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Sample records for carbon nanotube ionic

  1. Analysis of ionic conductance of carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    We use space-charge (SC) theory (also called the capillary pore model) to describe the ionic conductance, G, of charged carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Based on the reversible adsorption of hydroxyl ions to CNT pore walls, we use a Langmuir isotherm for surface ionization and make calculations as a

  2. A Highly Viscous Imidazolium Ionic Liquid inside Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohba, T.; Chaban, Vitaly V.

    2014-01-01

    We report a combined experimental (X-ray diffraction) and theoretical (molecular dynamics, hybrid density functional theory) study of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C2C1MIM][Cl], inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We show that despite its huge viscosity [C2C1MIM][Cl] readily penetrates into 1...... adsorption of [C2C1MIM][Cl] on the inner sidewalls of 1-3 nm carbon nanotubes....

  3. Theoretical Study of Renewable Ionic Liquids in the Pure State and with Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-09-17

    The N-ethyl-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)ethanaminium dihydrogen phosphate ionic liquid was studied as a model of ionic liquids which can be produced from totally renewable sources. A computational study using both molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods was carried out. The properties, structuring, and intermolecular interactions (hydrogen bonding) of this fluid in the pure state were studied as a function of pressure and temperature. Likewise, the adsorption on graphene and the confinement between graphene sheets was also studied. The solvation of single walled carbon nanotubes in the selected ionic liquid was analyzed together with the behavior of ions confined inside these nanotubes. The reported results show remarkable properties for this fluid, which show that many of the most relevant properties of ionic liquids and their ability to interact with carbon nanosystems may be maintained and even improved using new families of renewable compounds instead of classic types of ionic liquids with worse environmental, toxicological, and economical profiles.

  4. "Unrolling" multi-walled carbon nanotubes with ionic liquids: application as fillers in epoxy-based nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleinschmidt, A. C.; Donato, R. K.; Perchacz, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek; Štengl, Václav; Amico, S. C.; Schrekker, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 82 (2014), s. 43436-43443 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * ionic liquids * epoxy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  5. A membrane actuator based on an ionic polymer network and carbon nanotubes: the synergy of ionic transport and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Chi-An; Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Weng, Shih-Chun; Kao, An-Cheng; Liu, Chien-Pan; Tsai, Wei-Bor; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Liu, Wei-Ming; Shih, Wen-Pin; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the development of ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMC) as sensors and actuators for biomedical applications due to their large deformation under low driving voltage. In this study, we employed poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PVA/PAMPS) blend membranes as semi-interpenetrating polymer networks for ion exchange in IPMC construction. To improve the mechanical and electrical properties of the IPMC, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were added into PVA/PAMPS membranes. The actuator performance of the membranes was measured as a function of their water uptake, ion exchange capacity, ionic conductivity and the amount of MWNT in the membrane. The dispersion quality of the modified MWNT in the PVA/PAMPS membrane was measured using transmission electron microscopy. The cantilever-type IPMC actuator bends under applied voltage and its bending angle and the generative tip force were measured. Under an applied voltage, IPMC with ∼1 wt% MWNT showed the largest deflection and generated the largest blocking tip force compared with those of IPMC with other various amounts of MWNT. These results show that a small addition of MWNT can optimize the actuation performance of IPMC. The result indicates that IPMC with MWNT shows potential for use as biomimetic artificial muscle

  6. Modification of carbon nanotubes with fluorinated ionic liquid for improving processability of fluoro-ethylene-propylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hongyang; Chu, Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S.

    2017-02-01

    Fluorinated ionic liquid (F-IL), 1-(3-perfluorooctylpropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(perfluoroethylsufonyl)amine, had been successfully prepared and employed to modify multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for improving the processability of fluoro-ethylene-propylene (FEP). The thermally decomposed temperature of F-IL was higher than 350 °C measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) which indicated that the fluorinated ionic liquid could be suitable for melting blend with FEP (blending at 290 °C) by a twin-screw extruder. Through “cation-π” interaction between the imidazolium cation of F-IL and the graphene surface of MWCNTs, MWCNTs can be modified with F-IL and used as nanofillers to improve the dispersity of MWCNTs in fluorocopolymer FEP verified by SEM images of the FEP nanocomposite. The structural characterization and mechanical property of FEP nanocomposite during the deformation were investigated by tensile experiments and simultaneous time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques.

  7. Progress in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids Assisted Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Xie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene sheets are the most promising fillers for polymer nanocomposites due to their superior mechanical, electrical, thermal optical and gas barrier properties, as well as high flame-retardant efficiency. The critical challenge, however, is how to uniformly disperse them into the polymer matrix to achieve a strong interface for good load transfer between the two. This problem is not new but more acute in CNTs and graphene, both because they are intrinsically insoluble and tend to aggregate into bundles and because their surfaces are atomically smooth. Over the past decade, imidazolium ionic liquids (Imi-ILs have played a multifunctional role (e.g., as solvents, dispersants, stabilizers, compatibilizers, modifiers and additives in the fabrication of polymer composites containing CNTs or graphene. In this review, we first summarize the liquid-phase exfoliation, stabilization, dispersion of CNTs and graphene in Imi-ILs, as well as the chemical and/or thermal reduction of graphene oxide to graphene with the aid of Imi-ILs. We then present a full survey of the literature on the Imi-ILs assisted fabrication of CNTs and graphene-based nanocomposites with a variety of polymers, including fluoropolymers, hydrocarbon polymers, polyacrylates, cellulose and polymeric ionic liquids. Finally, we give a future outlook in hopes of facilitating progress in this emerging area.

  8. High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

    2012-10-09

    The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

  9. Enhanced Electro-Static Modulation of Ionic Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Membranes by Diazonium Grafting Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Mainak; Keis, Karin; Zhan, Xin; Meadows, Corey; Cole, Jeggan

    2013-01-01

    A membrane structure consisting of an aligned array of open ended carbon nanotubes (~ 7 nm i.d.) spanning across an inert polymer matrix allows the diffusive transport of aqueous ionic species through CNT cores. The plasma oxidation process that opens CNTs tips inherently introduces carboxylic acid groups at the CNT tips, which allows for a limited amount of chemical functional at the CNT pore entrance. However for numerous applications, it is important to increase the density of carboxylic acid groups at the pore entrance for effective separation processes. Aqueous diazonium based electro-chemistry significantly increases the functional density of carboxylic acid groups. pH dependent dye adsorption-desorption and interfacial capacitance measurements indicate ~ 5–6 times increase in functional density. To further control the spatial location of the functional chemistry, a fast flowing inert liquid column inside the CNT core is found to restrict the diazonium grafting to the CNT tips only. This is confirmed by the increased flux of positively charged Ru(bi-py)3+2 with anionic functionality. The electrostatic enhancement of ion diffusion is readily screened in 0.1(M) electrolyte solution consistent with the membrane pore geometry and increased functional density. PMID:25132719

  10. Performance of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Conductive Substrates as Supercapacitors Electrodes using Organic and Ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Turner, Ben; Zhang, X. F.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2012-02-01

    In this work we will present the use of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) directly grown on inconel substrates via chemical vapor deposition, as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The performance of the MWNT EDLC electrodes were investigated using two electrolytes, an organic electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC), and a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to obtain values for the capacitance and internal resistance of these devices will be presented and compared.

  11. A mean-density model of ionic surfactants for the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Young Soo

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new analytical model of ionic surfactants used for the dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous solutions. Although ionic surfactants are commonly used to facilitate the dispersion of CNTs in aqueous solutions, understanding the dispersion process is challenging and time-consuming owing to its complexity and nonlinearity. In this work, we develop a mean-density model of ionic surfactants to simplify the calculation of interaction forces between CNTs stabilized by ionic surfactants. Using this model, we can evaluate various interaction forces between the CNTs and ionic surfactants under different conditions. The dispersion mechanism is investigated by estimating the potential of mean force (PMF) as a function of van der Waals forces, electrostatic forces, interfacial tension, and osmotic pressure. To verify the proposed model, we compare the PMFs derived using our method with those derived from molecular dynamics simulations using comparable CNTs and ionic surfactants. Notably, for stable dispersions, the osmotic pressure and interfacial energy are important for long-range and short-range interactions, respectively, in comparison with the effect of electrostatic forces. Our model effectively prescribes specific surfactants and their concentrations to achieve stable aqueous suspensions of CNTs.

  12. Application of carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid hybrid in a sensitive atorvastatin ion-selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Fahimeh; Ardeshiri, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin (ATR) was determined by a potentiometric method. The ion-pair of ATR and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a suitable ionophore. A graphite paste electrode was modified with ATR-CTAB ion-pair, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-mtehyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF 6 ). The amounts of electrode ingredients were optimized (graphite powder: paraffin oil: ATR-CTAB: MWCNTs: BMIMPF 6 (58:26:5:8:3 w/w%). Surface characterization was done by using scanning electron microscopy. The potential measurements were recorded at optimized pH by using acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol L −1 , pH 5.5). At the above experimental conditions, calibration curve (E vs. log [ATR]) was linear (R 2 = 0.9977) in the concentration range of 1.0 × 10 −9 –1.0 × 10 −3 mol L −1 (0.0012–1209 mg L −1 ) of ATR with a Nernstian slope of 58.14 ± 0.2 mV decade −1 , and detection limit of 1.0 × 10 −9 mol L −1 (0.0013 mg L −1 ). After each injection of ATR to the buffer solution, the potential was stabilized in a very short time (average response time ~ 6 s) at 25 °C. The modified graphite paste electrode had a long lifetime (> 4 months). Recovery of the spiked drug to blood serum samples (95.3–98.2%) revealed the reliability of electrode response to ATR. Blood serum samples from consumers were analyzed by the proposed method; the results were comparable with those from HPLC standard method. The potentiometric analysis of ATR tablets by the proposed electrode resulted in a relative error of 0.8% and 1.5% for 20 and 40 mg per tablets, respectively. Finally, the electrode was used in potentiometric titration of ATR (1.0 × 10 −3 mol L −1 ) by CTAB (1.0 × 10 −3 mol L −1 ). Excellent accuracy (≈ 100%) was obtained from the volume of the titrant at the endpoint. - Graphical abstract: Graphite paste was modified with atorvastatin-CTAB (ATR-CTAB), ionic liquid (BMIMPF 6 ) and multiwalled carbon

  13. Application of carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid hybrid in a sensitive atorvastatin ion-selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Fahimeh, E-mail: fjalali@razi.ac.ir; Ardeshiri, Moslem

    2016-12-01

    Atorvastatin (ATR) was determined by a potentiometric method. The ion-pair of ATR and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a suitable ionophore. A graphite paste electrode was modified with ATR-CTAB ion-pair, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-mtehyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF{sub 6}). The amounts of electrode ingredients were optimized (graphite powder: paraffin oil: ATR-CTAB: MWCNTs: BMIMPF{sub 6} (58:26:5:8:3 w/w%). Surface characterization was done by using scanning electron microscopy. The potential measurements were recorded at optimized pH by using acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol L{sup −1}, pH 5.5). At the above experimental conditions, calibration curve (E vs. log [ATR]) was linear (R{sup 2} = 0.9977) in the concentration range of 1.0 × 10{sup −9}–1.0 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} (0.0012–1209 mg L{sup −1}) of ATR with a Nernstian slope of 58.14 ± 0.2 mV decade{sup −1}, and detection limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} (0.0013 mg L{sup −1}). After each injection of ATR to the buffer solution, the potential was stabilized in a very short time (average response time ~ 6 s) at 25 °C. The modified graphite paste electrode had a long lifetime (> 4 months). Recovery of the spiked drug to blood serum samples (95.3–98.2%) revealed the reliability of electrode response to ATR. Blood serum samples from consumers were analyzed by the proposed method; the results were comparable with those from HPLC standard method. The potentiometric analysis of ATR tablets by the proposed electrode resulted in a relative error of 0.8% and 1.5% for 20 and 40 mg per tablets, respectively. Finally, the electrode was used in potentiometric titration of ATR (1.0 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1}) by CTAB (1.0 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1}). Excellent accuracy (≈ 100%) was obtained from the volume of the titrant at the endpoint. - Graphical abstract: Graphite paste was modified with atorvastatin

  14. Composite system based on biomolecules-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube and ionic liquid: Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of tryptophane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Bu Caihong; Zhang Yijun; Du Jie; Lu Xiaoquan; Liu Xiuhui

    2011-01-01

    The combination of biomolecules-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNTs) and ionic liquid (IL) yields nanostructured biointerfaces, formed a novel kind of structurally uniform and bioelectrocatalytic activity material. Rutin was chosen as a model biomolecules to investigate the composite system. The MWNTs–Rutin–IL composite film was characterized by different methods including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–vis spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). A pair of well-defined quasi reversible redox peaks of rutin was obtained at the MWNTs–Rutin–IL composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by direct electron transfer between the rutin and the GCE electrode. Dramatically enhanced biocatalytic and electrocatalytic activity was exemplified at the MWNTs–Rutin–IL/GCE electrode by the oxidized of tryptophane. The oxidation peak currents of tryptophane in such modified electrode increased linearly with the concentrations of tryptophane in the range from 8 × 10 −8 to 2 × 10 −5 mol L −1 with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10 −8 mol L −1 . The unique composite material based on biomolecules-functionalized carbon nanotube and ionic liquid have wide potential applications in direct electrochemistry, biosensors, and biocatalysis.

  15. High conductivity carbon nanotube wires from radial densification and ionic doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Jack; Jarosz, Paul R.; Schauerman, Chris M.; Moses, Brian T.; Landi, Brian J.; Cress, Cory D.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2010-11-01

    Application of drawing dies to radially densify sheets of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into bulk wires has shown the ability to control electrical conductivity and wire density. Simultaneous use of KAuBr4 doping solution, during wire drawing, has led to an electrical conductivity in the CNT wire of 1.3×106 S/m. Temperature-dependent electrical measurements show that conduction is dominated by fluctuation-assisted tunneling, and introduction of KAuBr4 significantly reduces the tunneling barrier between individual nanotubes. Ultimately, the concomitant doping and densification process leads to closer packed CNTs and a reduced charge transfer barrier, resulting in enhanced bulk electrical conductivity.

  16. Ultralow percolation threshold of single walled carbon nanotube-epoxy composites synthesized via an ionic liquid dispersant/initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watters, Arianna L; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2014-01-01

    Uniform dispersion of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an epoxy was achieved by a streamlined mechano-chemical processing method. SWNT-epoxy composites were synthesized using a room temperature ionic liquid (IL) with an imidazolium cation and dicyanamide anion. The novel approach of using ionic liquid that behaves as a dispersant for SWNTs and initiator for epoxy polymerization greatly simplifies nanocomposite synthesis. The material was processed using simple and scalable three roll milling. The SWNT dispersion of the resultant composite was evaluated by electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements in conjunction with percolation theory. Processing conditions were optimized to achieve the lowest possible percolation threshold, 4.29 × 10 −5 volume fraction SWNTs. This percolation threshold is among the best reported in literature yet it was obtained using a streamlined method that greatly simplifies processing. (paper)

  17. Ultralow percolation threshold of single walled carbon nanotube-epoxy composites synthesized via an ionic liquid dispersant/initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Arianna L.; Palmese, Giuseppe R.

    2014-09-01

    Uniform dispersion of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an epoxy was achieved by a streamlined mechano-chemical processing method. SWNT-epoxy composites were synthesized using a room temperature ionic liquid (IL) with an imidazolium cation and dicyanamide anion. The novel approach of using ionic liquid that behaves as a dispersant for SWNTs and initiator for epoxy polymerization greatly simplifies nanocomposite synthesis. The material was processed using simple and scalable three roll milling. The SWNT dispersion of the resultant composite was evaluated by electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements in conjunction with percolation theory. Processing conditions were optimized to achieve the lowest possible percolation threshold, 4.29 × 10-5 volume fraction SWNTs. This percolation threshold is among the best reported in literature yet it was obtained using a streamlined method that greatly simplifies processing.

  18. Voltammetric determination of norepinephrine in the presence of acetaminophen using a novel ionic liquid/multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmanpour, Sadegh; Tavana, Toktam; Pahlavan, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A.; Ensafi, Ali A.; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Beitollahi, Hadi; Kowsari, Elaheh; Zareyee, Daryoush

    2012-01-01

    A novel multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was fabricated and used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of norepinephrine (NP). MWCNTs/CILE was prepared by mixing hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide (MBIDZBr), with graphite powder, MWCNTs, and liquid paraffin. The fabricated MWCNTs/CILE showed great electrocatalytic ability to the oxidation of NE. The electron transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient, and charge transfer resistant (R ct ) of NE at the modified electrode were calculated. Differential pulse voltammetry of NE at the modified electrode exhibited two linear dynamic ranges with slopes of 0.0841 and 0.0231 μA/μM in the concentration ranges of 0.3 to 30.0 μM and 30.0 to 450.0 μM, respectively. The detection limit (3σ) of 0.09 μM NP was achieved. This modified electrode exhibited a good ability for well separated oxidation peaks of NE and acetaminophen (AC) in a buffer solution, pH 7.0. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of NE in human urine, pharmaceutical, and serum samples. Highlights: ► Electrochemical behavior of norepinephrine study using carbon ionic liquid electrode ► This sensor resolved the overlap response of norepinephrine and acetaminophen. ► This sensor is also used for the determination of above compounds in real samples.

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on porous anodic aluminum oxide using ionic liquid as a dispersing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, F.; Sohrabi, B.; Rahmanifar, M. S.; Jalali, A.

    2015-06-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) have been arranged in nanochannels of anodic aluminum oxide template (AAO) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) to make a vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) based electrode. Well ordered AAO templates were prepared by a two-step anodizing process by applying a constant voltage of 45 V in oxalic acid solution. The stabilized CNTs in a water-soluble room temperature ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide), were deposited in the pores of AAO templates which were conductive by deposition of Ni nanoparticles in the bottom of pores. In order to obtain ideal results, different EPD parameters, such as concentration of MWCNTs and ionic liquid on stability of MWCNT suspensions, deposition time and voltage which are applied in EPD process and also optimal conditions for anodizing of template were investigated. The capacitive performance of prepared electrodes was analyzed by measuring the specific capacitance from cyclic voltammograms and the charge-discharge curves. A maximum value of 50 Fg-1 at the scan rate of 20 mV s-1was achieved for the specific capacitance.

  20. Resistive sensing of gaseous nitrogen dioxide using a dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes in an ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Prabhash [Solidstate Electronics Research Laboratory (SERL), Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India); Department of Nanoengineering, Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 Samara (Russian Federation); Pavelyev, V.S. [Department of Nanoengineering, Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 Samara (Russian Federation); Patel, Rajan [Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences (CIRBSc), Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India); Islam, S.S., E-mail: sislam@jmi.ac.in [Solidstate Electronics Research Laboratory (SERL), Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2016-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Ionic liquid ([C6-mim]PF6) used as dispersant agent for SWCNTs: An investigations were carried out to find the structural quality and surface modification for sensor application. - Highlights: • An effective technique based on Ionic liquids (IL) and their use as a dispersant. • Electron microscopy and spectroscopy for structure characterization. • Covalent linkage of ILs with SWNTs and dispersion of SWCNTs. • The IL-wrapped sensing film, capable for detecting trace levels of gas. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in an imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) and investigated in terms of structural quality, surface functionalization and inter-CNT force. Analysis by field emission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy shows the IL layer to coat the SWNTs, and FTIR and Raman spectroscopy confirm strong binding of the ILs to the SWNTs. Two kinds of resistive sensors were fabricated, one by drop casting of IL-wrapped SWCNTs, the other by conventional dispersion of SWCNTs. Good response and recovery to NO{sub 2} is achieved with the IL-wrapped SWCNTs material upon UV-light exposure, which is needed because decrease the desorption energy barrier to increase the gas molecule desorption. NO{sub 2} can be detected in the 1–20 ppm concentration range. The sensor is not interfered by humidity due to the hydrophobic tail of PF6 (ionic liquid) that makes our sensor highly resistant to moisture.

  1. Self-healing guar gum and guar gum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite gels prepared in an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2013-10-15

    Guar gum is a galactomannan extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. It was found to form a soft viscoelastic gel in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid at an optimized concentration of 10%w/v. A nanocomposite gel of the gum with enhanced strength could be prepared with 0.2%w/v of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the ionic liquid. When the gels thus prepared were subjected to surface fractures or bisected completely, they found to self-heal at room temperature without any external interventions. The self-healing process could be repeated several times. These viscoelastic gel systems showed thixotropic nature and recovery of the storage modulus with time for several cycles was observed upon rheological investigations. The interaction took place between ionic liquid, guar gum and MWCNT was studied by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, powder XRD and rheometry. The results suggested that, upon standing at room temperature development of electrostatic interactions and the van der Waals interactions among the ionic liquid molecules facilitated the formation of reversible noncovalent bonds and eventually activated the self-healing in the gel systems through appropriate chain entanglements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein fouling in carbon nanotubes enhanced ultrafiltration membrane: Fouling mechanism as a function of pH and ionic strength

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jieun; Jeong, Sanghyun; Ye, Yun; Chen, Vicki; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Leiknes, TorOve; Liu, Zongwen

    2016-01-01

    The protein fouling behavior was investigated in the filtration of the multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite membrane and commercial polyethersulfone ultrafiltration (PES-UF) membrane. The effect of solution chemistry such as pH and ionic strength on the protein fouling mechanism was systematically examined using filtration model such as complete pore blocking, intermediate pore blocking and cake layer formation. The results showed that the initial permeate flux pattern and fouling behavior of the MWCNT composite membrane were significantly influenced by pH and ionic strength while the effect of PES-UF membrane on flux was minimal. In a lysozyme (Lys) filtration, the severe pore blocking in the MWCNT membrane was made by the combined effect of intra-foulant interaction (Lys-Lys) and electrostatic repulsion between the membrane surface and the foulant at pH 4.7 and 10.4, and increasing ionic strength where the foulant-foulant interaction and membrane-fouling interaction were weak. In a bovine serum albumin (BSA) filtration, severe pore blocking was reduced by less deposition via the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and foulant at pH 4.7 and 10.4 and increasing ionic strength, at which the interaction between the membrane and BSA became weak. For binary mixture filtration, the protein fouling mechanism was more dominantly affected by foulant-foulant interaction (Lys-BSA, Lys-Lys, and BSA-BSA) at pH 7.0 and increase in ionic strength. This research demonstrates that MWCNT membrane fouling can be alleviated by changing pH condition and ionic strength based on the foulant-foulant interaction and the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and foulant.

  3. Protein fouling in carbon nanotubes enhanced ultrafiltration membrane: Fouling mechanism as a function of pH and ionic strength

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jieun

    2016-11-04

    The protein fouling behavior was investigated in the filtration of the multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite membrane and commercial polyethersulfone ultrafiltration (PES-UF) membrane. The effect of solution chemistry such as pH and ionic strength on the protein fouling mechanism was systematically examined using filtration model such as complete pore blocking, intermediate pore blocking and cake layer formation. The results showed that the initial permeate flux pattern and fouling behavior of the MWCNT composite membrane were significantly influenced by pH and ionic strength while the effect of PES-UF membrane on flux was minimal. In a lysozyme (Lys) filtration, the severe pore blocking in the MWCNT membrane was made by the combined effect of intra-foulant interaction (Lys-Lys) and electrostatic repulsion between the membrane surface and the foulant at pH 4.7 and 10.4, and increasing ionic strength where the foulant-foulant interaction and membrane-fouling interaction were weak. In a bovine serum albumin (BSA) filtration, severe pore blocking was reduced by less deposition via the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and foulant at pH 4.7 and 10.4 and increasing ionic strength, at which the interaction between the membrane and BSA became weak. For binary mixture filtration, the protein fouling mechanism was more dominantly affected by foulant-foulant interaction (Lys-BSA, Lys-Lys, and BSA-BSA) at pH 7.0 and increase in ionic strength. This research demonstrates that MWCNT membrane fouling can be alleviated by changing pH condition and ionic strength based on the foulant-foulant interaction and the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and foulant.

  4. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on papers coated with carbon nanotubes and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors were fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), regular office papers, and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes. Flexible electrodes were made by coating CNTs on office papers by a drop-dry method. The gel electrolyte was prepared by mixing fumed silica nanopowders with ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][NTf 2 ]). This supercapacitor showed high power and energy performance as a solid-state flexible supercapacitor. The specific capacitance of the CNT electrodes was 135 F g −1 at a current density of 2 A g −1 , when considering the mass of active materials only. The maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitors were 164 kW kg −1 and 41 Wh kg −1 , respectively. Interestingly, the solid-state supercapacitor with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors with ionic-liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the supercapacitor showed excellent stability and flexibility. The CNT/paper- and gel-based supercapacitors may hold great potential for low-cost and high-performance flexible energy storage applications. (paper)

  5. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  6. Construction of a carbon ionic liquid paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-synthesized Schiff base composite for trace electrochemical detection of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Bagheri, Hasan; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2014-01-01

    A simple, highly sensitive and selective carbon nanocomposite electrode has been developed for the electrochemical trace determination of cadmium. This sensor was designed by incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a new synthesized Schiff base into the carbon paste ionic liquid electrode (CPE IL ) which provides remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for the electrochemical stripping assay of Cd(II). The detection limit of the method was found to be 0.08 μg L −1 (S/N = 3) that is lower than the maximum contaminant level of Cd(II) allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in standard drinking waters. The proposed electrode exhibits good applicability for monitoring Cd(II) in various real samples. - Highlights: • A new nanocomposite was prepared and applied to the modification of CPE. • The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. • The electrode was used to the rapid and selective determination of Cd(II)

  7. Improvement of the electrochemical and electrocatalytic behavior of Prussian blue/carbon nanotubes composite via ionic liquid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keihan, A.H.; Sajjadi, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the greatly improved electrochemical properties of Prussian blue/carbon nanotubes (PB/CNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode via a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) treatment. Firstly, the GC electrodes were modified with nanocomposites of RTIL/CNTs. Then, the PB nanoparticles were electrodeposited onto the modified electrode surface. Compared with the PB/CNTs/GC, the PB/RTIL/CNTs/GC electrodes showed higher PB surface concentration value of 2.42 × 10 −9 mol cm −2 , indicating that PB deposition efficiency was improved by 1.8 fold. The apparent diffusion coefficient for K + displayed value of 5.77 × 10 −11 cm 2 s −1 , which was one order of magnitude higher than that in the absence of RTIL. PB/RTIL/CNTs/GC modified electrodes showed higher electron transfer rate of 2.44 s −1 (2.35 times as much as that of PB/CNTs/GC electrodes). RTIL modified electrodes also displayed high sensitivity toward H 2 O 2 reduction (185.90 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) with low detection limit of 0.49 μM. The RTIL modified electrodes stored dry at room temperature preserved almost 100% of their initial currents over a period of 1 month, a useful property for commercial applications

  8. Microenvironment effects in electrocatalysis: ionic-liquid-like coating on carbon nanotubes enhances the Pd-electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuwen; Dong, Zhengping; Yang, Honglei; Guo, Shujing; Gou, Galian; Ren, Ren; Zhu, Zhejun; Jin, Jun; Ma, Jiantai

    2013-02-11

    A new catalyst consisting of ionic liquid (IL)-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition support-enhanced electrocatalytic Pd nanoparticles (Pd@IL(Cl(-))-CNTs) was successfully fabricated and applied in direct ethanol alkaline fuel cells. The morphology, structure, component and stability of Pd@IL(Cl(-))-CNTs were systematic characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The new catalyst exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity, better tolerance and electrochemical stability than the Pd nanoparticles (NPs) immobilized on CNTs (Pd@CNTs), which was ascribed to the effects of the IL, larger electrochemically active surface area (ECSA), and greater processing performance. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) at various scan rates illustrated that the oxidation behaviors of ethanol at all electrodes were controlled by diffusion processes. The investigation of the different counteranions demonstrated that the performance of the IL-CNTs hybrid material was profoundly influenced by the subtly varied structures of the IL moiety. All the results indicated that the Pd@IL(Cl(-))-CNTs catalyst is an efficient anode catalyst, which has potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells and the strategy of IL functionalization of CNTs could be available to prepare other carbonaceous carrier supports to enhance the dispersivity, stability, and catalytic performance of metal NPs as well. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Imidazolium Ionic Liquid Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Improved Interfacial Charge Transfer and Simultaneous Determination of Dihydroxybenzene Isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; an imidazolium ionic liquid (IL is used to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs by covalent bonding on the MWNT surface. The functionalization not only provides a hydrophilic surface for ion accessibility but also prevents the aggregation of MWNTs. The IL-functionalized MWNTs were then applied for the electrochemical determination of the dihydroxybenzene isomers hydroquinone (HQ; catechol (CC; and resorcinol (RC, exhibiting excellent recognition ability towards the three compounds. The linear calibration ranges for HQ; CC and RC are 0.9–150 μM; 0.9–150 μM and 1.9–145 μM and the detection limits are found to be 0.15 μM for HQ; 0.10 μM for CC and 0.38 μM for RC based on S/N of 3. The proposed electrochemical sensor was also found to be useful for the determination of the dihydroxybenzene isomers in Yellow River water with reliable recovery.

  10. Nanomolar simultaneous determination of levodopa and serotonin at a novel carbon ionic liquid electrode modified with Co(OH)2 nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, Ali; Taheri, Ali Reza; Aminikhah, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel modified carbon ionic liquid electrode is fabricated as Nafion/Co(OH) 2 –MWCNTs/CILE. ► The modified electrode was used as the new sensor for nanomolar simultaneous determinations of L-dopa and serotonin. ► The electrode was impermeable to uric acid and ascorbic acid and other anionic species as electroactive coexistent compounds. ► Several techniques as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used for investigations. ► The proposed sensor showed a wide linear range, low detection limit, high stability and good reproducibility. -- Abstract: A novel modified carbon ionic liquid electrode is prepared as an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of levodopa (L-dopa) and serotonin (5-HT). The experimental results suggest that a carbon ionic liquid electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles, and coated with Nafion (Nafion/Co(OH) 2 –MWCNTs/CILE), accelerates the electron transfer reactions of L-dopa and 5-HT. In addition it shows no significant interferences of uric acid and ascorbic acid as electroactive coexistent compounds with L-dopa and 5-HT in biological systems. The fabricated sensor revealed some advantages such as convenient preparation, good stability and high sensitivity toward 5-HT and L-dopa determination. The DPV data showed that the obtained anodic peak currents were linearly dependent on the L-dopa and 5-HT concentrations in the range of 0.25–225 and 0.05–75 μmol L −1 , respectively. The applicability of the modified electrode was demonstrated by simultaneous determination of 5-HT and L-dopa in human serum

  11. Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the...

  12. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  13. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Najafi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied

  14. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Mojgan [Department of Materials Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), 65169 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied.

  15. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Venlafaxine at a Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes-Ionic Liquid Gel Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Its Electrochemical Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic oxidation of venlafaxine (VEN was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE, the modified electrode by a gel containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophate (BMIMPF6 in 0.10 mol L−1 phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 6.8. It was found that an irreversible anodic oxidation peak of VEN with the peak potential (Epa as 0.780 V appeared at MWCNTs-RTIL/GCE. The electrode reaction process was a diffusion-controlled one and the electrochemical oxidation involved two electrons transferring and two protons participation. Furthermore, the charge-transfer coefficient (α, and the electrode reaction rate constant (kf of VEN were found to be 0.91 and 3.04×10−2 s−1, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the electrocatalytic oxidation peak currents were linearly dependent on the concentration of VEN in the concentration range from 2.0×10−6 mol L−1 ~ 2.0×10−3 mol L−1 with the limit of detection (S / N = 3 as 1.69×10−6 mol L−1. The proposed method has been successfully applied in the electrochemical quantitative determination of VEN content in commercial venlafaxine hydrochloride capsules and the determination results could meet the requirement of the quantitative determination.

  16. Immunoassay for serum amyloid A using a glassy carbon electrode modified with carboxy-polypyrrole, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ionic liquid and chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Chunyong; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Guolin; Guo, Yanlei; Yu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    We report on a highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay for the serum inflammation marker amyloid A (SAA). It is making use of a glassy carbon electrode that was modified with carboxy-endcapped polypyrrole (PPy-α-COOH), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), ionic liquid and chitosan acting as the support platform. The nanocomposite increases the sensitivity and stability of the assay. Antibody against SAA was immobilized on a monolayer surface consisting of PPy-α-COOH. The electrode material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and differential pulse voltammetry. The calibration plot for this assay, when operated at 0.16 V (vs. SCE) and applied to spiked serum samples, is linear in the 0.001 to 900 ng mL −1 SAA concentration range, and the detection limit is as low as 0.3 pg mL −1 (at an S/N ratio of 3). The electrode is stable and highly sensitive. The detection scheme is likely to be applicable to numerous other kinds of immunoassays. (author)

  17. Recent development of carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamabe, Tokio [Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan); [Inst. for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto (Japan)

    1995-03-15

    Recent developments of carbon nanotubes are reviewed. Analytical solutions for the electronic structure of carbon nanotube on the basis of thight-binding approximation are presented and interpreted using the concepts of crystal orbital. The electronic properties of actual carbon nanotubes are presented. The electronic structures of carbon nanotubes in the presence of magnetic fiels are also summerized. (orig.)

  18. Purification of carbon nanotubes via selective heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Wilson, William L.; Jin, Sung Hun; Dunham, Simon N.; Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad; Du, Frank; Huang, Yonggang; Song, Jizhou

    2017-11-21

    The present invention provides methods for purifying a layer of carbon nanotubes comprising providing a precursor layer of substantially aligned carbon nanotubes supported by a substrate, wherein the precursor layer comprises a mixture of first carbon nanotubes and second carbon nanotubes; selectively heating the first carbon nanotubes; and separating the first carbon nanotubes from the second carbon nanotubes, thereby generating a purified layer of carbon nanotubes. Devices benefiting from enhanced electrical properties enabled by the purified layer of carbon nanotubes are also described.

  19. Non-enzymatic sensing of uric acid using a carbon nanotube ionic-liquid paste electrode modified with poly(β-cyclodextrin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yonghong; Ji, Xiaoling; Wang, Ling; Qiu, Hongyan; Zhai, Xiurong; Wang, Haibo; Liu, Xinsheng; Guo, Le; Liu, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    We describe a nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor for uric acid. It is based on a carbon nanotube ionic-liquid paste electrode modified with poly(β-cyclodextrin) that was prepared in-situ by electropolymerization. The functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and the surface morphology of the modified electrodes were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical response of uric acid was studied by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry. The effects of scan rate, pH value, electropolymerization cycles and accumulation time were also studied. Under optimized experimental conditions and at a working voltage of 500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (3 M KCl), response to uric acid is linear in the 0.6 to 400 μΜ and in the 0.4 to 1 mΜ concentration ranges, and the detection limit is 0.3 μΜ (at an S/N of 3). The electrode was successfully applied to the detection of uric acid in (spiked) human urine samples. (author)

  20. Quasi Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Incorporating Highly Conducting Polythiophene-Coated Carbon Nanotube Composites in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polythiophene (PTh composites with the host filler multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT have been used, for the first time, in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. A quasi solid-state DSCs with the hybrid MWNT-PTh composites, an ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl imidazolium iodide (PMII, was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and higher cell efficiency (4.76% was achieved, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.29%. The MWNT-PTh nanoparticles are exploited as the extended electron transfer materials and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I−3.

  1. Graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with an amine-terminated ionic liquid for determination of (Z)-3-(chloromethylene)-6-fluorothiochroman-4-one in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Yuan, Yanan; Xiang, Can; Yan, Hongyuan; Han, Yehong; Qiao, Fengxia

    2016-11-25

    A new type of amine-terminated-ionic-liquid-functionalized graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid material (IL-G/MWCNTs) was synthesized and used as an adsorbent in miniaturized pipette tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography for the isolation and determination of (Z)-3-(chloromethylene)-6-fluorothiochroman-4-one (CMFT) in urine. Parameters for the preparation of IL-G/MWCNTs and the PT-SPE procedure, including the mass ratio of graphene oxide and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, the mass ratio of graphene oxide and the ionic liquid, and the type and volume of washing and elution solvents were optimized to achieve higher extraction efficiency. Good linearity of the method was achieved in the range 0.03-5.0μgmL -1 with a coefficient of determination (r 2 ) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.009 and 0.030μgmL -1 , respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions, expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs), were evaluated by performing replicate analyses of samples spiked at 0.1μgmL -1 on the same day (n=6) and over three consecutive days, and were 4.8 and 5.5%, respectively. Recoveries between 73.9 and 93.9% were obtained at three spiking levels, with RSDs≤7.9%. Five batches of the adsorbent were investigated to confirm the reliability of the preparation method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel magnetic ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube for the simultaneous determination of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides and their metabolites in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Mai; Liu, Donghui; Zhao, Lu; Han, Jiajun; Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zqzhou@cau.edu.cn

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • A new kind of ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube has been synthesized and applied for simultaneous analysis of AOPPs and their metabolites. • The potential pollutants, such as metabolites of AOPPs, have been analyzed. • The mechanism of absorption has been discussed. • Varieties of experiment factors were optimized and selected. • This method has been successfully applied in the analysis of real water samples. - Abstract: A reliable, sensitive, rapid and environmentally friendly analysis procedure for the simultaneous determination of the analytes with a wide range of polarity in the environmental water was developed by coupling dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (d-MSPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–diode array detector (DAD) and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS), in this work. Magnetic ionic liquid modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-IL-MWCNTs) were prepared by spontaneous assembly of magnetic nanoparticles and imidazolium-modified carbon nanotubes, and used as the sorbent of d-MSPE to simultaneously extract aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides (AOPPs) and their polar acid metabolites due to the excellent π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions and anion exchange ability. The factors, including the amount of sorbent, pH of the sample solution, extraction time and the volume of elution solvent were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed d-MSPE coupling to HPLC–DAD system had a satisfactory performance, the limits of detection (LODs, defined as the signal to noise ratio of 3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, defined as the signal to noise ratio of 10) for analytes in Milli-Q water were in the range of 2.8–14.3 and 9.8–43.2 μg L{sup −1} respectively. Calibration curves were linear (r{sup 2} > 0.998) over the concentration range from 0.02 to 1 mg L{sup −1}. The recoveries of the eight analytes ranged

  3. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min -1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 μm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 μm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm -1 , increased to 0.7 S cm -1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  4. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  5. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mingming; Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan; Shea, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV–vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0–2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris–HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m"2 g"−"1), high adsorption capacity (55

  6. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingming, E-mail: liumm@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Shea, Kenneth J., E-mail: kjshea@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2016-08-17

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV–vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0–2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris–HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high adsorption

  7. A novel immunosensor for Enterobacter sakazakii based on multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/thionine modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao; Dou Wenchao; Zhan Xuejia; Zhao Guangying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Constructed a novel immunosensor using MWCNT/[BMIM]PF 6 /thionine for E. sakazakii. ► Optimum conditions for the detection of E. sakazakii were investigated. ► The properties of proposed immunosensor were studied by AFM and CVs. ► The biosensor exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, stability and accuracy. - Abstract: A novel immunosensor for Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) based on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF 6 ) and thionine (Thi) was developed for the first time. The surface morphologies of modified electrodes were characterized by means of atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrochemical performance of the immunosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Horseradish peroxidase labeled antibody to E. sakazakii in [BMIM]PF 6 showed high activity and stability. Under optimal conditions, E. sakazakii could be detected in range of 10 3 –10 9 CFU/ml with detection limit of 7.7 × 10 1 CFU/ml. The proposed immunosensor exhibited excellent long-time storage stability and had potential use in clinical immunoassay of E. sakazakii.

  8. Carbon nanotube junctions and devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, H.W.Ch.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Postma presents transport experiments performed on individual single-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are molecules entirely made of carbon atoms. The electronic properties are determined by the exact symmetry of the nanotube lattice, resulting in either metallic or

  9. Electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L-C

    2006-01-01

    The properties of a carbon nanotube are dependent on its atomic structure. The atomic structure of a carbon nanotube can be defined by specifying its chiral indices (u, v), that specify its perimeter vector (chiral vector), with which the diameter and helicity are also determined. The fine electron beam available in a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) offers a unique probe to reveal the atomic structure of individual nanotubes. This review covers two aspects related to the use of the electron probe in the TEM for the study of carbon nanotubes: (a) to understand the electron diffraction phenomena for inter-pretation of the electron diffraction patterns of carbon nanotubes and (b) to obtain the chiral indices (u, v), of the carbon nanotubes from the electron diffraction patterns. For a nanotube of a given structure, the electron scattering amplitude from the carbon nanotube is first described analytically in closed form using the helical diffraction theory. From a known structure as given by the chiral indices (u, v), its electron diffraction pattern can be calculated and understood. The reverse problem, i.e. assignment of the chiral indices from an electron diffraction pattern of a carbon nanotube, is approached from the relationship between the electron scattering intensity distribution and the chiral indices (u, v). We show that electron diffraction patterns can provide an accurate and unambiguous assignment of the chiral indices of carbon nanotubes. The chiral indices (u, v) can be read indiscriminately with a high accuracy from the intensity distribution on the principal layer lines in an electron diffraction pattern. The symmetry properties of electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes and the electron diffraction from deformed carbon nanotubes are also discussed in detail. It is shown that 2mm symmetry is always preserved for single-walled carbon nanotubes, but it can break down for multiwalled carbon nanotubes under some special circumstances

  10. Hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride using chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes with pyridinium based ionic liquid and decorated with highly dispersed Mn nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappan, Amutha; Puguan, John Marc C.; Chung, Wook-Jin; Kim, Hern

    2015-10-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/Ionic liquid (IL)/Mn nanohybrids are synthesized and their catalytic activity is examined for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Transmission electron microscopy reveals that Mn nanoparticles well-distributed on the MWCNTs surface. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Mn and Ni atom in the nanohybrids. The nanohybrids exhibit excellent catalytic lifetime and gives the total turnover number of 18496 mol H2/mol catalyst in the hydrolysis of NaBH4, which can be attributed to the presence of Mn atom and IL containing nickel halide anion. It is worthy of note that a very small amount of catalyst is used for this hydrolysis reaction. The activation energy is found to be 40.8 kJ/mol by MWCNTs/IL/Mn nanohybrids from the kinetic study of the hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The improved hydrogen generation rate, lower activation energy, and less expensive make the nanohybrids promising candidate as catalyst for the hydrogen generation from NaBH4 solution. The nanohybrids are easy to prepare, store and yet catalytically active. The recycling process is very simple and further purification is not tedious.

  11. Impact of non-functionalized and ionic liquid modified carbon nanotubes on mechanical and thermal properties of ethylene- octene copolymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, T; Meri, R Merijs; Zicans, J; Grigalovica, A; Roja, Zh; Reinholds, I

    2016-01-01

    In this article the development and characterization of composites made from metallocene based ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) with 38% octene content, non-modified or modified multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), covalently functionalised with long chain hexadecyl moiety imidazolium ionic liquid (IL-f-MWCNTs), is presented. The procedure of MWCNTs functionalization is discussed. In order to obtain a good dispersion of the filler, composites with MWCNTs and IL-f-MWCNTs in the concentration range of 0.5-12 wt.% were made by ultrasonication / thermoplastic mixing method. The results indicated improvement in mechanical properties with increase of the filler content. The methodology of the development of EOC matrix nanocomposites with IL-f-MWCNTs showed advantages of the conductive material creation with high mechanical stiffness compared to direct melt mixing of EOC with non-modified MWCNTs. A notable enhancement of thermal stability was observed in case of both pristine MWCNTs and IL-f-MWCNTs containing EOC nanocomposites, which was attributed to scavenging action of the nanofiller. Modification of EOC with IL-f-MWCNTs showed somewhat increased efficiency in enhancing overall thermal stability of the composites because of better dispersion of the nanofiller due to compatibilizing effect of IL modifier. (paper)

  12. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  13. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  14. Adhered Supported Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dale F.; Craft, Benjamin J.; Jaffe, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (NTs) in excess of 200 μm long are grown by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon vapors. The nanotubes grow continuously without the typical extinction due to catalyst encapsulation. A woven metal mesh supports the nanotubes creating a metal supported nanotube (MSNT) structure. The 140 μm wide mesh openings are completely filled by 70 nm diameter multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs are straight, uniform and highly crystalline. Their wall thickness is about 10 nm (30 graphite layers). The adherent NTs are not removed from the support in a Scotch tape pull test. A 12.5 cm 2 capacitor made from two MSNT structures immersed in 1 M KCl has a capacitance of 0.35 F and an equivalent series resistance of 0.18 Ω. Water flows through the MSNT at a flow velocity of 1 cm/min with a pressure drop of 15 inches of water. With the support removed, the MWNTs naturally form a carbon nanocomposite (CNC) paper with a specific area of 80 m 2 /gm, a bulk density of 0.21 g/cm 3 , an open pore fraction of 0.81, and a resistivity of 0.16 Ω-cm

  15. Doping of three-dimensional porous carbon nanotube-graphene-ionic liquid composite into polyaniline for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography determination of alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lulu; Wu, Mian; Feng, Yingying; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao, E-mail: bzzeng@whu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    In this work, ionic liquid (IL, i.e. 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), carboxyl multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used to prepare three-dimensional porous material (MWCNTs-rGO-IL) by one-step self-assembly, then it was co-electrodeposited with polyaniline (PANI) on stainless steel wires by cyclic voltammetry. The resulting coating (PANI-MWCNTs-rGO-IL) was characterized by using FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy etc, and it showed porous structure and had high thermal stability. Furthermore, it was found to be very suitable for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of alcohols (i.e. octanol, nonanol, geraniol, decanol, undecanol and dodecanol). By coupling with gas chromatography, wide linear ranges and low limits of detection (i.e. 2.2–28.3 ng L{sup −1}) were obtained for the alcohols. The coating also presented good repeatability and reproducibility; the relative standard deviations for intra-fiber and fiber-to-fiber were less than 5.6% (n = 5) and 7.0% (n = 5) respectively. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of alcohols in tea drinks, and the recoveries for standards added were 85.6–114%. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional porous material (MWCNTs-rGO-IL) was synthesized by self-assembly. • A new PANI-MWCNTs-rGO-IL composite coating was prepared by electrochemical method. • It presented high thermal stability and extraction selectivity for alcohols.

  16. A novel polymeric ionic liquid-coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the solid-phase extraction of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qian; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Qin

    2016-10-05

    A novel magnetic adsorbent, benzyl groups functionalized imidazolium-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (m-MWCNTs@PIL), has been successfully synthesized and applied for the extraction of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD). The m-MWCNTs@PIL were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta-potential nanoparticles. In this method, the m-MWCNTs@PIL could interact with Cu, Zn-SOD through hydrogen bonding, π-π and electrostatic interactions. The extraction performance of the m-MWCNTs@PIL in the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure was investigated, coupled with the determination by UV-vis spectrophotometer. Compared with m-MWCNTs@IL and m-MWCNTs, the m-MWCNTs@PIL exhibited the highest extraction capacity of 29.1 mg/g for Cu, Zn-SOD. The adsorbed Cu, Zn-SOD remained high specific activity after being eluted from m-MWCNTs@PIL by 1 moL/L NaCl solution. Besides, the m-MWCNTs@PIL could be easily recycled and successfully employed in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD from real samples. Under the optimal conditions, the precision, repeatability and stability of the proposed method were investigated and the RSDs were 0.29%, 1.68% and 0.54%, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 82.7-102.3%, with the RSD between 3.47% and 5.35%. On the basis of these results, the developed method has great potential in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD or other analytes from biological samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Doping of three-dimensional porous carbon nanotube-graphene-ionic liquid composite into polyaniline for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography determination of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lulu; Wu, Mian; Feng, Yingying; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-01-01

    In this work, ionic liquid (IL, i.e. 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), carboxyl multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used to prepare three-dimensional porous material (MWCNTs-rGO-IL) by one-step self-assembly, then it was co-electrodeposited with polyaniline (PANI) on stainless steel wires by cyclic voltammetry. The resulting coating (PANI-MWCNTs-rGO-IL) was characterized by using FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy etc, and it showed porous structure and had high thermal stability. Furthermore, it was found to be very suitable for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of alcohols (i.e. octanol, nonanol, geraniol, decanol, undecanol and dodecanol). By coupling with gas chromatography, wide linear ranges and low limits of detection (i.e. 2.2–28.3 ng L"−"1) were obtained for the alcohols. The coating also presented good repeatability and reproducibility; the relative standard deviations for intra-fiber and fiber-to-fiber were less than 5.6% (n = 5) and 7.0% (n = 5) respectively. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of alcohols in tea drinks, and the recoveries for standards added were 85.6–114%. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional porous material (MWCNTs-rGO-IL) was synthesized by self-assembly. • A new PANI-MWCNTs-rGO-IL composite coating was prepared by electrochemical method. • It presented high thermal stability and extraction selectivity for alcohols.

  18. Liquid-liquid extraction of cadmium(II by TIOACl (tri-iso-octylammonium chloride ionic liquid and its application to a TIOACl impregnated carbon nanotubes system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, Francisco J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of cadmium(II by the ionic liquid (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl in Exxsol D100 from hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated. The extraction reaction is exothermic. The numerical analysis of metal distribution data suggests the formation of R3NH+CdCl3− and (R3NH+2CdCl42− species in the organic phase. The results obtained for cadmium(II distribution have been implemented in an impregnated multi-walled carbon nanotubes system. The influence of aqueous solution stirring speed (250–2000 min−1, adsorbent dosage (0.05–0.2 g and temperature (20 °C–60 °C on cadmium adsorption have been investigated.Se ha estudiado la extracción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio HCl, por el líquido iónico (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl disuelto en Exxsol D100. La reacción de extracción tiene un carácter exotérmico. El análisis numérico de la distribución del metal sugiere la formación de las especies R3NH+CdCl3− y (R3NH+2CdCl42− en la fase orgánica. Estos resultados se han implementado en un sistema que utiliza nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple impregnados con este líquido iónico. Se han investigado diversas variables experimentales: velocidad de agitación de la disolución acuosa (250–2000 min−1, adición del adsorbente (0,05–0,2 g y temperatura (20–60 °C.

  19. Carbon nanotube plane fastener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Hirahara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a feature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs that arises when the surfaces of two vertically-aligned CNT brushes are pressed together. Adhesion between the CNTs creates a plane fastener-like device. Observations from scanning electron microscopy and measurements of adhesion properties indicate a device-dependence on CNT density and shape near the tip region. Among other applications, such fasteners have the potential to attach small components onto micron-sized electronic devices.

  20. Carbon nanotube network varactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalov, A A; Anoshkin, I V; Lioubtchenko, D V; Räisänen, A V; Erdmanis, M; Ovchinnikov, V; Nasibulin, A G

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling. (paper)

  1. A novel polymeric ionic liquid-coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the solid-phase extraction of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Qian; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Qin

    2016-10-05

    A novel magnetic adsorbent, benzyl groups functionalized imidazolium-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (m-MWCNTs@PIL), has been successfully synthesized and applied for the extraction of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD). The m-MWCNTs@PIL were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta-potential nanoparticles. In this method, the m-MWCNTs@PIL could interact with Cu, Zn-SOD through hydrogen bonding, π-π and electrostatic interactions. The extraction performance of the m-MWCNTs@PIL in the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure was investigated, coupled with the determination by UV–vis spectrophotometer. Compared with m-MWCNTs@IL and m-MWCNTs, the m-MWCNTs@PIL exhibited the highest extraction capacity of 29.1 mg/g for Cu, Zn-SOD. The adsorbed Cu, Zn-SOD remained high specific activity after being eluted from m-MWCNTs@PIL by 1 moL/L NaCl solution. Besides, the m-MWCNTs@PIL could be easily recycled and successfully employed in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD from real samples. Under the optimal conditions, the precision, repeatability and stability of the proposed method were investigated and the RSDs were 0.29%, 1.68% and 0.54%, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 82.7–102.3%, with the RSD between 3.47% and 5.35%. On the basis of these results, the developed method has great potential in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD or other analytes from biological samples. - Highlights: • A strategy for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD based on polymeric ionic liquid has been developed. • The Cu, Zn-SOD remained high specific activity after extraction. • The magnetic adsorbent could be recycled and successfully employed in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD from real samples.

  2. A novel polymeric ionic liquid-coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the solid-phase extraction of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Qian; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A novel magnetic adsorbent, benzyl groups functionalized imidazolium-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-coated magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (m-MWCNTs@PIL), has been successfully synthesized and applied for the extraction of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD). The m-MWCNTs@PIL were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta-potential nanoparticles. In this method, the m-MWCNTs@PIL could interact with Cu, Zn-SOD through hydrogen bonding, π-π and electrostatic interactions. The extraction performance of the m-MWCNTs@PIL in the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure was investigated, coupled with the determination by UV–vis spectrophotometer. Compared with m-MWCNTs@IL and m-MWCNTs, the m-MWCNTs@PIL exhibited the highest extraction capacity of 29.1 mg/g for Cu, Zn-SOD. The adsorbed Cu, Zn-SOD remained high specific activity after being eluted from m-MWCNTs@PIL by 1 moL/L NaCl solution. Besides, the m-MWCNTs@PIL could be easily recycled and successfully employed in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD from real samples. Under the optimal conditions, the precision, repeatability and stability of the proposed method were investigated and the RSDs were 0.29%, 1.68% and 0.54%, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 82.7–102.3%, with the RSD between 3.47% and 5.35%. On the basis of these results, the developed method has great potential in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD or other analytes from biological samples. - Highlights: • A strategy for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD based on polymeric ionic liquid has been developed. • The Cu, Zn-SOD remained high specific activity after extraction. • The magnetic adsorbent could be recycled and successfully employed in the extraction of Cu, Zn-SOD from real samples.

  3. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte based on poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene), carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides nanocomposites for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Amr M.

    Clean and renewable energy systems have emerged as an important area of research having diverse and significant new applications. These systems utilize different energy storage methods such as the batteries and supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage devices that are designed to bridge the gap between batteries and conventional capacitors. Supercapacitors which store electrical energy by electrical double layer capacitance are based on large surface area structured carbons. The materials systems in which the Faradaic reversible redox reactions store electrical energy are the transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers. Among the different types of conducting polymers, poly (3, 4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is extensively investigated owing to its chemical and mechanical stability. Due to instability of aqueous electrolytes at high voltages and toxicity of organic electrolytes, potential of supercapacitors has not been fully exploited. A novel aspect of this work is in utilizing the ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte to design solid-state supercapacitors for energy storage. Various electrochemical systems were investigated including graphene, PEDOT, PEDOT-carbon nanotubes, PEDOT-manganese oxide, and PEDOT-iron oxide nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of solid-state supercapacitor devices was evaluated based on cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge (CD), prolonged cyclic tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Raman spectroscopy technique was also utilized to analyze the bonding structure of the electrode materials. The graphene solid-state supercapacitor system displayed areal capacitance density of 141.83 mF cm-2 based on high potential window up to 4V. The PEDOT solid-state supercapacitor system was synthesized in acetonitrile and aqueous mediums achieving areal capacitance density of 219.17 mF cm-2. The hybrid structure of solid-state supercapacitors was also

  4. Preparation and characterization of room temperature ionic liquid/single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites and their application to the direct electrochemistry of heme-containing proteins/enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Pan; Liu, Shuna; Wu, Ping; Cai, Chenxin

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the formation and possible electrochemical application of a novel nanocomposite based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF 4 , a hydrophilic RTIL) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]PF 6 , a hydrophobic RTIL). The nanocomposites ([bmim]BF 4 -SWNTs, and [bmim]PF 6 -SWNTs) were formed by simply grinding the SWNTs with the respective RTIL. The results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the nanocomposites were formed by adsorption of an imidazolium ion on the surface of SWNTs via the 'cation-π' interaction. SEM images showed that [bmim]BF 4 -SWNTs (or [bmim]PF 6 -SWNTs) nanocomposites could uniformly cover the surface of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode resulting in a RTILs-SWNTs/GC modified electrode with a high stability. The RTILs-SWNTs composite could be readily used as a matrix to immobilize heme-containing proteins/enzymes (myoglobin, cytochrome c, and horseradish peroxidase) without undergoing denaturation, as was verified by UV-vis and circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopic results. The voltammetric results showed that heme-containing proteins/enzymes entrapped in RTILs-SWNTs composites displayed a pair of well-defined, stable redox peaks, which were ascribed to their direct electron-transfer reactions. The results of controlled experiments showed that the positive charged imidazolium ion played a significant effect on the electrochemical parameters, such as the redox peak separation and the value of the formal potentials, etc., of the electron-transfer reaction of non-neutral species dissolved in solution or immobilized on the electrode surface. Further results demonstrated that the heme-containing proteins/enzymes entrapped in RTILs-SWNTs composites could still retain their bioelectrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of oxygen and hydrogen

  5. Carbon Nanotubes and Modern Nanoagriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2015-01-27

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have been prominent members of the nanomaterial family. Owing to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes have been proven to be a useful tool in the field of plant science. They were frequently perceived to bring about valuable biotechnological and agricultural applications that still remain beyond experimental realization. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the ability of carbon nanotubes to traverse different plant cell barriers. These studies, also, assessed the toxicity and environmental impacts of these nanomaterials. The knowledge provided by these studies is of practical and fundamental importance for diverse applications including intracellular labeling and imaging, genetic transformation, and for enhancing our knowledge of plant cell biology. Although different types of nanoparticles have been found to activate physiological processes in plants, carbon nanotubes received particular interest. Following addition to germination medium, carbon nanotubes enhanced root growth and elongation of some plants such as onion, cucumber and rye-grass. They, also, modulated the expression of some genes that are essential for cell division and plant development. In addition, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were evidenced to penetrate thick seed coats, stimulate germination, and to enhance growth of young tomato seedlings. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can penetrate deeply into the root system and further distribute into the leaves and the fruits. In recent studies, carbon nanotubes were reported to be chemically entrapped into the structure of plant tracheary elements. This should activate studies in the fields of plant defense and wood engineering. Although, all of these effects on plant physiology and plant developmental biology have not been fully understood, the valuable findings promises more research activity in the near future toward complete scientific understanding of

  6. Probing the electrochemical double layer of an ionic liquid using voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy: a comparative study of carbon nanotube and glassy carbon electrodes in [EMIM](+)[EtSO(4)](-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J P; Goonetilleke, P C; Pettit, C M; Roy, D

    2010-05-15

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are compared as techniques for analyzing double layer capacitances of ionic liquids (ILs) at the surfaces of two carbon-based electrodes. These systems are relevant for energy storage supercapacitors and often are associated with unconventional electrochemical properties. Certain theoretical and experimental aspects of CV and EIS necessary for quantitative evaluation of the capacitance characteristics of such systems are explored. The experiments use 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium ethylsulfate as a model IL electrolyte in combination with a porous electrode of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The results are compared with those obtained with a nonporous glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The time is constant, and hence the power delivery characteristics of the experimental cell are affected by the electrolyte resistance and residual faradaic reactions of the IL, as well as by the spatially inhomogeneous electrode surfaces. It is shown that adequate characterization of these IL-electrode systems can be achieved by combining CV with EIS. A phenomenological framework for utilizing this combination is discussed.

  7. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  8. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetat, J.-P.; Bonard, J.-M.; Thomson, N. H.; Kulik, A. J.; Forró, L.; Benoit, W.; Zuppiroli, L.

    A variety of outstanding experimental results on the elucidation of the elastic properties of carbon nanotubes are fast appearing. These are based mainly on the techniques of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the Young's moduli of single-wall nanotube bundles and multi-walled nanotubes, prepared by a number of methods. These results are confirming the theoretical predictions that carbon nanotubes have high strength plus extraordinary flexibility and resilience. As well as summarising the most notable achievements of theory and experiment in the last few years, this paper explains the properties of nanotubes in the wider context of materials science and highlights the contribution of our research group in this rapidly expanding field. A deeper understanding of the relationship between the structural order of the nanotubes and their mechanical properties will be necessary for the development of carbon-nanotube-based composites. Our research to date illustrates a qualitative relationship between the Young's modulus of a nanotube and the amount of disorder in the atomic structure of the walls. Other exciting results indicate that composites will benefit from the exceptional mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, but that the major outstanding problem of load transfer efficiency must be overcome before suitable engineering materials can be produced.

  9. Carbon nanotube based photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudanski, Ludovic; Minoux, Eric; Schnell, Jean-Philippe; Xavier, Stephane; Pribat, Didier; Legagneux, Pierre; Gangloff, Laurent; Teo, Kenneth B K; Robertson, John; Milne, William I

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel photocathode which is an array of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), each MWCNT being associated with one p-i-n photodiode. Unlike conventional photocathodes, the functions of photon-electron conversion and subsequent electron emission are physically separated. Photon-electron conversion is achieved with p-i-n photodiodes and the electron emission occurs from the MWCNTs. The current modulation is highly efficient as it uses an optically controlled reconfiguration of the electric field at the MWCNT locations. Such devices are compatible with high frequency and very large bandwidth operation and could lead to their application in compact, light and efficient microwave amplifiers for satellite telecommunication. To demonstrate this new photocathode concept, we have fabricated the first carbon nanotube based photocathode using silicon p-i-n photodiodes and MWCNT bunches. Using a green laser, this photocathode delivers 0.5 mA with an internal quantum efficiency of 10% and an I ON /I OFF ratio of 30

  10. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  11. Carbon nanotube biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites, or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we describe their structural and physical properties, functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers. PMID:26579509

  12. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  13. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  14. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Perry, William L [Jemez Springs, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  15. Electronics with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avouris, P.

    2007-01-01

    From mobile phones and laptops to Xboxes and iPods, it is difficult to think of any aspect of modern life that has not been touched by developments in electronics, computing and communications over the last few decades. Many of these technological advances have arisen from our ability to create ever smaller electronic devices, in particular silicon-based field effect transistors (FETs), which has led to denser, faster and less power-hungry circuits. The problem is that this device miniaturization, or 'scaling', cannot continue forever. Fundamental scientific and technological limitations exist that will make it impossible to build better performing silicon devices below a certain size. This potential show-stopper has inspired a worldwide effort to develop alternative device technologies based on 1D materials or those that exploit the spin, as well as the charge, of electrons. One promising and, in principle, simpler approach is to maintain the operating concept of today's silicon-based FETs but to replace a key component of the device - the semiconducting silicon channel - with 1D nanostructures that have much more versatile electrical-transport properties. Among the different 1D materials that have been developed, those with the most desirable properties are 'single-walled' carbon nanotubes, which were first created in 1993 by Sumio Ijima at the NEC Fundamental Research Laboratory in Tsukuba, Japan, and by Donald Bethune of IBM's Almaden Research Center in California. These materials are hollow tubes made from rolled up sheets of carbon just one atom thick, otherwise known as graphene. In the March issue of Physics World, Phaedon Avouris discusses some of the many properties and applications of carbon nanotubes, which he describes as an 'engineer's dream' because of their exceptionally high strength and heat conduction. (U.K.)

  16. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  18. Carbon Nanotube based Nanotechnolgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M.

    2000-10-01

    Carbon nanotube(CNT) was discovered in the early 1990s and is an off-spring of C60(the fullerene or buckyball). CNT, depending on chirality and diameter, can be metallic or semiconductor and thus allows formation of metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor junctions. CNT exhibits extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties and offers remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing and data storage technology, sensors, composites, storage of hydrogen or lithium for battery development, nanoelectromechanical systems(NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy(SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. A common growth method now is based on CVD though surface catalysis is key to synthesis, in contrast to many CVD applications common in microelectronics. A plasma based variation is gaining some attention. This talk will provide an overview of CNT properties, growth methods, applications, and research challenges and opportunities ahead.

  19. Proposal of Carbon Nanotube Inductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsubaki, K; Nakajima, Y; Hanajiri, T; Yamaguchi, H

    2006-01-01

    The inductors made of carbon Nanotube (CNT) have been proposed. Though the fabrication of the proposed inductor is still challenging and has many problems, merits of the proposed inductor are following...

  20. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  1. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Churchill, H O H; Herring, P K

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual......, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications....

  2. Electrocatalytic properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes with titanium dioxide and benzofuran derivative/ionic liquid for simultaneous determination of isoproterenol and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Khoshroo, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 and benzofuran derivative were uniformly deposited onto carbon nanotubes • This nanocomposite can be used as a sensor in isoproterenol detection • This sensor shows a great enhancement in sensitivity, selectivity and stability - Abstract: In this paper we report synthesis and application of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 ), 9-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)-6,7-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,d] furan-1(2H)-one (benzofuran derivative (DDF)) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL) as high sensitive sensors for simultaneous determination of isoproterenol (IP) and serotonin (5-HT) using glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode was characterized by different methods including a scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of DDF was obtained at the modified glassy carbon electrode by direct electron transfer between the DDF and the electrode. Dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity was exemplified at the modified electrode, as an electrochemical sensor to study the electro oxidation of IP and 5-HT. The differential pulse voltammetry data showed that the obtained anodic peak currents were linearly dependent on the IP and 5-HT concentrations in the range of 0.1–1300.0 and 1.0–650.0 μM, respectively. The applicability of the modified electrode was demonstrated by simultaneous determination of IP and 5-HT in human serum

  3. Functional materials based on carbon nanotubes: Carbon nanotube actuators and noncovalent carbon nanotube modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifield, Leonard S.

    Carbon nanotubes have attractive inherent properties that encourage the development of new functional materials and devices based on them. The use of single wall carbon nanotubes as electromechanical actuators takes advantage of the high mechanical strength, surface area and electrical conductivity intrinsic to these molecules. The work presented here investigates the mechanisms that have been discovered for actuation of carbon nanotube paper: electrostatic, quantum chemical charge injection, pneumatic and viscoelastic. A home-built apparatus for the measurement of actuation strain is developed and utilized in the investigation. An optical fiber switch, the first demonstrated macro-scale device based on the actuation of carbon nanotubes, is described and its performance evaluated. Also presented here is a new general process designed to modify the surface of carbon nanotubes in a non-covalent, non-destructive way. This method can be used to impart new functionalities to carbon nanotube samples for a variety of applications including sensing, solar energy conversion and chemical separation. The process described involves the achievement of large degrees of graphitic surface coverage with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through the use of supercritical fluids. These molecules are bifunctional agents that anchor a desired chemical group to the aromatic surface of the carbon nanotubes without adversely disrupting the conjugated backbone that gives rise the attractive electronic and physical properties of the nanotubes. Both the nanotube functionalization work and the actuator work presented here emphasize how an understanding and control of nanoscale structure and phenomena can be of vital importance in achieving desired performance for active materials. Opportunities for new devices with improved function over current state-of-the-art can be envisioned and anticipated based on this understanding and control.

  4. Carbon nanotube computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaker, Max M; Hills, Gage; Patil, Nishant; Wei, Hai; Chen, Hong-Yu; Wong, H-S Philip; Mitra, Subhasish

    2013-09-26

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy-delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. Owing to substantial fundamental imperfections inherent in CNTs, however, only very basic circuit blocks have been demonstrated. Here we show how these imperfections can be overcome, and demonstrate the first computer built entirely using CNT-based transistors. The CNT computer runs an operating system that is capable of multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we implement 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This experimental demonstration is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet realized. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next generation of highly energy-efficient electronic systems.

  5. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  6. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries, enabled by sophisticated fabrication, have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin...... blockade. This can be exploited to read out spin and valley qubits, and to measure the decay of these states through coupling to nuclear spins and phonons. A second unique property of carbon nanotubes is that the combination of valley freedom and electron-electron interactions in one dimension strongly...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two...

  7. A novel antibody–antigen based impedimetric immunosensor for low level detection of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients via modification of a gold nanoparticles decorated multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, Elham [Nano Drug Delivery Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Ziba [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-18

    Highlights: • Design of a novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of HER2 in serum samples. • Use of a multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode modified with AuNPs as a base. • Immobilization of monoclonal HER2 antibody on AuNPs/MWCILE using 1,6-hexanedithiol as a cross linker. • Achieving linear dynamic range and limit of detection of 10–110 ng mL{sup −1} and 7.4 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. • Method development and validation and application to assay of HER2 in biological fluids. - Abstract: A highly sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on a gold nanoparticles/multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode (AuNPs/MW-CILE) was developed for the determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the extent of immobilization and to retain the immunoactivity of the antibody Herceptin on the electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed for characterization of various layers coated onto the AuNPs/MW-CILE. The impedance measurements at different steps were based on the charge transfer kinetics of the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} redox pair. The immobilization of antibody and the corresponding antigen–antibody interaction at the electrode surface altered the interfacial electron transfer. The interactions of antibody with various concentrations of antigen were also monitored via the change of impedance response. The results showed that the charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increasing concentrations of HER2 antigen. The linear range and limit of detection were found as 10–110 ng mL{sup −1} and 7.4 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor were validated. The results showed that the prepared immunosensor is a useful tool for screening of trace amounts of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and the nanotube heterojunctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for nanoscale molecular electronic device components. Experimental measurements on the conductivity, rectifying behavior and conductivity-chirality correlation have also been made. While quasi-one dimensional simple heterojunctions between nanotubes with different electronic behavior can be generated by introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise all hexagon graphene sheet. Other complex 3- and 4-point junctions may require other mechanisms. Structural stability as well as local electronic density of states of various nanotube junctions are investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GDBMD) scheme that incorporates non-orthogonality of the orbitals. The junctions investigated include straight and small angle heterojunctions of various chiralities and diameters; as well as more complex 'T' and 'Y' junctions which do not always obey the usual pentagon-heptagon pair rule. The study of local density of states (LDOS) reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap. The proposed three and four pointjunctions are one of the smallest possible tunnel junctions made entirely of carbon atoms. Furthermore the electronic behavior of the nanotube based device components can be taylored by doping with group III-V elements such as B and N, and BN nanotubes as a wide band gap semiconductor has also been realized in experiments. Structural properties of heteroatomic nanotubes comprising C, B and N will be discussed.

  9. Multiscale Modeling with Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A

    2006-02-21

    Technologically important nanomaterials come in all shapes and sizes. They can range from small molecules to complex composites and mixtures. Depending upon the spatial dimensions of the system and properties under investigation computer modeling of such materials can range from equilibrium and nonequilibrium Quantum Mechanics, to force-field-based Molecular Mechanics and kinetic Monte Carlo, to Mesoscale simulation of evolving morphology, to Finite-Element computation of physical properties. This brief review illustrates some of the above modeling techniques through a number of recent applications with carbon nanotubes: nano electromechanical sensors (NEMS), chemical sensors, metal-nanotube contacts, and polymer-nanotube composites.

  10. Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Highly Efficient Energy Generation and Storage Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    solution processing methods, including filtration, solution-casting, electrophoretic deposition, and Langmuir - Blodgett deposition. However, most...supercapacitors with environmentally friendly ionic liquid electrolytes. These new nanocomposite electrodes consist of the high-surface-area activated...carbons, carbon nanotubes, and ionic liquids as the integrated constituent components. The resultant composites show significantly improved charge

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  12. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  13. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes bridging metal electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlar, M.; Vojs, M.; Marton, M.; Vesel, M.; Redhammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    In our work we demonstrate growth of carbon nanotubes that can conductively bridge the metal electrodes. The role of different catalysts was examined. Interdigitated metal electrodes are made from copper and we are using bimetal Al/Ni as catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes. We are using this catalyst composition for growth of the single-walled carbon nanotube network. (authors)

  14. Voltammetric sensing of bisphenol A based on a single-walled carbon nanotubes/poly{3-butyl-1-[3-(N-pyrrolyl)propyl] imidazolium ionic liquid} composite film modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xuemin; Ren, Tongqing; Ma, Ming; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhan, Guoqing; Li, Chunya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-ionic liquid (IL) nanocomposite fabrication. • SWCNTs-Poly-IL film modified electrode was prepared and characterized. • Voltammetric behaviors of bisphenol A were investigated thoroughly. • Sensitive voltammetric method for bisphenol A determination was developed. -- Abstract: Using carboxylic acid-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COO − ) as an anion and 3-butyl-1-[3-(N-pyrrolyl)propyl]imidazolium as a cation, a novel SWCNTs-COO-ionic liquid (SWCNTs-COO-IL) nanocomposite was fabricated successfully. The as-prepared SWCNTs-COO-IL nanocomposite was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The SWCNTs-COO-IL nanocomposite was coated onto a glassy carbon electrode surface followed by cyclic voltammetric scanning to fabricate a SWCNTs/poly{3-butyl-1-[3-(N-pyrrolyl)propyl] imidazolium ionic liquid} composite film modified electrode (SWCNTs/Poly-IL/GCE). Scanning electron microscope and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize SWCNTs/Poly-IL/GCE. Electrochemical behaviors of bisphenol A (BPA) at the SWCNTs/Poly-IL/GCE were investigated thoroughly. It was found that an obvious oxidation peak appeared without reduction peak in the reverse scanning, indicating an irreversible electrochemical process. The oxidation peak currents of BPA were linearly related to scan rate in the range of 20–300 mV s −1 , suggesting an adsorption controlled process rather than a diffusion controlled process. Differential pulse voltammetry was employed for the voltammetric sensing of BPA. Experimental conditions such as film thickness, pH value, accumulation potential and time that influence the analytical performance of the SWCNTs/Poly-IL/GCE were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was linearly related to BPA concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10 −9 to 3.0 × 10 −5 mol L

  15. Structural transformations of carbon chains inside nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Jamie H.; Ruemmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Buechner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In situ aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the structural transformations of carbon chains that occur in the interior region of carbon nanotubes. We find electron-beam irradiation leads to the formation of two-dimensional carbon structures that are freely mobile inside the nanotube. The inner diameter of the nanotube influences the structural transformations of the carbon chains. As the diameter of the nanotube increases, electron-beam irradiation leads to curling of the chains and eventually the formation of closed looped structures. The closed looped structures evolve into spherical fullerenelike structures that exhibit translational motion inside the nanotubes and also coalesce to form larger nanotube structures. These results demonstrate the use of carbon nanotubes as test tubes for growing small carbon nanotubes within the interior by using only electron-beam irradiation at 80 kV.

  16. Carbon nanotube: the inside story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were serendipitously discovered as a byproduct of fullerenes by direct current (DC) arc discharge; and today this is the most-wanted material in the nanotechnology research. In this brief review, I begin with the history of the discovery of CNTs and focus on CNTs produced by arc discharge in hydrogen atmosphere, which is little explored outside my laboratory. DC arc discharge evaporation of pure graphite rod in pure hydrogen gas results in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of high crystallinity in the cathode deposit. As-grown MWCNTs have very narrow inner diameter. Raman spectra of these MWCNTs show high-intensity G-band, unusual high-frequency radial breathing mode at 570 cm(-1), and a new characteristic peak near 1850 cm(-1). Exciting carbon nanowires (CNWs), consisting of a linear carbon chain in the center of MWCNTs are also produced. Arc evaporation of graphite rod containing metal catalysts results in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the whole chamber like macroscopic webs. Two kinds of arc method have been developed to produce SWCNTs: Arc plasma jet (APJ) and Ferrum-Hydrogen (FH) arc methods. Some new purification methods for as-produced SWCNTs are reviewed. Finally, double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are also described.

  17. Newton Output Blocking Force under Low-Voltage Stimulation for Carbon Nanotube-Electroactive Polymer Composite Artificial Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Wen Peter; Yang, Ming-Chia; Yang, Chia-Hui; Zhong, Dai-Xuan; Hsu, Ming-Chun; Chen, YiWen

    2017-02-15

    This is a study on the development of carbon nanotube-based composite actuators using a new ionic liquid-doped electroactive ionic polymer. For scalable production purposes, a simple hot-pressing method was used. Carbon nanotube/ionic liquid-Nafion/carbon nanotube composite films were fabricated that exhibited a large output blocking force and a stable cycling life with low alternating voltage stimuli in air. Of particular interest and importance, a blocking force of 1.5 N was achieved at an applied voltage of 6 V. Operational durability was confirmed by testing in air for over 30 000 cycles (or 43 h). The superior actuation performance of the carbon nanotube/ionic liquid-Nafion/carbon nanotube composite, coupled with easy manufacturability, low driving voltage, and reliable operation, promises great potential for artificial muscle and biomimetic applications.

  18. Photodetector based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A.; Kitsyuk, E.; Ryazanov, R.; Timoshenkov, V.; Adamov, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Photodetector based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) was investigated. Sensors were done on quartz and silicon susbtrate. Samples of photodetectors sensors were produced by planar technology. This technology included deposition of first metal layer (Al), lithography for pads formation, etching, and formation of local catalyst area by inverse lithography. Vertically-aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes were directly synthesized on substrate by PECVD method. I-V analysis and spectrum sensitivity of photodetector were investigated for 0.4 μm - 1.2 μm wavelength. Resistivity of CNT layers over temperature was detected in the range of -20°C to 100°C.

  19. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  20. All carbon nanotubes are not created equal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geohegan, David B.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents the various factors that enter into consideration when choosing the source of carbon nanotubes for a specific application. Carbon nanotubes are giant molecules made of pure carbon. They have captured the imagination of the scientific community by the unique structure that provides superior physical, chemical, and electrical properties. However, a surprisingly wide disparity exists between the intrinsic properties determined under ideal conditions and the properties that carbon nanotubes exhibit in real world situations. The lack of uniformity in carbon nanotube properties is likely to be the main obstacle holding back the development of carbon nanotube applications. This tutorial addresses the nonuniformity of carbon nanotube properties from the synthesis standpoint. This synthesis-related nonuniformity is on top of the intrinsic chirality distribution that gives the ∼1:2 ratio of metallic to semiconducting nanotubes. From the standpoint of carbon bonding chemistry the variation in the quality and reproducibility of carbon nanotube materials is not unexpected. It is an intrinsic feature that is related to the metastability of carbon structures. The extent to which this effect is manifested in carbon nanotube formation is governed by the type and the kinetics of the carbon nanotube synthesis reaction. Addressing this variation is critical if nanotubes are to live up to the potential already demonstrated by their phenomenal physical properties.

  1. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube forests on copper catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszka, Bartosz; Terzyk, Artur P; Wiśniewski, Marek; Gauden, Piotr A; Szybowicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    The growth of carbon nanotubes on bulk copper is studied. We show for the first time, that super growth chemical vapor deposition method can be successfully applied for preparation of nanotubes on copper catalyst, and the presence of hydrogen is necessary. Next, different methods of copper surface activation are studied, to improve catalyst efficiency. Among them, applied for the first time for copper catalyst in nanotubes synthesis, sulfuric acid activation is the most promising. Among tested samples the surface modified for 10 min is the most active, causing the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests. Obtained results have potential importance in application of nanotubes and copper in electronic chips and nanodevices. (paper)

  2. Carbon nanotubes and methods of making carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Zhou, Lu; Saih, Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods that can be used to produce carbon nanotubes (hereinafter CNT) having an inner diameter about 5-55 nm, methods of tuning the inner diameter of CNTs (e.g., by adjusting reaction pressure

  3. Carbon nanotubes and methods of making carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-27

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods that can be used to produce carbon nanotubes (hereinafter CNT) having an inner diameter about 5-55 nm, methods of tuning the inner diameter of CNTs (e.g., by adjusting reaction pressure), CNTs having an inner diameter of greater than 20 nm or more, and the like.

  4. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  5. Nanoscale Carbon Greatly Enhances Mobility of a Highly Viscous Ionic Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    liquids (ILs) and apolar carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are disparate objects; nevertheless, their interaction leads to spontaneous CNT filling with ILs. Moreover, ionic diffusion of highly viscous ILs can increase 5-fold inside CNTs, approaching that of molecular liquids, even though the confined IL phase still......The ability to encapsulate molecules is one of the outstanding features of nanotubes. The encapsulation alters physical and chemical properties of both nanotubes and guest species. The latter normally form a separate phase, exhibiting drastically different behavior compared to the bulk. Ionic...

  6. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This

  7. Carbon nanotube-chalcogenide composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Š.; Orava, J.; Kohoutek, T.; Wágner, T.; Frumar, M.; Zima, Vítězslav; Hara, T.; Matsui, Y.; Ueda, K.; Pumera, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 1 (2010), s. 144-149 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chalcogenide glasses * composites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2010

  8. Polyurethane compounds having carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to semi-crystalline polyurethane (PUR) compositions filled with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and having improved electrical properties, which can be obtained on the basis of water-based polyurethane/CNT mixtures. The invention further relates to a method for producing polyurethane

  9. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Woong

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ˜75 F g-1, ˜987 kW kg-1 and ˜27 W h kg-1, respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (˜158 F g-1) and energy density (˜53 W h kg-1). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices.

  10. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Woong

    2012-04-20

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ~75 F g(-1), ~987 kW kg(-1) and ~27 W h kg(-1), respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (~158 F g(-1)) and energy density (~53 W h kg(-1)). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  11. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Chungui; Ji Lijun; Liu Huiju; Hu Guangjun; Zhang Shimin; Yang Mingshu; Yang Zhenzhong

    2004-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing isocyanate groups can extend the nanotube chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized carbon nanotubes containing highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface via the reaction between toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and carboxylated carbon nanotubes. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to carbon nanotubes. The content of isocyanate groups were determined by chemical titration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  12. Theoretical properties of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palser, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are invariably terminated with hemi-fullerene caps. In order to investigate the effect of these caps on the electronic structure, a method is developed to enumerate every hemi-fullerene cap which is commensurate with a given nanotube body. This algorithm is then applied to nanotubes for which I + m ≤ 25. The results of this algorithm are then used to study the effects of caps with different symmetries on the electronic structure of metallic and semi-conducting nanotubes within the Hueckel model. It is found that caps can cause localised and resonance states, although the likelihood of localised states occurring in capped metallic nanotubes is shown to be small. In addition, caps induce a non-uniform charge distribution, in which negative charge tends to accumulate on pentagon vertices. The thesis ends by describing two new density matrix methods for performing linear-scaling electronic-structure calculations within the independent electron approximation. Example calculations demonstrate that these methods provide efficient and robust ways of performing linear-scaling calculations, either grand canonically (at a fixed chemical potential) or canonically (at a fixed electron count). (author)

  13. Dispersability of Carbon Nanotubes in Biopolymer-Based Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tardani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the dispersability of carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions containing proteins, or nucleic acids, is discussed. Data reported previously are complemented by unpublished ones. In the mentioned nanotube-based systems several different phases are observed, depending on the type and concentration of biopolymer, as well as the amount of dispersed nanotubes. The phase behavior depends on how much biopolymers are adsorbing, and, naturally, on the molecular details of the adsorbents. Proper modulation of nanotube/biopolymer interactions helps switching between repulsive and attractive regimes. Dispersion or phase separation take place, respectively, and the formation of liquid crystalline phases or gels may prevail with respect to dispersions. We report on systems containing ss-DNA- and lysozyme-stabilized nanotubes, representative of different organization modes. In the former case, ss-DNA rolls around CNTs and ensures complete coverage. Conversely, proteins randomly and non-cooperatively adsorb onto nanotubes. The two functionalization mechanisms are significantly different. A fine-tuning of temperature, added polymer, pH, and/or ionic strength conditions induces the formation of a given supra-molecular organization mode. The biopolymer physico-chemical properties are relevant to induce the formation of different phases made of carbon nanotubes.

  14. Nitrotyrosine adsorption on carbon nanotube: a density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2014-05-01

    We have studied the effect of nitrotyrosine on electronic properties of different single-wall carbon nanotubes by density functional theory. Optimal adsorption configurations of nitrotyrosine adsorbed on carbon nanotube have been determined by calculation of adsorption energy. Adsorption energies indicate that nitrotyrosine is chemisorbed on carbon nanotubes. It is found that the nitrotyrosine adsorption modifies the electronic properties of the semiconducting carbon nanotubes significantly and these nanotubes become n-type semiconductors, while the effect of nitrotyrosine on metallic carbon nanotubes is not considerable and these nanotubes remain metallic. Results clarify sensitivity of carbon nanotubes to nitrotyrosine adsorption and suggest the possibility of using carbon nanotubes as biosensor for nitrotyrosine detection.

  15. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xixiang; Abutaha, Anas I.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been developed using pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes. The source and drain were vertically stacked, separated by a dielectric, and the carbon nanotubes were placed

  16. Torsional carbon nanotube artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Wallace, Gordon G; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D W; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-10-28

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes: Molecular Electronic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1997-01-01

    The carbon Nanotube junctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for use as the building blocks in the formation of nanoscale molecular electronic networks. While the simple joint of two dissimilar tubes can be generated by the introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise perfect hexagonal graphene sheet, more complex joints require other mechanisms. In this work we explore structural characteristics of complex 3-point junctions of carbon nanotubes using a generalized tight-binding molecular-dynamics scheme. The study of pi-electron local densities of states (LDOS) of these junctions reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap.

  18. 1/f noise in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Philip G.; Fuhrer, M. S.; Zettl, A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical noise characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotubes have been investigated. For all three cases of individual isolated nanotubes, thin films of interconnected nanotubes, and bulk nanotube mats, anomalously large bias-dependent 1/f noise is found. The noise magnitude greatly exceeds that commonly observed in metal films, carbon resistors, or even carbon fibers with comparable resistances. A single empirical expression describes the noise for all nanotube samples, suggesting a common noise-generating mechanism proportional only to the number of nanotubes in the conductor. We consider likely sources of the fluctuations, and consequences for electronic applications of nanotubes if the excessive noise cannot be suppressed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L- 1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract.

  20. Printing graphene-carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel on graphene paper: Towards flexible electrodes with efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenshan; Sun, Yimin; Xi, Jiangbo; Abdurhman, Abduraouf Alamer Mohamed; Ren, Jinghua; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-01-15

    The increasing demands for portable, wearable, and implantable sensing devices have stimulated growing interest in innovative electrode materials. In this work, we have demonstrated that printing a conductive ink formulated by blending three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene-carbon nanotube (CNT) assembly with ionic liquid (IL) on two-dimensional (2D) graphene paper (GP), leads to a freestanding GP supported graphene-CNT-IL nanocomposite (graphene-CNT-IL/GP). The incorporation of highly conductive CNTs into graphene assembly effectively increases its surface area and improves its electrical and mechanical properties. The graphene-CNT-IL/GP, as freestanding and flexible substrates, allows for efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles by means of ultrasonic-electrochemical deposition. Owing to the synergistic effect of PtAu alloy nanoparticles, 3D porous graphene-CNT scaffold, IL binder and 2D flexible GP substrate, the resultant lightweight nanohybrid paper electrode exhibits excellent sensing performances in nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon nanotubes for biological and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenrong; Thordarson, Pall; Gooding, J Justin; Ringer, Simon P; Braet, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, researchers have been exploring their potential in biological and biomedical applications. The recent expansion and availability of chemical modification and bio-functionalization methods have made it possible to generate a new class of bioactive carbon nanotubes which are conjugated with proteins, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids. The modification of a carbon nanotube on a molecular level using biological molecules is essentially an example of the 'bottom-up' fabrication principle of bionanotechnology. The availability of these biomodified carbon nanotube constructs opens up an entire new and exciting research direction in the field of chemical biology, finally aiming to target and to alter the cell's behaviour at the subcellular or molecular level. This review covers the latest advances of bio-functionalized carbon nanotubes with an emphasis on the development of functional biological nano-interfaces. Topics that are discussed herewith include methods for biomodification of carbon nanotubes, the development of hybrid systems of carbon nanotubes and biomolecules for bioelectronics, and carbon nanotubes as transporters for a specific delivery of peptides and/or genetic material to cells. All of these current research topics aim at translating these biotechnology modified nanotubes into potential novel therapeutic approaches. (topical review)

  2. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.; Cachim, P.B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery of carbon nanotubes. Sara ni carbon nanotube e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, S

    1994-01-20

    This paper describes the following matters on carbon nanotubes (CNt): CNt is discovered in carbon deposits generated in the tip of a negative electrode during DC arc discharge between carbon electrodes. CNt has a construction in which cylinders made of normally several layers are superposed, based on cylindrical crystals in a single layer with six-member rings of carbon atoms laid out. Spiral arrangement of carbon six-member rings has been discovered in the single-layered crystals. Five-member rings exist in a location where the CNt tip is closed, and seven-member rings in a location where the CNt presents a saddle-like curve, without exceptions. It is introduced theoretically that the electronic structure of the single-layered CNt depends on the cylinder diameter and spiral pitch. Replacing part of the carbon negative electrode with iron, and vaporizing iron and carbon simultaneously through arc discharge can result in a single-layered CNt with a diameter of 1 nm. Heating the CNt deposited with metallic lead in an oxygen atmosphere can form CNt containing lead compounds. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Interaction of multiwalled carbon nanotube produces structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been found to produce structural changes in Calf Thymus-DNA (CT-DNA). The interaction or binding of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was investigated in order to discover if it brings about any significant changes of the DNA double helix using CD spectra ...

  6. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From......In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms...... the calculated energies we determine the elastic properties of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (Young modulus, curvature constant) and perform a comparison with available experimental measurements and earlier theoretical predictions....

  7. Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wen; Dai, Liming

    2010-01-01

    In summary, CNTs have been explored as a new type of electrode materials for supercapacitors. Both randomly entangled and highly aligned CNTs have been investigated. The former is relatively easier to fabricate while the latter has a better capacitor performance. Combining the unique properties of CNTs with the high surface area of activated carbons or the additional pseduocapacitance of redox materials (electroactive polymers and metal oxides), high-capacitance and high-rate nanocomposites a...

  8. Optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gugang

    This thesis addresses the optical properties of novel carbon filamentary nanomaterials: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs), and SWNTs with interior C60 molecules ("peapods"). Optical reflectance spectra of bundled SWNTs are discussed in terms of their electronic energy band structure. An Effective Medium Model for a composite material was found to provide a reasonable description of the spectra. Furthermore, we have learned from optical absorption studies of DWNTs and C60-peapods that the host tube and the encapsulant interact weakly; small shifts in interband absorption structure were observed. Resonant Raman scattering studies on SWNTs synthesized via the HiPCO process show that the "zone-folding" approximation for phonons and electrons works reasonably well, even for small diameter (d effect, rather than the vdW interaction. Finally, we studied the chemical doping of DWNTs, where the dopant (Br anions) is chemically bound to the outside of the outer tube. The doped DWNT system is a model for a cylindrical molecular capacitor. We found experimentally that 90% of the positive charge resides on the outer tube, so that most of electric field on the inner tube is screened, i.e., we have observed a molecular Faraday cage effect. A self-consistent theoretical model in the tight-binding approximation with a classical electrostatic energy term is in good agreement with our experimental results.

  9. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  10. Structural properties of water around uncharged and charged carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezfoli, Amir Reza Ansari; Mehrabian, Mozaffar Ali; Rafsanjani, Hassan Hashemipour

    2013-01-01

    Studying the structural properties of water molecules around the carbon nanotubes is very important in a wide variety of carbon nanotubes applications. We studied the number of hydrogen bonds, oxygen and hydrogen density distributions, and water orientation around carbon nanotubes. The water density distribution for all carbon nanotubes was observed to have the same feature. In water-carbon nanotubes interface, a high-density region of water molecules exists around carbon nanotubes. The results reveal that the water orientation around carbon nanotubes is roughly dependent on carbon nanotubes surface charge. The water molecules in close distances to carbon nanotubes were found to make an HOH plane nearly perpendicular to the water-carbon nanotubes interface for carbon nanotubes with negative surface charge. For uncharged carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes with positive surface charge, the HOH plane was in tangential orientation with water-carbon nanotubes interface. There was also a significant reduction in hydrogen bond of water region around carbon nanotubes as compared with hydrogen bond in bulk water. This reduction was very obvious for carbon nanotubes with positive surface charge. In addition, the calculation of dynamic properties of water molecules in water-CNT interface revealed that there is a direct relation between the number of Hbonds and self-diffusion coefficient of water molecules

  11. Review of carbon nanotube nanoelectronics and macroelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che, Yuchi; Chen, Haitian; Gui, Hui; Liu, Jia; Liu, Bilu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to spur future development in electronics due to their unequalled electrical properties. In this article, we present a review on carbon nanotube-based circuits in terms of their electrical performance in two major directions: nanoelectronics and macroelectronics. In the nanoelectronics direction, we direct our discussion to the performance of aligned carbon nanotubes for digital circuits and circuits designed for radio-frequency applications. In the macroelectronics direction, we focus our attention on the performance of thin films of carbon nanotube random networks in digital circuits, display applications, and printed electronics. In the last part, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions of nanotube-based nano- and microelectronics. (invited review)

  12. Carbon nanotube woven textile photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Wang, Xuan; Mirri, Francesca; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Fujimura, Naoki; Suzuki, Daichi; Soundarapandian, Karuppasamy P.; Kawano, Yukio; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest in mobile and wearable technology demands the enhancement of functionality of clothing through incorporation of sophisticated architectures of multifunctional materials. Flexible electronic and photonic devices based on organic materials have made impressive progress over the past decade, but higher performance, simpler fabrication, and most importantly, compatibility with woven technology are desired. Here we report on the development of a weaved, substrateless, and polarization-sensitive photodetector based on doping-engineered fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes. This room-temperature-operating, self-powered detector responds to radiation in an ultrabroad spectral range, from the ultraviolet to the terahertz, through the photothermoelectric effect, with a low noise-equivalent power (a few nW/Hz 1 /2) throughout the range and with a Z T -factor value that is twice as large as that of previously reported carbon nanotube-based photothermoelectric photodetectors. Particularly, we fabricated a ˜1 -m-long device consisting of tens of p+-p- junctions and weaved it into a shirt. This device demonstrated a collective photoresponse of the series-connected junctions under global illumination. The performance of the device did not show any sign of deterioration through 200 bending tests with a bending radius smaller than 100 μ m as well as standard washing and ironing cycles. This unconventional photodetector will find applications in wearable technology that require detection of electromagnetic radiation.

  13. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L −1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L −1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic

  14. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L{sup −1} and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L{sup −1} of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic.

  15. Structure of Carbon Nanotube-dendrimer composite

    OpenAIRE

    Vasumathi, V.; Pramanik, Debabrata; Sood, A. K.; Maiti, Prabal K

    2012-01-01

    Using all atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we report the microscopic picture of the nanotube-dendrimer complex for PAMAM dendrimer of generation 2 to 4 and carbon nanotube of chirality (6,5). We find compact wrapping conformations of dendrimer onto the nanotube surface for all the three generations of PAMAM dendrimer. The degree of wrapping is more for non-protonated dendrimer compared to the protonated dendrimer. For comparison we also study the interaction of another dendrimer,...

  16. Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties...... of nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....

  17. Dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotube devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria

    The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane....... The electrical resistance of carbon nanotubes has been shown to be extremely sensitive to gas molecules. Dielectrophoresis is a method capable of quickly attracting nanotubes on microelectrodes by using an electric field, thus enabling nanotube integration in microsystems. Dielectrophoresis offers also....... A model for the dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes on microelectrodes was developed and several simulations were conducted using values from the available literature for the various key parameters. The model can give qualitative results regarding the parameters dominating the dielectrophoretic...

  18. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  19. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes as Optical Sensors in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrera, Consol; Torres Andón, Fernando; Feliu, Neus

    2017-11-28

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have become potential candidates for a wide range of medical applications including sensing, imaging, and drug delivery. Their photophysical properties (i.e., the capacity to emit in the near-infrared), excellent photostability, and fluorescence, which is highly sensitive to the local environment, make SWCNTs promising optical probes in biomedicine. In this Perspective, we discuss the existing strategies for and challenges of using carbon nanotubes for medical diagnosis based on intracellular sensing as well as discuss also their biocompatibility and degradability. Finally, we highlight the potential improvements of this nanotechnology and future directions in the field of carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications.

  1. Carbon nanotubes : from molecular to macroscopic sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, J.R.; Zhao, Qing; Frogley, M.D.; Meurs, E.R.; Prins, A.D.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Dunstan, D.J.; Wagner, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    The components that contribute to Raman spectral shifts of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT’s) embedded in polymer systems have been identified. The temperature dependence of the Raman shift can be separated into the temperature dependence of the nanotubes, the cohesive energy density of the

  2. Tuning the carbon nanotube photoluminescence enhancement at addition of cysteine through the change of external conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnosov, N.V.; Karachevtsev, M.V.; Leontiev, V.S.; Karachevtsev, V.A., E-mail: karachevtsev@ilt.kharkov.ua

    2017-01-15

    The enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) from the semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes suspended with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in water observed after amino acids doping is the largest at cysteine addition. The PL intensity increased through the passivation of p-defects on the carbon nanotube sidewall by the cysteine molecules due to thiol group. The effect of several external factors on the cysteine-induced enhancement of PL from carbon nanotubes covered with ssDNA was studied: UV irradiation, tip or bath sonication treatment of the suspension, the ionic strength and pH of aqueous suspension. It turned out that all these factors have an essential influence on the dependence of the PL enhancement on the cysteine concentration through inducing of additional defects on nanotube as well as a change of the nanotube surface coverage with polymer. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that PL from carbon nanotubes can be exploited successfully for the monitoring of cysteine concentration in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Cysteine doping enhances carbon nanotube emission more than other amino acids do. • SWNT emission dependence on cysteine concentration is tuned by UV irradiation and pH. • Type of sonication treatment influences SWNT PL dependence on cysteine concentration. • Polymer coverage and defectiveness of nanotubes effect on nanotube emission. • Graphic abstract.

  3. Quantum conductance of carbon nanotube peapods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S.C.; Louie, Steven G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a first-principles study of the quantum conductance of hybrid nanotube systems consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulating either an isolated single C60 molecule or a chain of C60 molecules (nanotube peapods). The calculations show a rather weak bonding interaction between the fullerenes and the SWCNTs. The conductance of a (10,10) SWCNT with a single C60 molecule is virtually unaffected at the Fermi level, but exhibits quantized resonant reductions at the molecular levels. The nanotube peapod arrangement gives rise to high density of states for the fullerene highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital bands

  4. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachevtsev, V.A.; Glamazda, A.Yu.; Zarudnev, E.S.; Karachevtsev, M.V.; Leontiev, V.S.; Linnik, A.S.; Plokhotnichenko, A.M.; Stepanian, S.G.; Lytvyn, O.S.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient immobilization of GOX onto a carbon nanotube network through the molecular interface formed by PSE is carried out. This conclusion is based on the analysis of AFM images of the network with the adsorbed enzyme, whose globules locate mainly along a nanotube. The band corresponding to the high-frequency component of the G mode in the RR spectrum of the nanotube with adsorbed PSE is downshifted by 0.7 cm -1 relative to this band in the spectrum of pristine nanotubes. The analysis of the intensities of bands assigned to the RBM of nanotubes with adsorbed PSE in comparison with the spectrum of pristine SWNTs revealed the intensity transformation, which can be explained by a change of the resonance condition with variation of the laser energy. Thus, we concluded that PSE molecules create nanohybrids with SWNTs, which ensures the further enzyme immobilization. As the RR spectrum of an SWNT:PSE:GOX film does not essentially differ from SWNT:PSE ones, this indicates that the molecular interface (PSE) isolates the enzyme from nanotubes strongly enough. Our studies on the conductive properties of a single walled carbon nanotube network sprayed onto a quartz substrate from a solution of nanotubes in dichlorobenzene demonstrated that the I(U) dependence has nonlinear character. Most likely, the nonlinearity is related to Schottky barriers, which originate on the contact between nanotubes and the gold electrode, as well as between nanotubes with different conductivities. The deposition of bioorganic compounds (PSE and GOX) on the carbon nanotube network is accompanied by a decrease of their conductivity. Most probably, such a decrease is caused by adsorbed PSE molecules, which induce the appearance of scattering centers for charge carriers on the nanotube surface. The following GOX adsorption has practically no effect on the conductivity of the nanotube network that evidences the reliable isolation of the nanotube surface from the enzyme by means of the molecular

  5. Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rifat, Ahmmed A. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Periodic highly dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays can act as photonic materials exhibiting band gaps in the visible regime and beyond terahertz range. MWCNT arrays in square arrangement for nanoscale lattice constants can be configured as a microcavity with predictable resonance frequencies. Here, computational analyses of compact square microcavities (≈0.8 × 0.8 μm{sup 2}) in MWCNT arrays were demonstrated to obtain enhanced quality factors (≈170–180) and narrow-band resonance peaks. Cavity resonances were rationally designed and optimized (nanotube geometry and cavity size) with finite element method. Series (1 × 2 and 1 × 3) and parallel (2 × 1 and 3 × 1) combinations of microcavities were modeled and resonance modes were analyzed. Higher order MWCNT microcavities showed enhanced resonance modes, which were red shifted with increasing Q-factors. Parallel microcavity geometries were also optimized to obtain narrow-band tunable filtering in low-loss communication windows (810, 1336, and 1558 nm). Compact series and parallel MWCNT microcavity arrays may have applications in optical filters and miniaturized optical communication devices.

  6. Filled and empty states of carbon nanotubes in water: Dependence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    We have carried out a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing a narrow carbon nanotube ..... tant system containing the nanotube is re-equilibrated for each ... quent production phase of the simulation run, the nanotube is ...

  7. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with silver clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cveticanin, Jelena; Krkljes, Aleksandra; Kacarevic-Popovic, Zorica; Mitric, Miodrag; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Trpkov, Djordje; Neskovic, Olivera

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an advanced method of one-step functionalization of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) using γ-irradiation was described. Two synthesis procedures, related with different reduction species, were employed. For the first time, poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA is successfully utilized as a source to reduce silver (Ag) metal ions without having any additional reducing agents to obtain Ag nanoparticles on CNTs. The decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles takes place through anchoring of (PVA) on nanotube's surface. Optical properties of as-prepared samples and mechanism responsible for the functionalization of carbon nanotubes were investigated using UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. Decorated carbon nanotubes were visualized using microscopic techniques: transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Also, the presence of Ag on the nanotubes was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This simple and effective method of making a carbon nanotube type of composites is of interest not only for an application in various areas of technology and biology, but for investigation of the potential of radiation technology for nanoengineering of materials.

  8. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  9. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  10. Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, N. N.; Il'in, O. I.; Il'ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.

  11. Carbon Nanotube Tape Vibrating Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibrating gyroscope includes a piezoelectric strip having length and width dimensions. The piezoelectric strip includes a piezoelectric material and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) substantially aligned and polled along the strip's length dimension. A spindle having an axis of rotation is coupled to the piezoelectric strip. The axis of rotation is parallel to the strip's width dimension. A first capacitance sensor is mechanically coupled to the spindle for rotation therewith. The first capacitance sensor is positioned at one of the strip's opposing ends and is spaced apart from one of the strip's opposing faces. A second capacitance sensor is mechanically coupled to the spindle for rotation therewith. The second capacitance sensor is positioned at another of the strip's opposing ends and is spaced apart from another of the strip's opposing faces. A voltage source applies an AC voltage to the piezoelectric strip.

  12. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotube; arc discharge; characterization; alignment; nanoscratch. 1. Introduction ... During arc discharge, when the gap between the electrodes is ∼ 1 mm, ..... increase in the D band intensity in the aligned region may not be possibly ...

  13. Carbon Nanotube Infused Launch Vehicle Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the past 5 years Orbital ATK has been investing in, prototyping, and testing carbon nanotube infused composite structures to evaluate their impact on launch...

  14. Thermophoresis of water droplets inside carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, Jens Honore; Oyarzua, Elton

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Nanotubes(CNTs) offer unique possibilities as fluid conduits with applications ranging from lab on a chip devices to encapsulation media for drug delivery. CNTs feature high mechanical strength, chemical and thermalstability and biocompatibility therefore they are promising candidates...

  15. Carbon Nano-Tube (CNT) Reinforced COPV

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduce the structural mass of future aerospace vehicles through the development of ultra lightweight materials and structures through the use of: Carbon nanotube...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Manfred; Bartsch, Karl; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Graff, Andreas; Täschner, Christine; Fink, Jörg

    2001-11-01

    The catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a very promising process with respect to large scale production of different kinds of carbon nanostructures. By modifying the deposition temperature, the catalyst material and the hydrocarbon nanofibers with herringbone structure, multi-walled nanotubes with tubular structure and single-walled nanotubes were deposited. Furthermore, layers of aligned multi-walled nanotubes could be obtained on oxidized silicon substrates coated with thin sputtered metal layers (Co, permalloy) as well as onto WC-Co hardmetals by using the microwave assisted plasma CVD process (MWCVD). The obtained carbon modifications were characterized by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The hydrogen storage capability of the nanofibers and nanotubes and the electron field emission of the nanotube layers was investigated.

  17. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  18. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  19. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  20. Ballistic resistance capacity of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylvaganam, Kausala; Zhang, L C

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have high strength, light weight and excellent energy absorption capacity and therefore have great potential applications in making antiballistic materials. By examining the ballistic impact and bouncing-back processes on carbon nanotubes, this investigation shows that nanotubes with large radii withstand higher bullet speeds and the ballistic resistance is the highest when the bullet hits the centre of the CNT; the ballistic resistance of CNTs will remain the same on subsequent bullet strikes if the impact is after a small time interval

  1. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke [Darien, IL; Hassanein, Ahmed [Bolingbrook, IL

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  2. Amorphous molecular junctions produced by ion irradiation on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenxia; Yu Liping; Zhang Wei; Ding Yinfeng; Li Yulan; Han Jiaguang; Zhu Zhiyuan; Xu Hongjie; He Guowei; Chen Yi; Hu Gang

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and molecular dynamics have demonstrated that electron irradiation could create molecular junctions between crossed single-wall carbon nanotubes. Recently molecular dynamics computation predicted that ion irradiation could also join single-walled carbon nanotubes. Employing carbon ion irradiation on multi-walled carbon nanotubes, we find that these nanotubes evolve into amorphous carbon nanowires, more importantly, during the process of which various molecular junctions of amorphous nanowires are formed by welding from crossed carbon nanotubes. It demonstrates that ion-beam irradiation could be an effective way not only for the welding of nanotubes but also for the formation of nanowire junctions

  3. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Bittencourt, Carla; Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  4. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    , microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis......The use of nanomaterials in separation science has increased rapidly in the last decade. The reason for this is to take advantage of the unique properties of these materials, such as a very high surface-to-volume ratio and favourable sorbent behaviour. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon...

  5. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  6. Formation of a robust and stable film comprising ionic liquid and polyoxometalate on glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Toward sensitive and fast detection of hydrogen peroxide and iodate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195 - 1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidi, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195 - 1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gorton, Lo [Institute of Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-06-30

    A robust and stable film comprising n-octylpyridinum hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]) and 1:12 phosphomolybdic acid (PMo{sub 12}) was prepared on glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (GCE/MWCNTs) by dip-coating. The cyclic voltammograms of the GCE/MWCNTs/[C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]-PMo{sub 12} showed three well-defined pairs of redox peaks due to the PMo{sub 12} system. The surface coverage for the immobilized PMo{sub 12} and the average values of the electron transfer rate constant for three pairs of redox peaks were evaluated. The GCE/MWCNTs/[C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]-PMo{sub 12} showed great electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and iodate. The kinetic parameters of the catalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and iodate at the electrode surface and analytical features of the sensor for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide and iodate were evaluated.

  7. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Templated Microfabrication of Porous Silicon-Carbon Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Jensen, David; Dadson, Andrew; Vail, Michael; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Carbon nanotube templated microfabrication (CNT-M) of porous materials is demonstrated. Partial chemical infiltration of three dimensional carbon nanotube structures with silicon resulted in a mechanically robust material, precisely structured from the 10 nm scale to the 100 micron scale. Nanoscale dimensions are determined by the diameter and spacing of the resulting silicon/carbon nanotubes while the microscale dimensions are controlled by lithographic patterning of the CNT growth catalyst. We demonstrate the utility of this hierarchical structuring approach by using CNT-M to fabricate thin layer chromatography (TLC) separations media with precise microscale channels for fluid flow control and nanoscale porosity for high analyte capacity.

  9. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  10. Physical removal of metallic carbon nanotubes from nanotube network devices using a thermal and fluidic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Alexandra C; Shaughnessy, Michael; Wong, Bryan M; Kane, Alexander A; Krafcik, Karen L; Léonard, François; Kuznetsov, Oleksandr V; Billups, W Edward; Hauge, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices based on thin films of carbon nanotubes are currently limited by the presence of metallic nanotubes. Here we present a novel approach based on nanotube alkyl functionalization to physically remove the metallic nanotubes from such network devices. The process relies on preferential thermal desorption of the alkyls from the semiconducting nanotubes and the subsequent dissolution and selective removal of the metallic nanotubes in chloroform. The approach is versatile and is applied to devices post-fabrication. (paper)

  11. Synthesis and Characterization Carbon Nanotubes Doped Carbon Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuelong; Yan, Meifang; Liu, Zhenfa

    2017-12-01

    Polycondensation of phloroglucinol, resorcinol and formaldehyde with carbon nanotube (CNT) as the additives, using sodium carbonate as the catalyst, leads to the formation of CNT - doped carbon aerogels. The structure of carbon aerogels (CAs) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The specific surface area, pore size distribution and pore volume were measured by surface area analyzer. The results show that when the optimum doping dosage is 5%, the specific surface area of CNT - doped carbon aerogel is up to 665 m2 g-1 and exhibit plentiful mesoporous.

  12. Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Khare, Bishun

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method of low-temperature plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes provides for the simultaneous attachment of molecular groups of multiple (typically two or three) different species or different mixtures of species to carbon nanotubes at different locations within the same apparatus. This method is based on similar principles, and involves the use of mostly the same basic apparatus, as those of the methods described in "Low-Temperature Plasma Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes" (ARC-14661-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 45. The figure schematically depicts the basic apparatus used in the aforementioned method, with emphasis on features that distinguish the present alternative method from the other. In this method, one exploits the fact that the composition of the deposition plasma changes as the plasma flows from its source in the precursor chamber toward the nanotubes in the target chamber. As a result, carbon nanotubes mounted in the target chamber at different flow distances (d1, d2, d3 . . .) from the precursor chamber become functionalized with different species or different mixtures of species. In one series of experiments to demonstrate this method, N2 was used as the precursor gas. After the functionalization process, the carbon nanotubes from three different positions in the target chamber were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the molecular groups that had become attached. On carbon nanotubes from d1 = 1 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-N and C=N. On carbon nanotubes from d2 = 2.5 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-(NH)2 and/or C=NH2. (The H2 was believed to originate as residual hydrogen present in the nanotubes.) On carbon nanotubes from d3 = 7 cm no functionalization could be detected - perhaps, it was conjectured, because this distance is downstream of the plasma source, all of the free ions and free radicals of

  13. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  14. Phonon assisted thermophoretic motion of gold nanoparticles inside carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Philipp A.E.; Walther, Jens Honore; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the thermally driven mass transport of gold nanoparticles confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The observed thermophoretic motion of the gold nanoparticles correlates with the phonon dispersion exhibited by a standard carbon nanotube and...

  15. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  16. Carbon nanotubes : their synthesis and integration into nanofabricated structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druzhinina, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology has experienced constantly increasing interest over the past decades both from industry and academy. Commonly used nanomaterials include: nanoparticles, nanowires, quantum dots, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes, in particular, are promising building

  17. Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in unzipped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Xiaoxi; Li Baowen; Zhang Gang

    2011-01-01

    We study the thermal transport in completely unzipped carbon nanotubes, which are called graphene nanoribbons, partially unzipped carbon nanotubes, which can be seen as carbon-nanotube-graphene-nanoribbon junctions, and carbon nanotubes by using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the thermal conductivity of a graphene nanoribbon is much less than that of its perfect carbon nanotube counterparts because of the localized phonon modes at the boundary. A partially unzipped carbon nanotube has the lowest thermal conductivity due to additional localized modes at the junction region. More strikingly, a significant thermal rectification effect is observed in both partially unzipped armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes. Our results suggest that carbon-nanotube-graphene-nanoribbon junctions can be used in thermal energy control.

  18. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  19. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using ... The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental ... ordinary mechanical strength.

  20. Liquid crystalline order of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Ahlawat, Aditya; Mulkern, Brian; Doyle, Robert; Mongeau, Jennifer; Ogilvie, Alex

    2007-03-01

    Topological defects formed during phase transitions in liquid crystals provide a direct proof of the standard Cosmological model and are direct links to the Early Universe. On the other hand in Nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes can be manipulated and oriented directly by changing the liquid crystalline state of the nanotubes, in combination with organic liquid crystals. Currently there are no nano-assemblers, which makes the liquid crystal state of the nanotubes, one of the few ways of controlling them. We show the design of a fast and efficient polarized light ellipsometric system (a new modification of previous optical systems) that can provide fast quantitative real time measurements in two dimensions of the formation of topological defects in liquid crystals during phase transitions in lab settings. Our aim is to provide fundamental information about the formation of optically anisotropic structures in liquid crystals and the orientation of carbon nanotubes in electric field.

  1. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Barna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis.

  2. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  3. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Thermophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    nanotubes (unless encapsulated or housed) are quite fragile and are susceptible to disintegration especially if the nanotubes are touched or moved too...The acoustic impedance (defined as the product of material density and sound speed) of the top shell 12 should match the Attorney Docket No. 300009

  5. Chemical reactions confined within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, Scott A; Rance, Graham A; Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2016-08-22

    In this critical review, we survey the wide range of chemical reactions that have been confined within carbon nanotubes, particularly emphasising how the pairwise interactions between the catalysts, reactants, transition states and products of a particular molecular transformation with the host nanotube can be used to control the yields and distributions of products of chemical reactions. We demonstrate that nanoscale confinement within carbon nanotubes enables the control of catalyst activity, morphology and stability, influences the local concentration of reactants and products thus affecting equilibria, rates and selectivity, pre-arranges the reactants for desired reactions and alters the relative stability of isomeric products. We critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the confinement of chemical reactions inside carbon nanotubes from a chemical perspective and describe how further developments in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and the incorporation of multifunctionality are essential for the development of this ever-expanding field, ultimately leading to the effective control of the pathways of chemical reactions through the rational design of multi-functional carbon nanoreactors.

  6. Bulk Cutting of Carbon Nanotubes Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Kirk J. (Inventor); Rauwald, Urs (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Schmidt, Howard K. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Gu, Zhenning (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for attaining short carbon nanotubes utilizing electron beam irradiation, for example, of a carbon nanotube sample. The sample may be pretreated, for example by oxonation. The pretreatment may introduce defects to the sidewalls of the nanotubes. The method is shown to produces nanotubes with a distribution of lengths, with the majority of lengths shorter than 100 tun. Further, the median length of the nanotubes is between about 20 nm and about 100 nm.

  7. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  8. Carbon nanotubes in neuroregeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, we have experienced an increasing interest and an improved understanding of the application of nanotechnology to the nervous system. The aim of such studies is that of developing future strategies for tissue repair to promote functional recovery after brain damage. In this framework, carbon nanotube based technologies are emerging as particularly innovative tools due to the outstanding physical properties of these nanomaterials together with their recently documented ability to interface neuronal circuits, synapses and membranes. This review will discuss the state of the art in carbon nanotube technology applied to the development of devices able to drive nerve tissue repair; we will highlight the most exciting findings addressing the impact of carbon nanotubes in nerve tissue engineering, focusing in particular on neuronal differentiation, growth and network reconstruction. © 2013.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Bolometer for Absolute FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Solomon; Neira, Jorge; Tomlin, Nathan; Lehman, John

    We have developed and calibrated planar electrical-substitution bolometers which employ absorbers made from vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The nearly complete absorption of light by the carbon nanotubes from the visible range to the far-infrared can be exploited to enable a device with read-out in native units equivalent to optical power. Operated at cryogenic temperatures near 4 K, these infrared detectors are designed to have time constant near 10 ms and a noise floor of about 10 pW. Built upon a micro-machined silicon platform, each device has an integrated heater and thermometer, either a carbon nanotube thermistor or superconducting transition edge sensor, for temperature control. We are optimizing temperature-controlled measurement techniques to enable high resolution spectral calibrations using these devices with a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  10. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  11. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  12. Molecular interactions and thermal transport in ionic liquids with carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, João M P; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A; Pádua, Agílio A H

    2017-07-05

    We used molecular dynamics simulation to study the effect of suspended carbon nanomaterials, nanotubes and graphene sheets, on the thermal conductivity of ionic liquids, an issue related to understanding the properties of nanofluids. One important aspect that we developed is an atomistic model of the interactions between the organic ions and carbon nanomaterials, so we did not rely on existing force fields for small organic molecules or assume simple combining rules to describe the interactions at the liquid/material interface. Instead, we used quantum calculations with a density functional suitable for non-covalent interactions to parameterize an interaction model, including van der Waals terms and also atomic partial charges on the materials. We fitted a n-m interaction potential function with n values of 9 or 10 and m values between 5 and 8, so a 12-6 Lennard-Jones function would not fit the quantum calculations. For the atoms of ionic liquids and carbon nanomaterials interacting among themselves, we adopted existing models from the literature. We studied the imidazolium ionic liquids [C 4 C 1 im][SCN], [C 4 C 1 im][N(CN) 2 ], [C 4 C 1 im][C(CN) 3 ] and [C 4 C 1 im][(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N]. Attraction is stronger for cations (than for anions) above and below the π-system of the nanomaterials, whereas anions show stronger attraction for the hydrogenated edges. The ordering of ions around and inside (7,7) and (10,10) single-walled nanotubes, and near a stack of graphene sheets, was analysed in terms of density distribution functions. We verified that anions are found, as well as cations, in the first interfacial layer interacting with the materials, which is surprising given the interaction potential surfaces. The thermal conductivity of the ionic liquids and of composite systems containing one nanotube or one graphene stack in suspension was calculated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. Thermal conductivity was calculated along the axis of the nanotube and

  13. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L.; Cola, Baratunde A.

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna—a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current—was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ˜2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (˜10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation.

  14. Nitrogen in highly crystalline carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducati, C; Koziol, K; Stavrinadis, A; Friedrichs, S; Windle, A H; Midgley, P A

    2006-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an unprecedented degree of internal order were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) adding a nitrogen-containing compound to the hydrocarbon feedstock. Ferrocene was used as the metal catalyst precursor. The remarkable crystallinity of these nanotubes lies both in the isochirality and in the crystallographic register of their walls, as demonstrated by electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy experiments. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the walls of the nanotubes consist of truncated stacked cones, instead of perfect cylinders, with a range of apex angles that appears to be related to the nitrogen concentration in the synthesis process. The structure of armchair, zigzag and chiral nanotubes is modelled and discussed in terms of density of topological defects, providing an interesting comparison with our microscopy experiments. A growth mechanism based on the interplay of base- and tip-growth is proposed to account for our experimental observations

  15. Topological phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milz, Lars; Marganska-Lyzniak, Magdalena; Grifoni, Milena [Institut I - Theoretische Physik Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The topological superconducting phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes is discussed. Under the assumption of a short-ranged pairing potential, there are two spin-singlet states: an s-wave and an exotic p + ip-wave that are possible because of the special structure of the honeycomb lattice. The consequences for the possible presence of Majorana edge states in carbon nanotubes are addressed. In particular, regions in the magnetic field-chemical potential plane possibly hosting localized Majorana modes are discussed.

  16. Carbon nanotubes as anti-bacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Teodora; Matea, Cristian T; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Buzoianu, Anca Dana; Suciu, Soimita; Puia, Cosmin; Zdrehus, Claudiu; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

    2017-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections that have evolved via natural selection have increased alarmingly at a global level. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of novel antibiotics for the treatment of these infections. Functionalized carbon nanotubes through their unique properties hold great promise in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. This new family of nanovectors for therapeutic delivery proved to be innovative and efficient for the transport and cellular translocation of therapeutic molecules. The current review examines the latest progress in the antibacterial activity of carbon nanotubes and their composites.

  17. Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2010-03-02

    An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

  18. Underwater Acoustic Carbon Nanotube Thermophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    decreases rapidly as the distance from the conductor increases. Based on the rapid production of these temperature waves; the net effect is to produce a...fragile and are susceptible to disintegration especially if the nanotube fibers are touched or moved too quickly. A bare nanotube configuration also has...impedance (defined as the product of material density and sound speed) of the top shell 42 should match the radiation medium for higher efficiency

  19. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  20. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ∼75 F g −1 , ∼987 kW kg −1 and ∼27 W h kg −1 , respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (∼158 F g −1 ) and energy density (∼53 W h kg −1 ). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices. (paper)

  1. Geckolike high shear strength by carbon nanotube fiber adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Y.; Nakayama, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube adhesives can adhere strongly to surfaces as a gecko does. The number of carbon nanotube layers is an important determinant of the contact area for adhesion. Balancing the catalyst ratio and buffer layer used for chemical vapor deposition processing controls the number of carbon nanotube layers and their distribution. The features of carbon nanotubes determine the shear strength of adhesion. Carbon nanotubes with a broad distribution of layers exhibit enhanced shear strength with equivalent adhesive capability to that of a natural Tokay Gecko (Gekko gecko)

  2. Ionanocarbon Lubricants. The Combination of Ionic Liquids and Carbon Nanophases in Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Avilés

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present overview will focus on the tribological applications of what we have called ionanocarbon lubricants, that is, the combination of carbon nanophases (graphene, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, carbon nanodots and room-temperature ionic liquids in new dispersions, blends, or modified nanostructures and their use in tribology, lubrication, and surface engineering as friction-reducing, antiwear, and surface-protecting agents in thin films and composite materials. Further research lines and factors that limit the practical applications of the outstanding research results are also highlighted. The very recent results in these lines of research make this a necessary brief review.

  3. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Debaprasad

    2014-01-01

    "The book, Caron Nanotube and Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects, authored by Drs. Debapraad Das and Hafizur Rahaman serves as a good source of material on CNT and GNR interconnects for readers who wish to get into this area and also for practicing engineers who would like to be updated in advances of this field."-Prof. Ashok Srivastava, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA"Mathematical analysis included in each and every chapter is the main strength of the materials. ... The book is very precise and useful for those who are working in this area. ... highly focused, very compact, and easy to apply. ... This book depicts a detailed analysis and modelling of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects. The book also covers the electrical circuit modelling of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons."-Prof. Chandan Kumar Sarkar, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

  4. Application of Nanoparticles/Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes for Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2005-01-01

    .... Variety of techniques such as fabrication of single wall carbon nanotubes, functionalization of nanotubes with antibodies, interaction of cells with antibodies on nanotube surfaces, and finally cell...

  5. Immobilization of redox mediators on functionalized carbon nanotube

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with redox mediators, namely, toluidine blue and thionin have been carried out and the performance of graphite electrode modified with functionalized carbon nanotubes is described. Mechanical immobilization of functionalized single-walled nanotube (SWNT) ...

  6. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  7. Nanotubes on Display: How Carbon Nanotubes Can Be Integrated into Electronic Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Opatkiewicz, Justin; LeMieux, Melburne C.; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-01-01

    Random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes show promise for use in the field of flexible electronics. Nanotube networks have been difficult to utilize because of the mixture of electronic types synthesized when grown. A variety of separation

  8. Electrochemical Metal Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dunsch, L.; Janda, Pavel; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Shinohara, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 427-435 ISSN 1344-9931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * electrodeposition * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.800, year: 2001

  9. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  10. Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhihong; Philip Wong, H.-S.; Mitra, S.; Bol, A.A.; Peng, Lianmao; Hills, Gage; Thissen, N.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past

  11. Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Minus, Marilyn L.; Jain, Rahul; Nepal, Dhriti; Kumar, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the extraordinary potential to change our lives by improving existing products and enabling new ones. Current and future research and industrial workforce professionals are very likely to encounter some aspects of nanotechnology including CNT science and technology in their education or profession. The simple structure…

  12. New approach to synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jong Keun; Choi, Kyo Hong; Cho, Kwon Koo; Kim, Ki Won; Nam, Tae Hyun; Ahn, Hyo Jun; Ahn, Jou Hyun; Cho, Gyu Bong

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized through chemical vapor deposition in argon gas atmosphere using Fe-2.5%Mo alloyed nanoparticles as a catalyst and H 2 /CH 4 gas mixture as a reaction gas. Fe-2.5 wt.%Mo alloyed nanoparticles with average diameter of 7, 20, 45 and 85 nm are prepared by the chemical vapor condensation process using the pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO) 5 ) and molybdenum hexacarbonyl (Mo(CO) 6 ). The morphologies of the CNTs are controlled by adjusting the nanoparticle size, reaction gas ratio and reaction temperature. With decreasing nanoparticle size under the same experimental conditions, the degree of crystalline perfection increases gradually and the morphologies of the carbon nanotubes vary from multi wall carbon nanotubes to single wall carbon nanotubes. Also, the ratio of reaction gas has an effect on the morphology and the degree of crystallinity of CNTs. In this work, it is suggested that morphology, diameter and degree of crystallinity of CNTs could be controlled by adjusting the reaction gas ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst size

  13. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes as Thermally Induced Water Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Brownian motors (TBMs) are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations to provide useful work. We introduce a TBM-based nanopump which enables continuous water flow through a carbon nanotube (CNT) by imposing an axial thermal gradient along its surface. We impose spatial asymmetry...

  15. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  16. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  17. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review...

  18. Biodistribution of Carbon Nanotubes in Animal Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter Horn; Clausen, Per Axel

    2017-01-01

    The many interesting physical and chemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) make it one of the most commercially attractive materials in the era of nanotechnology. Here, we review the recent publications on in vivo biodistribution of pristine and functionalized forms of single-walled and multi...

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Zhong, G.; Esconjauregui, S.; Zhang, C.; Fouquet, M.; Hofmann, S. [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    We review the growth mechanisms of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, in terms of what controls the growth rate and control of the catalyst lifetime. We also review the production of very high-density forests, in terms of increasing the catalyst particle density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.; Zhong, G.; Esconjauregui, S.; Zhang, C.; Fouquet, M.; Hofmann, S.

    2012-01-01

    We review the growth mechanisms of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, in terms of what controls the growth rate and control of the catalyst lifetime. We also review the production of very high-density forests, in terms of increasing the catalyst particle density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Carbon Nanotubes in Drug and Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirkiani, Soroush; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent important discoveries and developments in nanotechnology have had a remarkable and ever-increasing impact on many industries, especially materials science, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology. Within this book, the authors describe different features of carbon nanotubes, survey the properties of both the multi-walled and single-walled varieties, and cover their applications in drug and gene delivery.

  2. In-line manufacture of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Nicol Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo; Martini, Fabrizio; Corripio Luna, Oscar Enrique

    2015-04-28

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are facilitated by methods and apparatus disclosed herein. Advantageously, the methods and apparatus make use of a single production unit, and therefore provide for uninterrupted progress in a fabrication process. Embodiments of control systems for a variety of CNT production apparatus are included.

  3. A monolithic functional film of nanotubes/cellulose/ionic liquid for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiricò, Lucia; Lanzara, Giulia

    2014-12-01

    A novel monolithic, pre-fabricated, fully functional film made of a nanostructured free-standing layer is presented for a new and competitive class of easy-to-assemble flexible supercapacitors whose design is in-between the all solid state and the traditional liquid electrolyte. The film is made of two vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (VANT) electrodes that store ions, embedded-in, and monolithically interspaced by a solution of microcrystalline cellulose in a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate-EMIM Ac). The fine tuning of VANTs length and electrolyte/cellulose amount leads, in a sole and continuous block, to ions storage and physical separation between the electrodes without the need of the additional separator layer that is typically used in supercapacitors. Thus, physical discontinuities that can induce disturbances to ions mobility, are fully eliminated significantly reducing the equivalent series resistance and increasing the knee frequency, hence outclassing the best supercapacitors based on VANTs and non-aqueous electrolytes. The excellent electrochemical response can also be addressed to the chosen electrolyte that, not only has the advantage of leading to a significantly simpler and more affordable fabrication procedure, but has higher ionic conductivity, lower viscosity and higher ions mobility than other electrolytes capable of dissolving cellulose.

  4. Fluorescently labeled bionanotransporters of nucleic acid based on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novopashina, D.S.; Apartsin, E.K.; Venyaminova, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to the design of a new type of hybrids of oligonucleotides with fluorescein-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The approach is based on stacking interactions of functionalized nanotubes with pyrene residues in conjugates of oligonucleotides. The amino- and fluorescein-modified single walled carbon nanotubes are obtained, and their physico-chemical properties are investigated. The effect of the functionalization type of carbon nanotubes on the efficacy of the sorption of pyrene conjugates of oligonucleotides was examined. The proposed noncovalent hybrids of fluorescein-labeled carbon nanotubes with oligonucleotides may be used for the intracellular transport of functional nucleic acids.

  5. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Petersen, Elijah J.; Habteselassie, Mussie Y.; Mao, Liang; Huang, Qingguo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14 C-labeled MWCNTs into 14 CO 2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14 C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14 CO 2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  6. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yanmei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  7. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qiu; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2008-08-01

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  8. Defect complexes in carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashapa, MG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of defect complexes on the stability, structural and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes is investigated using the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method implemented...

  9. Decoration of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes by Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    tures inside the nanotubes to increase the available surface for catalysis6 or in ... most common method to decorate CNTs by metal nanoparticles and metal oxides due .... 2.6 Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes, Metal Nano- particles and ...

  10. Intrinsic Chirality Origination in Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Neal; Chen, Gugang; P Rajukumar, Lakshmy; Chou, Nam Hawn; Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert; Maruyama, Shigeo; Terrones, Mauricio; Harutyunyan, Avetik R

    2017-10-24

    Elucidating the origin of carbon nanotube chirality is key for realizing their untapped potential. Currently, prevalent theories suggest that catalyst structure originates chirality via an epitaxial relationship. Here we studied chirality abundances of carbon nanotubes grown on floating liquid Ga droplets, which excludes the influence of catalyst features, and compared them with abundances grown on solid Ru nanoparticles. Results of growth on liquid droplets bolsters the intrinsic preference of carbon nuclei toward certain chiralities. Specifically, the abundance of the (11,1)/χ = 4.31° tube can reach up to 95% relative to (9,4)/χ = 17.48°, although they have exactly the same diameter, (9.156 Å). However, the comparative abundances for the pair, (19,3)/χ = 7.2° and (17,6)/χ = 14.5°, with bigger diameter, (16.405 Å), fluctuate depending on synthesis temperature. The abundances of the same pairs of tubes grown on floating solid polyhedral Ru nanoparticles show completely different trends. Analysis of abundances in relation to nucleation probability, represented by a product of the Zeldovich factor and the deviation interval of a growing nuclei from equilibrium critical size, explain the findings. We suggest that the chirality in the nanotube in general is a result of interplay between intrinsic preference of carbon cluster and induction by catalyst structure. This finding can help to build the comprehensive theory of nanotube growth and offers a prospect for chirality-preferential synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the exploitation of liquid catalyst droplets.

  11. Review on properties, dispersion and toxicology of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the most intensely studied nano structures because of their unique properties. There are two types of carbon nanotubes CNTs, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), prepared by chemical-vapour deposition (CVD), plasma enhanced chemical-vapour deposition, thermal chemical vapour deposition, Vapour phase growth, Arc discharge and Lasser ablation. Both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) possess high mechanical and electrical conductivity, ultra-light weight, high aspect ratio and have excellent chemical and thermal stabilities. They also possess semi- and metallic-conductive properties depending upon their chirality. This review focuses on progress toward functionalization (not only dispersed nano tube but also dramatically improve their solubility), preparation and purification, composites and the toxicity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The functional groups attached to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) should react with polymers and improve the mechanical properties of the nano composites. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has significant application in pharmaceutical field such as drug delivery and nano medicine, but the available literature also suggests that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may have unusual toxicity and have more adverse effects than the same mass of nano size carbon and quartz. (author)

  12. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-O.; Andong National University,; Wang, G.X.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d 002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li + /Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient d Li decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  13. Nicotine adsorption on single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Eduardo C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Fagan, Solange B.; Zanella, Ivana [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano - UNIFRA, 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Filho, Antonio G. Souza, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This work reports a theoretical study of nicotine molecules interacting with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through ab initio calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Different adsorption sites for nicotine on the surface of pristine and defective (8,0) SWCNTs were analyzed and the total energy curves, as a function of molecular position relative to the SWCNT surface, were evaluated. The nicotine adsorption process is found to be energetically favorable and the molecule-nanotube interaction is intermediated by the tri-coordinated nitrogen atom from the nicotine. It is also predicted the possibility of a chemical bonding between nicotine and SWCNT through the di-coordinated nitrogen.

  14. Energy structure of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewski, P.; Kowalska, E.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of C 60 can be reasonably well reproduced theoretically with the use of the quantum chemistry calculation methods. It allows investigation of the influence of a deformation of C 60 on the absorption spectrum. The deformation of the electronic density on C 60 can occur under the influence of molecules of good solvent. Similar calculations of the energetic structure of carbon nanotubes does not support the idea that their chirality may strongly influence the energy levels distribution, in particular that it may open the energy gap of nanotubes. (author). 40 refs, 13 figs, 1 tab

  15. Aligned carbon nanotubes patterned photolithographically by silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming; Mau, Albert H. W.

    2003-02-01

    Selective growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by pyrolysis of iron (II) phthalocyanine (FePc) on quartz substrate patterned photolithographically by metallic silver has been demonstrated. Micro/nanopattern of aligned CNTs can be achieved by using a photomask with features on a microscale. With convenient use of simple high-contract black and white films as a photomask, aligned nanotubes patterned with 20 μm resolution in large scale can be fabricated. This practical fabrication of aligned CNTs on patterned conducting substrate could be applied to various device applications of CNTs.

  16. Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes as electronic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopee, Vimal Chandra

    The drive for miniaturisation of electronic circuits provides new materials challenges for the electronics industry. Indeed, the continued downscaling of transistor dimensions, described by Moore’s Law, has led to a race to find suitable replacements for current interconnect materials to replace copper. Carbon nanotubes have been studied as a suitable replacement for copper due to its superior electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. One of the advantages of using carbon nanotubes is their high current carrying capacity which has been demonstrated to be three orders of magnitude greater than that of copper. Most approaches in the implementation of carbon nanotubes have so far focused on the growth in vias which limits their application. In this work, a process is described for the transfer of carbon nanotubes to substrates allowing their use for more varied applications. Arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesised by photo-thermal chemical vapour deposition with high growth rates. Raman spectroscopy was used to show that the synthesised carbon nanotubes were of high quality. The carbon nanotubes were exposed to an oxygen plasma and the nature of the functional groups present was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Functional groups, such as carboxyl, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, were found to be present on the surface of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes after the functionalisation process. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes were metallised after the functionalisation process using magnetron sputtering. Two materials, solder and sintered silver, were chosen to bind carbon nanotubes to substrates so as to enable their transfer and also to make electrical contact. The wettability of solder to carbon nanotubes was investigated and it was demonstrated that both functionalisation and metallisation were required in order for solder to bond with the carbon nanotubes. Similarly, functionalisation followed by metallisation

  17. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  18. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  19. C{sub 60} fullerene decoration of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, V. A., E-mail: victordemin88@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation); Blank, V. D.; Karaeva, A. R.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Mordkovich, V. Z. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Parkhomenko, Yu. N. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Perezhogin, I. A.; Popov, M. Yu. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Skryleva, E. A. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Urvanov, S. A. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Chernozatonskii, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new fully carbon nanocomposite material is synthesized by the immersion of carbon nanotubes in a fullerene solution in carbon disulfide. The presence of a dense layer of fullerene molecules on the outer nanotube surface is demonstrated by TEM and XPS. Fullerenes are redistributed on the nanotube surface during a long-term action of an electron beam, which points to the existence of a molecular bond between a nanotube and fullerenes. Theoretical calculations show that the formation of a fullerene shell begins with the attachment of one C{sub 60} molecule to a defect on the nanotube surface.

  20. Carbon nanotubes: Sensor properties. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Zaporotskova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent publications dealing with dealing with the fabrication of gas and electrochemical biosensors based on carbon nanotubes have been reviewed. Experimental and theoretical data on the working principles of nanotubes have been presented. The main regularities of the structure, energy parameters and sensor properties of modified semiconducting systems on the basis of cabon nanotubes have been studied by analyzing the mechanisms of nanotubule interaction with functional groups (including carboxyl and amino groups, metallic nanoparticles and polymers leading to the formation of chemically active sensors. The possibility of using boundary modified nanotubes for the identification of metals has been discussed. Simulation results have been reported for the interaction of nanotubes boundary modified by –СООН and –NH2 groups with atoms and ions of potassium, sodium and lithium. The simulation has been carried out using the molecular cluster model and the MNDO and DFT calculation methods. Sensors fabricated using this technology will find wide application for the detection of metallic atoms and their ions included in salts and alkali.

  1. Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Dyke, Christopher A.; Maya, Francisco; Stewart, Michael P.; Chen, Bo; Flatt, Austen K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to covalently attach functionalized carbon nanotubes to silicon. This step allows for the introduction of carbon nanotubes onto all manner of silicon surfaces, and thereby introduction of carbon nano - tubes covalently into silicon-based devices, onto silicon particles, and onto silicon surfaces. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed as individuals in surfactant were functionalized. The nano - tube was first treated with 4-t-butylbenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate to give increased solubility to the carbon nanotube; the second group attached to the sidewall of the nanotube has a silyl-protected terminal alkyne that is de-protected in situ. This gives a soluble carbon nanotube that has functional groups appended to the sidewall that can be attached covalently to silicon. This reaction was monitored by UV/vis/NJR to assure direct covalent functionalization.

  2. Carbon Micronymphaea: Graphene on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube (CNT, graphene, and their hybrid structure under various operating conditions during a one-step synthesis via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. We focus on the synthetic aspects of carbon hybrid material composed of heteroepitaxially grown graphene on top of a vertical array of carbon nanotubes, called carbon micronymphaea. We characterize the structural features of this unique nanocomposite by uses of electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We observe carbon nanofibers, poorly aligned and well-aligned vertical arrays of CNT sequentially as the growth temperature increases, while we always discover the carbon hybrids, called carbon micronymphaea, at specific cooling rate of 15°C/s, which is optimal for the carbon precipitation from the Ni nanoparticles in this study. We expect one-pot synthesized graphene-on-nanotube hybrid structure poses great potential for applications that demand ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratios with intact graphitic nature and directional electronic and thermal transports.

  3. Carbon nanotubes and graphene in analytical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, B.; Merkoci, A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanosized carbon materials are offering great opportunities in various areas of nanotechnology. Carbon nanotubes and graphene, due to their unique mechanical, electronic, chemical, optical and electrochemical properties, represent the most interesting building blocks in various applications where analytical chemistry is of special importance. The possibility of conjugating carbon nanomaterials with biomolecules has received particular attention with respect to the design of chemical sensors and biosensors. This review describes the trends in this field as reported in the last 6 years in (bio)analytical chemistry in general, and in biosensing in particular. (author)

  4. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures

  5. Remote Joule heating by a carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Kamal H; Voskanian, Norvik; Bronsgeest, Merijntje; Cumings, John

    2012-04-08

    Minimizing Joule heating remains an important goal in the design of electronic devices. The prevailing model of Joule heating relies on a simple semiclassical picture in which electrons collide with the atoms of a conductor, generating heat locally and only in regions of non-zero current density, and this model has been supported by most experiments. Recently, however, it has been predicted that electric currents in graphene and carbon nanotubes can couple to the vibrational modes of a neighbouring material, heating it remotely. Here, we use in situ electron thermal microscopy to detect the remote Joule heating of a silicon nitride substrate by a single multiwalled carbon nanotube. At least 84% of the electrical power supplied to the nanotube is dissipated directly into the substrate, rather than in the nanotube itself. Although it has different physical origins, this phenomenon is reminiscent of induction heating or microwave dielectric heating. Such an ability to dissipate waste energy remotely could lead to improved thermal management in electronic devices.

  6. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  7. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons

  8. Carbon nanotube based stationary phases for microchip chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    already been demonstrated in more classical formats, for improved separation performance in gas and liquid chromatography, and for unique applications in solid phase extraction. Carbon nanotubes are now also entering the field of microfluidics, where there is a large potential to be able to provide......The objective of this article is to provide an overview and critical evaluation of the use of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microchip chromatography. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, such as a very high surface area and intriguing adsorptive behaviour, have...... integrated, tailor-made nanotube columns by means of catalytic growth of the nanotubes inside the fluidic channels. An evaluation of the different implementations of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microfluidic chromatography devices is given in terms of separation performance...

  9. The Mossbauer spectra of carbon nanotubes synthesize using ferrite catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiyan; Lin Jiapeng; Peng Zuxiong; Zeng Guoxun; Pang Jinshan; Chen Yiming

    2009-01-01

    The ferrite powder with honeycombed structure obtained by chemical combustion was used as catalyst to synthesize multi-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition. The magnetic components and characters of the the carbon nanotubes synthesized were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectra and vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM). The ferric components of the carbon nanotubes samples can be identified by Mossbauer spectra. The Mossbauer spectra of carbon nanotubes sample after purification contains two ferromagnetic sextet components corresponding to α-Fe species and Fe 3 C (cementite) species. While the Mossbauer spectra of the carbon nanotubes sample before purification contains three ferromagnetic sextet components corresponding to α-Fe species, Fe 3 C species and γ-Fe 2 O 3 . The saturation magnetization intensity Ms of carbon nanotubes sample after purification is decreased from 46.61 to 2.94 emu/g, but the coercive force increasd and reached 328Oe.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition and field emission properties of patterned carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Song Hang; Li Zhiming; Yuan Guang; Jin Yixin

    2005-01-01

    Patterned carbon nanotubes on silicon substrates were obtained using electrophoretic method. The carbon nanotubes migrated towards the patterned silicon electrode in the electrophoresis suspension under the applied voltage. The carbon nanotubes arrays adhered well on the silicon substrates. The surface images of carbon nanotubes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The field emission properties of the patterned carbon nanotubes were tested in a diode structure under a vacuum pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa. The measured emission area was about 1.0 mm 2 . The emission current density up to 30 mA/cm 2 at an electric field of 8 V/μm has been obtained. The deposition of patterned carbon nanotubes by electrophoresis is an alternative method to prepare field emission arrays

  11. Ag-catalysed cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Torre, A; Rance, G A; Miners, S A; Lucas, C Herreros; Smith, E F; Giménez-López, M C; Khlobystov, A N; Fay, M W; Brown, P D; Zoberbier, T; Kaiser, U

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the cutting of carbon nanotubes is investigated using silver nanoparticles deposited on arc discharge multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The composite is subsequently heated in air to fabricate shortened multi-walled nanotubes. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques shed light on the cutting mechanism. The nanotube cutting is catalysed by the fundamental mechanism based on the coordination of the silver atoms to the π-bonds of carbon nanotubes. As a result of the metal coordination, the strength of the carbon–carbon bond is reduced, promoting the oxidation of carbon at lower temperature when heated in air, or lowering the activation energy required for the removal of carbon atoms by electron beam irradiation, assuring in both cases the cutting of the nanotubes. (paper)

  12. The conversion of polyaniline nanotubes to nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes and their comparison with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trchová, Miroslava; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Kovářová, Jana; Ciric-Marjanovic, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2009), s. 929-938 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA AV ČR IAA400500905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * carbonization * FTIR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2009

  13. Process for derivatizing carbon nanotubes with diazonium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Bahr, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Yang, Jiping (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention incorporates new processes for the chemical modification of carbon nanotubes. Such processes involve the derivatization of multi- and single-wall carbon nanotubes, including small diameter (ca. 0.7 nm) single-wall carbon nanotubes, with diazonium species. The method allows the chemical attachment of a variety of organic compounds to the side and ends of carbon nanotubes. These chemically modified nanotubes have applications in polymer composite materials, molecular electronic applications and sensor devices. The methods of derivatization include electrochemical induced reactions thermally induced reactions (via in-situ generation of diazonium compounds or pre-formed diazonium compounds), and photochemically induced reactions. The derivatization causes significant changes in the spectroscopic properties of the nanotubes. The estimated degree of functionality is ca. 1 out of every 20 to 30 carbons in a nanotube bearing a functionality moiety. Such electrochemical reduction processes can be adapted to apply site-selective chemical functionalization of nanotubes. Moreover, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the derivatized nanotubes are chemically compatible with a polymer matrix, allowing transfer of the properties of the nanotubes (such as, mechanical strength or electrical conductivity) to the properties of the composite material as a whole. Furthermore, when modified with suitable chemical groups, the groups can be polymerized to form a polymer that includes carbon nanotubes ##STR00001##.

  14. Oscillation of nested fullerenes (carbon onions) in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Nested spherical fullerenes, which are sometimes referred to as carbon onions, of I h symmetries which have N(n) carbon atoms in the nth shell given by N(n) = 60n 2 are studied in this paper. The continuum approximation together with the Lennard-Jones potential is utilized to determine the resultant potential energy. High frequency nanoscale oscillators or gigahertz oscillators created from fullerenes and both single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention for a number of proposed applications, such as ultra-fast optical filters and ultra-sensitive nano-antennae that might impact on the development of computing and signalling nano-devices. Further, it is only at the nanoscale where such gigahertz frequencies can be achieved. This paper focuses on the interaction of nested fullerenes and the mechanics of such molecules oscillating in carbon nanotubes. Here we investigate such issues as the acceptance condition for nested fullerenes into carbon nanotubes, the total force and energy of the nested fullerenes, and the velocity and gigahertz frequency of the oscillating molecule. In particular, optimum nanotube radii are determined for which nested fullerenes oscillate at maximum velocity and frequency, which will be of considerable benefit for the design of future nano-oscillating devices

  15. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hoa Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes/polyaniline (CNT/PANI nanocomposites were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization of aniline in the presence of CNTs using two green solvents, water and an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], as the two phases. The formation and incorporation of PANI on the surface of the CNTs were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface of the CNTs was coated with different morphologies of thin PANI layers depending on whether a HCl or HNO3 solution was used. The thermal stability of the composites was much better than that of the bare CNTs and pure PANI. The as-prepared composites were also used to modify the nickel foam electrodes for characterization of the electrochemical properties.

  16. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2010-01-01

    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  17. Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman de Villoria, Roberto; Wardle, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials due their numerous applications in flexible electronic devices, biosensors and multifunctional aircraft materials, among others. However, the costly production of aligned carbon nanotubes, generally in a batch process, prevents their commercial use. For the first time, a controlled process to grow aligned carbon nanotubes in a continuous manner is presented. Uniform growth is achieved using 2D and 3D substrates. A sig...

  18. Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Substrates for Neuronal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Ni, Yingchun; Montana, Vedrana; Haddon, Robert C.; Parpura, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of chemically modified carbon nanotubes as a substrate for cultured neurons. The morphological features of neurons that directly reflect their potential capability in synaptic transmission are characterized. The chemical properties of carbon nanotubes are systematically varied by attaching different functional groups that confer known characteristics to the substrate. By manipulating the charge carried by functionalized carbon nanotubes we are able to control the outgrowth and branching pattern of neuronal processes. PMID:21394241

  19. Adsorption of Emerging Ionizable Contaminants on Carbon Nanotubes: Advancements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmao Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The superior adsorption capacity of carbon nanotubes has been well recognized and there is a wealth of information in the literature concerning the adsorption of unionized organic pollutants on carbon nanotubes. Recently, the adsorption of emerging environmental pollutants, most of which are ionizable, has attracted increasing attention due to the heightened concerns about the accumulation of these emerging contaminants in the environment. These recent studies suggest that the adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants on carbon nanotubes exhibit different characteristics than unionized ones. For example, a new charge-assisted intermolecular force has been proposed for ionizable compounds because some adsorption phenomenon cannot be easily explained by the conventional force theory. The adsorption of ionizable compounds also displayed much stronger dependence on solution pH and ionic strength than unionized compounds. This article aims to present a brief review on the current understanding of the adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants to carbon nanotubes and discuss further research needs required to advance the mechanistic understanding of the interactions between ionizable contaminants and carbon nanotubes.

  20. Adsorption of Emerging Ionizable Contaminants on Carbon Nanotubes: Advancements and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingmao; Agarwal, Sarang

    2016-05-12

    The superior adsorption capacity of carbon nanotubes has been well recognized and there is a wealth of information in the literature concerning the adsorption of unionized organic pollutants on carbon nanotubes. Recently, the adsorption of emerging environmental pollutants, most of which are ionizable, has attracted increasing attention due to the heightened concerns about the accumulation of these emerging contaminants in the environment. These recent studies suggest that the adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants on carbon nanotubes exhibit different characteristics than unionized ones. For example, a new charge-assisted intermolecular force has been proposed for ionizable compounds because some adsorption phenomenon cannot be easily explained by the conventional force theory. The adsorption of ionizable compounds also displayed much stronger dependence on solution pH and ionic strength than unionized compounds. This article aims to present a brief review on the current understanding of the adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants to carbon nanotubes and discuss further research needs required to advance the mechanistic understanding of the interactions between ionizable contaminants and carbon nanotubes.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  2. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  3. Molecular discriminators using single wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Tamoghna; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Ray, Nihar Ranjan; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and amphiphilic molecules has been studied in a solid phase. SWNTs are allowed to interact with different amphiphilic probes (e.g. lipids) in a narrow capillary interface. Contact between strong hydrophobic and amphiphilic interfaces leads to a molecular restructuring of the lipids at the interface. The geometry of the diffusion front and the rate and the extent of diffusion of the interface are dependent on the structure of the lipid at the interface. Lecithin having a linear tail showed greater mobility of the interface as compared to a branched tail lipid like dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, indicating the hydrophobic interaction between single wall carbon nanotube core and the hydrophobic tail of the lipid. Solid phase interactions between SWNT and lipids can thus become a very simple but efficient means of discriminating amphiphilic molecules in general and lipids in particular. (paper)

  4. Electrostatic sensing and electrochemistry with single carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental study of devices based on single carbon nanotubes in the context of (bio)sensing in aqueous solutions. Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules of sp2- carbon, about one nanometer in diameter and typically several micrometers long, which have semiconducting

  5. A Carbon Nanotube Cable for a Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in connection with the possibility to use them for the construction of a space elevator. From the fundamental information about the structure of a carbon nanotube and the chemical bond between carbon atoms, Young's modulus and the ultimate tensile strength are…

  6. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  7. Synthesis of PbI(2) single-layered inorganic nanotubes encapsulated within carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, Laura; Ballesteros, Belén; Batista, Eudar; Magén, César; Arenal, Raúl; Oró-Solé, Judith; Rurali, Riccardo; Tobias, Gerard

    2014-04-02

    The template assisted growth of single-layered inorganic nanotubes is reported. Single-crystalline lead iodide single-layered nanotubes have been prepared using the inner cavities of carbon nanotubes as hosting templates. The diameter of the resulting inorganic nanotubes is merely dependent on the diameter of the host. This facile method is highly versatile opening up new horizons in the preparation of single-layered nanostructures. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Carbon Nanotubes as Future Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Vasu , V; Silambarasan , D

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Hydrogen is considered to be a clean energy carrier. At present the main drawback in using hydrogen as the fuel is the lack of proper hydrogen storage vehicle, thus ongoing research is focused on the development of advance hydrogen storage materials. Many alloys are able to store hydrogen reversibly, but the gravimetric storage density is too low for any practical applications. Theoretical studies have predicted that interaction of hydrogen with carbon nanotubes is by ...

  9. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  10. Passive Mode Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Acoustical transducer arrays can reflect a sound signal in reverse to the sender which can be used for echo location devices. [0008] In Jiang...States Patent No. 8,494,187) a sound wave generator is disclosed which includes a carbon nanotube structure and an insulating reinforcement structure... acoustic device that includes an electrode layer and a sound wave generator. The sound wave generator is disposed on a surface of the electrode

  11. Carbon nanotubes: do they toughen brittle matrices?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chao, J.; Inam, F.; Reece, M.J.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Ivo; Shaffer, M.S.P.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 14 (2011), s. 4770-4779 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fracture toughness * carbon nanotube * silica glass Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/74106l0458326n91/

  12. Carbon nanotube-based black coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J.; Yung, C.; Tomlin, N.; Conklin, D.; Stephens, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coatings comprising carbon nanotubes are very black, that is, characterized by uniformly low reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths from the visible to far infrared. Arguably, there is no other material that is comparable. This is attributable to the intrinsic properties of graphitic material as well as the morphology (density, thickness, disorder, and tube size). We briefly describe a history of other coatings such as nickel phosphorous, gold black, and carbon-based paints and the comparable structural morphology that we associate with very black coatings. The need for black coatings is persistent for a variety of applications ranging from baffles and traps to blackbodies and thermal detectors. Applications for space-based instruments are of interest and we present a review of space qualification and the results of outgassing measurements. Questions of nanoparticle safety depend on the nanotube size and aspect ratio as well as the nature and route of exposure. We describe the growth of carbon nanotube forests along with the catalyst requirements and temperature limitations. We also describe coatings derived from carbon nanotubes and applied like paint. Building the measurement apparatus and determining the optical properties of something having negligible reflectance are challenging and we summarize the methods and means for such measurements. There exists information in the literature for effective media approximations to model the dielectric function of vertically aligned arrays. We summarize this along with the refractive index of graphite from the literature that is necessary for modeling the optical properties. In our experience, the scientific questions can be overshadowed by practical matters, so we provide an appendix of recipes for making as-grown and sprayed coatings along with an example of reflectance measurements.

  13. New Insight into Carbon Nanotube Electronic Structure Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental role of aryl diazonium salts for post synthesis selectivity of carbon nanotubes is investigated using extensive electronic structure calculations. The resulting understanding for diazonium salt based selective separation of conducting and semiconducting carbon nanotubes shows how the primary contributions come from the interplay between the intrinsic electronic structure of the carbon nanotubes and that of the anion of the salt. We demonstrate how the electronic transport properties change upon the formation of charge transfer complexes and upon their conversion into covalently attached functional groups. Our results are found to correlate well with experiments and provide for the first time an atomistic description for diazonium salt based chemical separation of carbon nanotubes

  14. Conformational changes of fibrinogen in dispersed carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park SJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sung Jean Park,1 Dongwoo Khang21College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, South Korea; 2School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science Engineering and Center for PRC and RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South KoreaAbstract: The conformational changes of plasma protein structures in response to carbon nanotubes are critical for determining the nanotoxicity and blood coagulation effects of carbon nanotubes. In this study, we identified that the functional intensity of carboxyl groups on carbon nanotubes, which correspond to the water dispersity or hydrophilicity of carbon nanotubes, can induce conformational changes in the fibrinogen domains. Also, elevation of carbon nanotube density can alter the secondary structures (ie, helices and beta sheets of fibrinogen. Furthermore, fibrinogen that had been in contact with the nanoparticle material demonstrated a different pattern of heat denaturation compared with free fibrinogen as a result of a variation in hydrophilicity and concentration of carbon nanotubes. Considering the importance of interactions between carbon nanotubes and plasma proteins in the drug delivery system, this study elucidated the correlation between nanoscale physiochemical material properties of carbon nanotubes and associated structural changes in fibrinogen.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fibrinogen, nanotoxicity, conformational change, denaturation

  15. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of the Band Structure of Graphene and Carbon Nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina, Aziz N; Awadallah, Attia A; Ahmed, Riham R; Phillips, Adel H

    2012-01-01

    Simulation technique has been performed to simulate the band structure of both graphene and carbon nanotube. Accordingly, the dispersion relations for graphene and carbon nanotube are deduced analytically, using the tight binding model and LCAO scheme. The results from the simulation of the dispersion relation of both graphene and carbon nanotube were found to be consistent with those in the literature which indicates the correctness of the process of simulation technique. The present research is very important for tailoring graphene and carbon nanotube with specific band structure, in order to satisfy the required electronic properties of them.

  17. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  19. Preparation of carbon nanotubes by MPECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly Duraia, M.A.; Mansorov, Z.A.; Tokmoldin, S.Zh.; Klimenov, V.V.; Nevmerzhitsky, I.S.; Dochshanov, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the synthesis of CNTs due to the vertical alignment, the large area growth, the lower growth temperature, uniform heat distribution and the good control of the different growth parameters. In this work we present our results about the preparation of carbon nanotube with different morphologies by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition MPECVD. Well aligned, curly and coiled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. We have investigated the effect of the different growth condition parameters such as type of the catalyst, pressure and the hydrogen to methane flow rate ratio on the morphology of the carbon nanotubes. The results were showed that there is a great dependence of the morphology of carbon nanotubes on these parameters. There is a linear relation between the growth rate and the methane to hydrogen ratio. We found that the growth rate has a great dependence on the amount of methane. For example the growth rate varied from the value 1,34 μm/min when the methane flow rate was 10 sccm to more than 14 μm/min when the methane flow rate was raised to 50 sccm. This growth rate is greater than that reported in the literature. The effect of the gas pressure on the CNTs was also studied. The Raman spectra (excitation wavelength 473 nm) of all samples show D-band peak at around 1300 cm -1 and G-band peak at around 1580 cm -1 , which indicate that our CNTs are multi wall CNTs (MWCNTs). The D-band and the G-band correspond to sp 2 and sp 3 carbon stretching modes relatively, and their intensity ratio is a measure of the amount of disorder in the CNTs. The D-band is known to be attributed to the carbonaceous particles, defects in the curved graphitic sheet and tube ends. It has been suggested that lower I g /I d ratios and narrower first and second order D and G bands are suggestive of well-aligned NNTs. The photoluminescence PL

  20. Carbon paste electrode incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotube ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preparation and electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube paste electrode modified with ferrocene (FCMCNPE) was investigated for electrocatalytic behaviour toward oxidation of -acetyl--cysteine (NAC) in the presence of tryptophan (Trp) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry ...

  1. Carbon nanotube network-silicon oxide non-volatile switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Albert D; Araujo, Paulo T; Xu, Runjie; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2014-12-08

    The integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon is important for their incorporation into next-generation nano-electronics. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile switch that utilizes carbon nanotube networks to electrically contact a conductive nanocrystal silicon filament in silicon dioxide. We form this device by biasing a nanotube network until it physically breaks in vacuum, creating the conductive silicon filament connected across a small nano-gap. From Raman spectroscopy, we observe coalescence of nanotubes during breakdown, which stabilizes the system to form very small gaps in the network~15 nm. We report that carbon nanotubes themselves are involved in switching the device to a high resistive state. Calculations reveal that this switching event occurs at ~600 °C, the temperature associated with the oxidation of nanotubes. Therefore, we propose that, in switching to a resistive state, the nanotube oxidizes by extracting oxygen from the substrate.

  2. Preparation of carbon nanotubes from vacuum pyrolysis of polycarbosilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, S.; Hsu, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by vacuum pyrolysis of two types of polycarbosilane (PCS) with iron nano-particles between 800 and 1100 deg. C. Straight nanotubes were obtained from low molecular weight (990 g/mol) PCS whereas curled nanotubes were derived from medium molecular weight (1290 g/mol) PCS. Diameters of these straight and curled nanotubes were between 5 and 20 nm. The mechansim of condensed phase growth of carbon nanotubes was discussed. Electron emission capability of these carbon nanotubes increased with their pyrolyzing temperature. The electric fields required to emit a current density of 10 -2 A/cm 2 from the straight nanotubes being pyrolyzed at 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 deg. C were 1.17, 0.73, 0.67, and 0.33 V/μm, respectively

  3. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection Using Au-Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Ju Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that Au-cluster-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs may be used to discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. Nanoscale Au clusters were formed on the side walls of carbon nanotubes in a transistor geometry using electrochemical deposition. The effect of Au cluster decoration appeared as hole doping when electrical transport characteristics were examined. Thiolated single-stranded probe peptide nucleic acid (PNA was successfully immobilized on Au clusters decorating single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs, resulting in a conductance decrease that could be explained by a decrease in Au work function upon adsorption of thiolated PNA. Although a target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA with a single mismatch did not cause any change in electrical conductance, a clear decrease in conductance was observed with matched ssDNA, thereby showing the possibility of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism detection using Au-cluster-decorated SWNT-FETs. However, a power to discriminate SNP target is lost in high ionic environment. We can conclude that observed SNP discrimination in low ionic environment is due to the hampered binding of SNP target on nanoscale surfaces in low ionic conditions.

  4. Efficient electrochemical degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipa, Vytas; Hanna, Shannon K; Urbas, Aaron; Sander, Lane; Elliott, John; Conny, Joseph; Petersen, Elijah J

    2018-07-15

    As the production mass of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) increases, the potential for human and environmental exposure to MWCNTs may also increase. We have shown that exposing an aqueous suspension of pristine MWCNTs to an intense oxidative treatment in an electrochemical reactor, equipped with an efficient hydroxyl radical generating Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) anode, leads to their almost complete mineralization. Thermal optical transmittance analysis showed a total carbon mass loss of over two orders of magnitude due to the electrochemical treatment, a result consistent with measurements of the degraded MWCNT suspensions using UV-vis absorbance. Liquid chromatography data excludes substantial accumulation of the low molecular weight reaction products. Therefore, up to 99% of the initially suspended MWCNT mass is completely mineralized into gaseous products such as CO 2 and volatile organic carbon. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show sporadic opaque carbon clusters suggesting the remaining nanotubes are transformed into structure-less carbon during their electrochemical mineralization. Environmental toxicity of pristine and degraded MWCNTs was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes and revealed a major reduction in the MWCNT toxicity after treatment in the electrochemical flow-by reactor. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Imaging active topological defects in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Kazu; Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Koshino, Masanori; Sato, Yuta; Urita, Koki; Iijima, Sumio

    2007-06-01

    A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is a wrapped single graphene layer, and its plastic deformation should require active topological defects-non-hexagonal carbon rings that can migrate along the nanotube wall. Although in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to examine the deformation of SWNTs, these studies deal only with diameter changes and no atomistic mechanism has been elucidated experimentally. Theory predicts that some topological defects can form through the Stone-Wales transformation in SWNTs under tension at 2,000 K, and could act as a dislocation core. We demonstrate here, by means of high-resolution (HR)-TEM with atomic sensitivity, the first direct imaging of pentagon-heptagon pair defects found in an SWNT that was heated at 2,273 K. Moreover, our in situ HR-TEM observation reveals an accumulation of topological defects near the kink of a deformed nanotube. This result suggests that dislocation motions or active topological defects are indeed responsible for the plastic deformation of SWNTs.

  6. Properties of single-walled carbon nanotube-based aerogels as a function of nanotube loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Hamza, Alex V.; Satcher, Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we present the synthesis and characterization of low-density single-walled carbon nanotube-based aerogels (SWNT-CA). Aerogels with varying nanotube loading (0-55 wt.%) and density (20-350 mg cm -3 ) were fabricated and characterized by four-probe method, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen porosimetry. Several properties of the SWNT-CAs were highly dependent upon nanotube loading. At nanotube loadings of 55 wt.%, shrinkage of the aerogel monoliths during carbonization and drying was almost completely eliminated. Electrical conductivities are improved by an order of magnitude for the SWNT-CA (55 wt.% nanotubes) compared to those of foams without nanotubes. Surface areas as high as 184 m 2 g -1 were achieved for SWNT-CAs with greater than 20 wt.% nanotube loading.

  7. Low-frequency plasmons in metallic carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.F.; Chuu, D.S.; Shung, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    A metallic carbon nanotube could exhibit a low-frequency plasmon, while a semiconducting carbon nanotube or a graphite layer could not. This plasmon is due to the free carriers in the linear subbands intersecting at the Fermi level. The low-frequency plasmon, which corresponds to the vanishing transferred angular momentum, belongs to an acoustic plasmon. For a smaller metallic nanotube, it could exist at larger transferred momenta, and its frequency is higher. Such a plasmon behaves as that in a one-dimensional electron gas (EGS). However, it is very different from the π plasmons in all carbon nanotubes. Intertube Coulomb interactions in a metallic multishell nanotube and a metallic nanotube bundle have been included. They have a strong effect on the low-frequency plasmon. The intertube coupling among coaxial nanotubes markedly modifies the acoustic plasmons in separate metallic nanotubes. When metallic carbon nanotubes are packed in the bundle form, the low-frequency plasmon would change into an optical plasmon, and behave like that in a three-dimensional EGS. Experimental measurements could be used to distinguish metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Fullerenes, nanotubes, onions and related carbon structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, C N.R.; Seshadri, Ram; Govindaraj, A; Sen, Rahul [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry and Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    1995-12-01

    Fullerenes, containing five- and six-membered carbon rings, of which C{sub 6}0 and C{sub 7}0 are the prominent members, exhibit phase transitions associated with orientational ordering. When C{sub 6}0 is suitably doped with electrons, it shows novel superconducting and magnetic properties. We review these and other properties of fullerenes in bulk or in film form along with the preparative and structural aspects. Carbon nanotubes and onions (hyperfullerenes) are the other forms of carbon whose material properties have aroused considerable interest. Besides discussing these new forms of carbon, we briefly introduce other possible forms, such as those involving five-, six- and seven-membered rings and hybrids between diamond and graphite

  9. Magnetic properties of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipert, Kamil; Ritschel, Manfred; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Krupskaya, Yulia; Buechner, Bernd; Klingeler, Ruediger, E-mail: k.lipert@ifw-dresden.d [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden (Germany)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the magnetic properties of single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized using different chemical vapour deposition methods and with variety of catalyst materials (ferromagnetic Fe, FeCo and diamagnetic Re). Different methods yield carbon nanotubes with different morphologies and different quantity of residual catalyst material. Catalyst particles are usually encapsulated in the nanotubes and influence the magnetic respond of the samples. Varying ferromagnetic properties depending on the shape, size and type of catalyst are discussed in detail. The data are compared with M(H) characteristics of carbon nanotubes without catalysts and with nonmagnetic rhenium, as a reference.

  10. Synthesis of carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, Hyukjae

    Carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes are prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal method with an addition of glucose in the starting powder, and are characterized by morphological analysis and electrochemical measurement. A thin carbon coating on the nanotube surface effectively suppresses severe agglomeration of TiO 2 nanotubes during hydrothermal reaction and post calcination. This action results in better ionic and electronic kinetics when applied to lithium-ion batteries. Consequently, carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes deliver a remarkable lithium-ion intercalation/deintercalation performance, such as reversible capacities of 286 and 150 mAh g -1 at 250 and 7500 mA g -1, respectively.

  11. A carbon nanotube-based pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Kh S; Saleem, M; Khan, Adam; Qasuria, T A; Mateen, A; Karieva, Z M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based Al/CNT/Al pressure sensor was designed, fabricated and investigated. The sensor was fabricated by depositing CNTs on an adhesive elastic polymer tape and placing this in an elastic casing. The diameter of multiwalled nanotubes varied between 10 and 30 nm. The nominal thickness of the CNT layers in the sensors was in the range ∼300-430 μm. The inter-electrode distance (length) and the width of the surface-type sensors were in the ranges 4-6 and 3-4 mm, respectively. The dc resistance of the sensors decreased 3-4 times as the pressure was increased up to 17 kN m -2 . The resistance-pressure relationships were simulated.

  12. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Mitchell B.; Goldsmith, Brett R.; McMillon, Ronald; Dailey, Jennifer; Pillai, Shreekumar; Singh, Shree R.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml).

  13. Modeling of a carbon nanotube ultracapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphanou, Antonis; Yamada, Toshishige; Yang, Cary Y

    2012-03-09

    The modeling of carbon nanotube ultracapacitor (CNU) performance based on the simulation of electrolyte ion motion between the cathode and the anode is described. Using a molecular dynamics (MD) approach, the equilibrium positions of the electrode charges interacting through the Coulomb potential are determined, which in turn yield the equipotential surface and electric field associated with the capacitor. With an applied ac voltage, the current is computed based on the nanotube and electrolyte particle distribution and interaction, resulting in the frequency-dependent impedance Z(ω). From the current and impedance profiles, the Nyquist and cyclic voltammetry (CV) plots are then extracted. The results of these calculations compare well with existing experimental data. A lumped-element equivalent circuit for the CNU is proposed and the impedance computed from this circuit correlates well with the simulated and measured impedances.

  14. Batch fabrication of carbon nanotube bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, A; Dong, L X; Tharian, J; Sennhauser, U; Nelson, B J

    2007-01-01

    Relative displacements between the atomically smooth, nested shells in multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be used as a robust nanoscale motion enabling mechanism. Here, we report on a novel method suited for structuring large arrays of MWNTs into such nanobearings in a parallel fashion. By creating MWNT nanostructures with nearly identical electrical circuit resistance and heat transport conditions, uniform Joule heating across the array is used to simultaneously engineer the shell geometry via electric breakdown. The biasing approach used optimizes process metrics such as yield and cycle-time. We also present the parallel and piecewise shell engineering at different segments of a single nanotube to construct multiple, but independent, high density bearings. We anticipate this method for constructing electromechanical building blocks to be a fundamental unit process for manufacturing future nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) with sophisticated architectures and to drive several nanoscale transduction applications such as GHz-oscillators, shuttles, memories, syringes and actuators

  15. Carbon nanotubes: from nano test tube to nano-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2011-12-27

    Confinement of molecules and atoms inside carbon nanotubes provides a powerful strategy for studying structures and chemical properties of individual molecules at the nanoscale. In this issue of ACS Nano, Allen et al. explore the nanotube as a template leading to the formation of unusual supramolecular and covalent structures. The potential of carbon nanotubes as reactors for synthesis on the nano- and macroscales is discussed in light of recent studies.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis of covalently functionalized single-chirality carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pingli; Meany, Brendan; Wang, Chunyan; Piao, Yanmei; Kwon, Hyejin; Deng, Shunliu; Wang, YuHuang

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the separation of chirality-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by degree of surface functionalization using high-performance CE. Controlled amounts of negatively charged and positively charged functional groups were attached to the sidewall of chirality-enriched SWCNTs through covalent functionalization using 4-carboxybenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate or 4-diazo-N,N-diethylaniline tetrafluoroborate, respectively. Surfactant- and pH-dependent studies confirmed that under conditions that minimized ionic screening effects, separation of these functionalized SWCNTs was strongly dependent on the surface charge density introduced through covalent surface chemistry. For both heterogeneous mixtures and single-chirality-enriched samples, covalently functionalized SWCNTs showed substantially increased peak width in electropherogram spectra compared to nonfunctionalized SWCNTs, which can be attributed to a distribution of surface charges along the functionalized nanotubes. Successful separation of functionalized single-chirality SWCNTs by functional density was confirmed with UV-Vis-NIR absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies of fraction collected samples. These results suggest a high degree of structural heterogeneity in covalently functionalized SWCNTs, even for chirality-enriched samples, and show the feasibility of applying CE for high-performance separation of nanomaterials based on differences in surface functional density. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI REN ZHONG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a Ni–Cu–Al catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 20–60 nm, while their outer diameter is about 40–80 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the Ni–Cu–Al catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.

  18. Carbon composites composites with carbon fibers, nanofibers, and nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Deborah D L

    2017-01-01

    Carbon Composites: Composites with Carbon Fibers, Nanofibers, and Nanotubes, Second Edition, provides the reader with information on a wide range of carbon fiber composites, including polymer-matrix, metal-matrix, carbon-matrix, ceramic-matrix and cement-matrix composites. In contrast to other books on composites, this work emphasizes materials rather than mechanics. This emphasis reflects the key role of materials science and engineering in the development of composite materials. The applications focus of the book covers both the developing range of structural applications for carbon fiber composites, including military and civil aircraft, automobiles and construction, and non-structural applications, including electromagnetic shielding, sensing/monitoring, vibration damping, energy storage, energy generation, and deicing. In addition to these new application areas, new material in this updated edition includes coverage of cement-matrix composites, carbon nanofibers, carbon matrix precursors, fiber surface ...

  19. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  20. Softening of the Radial Breathing Mode in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhat, H. (ed.); Sasaki, K.; Kalbáč, Martin; Hofmann, M.; Saito, R.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Kong, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 12 (2009), 126804-1-126804-4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic carbon nanotubes * radial breathing mode * single waled carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  1. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  2. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abe; Raitses, Yevgeny; Keidar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  3. Very short functionalized carbon nanotubes for membrane applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, A.; Reijerkerk, Sander; Potreck, Jens; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Mekhalif, Z.; Delhalle, J.

    2010-01-01

    The cutting and functionalization of carbon nanotubes is described, applying a single-step ball-mill based process. Very short carbon nanotubes bearing primary amine functions were produced, characterized and incorporated in polymeric membranes. The gas separation performance of the composite

  4. Catalyst deposition for the preparation of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    patterned surface is configured to ensure that no more than a single island of catalyst is formed on each plateau, so that a sub sequent growth of carbon nanotubes from the deposited islands result in that no more than a single carbon nanotube is grown from each plateau....

  5. Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dommele, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen containing Carbon Nanotubes (NCNT) have altered physical- and chemical properties with respect to polarity, conductivity and reactivity as compared to conventional carbon nanotubes (CNT) and have potential for use in electronic applications or catalysis. In this thesis the incorporation of

  6. Synthesis of nano-carbon (nanotubes, nanofibres, graphene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we report the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a new natural precursor: castor oil. The CNTs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis of castor oil–ferrocene solution at 850°C under an Ar atmosphere. We also report the synthesis of carbon nitrogen (C–N) nanotubes using castor ...

  7. Electrical conductivity of metal–carbon nanotube structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical properties of asymmetric metal–carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have been studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method with Atomistix tool kit. The models with asymmetric metal contacts and carbon nanotube bear resemblance to experimental set-ups. The study ...

  8. A thermodynamic model for growth mechanisms of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaatz, Forrest H.; Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.

    2006-02-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes are grown via thermal chemical vapor deposition between temperatures of 630 and 830 C using acetylene in nitrogen as the carbon source. This process is modeled using classical thermodynamics to explain the total carbon deposition as a function of time and temperature. An activation energy of 1.60 eV is inferred for nanotube growth after considering the carbon solubility term. Scanning electron microscopy shows growth with diameters increasing linearly with time. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show multiwall nanotubes surrounded by a glassy-carbon sheath, which grows with increasing wall thickness as growth temperatures and times rise.

  9. Thermodynamic model for growth mechanisms of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, F. H.; Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Provencio, P. P.; Tallant, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes are grown via thermal chemical vapor deposition between temperatures of 630 and 830°C using acetylene in nitrogen as the carbon source. This process is modeled using classical thermodynamics to explain the total carbon deposition as a function of time and temperature. An activation energy of 1.60eV is inferred for nanotube growth after considering the carbon solubility term. Scanning electron microscopy shows growth with diameters increasing linearly with time. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show multiwall nanotubes surrounded by a glassy-carbon sheath, which grows with increasing wall thickness as growth temperatures and times rise.

  10. Magnetoelectronic properties of chiral carbon nanotubes and tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, F L; Tsai, C C; Lee, C H; Lin, M F

    2006-01-01

    Magnetoelectronic properties of chiral carbon nanotubes and toroids are studied for any magnetic field. They are sensitive to the changes in the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field, as well as the chirality. The important differences between chiral and achiral carbon nanotubes include band symmetry, band curvature, band crossing, band-edge state, state degeneracy, band spacing, energy gap, and semiconductor-metal transition. Carbon tori also exhibit the strong chirality dependence on the field modulation of discrete states. Chiral carbon tori might differ from chiral carbon nanotubes in energy-gap modulation, density of states, and state degeneracy

  11. Imaging carbon nanotube interactions, diffusion, and stability in nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Shannon L; Smith, Billy; Meric, Gulsum; Fairbrother, D Howard; Bevan, Michael A

    2011-07-26

    We report optical microscopy measurements of three-dimensional trajectories of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in nanoscale silica slit pores. Trajectories are analyzed to nonintrusively measure MWCNT interactions, diffusion, and stability as a function of pH and ionic strength. Evanescent wave scattering is used to track MWCNT positions normal to pore walls with nanometer-scale resolution, and video microscopy is used to track lateral positions with spatial resolution comparable to the diffraction limit. Analysis of MWCNT excursions normal to pore walls yields particle-wall potentials that agree with theoretical electrostatic and van der Waals potentials assuming a rotationally averaged potential of mean force. MWCNT lateral mean square displacements are used to quantify translational diffusivities, which are comparable to predictions based on the best available theories. Finally, measured MWCNT pH and ionic strength dependent stabilities are in excellent agreement with predictions. Our findings demonstrate novel measurement and modeling tools to understand the behavior of confined MWCNTs relevant to a broad range of applications.

  12. Carbon nanotubes significance in Darcy-Forchheimer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Rafique, Kiran; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ayub, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    The present article examines Darcy-Forchheimer flow of water-based carbon nanotubes. Flow is induced due to a curved stretchable surface. Heat transfer mechanism is analyzed in presence of convective heating process. Xue model of nanofluid is employed to study the characteristics of both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Results for both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are achieved and compared. Appropriate transformations correspond to strong nonlinear ordinary differential system. Optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is used for the solution development of the resulting system. The contributions of different sundry variables on the velocity and temperature are studied. Further the skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are analyzed graphically for both SWCNTs and MWCNTs cases.

  13. Layered growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongrui; Liang Erjun; Ding Pei; Chao Mingju

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of reaction temperature and duration of the growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays, layered aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) films grown directly around a reaction quartz tube in an Ar/H 2 atmosphere by pyrolysis of ferrocene in xylene in a suitable reaction furnace with the help of cobalt powder. The scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope images indicated that the obtained arrays were composed of many separated layers with MWNTs. The reaction temperature significantly influenced the alignment of the MWNTs, and an appropriate reaction temperature range for growth was 800-900 deg. C. The diameter of the carbon nanotube increased from 46 to 75 nm with the growth temperature. Besides temperature, the reaction duration influenced the length of the well-aligned carbon nanotubes. There was no significant relation between the growth time and the diameter of the carbon nanotubes in the array

  14. Thermophoretic Motion of Water Nanodroplets confined inside Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-01-01

    We study the thermophoretic motion of water nanodroplets confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the nanodroplets move in the direction opposite the imposed thermal gradient with a terminal velocity that is linearly proportional to the gradient....... The translational motion is associated with a solid body rotation of the water nanodroplet coinciding with the helical symmetry of the carbon nanotube. The thermal diffusion displays a weak dependence on the wetting of the water-carbon nanotube interface. We introduce the use of the Moment Scaling Spectrum (MSS......) in order to determine the characteristics of the motion of the nanoparticles inside the carbon nanotube. The MSS indicates that affinity of the nanodroplet with the walls of the carbon nanotubes is important for the isothermal diffusion, and hence for the Soret coefficient of the system....

  15. Fabrication and characterization of nanocomposites reinforced by carbon nanotubes - (1) synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuh Hsiangming; Tai Nyanhwa; Perng Tongping [Dept. of Material Science, National Tsing-Hwa Univ., TW (China); Chyou Sander [Taiwan Power Research Inst., Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (China)

    2003-07-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) produced by floating catalyst method were used for reinforcing material in polymeric nanocomposites. Five different kinds of carbon sources (benzene, toluene, xylene, cyclo-hexane, n-hexane) were used as precursors in the thermal chemical vapor deposition process. The products were collected and examined by Raman, HRTEM, and FESEM. The differences in microstructure and morphologies among these products are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  16. Towards self-assembled devices, a carbon nanotube approach

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rio Castillo, Antonio Esau

    2012-01-01

    2010/2011 In the last decade the nanostructured carbon materials, especially single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), had emerged as probable substitutes for Silicon in the next generation of electronic devices. This is due to their unique physic and chemical properties. Likewise, scientists all around the world have made a huge effort to introduce carbon materials into the market. Despite this effort, commercial application for carbon nanotubes in electronic devices has not yet been achiev...

  17. Influence of surface chemistry on inkjet printed carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Alan R.; Straw, David C.; Spurrell, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube ink chemistry and the proper formulation are crucial for direct-write printing of nanotubes. Moreover, the correct surface chemistry of the self-assembled monolayers that assist the direct deposition of carbon nanotubes onto the substrate is equally important to preserve orientation of the printed carbon nanotubes. We report that the successful formulation of two single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) inks yields a consistent, homogenous printing pattern possessing the requisite viscosities needed for flow through the microcapillary nozzles of the inkjet printer with fairly modest drying times. The addition of an aqueous sodium silicate allows for a reliable method for forming a uniform carbon nanotube network deposited directly onto unfunctionalized surfaces such as glass or quartz via inkjet deposition. Furthermore, this sodium silicate ingredient helps preserve applied orientation to the printed SWNT solution. Sheet resistivity of this carbon nanotube ink formula printed on quartz decreases as a function of passes and is independent of the substrate. SWNTs were successfully patterned on Au. This amine-based surface chemistry dramatically helps improve the isolation stabilization of the printed SWNTs as seen in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image. Lastly, using our optimized SWNT ink formula and waveform parameters in the Fuji materials printer, we are able to directly write/print SWNTs into 2D patterns. Dried ink pattern expose and help orient roped carbon nanotubes that are suspended in ordered arrays across the cracks.

  18. Mechanochemical treatment of amorphous carbon from brown sphagnum moss for the preparation of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    Under consideration is the mechanism of multiwalled nanotubes formation during mechanical activation of amorphous carbon synthesized by pyrolysis of sphagnum moss. The formation of nanotubes has been shown to take place in the array of carbon particles. A complex study of the sorption characteristics of carbon nanotubes has been carried out. The dependence of the sorption capacity of carbon nanotubes on their storage time, as well as the effect of the process parameters of nanotubes formation on their ability for oxidative modification, is represented. (authors)

  19. Surface plasmon observed for carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Stadelmann, P A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Peng, J L; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents parallel electron energy loss spectra (PEELS) results, obtained for individual carbon nanotubes, using nanoprobe techniques (1-2 nm diameter electron beam), energy resolution 0.5 eV and collection times of 4-25 sec. The aim was to use a nanoprobe to compare PEELS spectra from different parts of a tube, in order to search for variations in sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonding ratios as well as to look for orientation dependent plasmon and core-loss phenomena. It also seemed interesting to compare results for nanotubes with those for other varieties of graphitized carbons. The most interesting result so far was the appearance of a 15 eV plasmon peak, which appeared only for tubes containing {<=} about 12 graphite-like layers. This peak did not shift significantly with tube size. A low-loss peaks at 6 eV of variable relative intensity was also observed this peak was relatively very weak for amorphous tubes; it appears to be characteristic of graphite-like layers, as found for nanotubes and, of course, graphite itself. This paper is restricted to discussion of the low-loss results. The experimental techniques are first described, including some details of the methods which may be used to disperse and support sooty carbons for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are then presented, followed by an interpretation of all the low-loss PEELS results, including those of the other authors. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhihong; Wong, H.S. Phillip; Mitra, Subhasish; Bol, Aggeth; Peng, Lianmao; Hills, Gage; Thissen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past decade, more attention has been shifted toward making use of this unique nanomaterial in real-world applications. In this article, we focus on potential applications of CNTs in the high-performanc...

  1. Metallic Carbon Nanotubes and Ag Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-04

    The goal of this DOE solar energy research was to understand how visible light interacts with matter, and how to make electric excitations evolve into separated electrons and holes in photovoltaic cells, especially in nanoparticles and nanowires. Our specific experiments focused on A) understanding plasmon enhanced spectroscopy and charge-transfer (metal-to-molecule) photochemistry on the surface of metallic particles and B) the spectroscopy and photochemistry of carbon nanotubes and graphene. I also worked closely with R. Friesner on theoretical studies of photo-excited electrons near surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles; this process is relevant to the Gratzel photovoltaic cell.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  3. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huisheng [Shanghai, CN; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore [Cary, NC; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  4. Biomineralization of superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, Teresa Cristina O; Santos, Tiago G; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Corat, Evaldo J; Marciano, Fernanda R; Lobo, Anderson O

    2012-03-06

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) promise a great role for the study of tissue regeneration. In this paper, we introduce a new biomimetic mineralization routine employing superhydrophilic VACNT films as highly stable template materials. The biomineralization was obtained after VACNT soaking in simulated body fluid solution. Detailed structural analysis reveals that the polycrystalline biological apatites formed due to the -COOH terminations attached to VACNT tips after oxygen plasma etching. Our approach not only provides a novel route for nanostructured materials, but also suggests that COOH termination sites can play a significant role in biomimetic mineralization. These new nanocomposites are very promising as nanobiomaterials due to the excellent human osteoblast adhesion.

  5. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissker, Uhland; Hampel, Silke; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology. PMID:28883334

  6. Disorder, Pseudospins, and Backscattering in Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEuen, Paul L.; Bockrath, Marc; Cobden, David H.; Yoon, Young-Gui; Louie, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    We address the effects of disorder on the conducting properties of metal and semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Experimentally, the mean free path is found to be much larger in metallic tubes than in doped semiconducting tubes. We show that this result can be understood theoretically if the disorder potential is long ranged. The effects of a pseudospin index that describes the internal sublattice structure of the states lead to a suppression of scattering in metallic tubes, but not in semiconducting tubes. This conclusion is supported by tight-binding calculations. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  7. Carbon Nanotube Integration with a CMOS Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maximiliano S.; Lerner, Betiana; Resasco, Daniel E.; Pareja Obregon, Pablo D.; Julian, Pedro M.; Mandolesi, Pablo S.; Buffa, Fabian A.; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the integration of a sensor based on carbon nanotubes using CMOS technology. A chip sensor (CS) was designed and manufactured using a 0.30 μm CMOS process, leaving a free window on the passivation layer that allowed the deposition of SWCNTs over the electrodes. We successfully investigated with the CS the effect of humidity and temperature on the electrical transport properties of SWCNTs. The possibility of a large scale integration of SWCNTs with CMOS process opens a new route in the design of more efficient, low cost sensors with high reproducibility in their manufacture. PMID:22319330

  8. Superconductivity in single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Yavari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   By using Greens function method we first show that the effective interaction between two electrons mediated by plasmon exchange can become attractive which in turn can lead to superconductivity at a high critical temperature in a singl wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. The superconducting transition temperature Tc for the SWCNT (3,3 obtained by this mechanism agrees with the recent experimental result. We also show as the radius of SWCNT increases, plasmon frequency becomes lower and leads to lower Tc.

  9. Spin transport in ferromagnetically contacted carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.; Morgan, C.; Schneider, C.M. [Peter Gruenberg Institut, PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich and JARA Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We present magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different ferromagnetic leads. A sample with permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) contacts shows the expected tunneling-type MR effect. Measurements on devices with CoPd contacts show a larger change of resistance with magnetic field. However, only minor loops are observed, which is explained with domain wall pinning. This is supported by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements, which reveal a complicated bubble and stripe domain pattern. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Thermodynamics on Soluble Carbon Nanotubes: How Do DNA Molecules Replace Surfactants on Carbon Nanotubes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuichi; Inoue, Ayaka; Niidome, Yasuro; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Here we represent thermodynamics on soluble carbon nanotubes that enables deep understanding the interactions between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and molecules. We selected sodium cholate and single-stranded cytosine oligo-DNAs (dCn (n = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, and 20)), both of which are typical SWNT solubilizers, and successfully determined thermodynamic properties (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS values) for the exchange reactions of sodium cholate on four different chiralities of SWNTs ((n,m) = (6,5), (7,5), (10,2), and (8,6)) for the DNAs. Typical results contain i) the dC5 exhibited an exothermic exchange, whereas the dC6, 8, 10, 15, and 20 materials exhibited endothermic exchanges, and ii) the energetics of the dC4 and dC7 exchanges depended on the associated chiral indices and could be endothermic or exothermic. The presented method is general and is applicable to any molecule that interacts with nanotubes. The study opens a way for science of carbon nanotube thermodynamics. PMID:23066502

  11. Tuning the conductance of carbon nanotubes with encapsulated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2007-01-01

    It was recently shown that a molecule encapsulated inside a carbon nanotube can be used to devise a novel type of non-volatile memory element. At the heart of the mechanism for storing and reading information is the new concept of a molecular gate where the molecule acts as a passive gate that hinders the flow of electrons for a given position relative to the nanotube host. By systematically exploring the effects of encapsulation of an acceptor molecule in a series of carbon nanotubes, we show that the reliability of the memory mechanism is very sensitive to the interaction between the nanotube host and the molecule guest

  12. Nanotube bundle oscillators: Carbon and boron nitride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the oscillation of a fullerene that is moving within the centre of a bundle of nanotubes. In particular, certain fullerene-nanotube bundle oscillators, namely C 60 -carbon nanotube bundle, C 60 -boron nitride nanotube bundle, B 36 N 36 -carbon nanotube bundle and B 36 N 36 -boron nitride nanotube bundle are studied using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach which assumes a uniform distribution of atoms on the surface of each molecule. We address issues regarding the maximal suction energies of the fullerenes which lead to the generation of the maximum oscillation frequency. Since bundles are also found to comprise double-walled nanotubes, this paper also examines the oscillation of a fullerene inside a double-walled nanotube bundle. Our results show that the frequencies obtained for the oscillation within double-walled nanotube bundles are slightly higher compared to those of single-walled nanotube bundle oscillators. Our primary purpose here is to extend a number of established results for carbon to the boron nitride nanostructures.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Hydrogels in Drug Delivery: A Perspective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Silke; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review. PMID:24587993

  14. Spontaneous and controlled-diameter synthesis of single-walled and few-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shuhei; Lojindarat, Supanat; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we explored the spontaneous and controlled-diameter growth of carbon nanotubes. We evaluated the effects of catalyst density, reduction time, and a number of catalyst coating on the substrate (for multi-walled carbon nanotubes) on the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the number of layers in few-walled carbon nanotubes. Increasing the catalyst density and reduction time increased the diameters of the carbon nanotubes, with the average diameter increasing from 1.05 nm to 1.86 nm for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Finally, we succeeded in synthesizing a significant double-walled carbon nanotube population of 24%.

  15. Carbon nanotube/carbon nanotube composite AFM probes prepared using ion flux molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesmore, Grace; Roque, Carrollyn; Barber, Richard

    The performance of carbon nanotube-carbon nanotube composite (CNT/CNT composite) atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes is compared to that of conventional Si probes in AFM tapping mode. The ion flux molding (IFM) process, aiming an ion beam at the CNT probe, aligns the tip to a desired angle. The result is a relatively rigid tip that is oriented to offset the cantilever angle. Scans using these probes reveal an improvement in image accuracy over conventional tips, while allowing higher aspect ratio imaging of 3D surface features. Furthermore, the lifetimes of CNT-CNT composite tips are observed to be longer than both conventional tips and those claimed for other CNT technologies. Novel applications include the imaging of embiid silk. Supported by the Clare Boothe Luce Research Scholars Award and Carbon Design Innovations.

  16. Oxidation of Carbon Nanotubes in an Ionizing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Gidcumb, Emily; Zhou, Otto; Sinclair, Robert

    2016-02-10

    In this work, we present systematic studies on how an illuminating electron beam which ionizes molecular gas species can influence the mechanism of carbon nanotube oxidation in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). We found that preferential attack of the nanotube tips is much more prevalent than for oxidation in a molecular gas environment. We establish the cumulative electron doses required to damage carbon nanotubes from 80 keV electron beam irradiation in gas versus in high vacuum. Our results provide guidelines for the electron doses required to study carbon nanotubes within or without a gas environment, to determine or ameliorate the influence of the imaging electron beam. This work has important implications for in situ studies as well as for the oxidation of carbon nanotubes in an ionizing environment such as that occurring during field emission.

  17. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D S T; Alves, O L; Barbieri, E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO 3 -MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO 3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO 3 -treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO 3 -MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO 3 -MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO 3 -MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  18. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  19. Carbon nanotube-based ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahim, Sean; Colbern, Steve; Gump, Robert; Moser, Alex; Grigorian, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Sensors containing metal-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid materials as the active sensing layer were demonstrated for ethanol vapor detection at room temperature. The metal-CNT hybrid materials were synthesized by infiltrating single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the transition metals Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd or Pt. Each sensor was prepared by drop-casting dilute dispersions of a metal-CNT hybrid onto quartz substrate electrodes and the impedimetric responses to varying ethanol concentration were recorded. Upon exposure to ethanol vapor, the ac impedance (Z') of the sensors was found to decrease to different extents. The sensor containing pristine CNT material was virtually non-responsive at low ethanol concentrations (<50 ppm). In contrast, all metal-CNT hybrid sensors showed extremely high sensitivity to trace ethanol levels with 100-fold or more gains in sensitivity relative to the starting SWNT sensor. All hybrid sensors, with the exception of Ni filled CNT, exhibited significantly larger sensor responses to ethanol vapor up to 250 ppm compared to the starting SWNT sensor.

  20. Substitution reactions of carbon nanotube template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi Pui; Chen, Ying; Gerald, John Fitz

    2006-05-01

    Substitution reactions between carbon nanotube (CNT) template and SiO with the formation of carbon rich silicon oxide nanowires (SiO-C-NWs) have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The reaction was carried out by thermal annealing at 1200°C for 1h of a mixture of silicon monoxide (SiO) and iron (II) phthalocyanine, FeC32N8H16 (FePc) powders. Multiwalled CNTs were produced first via pyrolysis of FePc at a lower temperature (1000°C ). SiO vapors reacted with the CNTs at higher temperatures to produce amorphous SiO-C-NWs with a uniform diameter and a length in tens of micrometers. The special bamboolike structure of the CNTs allows the reaction to start from the external surface of the tubes and transform each CNT into a solid nanowire section by section.

  1. Fabrication of mesoporous and high specific surface area lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasetto, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Zanonato, P.; Bernardo, P. Di; Colombo, P.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites were produced by means of carbothermal reaction of lanthanum oxide, graphite and multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures under high vacuum. Residual gas analysis revealed the higher reactivity of lanthanum oxide towards carbon nanotubes compared to graphite. After sintering, the composites revealed a specific surface area increasing with the amount of carbon nanotubes introduced. The meso-porosity of carbon nanotubes was maintained after thermal treatment.

  2. Illuminating the future of silicon photonics: optical coupling of carbon nanotubes to microrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y K

    2015-01-01

    Advances in carbon nanotube material quality and processing techniques have led to an increased interest in nanotube photonics. In particular, emission in the telecommunication wavelengths makes nanotubes compatible with silicon photonics. Noury et al (2014 Nanotechnology 25 215201) have reported on carbon nanotube photoluminescence coupled to silicon microring resonators, underscoring the advantage of combining carbon nanotube emitters with silicon photonics. Their results open up the possibility of using nanotubes in other waveguide-based devices, taking advantage of well-established technologies. (viewpoint)

  3. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  4. Dephasing and hyperfine interaction in carbon nanotubes double quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynoso, Andres Alejandro; Flensberg, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the return probability experiment, which is used to measure the dephasing time T-2*, in a double quantum dot (DQD) in semiconducting carbon nanotubes with spin-orbit coupling and disorder-induced valley mixing. Dephasing is due to hyperfine interaction with the spins of the C...... with these for DQDs in clean nanotubes, whereas the disorder effect is always relevant when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nanotube axis....

  5. Activated carbons employed to remove ionic liquids from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Tufail, M.

    2011-01-01

    Imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been separated from aqueous solutions by adsorption using a raw Chinese activated carbon (CAC), a bleached Chinese activated carbon (BAC) and an acid treated Chinese activated carbon (AAC) as adsorbent. Adsorption isotherms data of ionic liquids on activated carbons has been obtained. The influence of both cations and anions was analyzed by studying three different ILs. The role of surface chemistry of the adsorbent was also examined using activated carbons modified by oxidative treatments. The BET surface area of activated carbons was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The results of this work indicate that activated carbon is an attractive adsorbent to remove ionic liquids from water streams. It has also been demonstrated that the adsorption of hydrophilic ionic liquids can be improved by modifying the amount and nature of oxygen groups on the activated carbon surface specially by increasing basic groups. The adsorption data for isotherms was studied at acidic, neutral and basic pH values. (author)

  6. Carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuhong

    The interface between carbon fibers (CFs) and the resin matrix in traditional high performance composites is characterized by a large discontinuity in mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties which can cause inefficient energy transfer. Due to the exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their growth at the surface of carbon fibers is a promising approach to controlling interfacial interactions and achieving the enhanced bulk properties. However, the reactive conditions used to grow carbon nanotubes also have the potential to introduce defects that can degrade the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber (CF) substrate. In this study, using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, high density multi-wall carbon nanotubes have been successfully synthesized directly on PAN-based CF surface without significantly compromising tensile properties. The influence of CVD growth conditions on the single CF tensile properties and carbon nanotube (CNT) morphology was investigated. The experimental results revealed that under high temperature growth conditions, the tensile strength of CF was greatly decreased at the beginning of CNT growth process with the largest decrease observed for sized CFs. However, the tensile strength of unsized CFs with CNT was approximately the same as the initial CF at lower growth temperature. The interfacial shear strength of CNT coated CF (CNT/CF) in epoxy was studied by means of the single-fiber fragmentation test. Results of the test indicate an improvement in interfacial shear strength with the addition of a CNT coating. This improvement can most likely be attributed to an increase in the interphase yield strength as well as an improvement in interfacial adhesion due to the presence of the nanotubes. CNT/CF also offers promise as stress and strain sensors in CF reinforced composite materials. This study investigates fundamental mechanical and electrical properties of CNT/CF using nanoindentation method by designed

  7. Sorption of Heterocyclic Organic Compounds to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, Florian; Funck, Matin; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2018-01-16

    Sorption is an important natural and technical process. Sorption coefficients are typically determined in batch experiments, but this may be challenging for weakly sorbing compounds. An alternative method enabling analysis of those compounds is column chromatography. A column packed with the sorbent is used and sorption data are determined by relating sorbate retention to that of a nonretarded tracer. In this study, column chromatography was applied for the first time to study sorption of previously hardly investigated heterocyclic organic compounds to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Sorption data for these compounds are very limited in literature, and weak sorption is expected from predictions. Deuterium oxide was used as nonretarded tracer. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Freundlich model and data showed reasonable agreement with predicted values. Sorption was exothermic and physisorption was observed. H-bonding may contribute to overall sorption, which is supported by reduced sorption with increasing ionic strength due to blocking of functional groups. Lowering pH reduced sorption of ionizable compounds, due to electrostatic repulsion at pH 3 where sorbent as well as sorbates were positively charged. Overall, column chromatography was successfully used to study sorption of heterocyclic compounds to MWCNTs and could be applied for other carbon-based sorbents.

  8. Local gate control in carbon nanotube quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biercuk, Michael Jordan

    This thesis presents transport measurements of carbon nanotube electronic devices operated in the quantum regime. Nanotubes are contacted by source and drain electrodes, and multiple lithographically-patterned electrostatic gates are aligned to each device. Transport measurements of device conductance or current as a function of local gate voltages reveal that local gates couple primarily to the proximal section of the nanotube, hence providing spatially localized control over carrier density along the nanotube length. Further, using several different techniques we are able to produce local depletion regions along the length of a tube. This phenomenon is explored in detail for different contact metals to the nanotube. We utilize local gating techniques to study multiple quantum dots in carbon nanotubes produced both by naturally occurring defects, and by the controlled application of voltages to depletion gates. We study double quantum dots in detail, where transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability diagrams. We extract values of energy-level spacings, capacitances, and interaction energies for this system, and demonstrate independent control over all relevant tunneling rates. We report rf-reflectometry measurements of gate-defined carbon nanotube quantum dots with integrated charge sensors. Aluminum rf-SETs are electrostatically coupled to carbon nanotube devices and detect single electron charging phenomena in the Coulomb blockade regime. Simultaneous correlated measurements of single electron charging are made using reflected rf power from the nanotube itself and from the rf-SET on microsecond time scales. We map charge stability diagrams for the nanotube quantum dot via charge sensing, observing Coulomb charging diamonds beyond the first order. Conductance measurements of carbon nanotubes containing gated local depletion regions exhibit plateaus as a function of gate voltage, spaced by approximately 1e2/h, the quantum of conductance for a single

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes on a carbon fiber surface with different index graphitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.C.; Baldan, M.R.; Ferreira, N.G.; Edwards, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to examine the electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes powder on carbon fibers, produced at different heat treatments temperatures. Besides, a systematic study of the effects of graphitization index from substrate on the structure and morphology of CNTs has been available. Carbon fibers were produced from polyacrylonitrile at three different heat treatments temperatures, 1000, 1500 and 2000 deg C. The carbon fibers microstructure or its graphitization index may be controlled by the heat treatments temperatures. The electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes was obtained with the powder of carbon nanotubes dispersed in water by ultrasonication to obtain dispersions of 0.05 mg/mL. The carbon fibers were immersed in the nanotube dispersion, and a positive potential of 10 V/cm was applied. Morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers were obtained by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (author)

  10. Rotational actuator of motor based on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Fennimore, Adam M.; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D.

    2008-11-18

    A rotational actuator/motor based on rotation of a carbon nanotube is disclosed. The carbon nanotube is provided with a rotor plate attached to an outer wall, which moves relative to an inner wall of the nanotube. After deposit of a nanotube on a silicon chip substrate, the entire structure may be fabricated by lithography using selected techniques adapted from silicon manufacturing technology. The structures to be fabricated may comprise a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT), two in plane stators S1, S2 and a gate stator S3 buried beneath the substrate surface. The MWNT is suspended between two anchor pads and comprises a rotator attached to an outer wall and arranged to move in response to electromagnetic inputs. The substrate is etched away to allow the rotor to freely rotate. Rotation may be either in a reciprocal or fully rotatable manner.

  11. Structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Cao Juexian; Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures based on molecular dynamics simulations and first principles band structure calculations. It is found that carbon nanotubes experience a hard-to-soft transition as external pressure increases. The bulk modulus of soft phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of hard phase. The band structure calculations show that band gap of (10, 0) nanotube increases with the increase of pressure at low pressures. Above a critical pressure (5.70GPa), band gap of (10, 0) nanotube drops rapidly and becomes zero at 6.62GPa. Moreover, the calculated charge density shows that a large pressure can induce an sp 2 -to-sp 3 bonding transition, which is confirmed by recent experiments on deformed carbon nanotubes

  12. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Polymer Actuator Using Nanofiber Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hayato; Shimizu, Akikazu; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanotube polymer actuators were developed using composite nanofiber sheets fabricated by multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) and poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Nanofiber sheets were fabricated by electrospinning method. The effect of flow rate and polymer concentration on nanofiber formation were verified for optimum condition for fabricating nanofiber sheets. We examined the properties of MWCNT/PVDF-HFP nanofiber sheets, as follows. Electrical conductivity and mechanical strength increased as the MWCNT weight ratio increased. We fabricated carbon nanotube polymer actuators using MWCNT/PVDF-HFP nanofiber sheets and succeeded in operating of our actuators.

  13. Correlation and dimensional effects of trions in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia

    2010-01-01

    We study the binding energies of singlet trions, i.e., charged excitons, in carbon nanotubes. The problem is modeled, through the effective-mass model, as a three-particle complex on the surface of a cylinder, which we investigate using both one- and two-dimensional expansions of the wave function...... are used to compute physical binding energies for a wide selection of carbon nanotubes. In addition, the dependence on dielectric screening is examined. Our findings indicate that trions are detectable at room temperature in carbon nanotubes with radius below 8 Å....

  14. Control of carbon nanotube growth using cobalt nanoparticles as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Yoon; Green, Malcolm L.H.; Kim, Young Heon; Lee, Jeong Yong; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2005-01-01

    We have controllably grown carbon nanotubes using uniformly distributed cobalt nanoparticles as catalyst. Cobalt nanoparticles with a uniform size were synthesized by chemical reaction and colloidal solutions including the cobalt nanoparticles were prepared. The cobalt nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on silicon substrates by a spin-coating method. Carbon nanotubes with a uniform diameter were synthesized on the cobalt nanoparticles by thermal chemical vapor deposition of acetylene gas. The density and vertical alignment of carbon nanotubes could be controlled by adjusting the density of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles

  15. Raman spectroscopic characterization of multiwall carbon nanotubes and of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bokobza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work Raman spectroscopy was used for extensive characterization of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs and of MWCNTs/rubber composites. We have measured the Raman spectra of bundled and dispersed multiwall carbon nanotubes. All the Raman bands of the carbon nanotubes are seen to shift to higher wavenumbers upon debundling on account of less intertube interactions. Effects of laser irradiation were also investigated. Strong effects are observed by changing the wavelength of the laser excitation. On the other hand, at a given excitation wavelength, changes on the Raman bands are observed by changing the laser power density due to sample heating during the measurement procedure.

  16. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes in Biotechnology and Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekyarova, Elena; Ni, Yingchun; Malarkey, Erik B.; Montana, Vedrana; McWilliams, Jared L.; Haddon, Robert C.; Parpura, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Due to their electrical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials for the electronics, computer and aerospace industries. Here, we discuss their properties in the context of future applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. The purification and chemical modification of carbon nanotubes with organic, polymeric and biological molecules are discussed. Additionally we review their uses in biosensors, assembly of structures and devices, scanning probe microscopy and as substrates for neuronal growth. We note that additional toxicity studies of carbon nanotubes are necessary so that exposure guidelines and safety regulations can be established in a timely manner. PMID:19763242

  17. The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts: carbon nanotubes as energy landscape filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Clare L; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for filling carbon nanotubes with molten salts are investigated using molecular dynamics computer simulation. Inorganic nanotubular structures, whose morphologies can be rationalized in terms of the folding, or the removal of sections from, planes of square nets are found to form. The formation mechanisms are found to follow a 'chain-by-chain' motif in which the structures build systematically from charge neutral M-X-M-Xc chains. The formation mechanisms are rationalized in terms of the ion-ion interactions (intra-chain and inter-chain terms). In addition, the mechanisms of filling are discussed in terms of a 'hopping' between basins on the underlying energy landscape. The role of the carbon nanotube as an energy landscape filter is discussed.

  18. Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Wang, Qingxiao; Yue, Weisheng; Guo, Zaibing; LI, LIANG; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xianbin; Abutaha, Anas I.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  19. Direct integration of carbon nanotubes in Si microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aasmundtveit, Knut E; Ta, Bao Q; Halvorsen, Einar; Hoivik, Nils; Lin, Liwei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a low-cost, room-temperature process for integrating carbon nanotubes on Si microsystems. The process uses localized resistive heating by controlling current through suspended microbridges, to provide local temperatures high enough for CVD growth of carbon nanotubes. Locally grown carbon nanotubes make electrical connections through guidance by electric fields, thus eventually making circuits. The process is scalable to a wafer level batch process. Furthermore, it is controlled electrically, thus enabling automated control. Direct integration of carbon nanotubes in microstructures has great promise for nano-functional devices, such as ultrasensitive chemical sensors. Initial measurements demonstrate the Si–carbon nanotube–Si circuit's potential as a NH 3 sensor. (paper)

  20. Filled carbon nanotubes in biomedical imaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martincic, Markus; Tobias, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been advocated as promising candidates in the biomedical field in the areas of diagnosis and therapy. In terms of drug delivery, the use of carbon nanotubes can overcome some limitations of 'free' drugs by improving the formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs, allowing targeted delivery and even enabling the co-delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. Two different approaches are currently being explored for the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents by carbon nanotubes, namely attachment of the payload to the external sidewalls or encapsulation into the inner cavities. Although less explored, the latter confers additional stability to the chosen diagnostic or therapeutic agents, and leaves the backbone structure of the nanotubes available for its functionalization with dispersing and targeting moieties. Several drug delivery systems and diagnostic agents have been developed in the last years employing the inner tubular cavities of carbon nanotubes. The research discussed in this review focuses on the use of carbon nanotubes that contain in their interior drug molecules and diagnosis-related compounds. The approaches employed for the development of such nanoscale vehicles along with targeting and releasing strategies are discussed. The encapsulation of both biomedical contrast agents and drugs inside carbon nanotubes is further expanding the possibilities to allow an early diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

  1. Reactor scale modeling of multi-walled carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2011-01-01

    As the mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth becomes known, it becomes important to understand how to implement this knowledge into reactor scale models to optimize CNT growth. In past work, we have reported fundamental mechanisms and competing deposition regimes that dictate single wall carbon nanotube growth. In this study, we will further explore the growth of carbon nanotubes with multiple walls. A tube flow chemical vapor deposition reactor is simulated using the commercial software package COMSOL, and considered the growth of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was found that the limiting reaction processes for multi-walled carbon nanotubes change at different temperatures than the single walled carbon nanotubes and it was shown that the reactions directly governing CNT growth are a limiting process over certain parameters. This work shows that the optimum conditions for CNT growth are dependent on temperature, chemical concentration, and the number of nanotube walls. Optimal reactor conditions have been identified as defined by (1) a critical inlet methane concentration that results in hydrogen abstraction limited versus hydrocarbon adsorption limited reaction kinetic regime, and (2) activation energy of reaction for a given reactor temperature and inlet methane concentration. Successful optimization of a CNT growth processes requires taking all of those variables into account.

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes integrated in microcantilevers for application of tensile strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Madsen, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    variations in the response. Using a simple resistor model we estimate the expected conductance-strain response for a multi-walled carbon nanotube, and compare to our results on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as well as measurements by others on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Integration of nanotubes...

  3. Theoretical study on the combined systems of peanut-shaped carbon nanotubes encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guo; Huang, Yuanhe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The combined systems of peanut-shaped carbon nanotubes encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated. ► The band structures and related electronic properties are calculated by using crystal orbital method. ► The carrier mobility and mean free path are evaluated under the deformation potential theory. -- Abstract: The combined systems of peanut-shaped carbon nanotubes encapsulated in both semiconducting and metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated by using self-consistent field crystal orbital method based on the density functional theory. The investigation indicates that the interaction between the two constituents is mainly contributed by the π orbitals. The encapsulation does not change the semiconducting or metallic nature of the single-walled carbon nanotubes, but significantly changes the band dispersion and decreases the frontier band width of the metallic one. The carrier mobility and mean free path of the metallic single-walled carbon nanotube increase greatly after the encapsulation. The calculated mobilities have the order of 10 3 cm 2 V −1 s −1 for both of the semiconducting and metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes.

  4. NT10: recent advances in carbon nanotube science and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2010-08-24

    A review of recent advances in carbon nanotube science and applications is presented in terms of what was learned at the NT10 11th International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes held in Montreal, Canada, June 29-July 2, 2010.

  5. A one-step single source route to carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized via directly pyrolyzing ferrocene in the autoclave. The nanotubes with several micrometers in length have outer and inner diameters in the range of 40–100 nm and 20–40 nm, respectively. An yield of ∼70% of CNTs can be obtained without any accessorial solvents and ...

  6. Novel fabrication of silica nanotubes using multi-walled carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Silica nanotubes were synthesized using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as template. The as-obtained samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM) and photo-.

  7. A Computational Experiment on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott; Lonie, David C.; Chen, Jiechen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been developed and employed in an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Computations were carried out to determine the electronic structure, radial breathing modes, and the influence of the nanotube's diameter on the…

  8. Locally addressable tunnel barriers within a carbon nanotube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biercuk, M.; Mason, N.; Chow, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report the realization and characterization of independently controllable tunnel barriers within a carbon nanotube. The nanotubes are mechanically bent or kinked using an atomic force microscope, and top gates are subsequently placed near each kink. Transport measurements indicate that the kin...

  9. Alignment of carbon nanotubes in nematic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Popa-Nita, V.; Kralj, S.

    2008-01-01

    The self-organizing properties of nematic liquid crystals can be used to align carbon nanotubes dispersed in them. Because the nanotubes are so much thinner than the elastic penetration length, the alignment is caused by the coupling of the unperturbed director field to the anisotropic interfacial

  10. The study of explosive emission from carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNT) found applications for high density current electron emitters. The main interest for forming of high current electron beams using CNT is high concentration of electrical field on the nanotubes and high value of yield by electrons for field emission. The experimental results for time processes of forming cathode plasma and extraction of electron beam are presented in the report

  11. Multiporous carbon allotropes transformed from symmetry-matched carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yingxiang, E-mail: yingxiangcai@ncu.edu.cn; Wang, Hao; Xu, Shengliang; Hu, Yujie; Liu, Ning; Xu, Xuechun [Department of Physics, NanChang University, Jiangxi, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with homogeneous diameters have been proven to transform into new carbon allotropes under pressure but no studies on the compression of inhomogeneous CNTs have been reported. In this study, we propose to build new carbon allotropes from the bottom-up by applying pressure on symmetry-matched inhomogeneous CNTs. We find that the (3,0) CNT with point group C{sub 3v} and the (6,0) CNT with point group C{sub 6v} form an all sp{sup 3} hybridized hexagonal 3060-Carbon crystal, but the (4,0) CNT with point group D{sub 4h} and the (8,0) CNT with point group D{sub 8h} polymerize into a sp{sup 2}+sp{sup 3} hybridized tetragonal 4080-Carbon structure. Their thermodynamic, mechanical and dynamic stabilities show that they are potential carbon allotropes to be experimentally synthesized. The multiporous structures, excellently mechanical properties and special electronic structures (semiconductive 3060-Carbon and semimetallic 4080-Carbon) imply their many potential applications, such as gases purification, hydrogen storage and lightweight semiconductor devices. In addition, we simulate their feature XRD patterns which are helpful for identifying the two carbon crystals in future experimental studies.

  12. Multiporous carbon allotropes transformed from symmetry-matched carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs with homogeneous diameters have been proven to transform into new carbon allotropes under pressure but no studies on the compression of inhomogeneous CNTs have been reported. In this study, we propose to build new carbon allotropes from the bottom-up by applying pressure on symmetry-matched inhomogeneous CNTs. We find that the (3,0 CNT with point group C3v and the (6,0 CNT with point group C6v form an all sp3 hybridized hexagonal 3060-Carbon crystal, but the (4,0 CNT with point group D4h and the (8,0 CNT with point group D8h polymerize into a sp2+sp3 hybridized tetragonal 4080-Carbon structure. Their thermodynamic, mechanical and dynamic stabilities show that they are potential carbon allotropes to be experimentally synthesized. The multiporous structures, excellently mechanical properties and special electronic structures (semiconductive 3060-Carbon and semimetallic 4080-Carbon imply their many potential applications, such as gases purification, hydrogen storage and lightweight semiconductor devices. In addition, we simulate their feature XRD patterns which are helpful for identifying the two carbon crystals in future experimental studies.

  13. Spray-coated carbon nanotube carpets for creeping reduction of conducting polymer based artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaite, Aiva; Delagarde, Aude; Tondu, Bertrand; Souères, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Bergaud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    During cyclic actuation, conducting polymer based artificial muscles are often creeping from the initial movement range. One of the likely reasons of such behaviour is unbalanced charging during conducting polymer oxidation and reduction. To improve the actuation reversibility and subsequently the long time performance of ionic actuators, we suggest using spray-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets on the surface of the conducting polymer electrodes. We show that carbon nanotubes facilitate a conducting polymer redox reaction and improve its reversibility. Consequently, in the long term, charge accumulation in the polymer film is avoided leading to a significantly improved lifetime performance during cycling actuation. To our knowledge, it is the first time a simple solution to an actuator creeping problem has been suggested.

  14. Fracture of Carbon Nanotube - Amorphous Carbon Composites: Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for use as reinforcements in next generation structural composite materials because of their extremely high specific stiffness and strength. They cannot, however, be viewed as simple replacements for carbon fibers because there are key differences between these materials in areas such as handling, processing, and matrix design. It is impossible to know for certain that CNT composites will represent a significant advance over carbon fiber composites before these various factors have been optimized, which is an extremely costly and time intensive process. This work attempts to place an upper bound on CNT composite mechanical properties by performing molecular dynamics simulations on idealized model systems with a reactive forcefield that permits modeling of both elastic deformations and fracture. Amorphous carbon (AC) was chosen for the matrix material in this work because of its structural simplicity and physical compatibility with the CNT fillers. It is also much stiffer and stronger than typical engineering polymer matrices. Three different arrangements of CNTs in the simulation cell have been investigated: a single-wall nanotube (SWNT) array, a multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) array, and a SWNT bundle system. The SWNT and MWNT array systems are clearly idealizations, but the SWNT bundle system is a step closer to real systems in which individual tubes aggregate into large assemblies. The effect of chemical crosslinking on composite properties is modeled by adding bonds between the CNTs and AC. The balance between weakening the CNTs and improving fiber-matrix load transfer is explored by systematically varying the extent of crosslinking. It is, of course, impossible to capture the full range of deformation and fracture processes that occur in real materials with even the largest atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. With this limitation in mind, the simulation results reported here provide a plausible upper limit on

  15. Carbon nanotubes and graphene towards soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although silicon technology has been the main driving force for miniaturizing device dimensions to improve cost and performance, the current application of Si to soft electronics (flexible and stretchable electronics) is limited due to material rigidity. As a result, various prospective materials have been proposed to overcome the rigidity of conventional Si technology. In particular, nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are promising due to outstanding elastic properties as well as an excellent combination of electronic, optoelectronic, and thermal properties compared to conventional rigid silicon. The uniqueness of these nano-carbon materials has opened new possibilities for soft electronics, which is another technological trend in the market. This review covers the recent progress of soft electronics research based on CNTs and graphene. We discuss the strategies for soft electronics with nano-carbon materials and their preparation methods (growth and transfer techniques) to devices as well as the electrical characteristics of transparent conducting films (transparency and sheet resistance) and device performances in field effect transistor (FET) (structure, carrier type, on/off ratio, and mobility). In addition to discussing state of the art performance metrics, we also attempt to clarify trade-off issues and methods to control the trade-off on/off versus mobility). We further demonstrate accomplishments of the CNT network in flexible integrated circuits on plastic substrates that have attractive characteristics. A future research direction is also proposed to overcome current technological obstacles necessary to realize commercially feasible soft electronics.

  16. Carbon based nanostructures: diamond clusters structured with nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Shenderova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of designing composites from carbon nanotubes and nanodiamond clusters is discussed based on atomistic simulations. Depending on nanotube size and morphology, some types of open nanotubes can be chemically connected with different facets of diamond clusters. The geometrical relation between different types of nanotubes and different diamond facets for construction of mechanically stable composites with all bonds saturated is summarized. Potential applications of the suggested nanostructures are briefly discussed based on the calculations of their electronic properties using environment dependent self-consistent tight-binding approach.

  17. Microtribology of aqueous carbon nanotube dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Kristiansen, Kai De Lange; Zeng, Hongbo; Wang, Peng; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2011-01-01

    The tribological behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous humic acid (HA) solutions was studied using a surface forces apparatus (SFA) and shows promising lubricant additive properties. Adding CNTs to the solution changes the friction forces between two mica surfaces from "adhesion controlled" to "load controlled" friction. The coefficient of friction with either single-walled (SW) or multi-walled (MW) CNT dispersions is in the range 0.30-0.55 and is independent of the load and sliding velocity. More importantly, lateral sliding promotes a redistribution or accumulation, rather than squeezing out, of nanotubes between the surfaces. This accumulation reduced the adhesion between the surfaces (which generally causes wear/damage of the surfaces), and no wear or damage was observed during continuous shearing experiments that lasted several hours even under high loads (pressures â∼10 MPa). The frictional properties can be understood in terms of the Cobblestone Model where the friction force is related to the fraction of the adhesion energy dissipated during impacts of the nanoparticles. We also develop a simple generic model based on the van der Waals interactions between particles and surfaces to determine the relation between the dimensions of nanoparticles and their tribological properties when used as additives in oil- or water-based lubricants. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Microtribology of aqueous carbon nanotube dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Kristiansen, Kai De Lange

    2011-09-23

    The tribological behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous humic acid (HA) solutions was studied using a surface forces apparatus (SFA) and shows promising lubricant additive properties. Adding CNTs to the solution changes the friction forces between two mica surfaces from "adhesion controlled" to "load controlled" friction. The coefficient of friction with either single-walled (SW) or multi-walled (MW) CNT dispersions is in the range 0.30-0.55 and is independent of the load and sliding velocity. More importantly, lateral sliding promotes a redistribution or accumulation, rather than squeezing out, of nanotubes between the surfaces. This accumulation reduced the adhesion between the surfaces (which generally causes wear/damage of the surfaces), and no wear or damage was observed during continuous shearing experiments that lasted several hours even under high loads (pressures â∼10 MPa). The frictional properties can be understood in terms of the Cobblestone Model where the friction force is related to the fraction of the adhesion energy dissipated during impacts of the nanoparticles. We also develop a simple generic model based on the van der Waals interactions between particles and surfaces to determine the relation between the dimensions of nanoparticles and their tribological properties when used as additives in oil- or water-based lubricants. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Carbon Nanotube Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benjamin F.

    2003-01-01

    Work this summer involved and new and unique process for producing the metal nanoparticle catalysts needed for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth. There are many applications attributed to CNT's, and their properties have deemed them to be a hot spot in research today. Many groups have demonstrated the versatility in CNT's by exploring a wide spectrum of roles that these nanotubes are able to fill. A short list of such promising applications are: nanoscaled electronic circuitry, storage media, chemical sensors, microscope enhancement, and coating reinforcement. Different methods have been used to grow these CNT's. Some examples are laser ablation, flame synthesis, or furnace synthesis. Every single approach requires the presence of a metal catalyst (Fe, Co, and Ni are among the best) that is small enough to produce a CNT. Herein lies the uniqueness of this work. Microemulsions (containing inverse micelles) were used to generate these metal particles for subsequent CNT growth. The goal of this summer work was basically to accomplish as much preliminary work as possible. I strived to pinpoint which variable (experimental process, metal product, substrate, method of application, CVD conditions, etc.) was the determining factor in the results. The resulting SEM images were sufficient for the appropriate comparisons to be made. The future work of this project consists of the optimization of the more promising experimental procedures and further exploration onto what exactly dictated the results.

  20. Excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes: environmental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrnov, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of excitons in semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) isolated in vacuum or a medium and their contributions to the optical spectra of nanotubes are studied within the elementary potential model, in which an exciton is represented as a bound state of two oppositely charged quasiparticles confined to the nanotube surface. The emphasis is given on the influence of the dielectric environment surrounding a nanotube on the exciton spectra. For nanotubes in the environment with a permittivity less than ∼ 1:8; the ground-state exciton binding energies exceed the respective energy gaps, whereas the obtained binding energies of excitons in nanotubes in a medium with permittivity greater than ∼ 4 are in good accordance with the corresponding experimental data and consistent with the known scaling relation for the environmental effect. The stabilization of a single-electron spectrum in SWCNTs in media with rather low permittivities is discussed.

  1. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  2. Application of carbon nanotubes flexible strain sensor in smart textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong CHENG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart textiles have not only the necessary functions of daily wear, but also the intelligence. The focus of the current textile materials research is the selection of flexible material. For flexible materials, carbon material is one of the ideal materials for preparing flexible strain gauges. The application of flexible strain sensor prepared by carbon nanotubes as a flexible material in smart textiles is the research content. The research status of carbon nanotubes flexible strain sensor is introduced from the aspects of the structure, properties and application. The characteristics and functions of flexible strain gages prepared with carbon nanotube fibers and carbon nanotube films as flexible materials are discussed in terms of selection, preparation method, performance test and application. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of the flexible strain sensor of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from the aspects of preparation difficulty, production cost and practical application effect. High sensitivity with high strain will be a key research direction for carbon nanotube flexible strain sensors.

  3. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Aminur Rahman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs. CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers.

  4. Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M

    2016-04-27

    The need to sense gases and vapors arises in numerous scenarios in industrial, environmental, security and medical applications. Traditionally, this activity has utilized bulky instruments to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on the constituents of the gas mixture. It is ideal to use sensors for this purpose since they are smaller in size and less expensive; however, their performance in the field must match that of established analytical instruments in order to gain acceptance. In this regard, nanomaterials as sensing media offer advantages in sensitivity, preparation of chip-based sensors and construction of electronic nose for selective detection of analytes of interest. This article provides a review of the use of carbon nanotubes in gas and vapor sensing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Chemical Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Arunpama B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional thermal conductivity gauges (e.g. Pirani gauges) lend themselves to applications such as leak detectors, or in gas chromatographs for identifying various gas species. However, these conventional gauges are physically large, operate at high power, and have a slow response time. A single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-based chemical sensing gauge relies on differences in thermal conductance of the respective gases surrounding the CNT as it is voltage-biased, as a means for chemical identification. Such a sensor provides benefits of significantly reduced size and compactness, fast response time, low-power operation, and inexpensive manufacturing since it can be batch-fabricated using Si integrated-circuit (IC) process technology.

  6. Fabrication of Microscale Carbon Nanotube Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengzhi Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have excellent mechanical, chemical, and electronic properties, but realizing these excellences in practical applications needs to assemble individual CNTs into larger-scale products. Recently, CNT fibers demonstrate the potential of retaining CNT's superior properties at macroscale level. High-performance CNT fibers have been widely obtained by several fabrication approaches. Here in this paper, we review several key spinning techniques including surfactant-based coagulation spinning, liquid-crystal-based solution spinning, spinning from vertical-aligned CNT arrays, and spinning from CNT aerogel. The method, principle, limitations, and recent progress of each technique have been addressed, and the fiber properties and their dependences on spinning parameters are also discussed.

  7. Oxygen evolution reaction in nanoconfined carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yunfang; Zhang, Xueqing

    2018-05-01

    Improving oxygen electrochemistry through nanoscopic confinement has recently been highlighted as a promising strategy. In-depth understanding the role of confinement is therefore required. In this study, we simulate the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on iron oxide nanoclusters under confinement of (7,7) and (8,8) armchair carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The free energies of the four proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) steps and the OER overpotentials are calculated. The Fe4O6 nanocluster confined in (7,7) CNT is found to be the most active for OER among the systems considered in this work. This leads to an increase in catalytic efficiency of OER compared to the hematite (110) surface, which was reported recently as an active surface towards OER. The calculated results show that the OER overpotential depends strongly on the magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanocluster. These findings are helpful for experimental design of efficient catalyst for water splitting applications.

  8. Carbon nanotube Schottky diode: an atomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, P; Li, E; Kurniawan, O; Koh, W S; Lam, K T

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport properties of semiconducting carbon nanotube (SCNT) Schottky diodes are investigated with atomic models using density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We model the SCNT Schottky diode as a SCNT embedded in the metal electrode, which resembles the experimental set-up. Our study reveals that the rectification behaviour of the diode is mainly due to the asymmetric electron transmission function distribution in the conduction and valence bands and can be improved by changing metal-SCNT contact geometries. The threshold voltage of the diode depends on the electron Schottky barrier height which can be tuned by altering the diameter of the SCNT. Contrary to the traditional perception, the metal-SCNT contact region exhibits better conductivity than the other parts of the diode

  9. Carbon Nanotube Embedded Nanostructure for Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyuk; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2017-12-27

    Low electric energy loss is a very important problem to minimize the decay of transferred energy intensity due to impedance mismatch. This issue has been dealt with by adding an impedance matching layer at the interface between two media. A strategy was proposed to improve the charge transfer from the human body to a biometric device by using an impedance matching nanostructure. Nanocomposite pattern arrays were fabricated with shape memory polymer and carbon nanotubes. The shape recovery ability of the nanopatterns enhanced durability and sustainability of the structure. It was found that the composite nanopatterns improved the current transfer by two times compared with the nonpatterned composite sample. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced charge transport was understood by carrying out a numerical simulation. We anticipate that this study can provide a new pathway for developing advanced biometric devices with high sensitivity to biological information.

  10. DNA-FET using carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T K; Ikegami, A; Aoki, N; Ochiai, Y

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate DNA field effect transistor (DNA-FET) using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) as nano-structural source and drain electrodes. The MWNT electrodes have been fabricated by focused ion-beam bombardment (FIBB). A very short channel, approximately 50 nm, was easily formed between the severed MWNT. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of DNA molecules between the MWNT electrodes showed hopping transport property. We have also measured the gate-voltage dependence in the I-V characteristics and found that poly DNA molecules exhibits p-type conduction. The transport of DNA-FET can be explained by two hopping lengths which depend on the range of the source-drain bias voltages

  11. High frequency electromechanical memory cells based on telescoping carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A M; Lozovik, Y E; Kulish, A S; Bichoutskaia, E

    2010-07-01

    A new method to increase the operational frequency of electromechanical memory cells based on the telescoping motion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes through the selection of the form of the switching voltage pulse is proposed. The relative motion of the walls of carbon nanotubes can be controlled through the shape of the interwall interaction energy surface. This allows the use of the memory cells in nonvolatile or volatile regime, depending on the structure of carbon nanotube. Simulations based on ab initio and semi-empirical calculations of the interwall interaction energies are used to estimate the switching voltage and the operational frequency of volatile cells with the electrodes made of carbon nanotubes. The lifetime of nonvolatile memory cells is also predicted.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Composite SHM Sensor using Additive Manufacturing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a piezoelectric sensors made of carbon nanotube and lead zirconium titanate (PZT) nanopower dispersed in a polymer matrix. These sensors will...

  13. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from 13C NMR

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, E.; Babaa, M.-R.; Bouhrara, M.; Kim, Y.; Saih, Y.; Dennler, S.; Mauri, F.; Basset, Jean-Marie; Goze-Bac, C.; Wå gberg, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single- and multiwalled

  14. Designed synthesis of tunable amorphous carbon nanotubes (a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Page 1. Electronic Supplementary Material. Graphical abstract. Designed synthesis of tunable amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) by a novel route and their oxidation resistance properties by Longlong. Xu et al (pp 1397–1402).

  15. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by catalytic vapor decomposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs); catalytic vapor decomposition; soap bubble mass flowmeter. ... [4,13,14], makes them an excellent candidate for use as a dielectric in supercapac- itors [15]. ... the change in liquid level in the scrubber. After the ...

  16. Self-grafting carbon nanotubes on polymers for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Piero; Moyanova, Slavianka; Pavone, Luigi; Fazi, Laura; Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Rapone, Bruno; Gaglione, Anderson; Senesi, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Elementary bidimensional circuitry made of single-wall carbon-nanotube-based conductors, self-grafted on different polymer films, is accomplished in an attempt to develop a simple technology for flexible and stretchable electronic devices. Unlike in other studies of polymer-carbon nanotube composites, no chemical functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes is necessary for stable grafting onto several polymeric surfaces, suggesting viable and cheap fabrication technologies for stretchable microdevices. Electrical characterization of both unstretched and strongly stretched conductors is provided, while an insight on the mechanisms of strong adhesion to the polymer is obtained by scanning electron microscopy of the surface composite. As a first example of technological application, the electrical functionality of a carbon-nanotube-based 6-sensor (electrode) grid was demonstrated by recording of subdural electrocorticograms in freely moving rats over approximately three months. The results are very promising and may serve as a basis for future work targeting clinical applications.

  17. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Deposition on Model Environmental Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on model environmental surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Deposition behaviors of MWNTs on positively and negatively charged surfaces were in good agreement with Der...

  18. Polymerization Initiated at the Sidewalls of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Hudson, Jared L.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been developed for growing polymer chains via anionic, cationic, or radical polymerization from the side walls of functionalized carbon nanotubes, which will facilitate greater dispersion in polymer matrices, and will greatly enhance reinforcement ability in polymeric material.

  19. Aligned carbon nanotubes. Physics, concepts, fabrication and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lan, Yucheng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wang, Yang [South China Normal Univ. Guangzhou (China). Inst. for Advanced Materials

    2013-07-01

    This book gives a survey of the physics and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and their applications in optics, electronics, chemistry and biotechnology. It focuses on the structural characterization of various carbon nanotubes, fabrication of vertically or parallel aligned carbon nanotubes on substrates or in composites, physical properties for their alignment, and applications of aligned carbon nanotubes in field emission, optical antennas, light transmission, solar cells, chemical devices, bio-devices, and many others. Major fabrication methods are illustrated in detail, particularly the most widely used PECVD growth technique on which various device integration schemes are based, followed by applications such as electrical interconnects, nanodiodes, optical antennas, and nanocoax solar cells, whereas current limitations and challenges are also be discussed to lay the foundation for future developments.

  20. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Hye-Mi; Sim, Jin Woo; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun; Chang, Won Seok

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate

  1. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Hye-Mi [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jin Woo [Advanced Nano Technology Ltd., Seoul 132-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jinhyeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Department of Energy Science and School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won Seok, E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  2. Community effects of carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzeboer, I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic sediments form an important sink for manufactured nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) and fullerenes, thus potentially causing adverse effects to the aquatic environment, especially to benthic organisms. To date, most nanoparticle effect studies used single species tests in the

  3. Application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes to enhance anodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Key words: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, microbial fuel cell, Enterobacter cloacae, ... Aldrich) was prepared in absolute ethanol (Hu et al., 2006; Tkac .... incorporated Eu3+ by voltammetry and electrochemical impedance.

  4. Selective growth of carbon nanotube on silicon substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xiao-ping; H. ABE; T. SHIMIZU; A. ANDO; H. TOKUMOT; ZHU Shen-ming; ZHOU Hao-shen

    2006-01-01

    The carbon nanotube (CNT) growth of iron oxide-deposited trench-patterns and the locally-ordered CNT arrays on silicon substrate were achieved by simple thermal chemical vapor deposition(STCVD) of ethanol vapor. The CNTs were uniformly synthesized with good selectivity on trench-patterned silicon substrates. This fabrication process is compatible with currently used semiconductor-processing technologies,and the carbon-nanotube fabrication process can be widely applied for the development of electronic devices using carbon-nanotube field emitters as cold cathodes and can revolutionize the area of field-emitting electronic devices. The site-selective growth of CNT from an iron oxide nanoparticle catalyst patterned were also achieved by drying-mediated self-assembly technique. The present method offers a simple and cost-effective method to grow carbon nanotubes with self-assembled patterns.

  5. International Assessment of Carbon Nanotube Manufacturing and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eklund, Peter; Ajayan, Pulickel; Blackmon, Robert; Hart, A. J; Kong, Jing; Pradhan, Bhabendra; Rao, Apparao; Rinzler, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This WTEC study focuses on the manufacturing and applications of carbon nanotubes "CNTs" to identify recent progress in understanding the commercial potential of CNTs as viewed by academic, industrial...

  6. Ultrasensitive, Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Fragmented Carbon Nanotube Papers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Yu, Hu; Xu, Xuezhu; Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The development of strain sensors featuring both ultra high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a challenge. We demonstrate that strain sensors based on fragmented single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper embedded in poly

  7. Radar absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This research is devoted to the study of radar absorbing properties of the composites, based on the epoxy binder and ... Radar absorbing materials; carbon nanotubes; nanocomposites; reflection loss. 1. ..... So, for example, the papers of [3–5 ...

  8. Radical scavenging reaction kinetics with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuruoka, Shuji; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Koyama, Kenichi; Akiba, Eiji; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Cassee, Flemming R.; Saito, Naoto; Usui, Yuki; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Porter, Dale W.; Castranova, Vincent; Endo, Morinobu

    2015-01-01

    Progress in the development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has stimulated great interest among industries providing new applications. Meanwhile, toxicological evaluations on nanomaterials are advancing leading to a predictive exposure limit for CNTs, which implies the possibility of designing safer

  9. Spin-Charge Separation in Finite Length Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Using time-dependent density functional theory, we study the optical excitations in finite length carbon nanotubes. Evidence of spin-charge separation is given in the spacetime domain. We demonstrate that the charge density wave is due to collective

  10. Self Assembled Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Ultracapacitors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to develop single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) based ultracapacitors for energy storage devices (ESD) application, using...

  11. Carbon nanotubes for interconnects process, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dijon, Jean; Maffucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as interconnect material for horizontal, on-chip and 3D interconnects. The authors demonstrate the uses of bundles of CNTs, as innovative conducting material to fabricate interconnect through-silicon vias (TSVs), in order to improve the performance, reliability and integration of 3D integrated circuits (ICs). This book will be first to provide a coherent overview of exploiting carbon nanotubes for 3D interconnects covering aspects from processing, modeling, simulation, characterization and applications. Coverage also includes a thorough presentation of the application of CNTs as horizontal on-chip interconnects which can potentially revolutionize the nanoelectronics industry. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the state-of-the-art on exploiting carbon nanotubes for interconnects for both 2D and 3D integrated circuits. Provides a single-source reference on carbon nanotubes for interconnect applications; Includes c...

  12. A concise review of carbon nanotube's toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Yazdan Madani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes can be either single-walled or multi-walled, each of which is known to have a different electron arrangement and as a result have different properties. However, the shared unique properties of both types of carbon nanotubes (CNT allow for their potential use in various biomedical devices and therapies. Some of the most common properties of these materials include the ability to absorb near-infra-red light and generate heat, the ability to deliver drugs in a cellular environment, their light weight, and chemical stability. These properties have encouraged scientists to further investigate CNTs as a tool for thermal treatment of cancer and drug delivery agents. Various promising data have so far been obtained about the usage of CNTs for cancer treatment; however, toxicity of pure CNTs represents a major challenge for clinical application. Various techniques both in vivo and in in vitro have been conducted by a number of different research groups to establish the factors which have a direct effect on CNT-mediated cytotoxicity. The main analysis techniques include using Alamar blue, MTT, and Trypan blue assays. Successful interpretation of these results is difficult because the CNTs can significantly disrupt the emission of the certain particles, which these assays detect. In contrast, in vivo studies allow for the measurement of toxicity and pathology caused by CNTs on an organismal level. Despite the drawbacks of in vitro studies, they have been invaluable in identifying important toxicity factors, such as size, shape, purity, and functionalisation, the latter of which can attenuate CNT toxicity.

  13. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  14. Multifunctional carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles embedded in their walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattia, D; Korneva, G; Sabur, A; Friedman, G; Gogotsi, Y

    2007-01-01

    Controlled amounts of nanoparticles ranging in size and composition were embedded in the walls of carbon nanotubes during a template-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. The encapsulation of gold nanoparticles enabled surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of glycine inside the cavity of the nanotubes. Iron oxide particles are partially reduced to metallic iron during the CVD process giving the nanotubes ferromagnetic behaviour. At high nanoparticle concentrations, particle agglomerates can form. These agglomerates or larger particles, which are only partially embedded in the walls of the nanotubes, are covered by additional carbon layers inside the hollow cavity of the tube producing hillocks inside the nanotubes, with sizes comparable to the bore of the tube

  15. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  16. Exposure to Carbon Nanotube Material: Assessment of Nanotube Cytotoxicity Using Human Keratinocyte Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedova, Anna A.; Castranova, Vincent; Kisin, Elena R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Murray, Ashley R.; Gandelsman, Vadim Z.; Maynard, Andrew; Baron, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are new members of carbon allotropes similar to fullerenes and graphite. Because of their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes are important for novel applications in the electronics, aerospace, and computer industries. Exposure to graphite and carbon materials has been associated with increased incidence of skin diseases, such as carbon fiber dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, and naevi. We investigated adverse effects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) using a cell culture of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). After 18 h of exposure of HaCaT to SWCNT, oxidative stress and cellular toxicity were indicated by formation of free radicals, accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion, and loss of cell viability. Exposure to SWCNT also resulted in ultrastructural and morphological changes in cultured skin cells. These data indicate that dermal exposure to unrefined SWCNT may lead to dermal toxicity due to accelerated oxidative stress in the skin of exposed workers.

  17. Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube cross-bar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, William J; Keblinski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    We use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) to compute the thermal conductivity (κ) of orthogonally ordered cross-bar structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Such structures exhibit extremely low thermal conductivity in the range of 0.02-0.07 W m -1 K -1 . These values are five orders of magnitude smaller than the axial thermal conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes, and are comparable to the thermal conductivity of still air.

  18. Single-walled carbon nanotube-induced mitotic disruption⋆

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, L.M.; Hubbs, A.F.; Young, S.-H.; Kashon, M.L.; Dinu, C.Z.; Salisbury, J.L.; Benkovic, S.A.; Lowry, D.T.; Murray, A.R.; Kisin, E.R.; Siegrist, K.J.; Battelli, L.; Mastovich, J.; Sturgeon, J.L.; Bunker, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were among the earliest products of nanotechnology and have many potential applications in medicine, electronics, and manufacturing. The low density, small size, and biological persistence of carbon nanotubes create challenges for exposure control and monitoring and make respiratory exposures to workers likely. We have previously shown mitotic spindle aberrations in cultured primary and immortalized human airway epithelial cells exposed to 24, 48 and 96 μg/cm2 single-walled c...

  19. Adsorption of multimeric T cell antigens on carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, Tarek R; Li, Nan; Shah, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T cells can be enhanced up to three-fold more than soluble controls when using functionalized bundled carbon nanotube substrates ((b) CNTs). To overcome the denaturing effects of direct adsorption on (b) CNTs, a simple but robust method is demonstrated...... to stabilize the T cell stimulus on carbon nanotube substrates through non-covalent attachment of the linker neutravidin....

  20. Methods for selective functionalization and separation of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Marek, legal representative, Irene Marie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  1. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for microelectrode arrays applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Smirnov, J R; Jover, Eric; Amade, Roger; Gabriel, Gemma; Villa, Rosa; Bertran, Enric

    2012-09-01

    In this work a methodology to fabricate carbon nanotube based electrodes using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been explored and defined. The final integrated microelectrode based devices should present specific properties that make them suitable for microelectrode arrays applications. The methodology studied has been focused on the preparation of highly regular and dense vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) mat compatible with the standard lithography used for microelectrode arrays technology.

  2. Electrochemical properties of double wall carbon nanotube electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-01-01

    AbstractElectrochemical properties of double wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) were assessed and compared to their single wall (SWNT) counterparts. The double and single wall carbon nanotube materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electrochemistry. The electrochemical behavior of DWNT film electrodes was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry of ferricyanide and NADH. It is shown that while both DWNT and SWNT were significantly funct...

  3. Carbon Nanotube Fiber Pretreatments for Electrodeposition of Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Hannula, Pyry-Mikko; Junnila, Minttu; Janas, Dawid; Aromaa, Jari; Forsén, Olof; Lundström, Mari

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing interest towards developing carbon nanotube-copper (CNT-Cu) composites due to potentially improved properties. Carbon nanotube macroscopic materials typically exhibit high resistivity, low electrochemical reactivity, and the presence of impurities, which impede its use as a substrate for electrochemical deposition of metals. In this research, different CNT fiber pretreatment methods, such as heat treatment, immersion in Watts bath, anodization, and exposure to boric acid (...

  4. Carbon nanotubes and methods of forming same at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Dervishi, Enkeleda

    2017-05-02

    In one aspect of the invention, a method for growth of carbon nanotubes includes providing a graphitic composite, decorating the graphitic composite with metal nanostructures to form graphene-contained powders, and heating the graphene-contained powders at a target temperature to form the carbon nanotubes in an argon/hydrogen environment that is devoid of a hydrocarbon source. In one embodiment, the target temperature can be as low as about 150.degree. C. (.+-.5.degree. C.).

  5. STIR: Microwave Response of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Nanocomposite Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    STIR: RDRL-ROE-M: Microwave Response of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Nanocomposite Welds Thrust 1 of the STIR project examines the heat response of...polymer composites loaded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to microwave irradiation. This involves (1) a study of how CNT loading affects dielectric...properties of polymer composites and (2) a study of how CNT loading affects the heating response to microwave radiation. Our hypothesis is that the

  6. Advanced ceramics reinforced with carbon nanotubes for ballistic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, Carlos Alberto de Oliveira; Passador, Fabio Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The carbon nanotubes have excellent mechanical properties, the elastic modulus is around 1TPa, next to the diamond and the mechanical strength is 10 to 100 times higher than steel, moreover they are self-lubricating, which facilitates the ceramic composites compression process. The insertion of carbon nanotubes tends to improve the fracture toughness of ceramic composites, but is necessary to obtain a good dispersion in the ceramic matrix. The objective of this work is to develop a tough and tenacious ceramics for ballistic application, using structural ceramics of alumina and tetragonal zirconia and evaluate the influence of the addition of carbon nanotubes (multilayer) on the mechanical properties of the composite. The carbon nanotubes were functionalized with carboxylic groups by nitric acid oxidation reaction. To ensure a homogeneous distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the matrix of alumina/zirconia, surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulphate + gum arabic in the amount of 50% by mass of carbon nanotubes. Ceramic powders were prepared with pure alumina and alumina + 20% by mass of tetragonal zirconia/yttria, with and without addition of carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5% by mass. The samples were uniaxially and isostatically pressed at 300 MPa and sintered in a conventional oven at 1500 °C for two hours and a heating rate of 5 °C/min, aimed at commercial application. The morphology of ceramic powders were characterized by SEM and XRD. The mechanical properties of the sintered samples were evaluated by flexural bending at three points, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness by single edge-notched beam (SENB). The use of carbon nanotubes in the ceramic composite caused a decrease in hardness and an increase in fracture toughness, with great potential for ballistic applications. (author)

  7. One dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, P.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  8. Membranes with functionalized carbon nanotube pores for selective transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr; Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K; Kim, Sangil

    2015-01-27

    Provided herein composition and methods for nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, or multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material. Average pore size of the carbon nanotube can be 6 nm or less. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  9. Advanced ceramics reinforced with carbon nanotubes for ballistic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Carlos Alberto de Oliveira; Passador, Fabio Roberto, E-mail: carlos.couto.sjc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The carbon nanotubes have excellent mechanical properties, the elastic modulus is around 1TPa, next to the diamond and the mechanical strength is 10 to 100 times higher than steel, moreover they are self-lubricating, which facilitates the ceramic composites compression process. The insertion of carbon nanotubes tends to improve the fracture toughness of ceramic composites, but is necessary to obtain a good dispersion in the ceramic matrix. The objective of this work is to develop a tough and tenacious ceramics for ballistic application, using structural ceramics of alumina and tetragonal zirconia and evaluate the influence of the addition of carbon nanotubes (multilayer) on the mechanical properties of the composite. The carbon nanotubes were functionalized with carboxylic groups by nitric acid oxidation reaction. To ensure a homogeneous distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the matrix of alumina/zirconia, surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulphate + gum arabic in the amount of 50% by mass of carbon nanotubes. Ceramic powders were prepared with pure alumina and alumina + 20% by mass of tetragonal zirconia/yttria, with and without addition of carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5% by mass. The samples were uniaxially and isostatically pressed at 300 MPa and sintered in a conventional oven at 1500 °C for two hours and a heating rate of 5 °C/min, aimed at commercial application. The morphology of ceramic powders were characterized by SEM and XRD. The mechanical properties of the sintered samples were evaluated by flexural bending at three points, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness by single edge-notched beam (SENB). The use of carbon nanotubes in the ceramic composite caused a decrease in hardness and an increase in fracture toughness, with great potential for ballistic applications. (author)

  10. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes using natural carbon precursor: Castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziah, A. Z.; Junizah, A. R.; Saifuddin, N.

    2012-09-01

    Castor oil has long been an article of commerce due to its versatility as it is widely used as a starting material for many industrial chemical products because of its unique structure. In this study, carbon nanotubes has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of castor oil in nitrogen atmosphere at 300-400δC using custom-made microwave processing unit. The precursor material was catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene. The morphology and characterization of the CNTs were studied and discussed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  11. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Kamalakanta; Pandey, Shubha; Kadyan, Anu; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability), ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review. PMID:26690155

  12. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Kamalakanta; Pandey, Shubha; Kadyan, Anu; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-12-04

    Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability), ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO₂) gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO₂ sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review.

  13. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakanta Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability, ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2 gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review.

  14. Polymer cantilever platform for dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia; Calleja, M.; Dimaki, Maria

    2004-01-01

    A polymer cantilever platform for dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes has been designed and realized. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes from aqueous solution have been assembled between two metal electrodes that are separated by 2 mu m and embedded in the polymer cantilever. The entire chip......, except for the metallic electrodes and wiring, was fabricated in the photoresist SU-8. SU-8 allows for an inexpensive, flexible and fast fabrication method, and the cantilever platform provides a hydrophobic surface that should be well suited for nanotube assembly. The device can be integrated in a micro...

  15. Development of regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube bionanocomposite films with ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilmoghaddam, Mohammad; Wahit, Mat Uzir

    2013-07-01

    In this study, novel nanocomposite films based on regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube (RC/HNT) have been prepared using an environmentally friendly ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) through a simple green method. The structural, morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of the RC/HNT nanocomposites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermal analysis and tensile strength measurements. The results obtained revealed interactions between the halloysite nanotubes and regenerated cellulose matrix. The thermal stability and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films, compared with pure regenerated cellulose film, were significantly improved When the halloysite nanotube (HNT) loading was only 2 wt.%, the 20% weight loss temperature (T20) increased 20°C. The Young's modulus increased from 1.8 to 4.1 GPa, while tensile strength increased from 35.30 to 60.50 MPa when 8 wt.% halloysite nanotube (HNT) was incorporated, interestingly without loss of ductility. The nanocomposite films exhibited improved oxygen barrier properties and water absorption resistance compared to regenerated cellulose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In silico assembly and nanomechanical characterization of carbon nanotube buckypaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranford, Steven W; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotube sheets or films, also known as 'buckypaper', have been proposed for use in actuating, structural and filtration systems, based in part on their unique and robust mechanical properties. Computational modeling of such a fibrous nanostructure is hindered by both the random arrangement of the constituent elements as well as the time- and length-scales accessible to atomistic level molecular dynamics modeling. Here we present a novel in silico assembly procedure based on a coarse-grain model of carbon nanotubes, used to attain a representative mesoscopic buckypaper model that circumvents the need for probabilistic approaches. By variation in assembly parameters, including the initial nanotube density and ratio of nanotube type (single- and double-walled), the porosity of the resulting buckypaper can be varied threefold, from approximately 0.3 to 0.9. Further, through simulation of nanoindentation, the Young's modulus is shown to be tunable through manipulation of nanotube type and density over a range of approximately 0.2-3.1 GPa, in good agreement with experimental findings of the modulus of assembled carbon nanotube films. In addition to carbon nanotubes, the coarse-grain model and assembly process can be adapted for other fibrous nanostructures such as electrospun polymeric composites, high performance nonwoven ballistic materials, or fibrous protein aggregates, facilitating the development and characterization of novel nanomaterials and composites as well as the analysis of biological materials such as protein fiber films and bulk structures.

  17. Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao; Wang, Yong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained

  18. Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning, E-mail: liuxiao@ase.buaa.edu.cn; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao [School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Yong-Gang [Department of Applied Mechanics, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-04-21

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.

  19. Four- and eight-membered rings carbon nanotubes: A new class of carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfang; Lu, Junzhe; Zhu, Hengjiang; Lin, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    A new class of carbon nanomaterials composed of alternating four- and eight-membered rings is studied by density functional theory (DFT), including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and triple-walled CNTs (TWCNTs). The analysis of geometrical structure shows that carbon atoms' hybridization in novel carbon tubular clusters (CTCs) and the corresponding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are both sp2 hybridization; The thermal properties exhibit the high stability of these new CTCs. The results of energy band and density of state (DOS) indicate that the electronic properties of CNTs are independent of their diameter, number of walls and chirality, exhibit obvious metal properties.

  20. The Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACVDmethod was used to prepare high-quality nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNTs) using acetonitrile as the nitrogen and carbon source and acetylene as a carbon source over an Fe-Co/CaCO3 catalyst in the temperature range 700–850 °C. This represents a continuation of earlier work in which ...

  1. Optical Characterization and Applications of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S.

    2005-03-01

    Recent advances in the dispersion and separation of single walled carbon nanotubes have led to new methods of optical characterization and some novel applications. We find that Raman spectroscopy can be used to probe the aggregation state of single-walled carbon nanotubes in solution or as solids with a range of varying morphologies. Carbon nanotubes experience an orthogonal electronic dispersion when in electrical contact that broadens (from 40 meV to roughly 80 meV) and shifts the interband transition to lower energy (by 60 meV). We show that the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the extent of bundle organization and the inter-nanotube contact area. In the Raman spectrum, aggregation shifts the effective excitation profile and causes peaks to increase or decrease, depending on where the transition lies, relative to the excitation wavelength. The findings are particularly relevant for evaluating nanotube separation processes, where relative peak changes in the Raman spectrum can be confused for selective enrichment. We have also used gel electrophoresis and column chromatography conducted on individually dispersed, ultrasonicated single-walled carbon nanotubes to yield simultaneous separation by tube length and diameter. Electroelution after electrophoresis is shown to produce highly resolved fractions of nanotubes with average lengths between 92 and 435 nm. Separation by diameter is concomitant with length fractionation, and nanotubes that have been cut shortest also possess the greatest relative enrichments of large-diameter species. The relative quantum yield decreases nonlinearly as the nanotube length becomes shorter. These findings enable new applications of nanotubes as sensors and biomarkers. Particularly, molecular detection using near infrared (n-IR) light between 0.9 and 1.3 eV has important biomedical applications because of greater tissue penetration and reduced auto-fluorescent background in thick tissue or whole blood media. Carbon nanotubes

  2. Isotactic polypropylene/carbon nanotube composites prepared by latex technology. Thermal analysis of carbon nanotube-induced nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltner, H.E.; Grossiord, N.; Lu, K.; Loos, J.; Koning, C.E.; Van Mele, B.

    2008-01-01

    During nonisothermal crystallization of highly dispersed polypropylene/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites, considerable heterogeneous nucleation is observed to an extent scaling with the CNT surface area. Saturation occurs at higher loadings, reaching a plateau value for the crystallization onset

  3. Investigation on single carbon atom transporting through the single-walled carbon nanotube by MD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yinfeng; Zhang Zhibin; Ke Xuezhi; Zhu Zhiyuan; Zhu Dezhang; Wang Zhenxia; Xu Hongjie

    2005-01-01

    The single carbon atom transporting through the single-walled carbon nanotube has been studied by molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation. We got different trajectories of the carbon atom by changing the input parameters. The simulation results indicate that the single carbon atom with low energy can transport through the carbon nanotube under some input conditions and result in different trajectories being straight line or 'rosette' or circular. (authors)

  4. Decorating Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes with nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yong, E-mail: caoyangel@126.com [Institute of Environment and Municipal Engineering, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Jiao Qingze, E-mail: jiaoqz@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao Yun [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Dong Yingchao [Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2011-09-22

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes arrayed parallel to each other were prepared by an AAO template method. > The Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes decorated with CN{sub x} were realized by CVD of ethylenediamine on the outer surface of oxide nanotubes. > The magnetic properties of Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes were highly improved after being decorated. - Abstract: Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes decorated with nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN{sub x}) were fabricated by catalytic chemical vapor deposition of ethylenediamine on the outer surface of oxide nanotubes. Mg/Fe oxide nanotubes were prepared using a 3:1 molar precursor solution of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and anodic aluminum oxide as the substrate. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD pattern shows that the oxide nanotubes are made up of MgO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. TEM and SEM observations indicate the oxide nanotubes are arrayed roughly parallel to each other, and the outer surface of oxide nanotubes are decorated with CN{sub x}. XPS results show the nitrogen-doped level in CN{sub x} is about 7.3 at.%. Magnetic measurements with VSM demonstrate the saturated magnetization, remanence and coercivity of oxide nanotubes are obvious improved after being decorated with CN{sub x}.

  5. Cohesive zone model of carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber/polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Prabhat Kamal; Kar, Kamal K; Basu, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    It has been previously reported that the average properties of carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber/polyester multiscale composites critically depend on the length and density of nanotubes on the fiber surface. In this paper the effect of nanotube length and density on the interfacial properties of the carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber–polymer interface has been studied using shear lag and a cohesive zone model. The latter model incorporates frictional sliding after complete debonding between the fiber and matrix and has been developed to quantify the effect of nanotube coating on various interfacial characterizing parameters. Our numerical results indicate that fibers with an optimal coverage and length of nanotubes significantly increase the interfacial strength and friction between the fiber and polymer. However, they also embrittle the interface compared with bare fibers. (paper)

  6. How fast does water flow in carbon nanotubes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannam, Sridhar; Todd, Billy; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we review the existing literature on flow rates of water in carbon nanotubes. Data for the slip length which characterizes the flow rate are scattered over 5 orders of magnitude for nanotubes of diameter 0.81–10 nm. Second, we precisely compute...... the slip length using equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations, from which the interfacial friction between water and carbon nanotubes can be found, and also via external field driven non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD). We discuss some of the issues in simulation studies which...... and reliably extrapolate the results for the slip length to values of the field corresponding to experimentally accessible pressure gradients. Finally, we comment on several issues concerning water flow rates in carbon nanotubes which may lead to some future research directions in this area....

  7. Confinement in single walled carbon nanotubes investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battie, Y.; Jamon, D.; Lauret, J.S.; Gu, Q.; Gicquel-Guézo, M.; En Naciri, A.; Loiseau, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thick films of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameter and chirality distributions are characterized by combining transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The dependence of the dielectric function with the increase of the SWCNT diameter occurs with a drastic redshift of the S 11 , S 22 and M 11 transition energies. The transfer integral parameter γ 0 of SWCNT is also evaluated and analyzed. We demonstrate that parts of the optical properties of SWCNTs are attributed to a one dimensional confinement effect. - Highlights: • Ellipsometric measurements are performed on carbon nanotube thick films. • The complex dielectric functions of conventional carbon nanotubes are given. • Confinement effects explain the variations of dielectric function of nanotubes

  8. Electroluminescence from single-wall carbon nanotube network transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, E; Aguirre, C M; Marty, L; St-Antoine, B C; Meunier, F; Desjardins, P; Ménard, D; Martel, R

    2008-08-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) properties from single-wall carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors (NNFETs) and small bundle carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) are studied using spectroscopy and imaging in the near-infrared (NIR). At room temperature, NNFETs produce broad (approximately 180 meV) and structured NIR spectra, while they are narrower (approximately 80 meV) for CNFETs. EL emission from NNFETs is located in the vicinity of the minority carrier injecting contact (drain) and the spectrum of the emission is red shifted with respect to the corresponding absorption spectrum. A phenomenological model based on a Fermi-Dirac distribution of carriers in the nanotube network reproduces the spectral features observed. This work supports bipolar (electron-hole) current recombination as the main mechanism of emission and highlights the drastic influence of carrier distribution on the optoelectronic properties of carbon nanotube films.

  9. Carbon nano-tubes - what risks, what prevention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Myriam; Lafon, Dominique; Roos, Frederique

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nano-tubes are arousing considerable interest in both the research world and industry because of their exceptional intrinsic properties and dimensional characteristics. Health risks of nano-tubes have been little studied, although the general public is already aware of their existence on account of their numerous promising applications. Existing, sometimes extremely brief, publications only reveal insufficient data for assessing risks sustained due to carbon nano-tube exposure. Yet, the great interest aroused by these new chemicals would indicate strongly that the number of exposed workers will increase over the coming years. It therefore appears essential to review not only the characteristics and applications of carbon nano-tubes, but also the prevention means to be implemented during their handling. We recommend application of the principle of precaution and measures to keep the exposure level as low as possible until the significance of occupational exposure and the corresponding human health risks are better known and have been assessed. (authors)

  10. Noise characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotube network transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Kim, Kang Hyun; Kim, Kyu Tae; Min, Yo-Sep; Park, Wanjun

    2008-01-01

    The noise characteristics of randomly networked single-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are studied with field effect transistors (FETs). Due to the geometrical complexity of nanotube networks in the channel area and the large number of tube-tube/tube-metal junctions, the inverse frequency, 1/f, dependence of the noise shows a similar level to that of a single single-walled carbon nanotube transistor. Detailed analysis is performed with the parameters of number of mobile carriers and mobility in the different environment. This shows that the change in the number of mobile carriers resulting in the mobility change due to adsorption and desorption of gas molecules (mostly oxygen molecules) to the tube surface is a key factor in the 1/f noise level for carbon nanotube network transistors

  11. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-04-01

    Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

  12. Alignment enhanced photoconductivity in single wall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ye; Lu Shaoxin; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report, for the first time, the alignment enhanced photoconductivity of single wall carbon nanotube films upon laser illumination. The photoconductivity exhibited an increase, decrease or even 'negative' values when the laser spot was on different positions between contact electrodes, showing a 'position' dependent photoconductivity of partially aligned films of carbon nanotubes. Photon induced charge carrier generation in single wall carbon nanotubes and subsequent charge separation across the metal-carbon nanotube contacts is believed to cause the photoconductivity changes. A net photovoltage of ∼4 mV and a photocurrent of ∼10 μA were produced under the laser intensity of ∼273 mW with a quantum efficiency of ∼7.8% in vacuum. The photocurrent was observed to be in the direction of nanotube alignment. Finally, there was a strong dependence of the polarization of the incident light on the photocurrent and the orientation of the films influenced the dynamics of the rise and fall of the photocurrent. All of these phenomena clearly have significance in the area of design and fabrication of solar cells, micro-opto-mechanical systems and photodetectors based on carbon nanotubes.

  13. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebenyi, G.; Romhany, G.; Czvikovszky, T.; Vajna, B.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A small amount - less than 0.5% - carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve significantly the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials. The basic technical problem is on one side the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin. Namely the fine, powder-like - less than 100 nanometer diameter - nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, - which is determining the success of the reinforcement, - requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. After an elaborate masterbatch mixing technology we applied Electron Beam treatment of epoxy-matrix polymer composites containing carbon nanotubes in presence of vinylester resins. The Raman spectra of vinylester-epoxy mixtures treated by an 8 MeV EB showed the advantage of the electron treatment. Even in the case of partially immiscible epoxy and vinylester resins, the anchorage of carbon nanotubes reflects improvement if a reasonable 25 kGy EB dose is applied. Atomic Force Microscopy as well as mechanical tests on flexural and impact properties confirm the benefits of EB treatment. Simultaneous application of multiwall carbon nanotubes and 'conventional' carbon fibers as reinforcement in vinylester modified epoxies results in new types of hybrid nanocomposites as engineering materials. The bending- and interlaminar properties of such hybrid systems showed the beneficial effect of the EB treatment. Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by the New Hungary Development Plan (Project ID: TAMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KMR-2010-0002).

  14. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2016-03-01

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles.

  15. Carbon Nanotubes: Applications in Pharmacy and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.. They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes: Applications in Pharmacy and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Pham-Huy, Lien Ai; Dramou, Pierre; Xiao, Deli; Zuo, Pengli

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.). They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future. PMID:24195076

  17. Modifying the electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Jesse M.

    The intrinsic electronic and optical properties of carbon nanotubes make them promising candidates for circuit elements and LEDs in nanoscale devices. However, applied fields and interactions with the environment can modify these intrinsic properties. This dissertation is a theoretical study of perturbations to an ideal carbon nanotube. It illustrates how transport and optical properties of carbon nanotubes can be adversely affected or intentionally modified by the local environment. The dissertation is divided into three parts. Part I analyzes the effect of a transverse electric field on the single-electron energy spectrum of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Part II analyzes the effect of the local environment on selection rules and decay pathways relevant to dark excitons. Part III is a series of 26 appendices. Two different models for a transverse electric field are introduced in Part I. The first is a uniform field perpendicular to the nanotube axis. This model suggests the field has little effect on the band gap until it exceeds a critical value that can be tuned with strain or a magnetic field. The second model is a transverse field localized to a small region along the nanotube axis. The field creates a pair of exponentially localized bound states but has no effect on the band gap for particle transport. Part II explores the physics of dark excitons in carbon nanotubes. Two model calculations illustrate the effect of the local environment on allowed optical transitions and nonradiative recombination pathways. The first model illustrates the role of inversion symmetry in the optical spectrum. Broken inversion symmetry may explain low-lying peaks in the exciton spectrum of boron nitride nanotubes and localized photoemission around impurities and interfaces in carbon nanotubes. The second model in Part II suggests that free charge carriers can mediate an efficient nonradiative decay process for dark excitons in carbon nanotubes. The appendices in Part III

  18. Computational Design of a Carbon Nanotube Fluorofullerene Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ho Chung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes offer exciting opportunities for devising highly-sensitive detectors of specific molecules in biology and the environment. Detection limits as low as 10−11 M have already been achieved using nanotube-based sensors. We propose the design of a biosensor comprised of functionalized carbon nanotube pores embedded in a silicon-nitride or other membrane, fluorofullerene-Fragment antigen-binding (Fab fragment conjugates, and polymer beads with complementary Fab fragments. We show by using molecular and stochastic dynamics that conduction through the (9, 9 exohydrogenated carbon nanotubes is 20 times larger than through the Ion Channel Switch ICSTM biosensor, and fluorofullerenes block the nanotube entrance with a dissociation constant as low as 37 pM. Under normal operating conditions and in the absence of analyte, fluorofullerenes block the nanotube pores and the polymer beads float around in the reservoir. When analyte is injected into the reservoir the Fab fragments attached to the fluorofullerene and polymer bead crosslink to the analyte. The drag of the much larger polymer bead then acts to pull the fluorofullerene from the nanotube entrance, thereby allowing the flow of monovalent cations across the membrane. Assuming a tight seal is formed between the two reservoirs, such a biosensor would be able to detect one channel opening and thus one molecule of analyte making it a highly sensitive detection design.

  19. Structure, electronic properties, and aggregation behavior of hydroxylated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Oyama, A. B.; Silva-Molina, R. A.; Ruíz-García, J.; Guirado-López, R. A., E-mail: guirado@ifisica.uaslp.mx [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Gámez-Corrales, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study to analyze the structure, electronic properties, and aggregation behavior of hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (OH–MWCNT). Our MWCNTs have average diameters of ∼2 nm, lengths of approximately 100–300 nm, and a hydroxyl surface coverage θ∼0.1. When deposited on the air/water interface the OH–MWCNTs are partially soluble and the floating units interact and link with each other forming extended foam-like carbon networks. Surface pressure-area isotherms of the nanotube films are performed using the Langmuir balance method at different equilibration times. The films are transferred into a mica substrate and atomic force microscopy images show that the foam like structure is preserved and reveals fine details of their microstructure. Density functional theory calculations performed on model hydroxylated carbon nanotubes show that low energy atomic configurations are found when the OH groups form molecular islands on the nanotube's surface. This patchy behavior for the OH species is expected to produce nanotubes having reduced wettabilities, in line with experimental observations. OH doping yields nanotubes having small HOMO–LUMO energy gaps and generates a nanotube → OH direction for the charge transfer leading to the existence of more hole carriers in the structures. Our synthesized OH–MWCNTs might have promising applications.

  20. A fabrication method for field emitter array of carbon nanotubes with improved carbon nanotube rooting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouhan, V., E-mail: vchouhan@post.kek.jp [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Noguchi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, S. [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    We have developed a technique for fabrication of a field emitter array (FEA) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to obtain a high emission current along with a high current density. The FEA was prepared with many small equidistant circular emitters of randomly oriented multiwall carbon nanotubes. The fabrication of a FEA substrate followed with deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) film on a tantalum (Ta) substrate and circular titanium (Ti) islands on the TiN coated Ta substrate in a DC magnetron sputtering coater. CNTs were dispersed on the substrate and rooted into the circular Ti islands at a high temperature to prepare an array of circular emitters of CNTs. The TiN film was applied on a Ta substrate to make a reaction barrier between the Ta substrate and CNTs in order to root CNTs only into the Ti islands without a reaction with the Ta substrate at the high temperature. A high emission current of 31.7 mA with an effective current density of 34.5 A/cm{sup 2} was drawn at 6.5 V/μm from a FEA having 130 circular emitters in a diameter of 50 μm and with a pitch of 200 μm. The high emission current was ascribed to the good quality rooting of CNTs into the Ti islands and an edge effect, in which a high emission current was expected from the peripheries of the circular emitters. - Highlights: • We developed a method to fabricate a field emitter array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). • CNT rooting into array of titanium islands was improved at a high temperature. • Titanium nitride film was used to stop reaction between CNT and tantalum substrate. • Strong edge effect was achieved from an array of small circular emitters of CNTs. • The good quality CNT rooting and the edge effect enhanced an emission current.

  1. Preparation and characterization of titanate nanotubes/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaodong; Pan Hui; Xue Xiaoxiao; Qian Junjie; Yu Laigui; Yang Jianjun; Zhang Zhijun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Titanate nanotubes/carbon composites were synthesized from TiO 2 -carbon composites. → The carbon shell of TiO 2 particles obstructed the reaction between TiO 2 and NaOH. → TEM, XRD, and Raman spectra reveal the formation processes of the TNT/CCs. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes/carbon composites(TNT/CCs) were synthesized by allowing carbon-coated TiO 2 (CCT) powder to react with a dense aqueous solution of NaOH at 120 deg. C for a proper period of time. As-prepared CCT and TNT/CCs were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectrometry. The processes for formation of titanate nanotubes/carbon composites were discussed. It was found that the TiO 2 particles in TiO 2 -carbon composite were enwrapped by a fine layer of carbon with a thickness of about 4 nm. This carbon layer functioned to inhibit the transformation from anatase TiO 2 to orthorhombic titanate. As a result, the anatase TiO 2 in CCT was incompletely transformed into orthorhombic titanate nanotubes upon 24 h of reaction in the dense and hot NaOH solution. When the carbon layers were gradually peeled off along with the formation of more orthorhombic titanate nanotubes at extended reaction durations (e.g., 72 h), anatase TiO 2 particles in CCT were completely transformed into orthorhombic titanate nanotubes, yielding TNT/CCs whose morphology was highly dependent on the reaction time and temperature.

  2. Buckling of Carbon Nanotubes: A State of the Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear mechanical response of carbon nanotubes, referred to as their “buckling" behavior, is a major topic in the nanotube research community. Buckling means a deformation process in which a large strain beyond a threshold causes an abrupt change in the strain energy vs. deformation profile. Thus far, much effort has been devoted to analysis of the buckling of nanotubes under various loading conditions: compression, bending, torsion, and their certain combinations. Such extensive studies have been motivated by (i) the structural resilience of nanotubes against buckling and (ii) the substantial influence of buckling on their physical properties. In this contribution, I review the dramatic progress in nanotube buckling research during the past few years. PMID:28817032

  3. Thermal expansion producing easier formation of a black phosphorus nanotube from nanoribbon on carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Cai, Kun

    2018-02-01

    As a novel one-dimensional material having excellent electrical properties, a black phosphorus (BP) nanotube has wide potential applications in nanodevices. A BP nanotube has not yet, however, been discovered in experiments or fabricated via chemical synthesis. In this study, the feasibility of forming a nanotube from a parallelogram nanoribbon upon a carbon nanotube (CNT) at different temperatures is discussed through the use of molecular dynamics simulations. Results obtained demonstrate that an ideal BP nanotube from the same nanoribbon can be obtained via self-assembly on a CNT at 50 K or lower temperature. At temperatures between 50-100 K, the BP nanotube formed from a single ribbon has defects at both ends. When the temperature is higher than 100 K, it is difficult to obtain a BP nanotube of high quality. It is discovered that when the ribbon can only wind upon the same CNT at low temperature, it may form into an ideal nanotube by increasing the temperature of the system. The reason is that the BP ribbon has a higher thermal expansion than the CNT under the same temperature difference.

  4. Non-damaging and scalable carbon nanotube synthesis on carbon fibres

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, H; Anthony, DB; Qian, H; Greenhalgh, E; Bismarck, A; Shaffer, M

    2016-01-01

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on carbon fibres (CFs) to produce a hierarchical fibre with two differing reinforcement length scales, in this instance nanometre and micrometre respectively, is considered a route to improve current state-of-the-art fibre reinforced composites [1]. The scalable production of carbon nanotube-grafted-carbon fibres (CNT-g-CFs) has been limited due to high temperatures, the use of flammable gases and the requirement of inert conditions for CNT synthesis, whi...

  5. Preparation and electrocatalytic property of WC/carbon nanotube composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guohua; Ma Chunan; Tang Junyan; Sheng Jiangfeng

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide/carbon nanotube composite was prepared by surface decoration and in situ reduction-carbonization. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, HRTEM and BET, respectively. The XRD results show that the sample is composed of carbon nanotube, tungsten carbide and tungsten oxide. The EDS results show that the distribution of tungsten oxide is consistent with that of tungsten carbide. SEM, TEM and HRTEM results show that the tungsten carbide nanoparticle with irregular granule grows on the outside surface of carbon nanotube homogenously. The electrocatalytic activity of the sample for p-nitrophenol reduction was tested by a powder microelectrode in a basic solution. The results show that the electrocatalytic activity of the sample is higher than that of granular tungsten carbide, hollow globe tungsten carbide with mesoporosity and carbon nanotube purified. The improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of the sample can be attributed to its components and composite structure. These results indicate that tungsten carbide/carbon nanotube composite is one of the effective ways to improve the electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide

  6. Fracture of vacancy-defected carbon nanotubes and their embedded nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shaoping; Hou Wenyi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate effects of vacancy defects on fracture of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube/aluminum composites. Our studies show that even a one-atom vacancy defect can dramatically reduce the failure stresses and strains of carbon nanotubes. Consequently, nanocomposites, in which vacancy-defected nanotubes are embedded, exhibit different characteristics from those in which pristine nanotubes are embedded. It has been found that defected nanotubes with a small volume fraction cannot reinforce but instead weaken nanocomposite materials. Although a large volume fraction of defected nanotubes can slightly increase the failure stresses of nanocomposites, the failure strains of nanocomposites are always decreased

  7. Synthetic chloride-selective carbon nanotubes examined by using molecular and stochastic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2010-09-22

    Synthetic channels, such as nanotubes, offer the possibility of ion-selective nanoscale pores which can broadly mimic the functions of various biological ion channels, and may one day be used as antimicrobial agents, or for treatment of cystic fibrosis. We have designed a carbon nanotube that is selectively permeable to anions. The virtual nanotubes are constructed from a hexagonal array of carbon atoms (graphene) rolled up to form a tubular structure, with an effective radius of 4.53 Å and length of 34 Å. The pore ends are terminated with polar carbonyl groups. The nanotube thus formed is embedded in a lipid bilayer and a reservoir containing ionic solutions is added at each end of the pore. The conductance properties of these synthetic channels are then examined with molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations. Profiles of the potential of mean force at 0 mM reveal that a cation moving across the pore encounters an insurmountable free energy barrier of ∼25 kT in height. In contrast, for anions, there are two energy wells of ∼12 kT near each end of the tube, separated by a central free energy barrier of 4 kT. The conductance of the pore, with symmetrical 500 mM solutions in the reservoirs, is 72 pS at 100 mV. The current saturates with an increasing ionic concentration, obeying a Michaelis-Menten relationship. The pore is normally occupied by two ions, and the rate-limiting step in conduction is the time taken for the resident ion near the exit gate to move out of the energy well. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Actuation mechanisms of carbon nanotube-based architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Sebastian; Mahrholz, Thorsten; Wierach, Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2016-04-01

    State of the art smart materials such as piezo ceramics or electroactive polymers cannot feature both, mechanical stiffness and high active strain. Moreover, properties like low density, high mechanical stiffness and high strain at the same time driven by low energy play an increasingly important role for their future application. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), show this behavior. Their active behavior was observed 1999 the first time using paper-like mats made of CNT. Therefore the CNT-papers are electrical charged within an electrolyte thus forming a double- layer. The measured deflection of CNT material is based on the interaction between the charged high surface area formed by carbon nanotubes and ions provided by the electrolyte. Although CNT-papers have been extensively analyzed as well at the macro-scale as nano-scale there is still no generally accepted theory for the actuation mechanism. This paper focuses on investigations of the actuation mechanisms of CNT-papers in comparison to vertically aligned CNT-arrays. One reason of divergent results found in literature might be attributed to different types of CNT samples. While CNT-papers represent architectures of short CNTs which need to bridge each other to form the dimensions of the sample, the continuous CNTs of the array feature a length of almost 3 mm, along which the experiments are carried out. Both sample types are tested within an actuated tensile test set-up under different conditions. While the CNT-papers are tested in water-based electrolytes with comparably small redox-windows the hydrophobic CNT-arrays are tested in ionic liquids with comparatively larger redox-ranges. Furthermore an in-situ micro tensile test within an SEM is carried out to prove the optimized orientation of the MWCNTs as result of external load. It was found that the performance of CNT-papers strongly depends on the test conditions. However, the CNT-arrays are almost unaffected by the conditions showing active response at negative

  9. Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Individual Carbon Nanotube Breakdown Caused by Joule Heating in Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Gudnason, S.B.; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier

    2006-01-01

    We present repeated structural and electrical measurements on individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes, alternating between electrical measurements under ambient conditions and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The multiwalled carbon nanotubes made by chemical vapor deposition were manipulated...

  10. Preparation of Monodispersed Fe-Mo Nanoparticles as the Catalyst for CVD Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yongqian; Wang, Zhong L

    2001-01-01

    ...particles were systematically studied. The prepared nanoparticles were used as catalysts for single-walled carbon nanotube growth and the results indicate that there is an upper limit for the size of the catalyst particles to nucleate singlewalled carbon nanotubes.

  11. Giant electrical power factor in single-walled chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.

    2001-10-01

    Using the semiclassical approach we studied the thermoelectrical properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We predict a giant electrical power factor and hence proposed the use of carbon nanotubes as thermoelements for refrigeration. (author)

  12. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Laoui, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with functionalized carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with phenol

  13. Potential Super-Toughness Behavior of Chiral (10,5) Carbon Nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, C. R; Haskins, R. W; Majure, D. L; Ebeling, R. M; Marsh, C. P; Bednar, A. J; Maier, R. S; Barker, B. C; Wu, David T; Simeon, T. M

    2006-01-01

    ...) carbon nanotube using Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics. The (5,5) carbon nanotubes exhibited extraordinary tensile strengths and brittle failures in agreement with the findings of other researchers...

  14. (PC12) cell lines to oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Methods: The pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs) were ... characterize the MWCNTs. ..... South Africa and NRF Focus Area, Nanotechnology ... of carbon nanotubes in drug delivery. Current. Opinion in Chemical Biology, 2005 ...

  15. Gas sensing with gold-decorated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudimela, Prasantha R; Scardamaglia, Mattia; González-León, Oriol; Reckinger, Nicolas; Snyders, Rony; Llobet, Eduard; Bittencourt, Carla; Colomer, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes of different lengths (150, 300, 500 µm) synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition and decorated with gold nanoparticles were investigated as gas sensitive materials for detecting nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles of about 6 nm in diameter were sputtered on the top surface of the carbon nanotube forests to enhance the sensitivity to the pollutant gas. We showed that the sensing response to nitrogen dioxide depends on the nanotube length. The optimum was found to be 300 µm for getting the higher response. When the background humidity level was changed from dry to 50% relative humidity, an increase in the response to NO2 was observed for all the sensors, regardless of the nanotube length.

  16. Gas sensing with gold-decorated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasantha R. Mudimela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes of different lengths (150, 300, 500 µm synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition and decorated with gold nanoparticles were investigated as gas sensitive materials for detecting nitrogen dioxide (NO2 at room temperature. Gold nanoparticles of about 6 nm in diameter were sputtered on the top surface of the carbon nanotube forests to enhance the sensitivity to the pollutant gas. We showed that the sensing response to nitrogen dioxide depends on the nanotube length. The optimum was found to be 300 µm for getting the higher response. When the background humidity level was changed from dry to 50% relative humidity, an increase in the response to NO2 was observed for all the sensors, regardless of the nanotube length.

  17. Nitrogen controlled iron catalyst phase during carbon nanotube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Bernhard C., E-mail: bernhard.bayer@univie.ac.at [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Baehtz, Carsten [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Kidambi, Piran R.; Weatherup, Robert S.; Caneva, Sabina; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Hofmann, Stephan [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Mangler, Clemens; Kotakoski, Jani; Meyer, Jannik C. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Goddard, Caroline J. L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-06

    Close control over the active catalyst phase and hence carbon nanotube structure remains challenging in catalytic chemical vapor deposition since multiple competing active catalyst phases typically co-exist under realistic synthesis conditions. Here, using in-situ X-ray diffractometry, we show that the phase of supported iron catalyst particles can be reliably controlled via the addition of NH{sub 3} during nanotube synthesis. Unlike polydisperse catalyst phase mixtures during H{sub 2} diluted nanotube growth, nitrogen addition controllably leads to phase-pure γ-Fe during pre-treatment and to phase-pure Fe{sub 3}C during growth. We rationalize these findings in the context of ternary Fe-C-N phase diagram calculations and, thus, highlight the use of pre-treatment- and add-gases as a key parameter towards controlled carbon nanotube growth.

  18. Controlling electrical percolation in multicomponent carbon nanotube dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrylyuk, Andriy V; Hermant, Marie Claire; Schilling, Tanja; Klumperman, Bert; Koning, Cor E; van der Schoot, Paul

    2011-04-10

    Carbon nanotube reinforced polymeric composites can have favourable electrical properties, which make them useful for applications such as flat-panel displays and photovoltaic devices. However, using aqueous dispersions to fabricate composites with specific physical properties requires that the processing of the nanotube dispersion be understood and controlled while in the liquid phase. Here, using a combination of experiment and theory, we study the electrical percolation of carbon nanotubes introduced into a polymer matrix, and show that the percolation threshold can be substantially lowered by adding small quantities of a conductive polymer latex. Mixing colloidal particles of different sizes and shapes (in this case, spherical latex particles and rod-like nanotubes) introduces competing length scales that can strongly influence the formation of the system-spanning networks that are needed to produce electrically conductive composites. Interplay between the different species in the dispersions leads to synergetic or antagonistic percolation, depending on the ease of charge transport between the various conductive components.

  19. Four- and eight-membered rings carbon nanotubes: A new class of carbon nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of carbon nanomaterials composed of alternating four- and eight-membered rings is studied by density functional theory (DFT, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and triple-walled CNTs (TWCNTs. The analysis of geometrical structure shows that carbon atoms’ hybridization in novel carbon tubular clusters (CTCs and the corresponding carbon nanotubes (CNTs are both sp2 hybridization; The thermal properties exhibit the high stability of these new CTCs. The results of energy band and density of state (DOS indicate that the electronic properties of CNTs are independent of their diameter, number of walls and chirality, exhibit obvious metal properties. Keywords: Four- and eight-membered rings, Carbon nanotubes, Stability, Electronic properties

  20. Surface protection of austenitic steels by carbon nanotube coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLucas, T.; Schütz, S.; Suarez, S.; Mücklich, F.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, surface protection properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) deposited on polished austenitic stainless steel are evaluated. Electrophoretic deposition is used as a coating technique. Contact angle measurements reveal hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic wetting characteristics of the carbon nanotube coating depending on the additive used for the deposition. Tribological properties of carbon nanotube coatings on steel substrate are determined with a ball-on-disc tribometer. Effective lubrication can be achieved by adding magnesium nitrate as an additive due to the formation of a holding layer detaining CNTs in the contact area. Furthermore, wear track analysis reveals minimal wear on the coated substrate as well as carbon residues providing lubrication. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is used to qualitatively analyse the elemental composition of the coating and the underlying substrate. The results explain the observed wetting characteristics of each coating. Finally, merely minimal oxidation is detected on the CNT-coated substrate as opposed to the uncoated sample.

  1. Electrochemical DNA biosensors based on platinum nanoparticles combined carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ningning; Chang Zhu; He Pingang; Fang Yuzhi

    2005-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles were used in combination with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for fabricating sensitivity-enhanced electrochemical DNA biosensor. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles were dispersed in Nafion, which were used to fabricate the modification of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. Oligonucleotides with amino groups at the 5' end were covalently linked onto carboxylic groups of MWCNTs on the electrode. The hybridization events were monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement of the intercalated daunomycin. Due to the ability of carbon nanotubes to promote electron-transfer reactions, the high catalytic activities of platinum nanoparticles for chemical reactions, the sensitivity of presented electrochemical DNA biosensors was remarkably improved. The detection limit of the method for target DNA was 1.0 x 10 -11 mol l -1

  2. Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis, purification, and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Current discoveries of different forms of carbon nanostructures have motivated research on their applications in various fields. They hold promise for applications in medicine, gene, and drug delivery areas. Many different production methods for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced; functionalization, filling, doping, and chemical modification have been achieved, and characterization, separation, and manipulation of individual CNTs are now possible. Parameters such as structure, surface area, surface charge, size distribution, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state as well as purity of the samples have considerable impact on the reactivity of carbon nanotubes. Otherwise, the strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes make them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have a significant role in nanotechnology engineering. PMID:25170330

  3. Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis, purification, and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatemadi, Ali; Daraee, Hadis; Karimkhanloo, Hamzeh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Abasi, Mozhgan; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2014-08-01

    Current discoveries of different forms of carbon nanostructures have motivated research on their applications in various fields. They hold promise for applications in medicine, gene, and drug delivery areas. Many different production methods for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced; functionalization, filling, doping, and chemical modification have been achieved, and characterization, separation, and manipulation of individual CNTs are now possible. Parameters such as structure, surface area, surface charge, size distribution, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state as well as purity of the samples have considerable impact on the reactivity of carbon nanotubes. Otherwise, the strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes make them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have a significant role in nanotechnology engineering.

  4. Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanotubes with substitutional nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaun, C.C.; Larade, B.; Mehrez, H.

    2002-01-01

    unit cell generates a metallic transport behavior. Nonlinear I-V characteristics set in at high bias and a negative differential resistance region is observed for the doped tubes. These behaviors can be well understood from the alignment/mis-alignment of the current carrying bands in the nanotube leads......We report ab initio analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen substitution doping. For zigzag semiconducting tubes, doping with a single N impurity increases current flow and, for small radii tubes, narrows the current gap. Doping a N impurity per nanotube...

  5. ONIOM Studies of Esterification at Oxidized Carbon Nanotube Tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras-Torres, F F; Basiuk, V A [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior C.U., A. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    Esterification of oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can open a new route for the separation of zigzag and armchair nanotubes. We studied theoretically (by using hybrid DFT within the ONIOM embedding protocol) the reactions of monocarboxy-substituted oxidized tips of zigzag and armchair single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) with methanol. According to the calculated values of activation energy, Gibbs free-activation barriers, and enthalpies of formation for the SWCNT-(COOH)H5 models, the zigzag nanotube isomer is more reactive as compared to its armchair counterpart. For other models we obtained variable results.

  6. Carbon nanotubes polymerization induced by self-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Cassio Stein [Faculdade de Fisica, Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: We discuss our recent results on the formation of cross-links between neighboring carbon nanotubes within a bundle. Classical molecular dynamics was used to follow the evolution of the system when it is bombarded by low-energy carbon atoms. We show that it is possible to polymerize carbon nanotubes through irradiation and discuss the most common types of defects produced. Cross-links are created mainly in the direction perpendicular to the surface, and for higher energies, defects are created deeper in the rope. The final defects geometries may provide a realistic input to electronic density first principle calculations. (author)

  7. Carbon nanotubes polymerization induced by self-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Cassio Stein

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We discuss our recent results on the formation of cross-links between neighboring carbon nanotubes within a bundle. Classical molecular dynamics was used to follow the evolution of the system when it is bombarded by low-energy carbon atoms. We show that it is possible to polymerize carbon nanotubes through irradiation and discuss the most common types of defects produced. Cross-links are created mainly in the direction perpendicular to the surface, and for higher energies, defects are created deeper in the rope. The final defects geometries may provide a realistic input to electronic density first principle calculations. (author)

  8. Progress Toward Sequestering Carbon Nanotubes in PmPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in molecules of poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-diocty-loxy-p-phenylenevinylene) [PmPV] is a candidate means of promoting dissolution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into epoxies for making strong, lightweight epoxy-matrix/carbon-fiber composite materials. Bare SWNTs cannot be incorporated because they are not soluble in epoxies. In the present approach, one exploits the tendency of PmPV molecules to wrap themselves around SWNTs without chemically bonding to them.

  9. Electronic properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.

    2001-09-01

    The electronic properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotube has been studied using the model based on infinitely long carbon atoms wrapped along a base helix of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs). The problem is solved semiclassically, and current density J, resistivity ρ, thermopower α z , and electrical power factor P calculated. It is noted that the current density j displays negative differential conductivity, whiles the resistivity ρ increases with increasing electrical field. ρ also slowly increases at low temperatures and then gradually increases with increasing temperature. The thermopower α z shows interesting behaviour. Very intriguing is the electrical power factor which shows relatively large values. (author)

  10. Investigations of carbon nanotubes and polyacrylonitrile composites for flexible textronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiński, J.; Wróblewski, G.; Janczak, D.; Jakubowska, M.

    2017-08-01

    Thin composite layers based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) were fabricated by means of spray coating with pneumatic atomization. Research was conducted to achieve transparent and flexible electrodes. Prepared suspensions in different proportions of functional phase provided good dispersion quality of CNTs and the stability. The carbon nanotubes were dispersed in dimethylformamide and then added to polyacrylonitrile solution. Suspension was sprayed onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil. After thermal treatment, samples were mechanically and electrically tested. Thanks to carbon nanomaterials used in prepared coatings, high electrical conductivity and mechanical resistance was observed. Use of a polyacrylonitrile guarantee the flexibility of electrodes and high potential in integration with polyacrylonitrile based fabrics.

  11. Synthesis, model and stability of helically coiled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejes, Dora; Raffai, Manuella; Hernadi, Klara

    2013-01-01

    . Our experiments focused on the production and development of catalysts for the synthesis of helically coiled CNTs (carbon nanotubes). The catalysts were tested in the decomposition of acetylene by CCVD (Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition) method. The carbon deposit was imaged by TEM (Transmission......Structural model of helically coiled carbon nanotubes is proposed. It is constructed by means of topological coordinate method. Relaxation and cohesive energy calculation are performed by molecular mechanics, using second-generation bond order potential for hydrocarbons introduced by D. W. Brenner...

  12. Optical Study of Liquid Crystal Doped with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharde, Rita A.; Thakare, Sangeeta Y.

    2014-11-01

    Liquid crystalline materials have been useful for display devices i.e watches, calculators, automobile dashboards, televisions, multi media projectors etc. as well as in electro tunable lasers, optical fibers and lenses. Carbon nanotube is chosen as the main experimental factor in this study as it has been observed that Carbon Nano Tube influence the existing properties of liquid crystal host and with the doping of CNT can enhance1 the properties of LC. The combination of carbon nanotube (CNT) and liquid crystal (LC) materials show considerable interest in the scientific community due to unique physical properties of CNT in liquid crystal. Dispersion of CNTs in LCs can provide us a cheap, simple, versatile and effective means of controlling nanotube orientation on macroscopic scale with no restrictions on nanotube type. LCs have the long range orientational order rendering them to be anisotropic phases. If CNTs can be well dispersed in LC matrix, they will align with their long axes along the LC director to minimize distortions of the LC director field and the free energy. In this paper, we doped liquid crystal (Cholesteryl Nonanoate) by a small amount of multiwall carbon nanotube 0.05% and 0.1% wt. We found that by adding carbon nanotube to liquid crystals the melting point of the mixture is decreased but TNI is increased. It has been also observed that with incereas in concentration of carbon nanotube into liquid crystal shows conciderable effect on LC. The prepared samples were characterized using various techniques to study structural, thermal and optical properties i.e PMS, FPSS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR measurements, and DTA.

  13. Local Gate Control of a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    describ- ing the levitation . Quantitative comparisons are made difficult by the complicated aniso- tropy of the nematic’s viscoelasticity (21). However...director fields. For example, as a straightforward extension of the levitation , a liquid crystal that twists through many periods (such as a cholesteric...Nanotube Double Quantum Dot N. Mason,*† M. J. Biercuk,* C. M. Marcus† We have measured carbon nanotube quantum dots with multiple electro- static gates and

  14. 1/f noise in metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Shahed; Huynh, Quyen T.; Bosman, Gijs; Sippel-Oakley, Jennifer; Rinzler, Andrew G.

    2006-11-01

    The charge transport and noise properties of three terminal, gated devices containing multiple single-wall metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes were measured at room temperature. Applying a high voltage pulsed bias at the drain terminal the metallic tubes were ablated sequentially, enabling the separation of measured conductance and 1/f noise into metallic and semiconducting nanotube contributions. The relative low frequency excess noise of the metallic tubes was observed to be two orders of magnitude lower than that of the semiconductor tubes.

  15. Carbon nanotubes as in vivo bacterial probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M.

    2014-09-01

    With the rise in antibiotic-resistant infections, non-invasive sensing of infectious diseases is increasingly important. Optical imaging, although safer and simpler, is less developed than other modalities such as radioimaging, due to low availability of target-specific molecular probes. Here we report carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as bacterial probes for fluorescence imaging of pathogenic infections. We demonstrate that SWNTs functionalized using M13 bacteriophage (M13-SWNT) can distinguish between F‧-positive and F‧-negative bacterial strains. Moreover, through one-step modification, we attach an anti-bacterial antibody on M13-SWNT, making it easily tunable for sensing specific F‧-negative bacteria. We illustrate detection of Staphylococcus aureus intramuscular infections, with ~3.4 × enhancement in fluorescence intensity over background. SWNT imaging presents lower signal spread ~0.08 × and higher signal amplification ~1.4 × , compared with conventional dyes. We show the probe offers greater ~5.7 × enhancement in imaging of S. aureus infective endocarditis. These biologically functionalized, aqueous-dispersed, actively targeted, modularly tunable SWNT probes offer new avenues for exploration of deeply buried infections.

  16. High efficiency carbon nanotube thread antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram Bengio, E.; Senic, Damir; Taylor, Lauren W.; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Chen, Peiyu; Holloway, Christopher L.; Babakhani, Aydin; Long, Christian J.; Novotny, David R.; Booth, James C.; Orloff, Nathan D.; Pasquali, Matteo

    2017-10-01

    Although previous research has explored the underlying theory of high-frequency behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNT bundles for antennas, there is a gap in the literature for direct experimental measurements of radiation efficiency. These measurements are crucial for any practical application of CNT materials in wireless communication. In this letter, we report a measurement technique to accurately characterize the radiation efficiency of λ/4 monopole antennas made from the CNT thread. We measure the highest absolute values of radiation efficiency for CNT antennas of any type, matching that of copper wire. To capture the weight savings, we propose a specific radiation efficiency metric and show that these CNT antennas exceed copper's performance by over an order of magnitude at 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. We also report direct experimental observation that, contrary to metals, the radiation efficiency of the CNT thread improves significantly at higher frequencies. These results pave the way for practical applications of CNT thread antennas, particularly in the aerospace and wearable electronics industries where weight saving is a priority.

  17. Majorana quasiparticles in semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Magdalena; Milz, Lars; Izumida, Wataru; Strunk, Christoph; Grifoni, Milena

    2018-02-01

    Engineering effective p -wave superconductors hosting Majorana quasiparticles (MQPs) is nowadays of particular interest, also in view of the possible utilization of MQPs in fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. In quasi-one-dimensional systems, the parameter space for topological superconductivity is significantly reduced by the coupling between transverse modes. Together with the requirement of achieving the topological phase under experimentally feasible conditions, this strongly restricts in practice the choice of systems which can host MQPs. Here, we demonstrate that semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in proximity with ultrathin s -wave superconductors, e.g., exfoliated NbSe2, satisfy these needs. By precise numerical tight-binding calculations in the real space, we show the emergence of localized zero-energy states at the CNT ends above a critical value of the applied magnetic field, of which we show the spatial evolution. Knowing the microscopic wave functions, we unequivocally demonstrate the Majorana nature of the localized states. An effective four-band model in the k -space, with parameters determined from the numerical spectrum, is used to calculate the topological phase diagram and its phase boundaries in analytic form. Finally, the impact of symmetry breaking contributions, like disorder and an axial component of the magnetic field, is investigated.

  18. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed; Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Daya Shankar; Agarwal, Pankaj B.

    2016-01-01

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ∼ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  19. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed, E-mail: bayazeed786@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Jamia Millia Islamia (New Delhi, India) (India); Saini, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirsaini1310@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Sharma, Daya Shankar, E-mail: dssharmanit15@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT, Bhopal, India) (India); Agarwal, Pankaj B., E-mail: agarwalbpankj@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Academy for Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR, Delhi, India) (India)

    2016-04-13

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ∼ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  20. Carbon nanotubes as in vivo bacterial probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M

    2014-09-17

    With the rise in antibiotic-resistant infections, non-invasive sensing of infectious diseases is increasingly important. Optical imaging, although safer and simpler, is less developed than other modalities such as radioimaging, due to low availability of target-specific molecular probes. Here we report carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as bacterial probes for fluorescence imaging of pathogenic infections. We demonstrate that SWNTs functionalized using M13 bacteriophage (M13-SWNT) can distinguish between F'-positive and F'-negative bacterial strains. Moreover, through one-step modification, we attach an anti-bacterial antibody on M13-SWNT, making it easily tunable for sensing specific F'-negative bacteria. We illustrate detection of Staphylococcus aureus intramuscular infections, with ~3.4 × enhancement in fluorescence intensity over background. SWNT imaging presents lower signal spread ~0.08 × and higher signal amplification ~1.4 × , compared with conventional dyes. We show the probe offers greater ~5.7 × enhancement in imaging of S. aureus infective endocarditis. These biologically functionalized, aqueous-dispersed, actively targeted, modularly tunable SWNT probes offer new avenues for exploration of deeply buried infections.