enriched fullerenes and double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) based on the peapods were prepared. Raman studies indicate that the inner tubes are highly 13C enriched with no carbon exchange between the two walls during the synthesis. The material enables the straightforward identification of the inner and outer tube vibrational spectra. An inhomogeneous broadening, assigned to the random distribution of 12C and 13C nuclei is observed and is explained by ab initio vibrational analysis. The growth of inner tubes from organic solvents was proven by the use of 13C labeled organic materials such as toluene. The simultaneous encapsulation of fullerenes with the solvents was found crucial as these prevent the solvents from evaporating during the high temperature synthesis of the inner tubes. Nuclear magnetic resonance on the peapods and DWCNTs with highly 13C enriched fullerenes or inner walls proves the significant contrast of the isotope enriched SWCNTs as compared to other carbon phases. The NMR experiment on the DWCNTs yield direct information on the electronic properties of small diameter SWCNTs. The significantly different chemical shift of the inner tubes is related to a curvature effect. Relaxation data on the inner tubes shows a deviation from a Fermi-liquid behavior. (author)

  4. Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a well controlled method for manipulating carbon nanotubes. The first crucial process involved is to prepare a nanotube array, named a nanotube cartridge. We have discovered ac electrophoresis of nanotubes by which nanotubes are aligned at the knife-edge. The nanotubes used were multiwalled and prepared by an arc discharge with a relatively high gas temperature. The second important process is to transfer a nanotube from the nanotube cartridge onto a substrate in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using this method, we have developed nanotube tips and nanotube tweezers that operate in a scanning probe microscope (SPM). The nanotube probes have been applied for the observation of biological samples and industrial samples to clarify their advantages. The nanotube tweezers have demonstrated their motion in an SEM and have operated to carry nanomaterials in a SPM. We have also developed the electron ablation of a nanotube to adjust its length and the sharpening of a multiwall nanotube to have its inner layer with or without an end cap at the tip. For the sharpening process, the free end of a nanotube protruding from the cartridge was attached to a metal-coated Si tip and a voltage was applied to the nanotube. When a high voltage was used in the saturation current regime, the current decreased stepwise in the temporal variation, indicating the sequential destruction of individual nanotube layers. The nanotube was finally cut at the middle of the nanotube bridge, and its tip was sharpened to have an inner layer with an opened end. Moving up the cartridge before cutting enables us to extract the inner layer with an end cap. It is evidenced that the maximum current in each layer during the stepwise decrease depends on its circumference, and the force for extracting the inner layer with ∼5-nm diameter is ∼4-nN

  5. Draw out Carbon Nanotube from Liquid Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, SHUANG; Hoshi, Takeo; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is expected for much more important and broader applications in the future, because of its amazing electrical and mechanical properties. However, today, the prospect is detained by the fact that the growth of CNTs cannot be well controlled. In particular, controlling the chirality of CNTs seems formidable to any existing growth method. In addition, a systematic method for a designed interconnected network has not been established yet, which is focused particularly in nan...

  6. Detecting Lyme disease using antibody-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jennifer; Lerner, Mitchell; Goldsmith, Brett; Brisson, Dustin; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-03-01

    We combine antibodies for Lyme flagellar protein with carbon nanotube transistors to create an electronic sensor capable of definitive detection of Lyme disease. Over 35,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported in the United States each year, of which more than 23 percent are originally misdiagnosed. Rational design of the coupling of the biological system to the electronic system gives us a flexible sensor platform which we can apply to several biological systems. By coupling these antibodies to carbon nanotubes in particular, we allow for fast, sensitive, highly selective, electronic detection. Unlike antibody or biomarker detection, bacterial protein detection leads to positive identification of both early and late stage bacterial infections, and is easily expandable to environmental monitoring.

  7. A Taste Sensor Based on a Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Keisuke; Hirata, Takamichi; Akiya, Masahiro

    A taste sensor consisting of a back-gate type field effect transistor(FET) chip based on carbon nanotube compound materials[poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-grafted single-walled carbon nanotubes(PEG-SWNTs)] was developed. The results of impedance measurements for five tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and umami), are shown much difference for specific tastes which are difficult to identify by using Langmuir-Blodgett(LB)film. Moreover, the sensor is able to distinguish most of the experimental taste materials with a short response time. Characteristics of the sensor involve in taste material concentration , initial impedance and frequency characteristics. A clear difference is observed over five basic taste materials.

  8. Study of Carbon Nanotube-Substrate Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline S. Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental effects are very important in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This work reviews the importance of the substrate in single-wall carbon nanotube properties. Contact with a substrate can modify the nanotube properties, and such interactions have been broadly studied as either a negative aspect or a solution for developing carbon nanotube-based nanotechnologies. This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental studies where the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the substrate affects the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of the tubes.

  9. Designing high-speed, low-power full adder cells based on carbon nanotube technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Masoudi; Milad Mazaheri; Aliakbar Rezaei; Keivan Navi

    2014-01-01

    This article presents novel high speed and low powe r full adder cells based on carbon nanotube field e ffect transistor (CNFET). Four full adder cells are propo sed in this article. First one (named CN9P4G) and second one (CN9P8GBUFF) utilizes 13 and 17 CNFETs r espectively. Third design that we named CN10PFS uses only 10 transistors and is full swing. Finally, CN8P10G uses 18 transistors and divided i nto two modules, causing Su...

  10. CARBON NANOTUBES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, John, E.

    2009-07-24

    Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as a minority byproduct of fullerene synthesis. Remarkable progress has been made in the ensuing years, including the discovery of two basic types of nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall), great strides in synthesis and purification, elucidation of many fundamental physical properties, and important steps towards practical applications. Both the underlying science and technological potential of SWNT can profitably be studied at the scale of individual tubes and on macroscopic assemblies such as fibers. Experiments on single tubes directly reveal many of the predicted quantum confinement and mechanical properties. Semiconductor nanowires have many features in common with nanotubes, and many of the same fundamental and practical issues are in play – quantum confinement and its effect on properties; possible device structures and circuit architectures; thermal management; optimal synthesis, defect morphology and control, etc. In 2000 we began a small effort in this direction, conducted entirely by undergraduates with minimal consumables support from this grant. With DOE-BES approval, this grew into a project in parallel with the carbon nanotube work, in which we studied of inorganic semiconductor nanowire growth, characterization and novel strategies for electronic and electromechanical device fabrication. From the beginnings of research on carbon nanotubes, one of the major applications envisioned was hydrogen storage for fuel-cell powered cars and trucks. Subsequent theoretical models gave mixed results, the most pessimistic indicating that the fundamental H2-SWNT interaction was similar to flat graphite (physisorption) with only modest binding energies implying cryogenic operation at best. New material families with encouraging measured properties have emerged, and materials modeling has gained enormously in predictive power, sophistication, and the ability to treat a realistically representative number of atoms. One of

  11. Functional Materials based on Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Adrian Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, no matter if they are single-walled or multi-walled, are an integral component in the vastly growing field of nanotechnology. Since their discovery by TEM and the invention of numerous large-scale production techniques, nanotubes are close to making their way into industrial products. Although many properties and modification processes are still under intensive research, the first real-market applications for carbon nanotubes have already been presented. However, if function...

  12. Dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotube devices

    OpenAIRE

    Dimaki, Maria; BØGGILD, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane. The electrical resistance of carbon nanotubes has been shown to be extremely sensitive to gas molecules. Dielectrophoresis is a method capable of quickly attracting nanotubes on microelectrodes by using an ele...

  13. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  14. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    CERN Document Server

    Karachevtsev, V A; Zarudnev, E S; Karachevtsev, M V; Leontiev, V S; Linnik, A S; Lytvyn, O S; Plokhotnichenko, A M; Stepanian, S G

    2012-01-01

    When elaborating the biosensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), it is necessary to solve such an important problem as the immobilization of a target biomolecule on the nanotube surface. In this work, the enzyme (glucose oxidase (GOX)) was immobilized on the surface of a nanotube network, which was created by the deposition of nanotubes from their solution in 1,2-dichlorobenzene by the spray method. 1-Pyrenebutanoic acid succinimide ester (PSE) was used to form the molecular interface, the bifunctional molecule of which provides the covalent binding with the enzyme shell, and its other part (pyrene) is adsorbed onto the nanotube surface. First, the usage of such a molecular interface leaves out the direct adsorption of the enzyme (in this case, its activity decreases) onto the nanotube surface, and, second, it ensures the enzyme localization near the nanotube. The comparison of the resonance Raman (RR) spectrum of pristine nanotubes with their spectrum in the PSE environment evidences the creat...

  16. Carbon nanotubes composites for microwave applications

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Fernández, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have become a focus of study due to the great applications you can have and its excellent properties. In this thesis the compounds formed by a host and a percentage of carbon nanotubes are modelled. The models used are the Debye model, the Maxwell Garnett model and McLachlan model. These models have been implemented in ...

  17. Carbon nanotube flow sensor device and method

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Ajay Kumar; Ghosh, Shankar

    2004-01-01

    A method and device for measuring the flow of a liquid utilizes at least one carbon nanotube. More particularly, the velocity of a liquid along the direction of the flow is measured as a function of them current/voltage generated in at least one carbon nanotube due to the flow of the liquid along its surface.

  18. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mentus, S.; Ciric-Marjanovic, G.; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 24 (2009), 245601/1-245601/10. ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymers * polyaniline * carbonization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2009

  19. Light Emission in Silicon from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaufrès, Etienne; Noury, Adrien; Roux, Xavier Le; Rasigade, Gilles; Beck, Alexandre; Vivien, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The use of optics in microelectronic circuits to overcome the limitation of metallic interconnects is more and more considered as a viable solution. Among future silicon compatible materials, carbon nanotubes are promising candidates thanks to their ability to emit, modulate and detect light in the wavelength range of silicon transparency. We report the first integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon waveguides, successfully coupling their emission and absorption properties. A complete study of this coupling between carbon nanotubes and silicon waveguides was carried out, which led to the demonstration of the temperature-independent emission from carbon nanotubes in silicon at a wavelength of 1.3 {\\mu}m. This represents the first milestone in the development of photonics based on carbon nanotubes on silicon.

  20. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁志; 魏秉庆; 徐才录; 梁吉; 吴德海

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2 ·xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2· xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75% . In addition , supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  1. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2.xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2.xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75%. In addition, supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  2. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms are...... an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From...... the calculated energies we determine the elastic properties of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (Young modulus, curvature constant) and perform a comparison with available experimental measurements and earlier theoretical predictions....

  3. Growing carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Ando

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of ‘fullerenes’ added a new dimension to the knowledge of carbon science1; and the subsequent discovery of ‘carbon nanotubes’ (CNTs, the elongated fullerene added a new dimension to the knowledge of technology2;. Today, ‘nanotechnology’ is a hot topic attracting scientists, industrialists, journalists, governments, and even the general public. Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on the nanometer scale and the exploitation of novel phenomena and properties of matter (physical, chemical, biological, electrical, etc. at that length scale. CNTs are supposed to be a key component of nanotechnology. Almost every week a new potential application of CNTs is identified, stimulating scientists to peep into this tiny tube with ever increasing curiosity.

  4. Improved synthesis of carbon nanotubes with junctions and of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F L Deepak; A Govindaraj; C N R Rao

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of thiophene over nickel nanoparticles dispersed on silica is shown to yield Yjunction carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters than those obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallicthiophene mixtures. In the presence of water vapour, the pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures yields single-walled nanotubes, as well as relatively narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes with Y-junctions. Pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures, in the absence of water vapour, only gives nanotubes with T- and Y-junctions.

  5. Carbon nanotube growth density control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for combined coarse scale control and fine scale control of growth density of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a substrate, using a selected electrical field adjacent to a substrate surface for coarse scale density control (by one or more orders of magnitude) and a selected CNT growth temperature range for fine scale density control (by multiplicative factors of less than an order of magnitude) of CNT growth density. Two spaced apart regions on a substrate may have different CNT growth densities and/or may use different feed gases for CNT growth.

  6. Carbon nanotube cathode with capping carbon nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Dengchao; Pang, Kaige; Pang, Junchao; Liu, Weihua; Liu, Hongzhong; Wang, Xiaoli

    2013-10-01

    Here, we report a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) film capped with a few layer of carbon nanosheet (FLCN) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The square resistance of the VACNT film is significantly reduced from 1500 Ω/□ to 300 Ω/□ when it is capped with carbon nanosheet. The VACNT capped with carbon nanosheet was transferred to an ITO glass substrate in an inverted configuration so that the carbon nanosheet served as a flexible transparent electrode at the bottom and the VACNT roots served as emission tips. Because all of the VACNTs start growing from a flat silicon substrate, the VACNT roots are very neat and uniform in height. A field emission test of the carbon nanosheet-capped VACNT film proved that the CNT roots show better uniformity in field emission and the carbon nanosheet cap could also potentially serve as a flexible transparent electrode, which is highly desired in photo-assisted field emission.

  7. Nanotubes on Display: How Carbon Nanotubes Can Be Integrated into Electronic Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Opatkiewicz, Justin

    2010-06-22

    Random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes show promise for use in the field of flexible electronics. Nanotube networks have been difficult to utilize because of the mixture of electronic types synthesized when grown. A variety of separation techniques have been developed, but few can readily be scaled up. Despite this issue, when metallic percolation pathways can be separated out or etched away, these networks serve as high-quality thinfilm transistors with impressive device characteristics. A new article in this issue illustrates this point and the promise of these materials. With more work, these devices can be implemented in transparent displays in the next generation of hand-held electronics. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Electrostatic gating in carbon nanotube aptasensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han Yue; Alsager, Omar A; Zhu, Bicheng; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Plank, Natalie O V

    2016-07-14

    Synthetic DNA aptamer receptors could boost the prospects of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electronic biosensors if signal transduction can be understood and engineered. Here, we report CNT aptasensors for potassium ions that clearly demonstrate aptamer-induced electrostatic gating of electronic conduction. The CNT network devices were fabricated on flexible substrates via a facile solution processing route and non-covalently functionalised with potassium binding aptamers. Monotonic increases in CNT conduction were observed in response to increasing potassium ion concentration, with a level of detection as low as 10 picomolar. The signal was shown to arise from a specific aptamer-target interaction that stabilises a G-quadruplex structure, bringing high negative charge density near the CNT channel. Electrostatic gating is established via the specificity and the sign of the current response, and by observing its suppression when higher ionic strength decreases the Debye length at the CNT-water interface. Sensitivity towards potassium and selectivity against other ions is demonstrated in both resistive mode and real time transistor mode measurements. The effective device architecture presented, along with the identification of clear response signatures, should inform the development of new electronic biosensors using the growing library of aptamer receptors. PMID:27376166

  9. Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels;

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties of...... nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....

  10. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Sevilla Torres, Galo A.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2014-06-01

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective.

  11. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.

    2015-01-07

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd-=-1-V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60-mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5-V.

  12. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd = 1 V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60 mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5 V

  13. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmi Koo; Vesselin N. Shanov; Yeoheung Yun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT) array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The de...

  15. Ordered phases of cesium in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes by using a structural optimization process applied to an atomistic simulation method. As the radius of the carbon nanotubes is increased, the structures are found in various phases from an atomic strand to multishell packs composed of coaxial cylindrical shells. Both helical structures and layered structures are found. The numbers of helical atom rows composed of coaxial tubes and the orthogonal vectors of the circular rolling of a triangular network can explain the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes.

  16. Ordered phases of cesium in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung; Song, Ki Oh; Choi, Won Young; Byun, Ki Ryang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Woo [Juseong College, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    We investigate the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes by using a structural optimization process applied to an atomistic simulation method. As the radius of the carbon nanotubes is increased, the structures are found in various phases from an atomic strand to multishell packs composed of coaxial cylindrical shells. Both helical structures and layered structures are found. The numbers of helical atom rows composed of coaxial tubes and the orthogonal vectors of the circular rolling of a triangular network can explain the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes.

  17. Application of carbon nanotubes and graphene for digital and analog electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmaev, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Carbon nanomaterials, one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene, exhibit the highest electron mobility (˜100,000 cm 2/V/s at room temperature) among all conductors, and huge current carrying capacity of more than 109 A/cm2. Additionally, single-atomic thickness provides ideal electrostatic geometry for field effect devices. These properties make carbon nanomaterials to be strong candidates to replace or supplement conventional semiconductors. Theoretical and experimental studies on individual nanotubes and graphene flakes demonstrated superior performance of carbon based field-effect transistors (FETs). However, in order to realize this potential in electronic applications, scalable synthesis and assembly of carbon nanomaterials, as well as further devices design and fabrication, still remain to be a significant challenge. In this thesis, I present our developments in order to overcome some of the critical problems in practical implementation of carbon based electronics. In our approaches, we address issues starting from the scalable controllable synthesis of carbon nanomaterials and their assembly, including design of electronic devices and material methods for their fabrication, and, finally, integration of these devices into functional circuits. This broad range of issues is tightly and often inseparably inter-connected with each other, as can be seen from an example of very large scale integrated (VLSI) silicon electronics, therefore, ultimately presenting one major goal of developing carbon based electronics. The structure of the thesis is as follows. Chapter 1 gives introduction to nano-scale carbon materials, their electronic properties and problems towards realization of carbon-based electronics. Chapter 2 presents chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene. CVD synthesis methods proved to be highly promising for large scale synthesis of high quality carbon nanomaterials. The

  18. Charge Screening Effect in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K

    2001-01-01

    Charge screening effect in metallic carbon nanotubes is investigated in a model including the one-dimensional long-range Coulomb interaction. It is pointed out that an external charge which is being fixed spatially is screened by internal electrons so that the resulting object becomes electrically neutral. We found that the screening length is given by about the diameter of a nanotube.

  19. Defect-Free Carbon Nanotube Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmi, Nitzan; Kremen, Anna; Frenkel, Yiftach; Lapin, Zachary J; Machado, Leonardo D; Legoas, Sergio B; Bitton, Ora; Rechav, Katya; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Galvão, Douglas S; Jorio, Ado; Novotny, Lukas; Kalisky, Beena; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotubes are promising building blocks for various nanoelectronic components. A highly desirable geometry for such applications is a coil. However, coiled nanotube structures reported so far were inherently defective or had no free ends accessible for contacting. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous self-coiling of single-wall carbon nanotubes into defect-free coils of up to more than 70 turns with identical diameter and chirality, and free ends. We characterize the structure, formation mechanism, and electrical properties of these coils by different microscopies, molecular dynamics simulations, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical and magnetic measurements. The coils are highly conductive, as expected for defect-free carbon nanotubes, but adjacent nanotube segments in the coil are more highly coupled than in regular bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes, owing to their perfect crystal momentum matching, which enables tunneling between the turns. Although this behavior does not yet enable the performance of these nanotube coils as inductive devices, it does point a clear path for their realization. Hence, this study represents a major step toward the production of many different nanotube coil devices, including inductors, electromagnets, transformers, and dynamos. PMID:26708150

  20. Coulomb drag in multiwall armchair carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, A.M.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the transresistivity rho(21) between two concentric armchair nanotubes in a diffusive multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F). We approximate the tight-binding band structure by two crossing bands with a linear dispersion near the Fermi...... surface. The cylindrical geometry of the nanotubes and the different parities of the Bloch states are accounted for in the evaluation of the effective Coulomb interaction between charges in the concentric nanotubes. We find a broad peak in rho(21) as a function of temperature at roughly T similar to 0.4T...

  1. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with silver clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cveticanin, Jelena; Krkljes, Aleksandra; Kacarevic-Popovic, Zorica; Mitric, Miodrag; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Trpkov, Djordje; Neskovic, Olivera

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, an advanced method of one-step functionalization of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) using γ-irradiation was described. Two synthesis procedures, related with different reduction species, were employed. For the first time, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA is successfully utilized as a source to reduce silver (Ag) metal ions without having any additional reducing agents to obtain Ag nanoparticles on CNTs. The decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles takes place through anchoring of (PVA) on nanotube's surface. Optical properties of as-prepared samples and mechanism responsible for the functionalization of carbon nanotubes were investigated using UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. Decorated carbon nanotubes were visualized using microscopic techniques: transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Also, the presence of Ag on the nanotubes was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This simple and effective method of making a carbon nanotube type of composites is of interest not only for an application in various areas of technology and biology, but for investigation of the potential of radiation technology for nanoengineering of materials.

  2. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with silver clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an advanced method of one-step functionalization of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) using γ-irradiation was described. Two synthesis procedures, related with different reduction species, were employed. For the first time, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA is successfully utilized as a source to reduce silver (Ag) metal ions without having any additional reducing agents to obtain Ag nanoparticles on CNTs. The decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles takes place through anchoring of (PVA) on nanotube's surface. Optical properties of as-prepared samples and mechanism responsible for the functionalization of carbon nanotubes were investigated using UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. Decorated carbon nanotubes were visualized using microscopic techniques: transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Also, the presence of Ag on the nanotubes was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This simple and effective method of making a carbon nanotube type of composites is of interest not only for an application in various areas of technology and biology, but for investigation of the potential of radiation technology for nanoengineering of materials.

  3. Long Channel Carbon Nanotube as an Alternative to Nanoscale Silicon Channels in Scaled MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loong Peng Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long channel carbon nanotube transistor (CNT can be used to overcome the high electric field effects in nanoscale length silicon channel. When maximum electric field is reduced, the gate of a field-effect transistor (FET is able to gain control of the channel at varying drain bias. The device performance of a zigzag CNTFET with the same unit area as a nanoscale silicon metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET channel is assessed qualitatively. The drain characteristic of CNTFET and MOSFET device models as well as fabricated CNTFET device are explored over a wide range of drain and gate biases. The results obtained show that long channel nanotubes can significantly reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL effects in silicon MOSFET while sustaining the same unit area at higher current density.

  4. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L.; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J. Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Ulmert, Hans David S.; Brea, Elliott J.; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans.

  5. Carbon nanotubes – becoming clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Grobert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are now well into their teenage years. Early on, theoretical predictions and experimental data showed that CNTs possess chemical and mechanical properties that exceed those of many other materials. This has triggered intense research into CNTs. A variety of production methods for CNTs have been developed; chemical modification, functionalization, filling, and doping have been achieved; and manipulation, separation, and characterization of individual CNTs is now possible. Today, products containing CNTs range from tennis rackets and golf clubs to vehicle fenders, X-ray tubes, and Li ion batteries. Breakthroughs for CNT-based technologies are anticipated in the areas of nanoelectronics, biotechnology, and materials science. In this article, I review the current situation in CNT production and highlight the importance of clean CNT material for the success of future applications.

  6. Self Assembled Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to develop single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) based ultracapacitors for energy storage devices (ESD) application, using...

  7. Calculating Young's modulus for a carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubi, Feras; Cosby, Ronald

    2008-10-01

    Young's modulus for an armchair single-wall carbon nanotube was calculated using an atomistic approach and density functional theory (DFT). Atomic forces and total energies for strained carbon nanotube segments were computed using Atomistix's Virtual NanoLab (VNL) and ToolKit (ATK) software. For a maximum strain of one percent, elastic moduli were calculated using both force-strain and energy-strain data. The average values found for Young's modulus were in the range 1.2 to 3.9 TPa depending on the cross-sectional area taken for the carbon nanotube, consideration of Poisson's ratio, and the calculation method used. Three possible choices of cross-sectional area for the carbon nanotube are discussed and parameter and convergence tests for the DFT computations are described.

  8. Piezoresistive Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotube Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jian-wei; WANG Wan-lu; LIAO Ke-jun; WANG Yong-tian; LIU CHang-lin; Zeng Qing-gao

    2005-01-01

    Piezoresistive effect of carbon nanotube films was investigated by a three-point bending test.Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition.The experimental results showed that the carbon nanotubes have a striking piezoresistive effect.The relative resistance was changed from 0 to 10.5×10-2 and 3.25×10-2 for doped and undoped films respectively at room temperature when the microstrain under stress from 0 to 500. The gauge factors for doped and undoped carbon nanotube films under 500 microstrain were about 220 and 67 at room temperature, respectively, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃.The origin of the resistance changes in the films may be attributed to a strain-induced change in the band gap for the doped tubes and the defects for the undoped tubes.

  9. Development of a Taste Sensor Based on a Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Takagi, Keisuke; Akiya, Masahiro

    2007-04-01

    A taste sensor consisting of a back-gate type field effect transistor (FET) chip based on carbon nanotube compound materials [poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWNTs)] was developed. The results of impedance measurements for five tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and umami), are shown much difference for specific tastes which are difficult to identify by using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film. Moreover, the sensor is able to distinguish most of the experimental taste materials with a short response time (˜60 s).

  10. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  11. Electromechanical instability in suspended carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, L. M.; Gorelik, L. Y.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.

    2005-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated electromechanical properties of freely suspended carbon nanotubes when a current is injected into the tubes using a scanning tunneling microscope. We show that a shuttle-like electromechanical instability can occur if the bias voltage exceeds a dissipation-dependent threshold value. An instability results in large amplitude vibrations of the carbon nanotube bending mode, which modify the current-voltage characteristics of the system.

  12. Crosstalk analysis of carbon nanotube bundle interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kailiang; Tian, Bo; Zhu, Xiaosong; WANG, FANG; Wei, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has been considered as an ideal interconnect material for replacing copper for future nanoscale IC technology due to its outstanding current carrying capability, thermal conductivity, and mechanical robustness. In this paper, crosstalk problems for single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundle interconnects are investigated; the interconnect parameters for SWCNT bundle are calculated first, and then the equivalent circuit has been developed to perform the crosstalk analys...

  13. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  14. ALUMINUM FOIL REINFORCED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Alekseev; PREDTECHENSKIY M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In our research, the method of manufacturing an Al-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite by hot pressing and cold rolling was attempted. The addition of one percent of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by OCSiAl provides a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength of aluminum. The tensile strength of the obtained composite material is at the tensile strength level of medium-strength aluminum alloys.

  15. Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a generalization of Landauer-Buettiker theory for networks of interacting metallic carbon nanotubes. We start with symmetric starlike junctions and then extend our approach to asymmetric systems. While the symmetric case is solved in closed form, the asymmetric situation is treated by a mixture of perturbative and non-perturbative methods. For N > 2 repulsively interacting nanotubes, the only stable fixed point of the symmetric system corresponds to an isolated node. Detailed results for both symmetric and asymmetric systems are shown for N = 3, corresponding to carbon nanotube Y junctions

  16. ON THE CONTINUUM MODELING OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 黄永刚; Philippe H.Geubelle; 黄克智

    2002-01-01

    We have recently proposed a nanoscale continuum theory for carbonnanotubes. The theory links continuum analysis with atomistic modeling by incor-porating interatomic potentials and atomic structures of carbon nanotubes directlyinto the constitutive law. Here we address two main issues involved in setting upthe nanoscale continuum theory for carbon nanotubes, namely the multi-body in-teratomic potentials and the lack of centrosymmetry in the nanotube structure. Weexplain the key ideas behind these issues in establishing a nanoscale continuum theoryin terms of interatomic potentials and atomic structures.

  17. Improved synthesis of carbon nanotubes with junctions and of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, FL; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, CNR

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of thiophene over nickel nanoparticles dispersed on silica is shown to yield Y-junction carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters than those obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallic-thiophene mixtures. In the presence of water vapour, the pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures yields single-walled nanotubes, as well as relatively narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes with Y-junctions. Pyrolysis-of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures, in the absence of water vapour, only gives ...

  18. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  19. Separated Carbon Nanotube Macroelectronics for Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yue; Zhang, Jialu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Pochiang; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-02-01

    Active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display holds great potential for the next generation visual technologies due to its high light efficiency, flexibility, lightweight, and low-temperature processing. However, suitable thin-film transistors (TFTs) are required to realize the advantages of AMOLED. Pre-separated, semiconducting enriched carbon nanotubes are excellent candidates for this purpose because of their excellent mobility, high percentage of semiconducting nanotubes, and room-temperature processing compatibility. Here we report, for the first time, the demonstration of AMOLED displays driven by separated nanotube thin-film transistors (SN-TFTs) including key technology components such as large-scale high-yield fabrication of devices with superior performance, carbon nanotube film density optimization, bilayer gate dielectric for improved substrate adhesion to the deposited nanotube film, and the demonstration of monolithically integrated AMOLED display elements with 500 pixels driven by 1000 SN-TFTs. Our approach can serve as the critical foundation for future nanotube-based thin-film display electronics.

  20. All-carbon-based field effect transistors fabricated by aerosol jet printing on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An all-carbon-based field effect transistor (FET) was fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates by the aerosol jet printing method described in this paper. Three different types of homogeneous conductive inks were made and then printed layer-by-layer to form the FET chips. The conducting-reduced graphene oxide was used as electrodes (source and drain) and channel, respectively. Graphene oxide was used as dielectrics while multi-walled carbon nanotubes acted as the gate electrode. The all-carbon-based FET shows a good mobility of 350 cm2 (V s)–1 at a drain bias of −1 V. This simple and novel method explores a promising way to fabricate all-carbon-based, flexible and low-cost electronic devices. (paper)

  1. Manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomanipulation plays an important role in nanofabrication, it is also a technology necessary in exploring the secrets of nanoworld, and it thus beco mesa start point to research future nanomachine. In this study, manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes have been conducted in order to examine whether we can move a nanocomponent from one site to another by using the tip of atomic fo rce microscope (AFM). The technique may also be valuable for providing the const ructive materials of nanofabrication. While exploring the method for manipulatin g and cutting of nanotubes, some new phenomena have been observed during the process. Results show that carbon nanotubes present a feature of deformation combin ing bending and distortion when subjected to large mechanical forces exerted by the tip of AFM. In special cases, long carbon nanotubes can be cut into two part s, by which we can remove the part where crystal lattice is flawed, and therefor e a perfect nanocomponent can be obtained.

  2. Fabrication of nylon-6/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Jia, Z.; Wu, D.; Han, Q.; Meek, T.

    2006-05-01

    A new technique to fabricate nylon-6/carbon nanotube (PA6/CNT) composites is presented. The method involves a pretreatment of carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon and an improved in-situ process for mixing nanotubes with the nylon 6 matrix. A good bond between carbon nanotubes and the nylon-6 matrix is obtained. Mechanical property measurements indicate that the tensile strength of PA6/CNT composites is improved significantly while the toughness and elongation are somewhat compromised. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured tensile specimens reveals cracking initiated at the wrapping of the CNTs PA6 layer/PA6 matrix interface rather than at the PA6/CNT interface.

  3. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  4. Electrical transport in small bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes: intertube interaction and effects of tube deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Gunn; Choi, Woon Ih; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2010-01-01

    We report a combined electronic transport and structural characterization study of small carbon nanotube bundles in field-effect transistors (FET). The atomic structures of the bundles are determined by electron diffraction using an observation window built in the FET. The single-walled nanotube bundles exhibit electrical transport characteristics sensitively dependent on the structure of individual tubes, their arrangements in the bundle, deformation due to intertube interaction, and the ori...

  5. Carbon linear chains inside multiwalled nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzanelli, E.; Caputi, L.; Castriota, M.; Cupolillo, A.; Giallombardo, C.; Papagno, L.

    2007-09-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been deposited on graphite cathodes by using an arc discharge technique in He atmosphere, with the insertion of a catalytic Ni-Cr mixture as well as without catalysers. The topography of such deposition has been investigated by SEM, while a parallel micro-Raman study has revealed, in particular regions of the deposited cathodes, strong bands in the range 1780-1860 cm -1, assignable to linear carbon chains inside the nanotubes. The variation of intensity, frequency and bandwidth of such bands has been investigated, in relation with the spectral characters of the host multiwalled carbon nanotube. In the cathode deposited without catalyst a quite ordered configuration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is obtained in the central zone, while the maximum concentration of linear carbon chains is found in a ring shaped zone just inside the border. In sample obtained with catalyst the deposited multiwalled carbon nanotubes appear always more disordered, and a remarkable concentration of carbon chains appears in some zones, with a more casual distribution.

  6. Modeling of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, G.; Kumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet stringent environmental, safety and performance requirements from respective regulatory bodies, various technology-based industries are promoting the use of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced lightweight and high strength polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) as a substitute to conventional materials both in structural and non-structural applications. The superior mechanical properties of PNCs made up of CNTs or bundles of CNTs can be attributed to the interfacial interaction between the CNTs and matrix, CNT's morphologies and to their uniform dispersion in the matrix. In PNCs, CNTs physically bond with polymeric matrix at a level where the assumption of continuum level interactions is not applicable. Modeling and prediction of mechanical response and failure behavior of CNTs and their composites becomes a complex task and is dealt with the help of up-scale modeling strategies involving multiple spatial and temporal scales in hierarchical or concurrent manner. Firstly, the article offers an insight into various modeling techniques in studying the mechanical response of CNTs; namely, equivalent continuum approach, quasi-continuum approach and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In the subsequent steps, these approaches are combined with analytical and numerical micromechanics models in a multiscale framework to predict the average macroscopic response of PNCs. The review also discusses the implementation aspects of these computational approaches, their current status and associated challenges with a future outlook.

  7. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional forms of carbon are composed of sp 2-hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal, honeycomb lattice. The two-dimensional form, called graphene, is a single atomic layer of hexagonally-bonded carbon atoms. The one-dimensional form, known as a carbon nanotube, can be conceptualized as a rectangular piece of graphene wrapped into a seamless, high-aspect-ratio cylinder or tube. This dissertation addresses the physics and applied physics of these one and two-dimensional carbon allotropes in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). First, we give a theoretical background on the electrodynamics and mechanics of carbon nanotube NEMS. We then describe basic experimental techniques, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, that we then use to probe static and dynamic mechanical and electronic behavior of the carbon nanotube NEMS. For example, we observe and control non-linear beam bending and single-electron quantum tunneling effects in carbon nanotube resonators. We then describe parametric amplification, self-oscillation behavior, and dynamic, non-linear effects in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. We also report a novel approach to fabricate carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, and show that they can lead to exceptional lateral resolution enhancement in AFM when imaging both hard and soft (biological) materials. Finally, we describe novel fabrication techniques for large-area, suspended graphene membranes, and utilize these membranes as TEM-transparent, AFM-compatible, NEMS resonators. Laser-driven mechanical vibrations of the graphene resonators are detected by optical interferometry and several vibration harmonics are observed. A degeneracy splitting is observed in the vibrational modes of square-geometry resonators. We then attribute the observed degeneracy splitting to local mass inhomogeneities and membrane defects, and find good overall agreement with the developed theoretical model.

  8. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  9. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  10. Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in unzipped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the thermal transport in completely unzipped carbon nanotubes, which are called graphene nanoribbons, partially unzipped carbon nanotubes, which can be seen as carbon-nanotube-graphene-nanoribbon junctions, and carbon nanotubes by using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the thermal conductivity of a graphene nanoribbon is much less than that of its perfect carbon nanotube counterparts because of the localized phonon modes at the boundary. A partially unzipped carbon nanotube has the lowest thermal conductivity due to additional localized modes at the junction region. More strikingly, a significant thermal rectification effect is observed in both partially unzipped armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes. Our results suggest that carbon-nanotube-graphene-nanoribbon junctions can be used in thermal energy control.

  11. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  12. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  13. Two novel low-power and high-speed dynamic carbon nanotube full-adder cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshghi Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, two novel low-power and high-speed carbon nanotube full-adder cells in dynamic logic style are presented. Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs are efficient in designing a high performance circuit. To design our full-adder cells, CNFETs with three different threshold voltages (low threshold, normal threshold, and high threshold are used. First design generates SUM and COUT through separate transistors, and second design is a multi-output dynamic full adder. Proposed full adders are simulated using HSPICE based on CNFET model with 0.9 V supply voltages. Simulation result shows that the proposed designs consume less power and have low power-delay product compared to other CNFET-based full-adder cells.

  14. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    , microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis of......The use of nanomaterials in separation science has increased rapidly in the last decade. The reason for this is to take advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a very high surface-to-volume ratio and favourable sorbent behaviour. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon...... nanotubes are very interesting for integration in especially microfluidic devices, because they can readily be grown on planar substrates by means of chemical vapour deposition. In this way the cumbersome process of packing of the stationary phase in the finished microfluidic channels is avoided and the CNT...

  15. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Barna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis.

  16. Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steini Moura, Cassio [Faculty of Physics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, 90619-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Balzaretti, Naira Maria; Amaral, Livio [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P.: 15051, 91501-070, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gribel Lacerda, Rodrigo; Pimenta, Marcos A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, C.P.: 702, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

  17. Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

  18. Non-carbon nanotubes: synthesis and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of a new allotropic form of carbon, extended nanometre-sized quasi-unidimensional tubular structures (carbon nanotubes), as well as broad prospects for the use of nanomaterials based on them initiated numerous studies in the search for, and design of, nanotubular structures based in other compounds. Some properties and the main methods for the synthesis of non-carbon nanotubes are considered. Studies on the simulation of the electronic structures of these unique objects are analysed. Results of experimental and theoretical studies along these lines are discussed. The bibliography includes 328 references.

  19. Non-carbon nanotubes: synthesis and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of a new allotropic form of carbon, extended nano-sized quasi-unidimensional tubular structures (carbon nanotubes) and the broad prospects for the use of nanomaterials based on them have initiated numerous studies on the search and design of nanotubular structures of other substances. Some properties and the main methods of synthesis of non-carbon nanotubes based in particular, on boron compounds molybdenum, tungsten, niobium chalcogenides and vanadium oxides are considered. The works on the simulation of the electronic structures of these unique objects are analysed. The results of experimental and theoretical studies along these lines are discussed

  20. Immobilization of enzymes onto carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs has opened a new door in nanotechnology. With their high surface area, unique electronic, thermal and mechanical properties, CNTs have been widely used as carriers for protein immobilization. In fact, carbon nanotubes present ideal support system without diffusional limitations, and also have the possibility of surface covalent functionalization. It is usually the oxidation process that introduces carboxylic acid groups. Enzymes and other proteins could be adsorbed or covalently attached onto carbon nanotubes. Adsorption of enzyme is a very simple and inexpensive immobilization method and there are no chemical changes of the protein. It has also been found that this technique does not alter structure and unique properties of nanotubes. However, a major problem in process designing is relatively low stability of immobilized protein and desorption from the carrier. On the other hand, while covalent immobilization provides durable attachment the oxidation process can reduce mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes. It can also affect the active site of enzyme and cause the loss of enzyme activity. Bioimmobilization studies have showed that there are strong interactions between carbon nanotubes surface and protein. The retention of enzyme structure and activity is critical for their application and it is of fundamental interest to understand the nature of these interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy provide an insight into the structural changes that occur during the immobilization. The aim of this paper is to summarize progress of protein immobilization onto carbon nanotubes.

  1. Efficiently Dispersing Carbon Nanotubes in Polyphenylene Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Kevin M; Pipes, R. Byron

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plastics are replacing conventional metals in the aerospace, sporting, electronics, and other industries. Thermal plastics are able to withstand relatively high temperatures, have good fatigue properties, and are lighter than metals. Unfortunately, they are not very electrically conductive. However, adding carbon nanotubes to thermal plastics such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) can drastically increase the plastic's conductivity at a low weight percent of nanotubes called the percolat...

  2. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Vasi, S.; M. A. Monaca; Donato, M. G.; Bonaccorso, F.; Privitera, G; Trushkevych, O.; G. Calogero; Fazio, B.; Irrera, A.; M.A. Iati'; Saija, R.; Denti, P.; F. Borghese; Jones, P H; Ferrari, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fuctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double ...

  3. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  4. Localized Excitons in Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Lyudmyla; Doorn, Stephen K.; Tretiak, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    It has been historically known that unintentional defects in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may fully quench the fluorescence. However, some dopants may enhance the fluorescence by one order of magnitude thus turning the CNTs, which are excellent light absorbers, in good emitters. We have correlated the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra to the electronic structure simulations. Our experiment reveals multiple sharp asymmetric emission peaks at energies 50-300 meV red-shifted from that of the lowest bright exciton peak. Our simulations suggest an association of these peaks with deep trap states tied to different specific chemical adducts. While the wave functions of excitons in undoped CNTs are delocalized, those of the deep-trap states are strongly localized and pinned to the dopants. These findings are consistent with the experimental observation of asymmetric broadening of the deep trap emission peaks, which can result from scattering of acoustic phonons on localized excitons. Our work lays the foundation to utilize doping as a generalized route for wave function engineering and direct control of carrier dynamics in SWCNTs toward enhanced light emission properties for photonic applications.

  5. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mostofi, Arash A. [Department of Materials and Department of Physics, and the Thomas Young Centre for Theory and Simulation of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Å, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup −4} e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  6. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C.; Heimbeck, Martin S.; Everitt, Henry O.; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro

    2016-04-01

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ˜-30 dB with a low insertion loss (fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  7. Electromechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube devices on micromachined cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the electromechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by constructing carbon nanotube transistors on micro-cantilevers. SWNTs and ultra-long carbon nanotubes (UNTs) were grown on free-standing Si3N4 membranes by using chemical vapor deposition, and electrical contacts were generated with electron beam lithography and lift-off. The cantilevers bearing SWNT devices were micromachined so that hybrid cantilevers with various spring constants were fabricated. To measure the electromechanical properties of the SWNTs, precisely controlled forces were generated by a microbalance and applied to the hybrid cantilever devices. Upon bending, the conductances of the metallic and large-gap semiconducting UNTs showed no notable change, whereas the conductances of the small-gap semiconducting UNTs and networks of SWNTs increased. Numerical simulations of bended SWNT made using a multiscale simulator supported the hypothesis that the small-gap semiconducting SWNTs undergo a metallic transformation upon bending. (paper)

  8. Carbon Nanotube Areas - Printed on Textile and Paper Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hubler, Arved C.; Lothar Kroll; Holg Elsner; Nora Wetzold; Thomas Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Mass printing processes are the key technology to produce mass products to the point of one-disposable. Carbon nanotube (CNT) based structures were prepared by flexographic printing using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions in water. The carbon nanotubes were applied to a textile substrate made of polyester and polyamide microfilaments and to both-side coated paper to produce electrically conductive layers that can be used, for example, as heating elements. Carbon nanotube layers...

  9. InAs/Si Hetero-Junction Nanotube Tunnel Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2015-04-29

    Hetero-structure tunnel junctions in non-planar gate-all-around nanowire (GAA NW) tunnel FETs (TFETs) have shown significant enhancement in ‘ON’ state tunnel current over their all-silicon counterpart. Here we show the unique concept of nanotube TFET in a hetero-structure configuration that is capable of much higher drive current as opposed to that of GAA NW TFETs.Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, a single III-V hetero-structured nanotube TFET leverages physically larger tunneling area while achieving higher driver current (ION) and saving real estates by eliminating arraying requirement. Numerical simulations has shown that a 10 nm thin nanotube TFET with a 100 nm core gate has a 5×normalized output current compared to a 10 nm diameter GAA NW TFET.

  10. Chitosan-mediated synthesis of carbon nanotube-gold nanohybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRAVEL; Edmond; FOILLARD; Stéphanie; DORIS; Eric

    2010-01-01

    Metal-nanotube nanohybrids were produced by in situ synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles on chitosan-functionalized carbon nanotubes.The formation of gold nanoparticles from tetrachloroauric acid was observed after only a few minutes of contact with the functionalized nanotubes,at room temperature.These results suggest that adsorption of chitosan at the surface of carbon nanotubes permits smooth reduction of the metallic salt and efficient anchoring of gold nanoparticles to the nanotubes.

  11. Deposition of the platinum crystals on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique and the affecting factors for depositing platinum on the carbon nanotubes were investigated. The results show that the deposited platinum crystals in the atmosphere of hydrogen or nitrogen have a small size and a homogeneous distribution on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. The pretreatment would decrease the platinum particles on the carbon nanotubes significantly.

  12. Transport Properties of Carbon-Nanotube/Cement Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Yang, Z.; Shi, X.; Yu, X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper preliminarily investigates the general transport properties (i.e., water sorptivity, water permeability, and gas permeability) of carbon-nanotube/cement composites. Carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are dispersed into cement mortar to fabricate the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rei

  13. Carbon nanotube suspensions, dispersions, & composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trevor John

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are amazing structures that hold the potential to revolutionize many areas of scientific research. CNTs can be behave both as semiconductors and metals, can be grown in highly ordered arrays and patterns or in random orientation, and can be comprised of one graphene cylinder (single wall nanotube, SWNT) or several concentric graphene cylinders (multi-wall nanotube, MWNT). Although these structures are usually only a few nanometers wide, they can be grown up to centimeter lengths, and in massive quantities. CNTs can be produced in a variety of processes ranging from repeated combustion of organic material such as dried grass, arc-discharge with graphite electrodes, laser ablation of a graphitic target, to sophisticated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. CNTs are stronger than steel but lighter than aluminum, and can be more conductive than copper or semiconducting like silicon. This variety of properties has been matched by the wide variety of applications that have been developed for CNTs. Many of these applications have been limited by the inability of researchers to tame these structures, and incorporating CNTs into existing technologies can be exceedingly difficult and prohibitively expensive. It is therefore the aim of the current study to develop strategies for the solution processing and deposition of CNTs and CNT-composites, which will enable the use of CNTs in existing and emerging technologies. CNTs are not easily suspended in polar solvents and are extremely hydrophobic materials, which has limited much of the solution processing to organic solvents, which also cannot afford high quality dispersions of CNTs. The current study has developed a variety of aqueous CNT solutions that employ surfactants, water-soluble polymers, or both to create suspensions of CNTs. These CNT 'ink' solutions were deposited with a variety of techniques that have afforded many interesting structures, both randomly oriented as well as highly

  14. Network single-walled carbon nanotube biosensors for fast and highly sensitive detection of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Pingan; Zhang Jia; Wen Zhenzhong [Research Centre for Micro/Nanotechnology, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 2 YiKuang Street, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang Can, E-mail: hupa@hit.edu.cn [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-19

    Detection of proteins is powerfully assayed in the diagnosis of diseases. A strategy for the development of an ultrahigh sensitivity biosensor based on a network single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistor (FET) has been demonstrated. Metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in the network nanotube FET were selectively removed or cut via a carefully controlled procedure of electrical break-down (BD), and left non-conducting m-SWNTs which magnified the Schottky barrier (SB) area. This nanotube FET exhibited ultrahigh sensitivity and fast response to biomolecules. The lowest detection limit of 0.5 pM was achieved by exploiting streptavidin (SA) or a biotin/SA pair as the research model, and BD-treated nanotube biosensors had a 2 x 10{sup 4}-fold lower minimum detectable concentration than the device without BD treatment. The response time is in the range of 0.3-3 min.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Computer: Transforming Scientific Discoveries into Working Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Subhasish

    2014-03-01

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy- delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. However, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are subject to substantial inherent imperfections that pose major obstacles to the design of robust and very large-scale CNFET digital systems: (i) It is nearly impossible to guarantee perfect alignment and positioning of all CNTs. This limitation introduces stray conducting paths, resulting in incorrect circuit functionality. (ii) CNTs can be metallic or semiconducting depending on chirality. Metallic CNTs cause shorts resulting in excessive leakage and incorrect circuit functionality. A combination of design and processing technique overcomes these challenges by creating robust CNFET digital circuits that are immune to these inherent imperfections. This imperfection-immune design paradigm enables the first experimental demonstration of the carbon nanotube computer, and, more generally, arbitrary digital systems that can be built using CNFETs. The CNT computer is capable of performing multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we emulate 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet demonstrated. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next

  16. Geometric and electronic structure of carbon nanotube networks: 'super'-carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluci, V. R.; Galvão, D. S.; Jorio, A.

    2006-02-01

    Structures of the so-called super-carbon nanotubes are proposed. These structures are built from single walled carbon nanotubes connected by Y-like junctions forming a 'super'-sheet that is then rolled into a seamless cylinder. Such a procedure can be repeated several times, generating a fractal structure. This procedure is not limited to carbon nanotubes, and can be easily modified for application to other systems. Tight binding total energy and density of states calculations showed that the 'super'-sheets and tubes are stable and predicted to present metallic and semiconducting behaviour.

  17. Modified Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes with Nanolumps for Nanocomposite Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J. G.; Lao, J. Y.; Li, W. Z.; Ren, Z. F.; Department Of Physics Team

    2002-03-01

    The quality of the bonding between a polymer matrix and carbon nanotubes is critical in the development of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites. In this paper, we modified multiwall carbon nanotubes by growing boron carbide (a covalent bonding compound) nanolumps on carbon nanotubes to enhance load transfer from matrix to carbon nanotubes. Experimental results demonstrated that boron carbide nanolumps with the required morphology were formed on multiwall carbon nanotubes by a solid state reaction between boron and carbon nanotubes. The reaction is localized so that the integrity of the structure of carbon nanotubes is maintained. We also found that inner layers of multiwall carbon nanotubes are bonded to boron carbide nanolumps probably through covalent bonding. Therefore, these multiwall carbon nanotubes with boron carbide nanolumps are expected to be the ideal nano-scale reinforcement to improve load transfer between carbon nanotubes and the polymer matrix. For comparison, other nanolumps such as crystalline MgO, amorphous B2O3 are also grown on nanotubes.

  18. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  19. Modelling carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Petrauskas, Karolis; Razumiene, Julija

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate. PMID:23012537

  20. Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Razumiene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate.

  1. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-05-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  2. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  3. Nanocrystalline cobalt oxides for carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2007-09-01

    Thin Films of nanocrystalline cobalt oxide were formed by sol-gel method. Structure, optical properties and surface properties of these films were investigated by numerous characterization techniques. These films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates below 500°C. . Micropatterns of cobalt oxide thin films were also fabricated on glass and silicon substrates by employing a lift-off method. Crystal size of these nanocrystalline cobalt films could be successfully controllable by varying the amount of cobalt precursors and number of layers. These films were used as the seeding layers for carbon nanotube growth in a CVD process By changing the concentration of monomer precursors in the solgel coating solutions, different size nanoclusters hence different size carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in CVD process. This method can be used for controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for many different applications. In this paper, detail of these experimental results will be presented.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Bolometer for Absolute FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Solomon; Neira, Jorge; Tomlin, Nathan; Lehman, John

    We have developed and calibrated planar electrical-substitution bolometers which employ absorbers made from vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The nearly complete absorption of light by the carbon nanotubes from the visible range to the far-infrared can be exploited to enable a device with read-out in native units equivalent to optical power. Operated at cryogenic temperatures near 4 K, these infrared detectors are designed to have time constant near 10 ms and a noise floor of about 10 pW. Built upon a micro-machined silicon platform, each device has an integrated heater and thermometer, either a carbon nanotube thermistor or superconducting transition edge sensor, for temperature control. We are optimizing temperature-controlled measurement techniques to enable high resolution spectral calibrations using these devices with a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  5. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis Through Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Pablo; Garcia, Rafael; Montes, Jorge; Melendrez, Rodrigo; Barboza, Marcelino; Contreras, Oscar

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes show a great potential of applications since there discovery by Iijima in 1991[1] due to their numerous physical-chemical properties such as their high weight to strength relationship, which make them ideal to use in high resistance compound materials, and in many other applications[2] In this work, a novel method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes is presented, starting from an ultra-thin sheet of graphite synthesized by the chemical vapor decomposition technique (CVD), using ultra high purity methane and hydrogen at 1200°C in a horizontal quartz reactor. For the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, the graphite sheets were exposed to different doses of radiation, with the objective of breaking the graphite bonds and form carbon nanotubes; a Gammacell equipment model 220 Excel was used for the purpose, which counts with a radiation source of cobalt 60, and a current radiation rate of 0.9 Gy/seconds. The time of exposure to radiation was varied in each sample, according to the desired dose of radiation in each case, afterwards the samples were characterized using the Raman spectroscopy and TEM microscopy techniques with the objective of observing the kind of nanotubes formed, their morphology and their number of defects. Results will be shown during the poster session.

  6. Investigating the effect of carbon nanotube diameter and wall number in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Grace; LePing Yu; Christopher Gibson; Daniel Tune; Huda Alturaif; Zeid Al Othman; Joseph Shapter

    2016-01-01

    Suspensions of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were generated in the same solvent at similar concentrations. Films were fabricated from these suspensions and used in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells and their properties were compared with reference to the number of walls in the nanotube samples. It was found that single-walled nanotubes generally produced more favorable results; however, the double and multi-walled nanotube films used in...

  7. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars R.; Pyrz, Ryszard

    2004-06-01

    The tensile modulus of individual nanotubes and nanotube-polypropylene composites has been determined using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes showed that their tensile modulus was dependent on the tube structure and the diameter if the diameter was below 1,6 nm. The tensile modulus was determined for an infinite single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an amorphous polypropylene matrix and for a finite and capped single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a polypropylene matrix. For the infinite nanotube-polypropylene system the modulus was found to correspond to the one given by the Voigt approximation. For the finite nanotube-polypropylene system the reinforcing effect of the nanotube was not very pronounced. A pull out simulation showed that the length of the nanotube in the simulation was much smaller than the critical length and hence no load transfer between the nanotube and the matrix existed.

  8. Thermal Conductance for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang; Jian WANG; Guo, Hong

    2002-01-01

    We report a theoretical analysis of the phonon thermal conductance, \\kappa (T), for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCN). In a range of low temperatues up to 100K, \\kappa (T) of perfect SWCN is found to increase with temperature, approximately, in a parabolic fashion. This is qualitatively consistent with recent experimental measurements where the tube-tube interactions are negligibly weak. When the carbon-carbon bond length is slightly varied, \\kappa (T) is found to be qualitatively unaltered...

  9. Stable doping of carbon nanotubes via molecular self assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.; Chen, Y.; Podzorov, V., E-mail: podzorov@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Materials and Devices for Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Cook, A.; Zakhidov, A. [Department of Physics and NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    We report a novel method for stable doping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) based on methods of molecular self assembly. A conformal growth of a self-assembled monolayer of fluoroalkyl trichloro-silane (FTS) at CNT surfaces results in a strong increase of the sheet conductivity of CNT electrodes by 60–300%, depending on the CNT chirality and composition. The charge carrier mobility of undoped partially aligned CNT films was independently estimated in a field-effect transistor geometry (~100 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹). The hole density induced by the FTS monolayer in CNT sheets is estimated to be ~1.8 ×10¹⁴cm⁻². We also show that FTS doping of CNT anodes greatly improves the performance of organic solar cells. This large and stable doping effect, easily achieved in large-area samples, makes this approach very attractive for applications of CNTs in transparent and flexible electronics.

  10. Electronic transport properties of carbon nanotube metal-semiconductor-metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khoeini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available  In this work, we study electronic transport properties of a quasi-one dimensional pure semi-conducting Zigzag Carbon Nanotube (CNT attached to semi-infinite clean metallic Zigzag CNT leads, taking into account the influence of topological defect in junctions. This structure may behave like a field effect transistor. The calculations are based on the tight-binding model and Green’s function method, in which the local density of states(LDOS in the metallic section to semi-conducting section, and muli-channel conductance of the system are calculated in the coherent and linear response regime, numerically. Also we have introduced a circuit model for the system and investigated its current. The theoretical results obtained, can be a base, for developments in designing nano-electronic devices.

  11. Upgrading non-oxidized carbon nanotubes by thermally decomposed hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng, E-mail: wangpc@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liao, Yu-Chun [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Liu, Li-Hung [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yu-Ling; Lin, Ying-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yao-Jane [Graduate Program for Science and Technology of Synchrotron Light Source, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-01

    We found that the electrical properties of conductive thin films based on non-oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could be further improved when the CNTs consecutively underwent a mild hydrazine adsorption treatment and then a sufficiently effective thermal desorption treatment. We also found that, after several rounds of vapor-phase hydrazine treatments and baking treatments were applied to an inferior single-CNT field-effect transistor device, the device showed improvement in I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio and reduction in the extent of gate-sweeping hysteresis. Our experimental results indicate that, even though hydrazine is a well-known reducing agent, the characteristics of our hydrazine-exposed CNT samples subject to certain treatment conditions could become more graphenic than graphanic, suggesting that the improvement in the electrical and electronic properties of CNT samples could be related to the transient bonding and chemical scavenging of thermally decomposed hydrazine on the surface of CNTs.

  12. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L.; Cola, Baratunde A.

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna—a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current—was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ˜2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (˜10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation.

  13. Carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The latest progress of using carbon nanotubes(CNTs) for in vivo cancer nanotechnology is reviewed.CNTs can be functionalized by either covalent or non-covalent chemistry to produce functional bioconjugates for many in vivo applications.In vivo behaviors and toxicology studies of CNTs are summarized,suggesting no significant toxicity of well functionalized CNTs to the treated mice.Owing to their unique chemical and physical properties,CNTs,especially single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs),have been widely used for various modalities of in vivo cancer treatment and imaging.Future development of CNT-based nanomedicine may bring novel opportunities to cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Magnetoresistance of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Lei-Mei; GAO Wei; CAO Shi-Xun; ZHANG Jin-Cang

    2008-01-01

    We measure zero-field resistivity and magnetoresistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube yarns (CNTYs). The CNTYs are drawn from superaligned multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays synthesized by the low-pressure chemical vapour deposition method. The zero-field resistivity shows a logarithmic decrease from 2 K to 300 K. In the presence of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the yarn axis, a pronounced negative magnetoresistance is observed. A magnetoresistance ratio of 22% is obtained. These behaviours can be explained by the weak localization effect.

  15. A carbon nanotube-based sensing element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHOU Zhao-ying; WU Ying; ZHANG Jin; ZHANG Ying-ying

    2007-01-01

    A carbon nanotube-based(CNT) sensing element is presented, which consists of substrate, insulating layer, electrodes,carbon nanotube and measuring circuit. The sensing components are a single or array of CNTs, which are located on the two electrodes. The CNT-based sensing element is fabricated by CVD (chemical vapor deposition)-direct-growth on microelectrodes. The sensing model and measurement method of electromechanical property are also presented. Finally, the voltage-current characteristics are measured, which show that the CNT-based sensing element has good electrical properties.

  16. Piezoresistive effect in carbon nanotube films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The piezoresistive effect of the pristine carbon nanotube (CNT) films has been studied. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The piezoresistive effect in the pristine CNT films was studied by a three-point bending test. The gauge factor for the pristine CNT films under 500 microstrains was found to be at least 65 at room temperature, and increased with temperature, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃. The origin of the piezoresistivity in CNT films may be ascribed to a pressure-induced change in the band gap and the defects.

  17. Radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes subjected to axial pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xiao-Wen; Ni, Qing-Qing; Shi, Jin-Xing; Natsuki, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) subjected to axial pressure is presented based on an elastic continuum model. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are described as an individual elastic shell and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered to be two shells coupled through the van der Waals force. The effects of axial pressure, wave numbers and nanotube diameter on the RBM frequency are investigated in detail. Th...

  18. Heat conduction analysis of randomly dispersed singlewalled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis studies the effective thermal conductivity of randomly oriented, percolated carbon nanotubes. To that end, a multiscale analysis approach was adopted. At the nanoscale, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to determine the thermal conductivity coefficient of a single carbon nanotube. Then, thermal conductivity of two carbon nanotubes positioned at different angles were studied after determining the equilibrium positions of the two nanotubes at various relative positions. F...

  19. Carbon nanotubes as tips for atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立秋; 徐宗伟; 赵铁强; 赵清亮; 张飞虎; 董申

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary AFM probes' characters prevent the AFM' s application in various scopes. Carbon nanotubes represent ideal AFM probe materials for their higher aspect ratio, larger Young' s modulus, unique chemical structure, and well-defined electronic property. Carbon nanotube AFM probes are obtained by using a new method of attaching carbon nanotubes to the end of ordinary AFM probes, and are then used for doing AFM experiments. These experiments indicated that carbon nanotube probes have higher elastic deformation, higher resolution and higher durability. And it was also found that carbon nanotube probes can accurately reflect the morphology of deep narrow gaps, while ordinary probes can not reflect.

  20. Intrinsic graphene field effect transistor on amorphous carbon films

    OpenAIRE

    Tinchev, Savcho

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of graphene field effect transistor is described which uses an intrinsic graphene on the surface of as deposited hydrogenated amorphous carbon films. Ambipolar characteristic has been demonstrated typical for graphene devices, which changes to unipolar characteristic if the surface graphene was etched in oxygen plasma. Because amorphous carbon films can be growth easily, with unlimited dimensions and no transfer of graphene is necessary, this can open new perspective for graphene ...

  1. Computational Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomechanics of individual carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes and their application as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites has been reviewed with interplay of theoretical modeling, computer simulations and experimental observations. The emphasis in this work is on elucidating the multi-length scales of the problems involved, and of different simulation techniques that are needed to address specific characteristics of individual nanotubes and nanotube polymer-matrix interfaces. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are shown to be sufficient to describe the generic behavior such as strength and stiffness modulus but are inadequate to describe elastic limit and nature of plastic buckling at large strength. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations are shown to bring out explicit atomic nature dependent behavior of these nanoscale materials objects that are not accessible either via continuum mechanics based descriptions or through classical molecular dynamics based simulations. As examples, we discus local plastic collapse of carbon nanotubes under axial compression and anisotropic plastic buckling of boron-nitride nanotubes. Dependence of the yield strain on the strain rate is addressed through temperature dependent simulations, a transition-state-theory based model of the strain as a function of strain rate and simulation temperature is presented, and in all cases extensive comparisons are made with experimental observations. Mechanical properties of nanotube-polymer composite materials are simulated with diverse nanotube-polymer interface structures (with van der Waals interaction). The atomistic mechanisms of the interface toughening for optimal load transfer through recycling, high-thermal expansion and diffusion coefficient composite formation above glass transition temperature, and enhancement of Young's modulus on addition of nanotubes to polymer are discussed and compared with experimental observations.

  2. Single-walled carbon nanotube networks for flexible and printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be processed from solution and have excellent mechanical properties. They are highly flexible and stretchable. Depending on the type of nanotubes (semiconducting or metallic) they can be used as replacements for metal or transparent conductive oxide electrodes or as semiconducting layers for field-effect transistors (FETs) with high carrier mobilities. They are thus competitive alternatives to other solution-processable materials for flexible and printed electronics. This review introduces the basic properties of SWNTs, current methods for dispersion and separation of metallic and semiconducting SWNTs and techniques to deposit and pattern dense networks from dispersion. Recent examples of applications of carbon nanotubes as conductors and semiconductors in (opto-)electronic devices and integrated circuits will be discussed. (paper)

  3. Charge-induced actuation in carbon nanotubes and resistance changes in carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel-Oakley, Jennifer Ann

    In 1999 it was demonstrated that macroscopic films comprised of single wall carbon nanotubes exhibited dimensional changes with charge injection onto the films. A fundamental mechanism was proposed for this effect related to the dimensional changes observed in graphite intercalation complexes upon charge transfer doping with the intercalant species. The major fraction of this thesis concerns experiments at the single nanotube level designed to test the validity of this mechanism. The metals compatible with our fabrication processes inevitably p-dope the nanotubes resulting in smaller dimensional changes. Additionally, there are contact barriers that prevent the injection of electrons onto the nanotubes. Although the proposed mechanism may still be responsible for the results seen in the nanotube films, the effect is too small to be consistently measured in individual nanotubes. The conductivity of a carbon nanotube can be varied by exposure to various chemicals having utility in chemical sensing applications. We use thin films of carbon nanotubes to exploit this effect. The films are made sensitive to hydrogen by association with palladium metal. Such sensors operate at room temperature with very low power dissipation of ˜0.25 mV.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of today’s carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Porifera’s carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations for carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Thomas; Lähde, Timo A.

    2016-04-01

    We show how lattice quantum Monte Carlo can be applied to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes in the presence of strong electron-electron correlations. We employ the path-integral formalism and use methods developed within the lattice QCD community for our numerical work. Our lattice Hamiltonian is closely related to the hexagonal Hubbard model augmented by a long-range electron-electron interaction. We apply our method to the single-quasiparticle spectrum of the (3,3) armchair nanotube configuration, and consider the effects of strong electron-electron correlations. Our approach is equally applicable to other nanotubes, as well as to other carbon nanostructures. We benchmark our Monte Carlo calculations against the two- and four-site Hubbard models, where a direct numerical solution is feasible.

  6. Synthesis and Integration of Nanostructured Carbon: Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposites and Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulotty, Richard Stephen

    Nanostructured carbon, in the form of tubes or sheets, exhibits exceptional thermal and electrical properties. Graphene, a single atomic sheet of hexagonal sp2 bonded carbon, posesses a thermal conductivity higher than diamond, with an extremely high electron mobility. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), which are tubes composed of one or more graphene sheets, also posess high thermal conductivity and electron mobility. One of the major problems facing the application of nanomaterials is integration into already existing material systems. A second challenge is controlled synthesis of nanomaterials. In this dissertation research novel methods were investigated for coupling carbon nanotubes to polymer matrices, as well as new approaches for controlling the synthesis of graphene and reduced graphene oxide like carbon (R-GOC) on copper (Cu) foils via chemical vapor deposition. It was determined that carboxylic functionalization of carbon nanotubes was effective in improving the coupling of CNTs to polymer matrices, affecting the thermal transport of the resulting CNT-polymer nanocomposites. From the CVD studies it was established that the cooling phase gases flowed after deposition influence the growth mechanics of graphene on Cu foil. Further CVD studies showed that methane may be decomposed directly onto quartz to form reduced graphene oxide like carbon thin films. The obtained thermal characterization results are important for development of CNTs as fillers for composite pastes with high thermal conductivity, and the results of the CVD studies are important for developing further understanding of growth mechanics of bilayer graphene and other nanostructured carbon. In addition to the fundamental study of CVD synthesis of graphene and R-GOC, this dissertation work includes engineering of graphene and R-GOC to various applications, including the development of the thinnest flexible transistor with active materials made from all-2D materials, as well as large-scale electron

  7. Structure Stability of Ⅰ-Type Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丹; 袁喆; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with junctions may play an important role in future ‘nanoelectronics' and future ‘nano devices'.In particular, junctions constructed with metal and semiconducting nanotubes have potential applications. Basedon the orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics method, we present our study of the structure stability ofI-type carbon nanotube junctions.

  8. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L J; Ulmert, Hans David S; Brea, Elliott J; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans. PMID:27468684

  9. Schottky barriers at metal-finite semiconducting carbon nanotube interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yongqiang; Mark A. Ratner

    2003-01-01

    Electronic properties of metal-finite semiconducting carbon nanotube interfaces are studied as a function of the nanotube length using a self-consistent tight-binding theory. We find that the shape of the potential barrier depends on the long-range tail of the charge transfer, leading to an injection barrier thickness comparable to half of the nanotube length until the nanotube reaches the bulk limit. The conductance of the nanotube junction shows a transition from tunneling to thermally-acti...

  10. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  11. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Baun, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review...

  12. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  13. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  14. Reactions over catalysts confined in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiulian; Bao, Xinhe

    2008-12-21

    We review a new concept for modifying the redox properties of transition metals via confinement within the channels of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and thus tuning their catalytic performance. Attention is also devoted to novel techniques for homogeneous dispersion of metal nanoparticles inside CNTs since these are essential for optimization of the catalytic activity. PMID:19048128

  15. Scalable dielectrophoresis of single walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William A.

    Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) have attracted much attention as a candidate material for future nano-scale 'beyond silicon' devices. However industrial scale operations have been impeded by difficulties in separating the metallic and semiconducting species. This paper addresses the use of highly inhomogeneous alternating electric fields, dielectrophoresis, to isolate SWNT species in scaled systems. Both numerical and experimental methods will be discussed.

  16. A new mechanism for carbon nanotube evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Key discoveries on the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes(CNTs) have recently been achieved by CAS researcher ZHU Zhenping and his research group at the State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion,the Institute of Coal Chemistry of CAS, funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the CAS Bairen Program.

  17. Electrochemical Metal Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dunsch, L.; Janda, Pavel; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Shinohara, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 427-435. ISSN 1344-9931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * electrodeposition * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.800, year: 2001

  18. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  19. Chiral Anomaly in Toroidal Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K.

    2001-01-01

    It is pointed out that the chiral anomaly in 1+1 dimensions should be observed in toroidal carbon nanotubes on a planar geometry with varying magnetic field. We show that the chiral anomaly is closely connected with the persistent current in a one-dimensional metallic ring.

  20. Heat Transport in Liquid Polyester Resin with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales-Pinzón, C.; Quiñones-Weiss, G.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Medina-Esquivel, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent one of the most important materials in nanoscience and nanotechnology, due to their outstanding structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. It has been shown that when incorporated in a polymeric matrix, carbon nanotubes can improve its physical properties. In this work, thermal-diffusivity measurements of composite materials, prepared by mixing carbon nanotubes in liquid polyester resin, were performed by means of the thermal-wave resonant cavity. The results show an increase of the thermal diffusivity when the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes grows. It is also shown that this increase depends strongly on the diameter of the nanotubes.

  1. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14C-labeled MWCNTs into 14CO2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14CO2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  2. Carbon nanotubes for stem cell control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Stout

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, two major advancements have transformed the world of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine—stem cells and carbon nano-dimensional materials. In the past, stem cell therapy seemed like it may present a cure for all medical ailments, but problems arose (i.e., immune system clearance, control of differentiation in the body, etc. that have hindered progress. But, with the synergy of carbon nano-dimensional materials, researchers have been able to overcome these tissue engineering and regenerative medicine obstacles and have begun developing treatments for strokes, bone failure, cardiovascular disease, and many other conditions. Here, we briefly review research involving carbon nanotubes which are relevant to the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine field with a special emphasis on carbon nanotube applications for stem cell delivery, drug delivery applications, and their use as improved medical devices.

  3. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bin; WEI Jinquan; CI Lijie; WU Dehai

    2004-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared using the floating chemical vapor deposition with methane as carbon source and adding small amount of sulfur into the ferrocene catalyst. The optimized technological parameters are: the reaction temperature is 1200℃; the catalyst vapor temperature is 80℃; the flow rate of argon is 2000 SCCM; the flow rate of methane is 5 SCCM. The purified DWNTs under these optimized technological parameters have high purity above 90 wt%.

  4. Electrical transport measurements of individual bismuth nanowires and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Wan Young

    have also studied electric transport measurements of carbon nanotubes grown in AAO templates. These vertically grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for field emission device. In addition, ultra-density vertical CNT transistor arrays have also been proposed based on these nanotube structures. To realize these interesting electronic applications, a detailed understanding of the electronic transport properties of the nanotubes is needed. In particular, nanotubes grown in the AAO templates are known to possess significant amount of structural disorder. It is thus important to elucidate the effect of disorder on the electronic properties of these nanotubes. Electrical transport measurements of individual carbon nanotubes are studied, The four-terminal resistance at room temperature scales linearly with the nanotube length indicating diffusive nature of transport. The conductance shows an exp[(-1/T)1/3] dependence on temperature T, suggesting that two-dimensional variable-range hopping is the dominant conduction mechanism. The maximum current density carried by these nanotubes is on the order of 106 A/cm 2.

  5. Excitation transfer and luminescence in porphyrin-carbon nanotube complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Magadur, G; Alain-Rizzo, V; Voisin, C; Roussignol, Ph; Deleporte, E; Delaire, J A

    2007-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with hydrosoluble porphyrins (TPPS) is achieved by "$\\pi$-stacking". The porphyrin/nanotube interaction is studied by means of optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies. The main absorption line of the porphyrins adsorbed on nanotubes exhibits a 120 meV red shift, which we ascribe to a flattening of the molecule in order to optimize $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions. The porphyrin-nanotube complex shows a strong quenching of the TPPS emission while the photoluminescence intensity of the nanotubes is enhanced when the excitation laser is in resonance with the porphyrin absorption band. This reveals an efficient excitation transfer from the TPPS to the carbon nanotube.

  6. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-02-01

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors.

  7. The investigation of the diameter dimension effect on the Si nano-tube transistors

    OpenAIRE

    M.-H. Liao; C.-H. Yeh; C.-C. Lee; C.-P. Wang

    2016-01-01

    The vertical gate-all-around (V-GAA) Si nano-tube (NT) devices with different diameter dimensions are studied in this work with the promising device performance. The V-GAA structure makes the transistor easy to be scaled down continuously to meet the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) scaling requirements of the 7/10 nm technology node and beyond. The Si NT device with the hollow structure is demonstrated to have the capability to “deplete” and “screen-out” the out-of gate control...

  8. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li+/Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient dLi decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  9. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Hybrids in Polymer Dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Liao, Kang-Shyang; Früchtl, Daniel; Tian, Ying; Gilchrist, Aisling, , T; Alley, Nigel; Andreoli, Enrico; Aitchison, Brad; Nasibulin, Albert; Byrne, Hugh; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Zhang, Long; Blau, Werner; Curran, Seamus

    2012-01-01

    A series of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized with selected organic chromophores, fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate (FITC), rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) and fullerene (C60) were synthesized by covalently linking these electron-donor groups to the metallic nanotubes. These versatile carbon nanotube composites show remarkable nonlinear optical (NLO) performance, due to a merged effect of the complementary NLO characteristics of the moiet...

  10. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    B. Arash; Wang, Q.(The University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA); Varadan, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the compos...

  11. Enhancement of carbon nanotube photoluminescence by photonic crystal nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Watahiki, R.; Shimada, T; Zhao, P; Chiashi, S.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are used to enhance photoluminescence from single-walled carbon nanotubes. Micelle-encapsulated nanotubes are deposited on nanocavities within Si photonic crystal slabs and confocal microscopy is used to characterize the devices. Photoluminescence spectra and images reveal nanotube emission coupled to nanocavity modes. The cavity modes can be tuned throughout the emission wavelengths of carbon nanotubes, demonstrating the ability to enhance photoluminescence from...

  12. Enhancement of carbon nanotube photoluminescence by photonic crystal nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Watahiki, R.; Shimada, T; Zhao, P; Chiashi, S.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are used to enhance photoluminescence from single-walled carbon nanotubes. Micelle-encapsulated nanotubes are deposited on nanocavities within Si photonic crystal slabs and confocal microscopy is used to characterize the devices.Photoluminescencespectra and images reveal nanotube emission coupled to nanocavity modes. The cavity modes can be tuned throughout the emission wavelengths of carbon nanotubes, demonstrating the ability to enhance photoluminescence from a...

  13. Nicotine adsorption on single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Eduardo C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Fagan, Solange B.; Zanella, Ivana [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano - UNIFRA, 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Filho, Antonio G. Souza, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This work reports a theoretical study of nicotine molecules interacting with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through ab initio calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Different adsorption sites for nicotine on the surface of pristine and defective (8,0) SWCNTs were analyzed and the total energy curves, as a function of molecular position relative to the SWCNT surface, were evaluated. The nicotine adsorption process is found to be energetically favorable and the molecule-nanotube interaction is intermediated by the tri-coordinated nitrogen atom from the nicotine. It is also predicted the possibility of a chemical bonding between nicotine and SWCNT through the di-coordinated nitrogen.

  14. Are Nanotube Architectures More Advantageous Than Nanowire Architectures For Field Effect Transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-06-27

    Decade long research in 1D nanowire field effect transistors (FET) shows although it has ultra-low off-state leakage current and a single device uses a very small area, its drive current generation per device is extremely low. Thus it requires arrays of nanowires to be integrated together to achieve appreciable amount of current necessary for high performance computation causing an area penalty and compromised functionality. Here we show that a FET with a nanotube architecture and core-shell gate stacks is capable of achieving the desirable leakage characteristics of the nanowire FET while generating a much larger drive current with area efficiency. The core-shell gate stacks of silicon nanotube FETs tighten the electrostatic control and enable volume inversion mode operation leading to improved short channel behavior and enhanced performance. Our comparative study is based on semi-classical transport models with quantum confinement effects which offers new opportunity for future generation high performance computation.

  15. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R C Vivekchand; A Govindaraj

    2003-10-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized singlewalled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Analytical modeling of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Pourasl, Ali H; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmani, Meisam; Chin, Huei Chaeng; Lim, Cheng Siong; Ismail, Razali; Tan, Michael Loong Peng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes have received widespread attention as promising carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. Due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and electrical properties, namely a high surface-to-volume ratio, their enhanced electron transfer properties, and their high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes can be used effectively as electrochemical sensors. The integration of carbon nanotubes with a functional group provides a good and solid support for the immobilization...

  17. Dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotube devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria

    The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane. The elect...... and semiconducting. Raman spectra taken from samples assembled at different frequencies directly contradicted theoretical predictions as well as previously published experimental results.......The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane...... nanotubes dispersed in a number of different liquids. As a result of these test experiments a cantilever probe was designed specifically for the dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes and a prototype was fabricated in the MIC (now Danchip) cleanroom. The prototype is not yet fully operational...

  18. Wafer-scale monodomain films of spontaneously aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaowei; Gao, Weilu; Xie, Lijuan; Li, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Lei, Sidong; Robinson, John M.; Hároz, Erik H.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Wang, Weipeng; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Adams, W. Wade; Hauge, Robert H.; Kono, Junichiro

    2016-07-01

    The one-dimensional character of electrons, phonons and excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes leads to extremely anisotropic electronic, thermal and optical properties. However, despite significant efforts to develop ways to produce large-scale architectures of aligned nanotubes, macroscopic manifestations of such properties remain limited. Here, we show that large (>cm2) monodomain films of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes can be prepared using slow vacuum filtration. The produced films are globally aligned within ±1.5° (a nematic order parameter of ∼1) and are highly packed, containing 1 × 106 nanotubes in a cross-sectional area of 1 μm2. The method works for nanotubes synthesized by various methods, and film thickness is controllable from a few nanometres to ∼100 nm. We use the approach to create ideal polarizers in the terahertz frequency range and, by combining the method with recently developed sorting techniques, highly aligned and chirality-enriched nanotube thin-film devices. Semiconductor-enriched devices exhibit polarized light emission and polarization-dependent photocurrent, as well as anisotropic conductivities and transistor action with high on/off ratios.

  19. Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Semipermeable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakajin, O

    2006-02-13

    The goal of this project is to measure transport through CNTs and study effects of confinement at molecular scale. This work is motivated by several simulation papers in high profile journals that predict significantly higher transport rates of gases and liquids through carbon nanotubes as compared with similarly-sized nanomaterials (e.g. zeolites). The predictions are based on the effects of confinement, atomically smooth pore walls and high pore density. Our work will provide the first measurements that would compare to and hopefully validate the simulations. Gas flux is predicted to be >1000X greater for SWNTs versus zeolitesi. A high flux of 6-30 H2O/NT/ns {approx} 8-40 L/min for a 1cm{sup 2} membrane is also predicted. Neutron diffraction measurements indicate existence of a 1D water chain within a cylindrical ice sheet inside carbon nanotubes, which is consistent with the predictions of the simulation. The enabling experimental platform that we are developing is a semipermeable membrane made out of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with gaps between nanotubes filled so that the transport occurs through the nanotubes. The major challenges of this project included: (1) Growth of CNTs in the suitable vertically aligned configuration, especially the single wall carbon nanotubes; (2) Development of a process for void-free filling gaps between CNTs; and (3) Design of the experiments that will probe the small amounts of analyte that go through. Knowledge of the behavior of water upon nanometer-scale confinement is key to understanding many biological processes. For example, the protein folding process is believed to involve water confined in a hydrophobic environment. In transmembrane proteins such as aquaporins, water transport occurs under similar conditions. And in fields as far removed as oil recovery and catalysis, an understanding of the nanoscale molecular transport occurring within the nanomaterials used (e.g. zeolites) is the key to process optimization

  20. Mechanical properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) used to reinforce polymer matrix composites are functionalized to form covalent bonds with the polymer in order to enhance the CNT/polymer interfaces. These bonds destroy the perfect atomic structures of a CNT and degrade its mechanical properties. We use atomistic simulations to study the effect of hydrogenization on the mechanical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The elastic modulus of CNTs gradually decreases with the increasing functionalization (percentage of C-H bonds). However, both the strength and ductility drop sharply at a small percentage of functionalization, reflecting their sensitivity to C-H bonds. The cluster C-H bonds forming two rings leads to a significant reduction in the strength and ductility. The effect of carbonization has essentially the same effect as hydrogenization

  1. On the Nanoindentation of the Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre P. Teodorescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new inverse approach is proposed in this paper, which combines elements of nonlocal theory and molecular mechanics, based on the experimental results available in the nanoindentation literature. The effect of the inlayer van der Waals atomistic interactions for carbon nanotubes with multiple walls (MWCNT is included by means of the Brenner-Tersoff potential and experimental results. The neighboring walls of MWCNT are coupled through van der Waals interactions, and the shell buckling would initiate in the outermost shell, when nanotubes are short. The nanoindentation technique is simulated for the axially compressed of individual nanotubes, in order to evaluate the load-unloaded-displacement, the curve critical buckling and the appropriate values for local Lamé constants.

  2. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  3. Electrical characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliocchi, Marco; Brunetti, Francesca; Di Carlo, Aldo; Lugli, Paolo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia

    2003-04-01

    Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) based nanotechnology appears to be promising for future nanoelectronics. The SWCNT may be either metallic or semiconducting and both metallic and semiconducting types of SWCNTs have been observed experimentally. This gives rise to intriguing possibilities to put together semiconductor-semiconductor and semiconductor-metal junctions for diodes and transistors. The potential for nanotubes in nanoelectronics devices, displays and nanosensors is enormous. However, in order to realize the potential of SWCNTs, it is critical to understand the properties of charge transport and to control phase purity, elicity and arrangement according to specific architectures. We have investigated the electrical properties of various SWCNTs samples whit different organization: bundles of SWCNTs, SWCNT fibres and different membranes and tablets obtained using SWCNTs purified and characterized. Electrical characterizations were carried out by a 4155B Agilent Semiconductor Parameter Analyser. In order to give a mechanical stability to SWCNTs fibres and bundles we have used a nafion matrix coating, so an electrical characterization has been performed on samples with and without this layer. I-V measurements were performed in vacuum and in air using aluminium interdigitated coplanar-electrodes (width=20mm or 40mm) on glass substrates. The behaviour observed is generally supralinear with currents of the order of mA in vacuum and lower values in air with the exception of the tablet samples where the behaviour is ohmic, the currents are higher and similar values of current are detected in air and vacuum.

  4. Ag-catalysed cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, A.; Rance, G. A.; Miners, S. A.; Herreros Lucas, C.; Smith, E. F.; Fay, M. W.; Zoberbier, T.; Giménez-López, M. C.; Kaiser, U.; Brown, P. D.; Khlobystov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the cutting of carbon nanotubes is investigated using silver nanoparticles deposited on arc discharge multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The composite is subsequently heated in air to fabricate shortened multi-walled nanotubes. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques shed light on the cutting mechanism. The nanotube cutting is catalysed by the fundamental mechanism based on the coordination of the silver atoms to the π-bonds of carbon nanotubes. As a result of the metal coordination, the strength of the carbon-carbon bond is reduced, promoting the oxidation of carbon at lower temperature when heated in air, or lowering the activation energy required for the removal of carbon atoms by electron beam irradiation, assuring in both cases the cutting of the nanotubes.

  5. The electronic properties of doped single walled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tetik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present ab initio calculations on the band structure and density of states of single wall semiconducting carbon nanotubes with high degrees (up to 25% of B, Si and N substitution. The doping process consists of two phases: different carbon nanotubes (CNTs for a constant doping rate and different doping rates for the zigzag (8, 0 carbon nanotube. We analyze the doping dependence of nanotubes on the doping rate and the nanotube type. Using these results, we select the zigzag (8, 0 carbon nanotube for toxic gas sensor calculation and obtain the total and partial densities of states for CNT (8, 0. We have demonstrated that the CNT (8, 0 can be used as toxic gas sensors for CO and NO molecules, and it can partially detect Cl2 toxic molecules but cannot detect H2S. To overcome these restrictions, we created the B and N doped CNT (8, 0 and obtained the total and partial density of states for these structures. We also showed that B and N doped CNT (8, 0 can be used as toxic gas sensors for such molecules as CO, NO, Cl2 and H2S.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes for Space Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiadis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Landi, Brian J.; Denno, Patrick L.; DiLeo, Roberta A.; VanDerveer, William; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be envisioned as an individual graphene sheet rolled into a seamless cylinder (single-walled, SWNT), or concentric sheets as in the case of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) (1). The role-up vector will determine the hexagonal arrangement and "chirality" of the graphene sheet, which will establish the nanotube to be metallic or semiconducting. The optoelectronic properties will depend directly on this chiral angle and the diameter of the SWNT, with semiconductor types exhibiting a band gap energy (2). Characteristic of MWNTs are the concentric graphene layers spaced 0.34 nm apart, with diameters from 10-200 nm and lengths up to hundreds of microns (2). In the case of SWNTs, the diameters range from 0.4 - 2 nm and lengths have been reported up to 1.5 cm (3). SWNTs have the distinguishable property of "bundling" together due to van der Waal's attractions to form "ropes." A comparison of these different structural types is shown in Figure 1. The use of SWNTS in space photovoltaic (PV) applications is attractive for a variety of reasons. Carbon nanotubes as a class of materials exhibit unprecedented optical, electrical, mechanical properties, with the added benefit of being nanoscale in size which fosters ideal interaction in nanomaterial-based devices like polymeric solar cells. The optical bandgap of semiconducting SWNTs can be varied from approx. 0.4 - 1.5 eV, with this property being inversely proportional to the nanotube diameter. Recent work at GE Global Research has shown where a single nanotube device can behave as an "ideal" pn diode (5). The SWNT was bridged over a SiO2 channel between Mo contacts and exhibited an ideality factor of 1, based on a fit of the current-voltage data using the diode equation. The measured PV efficiency under a 0.8 eV monochromatic illumination showed a power conversion efficiency of 0.2 %. However, the projected efficiency of these junctions is estimated to be > 5 %, especially when one considers the

  7. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  8. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Using Sol Gel Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2002-12-01

    Since 1990, carbon nanotubes were discovered and they have been the object of intense scientific study ever since. A carbon nanotube is a honeycomb lattice rolled into a cylinder. The diameter of a carbon nanotube is of nanometer size and the length is in the range of micrometer. Many of the extraordinary properties attributed to nanotubes, such as tensile strength and thermal stability, have inspired predictions of microscopic robots, dent-resistant car bodies and earthquake-resistant buildings. The first products to use nanotubes were electrical. Some General Motors cars already include plastic parts to which nanotubes were added; such plastic can be electrified during painting so that the paint will stick more readily. Two nanotube-based lighting and display products are well on their way to market. In the long term, perhaps the most valuable applications will take further advantage of nanotubes' unique electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes can in principle play the same role as silicon does in electronic circuits, but at a molecular scale where silicon and other standard semiconductors cease to work. There are several routes to synthesize carbon nanotubes; laser vaporization, carbon arc and vapor growth. We have applied a different route using sol gel chemistry to obtain carbon nanotubes. This work is patent-pending.

  9. Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, E J M

    2013-01-01

    Transistors covers the main thread of transistor development. This book is organized into 2 parts encompassing 19, and starts with an overview of the semi-conductor physics pertinent to the understanding of transistors, as well as features and applications of the point contact devices and junction devices. The subsequent part deals with the modulation of conductance of thin films of conductors by surface charges, the metal-semi conductor, and the semi-conductor triode. These topics are followed by discussions on the nature of the forward current, physical principles in transistor, the hole inj

  10. Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Dyke, Christopher A.; Maya, Francisco; Stewart, Michael P.; Chen, Bo; Flatt, Austen K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to covalently attach functionalized carbon nanotubes to silicon. This step allows for the introduction of carbon nanotubes onto all manner of silicon surfaces, and thereby introduction of carbon nano - tubes covalently into silicon-based devices, onto silicon particles, and onto silicon surfaces. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed as individuals in surfactant were functionalized. The nano - tube was first treated with 4-t-butylbenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate to give increased solubility to the carbon nanotube; the second group attached to the sidewall of the nanotube has a silyl-protected terminal alkyne that is de-protected in situ. This gives a soluble carbon nanotube that has functional groups appended to the sidewall that can be attached covalently to silicon. This reaction was monitored by UV/vis/NJR to assure direct covalent functionalization.

  11. Carbon nanotubes and graphene in analytical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized carbon materials are offering great opportunities in various areas of nanotechnology. Carbon nanotubes and graphene, due to their unique mechanical, electronic, chemical, optical and electrochemical properties, represent the most interesting building blocks in various applications where analytical chemistry is of special importance. The possibility of conjugating carbon nanomaterials with biomolecules has received particular attention with respect to the design of chemical sensors and biosensors. This review describes the trends in this field as reported in the last 6 years in (bio)analytical chemistry in general, and in biosensing in particular. (author)

  12. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  13. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  14. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons

  15. Atomic and electronic structure of divacancies in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Savas; Oshiyama, Atsushi

    2008-04-01

    We present atomic and electronic structure of divacancies in carbon nanotubes, which is calculated using the density functional theory. Divacancies in carbon nanotubes self-heal by spontaneous reconstructions, which consist of concerted bond formations. Divacancy formation energies EDV , which strongly depend on the divacancy orientation with respect to the tube axis, are in the range of 2.8 4.3 eV for favorable orientations in the nanotubes of 4 9Å diameter, making divacancies more probable than monovacancies in carbon nanotubes. Defect related states lead to a higher density of states around the Fermi level. Semiconducting nanotubes develop midgap levels that may adversely affect the functionality of carbon nanotube based devices. Our spin polarized density functional calculations show that the exchange splitting of defect-related bands in nonsemiconducting defective nanotubes leads to net spin polarizations of ρ↑-ρ↓≤0.5μB per divacancy for some divacancy orientations.

  16. Carbon nanotube catalysts: recent advances in synthesis, characterization and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yibo; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Zhihong; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Yang, Hong Bin; Liu, Bin; Yang, Yanhui

    2015-05-21

    Carbon nanotubes are promising materials for various applications. In recent years, progress in manufacturing and functionalizing carbon nanotubes has been made to achieve the control of bulk and surface properties including the wettability, acid-base properties, adsorption, electric conductivity and capacitance. In order to gain the optimal benefit of carbon nanotubes, comprehensive understanding on manufacturing and functionalizing carbon nanotubes ought to be systematically developed. This review summarizes methodologies of manufacturing carbon nanotubes via arc discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor deposition and functionalizing carbon nanotubes through surface oxidation and activation, doping of heteroatoms, halogenation, sulfonation, grafting, polymer coating, noncovalent functionalization and nanoparticle attachment. The characterization techniques detecting the bulk nature and surface properties as well as the effects of various functionalization approaches on modifying the surface properties for specific applications in catalysis including heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis and electrocatalysis are highlighted. PMID:25855947

  17. Carbon nanotube based stationary phases for microchip chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    already been demonstrated in more classical formats, for improved separation performance in gas and liquid chromatography, and for unique applications in solid phase extraction. Carbon nanotubes are now also entering the field of microfluidics, where there is a large potential to be able to provide......The objective of this article is to provide an overview and critical evaluation of the use of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microchip chromatography. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, such as a very high surface area and intriguing adsorptive behaviour, have...... integrated, tailor-made nanotube columns by means of catalytic growth of the nanotubes inside the fluidic channels. An evaluation of the different implementations of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microfluidic chromatography devices is given in terms of separation performance and...

  18. CARBON NANOTUBES: AN APPROACH TO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alai et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of material science as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They have unique electronic, mechanical, optical and chemical properties that make them good candidates for a wide variety of applications, including drug transporters, new therapeutics, delivery systems and diagnostics. Their unique surface area, stiffness, strength and resilience have led to much excitement in the field of pharmacy. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes, multiple walled nanotubes. Various techniques have been developed to produce nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition. They can pass through membranes, carrying therapeutic drugs, vaccines and nucleic acids deep into the cell to targets previously unreachable. Purification of the tubes can be divided into a couple of main techniques: oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering and functionalization techniques. The main problem of insolubility in aqueous media has been solved by developing a synthetic protocol that allows highly water-soluble carbon NTs to be obtained. The modifications are done to improve efficiency of carbon nanotubes by formulating luminescent carbon nanotubes, ultrathin carbon nanoneedles, magnetically guided nanotubes. The application of carbon nanotube in tissue engineering, drug carrier release system, wound healing, in cancer treatment and as biosensor. Researchers have recently developed a new approach to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the treatment of cancer using substituted Carborane-Appended Water-Soluble single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  19. Process for derivatizing carbon nanotubes with diazonium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Bahr, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Yang, Jiping (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention incorporates new processes for the chemical modification of carbon nanotubes. Such processes involve the derivatization of multi- and single-wall carbon nanotubes, including small diameter (ca. 0.7 nm) single-wall carbon nanotubes, with diazonium species. The method allows the chemical attachment of a variety of organic compounds to the side and ends of carbon nanotubes. These chemically modified nanotubes have applications in polymer composite materials, molecular electronic applications and sensor devices. The methods of derivatization include electrochemical induced reactions thermally induced reactions (via in-situ generation of diazonium compounds or pre-formed diazonium compounds), and photochemically induced reactions. The derivatization causes significant changes in the spectroscopic properties of the nanotubes. The estimated degree of functionality is ca. 1 out of every 20 to 30 carbons in a nanotube bearing a functionality moiety. Such electrochemical reduction processes can be adapted to apply site-selective chemical functionalization of nanotubes. Moreover, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the derivatized nanotubes are chemically compatible with a polymer matrix, allowing transfer of the properties of the nanotubes (such as, mechanical strength or electrical conductivity) to the properties of the composite material as a whole. Furthermore, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the groups can be polymerized to form a polymer that includes carbon nanotubes ##STR00001##.

  20. Thermal Spreading in Carbon Nanotube Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duckjong; Shin, Dong-Sig; Yu, Jeonghwan; Kim, Haesik; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Woo, Chang-Su

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, have attracted significant attention as good candidates for next-generation heat-spreading materials because of their high thermal conductivity, mechanical flexibility, etc. Regarding the thermal spreading performance of carbon-based nanofilms, remarkable test results have been reported mainly from the industrial side, but their validity and the physical mechanism underlying the heat transfer enhancement are still under debate. In this study, we assess the thermal spreading performance of a multi-walled CNT film on a copper foil using a non-contact characterization method in a simple and methodical manner, and discuss the possibility of carbon nanofilms as heat spreaders based on the experimental and numerical results. This study provides useful information on heat transfer enhancement by carbon nanofilms and could contribute to the development of high-performance carbon-based heat-spreading coatings. PMID:26726629

  1. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2010-01-01

    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  2. A statistical mechanics model of carbon nanotube macro-films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube macro-films are two-dimensional films with micrometer thickness and centimeter by centimeter in-plane dimension.These carbon nanotube macroscopic assemblies have attracted significant attention from the material and mechanics communities recently because they can be easily handled and tailored to meet specific engineering needs.This paper reports the experimental methods on the preparation and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube macro-films,and a statistical mechanics model on ...

  3. Ab initio simulation of helium inside carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present work we consider the complex behaviour of quantum liquids like liquid He-4 inside carbon nanotubes. Interactions between helium atoms and carbon atoms of the short-length atomistic model and model with periodical boundary conditions of carbon nanotube were studied via ab initio quantum simulations. Effects of geometrical confinement of the tube on the He behaviour inside CNT (13,0) have been explored. Nanotubes with typical average diameter of 10 angstroms are under consideration.

  4. Characterization of Multienzyme-Antibody-Carbon Nanotube Bioconjugates for Immunosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Gary C.; Yu, Xin; Gong, Joseph D.; Munge, Bernard; Bhirde, Ashwin; Kim, Sang N.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Rusling, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization studies of a multi-enzyme-antibody-carbon nanotube bioconjugate designed for the amplification of electrochemical immunosensing are described. Secondary antibodies for prostate specific antigen (PSA) were covalently linked to highly carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) along with multiple horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme labels. These bioconjugates provide ultra-sensitive amperometric detection of PSA on a single-wall carbon nanotube forest sandwich immunosensor...

  5. Carbon Nanotube Composites for Electronic Packaging Applications: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lavanya Aryasomayajula; Klaus-Juergen Wolter

    2013-01-01

    Composite engineering comprises of metal matrix composites. They have high strength-weight ratio, better stiffness, economical production, and ease of availability of raw materials. The discovery of carbon nanotubes has opened new possibilities to face challenges better. Carbon Nanotubes are known for their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal and electrical properties. Recent research has made progress in fabricating carbon nanotube metal matrix and polymer-based composites. The metho...

  6. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naghizadeh; Ahmad Reza Yari; Hamid Reza Tashauoei; Mokhtar Mahdavi; Elham Derakhshani; Rahman Rahimi; Pegah Bahmani; Hiva Daraei; Esmaeil Ghahremani

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1):6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough poi...

  8. A Carbon Nanotube Cable for a Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in connection with the possibility to use them for the construction of a space elevator. From the fundamental information about the structure of a carbon nanotube and the chemical bond between carbon atoms, Young's modulus and the ultimate tensile strength are…

  9. Nanoscale fluid transportation through individual carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Cao, Di; Pang, Pei; Luo, Tao; Lindsay, Stuart; Kristic, Predrag; Nuckolls, Colin

    2011-03-01

    There are great interest in both simulation and experiment of fluid flow on the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes, with their extremely small inner diameter (usually below 2 nm) and atomic smooth inner surface, are ideal materials for studying nanoconfinement and ion and molecule nanoscale translocation. The excellent electrical properties of CNTs can also be integrated to achieve nanoelectrofluidic device. This presentation describes our recent progress in studying fluid transport through individual carbon nanotubes, including simultaneously ionic and electronic measurements during water, ion and molecule translocation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01).

  10. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F.; Tu, Yi

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  11. Advanced technology for functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Meng; Chuanlong Fu; Qinghua Lu

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted considerable interest in the fields of physics, chemistry, material science and biology. The functionalized CNTs exhibit improved properties enabling facile fabrication of novel nanomaterials and nanodevices. Most of the functionalization approaches developed at present could be categorized into the covalent attachment of functional groups and the non-covalent adsorption of various functional molecules onto the surface of CNTs. This review highlights recent development and our work in functionalization of carbon nanotubes, leading to bio-compatible CNTs, fluorescent CNTs and transition metal func-tionalizcd CNTs. These novel methods possess advantages such as simplified technical procedures and reduced cost of novel nanoma-terials and nanodcvices fabrication.

  12. Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printing technologies offer large-area, high-throughput production capabilities for electronics and sensors on mechanically flexible substrates that can conformally cover different surfaces. These capabilities enable a wide range of new applications such as low-cost disposable electronics for health monitoring and wearables, extremely large format electronic displays, interactive wallpapers, and sensing arrays. Solution-processed carbon nanotubes have been shown to be a promising candidate for such printing processes, offering stable devices with high performance. Here, recent progress made in printed carbon nanotube electronics is discussed in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications. Research challenges and opportunities moving forward from processing and system-level integration points of view are also discussed for enabling practical applications. PMID:26880046

  13. Carbon nanotubes: do they toughen brittle matrices?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chao, J.; Inam, F.; Reece, M.J.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Ivo; Shaffer, M.S.P.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 14 (2011), s. 4770-4779. ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fracture toughness * carbon nanotube * silica glass Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/74106l0458326n91/

  14. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  15. Electromechanical sensors based on carbon nanotube networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Olejník, R.; Petráš, D.; Machovský, M.; Sáha, P.

    Palmerston North: Massey University, 2010 - (Mukhopadhyay, S.; Fuchs, A.; Sen Gupta, G.; Lay-Ekuakille, A.), s. 542-547 ISBN 978-0-473-16942-8. [International Conference on Sensing Technology /4./. Lecce (IT), 03.06.2010-05.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : carbon nanotube network * compression * electrical conductivity * stress sensor Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. On the Nanoindentation of the Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Petre P.Teodorescu; Veturia Chiroiu; Ligia Munteanu; Valeria Moşneguţu

    2010-01-01

    A new inverse approach is proposed in this paper, which combines elements of nonlocal theory and molecular mechanics, based on the experimental results available in the nanoindentation literature. The effect of the inlayer van der Waals atomistic interactions for carbon nanotubes with multiple walls (MWCNT) is included by means of the Brenner-Tersoff potential and experimental results. The neighboring walls of MWCNT are coupled through van der Waals interactions, and the shell buckling would ...

  17. Carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposite infrared sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Basudev; Setyowati, Kristina; Liu, Haiying; Waldeck, David H; Chen, Jian

    2008-04-01

    The infrared photoresponse in the electrical conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is dramatically enhanced by embedding SWNTs in an electrically and thermally insulating polymer matrix. The conductivity change in a 5 wt % SWNT-polycarbonate nanocomposite is significant (4.26%) and sharp upon infrared illumination in the air at room temperature. While the thermal effect predominates in the infrared photoresponse of a pure SWNT film, the photoeffect predominates in the infrared photoresponse of SWNT-polycarbonate nanocomposites. PMID:18333623

  18. Methane in carbon nanotube - molecular dynamics simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartuś, Katarzyna; Bródka, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The behaviour of methane molecules inside carbon nanotube at room temperature is studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations. A methane molecule is represented either by a shapeless super-atom or by rigid set of 5 interaction centres localised on atoms. Different loadings of methane molecules ranging from the dense gas density to the liquid density, and the influence of flexibility of the CNT on structural and dynamics properties of confined molecules are consid...

  19. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases....

  20. Osmotic water transport through carbon nanotube membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Amrit; Garde, Shekhar; Hummer, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study osmotically driven transport of water molecules through hexagonally packed carbon nanotube membranes. Our simulation setup comprises two such semipermeable membranes separating compartments of pure water and salt solution. The osmotic force drives water flow from the pure-water to the salt-solution compartment. Monitoring the flow at molecular resolution reveals several distinct features of nanoscale flows. In particular, thermal fluctuatio...

  1. Photon drag effect in carbon nanotube yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obraztsov, Alexander N.; Lyashenko, Dmitry A.; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H.; Obraztsov, Petr A.; Garnov, Sergei V.; Svirko, Yuri P.

    2009-06-01

    We demonstrate that in graphitic nanocarbon materials, combination of ballistic conductivity and strong electron photon coupling opens a unique opportunity to observe transfer of momentum of the electromagnetic radiation to free carriers. The resulting drag of quasiballistically propagating electrons can be employed, in particular, to visualize the temporal profile, polarization, and propagation direction of the laser pulse. In this letter, we report the giant photon drag effect in yarns made of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

  2. Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes for Protein Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobin Fan; Fengbao Zhang; Guoliang Zhang; Xiuhui Diao; Hongyu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic separation is a promising strategy in protein separation. Owing to their unique one-dimensional structures and desired magnetic properties, stacked-cup carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles trapped in their tips can serve as train-like systems for protein separation. In this study, we functionalized the magnetic CSCNTs with high density of carboxyl groups by radical addition and then anchored 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) through amidation reaction to achieve orien...

  3. Scaling Law in Carbon Nanotube Electromechanical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, R.; Goffman, M.F.; Derycke, V.; Miko, C.; Forro, L.; Bourgoin, J. P.; Hesto, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report a method for probing electromechanical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes(CNTs). This method is based on AFM measurements on a doubly clamped suspended CNT electrostatically deflected by a gate electrode. We measure the maximum deflection as a function of the applied gate voltage. Data from different CNTs scale into an universal curve within the experimental accuracy, in agreement with a continuum model prediction. This method and the general validity of the scaling law cons...

  4. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hyeob Kim; Cheong Hoon Kwon; Changsun Lee; Jieun An; Tam Thi Thanh Phuong; Sun Hwa Park; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tong Mook Kang; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with p...

  5. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Valentini; Silvia Bittolo Bon; Stefano Signetti; Manoj Tripathi; Erica Iacob; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extr...

  6. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  7. Composites with polymer-grafted carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, M. C.; Novais, R. M.; Covas, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites exhibit the processability advantages of plastics, while conveying electrical conductivity characteristics suitable for electric transport, or for sensing functionalities. The success of their application depends on the ability to homogeneously disperse the CNT in the polymer matrices to form a stable conductive network. The structural strength of the nanocomposite is also desirable, and may be a requirement. The chemical functionalization of the CNT i...

  8. An ultrafast carbon nanotube terahertz polarisation modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docherty, Callum J.; Stranks, Samuel D.; Habisreutinger, Severin N.; Joyce, Hannah J.; Herz, Laura M.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Johnston, Michael B., E-mail: m.johnston@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-28

    We demonstrate ultrafast modulation of terahertz radiation by unaligned optically pumped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Photoexcitation by an ultrafast optical pump pulse induces transient terahertz absorption in nanowires aligned parallel to the optical pump. By controlling the polarisation of the optical pump, we show that terahertz polarisation and modulation can be tuned, allowing sub-picosecond modulation of terahertz radiation. Such speeds suggest potential for semiconductor nanowire devices in terahertz communication technologies.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Yuhe Zhu; Susan Liao; Jiajia Li

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matr...

  10. Spontaneous exciton dissociation in carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumamoto, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Ishii, A; Yokoyama, A.; Shimada, T; Kato, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes reveal spontaneous dissociation of excitons into free electron-hole pairs. Correlation of luminescence intensity and photocurrent shows that a significant fraction of excitons are dissociating during their relaxation into the lowest exciton state. Furthermore, the combination of optical and electrical signals also allows for extraction of the absorption cross section and the oscillator st...

  11. Upper bound to the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalopin, Yann; Volz, Sebastian; Mingo, Natalio

    2009-04-01

    Using atomistic Green's function calculations, we find that the phonon thermal conductivity of pellets composed of ˜μm long carbon nanotubes has an upper bound of a few W/m K. This is in striking contrast with the extremely high thermal conductivity of individual nanotubes (˜3000 W/m K). We show that, at room temperature, this upper bound does not depend on the nanotube diameter. Conversely, for low temperatures, an inverse proportionality with nanotube diameter is predicted. We present concrete results as a function of nanotube length and chirality, pellet density, and temperature. These results imply that carbon nanotube pellets belong to the category of thermal insulators, contrasting with the good conducting properties of parallel nanotube arrays, or individual nanotubes.

  12. Simulation of the Band Structure of Graphene and Carbon Nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation technique has been performed to simulate the band structure of both graphene and carbon nanotube. Accordingly, the dispersion relations for graphene and carbon nanotube are deduced analytically, using the tight binding model and LCAO scheme. The results from the simulation of the dispersion relation of both graphene and carbon nanotube were found to be consistent with those in the literature which indicates the correctness of the process of simulation technique. The present research is very important for tailoring graphene and carbon nanotube with specific band structure, in order to satisfy the required electronic properties of them.

  13. Preparation of single-walled carbon nanotube reinforced magnesia films

    OpenAIRE

    Du, C S; Pan, Ning

    2004-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/MgO composite films were fabricated by growing carbon nanotubes while simultaneously sintering a MgO film. The effect of iron and molybdenum concentrations in liquid catalysts and the effect of the density of carbon nanotubes in the composite films on the quality of the films were investigated. Microstructure analysis showed that SWNTs were uniformly grown in the MgO film. The presence of a controlled amount of carbon nanotubes in MgO films is believed to ...

  14. Conformational changes of fibrinogen in dispersed carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park SJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sung Jean Park,1 Dongwoo Khang21College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, South Korea; 2School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science Engineering and Center for PRC and RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South KoreaAbstract: The conformational changes of plasma protein structures in response to carbon nanotubes are critical for determining the nanotoxicity and blood coagulation effects of carbon nanotubes. In this study, we identified that the functional intensity of carboxyl groups on carbon nanotubes, which correspond to the water dispersity or hydrophilicity of carbon nanotubes, can induce conformational changes in the fibrinogen domains. Also, elevation of carbon nanotube density can alter the secondary structures (ie, helices and beta sheets of fibrinogen. Furthermore, fibrinogen that had been in contact with the nanoparticle material demonstrated a different pattern of heat denaturation compared with free fibrinogen as a result of a variation in hydrophilicity and concentration of carbon nanotubes. Considering the importance of interactions between carbon nanotubes and plasma proteins in the drug delivery system, this study elucidated the correlation between nanoscale physiochemical material properties of carbon nanotubes and associated structural changes in fibrinogen.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fibrinogen, nanotoxicity, conformational change, denaturation

  15. Electrochemical properties of double wall carbon nanotube electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pumera Martin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrochemical properties of double wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT were assessed and compared to their single wall (SWNT counterparts. The double and single wall carbon nanotube materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electrochemistry. The electrochemical behavior of DWNT film electrodes was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry of ferricyanide and NADH. It is shown that while both DWNT and SWNT were significantly functionalized with oxygen containing groups, double wall carbon nanotube film electrodes show a fast electron transfer and substantial decrease of overpotential of NADH when compared to the same way treated single wall carbon nanotubes.

  16. Simulation of the Band Structure of Graphene and Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Aziz N.; Awadallah, Attia A.; Phillips, Adel H.; Ahmed, Riham R.

    2012-02-01

    Simulation technique has been performed to simulate the band structure of both graphene and carbon nanotube. Accordingly, the dispersion relations for graphene and carbon nanotube are deduced analytically, using the tight binding model & LCAO scheme. The results from the simulation of the dispersion relation of both graphene and carbon nanotube were found to be consistent with those in the literature which indicates the correctness of the process of simulation technique. The present research is very important for tailoring graphene and carbon nanotube with specific band structure, in order to satisfy the required electronic properties of them.

  17. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  18. Fast Electromechanical Switches Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama; Wong, Eric; Epp, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated nanoelectromechanical switches based on carbon nanotubes have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop high-speed switches for a variety of stationary and portable electronic equipment. As explained below, these devices offer advantages over electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical switches, which, heretofore, have represented the state of the art of rapid, highly miniaturized electromechanical switches. Potential applications for these devices include computer memories, cellular telephones, communication networks, scientific instrumentation, and general radiation-hard electronic equipment. A representative device of the present type includes a single-wall carbon nanotube suspended over a trench about 130 nm wide and 20 nm deep in an electrically insulating material. The ends of the carbon nanotube are connected to metal electrodes, denoted the source and drain electrodes. At bottom of the trench is another metal electrode, denoted the pull electrode (see figure). In the off or open switch state, no voltage is applied, and the nanotube remains out of contact with the pull electrode. When a sufficiently large electric potential (switching potential) is applied between the pull electrode and either or both of the source and drain electrodes, the resulting electrostatic attraction bends and stretches the nanotube into contact with the pull electrode, thereby putting the switch into the "on" or "closed" state, in which substantial current (typically as much as hundreds of nanoamperes) is conducted. Devices of this type for use in initial experiments were fabricated on a thermally oxidized Si wafer, onto which Nb was sputter-deposited for use as the pull-electrode layer. Nb was chosen because its refractory nature would enable it to withstand the chemical and thermal conditions to be subsequently imposed for growing carbon nanotubes. A 200- nm-thick layer of SiO2 was formed on top of the Nb layer by plasma

  19. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  20. Surface plasmon observed for carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents parallel electron energy loss spectra (PEELS) results, obtained for individual carbon nanotubes, using nanoprobe techniques (1-2 nm diameter electron beam), energy resolution 0.5 eV and collection times of 4-25 sec. The aim was to use a nanoprobe to compare PEELS spectra from different parts of a tube, in order to search for variations in sp2/sp3 bonding ratios as well as to look for orientation dependent plasmon and core-loss phenomena. It also seemed interesting to compare results for nanotubes with those for other varieties of graphitized carbons. The most interesting result so far was the appearance of a 15 eV plasmon peak, which appeared only for tubes containing ≤ about 12 graphite-like layers. This peak did not shift significantly with tube size. A low-loss peaks at 6 eV of variable relative intensity was also observed this peak was relatively very weak for amorphous tubes; it appears to be characteristic of graphite-like layers, as found for nanotubes and, of course, graphite itself. This paper is restricted to discussion of the low-loss results. The experimental techniques are first described, including some details of the methods which may be used to disperse and support sooty carbons for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are then presented, followed by an interpretation of all the low-loss PEELS results, including those of the other authors. 14 refs., 2 figs

  1. Hydrogen storage in single walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claims have emerged recently, of high hydrogen storage capacities at room temperature and above, for carbons such as single-wall and multi-walled nanotubes. We have been unable to verify any claims of high capacities at room temperature and low pressure. For (10,10) single wall carbon nanotubes, we used a computer controlled Sievert's apparatus to measure an adsorption at RT of 0.07 wt% gravimetric density at 1 bar, typical of what is expected on the basis of BET surface area measurements for carbons. At high pressures of > 60 bar and temperatures of 80K gravimetric densities up to ∼ 8 wt% are obtained, but more typically ∼ 7 wt% after a few adsorption desorption cycles. These values and isotherm shapes can be attributed to rearrangement of the rope structure that is formed by condensed nanotubes. Certain fullerites can also exhibit adsorption/desorption cycle dependent capacity, ranging from 2.5 to 4 wt% at 80K and 120 bar. (author)

  2. Ferroelectric–carbon nanotube memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional ferroelectric nanostructures, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and CNT–inorganic oxides have recently been studied due to their potential applications for microelectronics. Here, we report coating of a registered array of aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) grown on silicon substrates by functional ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) which produces structures suitable for commercial prototype memories. Microstructural analysis reveals the crystalline nature of PZT with small nanocrystals aligned in different directions. First-order Raman modes of MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si show the high structural quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition at elevated temperature. PZT exists mostly in the monoclinic Cc/Cm phase, which is the origin of the high piezoelectric response in the system. Low–loss square piezoelectric hysteresis obtained for the 3D bottom-up structure confirms the switchability of the device. Current–voltage mapping of the device by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) indicates very low transient current. Fabrication and functional properties of these hybrid ferroelectric–carbon nanotubes is the first step towards miniaturization for future nanotechnology sensors, actuators, transducers and memory devices. (paper)

  3. Vibrations of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Giovanni; Lacarbonara, Walter; Alessi, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    This work deals with a study of the vibrational properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites by employing an equivalent continuum model based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach. The theory allows the calculation of the effective constitutive law of the elastic isotropic medium (matrix) with dispersed elastic inhomogeneities (carbon nanotubes). The devised computational approach is shown to yield predictions in good agreement with the experimentally obtained elastic moduli of composites reinforced with uniformly aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The primary contribution of the present work deals with the global elastic modal properties of nano-structured composite plates. The investigated composite plates are made of a purely isotropic elastic hosting matrix of three different types (epoxy, rubber, and concrete) with embedded single-walled CNTs. The computations are carried out via a finite element (FE) discretization of the composite plates. The effects of the CNT alignment and volume fraction are studied in depth to assess how the modal properties are influenced both globally and locally. As a major outcome, the lowest natural frequencies of CNT-reinforced rubber composites are shown to increase up to 500 percent.

  4. Fluoride and lead adsorption on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuguang; LI Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The properties and applications of CNT have been studied extensively since Iijima discovered them in 1991[1,2]. They have exceptional mechanical properties and unique electrical property, highly chemical stability and large specific surface area. Thus far, they have widely potential applications in many fields. They can be used as reinforcing materials in composites[3], field emissions[4], hydrogen storage[5], nanoelectronic components[6], catalyst supports[7], adsorption material and so on. However, the study on the potential application of CNT, environmental protection field in particular, was hardly begun.Long[8] et al. reported that CNT had a significantly higher dioxin removal efficiency than that of activated carbon. The Langmuir adsorption constant is 2.7 × 1052, 1.3 × 1018 respectively. The results indicated that CNT is potential candidate for the removal of micro-organic pollutants. However, the reports on the CNT used as fluoride and heavy metal adsorbent are seldom.In this paper, A novel material, alumina supported on carbon nanotubes (Al2O3/CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and Al(NO3)3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra demonstrate that alumina is amorphous, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that CNT and alumina are homogeneously mixed. Furthermore, the fluoride adsorption behavior on the surface of Al2O3/CNT has been investigated and compared with other adsorbents. The results indicate that Al2O3/CNT has a high adsorption capacity, with a saturation adsorption capacity of 39.4 mg/g. It is also found that the adsorption capacity of Al2O3/CNT is 3.0~4.5 times that of γ-Al2O3while almost equal to that of IRA-410 polymeric resin at 25 ℃. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride on Al2O3/CNT is fit the Freundlich equation well, optimal pH ranging from 5.0 to 9.0.Also in this paper, a novel material, modified carbon nanotubes (CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and HNO3 under boiling condition. Infrared spectroscopy (IR

  5. Preparation of carbon nanotubes by MPECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the synthesis of CNTs due to the vertical alignment, the large area growth, the lower growth temperature, uniform heat distribution and the good control of the different growth parameters. In this work we present our results about the preparation of carbon nanotube with different morphologies by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition MPECVD. Well aligned, curly and coiled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. We have investigated the effect of the different growth condition parameters such as type of the catalyst, pressure and the hydrogen to methane flow rate ratio on the morphology of the carbon nanotubes. The results were showed that there is a great dependence of the morphology of carbon nanotubes on these parameters. There is a linear relation between the growth rate and the methane to hydrogen ratio. We found that the growth rate has a great dependence on the amount of methane. For example the growth rate varied from the value 1,34 μm/min when the methane flow rate was 10 sccm to more than 14 μm/min when the methane flow rate was raised to 50 sccm. This growth rate is greater than that reported in the literature. The effect of the gas pressure on the CNTs was also studied. The Raman spectra (excitation wavelength 473 nm) of all samples show D-band peak at around 1300 cm-1 and G-band peak at around 1580 cm-1, which indicate that our CNTs are multi wall CNTs (MWCNTs). The D-band and the G-band correspond to sp2 and sp3 carbon stretching modes relatively, and their intensity ratio is a measure of the amount of disorder in the CNTs. The D-band is known to be attributed to the carbonaceous particles, defects in the curved graphitic sheet and tube ends. It has been suggested that lower Ig/Id ratios and narrower first and second order D and G bands are suggestive of well-aligned NNTs. The photoluminescence PL

  6. Carbon Nanotubes:from Nanoscale Building Blocks to Macrostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have fascinating properties.In order to use these novel one-dimensional structures for applications such as in nano-electronic,nano-mechanical and electrochemical energy storage device and as structural elements in various composites,the structure of nanotubes needs to be tailored and various architectures and macroscale assembles have to be configured using nanotube building blocks.Nanotube macrostructures are macroscopically organized groups of CNTs,which are expecte...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube reinforced copper thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    Two model composites of copper and carbon nanotubes were fabricated by very different deposition methods. Copper electrodeposition in a plating bath containing nanotubes created a 3D matrix of randomly oriented CNTs within a thick, 20 micron Cu film. In contrast, sandwiching a layer of well-separated nanotubes between two sub-micron sputtered Cu layers produced a 2D-composite with nanotubes lying parallel to the substrate surface. These composites, which were mechanically tested using var...

  8. Electronic transport properties of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹觉先; 颜晓红; 肖杨; 丁建文

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the differential conductance of metallic carbon nanotubes by the scatter matrix method. It is found that the differential conductance of metallic nanotube-based devices oscillates as a function of the bias voltage between the two leads and the gate voltage. Oscillation period T is directly proportional to the reciprocal of nanotube length. In addition, we found that electronic transport properties are sensitive to variation of the length of the nanotube.

  9. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J.; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting–dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension...

  10. Excitation transfer and luminescence in porphyrin-carbon nanotube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Magadur, Gurvan; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Alain-Rizzo, Valérie; C. Voisin; Roussignol, Ph.; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Delaire, Jacques,

    2007-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with hydrosoluble porphyrins (TPPS) is achieved by "$\\pi$-stacking". The porphyrin/nanotube interaction is studied by means of optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies. The main absorption line of the porphyrins adsorbed on nanotubes exhibits a 120 meV red shift, which we ascribe to a flattening of the molecule in order to optimize $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions. The porphyrin-nanotube complex shows a strong quenching ...

  11. Exciton decay dynamics in individual carbon nanotubes at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gokus, Tobias; Hartschuh, Achim; Harutyunyan, Hayk; Allegrini, Maria; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred; Green, Alexander A.; Hersam, Mark C.; Araujo, Paulo T.; Jorio, Ado

    2008-01-01

    We studied the exciton decay dynamics of individual semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes at room temperature using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence decay from nanotubes of the same (n,m) type follows a single exponential decay function, however, with lifetimes varying between about 1 and 40 ps from nanotube to nanotube. A correlation between broad photoluminescence spectra and short lifetimes was found and explained by defects promoting both nonradi...

  12. Deformations and nanomechanical energy storage in twisted carbon nanotube ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanek, David; Fthenakis, Zacharias G.; Seifert, Gotthard; Teich, David

    2013-03-01

    We determine the deformation energetics and energy density of twisted carbon nanotube ropes that effectively constitute a torsional spring. Due to the unprecedented stiffness and resilience of constituent carbon nanotubes, a twisted nanotube rope becomes an efficient energy carrier. Using ab initio and parameterized density functional calculations, we identify structural changes in these systems and determine their elastic limits. The deformation energy of twisted nanotube ropes contains contributions associated not only with twisting, but also with stretching, bending and compression of individual nanotubes. We quantify these energy contributions and show that their relative role changes with the number of nanotubes in the rope. The calculated reversible nanomechanical energy storage capacity of carbon nanotube ropes surpasses that of advanced Li-ion batteries by up to a factor of ten. Supported by the National Science Foundation Cooperative Agreement #EEC-0832785, titled ``NSEC: Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing''.

  13. Studies of DNA-carbon nanotube interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Recently a new biomaterial consisting of a DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotube, and known as a DNA/SWNT, has been discovered. The possible applications of this hybrid are varied and range from genomic sequencing to nanoscale electronics to molecular delivery. The realization of these potential applications requires more knowledge about the microscopic properties of this material. In this thesis, I present studies of: the orientation of nucleobases on the nanotube sidewall; the sequence and length dependence of the DNA-nanotube interaction; and solution conditions to manipulate the DNA/SWNT hybrid. The measurement of the UV optical absorbance of DNA/SWNT and the nucleotide absorbance from DNA/SWNT provide the first experimental confirmation that DNA binds to nanotubes through pi-stacking. Because the hypochromic absorbance typical of pi-stacked structures are expected to occur primarily for DNA dipole transitions that lie along the axis of the optically anisotropic SWNTs, the absorbance changes following binding of DNA to the nanotubes reveals the preferred orientation assumed by each of the four bound nucleotides with respect to the nanotube's long axis. The first observations of pronounced sequence- and length-dependent variations in the binding between ssDNA and SWNTs in aqueous solution are presented. These observations rely on the discovery that there exists a range of DNA lengths able to hybridize with SWNTs that can nevertheless be dissociated at temperatures below the boiling point of water. Quantitative results comparing the isochronal dissociation temperatures and binding energies of DNA/SWNT composed of differing DNA sequences and lengths are given. These results indicate variability and complexity in the binding mechanism responsible for the stability of the hybrid system that transcends simple models based on the sum of independent base-nanotube interactions. Binding energies between a DNA base and nanotube (0.05 to 0.09 eV per base) are similar

  14. Terahertz response of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terahertz (THz) research field is expected to serve as a new platform for studying low-energy excitation in solids and higher-order structures in large molecules, and for realizing applications in medicine, agriculture, security, and high-capacity communications. The THz frequency region, however, is located between the electronic and photonic bands, hampering the development of basic components like detectors and sources. This article presents an overview of basic background information about THz waves and THz detector applications and describes the THz response of carbon-based low-dimensional systems, such as single carbon nanotubes (CNT), CNT-array films, and graphene. (author)

  15. Carbon Nanotubes Used in Electroanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C. G.; Feng, B.

    The fabrication of the carboxyl-modified CNT electrode was described. The electroanalytical investigation of sulfadiazine has been conducted in alkaline aqueous solution at the CNT electrode by voltammetry. Highly reproducible and well-defined cyclic voltammograms were obtained for sulfadiazine with a very good signal to background (S/B) ratio. However, no fouling of the electrode was observed at the CNT electrode within the experimental period of several hours, which illustrated that the CNT electrode was much better than traditional electrodes. Meanwhile, the detection of trace sulfadiazine in milk was also conducted by cyclic voltammetry with satisfactory ratio of recovery, indicating that the nanotube electrode can be used in routine monitoring of sulfadiazine residues in food.

  16. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarillo-Herrero, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic transport through nanostructures can be very different from trans- port in macroscopic conductors, especially at low temperatures. Carbon na- notubes are tiny cylinders made of carbon atoms. Their remarkable electronic and mechanical properties, together with their small size (a few nm in

  17. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  18. Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as Porous Materials for Selective Gas Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Mahshid

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide are environmentally noxious components of flue and exhaust gases. Hence, new solutions for carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide sequestration and storage are highly important. We used grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations to understand the adsorption of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide in bundles of regular parallel arrays of carbon nanotubes of different tube diameters and different intertube distances. Such carbon nanotube arrays have recently become availa...

  19. Stationary scanning x-ray source based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Yuan; Gao, Bo; Qiu, Qi; Lee, Yueh; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2006-03-01

    Carbon nanotube is an ideal field emitter thanks to its large aspect ratio and small diameter. Based on its field emission property, we have developed a stationary scanning x-ray source, which can generate a scanning x-ray beam to image an object from multiple projection angles without mechanical motion. The key component of the device is a gated carbon nanotube field emission cathode with an array of electron emitting pixels that are individually addressable via a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor-based electronic circuit. The characteristics of this x-ray source are measured and its imaging capability is demonstrated. The device can potentially lead to a fast data acquisition rate for laminography and tomosynthesis.

  20. Synthesis and electronic properties of ferrocene-filled double-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) are filled with ferrocene molecules by a vapour diffusion method for the first time. The as-synthesized ferrocene-filled DWNTs are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. Electronic properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) filled with ferrocene molecules are studied by fabricating them as the channels of field-effect transistor (FET) devices. Our results reveal that electronic properties of ferrocene-filled DWNTs are greatly modified due to the charge transfer between ferrocene molecules and DWNTs. In addition, after ferrocene molecules are decomposed inside DWNTs, electronic properties of DWNTs exhibit a further change due to Fe encapsulation, and unipolar n-type semiconducting DWNTs are consequently obtained