WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon nanotube interactions

  1. Study of Carbon Nanotube-Substrate Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline S. Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental effects are very important in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This work reviews the importance of the substrate in single-wall carbon nanotube properties. Contact with a substrate can modify the nanotube properties, and such interactions have been broadly studied as either a negative aspect or a solution for developing carbon nanotube-based nanotechnologies. This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental studies where the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the substrate affects the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of the tubes.

  2. Studies of DNA-carbon nanotube interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Recently a new biomaterial consisting of a DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotube, and known as a DNA/SWNT, has been discovered. The possible applications of this hybrid are varied and range from genomic sequencing to nanoscale electronics to molecular delivery. The realization of these potential applications requires more knowledge about the microscopic properties of this material. In this thesis, I present studies of: the orientation of nucleobases on the nanotube sidewall; the sequence and length dependence of the DNA-nanotube interaction; and solution conditions to manipulate the DNA/SWNT hybrid. The measurement of the UV optical absorbance of DNA/SWNT and the nucleotide absorbance from DNA/SWNT provide the first experimental confirmation that DNA binds to nanotubes through pi-stacking. Because the hypochromic absorbance typical of pi-stacked structures are expected to occur primarily for DNA dipole transitions that lie along the axis of the optically anisotropic SWNTs, the absorbance changes following binding of DNA to the nanotubes reveals the preferred orientation assumed by each of the four bound nucleotides with respect to the nanotube's long axis. The first observations of pronounced sequence- and length-dependent variations in the binding between ssDNA and SWNTs in aqueous solution are presented. These observations rely on the discovery that there exists a range of DNA lengths able to hybridize with SWNTs that can nevertheless be dissociated at temperatures below the boiling point of water. Quantitative results comparing the isochronal dissociation temperatures and binding energies of DNA/SWNT composed of differing DNA sequences and lengths are given. These results indicate variability and complexity in the binding mechanism responsible for the stability of the hybrid system that transcends simple models based on the sum of independent base-nanotube interactions. Binding energies between a DNA base and nanotube (0.05 to 0.09 eV per base) are similar

  3. Functionalized Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites and Interactions with Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Enrique V. (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard (Inventor); Shofner, Meisha (Inventor); Pulikkathara, Merlyn X. (Inventor); Vaidyanathan, Ranjii (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention involves the interaction of radiation with functionalized carbon nanotubes that have been incorporated into various host materials, particularly polymeric ones. The present invention is directed to chemistries, methods, and apparatuses which exploit this type of radiation interaction, and to the materials which result from such interactions. The present invention is also directed toward the time dependent behavior of functionalized carbon nanotubes in such composite systems.

  4. Dephasing and hyperfine interaction in carbon nanotubes double quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynoso, Andres Alejandro; Flensberg, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the return probability experiment, which is used to measure the dephasing time T-2*, in a double quantum dot (DQD) in semiconducting carbon nanotubes with spin-orbit coupling and disorder-induced valley mixing. Dephasing is due to hyperfine interaction with the spins of the C...... with these for DQDs in clean nanotubes, whereas the disorder effect is always relevant when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nanotube axis....

  5. Strain-modified RKKY interaction in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, P. D.; Duffy, J. M.; Power, Stephen R.;

    2015-01-01

    For low-dimensionalmetallic structures, such as nanotubes, the exchange coupling between localized magnetic dopants is predicted to decay slowly with separation. The long-range character of this interaction plays a significant role in determining the magnetic order of the system. It has previously...... been shown that the interaction range depends on the conformation of the magnetic dopants in both graphene and nanotubes. Here we examine the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in carbon nanotubes in the presence of uniaxial strain for a range of different impurity configurations. We show...... nanotubes, allowing an interplay between mechanical and magnetic properties in future spintronic devices. We also examine the dimensional relationship between graphene and nanotubes with regards to the decay rate of the RKKY interaction....

  6. Real-Time Observation of Cell and Carbon Nanotube Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michelle; Broman, Melanie; Mathews, Claire; McPherson, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been widely researched for disease diagnosis and drug delivery applications. However, its impact on biological systems is yet to be sufficiently understood. We studied optical imaging of Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells exposed to various carbon nanotubes concentrations at various time points. The cell stress due to carbon nanotubes exposure is accessed via morphological changes of the CHO cells. Data showed that cell death increases with increasing carbon nanotube concentration and time exposure. To continuously view such changes of any one individual cell, we constructed an optically transparent miniaturized incubator that fits on a microscope stage. This specific incubator is able to maintain desirable temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration to allow proper cell growth. Such incubator can be used to track real-time interactions of any cells and nanomaterials for future data collection.

  7. Exciton-Plasmon Interactions in Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarev, I.V.; Woods, L. M.; Popescu, A.

    2010-01-01

    We use the macroscopic quantum electrodynamics approach suitable for absorbing and dispersing media to study the properties and role of collective surface excitations --- excitons and plasmons --- in single-wall and double-wall carbon nanotubes. We show that the interactions of excitonic states with surface electromagnetic modes in individual small-diameter (

  8. Growth of Ag nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Ag-carbon nanotube interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhenXia; LI XinNian; REN CuiLan; YONG ZhenZhong; ZHU JianKang; LUO WenYun; FANG XiaoMing

    2009-01-01

    The experimental investigations on the interaction between Ag-nanocrystal particles (Ag-NCPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in Ag-nanocrystal particles/carbon nanotubes (Ag-NCPs/CNTs) hybrid structures were reported.The growth of Ag-NCPs on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was carried out by thermal evaporation deposition.High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Ag-NCPs had the crystal lattice feature of face-centered cube (fcc).The growth of Ag-NCPs on MWCNTs induced the cross-section deformation of MWCNT.The ex-perimental results also showed that the synthesized Ag-NCPs/CNTs hybrid structure appeared as quasi-one dimensional nanowires containing the Ag-NCP/CNT hetero-junction.There was local cross-section deformation on MWCNTs at the interface of hetero-junction.These results involve the Important topic about fundamental and practical studies for structure of MNCPs on CNTs and also find clues to further research of Ag nanocrystal growing on MWCNTs and related Ag-CNT interaction.

  9. Growth of Ag nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Ag-carbon nanotube interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The experimental investigations on the interaction between Ag-nanocrystal particles (Ag-NCPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in Ag-nanocrystal particles/carbon nanotubes (Ag-NCPs/CNTs) hybrid structures were reported. The growth of Ag-NCPs on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was carried out by thermal evaporation deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Ag-NCPs had the crystal lattice feature of face-centered cube (fcc). The growth of Ag-NCPs on MWCNTs induced the cross-section deformation of MWCNT. The experimental results also showed that the synthesized Ag-NCPs/CNTs hybrid structure appeared as quasi-one dimensional nanowires containing the Ag-NCP/CNT hetero-junction. There was local cross-section deformation on MWCNTs at the interface of hetero-junction. These results involve the important topic about fundamental and practical studies for structure of MNCPs on CNTs and also find clues to further research of Ag nanocrystal growing on MWCNTs and related Ag-CNT interaction.

  10. Interactions between carbon nanotubes and bioactives: a drug delivery perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2016-04-01

    Applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the biomedical arena have gained increased attention over the past decade. Surface engineering of CNTs by covalent and noncovalent modifications enables site-specific drug delivery and targeting. CNTs are available as single-, double-, triple-, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, DWCNTs, TWCNTs, and MWCNTs, respectively) and have unique physicochemical properties, including a high surface area, high loading efficiency, good biocompatibility, low toxicity, ultra lightweight, rich surface chemistry, non-immunogenicity, and photoluminescence. In this review, we highlight current understanding of the different types of physical and chemical interaction that occur between therapeutics and CNTs, and the potential application of the latter in drug delivery and imaging. Such understanding will aid exploration of the utility of multifunctional CNTs as pharmaceutical nanocarriers, and potential safety and toxicity issues. PMID:26657088

  11. Electrodynamic and excitonic intertube interactions in semiconducting carbon nanotube aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Jared J; Sau, Jay D; Duque, Juan G; Doorn, Stephen K; Cohen, Marvin L

    2011-04-26

    The optical properties of selectively aggregated, nearly single chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes were investigated by both continuous-wave and time-resolved spectroscopies. With reduced sample heterogeneities, we have resolved aggregation-dependent reductions of the excitation energy of the S(1) exciton and enhanced electron-hole pair absorption. Photoluminescence spectra revealed a spectral splitting of S(1) and simultaneous reductions of the emission efficiencies and nonradiative decay rates. The observed strong deviations from isolated tube behavior are accounted for by enhanced screening of the intratube Coulomb interactions, intertube exciton tunneling, and diffusion-driven exciton quenching. We also provide evidence that density gradient ultracentrifugation can be used to structurally sort single-wall carbon nanotubes by aggregate size as evident by a monotonic dependence of the aforementioned optical properties on buoyant density.

  12. Non-covalent interactions between carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Dönüs

    2011-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are interest to many different disciplines including chemistry, physics, biology, material science and engineering because of their unique properties and potential applications in various areas spanning from optoelectronics to biotechnology. However, one of the drawbacks associated with these materials is their insolubility which limits their wide accessibility for many applications. Various approaches have been adopted to circumvent this problem including modification of carbon nanotube surfaces by non-covalent and covalent attachments of solubilizing groups. Covalent approach modification may alter the intrinsic properties of carbon nanotubes and, in turn make them undesirable for many applications. On the other hand, a non-covalent approach helps to improve the solubility of CNTs while preserving their intrinsic properties. Among many non-covalent modifiers of CNTs, conjugated polymers are receiving increasing attention and highly appealing because of a number of reasons. To this end, the aim of this feature article is to review the recent results on the conjugated polymer-based non-covalent functionalization of CNTs with an emphasis on the effect of conjugated polymers in the dispersibility/solubility, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes as well as their usage in the purification and isolation of a specific single-walled nanotube from the mixture of the various tubes.

  13. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J., E-mail: jesuskuh@live.com.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Nistal, A. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Rubio, F.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Cinvestav, Unidad Mérida, C.P., 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  14. Interaction of nucleic acids with carbon nanotubes and dendrimers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bidisha Nandy; Mogurampelly Santosh; Prabal K Maiti

    2012-07-01

    Nucleic acid interaction with nanoscale objects like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and dendrimers is of fundamental interest because of their potential application in CNT separation, gene therapy and antisense therapy. Combining nucleic acids with CNTs and dendrimers also opens the door towards controllable self-assembly to generate various supra-molecular and nano-structures with desired morphologies. The interaction between these nanoscale objects also serve as a model system for studying DNA compaction, which is a fundamental process in chromatin organization. By using fully atomistic simulations, here we report various aspects of the interactions and binding modes of DNA and small interfering RNA (siRNA) with CNTs, graphene and dendrimers. Our results give a microscopic picture and mechanism of the adsorption of single- and double-strand DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) on CNT and graphene. The nucleic acid–CNT interaction is dominated by the dispersive van der Waals (vdW) interaction. In contrast, the complexation of DNA (both ssDNA and dsDNA) and siRNA with various generations of poly-amido-amine (PAMAM) dendrimers is governed by electrostatic interactions. Our results reveal that both the DNA and siRNA form stable complex with the PAMAM dendrimer at a physiological pH when the dendrimer is positively charged due to the protonation of the primary amines. The size and binding energy of the complex increase with increase in dendrimer generation. We also give a summary of the current status in these fields and discuss future prospects.

  15. Oscillation control of carbon nanotube mechanical resonator by electrostatic interaction induced retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Masaaki Yasuda; Kuniharu Takei; Takayuki Arie; Seiji Akita

    2016-01-01

    Despite the superb intrinsic properties of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators, the quality factors at room temperature are 1,000 or less, even in vacuum, which is much lower than that of mechanical resonators fabricated using a top-down approach. This study demonstrates the improvement of the quality factor and the control of nonlinearity of the mechanical resonance of the cantilevered nanotube by electrostatic interaction. The apparent quality factor of the nanotube supported by insulator...

  16. Filled and empty states of carbon nanotubes in water: Dependence on nanotube diameter, wall thickness and dispersion interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Malay Rana; Amalendu Chandra

    2007-09-01

    We have carried out a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing a narrow carbon nanotube as a solute to investigate the filling and emptying of the nanotube and also the modifications of the density and hydrogen bond distributions of water inside and also in the vicinity of the outer surfaces of the nanotube. Our primary goal is to look at the effects of varying nanotube diameter, wall thickness and also solute-solvent interactions on the solvent structure in the confined region also near the outer surfaces of the solute. The thickness of the walls is varied by considering single and multi-walled nanotubes and the interaction potential is varied by tuning the attractive strength of the 12-6 pair interaction potential between a carbon atom of the nanotubes and a water molecule. The calculations are done for many different values of the tuning parameter ranging from fully Lennard-Jones to pure repulsive pair interactions. It is found that both the solvation characteristics and hydrogen bond distributions can depend rather strongly on the strength of the attractive part of the solute-water interaction potential. The thickness of the nanotube wall, however, is found to have only minor effects on the density profiles, hydrogen bond network and the wetting characteristics. This indicates that the long range electrostatic interactions between water molecules inside and on the outer side of the nanotube do not make any significant contribution to the overall solvation structure of these hydrophobic solutes. The solvation characteristics are primarily determined by the balance between the loss of energy due to hydrogen bond network disruption, cavity repulsion potential and offset of the same by attractive component of the solute-water interactions. Our studies with different system sizes show that the essential features of wetting and dewetting characteristics of narrow nanotubes for different diameter and interaction potentials are also present in

  17. Strain-modified RKKY interaction in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, P. D.; Duffy, J. M.; Power, Stephen R.;

    2015-01-01

    For low-dimensionalmetallic structures, such as nanotubes, the exchange coupling between localized magnetic dopants is predicted to decay slowly with separation. The long-range character of this interaction plays a significant role in determining the magnetic order of the system. It has previously...

  18. Transport through Intrinsic Quantum Dots in Interacting Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwart, Michael; Egger, Reinhold; Grifoni, Milena

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) constitute molecular wires with remarkable electronic properties. Due to the special nature of their electronic bands, SWNTs have been predicted to exhibit Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) rather than Fermi liquid behavior at low energy scales. We focus on the effects of electronic correlations, treated within a TLL model, in a SWNT containing two impurities defining a small island for electrons (i.e., a quantum dot). We present analytical and numerical results for the linear conductance, obtained from a master equation approach and dynamical quantum Monte Carlo simulations, respectively. The one dimensional character of transport is reflected in unconventional Coulomb blockade features for temperatures smaller than the level spacing in the dot. In this regime, TLL correlations among tunneling events require a generalization of the standard uncorrelated sequential tunneling picture for intermediate barrier transmission and strong interactions. In that case, correlated sequential tunneling processes can dominate, which lead to a different temperature dependence of the peak conductance. For sufficiently low temperatures, the simulations reveal a universal coherent resonant tunneling regime for arbitrary barrier transmission.

  19. Plasmons in doped finite carbon nanotubes and their interactions with fast electrons and quantum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Sandra; Cox, Joel D.; de Abajo, F. Javier García

    2016-08-01

    We study the potential of highly doped finite carbon nanotubes to serve as plasmonic elements that mediate the interaction between quantum emitters. Similar to graphene, nanotubes support intense plasmons that can be modulated by varying their level of electrical doping. These excitations exhibit large interaction with light and electron beams, as revealed upon examination of the corresponding light extinction cross-section and electron energy-loss spectra. We show that quantum emitters experience record-high Purcell factors, while they undergo strong mutual interaction mediated by their coupling to the tube plasmons. Our results show the potential of doped finite nanotubes as tunable plasmonic materials for quantum optics applications.

  20. Computational and experimental studies of the interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, John J.; Rozo, Ciro E.; Castillo-León, Jaime; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Svendsen, Winnie E.; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Boisen, Anja; Martínez, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    This Letter involved the preparation of a conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid that was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple 'one pot' synthesis method. Subsequently, the conjugate was investigated by a computational hybrid method: our own N-layered Integrated Molecular Orbital and Molecular Mechanics (B3LYP(6-31G(d):UFF)). The results confirmed that the interaction occurred via hydrogen bonding between protons of the glutamic moiety from folic acid and π electrons from the carbon nanotubes. The single-walled carbon nanotube-folic acid conjugate presented herein is believed to lead the way to new potential applications as carbon nanotube-based drug delivery systems.

  1. Interaction of oxygen with 4 (A) carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-jun

    2007-01-01

    We review our density functional study of oxygen adsorption on the outer surface of 4 (A) single-wall carbon nanotubes,which have been recently synthesized using a templating method.The stability of these 4 (A) tubes under ambient conditions iS investigated bv the nudged elastic band technique and further confirmed by the experimentally measured Raman spectra.Different adsorption pictures of singlet O2 could be used to select a single chirality from a mixture of these ultra-small radius tubes.

  2. Carbon nanotubes in cancer therapy: a more precise look at the role of carbon nanotube-polymer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Mohsen; Soleyman, Rouhollah; Beiranvand, Zahra; Madani, Fahimeh

    2013-06-21

    Despite the great potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various areas of biomedicine, concerns regarding their carcinogenicity, inefficient dispersion in aqueous solutions and biological activity in vivo still remain. One important and feasible route to overcome these barriers is modification of CNTs with polymers, which are widely studied and play a vital role in biological and biomedical fields, especially in drug delivery. This comprehensive review focuses on the achievements of our and other groups in currently used methods to functionalize the surface of CNTs with polymers to produce anticancer drug delivery systems. We have intensively studied covalent and noncovalent interactions between CNTs and linear, dendritic and hyperbranched biocompatible polymers as well as biomacromolecules interactions which are very crucial to diminish the toxicity of CNTs via changing their conformations.

  3. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  4. Geometric influence on Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions in zigzag carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunder, J E; Hill, James M

    2012-04-21

    We derive an analytic description of the spin susceptibility in finite length zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNT) with chirality (n, 0). The spin susceptibility is proportional to the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions which describes indirect carrier mediated exchange coupling between localized magnetic moments. We show that the strongest RKKY interactions are along the edges of the nanotube and in the thermodynamic limit at half filling with spin symmetry the shape of the susceptibility curve about the edge of the CNT can be determined solely by the lattice geometry represented by the parameter n and a parameter L which describes the nanotube length. We also show that the introduction of Zeeman splitting or doping may have no effect on the spin susceptibility, provided n is small. A detailed knowledge of magnetic interactions, such as RKKY interactions, in CNT is of vital importance to the development of nanotechnology applications.

  5. Effect of UV irradiation on the dynamics of oxygen and water interaction with carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Anthony J [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films composed of semiconducting single wall nanotubes (s-SWNTs), metallic single wall nanotubes (m-SWNTs), and multiwall nanotubes (MWNTs) were exposed to O2 and H2O vapor in the dark and under UV irradiation. Changes in the film conductivity and mass were measured in situ. We find that UV irradiation increases the resistive response of CNT films to O2 and H2O by more than an order of magnitude. In m-SWNT and MWNT films, UV irradiation changes the sign of the resistive response to O2 and H2O by generating free charge carriers. S-SWNTs show the largest UV-induced resistive response and exhibit weakening of van der Waals interactions with the QCM crystal when exposed to gas/vapor.

  6. Oscillation control of carbon nanotube mechanical resonator by electrostatic interaction induced retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masaaki; Takei, Kuniharu; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Despite the superb intrinsic properties of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators, the quality factors at room temperature are 1,000 or less, even in vacuum, which is much lower than that of mechanical resonators fabricated using a top-down approach. This study demonstrates the improvement of the quality factor and the control of nonlinearity of the mechanical resonance of the cantilevered nanotube by electrostatic interaction. The apparent quality factor of the nanotube supported by insulator is improved drastically from approximately 630 to 3200 at room temperature. Results show that retardation of the electrostatic force induced by the contact resistance between the nanotube and the insulator support improves the quality factor. Finite element method calculation reveals that the nonuniform pileup charge on the insulator support strongly influences the nonlinearity of the resonance. PMID:26935657

  7. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  8. Band structures of carbon nanotube with spin-orbit coupling interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hong, E-mail: liuhong3@njnu.edu.c [Physics Department, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2011-01-01

    We explore the band structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with two types of spin-orbit couplings. The obtained results indicate that weak Rashba spin-orbit coupling interaction can lead to the breaking of four-fold degeneracy in all tubes even though without the intrinsic SO coupling. The asymmetric splitting between conduction bands and valence bands is caused by both SO couplings at the same time. When the ratio of Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling is larger than 3, metallic zigzag nanotube is always metallic conductor, on the contrary it becomes semiconducting properties. However, only when this ratio is equal to about 3 or the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling is much weak, the metallic armchair nanotube still holds the metallic behavior in transport.

  9. INTER-LAYER INTERACTION IN DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES EVIDENCED BY SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giusca, Cristina E; Tison, Yann; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2008-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy have been used in an attempt to elucidate the electronic structure of nanotube systems containing two constituent shells. Evidence for modified electronic structure due to the inter-layer interaction in double-walled carbon nanotubes is provided by t...

  10. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  11. The in Silico Insight into Carbon Nanotube and Nucleic Acid Bases Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali Asghar; Ghalandari, Behafarid; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore practical applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biomedical fields the properties of their interaction with biomolecules must be revealed. Recent years, the interaction of CNTs with biomolecules is a subject of research interest for practical applications so that previous research explored that CNTs have complementary structure properties with single strand DNA (ssDNA). Objectives Hence, the quantum mechanics (QM) method based on ab initio was used for this purpose. Therefore values of binding energy, charge distribution, electronic energy and other physical properties of interaction were studied for interaction of nucleic acid bases and SCNT. Materials and Methods In this study, the interaction between nucleic acid bases and a (4, 4) single-walled carbon nanotube (SCNT) were investigated through calculations within quantum mechanics (QM) method at theoretical level of Hartree-Fock (HF) method using 6-31G basis set. Hence, the physical properties such as electronic energy, total dipole moment, charge distributions and binding energy of nucleic acid bases interaction with SCNT were investigated based on HF method. Results It has been found that the guanine base adsorption is bound stronger to the outer surface of nanotube in comparison to the other bases, consistent with the recent theoretical studies. In the other words, the results explored that guanine interaction with SCNT has optimum level of electronic energy so that their interaction is stable. Also, the calculations illustrated that SCNT interact to nucleic acid bases by noncovalent interaction because of charge distribution an electrostatic area is created in place of interaction. Conclusions Consequently, small diameter SCNT interaction with nucleic acid bases is noncovalent. Also, the results revealed that small diameter SCNT interaction especially SCNT (4, 4) with nucleic acid bases can be useful in practical application area of biomedical fields such detection and drug delivery.

  12. Plumbing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures-from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes-regardless of their diameters-to form new nanotube structures.

  13. Nanoscale Analysis of Interwall Interaction in a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube by Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunchaiyakul, Songpol; Yano, Takeshi; Khoklang, Kamonchanok; Krukowski, Pawel; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Saito, Akira; Kuwahara, Yuji

    Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool for the study of carbon materials, but its spatial resolution is limited by the optical diffraction limit. Recently, we constructed a scanning tunneling microscope-based tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (STM-TERS) system in ultrahigh vacuum, which overcomes the optical diffraction limit, and enables the investigation of single-molecular Raman spectra simultaneously with topographic imaging. We have investigated position-sensitive Raman spectra along the tube axis of an isolated multiwalled carbon nanotube, which is a result of the different number of nanotube walls at each location. We found that the intensity ratio between the 2D to the G band increases with the number of walls. This indicates that the quantum interference between Raman scattering pathways affects each Raman mode differently. The interaction between nanotube walls induces splitting of the π and π* bands which increases the number of the 2D band scattering pathways owing to double resonance, eventually increasing the probability of scattering for the 2D band relative to the G band. These results provide a deeper understanding of the single-molecule interaction of carbon materials in the nanoscale.

  14. Compressive characteristics of single walled carbon nanotube with water interactions investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.H., E-mail: chwong@ntu.edu.sg; Vijayaraghavan, V.

    2014-01-24

    The elastic properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with surrounding water interactions are studied using molecular dynamics simulation technique. The compressive loading characteristic of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a fluidic medium such as water is critical for its role in determining the lifetime and stability of CNT based nano-fluidic devices. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effect of geometry, chirality and density of encapsulated water on the elastic properties of SWCNT. Our studies show that defect density and distribution can strongly impact the compressive resistance of SWCNTs in water. Further studies were conducted on capped SWCNTs with varying densities of encapsulated water, which is necessary to understand the strength of CNT as a potential drug carrier. The results obtained from this paper will help determining the potential applications of CNTs in the field of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) such as nano-biological and nano-fluidic devices.

  15. Interaction of high-power nanosecond electric pulses with an array of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear current induced in carbon nanotubes with metallic conductivity and in graphene nanoribbons by an alternating electric field with a subnanosecond width of the leading edge in the presence of a static electric field has been theoretically studied. The parameters of the static electric field for simple carbon nanotubes coincide with the parameters of nanosecond electric pulses

  16. A theoretical study on the interaction of amphetamine and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Interaction energy between several armchair CNTs and amphetamine is investigated. • The adsorption of amphetamine molecule is observed to be exothermic and physical in nature. • HOMO–LUMO for pure CNTs, amphetamine and their corresponded complexes are studied. • Density of states (DOS) near the Fermi level is calculated and presented. - Abstract: The adsorption of 1-phenyl-2-aminopropane (amphetamine) on the (4,4), (5,5), (6,6), and (7,7) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been theoretically investigated. The molecule has been located in different modes including parallel, perpendicular, and oblique on the outer surface of carbon nanotubes. The physisorption of amphetamine onto SWCNT sidewall is thermodynamically favored; as a consequence, it modulates the electronic properties of pristine nanotube in the vicinity of Fermi region. The adsorption energies for the parallel and oblique modes found in the range of −1.13 to −1.88 and −1.27 to −2.01 kcal/mol, respectively. Projected density of states (PDOS) and frontier orbital analysis in the vicinity of Fermi level region suggest the electronic states to be contributed from SWCNT rather than amphetamine molecule

  17. Dynamic interactions between poly(3-hexylthiophene) and single-walled carbon nanotubes in marginal solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanqi; Santos, Franceska A; Wagner, Taylor W; Tsoi, Eric; Zhang, Shanju

    2014-06-01

    Interfacial interactions between conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes are pivotal in determining the device performance of nanotube-based polymer electronic devices. Here, we report on interfacial structures and crystallization kinetics of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in the presence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in anisole by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. Confined on SWNT surfaces, the P3HT forms nanofibril crystals perpendicular to the long axis of SWNTs. The equilibrium dissolution temperature of the P3HT crystals in anisole is determined to be 381 ± 10 K according to the Hoffman-Weeks extrapolation approach. Upon cooling, the polymer solution spontaneously undergoes a time-dependent chromism. Various kinetics factors such as crystallization temperature, concentration, and SWNT loading have been investigated. It is found that the growth rate (G) of the crystals scales with concentration (C) as G ∝ C(1.70±0.16). The Avrami model is utilized to analyze the nucleation mechanism and the Avrami exponents vary between 1.0 and 1.3. The Lauritzen-Hoffman theory is applied to study the chain-folding process. The fold surface free energy is calculated to be (5.28-11.9) × 10(-2) J m(-2). It is evident that the addition of 0.30 wt % SWNTs reduces the fold surface free energy by 55.6%. PMID:24856901

  18. A theoretical study on the interaction of amphetamine and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafizi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi Chermahini, Alireza, E-mail: anajafi@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Teimouri, Abbas [Chemistry Department, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran 19395-4697 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Interaction energy between several armchair CNTs and amphetamine is investigated. • The adsorption of amphetamine molecule is observed to be exothermic and physical in nature. • HOMO–LUMO for pure CNTs, amphetamine and their corresponded complexes are studied. • Density of states (DOS) near the Fermi level is calculated and presented. - Abstract: The adsorption of 1-phenyl-2-aminopropane (amphetamine) on the (4,4), (5,5), (6,6), and (7,7) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been theoretically investigated. The molecule has been located in different modes including parallel, perpendicular, and oblique on the outer surface of carbon nanotubes. The physisorption of amphetamine onto SWCNT sidewall is thermodynamically favored; as a consequence, it modulates the electronic properties of pristine nanotube in the vicinity of Fermi region. The adsorption energies for the parallel and oblique modes found in the range of −1.13 to −1.88 and −1.27 to −2.01 kcal/mol, respectively. Projected density of states (PDOS) and frontier orbital analysis in the vicinity of Fermi level region suggest the electronic states to be contributed from SWCNT rather than amphetamine molecule.

  19. The effect of protein corona composition on the interaction of carbon nanotubes with human blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Silvia H; Diduch, Lukas L; Tegegn, Tseday Z; Orecna, Martina; Strader, Michael B; Karnaukhova, Elena; Bonevich, John E; Holada, Karel; Simak, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising nanomaterials for use in medicine. The blood biocompatibility of CNT is a critical safety issue. In the bloodstream, proteins bind to CNT through non-covalent interactions to form a protein corona, thereby largely defining the biological properties of the CNT. Here, we characterize the interactions of carboxylated-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTCOOH) with common human proteins and investigate the effect of the different protein coronas on the interaction of CNTCOOH with human blood platelets (PLT). Molecular modeling and different photophysical techniques were employed to characterize the binding of albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG), γ-globulins (IgG) and histone H1 (H1) on CNTCOOH. We found that the identity of protein forming the corona greatly affects the outcome of CNTCOOH's interaction with blood PLT. Bare CNTCOOH-induced PLT aggregation and the release of platelet membrane microparticles (PMP). HSA corona attenuated the PLT aggregating activity of CNTCOOH, while FBG caused the agglomeration of CNTCOOH nanomaterial, thereby diminishing the effect of CNTCOOH on PLT. In contrast, the IgG corona caused PLT fragmentation, and the H1 corona induced a strong PLT aggregation, thus potentiating the release of PMP.

  20. Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

    2012-01-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

  1. Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Aromatic Hydrocarbon-degrading Microbes and its Effect on Carbon Nanotubes Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Wang, L.; Poulson, S.; Wang, X.; Xing, B.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Due to their unique electrical, optical and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been substantially produced and widely applied during the past decades, leading to their increased probability of entering the environment. Some estimation suggests that CNTs are accumulated in agricultural systems with their soil concentration increasing by 0.4-157 ng/kg/year. This has raised concerns about environmental impacts of these emerging contaminants including their ecotoxicity. Meanwhile, transformation of CNTs in the environment can significantly affect their transport, bioavailability and thereby ecotoxicity. So far, environmental biodegradation of CNTs remains obscure. Given the high diversity of soil microorganisms and their metabolic potentials, it is important to investigate microbial biodegradation of CNTs under various environmental conditions. This study focuses on an aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1, as a model microorganism capable of ring cleavage. We hypothesize that bacterial activities could transform CNTs to more hydrophilic forms, increasing their aqueous stability and environmental reactivity. We incubated M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 with 13C-labeded multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for 30 days, monitored δ13C in the system, characterized MWCNTs before and after the reaction, and compared the results with culture-negative controls. To investigate effects of various environmental conditions, including the presence of extracellular oxidative enzymes from white-rot fungi, additional experiments will be conducted and results compared will be compared among different setups. Moreover, we will measure adverse impacts of CNTs on the metabolic activities of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1, particularly its biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  2. Human epithelial cells exposed to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: interactions and cell surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanizza, C; Casciardi, S; Incoronato, F; Cavallo, D; Ursini, C L; Ciervo, A; Maiello, R; Fresegna, A M; Marcelloni, A M; Lega, D; Alvino, A; Baiguera, S

    2015-09-01

    With the expansion of the production and applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in several industrial and science branches, the potential adverse effects on human health have attracted attention. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate how chemical functionalization may affect MWCNT effects; however, controversial data have been reported, showing either increased or reduced toxicity. In particular, the impact of carboxylation on MWCNT cytotoxicity is far from being completely understood. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the modifications induced by carboxylated-MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) on cell surface and the study of cell-MWCNT-COOH interactions by means of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) were incubated with MWCNTs-COOH for different exposure times and concentrations (10 μg/mL for 1, 2, 4 h; 5, 10, 20 μg/mL for 24 h). At short incubation time, MWCNTs-COOH were easily observed associated with plasma membrane and in contact with microvilli. After 24 h exposure, FESEM analysis revealed that MWCNTs-COOH induced evident changes in the cellular surface in comparison to control cells: treated cells showed blebs, holes and a depletion of the microvilli density in association with structure modifications, such as widening and/or lengthening. In particular, an increase of cells showing holes and microvilli structure alterations was observed at 20 μg/mL concentration. FESEM analysis showed nanotube agglomerates, of different sizes, entering into the cell with two different mechanisms: inward bending of the membrane followed by nanotube sinking, and nanotube internalization directly through holes. The observed morphological microvilli modifications, induced by MWCNTs-COOH, could affect epithelial functions, such as the control of surfactant production and secretion, leading to pathological conditions, such as alveolar proteinosis. More detailed studies will be, however, necessary to

  3. Anisotropy of the water-carbon interaction: molecular simulations of water in low-diameter carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Guillermo; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2013-04-14

    Effective Lennard-Jones models for the water-carbon interaction are derived from existing high-level ab initio calculations of water adsorbed on graphene models. The resulting potential energy well (εCO + 2εCH ≈ 1 kJ mol(-1)) is deeper than most of the previously used values in the literature on water in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Moreover, a substantial anisotropy of the water-carbon interaction (εCO ≈ 2εCH) is obtained, which is neglected in most of the literature. We systematically investigate the effect of this anisotropy on structure and dynamics of TIP5P water confined in narrow, single-walled CNTs by means of molecular dynamics simulations for T = 300 K. While for isotropic models water usually forms one-dimensional, ordered chains inside (6,6) CNTs, we find frequent chain ruptures in simulations with medium to strongly anisotropic potentials. Here, the water molecules tend to form denser clusters displaying a liquid-like behaviour, allowing for self-diffusion along the CNT axis, in contrast to all previous simulations employing spherical (εCH = 0) interaction models. For (7,7) CNTs we observe structures close to trigonal, helical ice nanotubes which exhibit a non-monotonous dependence on the anisotropy of the water-carbon interaction. Both for vanishing and for large values of εCH we find increased fluctuations leading to a more liquid-like behaviour, with enhanced axial diffusion. In contrast, structure and dynamics of water inside (8,8) CNTs are found to be almost independent of the anisotropy of the underlying potential, which is attributed to the higher stability of the non-helical fivefold water prisms. We predict this situation to also prevail for larger CNTs, as the influence of the water-water interaction dominates over that of the water-carbon interaction.

  4. Improvement of interaction between pre-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes and unsaturated polyester resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, M. D. H., E-mail: dhbeg@yahoo.com; Moshiul Alam, A. K. M., E-mail: akmmalam@gmail.com; Yunus, R. M. [Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering (Malaysia); Mina, M. F. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics (Bangladesh)

    2015-01-15

    Efforts are being given to the development of well-dispersed nanoparticle-reinforced polymer nanocomposites in order to tailor the material properties. In this perspective, well dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was prepared using pre-dispersed MWCNTs in tetrahydrofuran solvent with ultrasonication method. Then the well-dispersed MWCNTs reinforced UPR nanocomposites were fabricated through solvent evaporation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicates a good interaction between matrix and MWCNTs. This along with homogeneous dispersion of nanotubes in matrix has been confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy. At low shear rate, the value of viscosity of UPR is 8,593 mPa s and that of pre-dispersed MWCNT–UPR suspension is 43,491 mPa s, showing implicitly a good dispersion of nanotubes. A notable improvement in the crystallinity of UPR from 14 to 21 % after MWCNTs inclusion was observed by X-ray diffractometry. The mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, impact strength, and elongation-at-break, of nanocomposite were found to be increased to 22, 20, 28, and 87 %, respectively. The estimated melting enthalpy per gram for composites as analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry is higher than that of UPR. The onset temperature of thermal decomposition in the nanocomposites as monitored by thermogravimetric analysis is found higher than that of UPR. Correlations among MWCNTs dispersion, nucleation, fracture morphology, and various properties were measured and reported.

  5. Improvement of interaction between pre-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes and unsaturated polyester resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts are being given to the development of well-dispersed nanoparticle-reinforced polymer nanocomposites in order to tailor the material properties. In this perspective, well dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was prepared using pre-dispersed MWCNTs in tetrahydrofuran solvent with ultrasonication method. Then the well-dispersed MWCNTs reinforced UPR nanocomposites were fabricated through solvent evaporation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicates a good interaction between matrix and MWCNTs. This along with homogeneous dispersion of nanotubes in matrix has been confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy. At low shear rate, the value of viscosity of UPR is 8,593 mPa s and that of pre-dispersed MWCNT–UPR suspension is 43,491 mPa s, showing implicitly a good dispersion of nanotubes. A notable improvement in the crystallinity of UPR from 14 to 21 % after MWCNTs inclusion was observed by X-ray diffractometry. The mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, impact strength, and elongation-at-break, of nanocomposite were found to be increased to 22, 20, 28, and 87 %, respectively. The estimated melting enthalpy per gram for composites as analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry is higher than that of UPR. The onset temperature of thermal decomposition in the nanocomposites as monitored by thermogravimetric analysis is found higher than that of UPR. Correlations among MWCNTs dispersion, nucleation, fracture morphology, and various properties were measured and reported

  6. Interaction of amidated single-walled carbon nanotubes with protein by multiple spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to investigate the detailed interaction between BSA and amidated single walled carbon nanotubes (e-SWNTs) in vitro. Ethylenediamine (EDA) was successfully linked on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) via acylation to improve their dispersion and to introduce active groups. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected as the template protein to inspect the interaction of e-SWNTs with protein. Decreases in fluorescence intensity of BSA induced by e-SWNTs demonstrated the occurrence of interaction between BSA and e-SWNTs. Quenching parameters and different absorption spectra for e-SWNTs–BSA show that the quenching effect of e-SWNTs was static quenching. Hydrophobic force had a leading contribution to the binding roles of BSA on e-SWNTs, which was confirmed by positive enthalpy change and entropy change. The interference of Na+ with the quenching effect of e-SWNTs authenticated that electrostatic force existed in the interactive process simultaneously. The hydrophobicity of amino acid residues markedly increased with the addition of e-SWNTs viewed from UV spectra of BSA. The content of α-helix structure in BSA decreased by 6.8% due to the addition of e-SWNTs, indicating that e-SWNTs have an effect on the secondary conformation of BSA. -- Highlights: • The interaction between e-SWNTs and BSA was investigated by multiple spectroscopic methods. • Quenching mechanism was static quenching. • Changes in structure of BSA were inspected by synchronous fluorescence, UV–vis and CD spectrum

  7. Interaction of amidated single-walled carbon nanotubes with protein by multiple spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lili [China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); The Nursing College of Pingdingshan University, Pingdingshan 467000 (China); Lin, Rui [Yancheng Health Vocational and Technical College, Yancheng 224005 (China); He, Hua, E-mail: dochehua@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Sun, Meiling, E-mail: sml-nir@sohu.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Jiang, Li; Gao, Mengmeng [China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the detailed interaction between BSA and amidated single walled carbon nanotubes (e-SWNTs) in vitro. Ethylenediamine (EDA) was successfully linked on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) via acylation to improve their dispersion and to introduce active groups. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected as the template protein to inspect the interaction of e-SWNTs with protein. Decreases in fluorescence intensity of BSA induced by e-SWNTs demonstrated the occurrence of interaction between BSA and e-SWNTs. Quenching parameters and different absorption spectra for e-SWNTs–BSA show that the quenching effect of e-SWNTs was static quenching. Hydrophobic force had a leading contribution to the binding roles of BSA on e-SWNTs, which was confirmed by positive enthalpy change and entropy change. The interference of Na{sup +} with the quenching effect of e-SWNTs authenticated that electrostatic force existed in the interactive process simultaneously. The hydrophobicity of amino acid residues markedly increased with the addition of e-SWNTs viewed from UV spectra of BSA. The content of α-helix structure in BSA decreased by 6.8% due to the addition of e-SWNTs, indicating that e-SWNTs have an effect on the secondary conformation of BSA. -- Highlights: • The interaction between e-SWNTs and BSA was investigated by multiple spectroscopic methods. • Quenching mechanism was static quenching. • Changes in structure of BSA were inspected by synchronous fluorescence, UV–vis and CD spectrum.

  8. Purification and processing of carbon nanotubes using self-assembly and selective interaction with a semiconjugated polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Patrick; McCarthy, Brendan; Dalton, Alan B.; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Murphy, Robert J.; Stephan, Christophe; Lefrant, Serge; Bernier, Patrick; Byrne, Hugh J.; Blau, Werner J.

    2001-12-01

    A new route for nanotube-based applications in molecular electronics was developed. Individual polymer strands were assembled onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) by mechanical agitation. The SWNT hybrid systems have been characterized by electron microscopy (TEM, STM), optical absorption and Raman spectroscopy and a fully nondestructive technique, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), has been developed to estimate the purity of MWNT soot and hybrids. It is demonstrated that solutions of the polymer are capable of suspending nanotubes indefinitely while the majority of the accompanying amorphous graphite precipitates out of solution. Electron microscopy and Raman scattering indicate that through an intercalation process, the ropes of SWNT are destroyed, resulting in individual nanotubes being well dispersed within the polymer matrix. Moreover, Raman and absorption studies suggest that the polymer interacts preferentially with nanotubes of specific diameters or a range of diameters. STM studies showed that the chiral angle of the underlying nanotube is reflected in the polymer coating, demonstrating that the lattice structure of the SWNT templates the ordering in the coating. This could lead to design of specific polymer architectures for selection of desired chiral angles, and hence specific electronic properties.

  9. Spin–orbit interaction in bent carbon nanotubes: resonant spin transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an effective tight-binding Hamiltonian for spin–orbit (SO) interaction in bent carbon nanotubes (CNT) for the electrons forming the π bonds between the nearest neighbor atoms. We account for the bend of the CNT and the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction which introduce mixing of π and σ bonds between the p z orbitals along the CNT. The effect contributes to the main origin of the SO coupling—the folding of the graphene plane into the nanotube. We discuss the bend-related contribution of the SO coupling for resonant single-electron spin and charge transitions in a double quantum dot. We report that although the effect of the bend-related SO coupling is weak for the energy spectra, it produces a pronounced increase of the spin transition rates driven by an external electric field. We find that spin-flipping transitions driven by alternate electric fields have usually larger rates when accompanied by charge shift from one dot to the other. Spin-flipping transition rates are non-monotonic functions of the driving amplitude since they are masked by stronger spin-conserving charge transitions. We demonstrate that the fractional resonances—counterparts of multiphoton transitions for atoms in strong laser fields—occurring in electrically controlled nanodevices already at moderate ac amplitudes—can be used to maintain the spin-flip transitions. (paper)

  10. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhou, Otto Z.

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists worldwide. The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a very unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review we describe some of the important materials science applications of carbon nanotubes. Specifically we discuss the electronic and electrochemical applications of nanotubes, nanotubes as mechanical reinforcements in high performance composites, nanotube-based field emitters, and their use as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations, and as templates for the creation of other nanostructures. Electronic properties and device applications of nanotubes are treated elsewhere in the book. The challenges that ensue in realizing some of these applications are also discussed from the point of view of manufacturing, processing, and cost considerations.

  11. Differential conductance of armchair single-wall carbon nanotubes due to presence of electron-phonon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Fatemeh; Namiranian, Afshin

    2016-10-01

    We have theoretically investigated the first correction to conductance of armchair single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with finite length, embedded between two electrodes, due to the presence of electron-transversal phonon interaction. The perturbative scheme has been used with finite length real space nearest neighbors tight binding method. Both radial breathing and tangential modes are investigated separately. It is found that not only the conductance correction crucially depends on source-drain voltage but also it strongly depends on the length and diameter of SWCNT. So, this work opens up opportunities to control the electrical conductance of SWCNT and increases yield of micro or nanodevices based on carbon nanotube.

  12. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  13. Interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers and surface treatment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Borghei, Maryam;

    2014-01-01

    equilibrium constant (Keq.) and maximum surface coverage (Γmax) were determined based on the model. In general, the ionomer showed stronger adsorption for MWCNTs (Keq. = 21 − 377 depending on treatment) comparing to Vulcan (Keq. = 18), and slightly lower monolayer coverage. The interaction was found...... efficient, user-friendly and systematic studies based on our earlier experience. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from Showa Denko® and the corresponding acid modified products were explored. The adsorption at low concentration was found to follow a Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption...... to be strongly affected by surface composition, morphology, porosity and oxygen containing functional groups, which are varied with purification and functionalization treatments. The modification of the surface properties was also studied with HR-TEM, BET, porosity measurement, EDXS, XPS, Raman and TG...

  14. Carbon nanotube reinforced polylactide-caprolactone copolymer: mechanical strengthening and interaction with human osteoblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, D; Rouzaud, F; Namin, S; Keshri, A K; Valdés, J J; Kos, L; Tsoukias, N; Agarwal, A

    2009-11-01

    This study proposes the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of a polylactide-caprolactone copolymer (PLC) matrix. Biological interaction of PLC-CNT composites with human osteoblast cells is also investigated. Addition of 2 wt % CNT shows very uniform dispersion in the copolymer matrix, whereas 5 wt % CNT shows severe agglomeration and high porosity. PLC-2 wt % CNT composite shows an improvement in the mechanical properties with an increase in the elastic modulus by 100% and tensile strength by 160%, without any adverse effect on the ductility up to 240% elongation. An in vitro biocompatibility study on the composites shows an increase in the viability of human osteoblast cells compared to the PLC matrix, which is attributed to the combined effect of CNT content and surface roughness of the composite films. PMID:20356116

  15. Electronic interactions between "pea" and "pod": the case of oligothiophenes encapsulated in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia; Blondeau, Pascal; Salice, Patrizio; Menna, Enzo; Bártová, Barbora; Hébert, Cécile; Leschner, Jens; Kaiser, Ute; Milko, Matus; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2011-07-01

    One of the most challenging strategies to achieve tunable nanophotonic devices is to build robust nanohybrids with variable emission in the visible spectral range, while keeping the merits of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). This goal is realized by filling SWNTs ("pods") with a series of oligothiophene molecules ("peas"). The physical properties of these peapods are depicted by using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and other optical methods including steady-state and time-resolved measurements. Visible photoluminescence with quantum yields up to 30% is observed for all the hybrids. The underlying electronic structure is investigated by density functional theory calculations for a series of peapods with different molecular lengths and tube diameters, which demonstrate that van der Waals interactions are the bonding mechanism between the encapsulated molecule and the tube.

  16. Carbon nanotube macroelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialu

    In this dissertation, I discuss the application of carbon nanotubes in macroelectronis. Due to the extraordinary electrical properties such as high intrinsic carrier mobility and current-carrying capacity, single wall carbon nanotubes are very desirable for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications such as flat panel display, transparent electronics, as well as flexible and stretchable electronics. Compared with other popular channel material for TFTs, namely amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon and organic materials, nanotube thin-films have the advantages of low-temperature processing compatibility, transparency, and flexibility, as well as high device performance. In order to demonstrate scalable, practical carbon nanotube macroelectroncis, I have developed a platform to fabricate high-density, uniform separated nanotube based thin-film transistors. In addition, many other essential analysis as well as technology components, such as nanotube film density control, purity and diameter dependent semiconducting nanotube electrical performance study, air-stable n-type transistor fabrication, and CMOS integration platform have also been demonstrated. On the basis of the above achievement, I have further demonstrated various kinds of applications including AMOLED display electronics, PMOS and CMOS logic circuits, flexible and transparent electronics. The dissertation is structured as follows. First, chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes, which serves as the background knowledge for the following chapters. In chapter 2, I will present our approach of fabricating wafer-scale uniform semiconducting carbon nanotube thin-film transistors and demonstrate their application in display electronics and logic circuits. Following that, more detailed information about carbon nanotube thin-film transistor based active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is discussed in chapter 3. And in chapter 4, a technology to

  17. Multimodal probing of oxygen and water interaction with metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotube networks under ultraviolet irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckley, Eric S.; Nelson, Anthony J.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-04-01

    Interaction between ultraviolet (UV) light and carbon nanotube (CNT) networks plays a central role in gas adsorption, sensor sensitivity, and stability of CNT-based electronic devices. To determine the effect of UV light on sorption kinetics and resistive gas/vapor response of different CNT networks, films of semiconducting single-wall nanotubes (s-SWNTs), metallic single-wall nanotubes, and multiwall nanotubes were exposed to O2 and H2O vapor in the dark and under UV irradiation. Changes in film resistance and mass were measured in situ. In the dark, resistance of metallic nanotube networks increases in the presence of O2 and H2O, whereas resistance of s-SWNT networks decreases. UV irradiation decreases the resistance of metallic nanotube networks in the presence of O2 and H2O and increases the gas/vapor sensitivity of s-SWNT networks by nearly a factor of 2 compared to metallic nanotube networks. s-SWNT networks show evidence of delamination from the gold-plated quartz crystal microbalance crystal, possibly due to preferential adsorption of O2 and H2O on gold. UV irradiation increases the sensitivity of all CNT networks to O2 and H2O by an order of magnitude, which demonstrates the importance of UV light for enhancing response and lowering detection limits in CNT-based gas/vapor sensors.

  18. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofiberś surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X-100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fiberś surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  19. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofibers´ surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X–100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fibers´ surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs

  20. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R., E-mail: joaopaulofsbrasil@hotmail.com, E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235, PO Box 676, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofibers´ surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X–100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fibers´ surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  1. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-06-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 °C min-1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 °C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 µm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 µm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm-1, increased to 0.7 S cm-1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  2. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  3. FLUIDIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wei; Cang Huang; Yao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fluidized in the form of fluidlike agglomerates made of many three-dimensional sub-agglomerates, having a multi-stage agglomerate (MSA) structure and containing large amounts of twisting CNTs of micrometer magnitude.

  4. Carbon nanotubes: Fibrillar pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms by which chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes flow in blood and are excreted through the kidneys illustrate the unconventional behaviour of these fibrillar nanostructures, and the opportunities they offer as components for the design of advanced delivery vehicles.

  5. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  6. Carbon nanotube solar cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klinger

    Full Text Available We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement.

  7. Interaction between fullerene halves Cn (n ≤ 40) and single wall carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amrish; Kaur, Sandeep; Mudahar, Isha

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotube with small fullerene halves Cn (n ≤ 40) which are covalently bonded to the side wall of an armchair single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) using first principle method based on density functional theory. The fullerene size results in weak bonding between fullerene halves and carbon nanotube (CNT). Further, it was found that the C-C bond distance that attaches the fullerene half and CNT is of the order of 1.60 Å. The calculated binding energies indicate the stability of the complexes formed. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and electron density of state plots points towards the metallicity of the complex formed. Our calculations on charge transfer reveal that very small amount of charge is transferred from CNT to fullerene halves.

  8. Carbon nanotube interaction with extracellular matrix proteins producing scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Santos, Anderson K; Gomes, Katia N; Lorençon, Eudes; Guatimosim, Silvia; Ladeira, Luiz O; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in organ transplantation, surgical reconstruction, and the use of artificial prostheses to treat the loss or failure of an organ or bone tissue. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to carbon nanotubes and collagen composite materials and their applications in the field of tissue engineering due to their minimal foreign-body reactions, an intrinsic antibacterial nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and the ability to be molded into various geometries and forms such as porous structures, suitable for cell ingrowth, proliferation, and differentiation. Recently, grafted collagen and some other natural and synthetic polymers with carbon nanotubes have been incorporated to increase the mechanical strength of these composites. Carbon nanotube composites are thus emerging as potential materials for artificial bone and bone regeneration in tissue engineering.

  9. Detection of sugar-lectin interactions by multivalent dendritic sugar functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, K. S.; Naresh, K.; Bagul, R. S.; Jayaraman, N.; Sood, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate-protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge-transfer interactions with the SWNTs. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A)-mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 × 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 μM of a non-specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A-mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was characterized further by observing significant shifts in Raman modes of the SWNTs.

  10. Defect-Defect Interaction in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Under Torsional Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Abul M. A.; Bhuiyan, Abuhanif K.; Liao, Kin; Goh, Kheng Lim

    This paper presents an analysis of interactions between a pair of Stone-Wales (SW) defects in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that has been subjected to an external torque. Defect pairs, representing the different combinations of SW defect of A (SW-A) and B (SW-B) modes, were incorporated in SWCNT models of different chirality and diameter and solved using molecular mechanics. Defect-defect interaction was investigated by evaluating the C-C steric interactions in the defect that possesses the highest potential energy, E, as a function of inter-defect distance, D. This study reveals that the deformation of the C-C bond is attributed to bond stretching and bending. In the SW-B defects, there is an additional contributor arising from the dihedral angular deformation. The magnitude of E depends on the type of defect but the profile of the E versus D curve depends on the orientation of the defects. The largest indifference length, D0, beyond which two defects cease to interact, is approximately 30 Å. When the angular displacement of the tube increases two-fold, E increases, but the profile of the E versus D curve is not affected. The sense of rotation affects the magnitude of E but not the profile of the E versus D curve.

  11. Electronic interaction in composites of a conjugated polymer and carbon nanotubes: first-principles calculation and photophysical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Massuyeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that control the photophysics of composite films made of a semiconducting conjugated polymer (poly(paraphenylene vinylene, PPV mixed with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT up to a concentration of 64 wt % are determined by using photoexcitation techniques and density functional theory. Charge separation is confirmed experimentally by rapid quenching of PPV photoluminescence and changes in photocurrent starting at relatively low concentrations of SWNT. Calculations predict strong electronic interaction between the polymer and the SWNT network when nanotubes are semiconducting.

  12. Interactions and effects of BSA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on different cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi, Laura; Tardani, Franco; La Mesa, Camillo; Bonincontro, Adalberto; Bianco, Alberto; Risuleo, Gianfranco

    2016-04-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promise in several biomedical contexts, spanning from drug delivery to tissue regeneration. Thanks to their unique size-related properties, single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are particularly interesting in these fields. However, their use in nanomedicine requires a clear demonstration of their safety in terms of tissue damage, toxicity and pro-inflammatory response. Thus, a better understanding of the cytotoxicity mechanisms, the cellular interactions and the effects that these materials have on cell survival and on biological membranes is an important first step for an appropriate assessment of their biocompatibility. In this study we show how bovine serum albumin (BSA) is able to generate homogeneous and stable dispersions of SWCNTs (BSA-CNTs), suggesting their possible use in the biomedical field. On the other hand, this study wishes to shed more light on the impact and the interactions of protein-stabilized SWCNTs with two different cell types exploiting multidisciplinary techniques. We show that BSA-CNTs are efficiently taken up by cells. We also attempt to describe the effect that the interaction with cells has on the dielectric characteristics of the plasma membrane and ion flux using electrorotation. We then focus on the BSA-CNTs’ acute toxicity using different cellular models. The novel aspect of this work is the evaluation of the membrane alterations that have been poorly investigated to date.

  13. Fluorescence Spectrometry of the Interaction of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.; Cai, H.; Li, J.; Miao, J.; Fu, D.; Yang, Q.

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with catalase is investigated using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results of the fluorescence experiments suggest that MWCNTs quench the intrinsic fluorescence of catalase via a static quenching mechanism. The circular dichroism spectral results reveal the unfolding of catalase with a significant decrease in the α-helix content in the presence of MWCNTs, which indicates that the conformation of catalase is changed in the binding process, thereby remarkably decreasing its activity. The binding constants and the number of binding sites of the MWCNT to the catalase are calculated at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters, such as the changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS), are calculated using thermodynamic equations. The fact that all negative values of ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS are obtained suggests that the interaction of the MWCNTs with catalase is spontaneous, and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions play an important role in the binding process.

  14. Dynamic evolution of interacting carbon nanotubes suspended in a fluid using a dielectrophoretic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Avilés, A. I.; Zozulya, V. V.; Gamboa, F.; Avilés, F.

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical investigation of the dynamic response of interacting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed in a liquid medium under alternating current electric fields is presented. The proposed modeling strategy is based on the dielectrophoretic theory and classical electrodynamics of rigid bodies, and considers the coupled rotation-translation motion of interacting CNTs represented as electrical dipoles. Based on experimental evidence, the parameters which are expected to cause a major contribution to the CNTs' motion are investigated for different initial configurations of CNTs. It is predicted that high electric field frequencies, long CNTs, high values of electrical permittivity and conductivity of the CNTs immersed in solvents of high polarity promote faster equilibrium conditions, achieved by CNT tip-to-tip contact and alignment along the electric field direction. For the majority of the scenarios, CNT alignment along the field direction is predicted as the first event, followed by the translation of aligned CNTs until the tip-to-tip contact condition is reached. For systems with interacting CNTs with different lengths, equilibrium of the shorter CNT is achieved faster. Predictions also show that the initial rotation angles and initial location of CNTs have a paramount influence on the evolution of the system towards the equilibrium configuration.

  15. A theoretical study on the interaction of amphetamine and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Hamid; Najafi Chermahini, Alireza; Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Teimouri, Abbas

    2015-02-01

    The adsorption of 1-phenyl-2-aminopropane (amphetamine) on the (4,4), (5,5), (6,6), and (7,7) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been theoretically investigated. The molecule has been located in different modes including parallel, perpendicular, and oblique on the outer surface of carbon nanotubes. The physisorption of amphetamine onto SWCNT sidewall is thermodynamically favored; as a consequence, it modulates the electronic properties of pristine nanotube in the vicinity of Fermi region. The adsorption energies for the parallel and oblique modes found in the range of -1.13 to -1.88 and -1.27 to -2.01 kcal/mol, respectively. Projected density of states (PDOS) and frontier orbital analysis in the vicinity of Fermi level region suggest the electronic states to be contributed from SWCNT rather than amphetamine molecule.

  16. Polymer Self-assembly on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianini, Michele; Motta, Nunzio

    This chapter analyses the poly(3-hexylthiophene) self-assembly on carbon nanotubes and the interaction between the two materials forming a new hybrid nanostructure. The chapter starts with a review of the several studies investigating polymers and biomolecules self-assembled on nanotubes. Then conducting polymers and polythiophenes are briefly introduced. Accordingly, carbon nanotube structure and properties are reported in Sect. 3. The experimental section starts with the bulk characterisation of polymer thin films with the inclusion of uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes. By using volume film analysis techniques (AFM, TEM, UV-Vis and Raman), we show how the polymer's higher degree of order is a direct consequence of interaction with carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, it is through the use of nanoscale analysis and molecular dynamic simulations that the self-assembly of the polymer on the nanotube surface can be clearly evidenced and characterised. In Sect. 6, the effect of the carbon templating structure on the P3HT organisation on the surface is investigated, showing the chirality-driven polymer assembly on the carbon nanotube surface. The interaction between P3HT and CNTs brings also to charge transfer, with the modification of physical properties for both species. In particular, the alteration of the polymer electronic properties and the modification of the nanotube mechanical structure are a direct consequence of the P3HT π-π stacking on the nanotube surface. Finally, some considerations based on molecular dynamics studies are reported in order to confirm and support the experimental results discussed.

  17. Computational and experimental studies of the interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rozo, Ciro E.; Castillo-León, Jaime;

    2013-01-01

    This work involved the preparation of a conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid that was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple “one pot” synthesis method. Subsequently, the conjugate was investigated by a computational hybrid method: our own N...

  18. Electronic Interactions between "Pea" and "Pod" : The Case of Oligothiophenes Encapsulated in Carbon Nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jia; Blondeau, Pascal; Salice, Patrizio; Menna, Enzo; Bartova, Barbora; Hebert, Cecile; Leschner, Jens; Kaiser, Ute; Milko, Matus; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    One of the most challenging strategies to achieve tunable nanophotonic devices is to build robust nanohybrids with variable emission in the visible spectral range, while keeping the merits of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). This goal is realized by filling SWNTs ("pods") with a seri

  19. Carbon nanotube interaction with extracellular matrix proteins producing scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonelli FM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda MP Tonelli,1 Anderson K Santos,1 Katia N Gomes,2 Eudes Lorençon,2 Silvia Guatimosim,3 Luiz O Ladeira,2 Rodrigo R Resende11Cell Signaling and Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Intracellular Cardiomiocyte Signaling Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, BrazilAbstract: In recent years, significant progress has been made in organ transplantation, surgical reconstruction, and the use of artificial prostheses to treat the loss or failure of an organ or bone tissue. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to carbon nanotubes and collagen composite materials and their applications in the field of tissue engineering due to their minimal foreign-body reactions, an intrinsic antibacterial nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and the ability to be molded into various geometries and forms such as porous structures, suitable for cell ingrowth, proliferation, and differentiation. Recently, grafted collagen and some other natural and synthetic polymers with carbon nanotubes have been incorporated to increase the mechanical strength of these composites. Carbon nanotube composites are thus emerging as potential materials for artificial bone and bone regeneration in tissue engineering.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, tissue engineering, extracellular matrix proteins, collagen, hyaluronic acid, stem cells

  20. Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochik Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of growing carbon nanotubes uses a synthesized mesoporous si lica template with approximately cylindrical pores being formed there in. The surfaces of the pores are coated with a carbon nanotube precu rsor, and the template with the surfaces of the pores so-coated is th en heated until the carbon nanotube precursor in each pore is convert ed to a carbon nanotube.

  1. Compositing polyetherimide with polyfluorene wrapped carbon nanotubes for enhanced interfacial interaction and conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2014-06-25

    A novel approach to chemically functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for making superior polyetherimide (PEI) nanocomposites with polyfluorene polymer is presented. In this approach, MWCNTs are non-covalently functionalized with poly(9,9-dioctyfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) through π-π stacking as confirmed by UV-vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectra. Atomic force microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy shows the PFO coated MWCNTs, which provides excellent dispersion of the latter in both solvent and PEI matrix. The strong interaction of PFO with PEI chains, as evidenced from fluorescence spectra, supports the good adhesion of dispersed MWCNTs to PEI leading to stronger interfacial interactions. As a result, the addition of as little as 0.25 wt % of modified MWCNTs to PEI matrix can strongly improve the mechanical properties of the composite (increase of 46% in storage modulus). Increasing the amount of MWCNTs to 2.0 wt % (0.5 wt % PFO loading) affords a great increase of 119% in storage modulus. Furthermore, a sharp decrease of 12 orders of magnitude in volume resistivity of PEI composite is obtained with only 0.5 wt % of PFO modified MWCNT. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Carbon nanotube junctions and devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, H.W.Ch.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Postma presents transport experiments performed on individual single-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are molecules entirely made of carbon atoms. The electronic properties are determined by the exact symmetry of the nanotube lattice, resulting in either metallic or semiconduct

  3. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  4. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabr...

  5. A molecular simulation probing of structure and interaction for supramolecular sodium dodecyl sulfate/single-wall carbon nanotube assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaoning; Yang, Zhen

    2010-03-10

    Here we report a larger-scale atomic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) surfaces and the interaction between supramolecular SDS/SWNT aggregates. We make an effort to address several important problems in regard to carbon nanotube dispersion/separation. At first, the simulation provides comprehensive direct evidence for SDS self-assembly structures on carbon nanotube surfaces, which can help to clarify the relevant debate over the exact adsorption structure. We also, for the first time, simulated the potential of mean force (PMF) between two SWNTs embedded in SDS surfactant micelles. A novel unified PMF approach has been applied to reveal various cooperative interactions between the SDS/SWNT aggregates, which is different from the previous electrostatic repulsion explanation. The unique role of sodium ions revealed here provides a new microscopic understanding of the recent experiments in the electrolyte tuning of the interfacial forces on the selective fractionation of SDS surrounding SWNTs.

  6. Interaction of Carbon Nanotubes with Saccharides: a Possible Route to Biocompatible Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Alan; Moghal, Jonathan; Farrell, Gerald; Byrne, Hugh; Chambers, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Inclusion complexes of saccharides and HiPco Carbon Nanotubes (HCNT) were formed, resulting in water soluble complexes. These complexes were then characterised using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Raman spectroscopy was used to probe changes in the vibrational character of both the host and guest species and also to assess if any selectivity of tube diameter occurred. UV-Vis-NIR and circular dichroic spectroscopies were used to assess the effect of inclusion on the electronic properti...

  7. Charge Screening Effect in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K

    2001-01-01

    Charge screening effect in metallic carbon nanotubes is investigated in a model including the one-dimensional long-range Coulomb interaction. It is pointed out that an external charge which is being fixed spatially is screened by internal electrons so that the resulting object becomes electrically neutral. We found that the screening length is given by about the diameter of a nanotube.

  8. Coatings of Different Carbon Nanotubes on Platinum Electrodes for Neuronal Devices: Preparation, Cytocompatibility and Interaction with Spiral Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans-Christoph; Kranz, Katharina; Motz, Damian; Vogt, Carla; Lenarz, Thomas; Warnecke, Athanasia; Behrens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear and deep brain implants are prominent examples for neuronal prostheses with clinical relevance. Current research focuses on the improvement of the long-term functionality and the size reduction of neural interface electrodes. A promising approach is the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), either as pure electrodes but especially as coating material for electrodes. The interaction of CNTs with neuronal cells has shown promising results in various studies, but these appear to depend on the specific type of neurons as well as on the kind of nanotubes. To evaluate a potential application of carbon nanotube coatings for cochlear electrodes, it is necessary to investigate the cytocompatibility of carbon nanotube coatings on platinum for the specific type of neuron in the inner ear, namely spiral ganglion neurons. In this study we have combined the chemical processing of as-delivered CNTs, the fabrication of coatings on platinum, and the characterization of the electrical properties of the coatings as well as a general cytocompatibility testing and the first cell culture investigations of CNTs with spiral ganglion neurons. By applying a modification process to three different as-received CNTs via a reflux treatment with nitric acid, long-term stable aqueous CNT dispersions free of dispersing agents were obtained. These were used to coat platinum substrates by an automated spray-coating process. These coatings enhance the electrical properties of platinum electrodes, decreasing the impedance values and raising the capacitances. Cell culture investigations of the different CNT coatings on platinum with NIH3T3 fibroblasts attest an overall good cytocompatibility of these coatings. For spiral ganglion neurons, this can also be observed but a desired positive effect of the CNTs on the neurons is absent. Furthermore, we found that the well-established DAPI staining assay does not function on the coatings prepared from single-wall nanotubes. PMID:27385031

  9. INTERACTION-MEDIATED GROWTH OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON ACICULAR SILICA-COATED α-Fe CATALYST BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qixiang Wang; Guoqing Ning; Fei Wei; Guohua Luo

    2003-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with 20 nm outer diameter were prepared by chemical vapor deposition of ethylene using ultrafine surface-modified acicular α-Fe catalyst particles. The growth mechanism of MWNTs on the larger catalyst particles are attributed to the interaction between the Fe nanoparticles with the surface-modified silica layer. This interaction-mediated growth mechanism is illustrated by studying the electronic, atomic and crystal properties of surface-modified catalysts and MWNTs products by characterization with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectra.

  10. Biomacromolecule interactions and sensor engineering with single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xun

    The many unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have led interest in their research for a range of potential applications. It is well known that DNA molecules readily wrap around SWCNTs to create water soluble, and biocompatible hybrids (DNA-SWCNT). In concert with many recent studies into DNA molecules and custom materials design, the door is open for SWCNT engineering for biomedical applications. In recent years, SWCNT conjugates have been explored for a variety of applications from scaffolds, to drug delivery, to sensors and beyond. However, despite the amount of early enthusiasm and research, there currently is a limited number of SWCNT-based technologies in the commercial and medical realm. Major factors that contribute to this phenomenon include the heterogeneity of the material and subsequently the complexity of their properties especially in the biological context. The focus of this thesis is to begin addressing the latter for DNA-SWCNT on several fronts of the iterative process of biomaterials design including: material properties, sensor engineering, and cellular interactions. Despite the amount of research on applications of DNA-SWCNT, there is much contention on their exact surface organization. Through multiple complementary techniques and the development of novel analytical methods, a model of DNA-SWCNT surface structure was proposed. Next, DNA-SWCNT endocytosis was imaged. Pharmacological and genetic methods were used to study both the kinetics and mechanism of DNA-SWCNT cellular uptake. Once inside the cell, we took advantage of DNA-SWCNT properties and spatial locations of endosomes to create a sensor system that detects intracellular analyte concentrations with both spatial and temporal resolution. As current study of intracellular signaling often involve the study of time and population averaged cellular changes, this new tool to study single cell responses with spatial resolution can significantly improve our basic

  11. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. I. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Elongated and rodlike objects such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are studied when immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. Their interaction energy in a uniform nematic field depends on their orientation relative to the director n , and its minimum determines if they stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n . Using free energy calculations, we deduce the orientation at equilibrium that they choose in a uniform director field n or when they are in contact with a splay-bend disclination line. Naturally, the CNT orientations also depend on the anchoring conditions at their surface. Essentially, three types of anchorings are considered, planar, homeotropic, and Janus anchorings in the cases of weak and strong anchoring strengths. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are attracted toward it and ultimately, they get out of the colloidal dispersion to stick on it. Their orientation relative to the line is found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, we finally obtain a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, according to the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line, respectively. The system exhibits a rich versatility even if up to now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. As discussed in the associated experimental paper, these necklaces could be a step toward interesting applications for realizing nanowires self-connected in three dimensions to predesignated electrodes. This method could provide a way to increase the number of transistors that may be connected together on a small volume.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Purification and Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Mintz, Eric; Smalley, Richard E.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to significantly enhance the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymers. However, dispersion of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix is hindered by the electrostatic forces that cause them to agglomerate. Chemical modification of the nanotubes is necessary to minimize these electrostatic forces and promote adhesion between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix. In a collaborative research program between Clark Atlanta University, Rice University, and NASA Glenn Research Center several approaches are being explored to chemically modify carbon nanotubes. The results of this research will be presented.

  13. Roping and wrapping carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Kevin D.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Boul, Peter; Ericson, Lars M.; Casavant, Michael J.; Walters, Deron A.; Huffman, Chad; Saini, Rajesh; Wang, Yuhuang; Haroz, Erik; Billups, Edward W.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be dispersed into solvents by ultrasonication to the point that primarily individual tubes, cut to a few hundred nanometers in length, are present. However, when such dispersions are filtered to a thick mat, or paper, only tangles of uniform, seemingly endless ropes are observed. The factors contributing to this "roping" phenomenon, akin to aggregation or crystallization, will be discussed. We have developed methods for generating "super-ropes" more than twenty times the diameter of those formed by filtration, involving the extraction of nanotube material from an oleum dispersion. Nanotubes have been solubilized in water, largely individually, by non-covalently wrapping them with linear polymers. The general thermodynamic drive for this wrapping involves the polymer disrupting both the hydrophobic interface with water and the smooth tube-tube interaction in aggregates. The nanotubes can be recovered from their polymeric wrapping by changing their solvent system. This solubilization process opens the door to solution chemistry on pristine nanotubes, as well as their introduction into biologically relevant systems.

  14. Coulomb drag in multiwall armchair carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, A.M.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the transresistivity rho(21) between two concentric armchair nanotubes in a diffusive multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F). We approximate the tight-binding band structure by two crossing bands with a linear dispersion near the Fermi...... surface. The cylindrical geometry of the nanotubes and the different parities of the Bloch states are accounted for in the evaluation of the effective Coulomb interaction between charges in the concentric nanotubes. We find a broad peak in rho(21) as a function of temperature at roughly T similar to 0.4T...

  15. Interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes and chromatography gel during size separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigate the underlying mechanism by which chromatography can be used for the separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on the basis of their diameter or length, with a view to optimizing this popular process. Using the knowledge gained through diffusion ordered spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance (DOSY NMR) analysis and chromatographic experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of separating SWNTs on the basis of diameter and length simultaneously within the one chromatography column. These findings are of relevance not just to the understanding of SWNT separation processes, but also to the industrial use of size-separated SWNTs. (paper)

  16. Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes with Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: Fundamental Interactions and Applications in Composite Materials, Nanofibers, Electronics, and Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Ezzeddine, Alaa

    2015-10-01

    Ever since their discovery, Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been renowned to be potential candidates for a variety of applications. Nevertheless, the difficulties accompanied with their dispersion and poor solubility in various solvents have hindered CNTs potential applications. As a result, studies have been developed to address the dispersion problem. The solution is in modifying the surfaces of the nanotubes covalently or non-covalently with a desired dispersant. Various materials have been employed for this purpose out of which polymers are the most common. Non-covalent functionalization of CNTs via polymer wrapping represents an attractive method to obtain a stable and homogenous CNTs dispersion. This method is able to change the surface properties of the nanotubes without destroying their intrinsic structure and preserving their properties. This thesis explores and studies the surface modification and solublization of pristine single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes via a simple solution mixing technique through non-covalent interactions of CNTs with various anionic and cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs). The work includes studying the interaction of various poly(phenylene ethynylene) electrolytes with MWCNTs and an imidazolium functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) with SWCNTs. Our work here focuses on the noncovalent modifications of carbon nanotubes using novel CPEs in order to use these resulting CPE/CNT complexes in various applications. Upon modifying the CNTs with the CPEs, the resulting CPE/CNT complex has been proven to be easily dispersed in various organic and aqueous solution with excellent homogeneity and stability for several months. This complex was then used as a nanofiller and was dispersed in another polymer matrix (poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA). The PMMA/CPE/CNT composite materials were cast or electrospun depending on their desired application. The presence of the CPE modified CNTs in the polymer matrix has been proven to enhance

  17. Carbon nanotube network varactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalov, A. A.; Anoshkin, I. V.; Erdmanis, M.; Lioubtchenko, D. V.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Räisänen, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling.

  18. Electron-phonon interaction and excited states relaxation in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perebeinos, Vasili

    2008-03-01

    We will discuss the role of electron-phonon interaction on excited states relaxation and phonon spectra in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electron-phonon interaction leads to the polaronic effects of the charge carriers, but it also renormalizes the energy and the lifetime of phonons. We present a theoretical model that predicts the changes induced in the phonon modes of CNTs as a function of the charge carrier doping, i.e. position of the Fermi level. In agreement with the predictions, our experiments show sharpening and blue shifts of the G-phonons of metallic CNTs, but only blue shifts for semiconducting CNTs, making the Raman scattering a useful probe of local doping of CNTs [1]. The non-equilibrium dynamics of charge carriers under external electric field is determined by the electron-phonon scattering. The hot carriers under unipolar transport conditions can be produced, leading to the strong impact excitation and light emission, which intensity is determined by electric field, phonon scattering, and impact excitation cross section [2, 3]. In the reverse process of photoconductivity, light is absorbed creating excited states. We will discuss electronic relaxation of high energy excited states leading to the free carriers, contributing to the photoconductivity, and phonon relaxation, leading to the bound excitons [4]. The later can contribute to the photocurrent only after ionization by the external field [5]. Finally, we will discuss the role of phonons in the long puzzling question regarding the nature of the dominant decay channel of the low energy excited states and the potential of optoelectronic applications of CNTs. [1] J.C. Tsang, M. Freitag, V. Perebeinos, J. Liu, and Ph. Avouris, Nature Nanotechnology 2, 725 (2007); [2] J. Chen, V. Perebeinos, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, Q. Fu, J. Liu, Ph. Avouris, Science 310, 1171 (2005); [3] V. Perebeinos and Ph. Avouris, Phys. Rev. B. 74, 121410(R), (2006); [4] T. Hertel, V. Perebeinos, J. Crochet, K. Arnold, M. Kappes

  19. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  20. Excitation transfer and luminescence in porphyrin-carbon nanotube complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Magadur, G; Alain-Rizzo, V; Voisin, C; Roussignol, Ph; Deleporte, E; Delaire, J A

    2007-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with hydrosoluble porphyrins (TPPS) is achieved by "$\\pi$-stacking". The porphyrin/nanotube interaction is studied by means of optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies. The main absorption line of the porphyrins adsorbed on nanotubes exhibits a 120 meV red shift, which we ascribe to a flattening of the molecule in order to optimize $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions. The porphyrin-nanotube complex shows a strong quenching of the TPPS emission while the photoluminescence intensity of the nanotubes is enhanced when the excitation laser is in resonance with the porphyrin absorption band. This reveals an efficient excitation transfer from the TPPS to the carbon nanotube.

  1. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the 20-200 GHz frequency range with arrays of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atdayev, Agylych; Danilyuk, Alexander L; Prischepa, Serghej L

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) is considered within the model of distributed random nanoparticles with a core-shell morphology. The approach is based on a system composed of a CNT conducting resistive matrix, ferromagnetic inductive nanoparticles and the capacitive interface between the CNT matrix and the nanoparticles, which form resonance resistive-inductive-capacitive circuits. It is shown that the influence of the resonant circuits leads to the emergence of specific resonances, namely peaks and valleys in the frequency dependence of the permeability of the nanocomposite, and in the frequency dependence of the reflection and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.

  2. From Carbon Nanotube Crystals to Carbon Nanotube Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhengjun; ZHAO Ye; ZHOU Ya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the very initial deposition stages of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) and xylene (C8H10) for growing carbon nanotubes, and made clear that the mechanism for the self-organization behaviors of nanotubes at different growth stages by this approach. For instance, the organization of nanotubes into flower-like structures at prolonged deposition is developed from the crystal-like structures formed at early growth stages, both of which are closely related to and determined by the very initial deposition stages of this CVD approach. Based on this approach, ways have been established to build up different architectures of carbon nanotubes, by controlling the initial deposition stages of the CVD process, with which we have realized the selective growth of self-organized carbon nanotube structures. This study provides a new idea for growing carbon nanotube architectures by CVD.

  3. Carbon nanotube core graphitic shell hybrid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Hart, Amelia H C; Song, Sung Moo; Nam, Jaewook; Jung, Hyun Young; Hashim, Daniel Paul; Li, Bo; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Park, Chi-Dong; Zhao, Yao; Vajtai, Robert; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Hayashi, Takuya; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Endo, Morinobu; Barrera, Enrique; Jung, Yung Joon; Thomas, Edwin L; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-12-23

    A carbon nanotube yarn core graphitic shell hybrid fiber was fabricated via facile heat treatment of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8) on carbon nanotube yarn. The effective encapsulation of carbon nanotube yarn in carbon fiber and a glassy carbon outer shell determines their physical properties. The higher electrical conductivity (than carbon fiber) of the carbon nanotube yarn overcomes the drawbacks of carbon fiber/glassy carbon, and the better properties (than carbon nanotubes) of the carbon fiber/glassy carbon make up for the lower thermal and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube yarn via synergistic hybridization without any chemical doping and additional processes. PMID:24224730

  4. A theoretical study on the interaction of aromatic amino acids with graphene and single walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Chinagandham; Majumder, Chiranjib; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    In this study we have investigated the interaction of phenylalanine (Phe), histidine (His), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Tryp) molecules with graphene and single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an aim to understand the effect of curvature on the non-covalent interaction. The calculations are performed using density functional theory and the Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2) within linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) approach. Using these methods, the equilibrium configurations of these complexes were found to be very similar, i.e., the aromatic rings of the amino acids prefer to orient in parallel with respect to the plane of the substrates, which bears the signature of weak π-π interactions. The binding strength follows the trend: Hisnanotube structure but they differ in terms of the absolute magnitude. For the nanotube, the binding strength of these molecules is found to be weaker than the graphene sheet. To get an insight about the nature of these interactions, we have calculated the polarizability of the aromatic motifs of the amino acids. Remarkably, we find excellent correlation between the polarizability and the strength of the interaction; the higher the polarizability, greater is the binding strength. Moreover, we have analyzed the electronic densities of state spectrum before and after adsorption of the amino acid moieties. The results reveal that the Fermi level of the free CNT is red-shifted by the adsorption of the amino acids and the degree of shift is consistent with the trend in polarizability of these molecules.

  5. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    B. Arash; Wang, Q.(The University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA); Varadan, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the compos...

  6. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Contaminant Interactions and Biological Effects of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Benthic Estuarine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Ashley Nicole

    The fate, bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have not been extensively studied to date. Pristine SWNT are highly hydrophobic and have been shown to strongly associate with natural particulate matter in aquatic environments. In light of this, I have focused my research to examine the influence of sediment and food exposure routes on bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of structurally diverse SWNT in several ecologically-important marine invertebrate species. No significant mortality was observed in any organism at concentrations up to 1000 mg/kg. Evidence of biouptake after ingestion was observed for pristine semiconducting SWNT using NIRF spectroscopy and for oxidized 14C-SWNT using liquid scintillation counting. After a 24 hour depuration period, the pristine semiconducting SWNT were eliminated from organisms to below the method detection limit (5 microg/mL), and the 14C-SWNT body burden was decreased by an order of magnitude to a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of invertebrates. Overall, the SWNT were not bioavailable and appear to associate with the sediment. In addition to investigating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of SWNT as an independent toxicant, it is important to consider how they will interact with other contaminants in the environment (i.e., increase or decrease toxicity and bioaccumulation of co-contaminants, alter the environmental transport of co-contaminants, induce degradation of co-contaminants, etc.). I wanted to investigate the effects of SWNT on a complex mixture of contaminants already present in a natural system. New Bedford Harbor (NBH) sediment, which is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was amended with pristine SWNT to determine if the presence of SWNT would mitigate the toxicity and bioaccumulation of the PCBs in deposit-feeding invertebrates. A dilution series of the NBH sediment was created using uncontaminated Long Island Sound (LIS) sediment to test 25

  8. Interaction of hydrogen molecules on Ni-doped single-walled carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Mei-Yan; Wang Xian-Long; Zeng Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption of hydrogen molecules on an Ni-doped (8,0) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is investigated by using first-principles density functional calculations. The result shows that a single Ni atom adsorbed on the bridge site of the tube could cannot dissociate the H2, however it can chemisorb three H2 at most, with the average binding energy per H2 suitable for the hydrogen storage at the room temperature. More H2 would physisorb around an Ni atom weakly. As for the SWNT with an Ni dimer adsorbed, we find that when the H2approaches the Ni-Ni bond, it dissociates without overcoming any barrier and makes bonds with Ni atom.

  9. Interaction of [FeFe]-hydrogenases with single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedruzic Chang, Drazenka; McDonald, Timothy J.; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.; Heben, Michael J.; King, Paul W.

    2007-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are promising candidates for use in energy conversion devices as an active photo-collecting elements, for dissociation of bound excitons and charge-transfer from photo-excited chromophores, or as molecular wires to transport charge. Hydrogenases are enzymes that efficiently catalyze the reduction of protons from a variety of electron donors to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogenases together with SWNT suggest a novel biohybrid material for direct conversion of sunlight into H II. Here, we report changes in SWNT optical properties upon addition of recombinant [FeFe] hydrogenases from Clostridium acetobutylicum and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We find evidence that novel and stable charge-transfer complexes are formed under conditions of the hydrogenase catalytic turnover, providing spectroscopic handles for further study and application of this hybrid system.

  10. INTERACTION MODELS FOR EFFECTIVE THERMAL AND ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITIES OF CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Deng; Quanshui Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The present article provides supplementary information of previous works of ana-lytic models for predicting conductivity enhancements of carbon nanotube composites. The mod-els, though fairly simple, are able to take account of the effects of conductivity anisotropy, non-straightness, and aspect ratio of the CNT additives on the conductivity enhancement of the com-posite and to give predictions agreeing well with existing experimental data. The omitted detailed derivation of this model is demonstrated in the present article with a more systematical analysis, which may help with further development in this direction. Furthermore, the effects of various orientation distributions of CNTs are reported here for the first time. The information may be useful in design or fabrication technology of CNT composites for better or specified conductivities.

  11. Teslaphoresis of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R; Castillo, Aida C; Smalley, Preston R; Kittrell, Carter; James, Dustin K; Brinson, Bruce E; Rybolt, Thomas R; Johnson, Bruce R; Cherukuri, Tonya K; Cherukuri, Paul

    2016-04-26

    This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil's antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (>30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale. PMID:27074626

  12. Studies of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneba, Gerard T.

    2005-01-01

    The fellowship experience for this summer for 2004 pertains to carbon nanotube coatings for various space-related applications. They involve the following projects: (a) EMI protection films from HiPco-polymers, and (b) Thermal protection nanosilica materials. EMI protection films are targeted to be eventually applied onto casings of laptop computers. These coatings are composites of electrically-conductive SWNTs and compatible polymers. The substrate polymer will be polycarbonate, since computer housings are typically made of carbon composites of this type of polymer. A new experimental copolymer was used last year to generate electrically-conductive and thermal films with HiPco at 50/50 wt/wt composition. This will be one of the possible formulations. Reference films will be base polycarbonate and neat HiPco onto polycarbonate films. Other coating materials that will be tried will be based on HiPco composites with commercial enamels (polyurethane, acrylic, polyester), which could be compatible with the polycarbonate substrate. Nanosilica fibers are planned for possible use as thermal protection tiles on the shuttle orbiter. Right now, microscale silica is used. Going to the nanoscale will increase the surface-volume-per-unit-area of radiative heat dissipation. Nanoscale carbon fibers/nanotubes can be used as templates for the generation of nanosilica. A sol-gel operation is employed for this purpose.

  13. Excitation transfer and luminescence in porphyrin-carbon nanotube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Magadur, Gurvan; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Alain-Rizzo, Valérie; C. Voisin; Roussignol, Ph.; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Delaire, Jacques,

    2007-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with hydrosoluble porphyrins (TPPS) is achieved by "$\\pi$-stacking". The porphyrin/nanotube interaction is studied by means of optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies. The main absorption line of the porphyrins adsorbed on nanotubes exhibits a 120 meV red shift, which we ascribe to a flattening of the molecule in order to optimize $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions. The porphyrin-nanotube complex shows a strong quenching ...

  14. Luminescence of carbon nanotube bulbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuanGang; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; WEI BingQing; ZHU HongWei; WANG ZhiCheng; LUO JianBin; LIU WenJin; ZHENG MingXin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bulbs made of decimeter-scale double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) strands and films were fabricated and their luminescence properties, including the lighting efficiency, voltage-current relation and thermal stability were investigated. The results show that the DWCNT bulb has a comparable spectrum of visible light with tungsten bulb and its average efficiency is 40% higher than that of a tungsten filament at the same temperature (1400-2300 K). The nanotube filaments show both resistance and thermal stability over a large temperature region. No obvious damage was found for a nanotube bulb illuminating at 2300 K for more than 24 hours in vacuum.

  15. CARBON NANOTUBES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, John, E.

    2009-07-24

    Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as a minority byproduct of fullerene synthesis. Remarkable progress has been made in the ensuing years, including the discovery of two basic types of nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall), great strides in synthesis and purification, elucidation of many fundamental physical properties, and important steps towards practical applications. Both the underlying science and technological potential of SWNT can profitably be studied at the scale of individual tubes and on macroscopic assemblies such as fibers. Experiments on single tubes directly reveal many of the predicted quantum confinement and mechanical properties. Semiconductor nanowires have many features in common with nanotubes, and many of the same fundamental and practical issues are in play – quantum confinement and its effect on properties; possible device structures and circuit architectures; thermal management; optimal synthesis, defect morphology and control, etc. In 2000 we began a small effort in this direction, conducted entirely by undergraduates with minimal consumables support from this grant. With DOE-BES approval, this grew into a project in parallel with the carbon nanotube work, in which we studied of inorganic semiconductor nanowire growth, characterization and novel strategies for electronic and electromechanical device fabrication. From the beginnings of research on carbon nanotubes, one of the major applications envisioned was hydrogen storage for fuel-cell powered cars and trucks. Subsequent theoretical models gave mixed results, the most pessimistic indicating that the fundamental H2-SWNT interaction was similar to flat graphite (physisorption) with only modest binding energies implying cryogenic operation at best. New material families with encouraging measured properties have emerged, and materials modeling has gained enormously in predictive power, sophistication, and the ability to treat a realistically representative number of atoms. One of

  16. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  18. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  19. Interaction between Palladium Nanoparticles and Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes: Role of Surface Functionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Bingsen; Shao, Lidong; Zhang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to accurately describe the interaction between the surface functionality and the supported metal catalyst because it directly determines the activity and selectivity of a catalytic reaction. It is, however, challenging with a metal-carbon catalytic system owing to the ultrafine...... degrees C. We focus on probing the effects of oxygen and nitrogen-containing functional groups on supported palladium nanoparticles (NPs) in the model catalytic system. The stability of palladium NPs supported on CNTs depends strongly on the surface properties of CNTs. Moreover, the oxygen......-containing functional groups on the CNT surfaces, such as carboxylic acids and anhydrides, have an even stronger interaction with palladium NPs than the nitrogen-containing counterparts. Our work contributes to elucidation of the complex metal-carbon interaction and unlocks potential in activity and selectivity control...

  20. Fast Disinfection of Escherichia coli Bacteria Using Carbon Nanotubes Interaction with Microwave Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer M. Al-Hakami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water disinfection has attracted the attention of scientists worldwide due to water scarcity. The most significant challenges are determining how to achieve proper disinfection without producing harmful byproducts obtained usually using conventional chemical disinfectants and developing new point-of-use methods for the removal and inactivation of waterborne pathogens. The removal of contaminants and reuse of the treated water would provide significant reductions in cost, time, liabilities, and labour to the industry and result in improved environmental stewardship. The present study demonstrates a new approach for the removal of Escherichia coli (E. coli from water using as-produced and modified/functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs with 1-octadecanol groups (C18 under the effect of microwave irradiation. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterise the morphological/structural and thermal properties of CNTs. The 1-octadecanol (C18 functional group was attached to the surface of CNTs via Fischer esterification. The produced CNTs were tested for their efficiency in destroying the pathogenic bacteria (E. coli in water with and without the effect of microwave radiation. A low removal rate (3–5% of (E. coli bacteria was obtained when CNTs alone were used, indicating that CNTs did not cause bacterial cellular death. When combined with microwave radiation, the unmodified CNTs were able to remove up to 98% of bacteria from water, while a higher removal of bacteria (up to 100% was achieved when CNTs-C18 was used under the same conditions.

  1. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loay A. Elalfy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that exists inside the CNT is about 2-3 Å away from its wall. The calculations have proven that the zigzag CNTs are more efficient for reverse osmosis water desalination process than armchair CNTs as the reverse osmosis process requires pressure of approximately 200 MPa for armchair CNTs, which is consistent with the values used in molecular dynamics simulations, while that needed when using zigzag CNTs was in the order of 60 MPa.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  3. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Haider; Yetisen, Ali K.; Ahmed, Rajib; Yun, Seok Hyun; Dai, Qing

    2015-03-01

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2-3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  4. Carbon nanotube optical mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes (CNT) embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation. Moreover, as the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and three-dimensional printing. Therefore, the technology holds promise for the development of a new generation of lightweight, compact "smart" telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics, active optics experiments, and numerical modeling. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  5. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  6. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Ahmed, Rajib [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-03-23

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2–3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  7. Luminescent blooming of dendronic carbon nanotubes through ion-pairing interactions with an Eu(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Laura; Toma, Francesca Maria; Feruglio, Luigi; Malicka, Joanna M; Da Ros, Tatiana; Armaroli, Nicola; Prato, Maurizio; Bonifazi, Davide

    2012-05-01

    A multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) scaffold was covalently functionalized with a second-generation polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendron, presenting four terminal amino groups per grafted aryl moiety. These reactive functions were alkylated to obtain a positively charged polycationic dendron/carbon nanotube system (d-MWCNTs⋅Cl), which eventually underwent anion exchange reaction with a negatively charged and highly luminescent Eu(III) complex ([EuL(4)]⋅NEt(4), in which L = (2-naphtoyltrifluoroacetonate)). This process afforded the target material d-MWCNTs⋅[EuL(4)], in which MWCNTs are combined with red-emitting Eu(III) centers through electrostatic interactions with the dendronic branches. Characterization of the novel MWCNT materials was accomplished by means of TGA and TEM, whereas d-MWCNTs⋅Cl and d-MWCNTs⋅ [EuL(4)] further underwent XPS, SEM and Raman analyses. These studies demonstrate the integrity of the luminescent [EuL(4)](-) center in the luminescent hybrid, the massive load of the cationic binding sites, and the virtually complete anion-exchange into the final hybrid material. The occurrence of the ion-pairing interaction with MWCNTs was unambiguously demonstrated through DOSY NMR diffusion studies. Photophysical investigations show that MWCNTs⋅[EuL(4)] is a highly soluble and brightly luminescent red hybrid material in which MWCNTs act as photochemically inert scaffolds with negligible UV/Vis absorption, compared with the grafted Eu complex, and with no quenching activity. The high dispersibility of MWCNTs⋅[EuL(4)] in a polymer matrix makes it a promising luminophore for applications in material science. PMID:22488679

  8. Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the...

  9. Non-covalent conjugates of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid for interaction with cells overexpressing folate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Novoa, Leidy V.;

    2013-01-01

    a low toxicity of the conjugates in the THP-1 cells. The low toxicity and the cellular uptake of single-walled carbon nanotube–folic acid by cancer cells suggest their potential use in carbon nanotube-based drug delivery systems and in the diagnosis of cancer or tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis....

  10. Molybdenum Disulfide Sheathed Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chun SONG; Zhu De XU; Yi Fan ZHENG; Gui HAN; Bo LIU; Wei Xiang CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Single and double layered MoS2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNs) were successfully prepared by pyrolyzing (NH4)2MoS4-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes in an H2 atmosphere at 900℃. MoS2-coated MWCNs would be expected to have different tribological and mechanical properties compared to MoS2, so it may have potential applications in many fields.

  11. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kuemmeth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications.

  12. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  13. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Churchill, H O H; Herring, P K;

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual......, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications....

  14. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  15. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  16. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  17. Carbon nanotube computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaker, Max M; Hills, Gage; Patil, Nishant; Wei, Hai; Chen, Hong-Yu; Wong, H-S Philip; Mitra, Subhasish

    2013-09-26

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy-delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. Owing to substantial fundamental imperfections inherent in CNTs, however, only very basic circuit blocks have been demonstrated. Here we show how these imperfections can be overcome, and demonstrate the first computer built entirely using CNT-based transistors. The CNT computer runs an operating system that is capable of multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we implement 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This experimental demonstration is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet realized. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next generation of highly energy-efficient electronic systems.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Delzeit, Clement J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method for cleaning or otherwise removing amorphous carbon and other residues that arise in growth of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array. The CNT array is exposed to a plurality of hydroxyls or hydrogen, produced from a selected vapor or liquid source such as H2O or H2O2. and the hydroxyls or hydrogen (neutral or electrically charged) react with the residues to produce partly or fully dissolved or hydrogenated or hydroxylizated products that can be removed or separated from the CNT array. The hydroxyls or hydrogen can be produced by heating the CNT array, residue and selected vapor or liquid source or by application of an electromagnetic excitation signal with a selected frequency or range of frequencies to dissociate the selected vapor or liquid. The excitation frequency can be chirped to cover a selected range of frequencies corresponding to dissociation of the selected vapor or liquid. Sonication may be uscd to supplement dissociation of the H2O and/or H2O2.

  19. Amino acid analogues bind to carbon nanotube via π-π interactions: Comparison of molecular mechanical and quantum mechanical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zaixing; Wang, Zhigang; Tian, Xingling; Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Ruhong

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and biomolecules is essential to the CNT-based nanotechnology and biotechnology. Some recent experiments have suggested that the π-π stacking interactions between protein's aromatic residues and CNTs might play a key role in their binding, which raises interest in large scale modeling of protein-CNT complexes and associated π-π interactions at atomic detail. However, there is concern on the accuracy of classical fixed-charge molecular force fields due to their classical treatments and lack of polarizability. Here, we study the binding of three aromatic residue analogues (mimicking phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and benzene to a single-walled CNT, and compare the molecular mechanical (MM) calculations using three popular fixed-charge force fields (OPLSAA, AMBER, and CHARMM), with quantum mechanical (QM) calculations using the density-functional tight-binding method with the inclusion of dispersion correction (DFTB-D). Two typical configurations commonly found in π-π interactions are used, one with the aromatic rings parallel to the CNT surface (flat), and the other perpendicular (edge). Our calculations reveal that compared to the QM results the MM approaches can appropriately reproduce the strength of π-π interactions for both configurations, and more importantly, the energy difference between them, indicating that the various contributions to π-π interactions have been implicitly included in the van der Waals parameters of the standard MM force fields. Meanwhile, these MM models are less accurate in predicting the exact structural binding patterns (matching surface), meaning there are still rooms to be improved. In addition, we have provided a comprehensive and reliable QM picture for the π-π interactions of aromatic molecules with CNTs in gas phase, which might be used as a benchmark for future force field developments.

  20. van der Waals forces and confinement in carbon nanopores: Interaction between CH4, COOH, NH3, OH, SH and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between CH4, COOH, NH3, OH, SH and armchair (n, n) (n = 4, 7, 14) and zigzag (n, 0) (n = 7, 12, 25) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been systematically investigated within the framework of dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D2). Endohedral and exohedral molecular adsorption on SWCNT walls is energetically unfavorable or weak, despite the use of C6 /r6 pairwise London-dispersion corrections. The effects of pore size and chirality on the molecule/SWCNTs interaction were also assessed. Chemisorption of COOH, NH3, OH and SH at SWCNT edge sites was examined using a H-capped (7, 0) SWCNT fragment and its impact on electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical attacks was predicted by means of Fukui functions.

  1. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  2. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. II. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Hakam; Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) colloids with different anchoring conditions are dispersed in pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) that exhibits a room-temperature nematic phase. The experiments make use of CNTs treated for strong planar, homeotropic, or Janus anchorings. Observations with a polarizing microscope show that the CNTs placed in a uniform nematic field stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n depending on their anchoring conditions. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are first attracted toward it and ultimately, they get trapped on it. Their orientation relative to the line is then found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, they form a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, with the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line according to the anchoring treatment. The system exhibits a rich versatility, even if until now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. In a next step, the necklaces may be glued by means of pyrrole electropolymerization. In this manner, we realize a true materialization of the disclination lines, and we obtain nanowires capable of conducting the electricity in the place of the initial disclinations that just worked as templates. The advantage of the method is that it finally provides nanowires that are automatically connected to predesignated three-dimensional (3D) electrodes. Such a 3D nanowiring could have important applications, as it could allow one to develop electronic circuits in the third dimension. They could thus help with increasing the transistor density per surface unit, although downsizing of integrated circuits will soon be limited to atomic sizes or so. In other words, the predicted limitation to Moore's law could be avoided. For the moment, the nanowires that we obtain

  3. Kondo physics in carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Nygard, Jesper; Cobden, David Henry; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    The connection of electrical leads to wire-like molecules is a logical step in the development of molecular electronics, but also allows studies of fundamental physics. For example, metallic carbon nanotubes are quantum wires that have been found to act as one-dimensional quantum dots, Luttinger-liquids, proximity-induced superconductors and ballistic and diffusive one-dimensional metals. Here we report that electrically-contacted single-wall nanotubes can serve as powerful probes of Kondo ph...

  4. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale production and application at large scale, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may cause ad-verse response to the environment and human health. Thus, study on bio-effects and safety of CNTs has attracted great attention from scientists and governments worldwide. This report briefly summa-rizes the main results from the in vitro toxicity study of CNTs. The emphasis is placed on the descrip-tion of a variety of factors affecting CNTs cytotoxicity, including species of CNTs, impurities contained, lengths of CNTs, aspect ratios, chemical modification, and assaying methods of cytotoxicity. However, experimental information obtained thus far on CNTs’ cytotoxicity is lacking in comparability, and some-times there is controversy about it. In order to assess more accurately the potential risks of CNTs to human health, we suggest that care should be taken for issues such as chemical modification and quantitative characterization of CNTs in cytotoxicity assessment. More importantly, studies on physical and chemical mechanisms of CNTs’ cytotoxicity should be strengthened; assaying methods and evaluating criteria characterized by nanotoxicology should be gradually established.

  5. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying; LI WenXin

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale production and application at large scale, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may cause ad-verse response to the environment and human health. Thus, study on bio-effects and safety of CNTs has attracted great attention from scientists and governments worldwide. This report briefly summa-rizes the main results from the in vitro toxicity study of CNTs. The emphasis is placed on the descrip-tion of a variety of factors affecting CNTs cytotoxicity, including species of CNTs, impurities contained,lengths of CNTs, aspect ratios, chemical modification, and assaying methods of cytotoxicity. However,experimental information obtained thus far on CNTs' cytotoxicity is lacking in comparability, and some-times there is controversy about it. In order to assess more accurately the potential risks of CNTs to human health, we suggest that care should be taken for issues such as chemical modification and quantitative characterization of CNTa in cytotoxicity assessment. More importantly, studies on physical and chemical mechanisms of CNTs' cytotoxicity should be strengthened; assaying methods and evaluating criteria characterized by nanotoxicology should be gradually established.

  6. DFT study of Fe-Ni core-shell nanoparticles: Stability, catalytic activity, and interaction with carbon atom for single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhimin; Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangqiang@njtech.edu.cn; Shan, Xiaoye; Zhu, Hongjun, E-mail: zhuhj@njtech.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Li, Wei-qi [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Guang-hui [Department of Chemistry, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

    2015-02-21

    Metal catalysts play an important role in the nucleation and growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It is essential for probing the nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs to fundamentally understand the properties of the metal catalysts and their interaction with carbon species. In this study, we systematically studied the stability of 13- and 55-atom Fe and Fe-Ni core-shell particles as well as these particles interaction with the carbon atoms using the density functional theory calculations. Icosahedral 13- and 55-atom Fe-Ni core-shell bimetallic particles have higher stability than the corresponding monometallic Fe and Ni particles. Opposite charge transfer (or distribution) in these particles leads to the Fe surface-shell displays a positive charge, while the Ni surface-shell exhibits a negative charge. The opposite charge transfer would induce different chemical activities. Compared with the monometallic Fe and Ni particles, the core-shell bimetallic particles have weaker interaction with C atoms. More importantly, C atoms only prefer staying on the surface of the bimetallic particles. In contrast, C atoms prefer locating into the subsurface of the monometallic particles, which is more likely to form stable metal carbides. The difference of the mono- and bimetallic particles on this issue may result in different nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic catalysts and a better understanding nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs.

  7. Preparation of array of long carbon nanotubes and fibers therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Paul N.; DePaula, Ramond F.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Usov, Igor O.

    2015-11-19

    An array of carbon nanotubes is prepared by exposing a catalyst structure to a carbon nanotube precursor. Embodiment catalyst structures include one or more trenches, channels, or a combination of trenches and channels. A system for preparing the array includes a heated surface for heating the catalyst structure and a cooling portion that cools gas above the catalyst structure. The system heats the catalyst structure so that the interaction between the precursor and the catalyst structure results in the formation of an array of carbon nanotubes on the catalyst structure, and cools the gas near the catalyst structure and also cools any carbon nanotubes that form on the catalyst structure to prevent or at least minimize the formation of amorphous carbon. Arrays thus formed may be used for spinning fibers of carbon nanotubes.

  8. Hybrid Composite of Polyaniline Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polyaniline hybrid material was synthesized by emulsion polymerization in-situ. The morphology of hybrid material was studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity of nanocomposite increases with the increasing of carbon nanotube content because of the new conductivity passageways formed by carbon nanotubes.

  9. Synthesis and Application of Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Zeng; Zhenhua Li; Yuhong Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the unique structure, the superior physical and chemical properties, the super strong mechanical performances, and so on, carbon nanotubes have attracted the attention of researchers all over the world. In this article, the basic properties and the main production processes of carbon nanotubes are introduced in brief, and the progress of applied research for carbon nanotubes is reviewed.

  10. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  11. Computational Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomechanics of individual carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes and their application as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites has been reviewed with interplay of theoretical modeling, computer simulations and experimental observations. The emphasis in this work is on elucidating the multi-length scales of the problems involved, and of different simulation techniques that are needed to address specific characteristics of individual nanotubes and nanotube polymer-matrix interfaces. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are shown to be sufficient to describe the generic behavior such as strength and stiffness modulus but are inadequate to describe elastic limit and nature of plastic buckling at large strength. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations are shown to bring out explicit atomic nature dependent behavior of these nanoscale materials objects that are not accessible either via continuum mechanics based descriptions or through classical molecular dynamics based simulations. As examples, we discus local plastic collapse of carbon nanotubes under axial compression and anisotropic plastic buckling of boron-nitride nanotubes. Dependence of the yield strain on the strain rate is addressed through temperature dependent simulations, a transition-state-theory based model of the strain as a function of strain rate and simulation temperature is presented, and in all cases extensive comparisons are made with experimental observations. Mechanical properties of nanotube-polymer composite materials are simulated with diverse nanotube-polymer interface structures (with van der Waals interaction). The atomistic mechanisms of the interface toughening for optimal load transfer through recycling, high-thermal expansion and diffusion coefficient composite formation above glass transition temperature, and enhancement of Young's modulus on addition of nanotubes to polymer are discussed and compared with experimental observations.

  12. On the Nanoindentation of the Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Petre P.Teodorescu; Veturia Chiroiu; Ligia Munteanu; Valeria Moşneguţu

    2010-01-01

    A new inverse approach is proposed in this paper, which combines elements of nonlocal theory and molecular mechanics, based on the experimental results available in the nanoindentation literature. The effect of the inlayer van der Waals atomistic interactions for carbon nanotubes with multiple walls (MWCNT) is included by means of the Brenner-Tersoff potential and experimental results. The neighboring walls of MWCNT are coupled through van der Waals interactions, and the shell buckling would ...

  13. Adsorption on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; YANG Xiao-bao; NI Jun

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is a subject of growing experimental and theoretical interest.The possible adsorbed patterns of atoms and molecules on the single-walled carbon nanotubes vary with the diameters and chirality of the tubes due to the confinement.The curvature of the carbon nanotube surface enlarges the distance of the adsorbate atoms and thus enhances the stability of high coverage structures of adsorbate.There exist two novel high-coverage stable structures of potassium adsorbed on SWCNTs,which are not stable on graphite.The electronic properties of SWCNTs can be modified by adsorbate atoms and metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semi-conductor transitions can be achieved by the doping of alkali atoms.

  14. Electron Transport and Tunneling in Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Travis; Mason, Nadya

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes remain a fertile ground for the exploration of interacting one-dimensional (1D) physics and Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory. Much is still unknown about the factors that influence the transport and tunneling properties of interacting 1D systems such as nanotubes. We report on experiments that use techniques such as multiple contacts on long nanotubes and tunable tunnel barriers to determine how the manifestations of electron-electron interactions, such as the zero-bias anomaly, depend on the length and defect strength in nanotubes.

  15. On the Nanoindentation of the Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre P. Teodorescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new inverse approach is proposed in this paper, which combines elements of nonlocal theory and molecular mechanics, based on the experimental results available in the nanoindentation literature. The effect of the inlayer van der Waals atomistic interactions for carbon nanotubes with multiple walls (MWCNT is included by means of the Brenner-Tersoff potential and experimental results. The neighboring walls of MWCNT are coupled through van der Waals interactions, and the shell buckling would initiate in the outermost shell, when nanotubes are short. The nanoindentation technique is simulated for the axially compressed of individual nanotubes, in order to evaluate the load-unloaded-displacement, the curve critical buckling and the appropriate values for local Lamé constants.

  16. Interactions of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with the immune system of the skin and the possible implications related to cutaneous nanotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luiza Castro Fernandes; William Waissmann

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with the constituents of the skin, especially the skin immune unit, is relevant to the determina-tion of toxicological endpoints. A systematic review was done focused on such aspects. Considerable part of the found references concentrated in cytotoxicity and skin per-meation. On a smaller scale, there are articles on immunomodulation and activation of immune cells and other elements. Few of the found studies deal specific...

  17. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  18. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. S. T.; Alves, O. L.; Barbieri, E.

    2013-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO3-MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO3-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO3-MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO3-MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO3-MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  19. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14C-labeled MWCNTs into 14CO2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14CO2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  20. Gears Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Deardorff, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Gears based on carbon nanotubes (see figure) have been proposed as components of an emerging generation of molecular- scale machines and sensors. In comparison with previously proposed nanogears based on diamondoid and fullerene molecules, the nanotube-based gears would have simpler structures and are more likely to be realizable by practical fabrication processes. The impetus for the practical development of carbon-nanotube- based gears arises, in part, from rapid recent progress in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes with prescribed diameters, lengths, chiralities, and numbers of concentric shells. The shafts of the proposed gears would be made from multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The gear teeth would be rigid molecules (typically, benzyne molecules), bonded to the nanotube shafts at atomically precise positions. For fabrication, it may be possible to position the molecular teeth by use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) or other related techniques. The capability to position individual organic molecules at room temperature by use of an STM tip has already been demonstrated. Routes to the chemical synthesis of carbon-nanotube-based gears are also under investigation. Chemical and physical aspects of the synthesis of molecular scale gears based on carbon nanotubes and related molecules, and dynamical properties of nanotube- based gears, have been investigated by computational simulations using established methods of quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics. Several particularly interesting and useful conclusions have been drawn from the dynamical simulations performed thus far: The forces acting on the gears would be more sensitive to local molecular motions than to gross mechanical motions of the overall gears. Although no breakage of teeth or of chemical bonds is expected at temperatures up to at least 3,000 K, the gears would not work well at temperatures above a critical range from about 600 to about 1,000 K. Gear temperature could probably be controlled by

  1. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries, enabled by sophisticated fabrication, have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two....... In single quantum dots defined in short lengths of nanotube, the energy levels associated with each degree of freedom, and the spin-orbit coupling between them, are revealed by Coulomb blockade spectroscopy. In double quantum dots, the combination of quantum numbers modifies the selection rules of Pauli...

  2. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  3. Direct observation of spin-injection in tyrosinate-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, Theodoros; Ampoumogli, Asem; Gournis, Dimitrios; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Jankovic, Lubos; Christoforidis, Konstantinos C.; Deligiannakis, Yiannis; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Froudakis, George E.; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Prato, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report on the interaction of a tyrosinate radical with single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). The tyrosinate radical was formed from tyrosine (ester) by Fenton's reagent and, reacted in situ with carbon nanotubes resulting in novel tyrosinated carbon nanotube derivatives. The covalent

  4. Modified carbon nanotubes and methods of forming carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Amy M.; Risser, Steven; Elhard, Joel D.; Moore, Bryon P.; Liu, Tao; Vijayendran, Bhima R.

    2016-06-14

    In this invention, processes which can be used to achieve stable doped carbon nanotubes are disclosed. Preferred CNT structures and morphologies for achieving maximum doping effects are also described. Dopant formulations and methods for achieving doping of a broad distribution of tube types are also described.

  5. Interaction between copper and carbon nanotubes triggers their mutual role in the enhanced photodegradation of p-chloroaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnun, N F; Jalil, A A; Triwahyono, S; Jusoh, N W C; Johari, A; Kidam, K

    2016-04-28

    Copper (Cu, 1-5 wt%) was loaded onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a simple electrochemical method. The physicochemical properties of catalysts (Cu/CNTs) were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen (N2) adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron spinning resonance (ESR). The results showed that the Cu was distributed well on the CNT surface by the interaction of Cu(2+) ions with -OH and -COOH groups on the CNT surface, which preferentially occurred at the defect sites along the CNT backbone. The Cu-O-C bonds formed were found to play an important role in enhancing the photoactivity of the catalysts. The highest number of Cu-O-C bonds possessed by 3 wt% Cu/CNTs demonstrated the best performance in the degradation of p-chloroaniline (96%) under UV light irradiation within 5 h of reaction at 27 °C and under neutral pH conditions. Kinetic studies showed that the degradation followed the pseudo-first order model and the surface reaction was the controlling step. It is believed that these results could contribute to the synthesis of various supported catalysts for various applications. PMID:27088140

  6. Modeling of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, G.; Kumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet stringent environmental, safety and performance requirements from respective regulatory bodies, various technology-based industries are promoting the use of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced lightweight and high strength polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) as a substitute to conventional materials both in structural and non-structural applications. The superior mechanical properties of PNCs made up of CNTs or bundles of CNTs can be attributed to the interfacial interaction between the CNTs and matrix, CNT's morphologies and to their uniform dispersion in the matrix. In PNCs, CNTs physically bond with polymeric matrix at a level where the assumption of continuum level interactions is not applicable. Modeling and prediction of mechanical response and failure behavior of CNTs and their composites becomes a complex task and is dealt with the help of up-scale modeling strategies involving multiple spatial and temporal scales in hierarchical or concurrent manner. Firstly, the article offers an insight into various modeling techniques in studying the mechanical response of CNTs; namely, equivalent continuum approach, quasi-continuum approach and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In the subsequent steps, these approaches are combined with analytical and numerical micromechanics models in a multiscale framework to predict the average macroscopic response of PNCs. The review also discusses the implementation aspects of these computational approaches, their current status and associated challenges with a future outlook.

  7. On modeling biomolecular-surface nonbonded interactions: application to nucleobase adsorption on single-wall carbon nanotube surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdim, B.; Pachter, R.; Day, P. N.; Kim, S. S.; Naik, R. R.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we explored the selectivity of single nucleobases towards adsorption on chiral single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by density functional theory calculations. Specifically, the adsorption of molecular models of guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), and cytosine (C), as well as of AT and GC Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs on chiral SWCNT C(6, 5), C(9, 1) and C(8, 3) model structures, was analyzed in detail. The importance of correcting the exchange-correlation functional for London dispersion was clearly demonstrated, yet limitations in modeling such interactions by considering the SWCNT as a molecular model may mask subtle effects in a molecular-macroscopic material system. The trend in the calculated adsorption energies of the nucleobases on same diameter C(6, 5) and C(9, 1) SWCNT surfaces, i.e. G > A > T > C, was consistent with related computations and experimental work on graphitic surfaces, however contradicting experimental data on the adsorption of single-strand short homo-oligonucleotides on SWCNTs that demonstrated a trend of G > C > A > T (Albertorio et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 395101). A possible role of electrostatic interactions in this case was partially captured by applying the effective fragment potential method, emphasizing that the interplay of the various contributions in modeling nonbonded interactions is complicated by theoretical limitations. Finally, because the calculated adsorption energies for Watson-Crick base pairs have shown little effect upon adsorption of the base pair farther from the surface, the results on SWCNT sorting by salmon genomic DNA could be indicative of partial unfolding of the double helix upon adsorption on the SWCNT surface.

  8. Enhancing and redirecting carbon nanotube photoluminescence by an optical antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Böhmler, Miriam; Hartmann, Nicolai; Georgi, Carsten; Hennrich, Frank; Green, Alexander A.; Hersam, Mark C.; Hartschuh, Achim

    2010-01-01

    We observe the angular radiation pattern of single carbon nanotubes' photoluminescence in the back focal plane of a microscope objective and show that the emitting nanotube can be described by a single in-plane point dipole. The near-field interaction between a nanotube and an optical antenna modifies the radiation pattern that is now dominated by the antenna characteristics. We quantify the antenna induced excitation and radiation enhancement and show that the radiative rate enhancement is c...

  9. Scattering of terahertz radiation from oriented carbon nanotube films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Schroeder, Nicholas;

    2009-01-01

    Session title: IThC-THz Interactions with Condensed Matter. We report on the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to measure scattering from multi-walled carbon nanotubes aligned normal to the film plane. Measurements indicate scattering from the nanotubes is significantly stronger than...

  10. CARBON NANOTUBES AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Pavani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are often described as a graphene sheet rolled up into the shape of a cylinder. These have fascinated scientists with their extraordinary properties. These compounds have become increasingly popular in various fields simply because of their small size and amazing optical, electric and magnetic properties when used alone or with additions of metals. Carbon nanotubes have potential therapeutic applications in the field of drug delivery, diagnostics, and biosensing. Functionalized carbon nanotubes can also act as vaccine delivery systems.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered to be one of the innovative resources in nanotechnology with possible use in wide range of biomedical applications viz. cancer treatment, bioengineering, cardiac autonomic regulation, platelet activation and tissue regeneration. The effect of CNTs on cells and tissues are extremely important for their use in various complex biological systems. With the increasing interest shown by the nanotechnology research community in this field, it is expected that plenty of applications of CNTs will be explored in future.

  11. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This revie

  12. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  13. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  14. From carbon nanotubes to carbon atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas García, Gilberto; Zhang, Weijia; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Carbyne is a linear allotrope of carbon. It is formed by a linear arrangement of carbon atoms with sp-hybridization. We present a reliable and reproducible experiment to obtain these carbon atomic chains using few-layer-graphene (FLG) sheets and a HRTEM. First the FLG sheets were synthesized from worm-like exfoliated graphite and then drop-casted on a lacey-carbon copper grid. Once in the TEM, two holes are opened near each other in a FLG sheet by focusing the electron beam into a small spot. Due to the radiation, the carbon atoms rearrange themselves between the two holes and form carbon fibers. The beam is concentrated on the carbon fibers in order excite the atoms and induce a tension until multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is formed. As the radiation continues the MWCNT breaks down until there is only a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Then, when the SWCNT breaks, an atomic carbon chain is formed, lasts for several seconds under the radiation and finally breaks. This demonstrates the stability of this carbon structure.

  15. Bloch oscillations in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Esther; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Rojas, Fernando

    2009-05-27

    Bloch oscillations arise when electrons are in a one-dimensional linear chain of atoms under a constant electric field. In this paper we show numerically that electrons in different types of carbon nanotubes show oscillations with a Bloch frequency proportional to the constant electric field applied along the nanotube axis. We show these oscillations, calculating the quadratic displacement as a function of the electric field. Because of the double periodicity of the nanotubes' geometry (the lattice constant and the lines of atoms) two frequencies appear, one twice the value of the other. These frequencies coincide perfectly with those predicted for a linear chain of atoms, taking into account the periodicity considered in each case.

  16. Structural and surface features of multiwall carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembram, K.P.S.S., E-mail: hembram@isu.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India); Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore, 560064 (India); Rao, G. Mohan [Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2011-04-15

    We present the direct evidence of defective and disorder places on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), visualizing the presence of amorphous carbon at those sites. These defective surfaces being higher in energy are the key features of functionalization with different materials. The interaction of the {pi} orbital electrons of different carbon atoms of adjacent layers is more at the bent portion, than that of regular portion of the CNT. Hence the tubular structure of the bent portion of nanotubes is spaced more than that of regular portion of the nanotubes, minimizing the stress.

  17. Structural and surface features of multiwall carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Rao, G. Mohan

    2011-04-01

    We present the direct evidence of defective and disorder places on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), visualizing the presence of amorphous carbon at those sites. These defective surfaces being higher in energy are the key features of functionalization with different materials. The interaction of the π orbital electrons of different carbon atoms of adjacent layers is more at the bent portion, than that of regular portion of the CNT. Hence the tubular structure of the bent portion of nanotubes is spaced more than that of regular portion of the nanotubes, minimizing the stress.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes - Polymer Composites with Enhanced Conductivity using Functionalized Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, Rajagopal; Chen, Jian; Gupta, Rishi

    2003-03-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes show superior electrical, mechanical and thermal properties [1]. Composite materials using carbon nanotubes as fillers are predicted to show similar superior properties. However, realization of such composites has been plagued by poor dispersion of carbon nanotubes in solvents and in polymer matrices. We have developed a method to homogenously disperse carbon nanotubes in polymer matrices using functionalized nanotubes [2]. Thin films of functionalized single walled nanotubes (SWNT) - polystyrene composites and functionalized SWNT - polycarbonate composites were prepared using solution evaporation and spin coating. Both of the composites show several orders of magnitude increase in conductivity for less than 1 wt thresholds of the composites are less than 0.2 wt nanotubes. We attribute the enhanced conduction to the superior dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes in the polymer matrix and to the reduced nanotube waviness resulting from the rigid backbone of the conjugated polymer. References: [1]. R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov and W. A. de Heer, Science v297, p787 (2002); [2]. J. Chen, H. Liu, W. A. Weimer, M. D. Halls, D. H. Waldeck and G. C. Walker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. v124, p9034 (2002).

  19. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  1. Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printing technologies offer large-area, high-throughput production capabilities for electronics and sensors on mechanically flexible substrates that can conformally cover different surfaces. These capabilities enable a wide range of new applications such as low-cost disposable electronics for health monitoring and wearables, extremely large format electronic displays, interactive wallpapers, and sensing arrays. Solution-processed carbon nanotubes have been shown to be a promising candidate for such printing processes, offering stable devices with high performance. Here, recent progress made in printed carbon nanotube electronics is discussed in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications. Research challenges and opportunities moving forward from processing and system-level integration points of view are also discussed for enabling practical applications.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes for Space Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiadis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Landi, Brian J.; Denno, Patrick L.; DiLeo, Roberta A.; VanDerveer, William; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be envisioned as an individual graphene sheet rolled into a seamless cylinder (single-walled, SWNT), or concentric sheets as in the case of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) (1). The role-up vector will determine the hexagonal arrangement and "chirality" of the graphene sheet, which will establish the nanotube to be metallic or semiconducting. The optoelectronic properties will depend directly on this chiral angle and the diameter of the SWNT, with semiconductor types exhibiting a band gap energy (2). Characteristic of MWNTs are the concentric graphene layers spaced 0.34 nm apart, with diameters from 10-200 nm and lengths up to hundreds of microns (2). In the case of SWNTs, the diameters range from 0.4 - 2 nm and lengths have been reported up to 1.5 cm (3). SWNTs have the distinguishable property of "bundling" together due to van der Waal's attractions to form "ropes." A comparison of these different structural types is shown in Figure 1. The use of SWNTS in space photovoltaic (PV) applications is attractive for a variety of reasons. Carbon nanotubes as a class of materials exhibit unprecedented optical, electrical, mechanical properties, with the added benefit of being nanoscale in size which fosters ideal interaction in nanomaterial-based devices like polymeric solar cells. The optical bandgap of semiconducting SWNTs can be varied from approx. 0.4 - 1.5 eV, with this property being inversely proportional to the nanotube diameter. Recent work at GE Global Research has shown where a single nanotube device can behave as an "ideal" pn diode (5). The SWNT was bridged over a SiO2 channel between Mo contacts and exhibited an ideality factor of 1, based on a fit of the current-voltage data using the diode equation. The measured PV efficiency under a 0.8 eV monochromatic illumination showed a power conversion efficiency of 0.2 %. However, the projected efficiency of these junctions is estimated to be > 5 %, especially when one considers the

  3. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, S; Al-Marzouki, F.; Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi; Abdel-Daiem, A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc....

  4. Controlling carbon nanotube photoluminescence using silicon microring resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Noury, Adrien; Roux, Xavier Le; Vivien, Laurent; Izard, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report on coupling between semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (s-SWNT) photoluminescence and silicon microring resonators. Polyfluorene extracted s-SWNT deposited on such resonators exhibit sharp emission peaks, due to interaction with the cavity modes of the microring resonators. Ring resonators with radius of 5 {\\mu}m and 10 {\\mu}m were used, reaching quality factors up to 4000 in emission. These are among the highest values reported for carbon nanotubes coupled with an integrat...

  5. Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsuk Mukhopadhyay

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists world wide. The small dimensions,strength, and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review, the structural aspects, the advantages and disadvantages of different for their procedures synthesis, the qualitative and quantitative estimation of carbon nanotubes by different analytical techniques, the present status on their applications as well as the current challenges faced in the application field, national, in particular DRDO, DMSRDE status, and interest in this field, have been discussed.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4, pp.437-450, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1666

  6. Ballistic Fracturing of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Sehmus; Machado, Leonardo D; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Autreto, Pedro A S; Vajtai, Robert; Barrera, Enrique V; Galvao, Douglas S; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-09-21

    Advanced materials with multifunctional capabilities and high resistance to hypervelocity impact are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their lightweight and high strength properties are alternative to metals and/or metallic alloys conventionally used in aerospace applications. Here we report a detailed study on the ballistic fracturing of CNTs for different velocity ranges. Our results show that the highly energetic impacts cause bond breakage and carbon atom rehybridizations, and sometimes extensive structural reconstructions were also observed. Experimental observations show the formation of nanoribbons, nanodiamonds, and covalently interconnected nanostructures, depending on impact conditions. Fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out in order to gain further insights into the mechanism behind the transformation of CNTs. The simulations show that the velocity and relative orientation of the multiple colliding nanotubes are critical to determine the impact outcome.

  7. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  8. Comparison of the interactions of daunorubicin in a free form and attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes with model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszewska, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    In this work the interactions of an anticancer drug daunorubicin (DNR) with model thiolipid layers composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphothioethanol (DPPTE) were investigated using Langmuir technique. The results obtained for a free drug were compared with the results recorded for DNR attached to SWCNTs as potential drug carrier. Langmuir studies of mixed DPPTE-SWCNTs-DNR monolayers showed that even at the highest investigated content of the nanotubes in the monolayer, the changes in the properties of DPPTE model membranes were not as significant as in case of the incorporation of a free drug, which resulted in a significant increase in the area per molecule and fluidization of the thiolipid layer. The presence of SWCNTs-DNR in the DPPTE monolayer at the air-water interface did not change the organization of the lipid molecules to such extent as the free drug, which may be explained by different types of interactions playing crucial role in these two types of systems. In the case of the interactions of free DNR the electrostatic attraction between positively charged drug and negatively charged DPPTE monolayer play the most important role, while in the case of SWCNTs-DNR adducts the hydrophobic interactions between nanotubes and acyl chains of the lipid seem to be prevailing. Electrochemical studies performed for supported model membranes containing the drug delivered in the two investigated forms revealed that the surface concentration of the drug-nanotube adduct in supported monolayers is comparable to the reported surface concentration of the free DNR incorporated into DPPTE monolayers on gold electrodes. Therefore, it may be concluded that the application of carbon nanotubes as potential DNR carrier allows for the incorporation of comparable amount of the drug into model membranes with simultaneous decrease in the negative changes in the membrane structure and organization, which is an important aspect in terms of side effects of the drug. PMID

  9. Photoresponse from noble metal nanoparticles-multi walled carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarselli, M.; Camilli, L.; Castrucci, P.; De Crescenzi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Matthes, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Institut fuer Festkoepertheorie und optik, Friedrich Schiller Universitaet, Max-Wien Platz 1, Jena (Germany); Pulci, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); ETSF, MIFO, and CNR-ISM, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, Roma (Italy); Gatto, E.; Venanzi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-12-10

    In this Letter, we investigated the photo-response of multi wall carbon nanotube-based composites obtained from in situ thermal evaporation of noble metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) on the nanotube films. The metal deposition process produced discrete nanoparticles on the nanotube outer walls. The nanoparticle-carbon nanotube films were characterized by photo-electrochemical measurements in a standard three electrode cell. The photocurrent from the decorated carbon nanotubes remarkably increased with respect to that of bare multiwall tubes. With the aid of first-principle calculations, these results are discussed in terms of metal nanoparticle-nanotube interactions and electronic charge transfer at the interface.

  10. Photoluminescence Study of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, H. X.; Li, G. H.; Ge, W. K.; Wang, Z. P.; Xu, Z. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Chang, B H; Sun, L. F.; Wang, B S; G. Xu; Su, Z.B.

    2000-01-01

    ultiwalled carbon nanotubes, prepared by both electric arc discharge and chemical vapor deposition methods, show a strong visible light emission in photoluminescence experiments. All the samples employed in the experiments exhibit nearly same super-linear intensity dependence of the emission bands on the excitation intensity, and negligible temperature dependence of the central position and the line shapes of the emission bands. Based upon theoretical analysis of the electronic band structure...

  11. Photonics based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Qingyuan; Gicquel-Guézo, Maud; Loualiche, Slimane; Pouliquen, Julie Le; Batte, Thomas; Folliot, Hervé; Dehaese, Olivier; Grillot, Frederic; Battie, Yann; Loiseau, Annick; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Among direct-bandgap semiconducting nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit strong quasi-one-dimensional excitonic optical properties, which confer them a great potential for their integration in future photonics devices as an alternative solution to conventional inorganic semiconductors. In this paper, we will highlight SWCNT optical properties for passive as well as active applications in future optical networking. For passive applications, we directly compare the effi...

  12. OPPORTUNITIES OF BIOMEDICAL USE OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Mitrofanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials  –  materials,  whouse  structure  elements  has  proportions  doesn’t  exceed  100  nm.  In superdispersed state matter acquire new properties. In the last decade, carbon nanotubes become the most popular nanomaterials, that cause attention of representatives of various scientific field. The сarbon nanotubes offer new opportunities for biological and medical applications: imaging at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels, biosensors and electrodes based on carbon nanotubes, target delivery of various substances, radiation and photothermal therapy. The most promising of carbon nanotubes in the context of biomedical applications is their ability to penetrate the various tissues of the body and carry large doses of agents, providing diagnostic and therapeutic effects. Functionalized nanotubes are biodegradable. Other current direction of using carbon nanotubes in medicine and biology is to visualize objects on the molecular, cellular and tissue level. Associated with carbon nanotubes contrasting substances improve the visualization of cells and tissues, which can detected new patterns of development of the pathological process. Due to the vagueness of the question of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes possibility of their practical application is hampered. Before the introduction of carbon nanotubes into practical health care is necessary to provide all the possible consequences of using nanotubes. High rates of properties and development of new nanostructures based on carbon nanotubes in the near future will lead to new advances related to the application and development of new parameters that will determine their properties and effects. In these review attention is paid to the structure, physico-chemical properties of nanotubes, their functionalization, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and all aspects of using of carbon nanotubes.

  13. Improved Composites Using Crosslinked, Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotube Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional tensile strength and stiffness; however, these properties have not translated well to the macroscopic scale. Premature failure of bulk CNT materials under tensile loading occurs due to the relatively weak frictional forces between adjacent CNTs, leading to poor load transfer through the material. When used in polymer matrix composites (PMCs), the weak nanotube-matrix interaction leads to the CNTs providing less than optimal reinforcement.Our group is examining the use of covalent crosslinking and surface modification as a means to improve the tensile properties of PMCs containing carbon nanotubes. Sheet material comprised of unaligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was used as a drop-in replacement for carbon fiber in the composites. A variety of post-processing methods have been examined for covalently crosslinking the CNTs to overcome the weak inter-nanotube shear interactions, resulting in improved tensile strength and modulus for the bulk sheet material. Residual functional groups from the crosslinking chemistry may have the added benefit of improving the nanotube-matrix interaction. Composites prepared using these crosslinked, surface-modified nanotube sheet materials exhibit superior tensile properties to composites using the as received CNT sheet material.

  14. LDRD final report on carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, P.A.; Rand, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes and their composites were examined using computational and experimental techniques in order to modify the mechanical and electrical properties of resins. Single walled nanotubes were the focus of the first year effort; however, sufficient quantities of high purity single walled nanotubes could not be obtained for mechanical property investigations. The unusually high electrical conductivity of composites loaded with <1% of multiwalled nanotubes is useful, and is the focus of continuing, externally funded, research.

  15. Engineering carbon nanotubes and nanotube circuits using electrical breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P G; Arnold, M S; Avouris, P

    2001-04-27

    Carbon nanotubes display either metallic or semiconducting properties. Both large, multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), with many concentric carbon shells, and bundles or "ropes" of aligned single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), are complex composite conductors that incorporate many weakly coupled nanotubes that each have a different electronic structure. Here we demonstrate a simple and reliable method for selectively removing single carbon shells from MWNTs and SWNT ropes to tailor the properties of these composite nanotubes. We can remove shells of MWNTs stepwise and individually characterize the different shells. By choosing among the shells, we can convert a MWNT into either a metallic or a semiconducting conductor, as well as directly address the issue of multiple-shell transport. With SWNT ropes, similar selectivity allows us to generate entire arrays of nanoscale field-effect transistors based solely on the fraction of semiconducting SWNTs.

  16. Some Observations on Carbon Nanotubes Susceptibility to Cell Phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Fraczek-Szczypta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs on cell phagocytosis. Three kinds of carbon nanotubes: single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, and ultra-long single-walled carbon nanotubes (ULSWCNTs before and after additional chemical functionalization were seeded with macrophage cell culture. Prior to biological testing, the CNTs were subjected to dispersion process with the use of phosphate buffered solution (PBS and PBS containing surfactant (Tween 20 or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The results indicate that the cells interaction with an individual nanotube is entirely different as compared to CNTs in the form of aggregate. The presence of the surfactant favors the CNTs dispersion in culture media and facilitates phagocytosis process, while it has disadvantageous influence on cells morphology. The cells phagocytosis is a more effective for MWCNTs and SWCNHs after their chemical functionalization. Moreover, these nanotubes were well dispersed in culture media without using DMSO or surfactant. The functionalized carbon nanotubes were easily dispersed in pure PBS and seeded with cells.

  17. Effect of temperature on deformation of carbon nanotube under compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 倪向贵; 王秀喜; 吴恒安

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of carbon nanotubes is one of the basic research fields on the nanotube composites and nano machinery.Molecular dynamics is an effective way for investigating the behaviour of nano structure.The compression deformation of carbon nanotubes(CNTs)under different temperature is simulated,by using the Tersoff-Brenner potential to describe the interactions in CNTs.The results show that thermal fluctuations may induce the strained CNT to overcome the local energy barrier and develop the plastic deformation.

  18. The interaction of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT with phospholipids membrane: in point view of solvent effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Elsagh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we have studied the structural properties of phospholipids, surrounding single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT, by using ab-inition and molecular dynamics simulation. Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs are very common in medical research and are being highly studied in the fields of biosensing methods for disease treatment and efficient drug delivery and health monitoring. The transportation of SWCNT through the cell membrane widely investigated because of many advantages. Because of the differences among force fields, the energy of a molecule calculated using two different force fields will not be the same. In this study difference in force field illustrated by comparing the energy of calculated by using force fields, MM+, Amber and OPLS. The quantum Mechanics (QM calculations were carried out with the GAUSSIAN 09 program based on density functional theory (DFT at B1LYP/6-31G* level. In our recent study the electronic structure of open-end of SWCNT and transportation of SWCNT through the phospholipids in skin cell membrane have been discussed for both vacuum and solvent media.

  19. Electrochemical behavior of antioxidants: Part 3. Electrochemical studies of caffeic Acid–DNA interaction and DNA/carbon nanotube biosensor for DNA damage and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Abdel-Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode biosensor was used for electrochemical studies of caffeic acid–dsDNA interaction in phosphate buffer solution at pH 2.12. Caffeic acid, CAF, shows a well-defined cyclic voltammetric wave. Its anodic peak current decreases and the peak potential shifts positively on the addition of dsDNA. This behavior was ascribed to an interaction of CAF with dsDNA giving CAF–dsDNA complex by intercalative binding mode. The apparent binding constant of CAF–dsDNA complex was determined using amperometric titrations. The oxidative damage caused to DNA was detected using the biosensor. The damage caused by the reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radical (·−OH generated by the Fenton system on the DNA-biosensor was detected. It was found that CAF has the capability of scavenging the hydroxide radical and protecting the DNA immobilized on the GCE surface.

  20. Dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotube devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria

    The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane....... The electrical resistance of carbon nanotubes has been shown to be extremely sensitive to gas molecules. Dielectrophoresis is a method capable of quickly attracting nanotubes on microelectrodes by using an electric field, thus enabling nanotube integration in microsystems. Dielectrophoresis offers also...... the potential of distinguishing between nanotubes of different electrical properties, which is very important for the optimisation of the properties of the carbon nanotube sensors. Various cantilever and planar structures were designed, fabricated and tested both with multi-walled and single-walled carbon...

  1. Interaction between carbon nanotubes and mammalian cells: characterization by flow cytometry and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Dong; Blair, Derek; Dufort, Fay J; Gumina, Maria R; Chiles, Thomas C [Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Huang Zhongping; Canahan, D [NanoLab, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Hong, George [Bioprocess Division, Millipore Corporation, 80 Ashby Road, Bedford, MA 01730 (United States); Wagner, Dean [Naval Health Research Center, Detachment Environmental Health Effects Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Kempa, K; Ren, Z F [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)], E-mail: caid@bc.edu

    2008-08-27

    We show herein that CNT-cell complexes are formed in the presence of a magnetic field. The complexes were analyzed by flow cytometry as a quantitative method for monitoring the physical interactions between CNTs and cells. We observed an increase in side scattering signals, where the amplitude was proportional to the amount of CNTs that are associated with cells. Even after the formation of CNT-cell complexes, cell viability was not significantly decreased. The association between CNTs and cells was strong enough to be used for manipulating the complexes and thereby conducting cell separation with magnetic force. In addition, the CNT-cell complexes were also utilized to facilitate electroporation. We observed a time constant from CNT-cell complexes but not from cells alone, indicating a high level of pore formation in cell membranes. Experimentally, we achieved the expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein by using a low electroporation voltage after the formation of CNT-cell complexes. These results suggest that higher transfection efficiency, lower electroporation voltage, and miniaturized setup dimension of electroporation may be accomplished through the CNT strategy outlined herein.

  2. Review on the symmetry-related properties of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we review the basic properties of carbon nanotubes from the standpoint of group theory. The zone folding scheme is reviewed in the light of the helical symmetry of the nanotube. The group theory for chiral and achiral nanotubes is reviewed, and the representations of the factor group of the wavevector k are obtained. The similarities and differences between the formalism of the group of the wavevector and that of line groups are addressed with respect to the irreducible representations and quantum numbers associated with linear and angular momenta. Finally, we extend the results of group theory to illuminate the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes. Selection rules for the optical absorption and double resonance Raman scattering are discussed for the case where the electron-electron interaction is negligible (metallic nanotubes) and for the case where exciton binding energies are strong and cannot be neglected

  3. Study of the biosensor based on platinum nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes and sugar-lectin biospecific interactions for the determination of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenjuan [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.c [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chai Yaqin; Zhong Huaan; Wang Yan [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: This work described the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. The Pt{sub nano}-CNTs were used to construct biosensor for the determination of glucose. GOD can be assembled into multilayer thin films via sugar-lectin affinity. The protocol can avoid the chemical denaturation of the enzyme. It improve the stability and sensitivity of the enzyme biosensor. - Abstract: Highly sensitive electrochemical platform based on Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (Pt{sub nano}-CNTs) and sugar-lectin biospecific interactions is developed for the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD). Firstly, Pt{sub nano}-CNTs nanocomposites were prepared in the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and then the mixture was cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using chitosan as a binder. Thereafter, concanavalin A (Con A) was adsorbed onto the precursor film by the electrostatic force between positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged Con A. Finally, the multilayers of Con A/GOD films were prepared based on biospecific affinity of Con A and GOD via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. The electrochemical behavior of the sensor was studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrochemical parameters of GOD in the film were calculated with the results of the electron transfer coefficient ({alpha}) and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) as 0.5 and 5.093 s{sup -1}, respectively. Experimental results show that the biosensor responded linearly to glucose in the range from 1.2 x 10{sup -6} to 2.0 x 10{sup -3} M, with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10{sup -7} M under optimized conditions.

  4. Segmentation and additive approach: A reliable technique to study noncovalent interactions of large molecules at the surface of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ana M; Scheiner, Steve; Roy, Ajit K; Garay-Tapia, Andrés M; Bustamante, John; Kar, Tapas

    2016-08-01

    This investigation explores a new protocol, named Segmentation and Additive approach (SAA), to study exohedral noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with large molecules, such as polymers and biomolecules, by segmenting the entire system into smaller units to reduce computational cost. A key criterion of the segmentation process is the preservation of the molecular structure responsible for stabilization of the entire system in smaller segments. Noncovalent interaction of linoleic acid (LA, C18 H32 O2 ), a fatty acid, at the surface of a (10,0) zigzag nanotube is considered for test purposes. Three smaller segmented models have been created from the full (10,0)-LA system and interaction energies were calculated for these models and compared with the full system at different levels of theory, namely ωB97XD, LDA. The success of this SAA is confirmed as the sum of the interaction energies is in very good agreement with the total interaction energy. Besides reducing computational cost, another merit of SAA is an estimation of the contributions from different sections of the large system to the total interaction energy which can be studied in-depth using a higher level of theory to estimate several properties of each segment. On the negative side, bulk properties, such as HOMO-LUMO (highest occupied molecular orbital - lowest occupied molecular orbital) gap, of the entire system cannot be estimated by adding results from segment models. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241227

  5. A possible formation mechanism of double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dianrong; Luo, Chenglin; Dai, Yafei; Zhu, Xingfeng

    2016-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations based on an empirical potential were performed to study the interaction of graphene nanoribbons and the single-walled carbon nanotubes. The results indicated that a piece of graphene nanoribbon can form a tube structure inside or outside single-walled carbon nanotubes spontaneously under certain condition. Based on this kind of spontaneous phenomenon, we proposed a new possible formation mechanism of double walled carbon nanotube and multi-walled carbon nanotube, and suggested the possibility of controlling the structure of double-walled carbon nanotube and/or multi-walled carbon nanotube.

  6. A Tunable Carbon Nanotube Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Vera

    2005-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) hold promise for a number of scientific and technological applications. Carbon nanotubes (NT) are perhaps the ultimate material for realizing a NEMS device as they are the stiffest material known, have low density, ultrasmall cross sections and can be defect-free. Equally important, a nanotube can act as a transistor and thus is able to sense its own motion. Here, we report the electrical actuation and detection of the guitar-string oscillation modes of doubly-clamped NT oscillators. We observed resonance frequencies in the 5MHz to 150MHz range with quality factors in the 50 to 100 range. We showed that the resonance frequencies can be widely tuned by a gate voltage. We also report on the temperature dependence of the quality factor and present a discussion of possible loss mechanisms.

  7. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  8. Functional Materials based on Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Adrian Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, no matter if they are single-walled or multi-walled, are an integral component in the vastly growing field of nanotechnology. Since their discovery by TEM and the invention of numerous large-scale production techniques, nanotubes are close to making their way into industrial products. Although many properties and modification processes are still under intensive research, the first real-market applications for carbon nanotubes have already been presented. However, if function...

  9. Funcionalização de nanotubos de Carbono Functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Gomes de Souza Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are very stable systems having considerable chemical inertness due to the strong covalent bonds of the carbon atoms on the nanotube surface. Many applications of carbon nanotubes require their chemical modification in order to tune/control their physico-chemical properties. One way of achieving this control is carrying out functionalization processes where atoms and molecules interact (covalent or non-covalent with the nanotubes. We review some of the progress that has been made in chemical functionalization of carbon nanotubes. Emphasis is given to chemical strategies, the most used techniques, and applications.

  10. Micromechanics of carbon nanotube turfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Hamid

    Complex structures consisting of intertwined, nominally vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are called turfs. Unique electrical, thermal, optical, and permeability properties of these turfs have attracted growing attention during the past decade, and have rendered them as appropriate candidates for applications such as contact thermal switches. These properties are controlled by the details of the turf microstructures. Due to the application of the turfs in different fields, they are subjected to different loading conditions. Deformation changes the microstructure of a CNT turf, which results in change of effective properties. Many researchers have recently studied the collective mechanical behavior of CNT turfs to compression loading, as this behavior determines their performance. However, their complex and intertwined structure must be investigated in more details to find the relation between their deformation and their underlying morphology. Under uniform compression experiments, CNT turfs exhibit irreversible collective buckling of a layer preceded by reorientation of CNT segments. Experimentally observed independence of the buckling stress and the buckling wavelength on the turf width suggests the existence of an intrinsic material length. To investigate the relationship the macroscopic material properties and the statistical parameters describing the nano-scale geometry of the turf (tortuosity, density and connectivity) we develop a nano-scale computational model, based on the representation of CNT segments as elastica finite elements with van der Waals interactions. The virtual turfs are generated by means of a constrained random walk algorithm and subsequent relaxation. The resulting computational model is robust and is capable of modeling the collective behavior of CNTs. We first establish the dependence of statistical parameters on the computational parameters used for turf generation, then establish relationships between post-buckling stress, initial

  11. Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chenyu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2002-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Brenner potential for intra-nanotube interactions and Van der Waals forces for polymer-nanotube interfaces are used to invetigate the thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics of carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites. Additions of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrix are found to increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients in the composite above Tg. These findings could have implic...

  12. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    CERN Document Server

    Karachevtsev, V A; Zarudnev, E S; Karachevtsev, M V; Leontiev, V S; Linnik, A S; Lytvyn, O S; Plokhotnichenko, A M; Stepanian, S G

    2012-01-01

    When elaborating the biosensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), it is necessary to solve such an important problem as the immobilization of a target biomolecule on the nanotube surface. In this work, the enzyme (glucose oxidase (GOX)) was immobilized on the surface of a nanotube network, which was created by the deposition of nanotubes from their solution in 1,2-dichlorobenzene by the spray method. 1-Pyrenebutanoic acid succinimide ester (PSE) was used to form the molecular interface, the bifunctional molecule of which provides the covalent binding with the enzyme shell, and its other part (pyrene) is adsorbed onto the nanotube surface. First, the usage of such a molecular interface leaves out the direct adsorption of the enzyme (in this case, its activity decreases) onto the nanotube surface, and, second, it ensures the enzyme localization near the nanotube. The comparison of the resonance Raman (RR) spectrum of pristine nanotubes with their spectrum in the PSE environment evidences the creat...

  13. Control of multiple excited image states around segmented carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knörzer, J., E-mail: johannes.knoerzer@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Fey, C., E-mail: christian.fey@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg 22761 (Germany); Sadeghpour, H. R. [ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg 22761 (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg 22761 (Germany)

    2015-11-28

    Electronic image states around segmented carbon nanotubes can be confined and shaped along the nanotube axis by engineering the image potential. We show how several such image states can be prepared simultaneously along the same nanotube. The inter-electronic distance can be controlled a priori by engineering tubes of specific geometries. High sensitivity to external electric and magnetic fields can be exploited to manipulate these states and their mutual long-range interactions. These building blocks provide access to a new kind of tailored interacting quantum systems.

  14. Control of multiple excited Rydberg states around segmented carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelcher, Peter; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Knoerzer, Johannes; Fey, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Electronic image Rydberg states around segmented carbon nanotubes can be confined and shaped along the nanotube axis by engineering the image potential. We show how several such image states can be prepared simultaneously along the same nanotube. The inter-electronic distance can be controlled a priori by engineering tubes of specific geometries. High sensitivity to external electric and magnetic fields can be exploited to manipulate these states and their mutual long-range interactions. These building blocks provide access to a new kind of tailored long-range interacting quantum systems.

  15. Suspended carbon nanotubes coupled to superconducting circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are unique candidates to study quantum mechanical properties of a nanomechanical resonator. However to access this quantum regime, present detectors are not yet sensitive enough. In this thesis we couple a carbon nanotube CNT mechanical resonator to a superconducting circuit which i

  16. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  17. Theoretical study of interaction between Tacrine and finite-length Al-doped Carbon and Boron nitride Nanotubes: A Semiempirical drug delivery study in thermodynamic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Zeighami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend our previous theoretical calculations that dealt with the thermochemistry of doping the single walled boron nitride nano tubes, BNNTs, and carbon nanotubes ,CNTs, with alminium atoms [1], we have used the AM 1, PM 3, and PM 6 semiempirical methods to investigate the interaction of the tacrine molecule (a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with the side-walls of aluminum doped boron nitride and carbon nano tubes in thermodynamic views.At first, the frequency calculations were carried out to confirm the stability of the involved structures. In addition, the theoretical thermodynamic study of tacrine adsorption onto the considered nanotubes was performed and the thermodynamic functions such as enthalpy changes, entropy changes and Gibbs free energy changes of the adsorption process were evaluated at different temperatures. Our results suggest the aluminum doped boron nitride nano tubes and alminium doped carbon nano tubes may be considered as the proper carries for the drug delivery of tacrine.

  18. Light Emission in Silicon from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaufrès, Etienne; Noury, Adrien; Roux, Xavier Le; Rasigade, Gilles; Beck, Alexandre; Vivien, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The use of optics in microelectronic circuits to overcome the limitation of metallic interconnects is more and more considered as a viable solution. Among future silicon compatible materials, carbon nanotubes are promising candidates thanks to their ability to emit, modulate and detect light in the wavelength range of silicon transparency. We report the first integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon waveguides, successfully coupling their emission and absorption properties. A complete study of this coupling between carbon nanotubes and silicon waveguides was carried out, which led to the demonstration of the temperature-independent emission from carbon nanotubes in silicon at a wavelength of 1.3 {\\mu}m. This represents the first milestone in the development of photonics based on carbon nanotubes on silicon.

  19. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2.xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2.xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75%. In addition, supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  20. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁志; 魏秉庆; 徐才录; 梁吉; 吴德海

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2 ·xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2· xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75% . In addition , supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  1. Computational Aspects of Carbon and Boron Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hexagonal nanotubes, boron triangular nanotubes and boron a-nanotubes are a few popular nano structures. Computational researchers look at these structures as graphs where each atom is a node and an atomic bond is an edge. While researchers are discussing the differences among the three nanotubes, we identify the topological and structural similarities among them. We show that the three nanotubes have the same maximum independent set and their matching ratios are independent of the number of columns. In addition, we illustrate that they also have similar underlying broadcasting spanning tree and identical communication behavior.

  2. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms...... an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From...... the calculated energies we determine the elastic properties of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (Young modulus, curvature constant) and perform a comparison with available experimental measurements and earlier theoretical predictions....

  3. Growing carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Ando

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of ‘fullerenes’ added a new dimension to the knowledge of carbon science1; and the subsequent discovery of ‘carbon nanotubes’ (CNTs, the elongated fullerene added a new dimension to the knowledge of technology2;. Today, ‘nanotechnology’ is a hot topic attracting scientists, industrialists, journalists, governments, and even the general public. Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on the nanometer scale and the exploitation of novel phenomena and properties of matter (physical, chemical, biological, electrical, etc. at that length scale. CNTs are supposed to be a key component of nanotechnology. Almost every week a new potential application of CNTs is identified, stimulating scientists to peep into this tiny tube with ever increasing curiosity.

  4. Improved synthesis of carbon nanotubes with junctions and of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F L Deepak; A Govindaraj; C N R Rao

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of thiophene over nickel nanoparticles dispersed on silica is shown to yield Yjunction carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters than those obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallicthiophene mixtures. In the presence of water vapour, the pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures yields single-walled nanotubes, as well as relatively narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes with Y-junctions. Pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures, in the absence of water vapour, only gives nanotubes with T- and Y-junctions.

  5. Carbon nanotube growth density control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for combined coarse scale control and fine scale control of growth density of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a substrate, using a selected electrical field adjacent to a substrate surface for coarse scale density control (by one or more orders of magnitude) and a selected CNT growth temperature range for fine scale density control (by multiplicative factors of less than an order of magnitude) of CNT growth density. Two spaced apart regions on a substrate may have different CNT growth densities and/or may use different feed gases for CNT growth.

  6. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  7. Carbon nanotube and conducting polymer composites for supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang Peng; Shengwen Zhang; Daniel Jewell; George Z. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Composites of carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers can be prepared via chemical synthesis, electrochemical deposition on pre-formed carbon nanotube electrodes, or by electrochemical co-deposition. The composites combine the large pseudocapacitance of the conducting polymers with the fast charging/discharging double-layer capacitance and excellent mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubes. The electrochemically co-deposited composites are the most homogeneous and show an unusual interaction between thepolymer and nanotubes, giving rise to a strengthened electron delocalisation and conjugation along the polymer chains. As a result they exhibit excellent electrochemical charge storage properties and fast charge/discharge switching, making them promising electrode mate-rials for high power supercapacitors.

  8. GUIDED CIRCUMFERENTIAL WAVES IN DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A model of guided circumferential waves propagating in double-walled carbon nanotubes is built by the theory of wave propagation in continuum mechanics, while the van der Waals force between the inner and outer nanotube has been taken into account in the model. The dispersion curves of the guided circumferential wave propagation are studied, and some dispersion characteristics are illustrated by comparing with those of single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is found that in double-walled carbon nanotubes, the guided circumferential waves will propagate in more dispersive ways. More interactions between neighboring wave modes may take place. In particular, it has been found that a couple of wave modes may disappear at a certain frequency and that, while a couple of wave modes disappear, another new couple of wave modes are excited at the same wave number.

  9. Dispersion and reinforcing mechanism of carbon nanotubes in epoxy nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smrutisikha Bal

    2010-02-01

    Carbon nanotube based epoxy composites have been fabricated at room temperature and refrigeration process using sonication principle. Flexural moduli, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature of epoxy resin as well as nanocomposite samples have been determined. Distribution behaviour of carbon nanotubes in the epoxy matrix was examined through scanning electron microscopy. Composite samples showed better properties than resin samples due to strengthening effect of the filled nanotubes. Refrigerated nanocomposites obtained increasing mechanical property because of better dispersion due to low temperature settlement of polymers. Improvement of electrical conductivity was due to the fact that aggregated phases form a conductive three-dimensional network throughout the whole sample. The increasing glass transition temperature was indicative of restricting movement of polymer chains that ascribe strong interaction presented between carbon nanotubes and epoxy chains that was again supplemented by Raman study and SEM.

  10. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.; Varadan, V. K.

    2014-10-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the composites is hence to determine the mechanical properties of the interfacial region, which is critical for improving and manufacturing the nanocomposites. In this work, a new method for evaluating the elastic properties of the interfacial region is developed by examining the fracture behavior of carbon nanotube reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix composites under tension using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotube reinforcements on the elastic properties, i.e. Young's modulus and yield strength, of the interfacial region and the nanotube/polymer composites are investigated. The feasibility of a three-phase micromechanical model in predicting the elastic properties of the nanocomposites is also developed based on the understanding of the interfacial region.

  11. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Superconductivity in single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Yavari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   By using Greens function method we first show that the effective interaction between two electrons mediated by plasmon exchange can become attractive which in turn can lead to superconductivity at a high critical temperature in a singl wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. The superconducting transition temperature Tc for the SWCNT (3,3 obtained by this mechanism agrees with the recent experimental result. We also show as the radius of SWCNT increases, plasmon frequency becomes lower and leads to lower Tc.

  13. Metallic Carbon Nanotubes and Ag Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-04

    The goal of this DOE solar energy research was to understand how visible light interacts with matter, and how to make electric excitations evolve into separated electrons and holes in photovoltaic cells, especially in nanoparticles and nanowires. Our specific experiments focused on A) understanding plasmon enhanced spectroscopy and charge-transfer (metal-to-molecule) photochemistry on the surface of metallic particles and B) the spectroscopy and photochemistry of carbon nanotubes and graphene. I also worked closely with R. Friesner on theoretical studies of photo-excited electrons near surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles; this process is relevant to the Gratzel photovoltaic cell.

  14. Nanoscale Etching and Indentation of Silicon Surfaces with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of nanolithography of silicon and germanium surfaces with bare carbon nanotube tips of scanning probe microscopy devices is considered with large scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Tersoff's reactive many-body potential for heteroatomic C/Si/Ge system. Lithography plays a key role in semiconductor manufacturing, and it is expected that future molecular and quantum electronic devices will be fabricated with nanolithographic and nanodeposition techniques. Carbon nanotubes, rolled up sheets of graphene made of carbon, are excellent candidates for use in nanolithography because they are extremely strong along axial direction and yet extremely elastic along radial direction. In the simulations, the interaction of a carbon nanotube tip with silicon surfaces is explored in two regimes. In the first scenario, the nanotubes barely touch the surface, while in the second they are pushed into the surface to make "nano holes". The first - gentle scenario mimics the nanotube-surface chemical reaction induced by the vertical mechanical manipulation of the nanotube. The second -digging - scenario intends to study the indentation profiles. The following results are reported in the two cases. In the first regime, depending on the surface impact site, two major outcomes outcomes are the selective removal of either a single surface atom or a surface dimer off the silicon surface. In the second regime, the indentation of a silicon substrate by the nanotube is observed. Upon the nanotube withdrawal, several surface silicon atoms are adsorbed at the tip of the nanotube causing significant rearrangements of atoms comprising the surface layer of the silicon substrate. The results are explained in terms of relative strength of C-C, C-Si, and Si-Si bonds. The proposed method is very robust and does not require applied voltage between the nanotube tips and the surface. The implications of the reported controllable etching and hole-creating for

  15. Surface Modification of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes with Cationic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: Fundamental Interactions and Intercalation into Conductive Poly(methyl-methacrylate) Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Ezzeddine, Alaa

    2015-05-22

    This research investigates the modification and dispersion and of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through a simple solution mixing technique based on noncovalent interactions between poly(phenylene ethynylene) based conjugated polyelectrolytes functionalized with cationic imidazolium solubilizing groups (PIM-2 and PIM-4) and MWCNTs. Spectroscopic studies demonstrated the ability of PIMs to strongly interact with and efficiently disperse MWCNTs in different solvents mainly due to π-interactions between the PIMs and MWCNTs. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed the coating of the polyelectrolytes on the walls of the nanotubes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies confirm the homogenous dispersion of PIM modified MWCNTs in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The addition of 1 wt% PIM modified MWCNTs to the matrix has led to a significant decrease in DC resistivity of the composite (13 orders of magnitude). The increase in electrical conductivity and the improvement in thermal and mechanical properties of the membranes containing the PIM modified MWCNTs is ascribed to the formation of MWCNTs networks and cross-linking sites that provided channels for the electrons to move in throughout the matrix and reinforced the interface between MWCNTs and PMMA.

  16. Grafting of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Chicken Feather Keratin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoxkin Estévez-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratin, obtained from chicken feathers, was grafted on the surface of commercially available carbon nanotubes. The original procedure developed allows a covalent interaction between some specific chemical groups characteristic of the keratin, with some functional groups introduced on purpose on the surface of the nanotubes, as revealed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies, which also allowed to determine structural changes introduced during the process, such as crystallinity, which lead to changes in other properties, as well.

  17. Water desalination using carbon-nanotube-enhanced membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethard, Ken; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced membrane distillation is presented for water desalination. It is demonstrated that the immobilization of the CNTs in the pores of a hydrophobic membrane favorably alters the water-membrane interactions to promote vapor permeability while preventing liquid penetration into the membrane pores. For a salt concentration of 34 000 mg L(-1) and at 80 °C, the nanotube incorporation led to 1.85 and 15 times increase in flux and salt reduction, respectively. PMID:21188976

  18. The interaction of carbon nanotubes with an in vitro blood-brain barrier model and mouse brain in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Kafa, Houmam; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Rubio, Noelia; Venner, Kerrie; Anderson, Glenn; Pach, Elzbieta; Ballesteros, Belén; Preston, Jane E.; Abbott, N. Joan; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a novel nanocarriers with interesting physical and chemical properties. Here we investigate the ability of amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-NH3(+)) to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) in vitro using a co-culture BBB model comprising primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBEC) and primary rat astrocytes, and in vivo following a systemic administration of radiolabelled f-MWNTs. Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that MWNTs...

  19. Strong and tunable mode coupling in carbon nanotube resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Gomez, A.; Meerwaldt, H.B.; Ventra, W.J.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between two mechanical resonances of the same freely suspended carbon nanotube resonator is studied. We find that, in the Coulomb-blockade regime, the nonlinear modal interaction is dominated by single-electron-tunneling processes and that the mode-coupling parameter can be

  20. Interaction of H2 with a Double-Walled Armchair Nanotube by First-Principles Calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Costanzo; B. Ensing; R. Scipioni; F. Ancilotto; P.L. Silvestrelli

    2014-01-01

    We have studied, by first-principles methods, the interaction of molecular hydrogen with a double-walled (2,10) carbon nanotube (DWCNT). This combination of the smallest possible diameter for the inner nanotube with a significantly larger outer tube allows for substantial space between the nanotube

  1. Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels;

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties...... of nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....

  2. Enhancing and redirecting carbon nanotube photoluminescence by an optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmler, Miriam; Hartmann, Nicolai; Georgi, Carsten; Hennrich, Frank; Green, Alexander A; Hersam, Mark C; Hartschuh, Achim

    2010-08-01

    We observe the angular radiation pattern of single carbon nanotubes' photoluminescence in the back focal plane of a microscope objective and show that the emitting nanotube can be described by a single in-plane point dipole. The near-field interaction between a nanotube and an optical antenna modifies the radiation pattern that is now dominated by the antenna characteristics. We quantify the antenna induced excitation and radiation enhancement and show that the radiative rate enhancement is connected to a directional redistribution of the emission. PMID:20721031

  3. Structure, electronic properties, and aggregation behavior of hydroxylated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Oyama, A. B.; Silva-Molina, R. A.; Ruíz-García, J.; Guirado-López, R. A., E-mail: guirado@ifisica.uaslp.mx [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Gámez-Corrales, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study to analyze the structure, electronic properties, and aggregation behavior of hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (OH–MWCNT). Our MWCNTs have average diameters of ∼2 nm, lengths of approximately 100–300 nm, and a hydroxyl surface coverage θ∼0.1. When deposited on the air/water interface the OH–MWCNTs are partially soluble and the floating units interact and link with each other forming extended foam-like carbon networks. Surface pressure-area isotherms of the nanotube films are performed using the Langmuir balance method at different equilibration times. The films are transferred into a mica substrate and atomic force microscopy images show that the foam like structure is preserved and reveals fine details of their microstructure. Density functional theory calculations performed on model hydroxylated carbon nanotubes show that low energy atomic configurations are found when the OH groups form molecular islands on the nanotube's surface. This patchy behavior for the OH species is expected to produce nanotubes having reduced wettabilities, in line with experimental observations. OH doping yields nanotubes having small HOMO–LUMO energy gaps and generates a nanotube → OH direction for the charge transfer leading to the existence of more hole carriers in the structures. Our synthesized OH–MWCNTs might have promising applications.

  4. A Review of Double-Walled and Triple-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kazunori Fujisawa; Hee Jou Kim; Su Hyeon Go; Hiroyuki Muramatsu; Takuya Hayashi; Morinobu Endo; Thomas Ch. Hirschmann; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Yoong Ahm Kim; Araujo, Paulo T.

    2016-01-01

    Double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs and TWNTs) consist of coaxially-nested two and three single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). They act as the geometrical bridge between SWNTs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), providing an ideal model for studying the coupling interactions between different shells in MWNTs. Within this context, this article comprehensively reviews various synthetic routes of DWNTs’ and TWNTs’ production, such as arc discharge, catalytic chemical vapor...

  5. A Theoretical Study of the Interactions of In+ and In+3 with a Stone-Wales Defect Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeon, T; Balasubramanian, K; Leszczynski, J

    2008-10-02

    Experimental techniques [1] have demonstrated the controllable, reversible and mass transport exchange of indium nanocrystals along surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In particular, at certain sites robust nucleation occurs suggesting preferred locations for controlled manipulation. We believe these site locations represent structural defects, like rehybridization, incomplete bonding and topological defects within the carbon network. Although minute, these defects can drastically modify the electrical, chemical and mechanical properties of CNTs. This study was devoted to understand the role of structural defects, specifically a Stone-Wales (SW) defect in the surface transport and interaction properties of the In{sup +1} and In{sup +3} for both the singlet and triplet state. The effects of CNT surface curvature on In+1 and In{sup +3} is also studied and compared to graphite. Geometries of complexes were optimized at the B3LYP level. The standard 6-31G(d) basis set was used for carbon and hydrogen atoms while an effective core potential (ECP) was used for indium. All calculations were performed using the Gaussian 03 suite of programs. The computed Mulliken charges and HOMOLUMO gap energies, interactions and interaction energy (corrected by the basis set superposition error) of the systems have been studied and will be discussed. Figure 1 represents the comparison of the molecular electrostatic potential maps for (a) In{sup +} and (b) In{sup +3} with a SW defect CNT.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmi Koo; Vesselin N. Shanov; Yeoheung Yun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT) array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The de...

  7. Ordered phases of cesium in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung; Song, Ki Oh; Choi, Won Young; Byun, Ki Ryang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Woo [Juseong College, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    We investigate the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes by using a structural optimization process applied to an atomistic simulation method. As the radius of the carbon nanotubes is increased, the structures are found in various phases from an atomic strand to multishell packs composed of coaxial cylindrical shells. Both helical structures and layered structures are found. The numbers of helical atom rows composed of coaxial tubes and the orthogonal vectors of the circular rolling of a triangular network can explain the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes.

  8. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  9. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  10. Microcapsule carbon nanotube devices for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulamarva, Arun; Raja, Pavan M. V.; Bhathena, Jasmine; Chen, Hongmei; Talapatra, Saikat; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Prakash, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a new class of nanomaterials that have immense potential in the field of biomedicine. Their ability to carry large quantities of therapeutic molecules makes them prime candidates for providing targeted delivery of therapeutics for use in various diseases. However, their utility is limited due to the problems faced during their delivery to target sites. This article for the first time describes the design of a novel microcapsule carbon nanotube targeted delivery device. This device has potential in the targeted delivery of carbon nanotubes in suitable membranes along with their cargo, safely and effectively to the target loci.

  11. Interactions of carbon nanotubes with aqueous/aquatic media containing organic/inorganic contaminants and selected organisms of aquatic ecosystems--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncel, Sławomir; Kyzioł-Komosińska, Joanna; Krzyżewska, Iwona; Czupioł, Justyna

    2015-10-01

    Due to their unique molecular architecture translating into numerous every-day applications, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will be ultimately an increasingly significant environmental contaminant. This work reviews qualitative/quantitative analyses of interactions of various types of CNTs and their chemically modified analogues with aqueous/aquatic media containing organic and inorganic contaminants and selected organisms of aquatic ecosystems. A special emphasis was placed on physicochemical interactions between CNTs as adsorbents of heavy metal cations and aromatic compounds (dyes) with its environmental consequences. The studies revealed CNTs as more powerful adsorbents of aromatic compounds (an order of magnitude higher adsorption capacity) than metal cations. Depending on the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and/or co-contaminants, CNTs may act as Trojan horse while passing through biological membranes (in the absence of NOM coordinating metal ions). Nanotubes, depending on flow conditions and their morphology/surface chemistry, may travel with natural waters or sediment with immobilized PAHs or metals and/or increase cyto- and ecotoxicity of PAHs/metal ions by their release via competitive complexation, or cause synergic ecotoxicity while adsorbing nutrients. Additionally, toxicity of CNTs against exemplary aquatic microorganisms was reviewed. It was found for Daphnia magna that longer exposures to CNTs led to higher ecotoxicity with a prolonged CNTs excretion. SWCNTs were more toxic than MWCNTs, while hydrophilization of CNTs via oxidation or anchoring thereto polar/positively charged polymer chains enhanced stability of nanotubes dispersion in aqueous media. On the other hand, bioavailability of functionalized CNTs was improved leading to more complex both mechanisms of uptake and cytotoxic effects. PMID:26022284

  12. The Adsorption Properties of Bacillus atrophaeus Spore on Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cortes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium study of Bacillus atrophaeus (B.a spores on functionalized Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs has been performed in order to characterize the adsorption properties of the spores/nanotubes complex. The carbon nanotubes here investigated were subjected to a two-step purification and functionalization treatment in order to introduce chemical groups on their basal planes. The inclusion of carboxyl functional groups on the nanotubes was corroborated by Raman and infrared spectroscopy. These carboxyl groups appear to enhance the nanotube-B.a. interaction by reacting with the proteinaceous pili appendages present on the spore surface. The adsorption data demonstrate that bacillus spores diffuse faster on functionalized carbon nanotubes than on as-received and purified nanomaterials. Transmission Electron Microscopy also shows that the chemically treated nanotubes resulted in a swollen nano-network which seems to further enhance the bacillus adsorption due to a more extensive spore-nanotube contact area.

  13. Defect-Free Carbon Nanotube Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmi, Nitzan; Kremen, Anna; Frenkel, Yiftach; Lapin, Zachary J; Machado, Leonardo D; Legoas, Sergio B; Bitton, Ora; Rechav, Katya; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Galvão, Douglas S; Jorio, Ado; Novotny, Lukas; Kalisky, Beena; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotubes are promising building blocks for various nanoelectronic components. A highly desirable geometry for such applications is a coil. However, coiled nanotube structures reported so far were inherently defective or had no free ends accessible for contacting. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous self-coiling of single-wall carbon nanotubes into defect-free coils of up to more than 70 turns with identical diameter and chirality, and free ends. We characterize the structure, formation mechanism, and electrical properties of these coils by different microscopies, molecular dynamics simulations, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical and magnetic measurements. The coils are highly conductive, as expected for defect-free carbon nanotubes, but adjacent nanotube segments in the coil are more highly coupled than in regular bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes, owing to their perfect crystal momentum matching, which enables tunneling between the turns. Although this behavior does not yet enable the performance of these nanotube coils as inductive devices, it does point a clear path for their realization. Hence, this study represents a major step toward the production of many different nanotube coil devices, including inductors, electromagnets, transformers, and dynamos. PMID:26708150

  14. Methods for preparation of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakov, Eduard G [D.I. Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-31

    The most important methods of synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes, a new form of material, are described. The prospects for increasing the scale of preparation processes and for more extensive application of nanotubes are evaluated. The bibliography includes 282 references.

  15. Carbon Nanotubes for Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Files, Brad; Yowell, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes offer the promise of a new class of revolutionary materials for space applications. The Carbon Nanotube Project at NASA Johnson Space Center has been actively researching this new technology by investigating nanotube production methods (arc, laser, and HiPCO) and gaining a comprehensive understanding of raw and purified material using a wide range of characterization techniques. After production and purification, single wall carbon nanotubes are processed into composites for the enhancement of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. This "cradle-to-grave" approach to nanotube composites has given our team unique insights into the impact of post-production processing and dispersion on the resulting material properties. We are applying our experience and lessons-learned to developing new approaches toward nanotube material characterization, structural composite fabrication, and are also making advances in developing thermal management materials and electrically conductive materials in various polymer-nanotube systems. Some initial work has also been conducted with the goal of using carbon nanotubes in the creation of new ceramic materials for high temperature applications in thermal protection systems. Human space flight applications such as advanced life support and fuel cell technologies are also being investigated. This discussion will focus on the variety of applications under investigation.

  16. The electrical conduction variation in stained carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Jye; Wei Fan, Jun; Lin, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes become stained from coupling with foreign molecules, especially from adsorbing gas molecules. The charge exchange, which is due to the orbital hybridization, occurred in the stained carbon nanotube induces electrical dipoles that consequently vary the electrical conduction of the nanotube. We propose a microscopic model to evaluate the electrical current variation produced by the induced electrical dipoles in a stained zigzag carbon nanotube. It is found that stronger orbital hybridization strengths and larger orbital energy differences between the carbon nanotube and the gas molecules help increasing the induced electrical dipole moment. Compared with the stain-free carbon nanotube, the induced electrical dipoles suppress the current in the nanotube. In the carbon nanotubes with induced dipoles the current increases as a result of increasing orbital energy dispersion via stronger hybridization couplings. In particular, at a fixed hybridization coupling, the current increases with the bond length for the donor-carbon nanotube but reversely for the acceptor-carbon nanotube.

  17. Reinforcement of Epoxies Using Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Sharma, Jitendra; Chatterjee, Tirtha

    2008-03-01

    The reinforcement of bisphenol-A and bisphenol-F epoxies using single walled carbon nanotubes has been approached experimentally by understanding the nature of interactions between the matrices and nanotubes. Unassisted dispersions of single walled carbon nanotubes in epoxies were studied by a combination of radiation scattering (elastic small angle scattering and inelastic scattering), DSC based glass transition determination, melt rheology and solid-state mechanical testing in order to understand and correlate changes in local and global dynamics to the tailoring of composite mechanical properties. Significant changes in the glass transition temperature of the matrix can successfully account for changes in the viscoelastic properties of the epoxy dispersions for concentrations below the percolation threshold, while above the percolation threshold the network superstructure formed by the nanotubes controls the viscoelastic properties.

  18. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs

  19. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  20. Quantum rainbow characterization of short chiral carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ćosić, M., E-mail: mcosic@vinca.rs [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Petrović, S.; Nešković, N. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we present a study of the quantum angular distributions of 1 MeV positrons channeled through the chiral (7, 3), (8, 5), (9, 7), (14, 4), (16, 5) and (17, 7) single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), having the same length of 200 nm and the corresponding nanotube radiuses of 0.35, 0.45, 0.55, 0.65, 0.75 and 0.85 nm, respectively. The continuum positron–nanotube interaction potential was obtained using the thermally averaged Molière’s positron–carbon interaction potential. A positron beam is treated as an ensemble of non-interacting quantum particles each represented by a Gaussian wave packet. Evolution of a channeled positron was obtained from the numerical solution of the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the comparison, the classical angular rainbows for cases under the consideration are investigated as well. They were obtained using the numerical solution of the corresponding Newton’s equations of positron motion in the transverse plane of carbon nanotube. We show that the quantum angular transmission patterns can be successfully used for the characterization of short chiral carbon nanotubes.

  1. Covalent enzyme immobilization onto carbon nanotubes using a membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Gales, Ovidiu; Nechifor, Gheorghe

    2011-05-01

    Composite porous polysulfone-carbon nanotubes membranes were prepared by dispersing carbon nanotubes into a polysulfone solution followed by the membrane formation by phase inversion-immersion precipitation technique. The carbon nanotubes with amino groups on surface were functionalized with different enzymes (carbonic anhydrase, invertase, diastase) using cyanuric chloride as linker between enzyme and carbon nanotube. The composite membrane was used as a membrane reactor for a better dispersion of carbon nanotubes and access to reaction centers. The membrane also facilitates the transport of enzymes to active carbon nanotubes centers for functionalization (amino groups). The functionalized carbon nanotubes are isolated by dissolving the membranes after the end of reaction. Carbon nanotubes with covalent immobilized enzymes are used for biosensors fabrications. The obtained membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and functionalized carbon nanotubes were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes as Resonators for RF Spectrum Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian; Noca, Flavio; Hoenk, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Electromechanical resonators of a proposed type would comprise single carbon nanotubes suspended between electrodes (see Figure 1). Depending on the nanotube length, diameter, and tension, these devices will resonate at frequencies in a range from megahertz through gigahertz. Like the carbon-nanotube resonators described in the preceding article, these devices will exhibit high quality factors (Q values), will be compatible with integration with electronic circuits, and, unlike similar devices made from silicone and silicone carbide, will have tunable resonant frequencies as high as several GHz. An efficient electromechanical transduction method for the carbon nanotube resonators is provided by the previously observed variation of carbon nanotube length with charge injection. It was found that injection of electrons or holes, respectively, lengthens or shortens carbon nanotubes, by amounts of the order of a percent at bias levels of a few volts. The charge-dependent length change also enables a simple and direct means of tuning the resonant frequency by varying the DC bias and hence the tension along the tube, much like tuning a guitar string. In its basic form, the invention is a tunable high-Q resonator based on a suspended carbon nanotube bridge with attached electrodes (see Figure 1). An applied DC bias controls the tension and thus the frequency of resonance. If one were to superimpose a radio-frequency (RF) bias on the DC bias, then the resulting rapid variation in tension or length would set the tube into vibration. If, on the other hand, the carbon nanotube were to be set into vibration by interaction between an incident RF electric field and electric charges in the nanotube, then the vibration would give rise to an RF signal output that is proportional to the RF amplitude at the resonance frequency. Because the transduction mechanism is extremely sensitive and the active volume is only a few nanometers in diameter, this device is not well suited for use as

  3. Microfabricated electroactive carbon nanotube actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Arti; Baughman, Ray H.; De Rossi, Danilo; Mazzoldi, Alberto; Tesconi, Mario; Tognetti, Alessandro; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2001-07-01

    A variety of microfabrication techniques have been developed at the University of Pisa. They are based either on pressure or piston actuated microsyringes or modified ink-jet printers. This work present the results of a study aimed at fabricating carbon nanotube (NT) actuators using micro-syringes. In order to prevent the nanotubes from aggregating into clumps, they were enclosed in a partially cross-linked polyvinylalcohol - polyallylamine matrix. After sonication the solution remained homogenously dispersed for about 40 minutes, which was sufficient time for deposition. Small strips of NT, about 5 mm across and 15 mm long were deposited. Following deposition, the films were baked at 80 degree(s)C and their thickness, impedance and mechanical resistance measured. The results indicate that 50 minutes of baking time is sufficient to give a constant resistivity of 1.12 x 10-2 (Omega) m per layer similar to a typical semiconductor, and each layer has a thickness of about 6 micrometers .

  4. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Composites: Strongest Engineering Material Ever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Nikolaev, Pavel; Proft, William; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of the carbon nanotube project at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to fabricate structural materials with a much higher strength-to-weight ratio than any engineered material today, Single-wall nanotubes present extraordinary mechanical properties along with new challenges for materials processing. Our project includes nanotube production, characterization, purification, and incorporation into applications studies. Now is the time to move from studying individual nanotubes to applications work. Current research at JSC focuses on structural polymeric materials to attempt to lower the weight of spacecraft necessary for interplanetary missions. These nanoscale fibers present unique new challenges to composites engineers. Preliminary studies show good nanotube dispersion and wetting by the epoxy materials. Results of tensile strength tests will also be reported. Other applications of nanotubes are also of interest for energy storage, gas storage, nanoelectronics, field emission, and biomedical uses.

  6. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L.; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J. Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Ulmert, Hans David S.; Brea, Elliott J.; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans.

  7. Carbon nanotubes – becoming clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Grobert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are now well into their teenage years. Early on, theoretical predictions and experimental data showed that CNTs possess chemical and mechanical properties that exceed those of many other materials. This has triggered intense research into CNTs. A variety of production methods for CNTs have been developed; chemical modification, functionalization, filling, and doping have been achieved; and manipulation, separation, and characterization of individual CNTs is now possible. Today, products containing CNTs range from tennis rackets and golf clubs to vehicle fenders, X-ray tubes, and Li ion batteries. Breakthroughs for CNT-based technologies are anticipated in the areas of nanoelectronics, biotechnology, and materials science. In this article, I review the current situation in CNT production and highlight the importance of clean CNT material for the success of future applications.

  8. Piezoresistive Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotube Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jian-wei; WANG Wan-lu; LIAO Ke-jun; WANG Yong-tian; LIU CHang-lin; Zeng Qing-gao

    2005-01-01

    Piezoresistive effect of carbon nanotube films was investigated by a three-point bending test.Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition.The experimental results showed that the carbon nanotubes have a striking piezoresistive effect.The relative resistance was changed from 0 to 10.5×10-2 and 3.25×10-2 for doped and undoped films respectively at room temperature when the microstrain under stress from 0 to 500. The gauge factors for doped and undoped carbon nanotube films under 500 microstrain were about 220 and 67 at room temperature, respectively, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃.The origin of the resistance changes in the films may be attributed to a strain-induced change in the band gap for the doped tubes and the defects for the undoped tubes.

  9. Self Assembled Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to develop single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) based ultracapacitors for energy storage devices (ESD) application, using...

  10. A Thermal Model for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Mayberry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied Joule heating in carbon nanotube based very large scale integration (VLSI interconnects and incorporated Joule heating influenced scattering in our previously developed current transport model. The theoretical model explains breakdown in carbon nanotube resistance which limits the current density. We have also studied scattering parameters of carbon nanotube (CNT interconnects and compared with the earlier work. For 1 µm length single-wall carbon nanotube, 3 dB frequency in S12 parameter reduces to ~120 GHz from 1 THz considering Joule heating. It has been found that bias voltage has little effect on scattering parameters, while length has very strong effect on scattering parameters.

  11. Carbon nanotube polymer composition and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen; Kerr, John B.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2011-06-14

    A thin film device and compound having an anode, a cathode, and at least one light emitting layer between the anode and cathode, the at least one light emitting layer having at least one carbon nanotube and a conductive polymer.

  12. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  13. Effect of electrostatic interaction on the methylene blue and methyl orange adsorption by the pristine and functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, D.; Bagheriyan, S.; Rajabi, M.; Moradi, O.; Peyghan, A. Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with cysteamine groups by several percentage of mass as adsorbents, then kinetics adsorption capacity was investigated for methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) as anionic and cationic dyes adsorbate molecules, respectively. The effect of temperature (from 283 to 303 K), contact time and initial concentration of the MB and MO dyes in a solution (10 to 40 ppm) was considered. The optimal contact time was found to be about 60 min. Some kinetics model such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich were tested. The adsorptions of MB dye on the pristine and functionalized MWCNT surfaces were found to be the intra-particle diffusion and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively and for adsorption of MO dye by the pristine and low functionalized MWCNTs and highly functionalized tubes, found to be the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic model, respectively, based on the chi-square statistic (X2) and also high correlation coefficient (R2) values.

  14. Strong π-π interaction of porphyrins on (6,5) carbon nanotubes with full surface coverage: Ab-initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana, Walter, E-mail: worellana@unab.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avenida República 220, 837-0134 Santiago (Chile)

    2014-07-14

    The stability, electronic, and optical properties of (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with free-base tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) molecules through π-stacking interactions are studied by ab-initio calculations. The stability and optical response of the CNT-TPP compounds for increasing CNT-surface coverage are investigated. Our results show that four TPP molecules forming a ring around the CNT is the most stable configuration, showing strong binding energies of about 2.5 eV/TPP. However, this binding energy can increase even more after additional molecules assemble side by side along the CNT, favoring the formation of a full single layer of TPP, as experimentally suggested. The strong π-π attractive forces induce molecular distortions that move the TPP higher-occupied molecular orbital levels inside the CNT bandgap, changing the optical response of the TPP molecules stacked on the CNT.

  15. Strong π-π interaction of porphyrins on (6,5) carbon nanotubes with full surface coverage: Ab-initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Walter

    2014-07-01

    The stability, electronic, and optical properties of (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with free-base tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) molecules through π-stacking interactions are studied by ab-initio calculations. The stability and optical response of the CNT-TPP compounds for increasing CNT-surface coverage are investigated. Our results show that four TPP molecules forming a ring around the CNT is the most stable configuration, showing strong binding energies of about 2.5 eV/TPP. However, this binding energy can increase even more after additional molecules assemble side by side along the CNT, favoring the formation of a full single layer of TPP, as experimentally suggested. The strong π-π attractive forces induce molecular distortions that move the TPP higher-occupied molecular orbital levels inside the CNT bandgap, changing the optical response of the TPP molecules stacked on the CNT.

  16. Interactions of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with the immune system of the skin and the possible implications related to cutaneous nanotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Castro Fernandes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the interaction of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with the constituents of the skin, especially the skin immune unit, is relevant to the determina-tion of toxicological endpoints. A systematic review was done focused on such aspects. Considerable part of the found references concentrated in cytotoxicity and skin per-meation. On a smaller scale, there are articles on immunomodulation and activation of immune cells and other elements. Few of the found studies deal specifically with cutaneous immune response, limiting the related knowledge. The findings suggest that nanomaterials studied may be involved in skin problems such irritant contact dermatitis, anaphylactoid reactions, urticaria, angioedema, and raised the need for performing additional studies to confirm the findings. The standardization of the description and testing of nanomaterials characteristics used in experiments can facilitate comparison of results.

  17. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  18. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  19. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  20. ALUMINUM FOIL REINFORCED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Alekseev; PREDTECHENSKIY M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In our research, the method of manufacturing an Al-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite by hot pressing and cold rolling was attempted. The addition of one percent of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by OCSiAl provides a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength of aluminum. The tensile strength of the obtained composite material is at the tensile strength level of medium-strength aluminum alloys.

  1. Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect-Transistors (FETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    This five page presentation is grouped into 11 numbered viewgraphs, most of which contain one or more diagrams. Some of the diagrams are accompanied by captions, including: 2) Nanotube FET by Delft, IBM; 3) Nanotube FET/Standard MOSFET; 5) Saturation with carrier-carrier; 7) Electronic properties of carbon nanotube; 8) Theoretical nanotube FET characteristics; 11) Summary: Delft and IBM nanotube FET analysis.

  2. Interaction of single-stranded DNA with curved carbon nanotube is much stronger than with flat graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliafar, Sara; Mittal, Jeetain; Vezenov, Dmitri; Jagota, Anand

    2014-09-17

    We used single molecule force spectroscopy to measure the force required to remove single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) homopolymers from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The peeling forces obtained from these experiments are bimodal in distribution. The cluster of low forces corresponds to peeling from the SAM surface, while the cluster of high forces corresponds to peeling from the SWCNTs. Using a simple equilibrium model of the single molecule peeling process, we calculated the free energy of binding per nucleotide. We found that the free energy of ssDNA binding to hydrophobic SAMs decreases as poly(A) > poly(G) ≈ poly(T) > poly(C) (16.9 ± 0.1; 9.7 ± 0.1; 9.5 ± 0.1; 8.7 ± 0.1 kBT, per nucleotide). The free energy of ssDNA binding to SWCNT adsorbed on this SAM also decreases in the same order poly(A) > poly(G) > poly(T) > poly(C), but its magnitude is significantly greater than that of DNA-SAM binding energy (38.1 ± 0.2; 33.9 ± 0.1; 23.3 ± 0.1; 17.1 ± 0.1 kBT, per nucleotide). An unexpected finding is that binding strength of ssDNA to the curved SWCNTs is much greater than to flat graphite, which also has a different ranking (poly(T) > poly(A) > poly(G) ≥ poly(C); 11.3 ± 0.8, 9.9 ± 0.5, 8.3 ± 0.2, and 7.5 ± 0.8 kBT, respectively, per nucleotide). Replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations show that ssDNA binds preferentially to the curved SWCNT surface, leading us to conclude that the differences in ssDNA binding between graphite and nanotubes arise from the spontaneous curvature of ssDNA.

  3. ON THE CONTINUUM MODELING OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 黄永刚; Philippe H.Geubelle; 黄克智

    2002-01-01

    We have recently proposed a nanoscale continuum theory for carbonnanotubes. The theory links continuum analysis with atomistic modeling by incor-porating interatomic potentials and atomic structures of carbon nanotubes directlyinto the constitutive law. Here we address two main issues involved in setting upthe nanoscale continuum theory for carbon nanotubes, namely the multi-body in-teratomic potentials and the lack of centrosymmetry in the nanotube structure. Weexplain the key ideas behind these issues in establishing a nanoscale continuum theoryin terms of interatomic potentials and atomic structures.

  4. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  5. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal. PMID:27279425

  6. A cell nanoinjector based on carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xing; Kis, Andras; Zettl, Alex; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2007-01-30

    Technologies for introducing molecules into living cells are vital for probing the physical properties and biochemical interactions that govern the cell's behavior. Here we report the development of a nanoscale cell injection system-termed the nanoinjector-that uses carbon nanotubes to deliver cargo into cells. A single multi-walled carbon nanotube attached to an atomic force microscope tip was functionalized with cargo via a disulfide-based linker. Penetration of cell membranes with this 'nanoneedle', followed by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bonds within the cell's interior, resulted in the release of cargo inside the cells. The capability of the nanoinjector was demonstrated by injection of protein-coated quantum dots into live human cells. Single-particle tracking was employed to characterize the diffusion dynamics of injected quantum dots in the cytosol. This new technique causes no discernible membrane or cell damage, and can deliver a discrete number of molecules to the cell's interior without the requirement of a carrier solvent.

  7. Improved synthesis of carbon nanotubes with junctions and of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, FL; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, CNR

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of thiophene over nickel nanoparticles dispersed on silica is shown to yield Y-junction carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters than those obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallic-thiophene mixtures. In the presence of water vapour, the pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures yields single-walled nanotubes, as well as relatively narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes with Y-junctions. Pyrolysis-of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures, in the absence of water vapour, only gives ...

  8. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  9. Photophysics of polymer-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, J.; Loi, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are successfully dispersed in two conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEHPPV) solutions. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy in the near-infrared and visible spectral regions are used to study the interaction of the dispersed carbon nanotube and the wrapped polymer in the nano-hybrids. The SWNTs infrared emission is the signatures of the s...

  10. Controlling carbon nanotube photoluminescence using silicon microring resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Noury, Adrien; Vivien, Laurent; Izard, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report on coupling between semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (s-SWNT) photoluminescence and silicon microring resonators. Polyfluorene extracted s-SWNT deposited on such resonators exhibit sharp emission peaks, due to interaction with the cavity modes of the microring resonators. Ring resonators with radius of 5 {\\mu}m and 10 {\\mu}m were used, reaching quality factors up to 4000 in emission. These are among the highest values reported for carbon nanotubes coupled with an integrated cavity on silicon platform, which open up the possibility to build s-SWNT based efficient light source on silicon.

  11. Carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuhong

    The interface between carbon fibers (CFs) and the resin matrix in traditional high performance composites is characterized by a large discontinuity in mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties which can cause inefficient energy transfer. Due to the exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their growth at the surface of carbon fibers is a promising approach to controlling interfacial interactions and achieving the enhanced bulk properties. However, the reactive conditions used to grow carbon nanotubes also have the potential to introduce defects that can degrade the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber (CF) substrate. In this study, using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, high density multi-wall carbon nanotubes have been successfully synthesized directly on PAN-based CF surface without significantly compromising tensile properties. The influence of CVD growth conditions on the single CF tensile properties and carbon nanotube (CNT) morphology was investigated. The experimental results revealed that under high temperature growth conditions, the tensile strength of CF was greatly decreased at the beginning of CNT growth process with the largest decrease observed for sized CFs. However, the tensile strength of unsized CFs with CNT was approximately the same as the initial CF at lower growth temperature. The interfacial shear strength of CNT coated CF (CNT/CF) in epoxy was studied by means of the single-fiber fragmentation test. Results of the test indicate an improvement in interfacial shear strength with the addition of a CNT coating. This improvement can most likely be attributed to an increase in the interphase yield strength as well as an improvement in interfacial adhesion due to the presence of the nanotubes. CNT/CF also offers promise as stress and strain sensors in CF reinforced composite materials. This study investigates fundamental mechanical and electrical properties of CNT/CF using nanoindentation method by designed

  12. Carbon nanotubes/laser ablation gold nanoparticles composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascialfari, Luisa [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy); Marsili, Paolo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Caporali, Stefano [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy); Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Margheri, Giancarlo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Serafini, Andrea; Brandi, Alberto [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Giorgetti, Emilia, E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Cicchi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cicchi@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy)

    2014-10-31

    The production of nanohybrids formed by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles, produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids process, is described. The use of linkers, obtained by transformation of pyrene-1-butanol, is mandatory to generate an efficient and stable interaction between the two components. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed the obtainment of the efficient coverage of the MWCNTs by nanoparticles composed by metal gold and, partially, by oxides. - Highlights: • Laser ablation is a used for the production of gold nanoparticle colloids • An efficient decoration of carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles is obtained through the use of a linker • This method allows an efficient and tunable preparation of carbon nanotube hybrids.

  13. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.;

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...

  14. Fast readout of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Harold; Singh, Vibhor; Schneider, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van der Zant, Herre; Steele, Gary

    2013-03-01

    We perform fast readout measurements of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. Using an electronic mixing scheme, we can detect the amplitude of the mechanical motion with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 46 MHz and a timeconstant of 1 us, up to 5 orders of magnitude faster than before. Previous measurements suffered from a low bandwidth due to the combination of the high resistance of the carbon nanotube and a large stray capacitance. We have increased the bandwidth significantly by using a high-impedance, close-proximity HEMT amplifier. The increased bandwidth should allow us to observe the nanotube's thermal motion and its transient response, approaching the regime of real-time detection of the carbon nanotube's mechanical motion.

  15. Manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomanipulation plays an important role in nanofabrication, it is also a technology necessary in exploring the secrets of nanoworld, and it thus beco mesa start point to research future nanomachine. In this study, manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes have been conducted in order to examine whether we can move a nanocomponent from one site to another by using the tip of atomic fo rce microscope (AFM). The technique may also be valuable for providing the const ructive materials of nanofabrication. While exploring the method for manipulatin g and cutting of nanotubes, some new phenomena have been observed during the process. Results show that carbon nanotubes present a feature of deformation combin ing bending and distortion when subjected to large mechanical forces exerted by the tip of AFM. In special cases, long carbon nanotubes can be cut into two part s, by which we can remove the part where crystal lattice is flawed, and therefor e a perfect nanocomponent can be obtained.

  16. Fabrication of nylon-6/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Jia, Z.; Wu, D.; Han, Q.; Meek, T.

    2006-05-01

    A new technique to fabricate nylon-6/carbon nanotube (PA6/CNT) composites is presented. The method involves a pretreatment of carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon and an improved in-situ process for mixing nanotubes with the nylon 6 matrix. A good bond between carbon nanotubes and the nylon-6 matrix is obtained. Mechanical property measurements indicate that the tensile strength of PA6/CNT composites is improved significantly while the toughness and elongation are somewhat compromised. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured tensile specimens reveals cracking initiated at the wrapping of the CNTs PA6 layer/PA6 matrix interface rather than at the PA6/CNT interface.

  17. Two-dimensional Few-circle Optical Pulses in the Inhomogeneous Environment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Belonenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the task about few-circle optical pulses dynamics (light bullets in the inhomogeneous environment of carbon nanotubes. Electromagnetic field of pulse describes classically, on basis of Maxwell equation, and carbon nanotubes give dispersion law for electrons, which interacting with pulse. We show that light bullets propagate stably.

  18. Theoretical study on the carbon nanotube used ashard x—radiation source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuJing-Han; QinXi-Jun

    1998-01-01

    Calculations and analyses are made on the interaction between the carbon nanotube and the incident positron of high energy.The results obtained show that it is possible to use carbon nanotube as hard X-radiation source with high intensity and good monochromaticity.

  19. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  20. Contact angles, ordering, and solidification of liquid mercury in carbon nanotube cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Kutana, A.; Giapis, K. P.

    2007-01-01

    Optimized model potentials for mercury-mercury and mercury-carbon interactions are used in molecular dynamics simulations to study wetting and solidification of liquid mercury encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes. The contact angle of mercury in the nanotube cavity increases linearly with wall curvature. The solid-liquid transition becomes less well defined as nanotube diameter decreases, while the melting temperature drops exponentially. A concentric cylindrical-shell structure is ...

  1. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional forms of carbon are composed of sp 2-hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal, honeycomb lattice. The two-dimensional form, called graphene, is a single atomic layer of hexagonally-bonded carbon atoms. The one-dimensional form, known as a carbon nanotube, can be conceptualized as a rectangular piece of graphene wrapped into a seamless, high-aspect-ratio cylinder or tube. This dissertation addresses the physics and applied physics of these one and two-dimensional carbon allotropes in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). First, we give a theoretical background on the electrodynamics and mechanics of carbon nanotube NEMS. We then describe basic experimental techniques, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, that we then use to probe static and dynamic mechanical and electronic behavior of the carbon nanotube NEMS. For example, we observe and control non-linear beam bending and single-electron quantum tunneling effects in carbon nanotube resonators. We then describe parametric amplification, self-oscillation behavior, and dynamic, non-linear effects in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. We also report a novel approach to fabricate carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, and show that they can lead to exceptional lateral resolution enhancement in AFM when imaging both hard and soft (biological) materials. Finally, we describe novel fabrication techniques for large-area, suspended graphene membranes, and utilize these membranes as TEM-transparent, AFM-compatible, NEMS resonators. Laser-driven mechanical vibrations of the graphene resonators are detected by optical interferometry and several vibration harmonics are observed. A degeneracy splitting is observed in the vibrational modes of square-geometry resonators. We then attribute the observed degeneracy splitting to local mass inhomogeneities and membrane defects, and find good overall agreement with the developed theoretical model.

  2. Carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in amphibians: assessment of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and comparison with double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Florence; Landois, Perine; Puech, Pascal; Pinelli, Eric; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gauthier, Laury

    2010-08-01

    The potential impact of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was investigated under normalized laboratory conditions according to the International Standard micronucleus assay ISO 21427-1 for 12 days of half-static exposure to 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/l of MWNTs in water. Three different end points were carried out for 12 days of exposure: mortality, growth inhibition and micronuclei induction in erythrocytes of the circulating blood of larvae. Raman spectroscopy analysis was used to study the presence of carbon nanotubes in the biological samples. Considering the high diversity of carbon nanotubes according to their different characteristics, MWNTs were analyzed in Xenopus larvae, comparatively to double-walled carbon nanotubes used in a previous study in similar conditions. Growth inhibition in larvae exposed to 50 mg/l of MWNTs was evidenced; however, no genetoxicity (micronucleus assay) was noticed, at any concentration. Carbon nanotube localization in the larvae leads to different possible hypothesis of mechanisms explaining toxicity in Xenopus.

  3. One-dimensional Hubbard-Luttinger model for carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkhanyan, H. A.; Krainov, V. P.

    2015-06-01

    A Hubbard-Luttinger model is developed for qualitative description of one-dimensional motion of interacting Pi-conductivity-electrons in carbon single-wall nanotubes at low temperatures. The low-lying excitations in one-dimensional electron gas are described in terms of interacting bosons. The Bogolyubov transformation allows one to describe the system as an ensemble of non-interacting quasi-bosons. Operators of Fermi excitations and Green functions of fermions are introduced. The electric current is derived as a function of potential difference on the contact between a nanotube and a normal metal. Deviations from Ohm law produced by electron-electron short-range repulsion as well as by the transverse quantization in single-wall nanotubes are discussed. The results are compared with experimental data.

  4. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  5. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  6. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  7. Carbon Nanotube-Based Permeable Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Park, H G; Bakajin, O; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D

    2004-04-06

    A membrane of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for use in studying fluid mechanics on the nanometer scale. Characterization by fluorescent tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is void-free near the silicon substrate on which it rests, implying that the hollow core of the nanotube is the only conduction path for molecular transport. Assuming Knudsen diffusion through this nanotube membrane, a maximum helium transport rate (for a pressure drop of 1 atm) of 0.25 cc/sec is predicted. Helium flow measurements of a nanoporous silicon nitride membrane, fabricated by sacrificial removal of carbon, give a flow rate greater than 1x10{sup -6} cc/sec. For viscous, laminar flow conditions, water is estimated to flow across the nanotube membrane (under a 1 atm pressure drop) at up to 2.8x10{sup -5} cc/sec (1.7 {micro}L/min).

  8. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  9. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Cavoto, G.; Cirillo, E. N. M.; Cocina, F.; Ferretti, J.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy lo...

  10. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Barna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis.

  11. Microtribology of aqueous carbon nanotube dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Kristiansen, Kai De Lange

    2011-09-23

    The tribological behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous humic acid (HA) solutions was studied using a surface forces apparatus (SFA) and shows promising lubricant additive properties. Adding CNTs to the solution changes the friction forces between two mica surfaces from "adhesion controlled" to "load controlled" friction. The coefficient of friction with either single-walled (SW) or multi-walled (MW) CNT dispersions is in the range 0.30-0.55 and is independent of the load and sliding velocity. More importantly, lateral sliding promotes a redistribution or accumulation, rather than squeezing out, of nanotubes between the surfaces. This accumulation reduced the adhesion between the surfaces (which generally causes wear/damage of the surfaces), and no wear or damage was observed during continuous shearing experiments that lasted several hours even under high loads (pressures â∼10 MPa). The frictional properties can be understood in terms of the Cobblestone Model where the friction force is related to the fraction of the adhesion energy dissipated during impacts of the nanoparticles. We also develop a simple generic model based on the van der Waals interactions between particles and surfaces to determine the relation between the dimensions of nanoparticles and their tribological properties when used as additives in oil- or water-based lubricants. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Vasi, S.; M. A. Monaca; Donato, M. G.; Bonaccorso, F.; Privitera, G; Trushkevych, O.; G. Calogero; Fazio, B.; Irrera, A.; M.A. Iati'; Saija, R.; Denti, P.; F. Borghese; Jones, P H; Ferrari, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fuctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double ...

  13. Efficiently Dispersing Carbon Nanotubes in Polyphenylene Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Kevin M; Pipes, R. Byron

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plastics are replacing conventional metals in the aerospace, sporting, electronics, and other industries. Thermal plastics are able to withstand relatively high temperatures, have good fatigue properties, and are lighter than metals. Unfortunately, they are not very electrically conductive. However, adding carbon nanotubes to thermal plastics such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) can drastically increase the plastic's conductivity at a low weight percent of nanotubes called the percolat...

  14. Thermal Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Jeremy; Moore, Andrew; Khatun, Mahfuza

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in nanostructure technology have made it possible to create small devices at the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes (CNT's) are among the most exciting building blocks of nanotechnology. Their versatility and extremely desirable properties for electronic and other devices have driven intense research and development efforts in recent years. A review of electrical and thermal conduction of the structures will be presented. The theoretical investigation is mainly based on molecular dynamics. Green Kubo relation is used for the study of thermal conductivity. Results include kinetic energy, potential energy, heat flux autocorrelation function, and heat conduction of various CNT structures. Most of the computation and simulation has been conducted on the Beowulf cluster at Ball State University. Various software packages and tools such as Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD), Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), and NanoHUB, the open online resource at Purdue University have been used for the research. The work has been supported by the Indiana Academy of Science Research Fund, 2010-2011.

  15. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mostofi, Arash A. [Department of Materials and Department of Physics, and the Thomas Young Centre for Theory and Simulation of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Å, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup −4} e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  16. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  17. Paramagnetic centers in single-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulated with palladium and their interaction with hydrogen at H/C ≥ 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, A. G.; Saunin, E. I.; Lyakhov, B. F.; Tsivadze, A. Yu.

    2008-10-01

    The nature of paramagnetic centers in a nanostructure based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) encapsulated with Pd was studied by EPR spectroscopy at 77 and 293 K. It was found that strong charge-transfer π complexes of the (Pd-C x ) type, which manifested themselves as a narrow resonance (Δ H = 6 8 G and g = 2.002 at T = 77 k), were formed in the Pd-SWCNT composite along with impurity centers (Fe3O4 nanoparticles within the nanotubes), which were responsible for a broad EPR signal (Δ H = 75 G and g = 2.065 at T = 293 K). These complexes were found to be predominant adsorption sites responsible for a high gravimetric density of hydrogen (H/C ≥ 1.0) within the single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  18. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S; Al-Marzouki, F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Abdel-Daiem, A

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc. For commercial applications, large quantities and high purity of carbon nanotubes are needed. Different types of carbon nanotubes can be synthesized in various ways. The most common techniques currently practiced are arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition and flame synthesis. The purification of CNTs is carried out using various techniques mainly oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering chemical functionalization, etc. However, high-purity purification techniques still have to be developed. Real applications are still under development. This paper addresses the current research on the challenges that are associated with synthesis methods, purification methods, and dispersion and toxicity of CNTs within the scope of different engineering applications, energy, and environmental impact.

  19. Edge effects in finite elongated carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, O; Scuseria, G E; Hod, Oded; Peralta, Juan E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of finite-size effects for the electronic structure of long zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes is studied. We analyze the electronic structure of capped (6,6), (8,0), and (9,0) single walled carbon nanotubes as a function of their length up to 60 nm, using a divide and conquer density functional theory approach. For the metallic nanotubes studied, most of the physical features appearing in the density of states of an infinite carbon nanotube are recovered at a length of 40 nm. The (8,0) semi-conducting nanotube studied exhibits pronounced edge effects within the energy gap that scale as the inverse of the length of the nanotube. As a result, the energy gap reduces from the value of ~1 eV calculated for the periodic system to a value of ~0.25 eV calculated for a capped 62 nm long CNT. These edge effects are expected to become negligible only at tube lengths exceeding 6 micrometers. Our results indicate that careful tailoring of the nature of the system and its capping units should be applied w...

  20. Chitosan-mediated synthesis of carbon nanotube-gold nanohybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRAVEL; Edmond; FOILLARD; Stéphanie; DORIS; Eric

    2010-01-01

    Metal-nanotube nanohybrids were produced by in situ synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles on chitosan-functionalized carbon nanotubes.The formation of gold nanoparticles from tetrachloroauric acid was observed after only a few minutes of contact with the functionalized nanotubes,at room temperature.These results suggest that adsorption of chitosan at the surface of carbon nanotubes permits smooth reduction of the metallic salt and efficient anchoring of gold nanoparticles to the nanotubes.

  1. Transport Properties of Carbon-Nanotube/Cement Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Yang, Z.; Shi, X.; Yu, X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper preliminarily investigates the general transport properties (i.e., water sorptivity, water permeability, and gas permeability) of carbon-nanotube/cement composites. Carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are dispersed into cement mortar to fabricate the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rei

  2. Deposition of the platinum crystals on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique and the affecting factors for depositing platinum on the carbon nanotubes were investigated. The results show that the deposited platinum crystals in the atmosphere of hydrogen or nitrogen have a small size and a homogeneous distribution on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. The pretreatment would decrease the platinum particles on the carbon nanotubes significantly.

  3. Decoration of activated carbon nanotubes by assembling nano-silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-sha Li; Bin-song Wang; Ying-jie Qiao; Wei-zhe Lu; Ji Liang

    2009-01-01

    A facile solution processed strategy of synthesizing nano silver assembled on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at room tempera-ture was put forward. Activated carbon nanotubes were used as precursors for preparing silver-decorated nanotubes. The nature of the decorated nanotubes was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and en-ergy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The inert surfaces of carbon nanotubes were activated by introducing catalytic nuclei via an oxidation-sensitization-activation approach. Activated carbon nanotubes catalyzed the metal deposition specifically onto their surfaces upon immersion in electroless plating baths. The method produced nanotubes decorated with silver. The extent of silver decoration was found to be dependent on fabrication conditions. Dense nano silver assembled on nanotube surfaces could be ob-tained by keeping a low reaction rate in the solution phase. The results here show that this method is an efficient and simple means of achieving carbon nanotubes being assembled by nano metal.

  4. Large spin-orbit coupling in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G. A.; Pei, F.; Laird, E. A.; Jol, J. M.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.

    2013-03-01

    It has recently been recognised that the strong spin-orbit interaction present in solids can lead to new phenomena, such as materials with non-trivial topological order. Although the atomic spin-orbit coupling in carbon is weak, the spin-orbit coupling in carbon nanotubes can be significant due to their curved surface. Previous works have reported spin-orbit couplings in reasonable agreement with theory, and this coupling strength has formed the basis of a large number of theoretical proposals. Here we report a spin-orbit coupling in three carbon nanotube devices that is an order of magnitude larger than previously measured. We find a zero-field spin splitting of up to 3.4 meV, corresponding to a built-in effective magnetic field of 29 T aligned along the nanotube axis. Although the origin of the large spin-orbit coupling is not explained by existing theories, its strength is promising for applications of the spin-orbit interaction in carbon nanotubes devices.

  5. Large spin-orbit coupling in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G A; Pei, F; Laird, E A; Jol, J M; Meerwaldt, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been recognised that the strong spin-orbit interaction present in solids can lead to new phenomena, such as materials with non-trivial topological order. Although the atomic spin-orbit coupling in carbon is weak, the spin-orbit coupling in carbon nanotubes can be significant due to their curved surface. Previous works have reported spin-orbit couplings in reasonable agreement with theory, and this coupling strength has formed the basis of a large number of theoretical proposals. Here we report a spin-orbit coupling in three carbon nanotube devices that is an order of magnitude larger than previously measured. We find a zero-field spin splitting of up to 3.4 meV, corresponding to a built-in effective magnetic field of 29 T aligned along the nanotube axis. Although the origin of the large spin-orbit coupling is not explained by existing theories, its strength is promising for applications of the spin-orbit interaction in carbon nanotubes devices.

  6. Carbon nanotube suspensions, dispersions, & composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trevor John

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are amazing structures that hold the potential to revolutionize many areas of scientific research. CNTs can be behave both as semiconductors and metals, can be grown in highly ordered arrays and patterns or in random orientation, and can be comprised of one graphene cylinder (single wall nanotube, SWNT) or several concentric graphene cylinders (multi-wall nanotube, MWNT). Although these structures are usually only a few nanometers wide, they can be grown up to centimeter lengths, and in massive quantities. CNTs can be produced in a variety of processes ranging from repeated combustion of organic material such as dried grass, arc-discharge with graphite electrodes, laser ablation of a graphitic target, to sophisticated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. CNTs are stronger than steel but lighter than aluminum, and can be more conductive than copper or semiconducting like silicon. This variety of properties has been matched by the wide variety of applications that have been developed for CNTs. Many of these applications have been limited by the inability of researchers to tame these structures, and incorporating CNTs into existing technologies can be exceedingly difficult and prohibitively expensive. It is therefore the aim of the current study to develop strategies for the solution processing and deposition of CNTs and CNT-composites, which will enable the use of CNTs in existing and emerging technologies. CNTs are not easily suspended in polar solvents and are extremely hydrophobic materials, which has limited much of the solution processing to organic solvents, which also cannot afford high quality dispersions of CNTs. The current study has developed a variety of aqueous CNT solutions that employ surfactants, water-soluble polymers, or both to create suspensions of CNTs. These CNT 'ink' solutions were deposited with a variety of techniques that have afforded many interesting structures, both randomly oriented as well as highly

  7. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  8. Bending instability characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Q.; Hu, T.; Chen, G.; Jiang, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The bending instability characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) of various configurations are studied using a hybrid approach in which the deformation-induced increase of the intratube interaction energy is modeled with the bending deformation energy using the elastic theory of beams. The intertube interaction energy is calculated using the van der Waals interatomic potential. This study shows that the bending instability may take place through the formation of a single kink...

  9. Geometric and electronic structure of carbon nanotube networks: 'super'-carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluci, V. R.; Galvão, D. S.; Jorio, A.

    2006-02-01

    Structures of the so-called super-carbon nanotubes are proposed. These structures are built from single walled carbon nanotubes connected by Y-like junctions forming a 'super'-sheet that is then rolled into a seamless cylinder. Such a procedure can be repeated several times, generating a fractal structure. This procedure is not limited to carbon nanotubes, and can be easily modified for application to other systems. Tight binding total energy and density of states calculations showed that the 'super'-sheets and tubes are stable and predicted to present metallic and semiconducting behaviour.

  10. Nanocrystalline cobalt oxides for carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2007-09-01

    Thin Films of nanocrystalline cobalt oxide were formed by sol-gel method. Structure, optical properties and surface properties of these films were investigated by numerous characterization techniques. These films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates below 500°C. . Micropatterns of cobalt oxide thin films were also fabricated on glass and silicon substrates by employing a lift-off method. Crystal size of these nanocrystalline cobalt films could be successfully controllable by varying the amount of cobalt precursors and number of layers. These films were used as the seeding layers for carbon nanotube growth in a CVD process By changing the concentration of monomer precursors in the solgel coating solutions, different size nanoclusters hence different size carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in CVD process. This method can be used for controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for many different applications. In this paper, detail of these experimental results will be presented.

  11. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  12. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-07-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs.

  13. Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Razumiene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate.

  14. Modelling carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Petrauskas, Karolis; Razumiene, Julija

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate. PMID:23012537

  15. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-05-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  16. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  17. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  18. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis Through Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Pablo; Garcia, Rafael; Montes, Jorge; Melendrez, Rodrigo; Barboza, Marcelino; Contreras, Oscar

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes show a great potential of applications since there discovery by Iijima in 1991[1] due to their numerous physical-chemical properties such as their high weight to strength relationship, which make them ideal to use in high resistance compound materials, and in many other applications[2] In this work, a novel method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes is presented, starting from an ultra-thin sheet of graphite synthesized by the chemical vapor decomposition technique (CVD), using ultra high purity methane and hydrogen at 1200°C in a horizontal quartz reactor. For the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, the graphite sheets were exposed to different doses of radiation, with the objective of breaking the graphite bonds and form carbon nanotubes; a Gammacell equipment model 220 Excel was used for the purpose, which counts with a radiation source of cobalt 60, and a current radiation rate of 0.9 Gy/seconds. The time of exposure to radiation was varied in each sample, according to the desired dose of radiation in each case, afterwards the samples were characterized using the Raman spectroscopy and TEM microscopy techniques with the objective of observing the kind of nanotubes formed, their morphology and their number of defects. Results will be shown during the poster session.

  19. Investigating the effect of carbon nanotube diameter and wall number in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Grace; LePing Yu; Christopher Gibson; Daniel Tune; Huda Alturaif; Zeid Al Othman; Joseph Shapter

    2016-01-01

    Suspensions of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were generated in the same solvent at similar concentrations. Films were fabricated from these suspensions and used in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells and their properties were compared with reference to the number of walls in the nanotube samples. It was found that single-walled nanotubes generally produced more favorable results; however, the double and multi-walled nanotube films used in...

  20. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars R.; Pyrz, Ryszard

    2004-06-01

    The tensile modulus of individual nanotubes and nanotube-polypropylene composites has been determined using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes showed that their tensile modulus was dependent on the tube structure and the diameter if the diameter was below 1,6 nm. The tensile modulus was determined for an infinite single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an amorphous polypropylene matrix and for a finite and capped single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a polypropylene matrix. For the infinite nanotube-polypropylene system the modulus was found to correspond to the one given by the Voigt approximation. For the finite nanotube-polypropylene system the reinforcing effect of the nanotube was not very pronounced. A pull out simulation showed that the length of the nanotube in the simulation was much smaller than the critical length and hence no load transfer between the nanotube and the matrix existed.

  1. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L.; Cola, Baratunde A.

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna—a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current—was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ˜2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (˜10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation.

  2. Nitrogen in highly crystalline carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducati, C; Koziol, K; Stavrinadis, A; Friedrichs, S; Windle, A H; Midgley, P A [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-22

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an unprecedented degree of internal order were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) adding a nitrogen-containing compound to the hydrocarbon feedstock. Ferrocene was used as the metal catalyst precursor. The remarkable crystallinity of these nanotubes lies both in the isochirality and in the crystallographic register of their walls, as demonstrated by electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy experiments. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the walls of the nanotubes consist of truncated stacked cones, instead of perfect cylinders, with a range of apex angles that appears to be related to the nitrogen concentration in the synthesis process. The structure of armchair, zigzag and chiral nanotubes is modelled and discussed in terms of density of topological defects, providing an interesting comparison with our microscopy experiments. A growth mechanism based on the interplay of base- and tip-growth is proposed to account for our experimental observations.

  3. A tunable carbon nanotube electromechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Vera; Yaish, Yuval; Üstünel, Hande; Roundy, David; Arias, Tomás A.; McEuen, Paul L.

    2004-09-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) hold promise for a number of scientific and technological applications. In particular, NEMS oscillators have been proposed for use in ultrasensitive mass detection, radio-frequency signal processing, and as a model system for exploring quantum phenomena in macroscopic systems. Perhaps the ultimate material for these applications is a carbon nanotube. They are the stiffest material known, have low density, ultrasmall cross-sections and can be defect-free. Equally important, a nanotube can act as a transistor and thus may be able to sense its own motion. In spite of this great promise, a room-temperature, self-detecting nanotube oscillator has not been realized, although some progress has been made. Here we report the electrical actuation and detection of the guitar-string-like oscillation modes of doubly clamped nanotube oscillators. We show that the resonance frequency can be widely tuned and that the devices can be used to transduce very small forces.

  4. Magnetoresistance of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Lei-Mei; GAO Wei; CAO Shi-Xun; ZHANG Jin-Cang

    2008-01-01

    We measure zero-field resistivity and magnetoresistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube yarns (CNTYs). The CNTYs are drawn from superaligned multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays synthesized by the low-pressure chemical vapour deposition method. The zero-field resistivity shows a logarithmic decrease from 2 K to 300 K. In the presence of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the yarn axis, a pronounced negative magnetoresistance is observed. A magnetoresistance ratio of 22% is obtained. These behaviours can be explained by the weak localization effect.

  5. A carbon nanotube-based sensing element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHOU Zhao-ying; WU Ying; ZHANG Jin; ZHANG Ying-ying

    2007-01-01

    A carbon nanotube-based(CNT) sensing element is presented, which consists of substrate, insulating layer, electrodes,carbon nanotube and measuring circuit. The sensing components are a single or array of CNTs, which are located on the two electrodes. The CNT-based sensing element is fabricated by CVD (chemical vapor deposition)-direct-growth on microelectrodes. The sensing model and measurement method of electromechanical property are also presented. Finally, the voltage-current characteristics are measured, which show that the CNT-based sensing element has good electrical properties.

  6. Carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The latest progress of using carbon nanotubes(CNTs) for in vivo cancer nanotechnology is reviewed.CNTs can be functionalized by either covalent or non-covalent chemistry to produce functional bioconjugates for many in vivo applications.In vivo behaviors and toxicology studies of CNTs are summarized,suggesting no significant toxicity of well functionalized CNTs to the treated mice.Owing to their unique chemical and physical properties,CNTs,especially single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs),have been widely used for various modalities of in vivo cancer treatment and imaging.Future development of CNT-based nanomedicine may bring novel opportunities to cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  7. Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2010-03-02

    An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

  8. Piezoresistive effect in carbon nanotube films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The piezoresistive effect of the pristine carbon nanotube (CNT) films has been studied. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The piezoresistive effect in the pristine CNT films was studied by a three-point bending test. The gauge factor for the pristine CNT films under 500 microstrains was found to be at least 65 at room temperature, and increased with temperature, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃. The origin of the piezoresistivity in CNT films may be ascribed to a pressure-induced change in the band gap and the defects.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of bi-layered graphene sheet, double-walled carbon nanotube and nanotube bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Sachin O.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    Due to strong van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the graphene sheets and nanotubes stick to each other and form clusters of these corresponding nanostructures, viz. bi-layered graphene sheet (BLGS), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) and nanotube bundle (NB) or ropes. This research work is concerned with the study of nonlinear dynamics of BLGS, DWCNT and NB due to nonlinear interlayer vdW forces using multiscale atomistic finite element method. The energy between two adjacent carbon atoms is represented by the multibody interatomic Tersoff-Brenner potential, whereas the nonlinear interlayer vdW forces are represented by Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential function. The equivalent nonlinear material model of carbon-carbon bond is used to model it based on its force-deflection relation. Newmark's algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear matrix equation governing the motion of the BLGS, DWCNT and NB. An impulse and harmonic excitations are used to excite these nanostructures under cantilevered, bridged and clamped boundary conditions. The frequency responses of these nanostructures are computed, and the dominant resonant frequencies are identified. Along with the forced vibration of these structures, the eigenvalue extraction problem of armchair and zigzag NB is also considered. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are extracted for the different length and boundary conditions of the nanotube bundle.

  10. Carbon nanotubes as tips for atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立秋; 徐宗伟; 赵铁强; 赵清亮; 张飞虎; 董申

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary AFM probes' characters prevent the AFM' s application in various scopes. Carbon nanotubes represent ideal AFM probe materials for their higher aspect ratio, larger Young' s modulus, unique chemical structure, and well-defined electronic property. Carbon nanotube AFM probes are obtained by using a new method of attaching carbon nanotubes to the end of ordinary AFM probes, and are then used for doing AFM experiments. These experiments indicated that carbon nanotube probes have higher elastic deformation, higher resolution and higher durability. And it was also found that carbon nanotube probes can accurately reflect the morphology of deep narrow gaps, while ordinary probes can not reflect.

  11. Telescopic hot double wall carbon nanotube for nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia

    2010-03-01

    Two main challenges in improving the use of an atomic force microscope tip for nanolithography have been identified for all types of methods for surface modification. One challenge is achieving high spatial resolutions, which is directly related to the sharpness of the tip; the other one is the accurate control of the tip-surface distance, which affects the quality of the surface modification. A telescopic hot double wall carbon nanotube for nanolithography that improves the spatial resolution and successfully solves the problem of maintaining a constant tip-surface distance is proposed. The system consists of a finite length outer tube attached to an atomic force microscope cantilever, while the inner tube with length larger than the outer one is free. By studying the heat transfer in the double wall carbon nanotube/surface, it is found that the size of the thermal spot on the surface is mainly determined by the inner tube diameter indicating that high spatial resolution can be achieved if small diameter nanotubes are used. The interaction forces in the system are of van der Waals type and we show that the inner tube is located always at the same energetically favorable distance from the surface. Since the inner tube can move telescopically along the double wall carbon nanotube axis, the tip/surface distance is maintained constant due to the van der Waals interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  12. Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengyu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Brenner potential for intra-nanotube interactions and van der Waals forces for polymer-nanotube interface have been used to investigate thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics of carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites. Addition of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrix is found to significantly increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients in the composite above Tg. The increase has been attributed to the temperature dependent increase of the excluded volume for the polymer chains, and the findings could have implications in the composite processing, coating and painting applications.

  13. Interfacing of DNA with carbon nanotubes for nanodevice applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Richa, E-mail: richa.bend@gmail.com [Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO), Sector-30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Punjab University, Sector-14, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Dhindsa, Navneet [Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO), Sector-30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Suri, C. Raman [Biosensor Division, Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), Sector-39, Chandigarh 160039 (India); Pant, B.D. [Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Tripathi, S.K. [Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Punjab University, Sector-14, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kaur, Inderpreet; Bharadwaj, Lalit M. [Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO), Sector-30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes are evolving as 'hot spot' due to their applications as most sensitive biosensors. Thus, study of effect of biomolecular interaction is prerequisite for their electrical application in biosensors and bioelectronics. Here, we have explored this effect on electrical properties of carbon nanotubes with DNA as a model biomolecule. A stable conjugate of carbon nanotubes with DNA is formed via covalent methodology employing quantum dot as fluoropore and characterized with various spectroscopic, fluoroscopic and microscopic techniques. CNT-DNA adduct showed decreased transconductance (from 614.46 {mu}S to 1.34 {mu}S) and shift of threshold voltage (from -0.85 V to 2.5 V) due to change in Schottky barriers at metal-nanotube contact. In addition, decrease in hole mobility (from 4.46 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} to 9.72 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and increase in ON-linear resistance (from 74 k Ohm-Sign to 0.44 M Ohm-Sign ) conclude large change in device parameters. On the one hand, this substantial change in device parameters after interfacing with biomolecules supports application of carbon nanotubes in the field of biosensors while on the other hand, the same can limit their use in future power electronic devices where stability in device parameters is essential. -- Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotubes are interfaced with DNA via covalent interactions and characterized with spectroscopic, fluoroscopic and microscopic techniques. Electrical characterization of this stable SWNT-DNA conjugate shows decreased transconductance and shift of threshold voltage towards positive gate voltages. On the one hand, this substantial change in device parameters after interfacing with biomolecules supports application of carbon nanotubes in the field of biosensors while on the other hand, the same can limit their use in future power electronic devices where stability in device parameters is essential

  14. Interfacing of DNA with carbon nanotubes for nanodevice applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes are evolving as ‘hot spot’ due to their applications as most sensitive biosensors. Thus, study of effect of biomolecular interaction is prerequisite for their electrical application in biosensors and bioelectronics. Here, we have explored this effect on electrical properties of carbon nanotubes with DNA as a model biomolecule. A stable conjugate of carbon nanotubes with DNA is formed via covalent methodology employing quantum dot as fluoropore and characterized with various spectroscopic, fluoroscopic and microscopic techniques. CNT–DNA adduct showed decreased transconductance (from 614.46 μS to 1.34 μS) and shift of threshold voltage (from −0.85 V to 2.5 V) due to change in Schottky barriers at metal–nanotube contact. In addition, decrease in hole mobility (from 4.46 × 106 to 9.72 × 103 cm2 V−1 s−1) and increase in ON-linear resistance (from 74 kΩ to 0.44 MΩ) conclude large change in device parameters. On the one hand, this substantial change in device parameters after interfacing with biomolecules supports application of carbon nanotubes in the field of biosensors while on the other hand, the same can limit their use in future power electronic devices where stability in device parameters is essential. -- Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotubes are interfaced with DNA via covalent interactions and characterized with spectroscopic, fluoroscopic and microscopic techniques. Electrical characterization of this stable SWNT–DNA conjugate shows decreased transconductance and shift of threshold voltage towards positive gate voltages. On the one hand, this substantial change in device parameters after interfacing with biomolecules supports application of carbon nanotubes in the field of biosensors while on the other hand, the same can limit their use in future power electronic devices where stability in device parameters is essential. Highlights: ► Effect of biomolecular (DNA) interaction on electrical properties

  15. Improved Method of Purifying Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of removing the residues of fabrication from carbon nanotubes has been invented. These residues comprise amorphous carbon and metal particles that are produced during the growth process. Prior methods of removing the residues include a variety of processes that involved the use of halogens, oxygen, or air in both thermal and plasma processes. Each of the prior methods entails one or more disadvantages, including non-selectivity (removal or damage of nanotubes in addition to removal of the residues), the need to dispose of toxic wastes, and/or processing times as long as 24 hours or more. In contrast, the process described here does not include the use of toxic chemicals, the generation of toxic wastes, causes little or no damage to the carbon nanotubes, and involves processing times of less than 1 hour. In the improved method, purification is accomplished by flowing water vapor through the reaction chamber at elevated temperatures and ambient pressures. The impurities are converted to gaseous waste products by the selective hydrogenation and hydroxylation by the water in a reaction chamber. This process could be performed either immediately after growth or in a post-growth purification process. The water used needs to be substantially free of oxygen and can be obtained by a repeated freeze-pump-thaw process. The presence of oxygen will non-selectively attach the carbon nanotubes in addition to the amorphous carbon.

  16. FIB-SEM imaging of carbon nanotubes in mouse lung tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købler, Carsten; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun;

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural characterisation is important for understanding carbon nanotube (CNT) toxicity and how the CNTs interact with cells and tissues. The standard method for this involves using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, in particular, the sample preparation, using a microtome...

  17. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of today’s carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Porifera’s carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.

  18. Dislodgement of carbon nanotube bundles under pressure driven flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baowan, Duangkamon; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M

    2010-04-16

    Experimental and predicted flow rates through carbon nanotubes vary considerably but generally are reported to be well in excess of that predicted by the conventional Poiseuille flow, and therefore nanotubes embedded in a matrix might provide membranes with exceptional mass transport properties. In this paper, applied mathematical modelling is undertaken to estimate the three forces acting on a nanotube bundle, namely the molecular interaction force, the viscous force, and the static pressure force. In deducing estimates of these forces we introduce a modification of the notion of the effective dead area for a carbon nanotube membrane, and we calculate the total forces necessary to push one or more of the nanotubes out of the bundle, thus creating a channel through which further enhancement of flow may take place. However, careful analysis shows that the nett dislodgement force is entirely independent on the useable flow area, but rather depends only on the total cross-sectional area perpendicular to the flow. This rather surprising result is a consequence of the flow being steady and a balance of the viscous and pressure forces. PMID:20332554

  19. The Adsorption Properties of Bacillus atrophaeus Spores on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adsorption equilibrium and a kinetic study of Bacillus atrophaeus on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs were here performed to provide the basis for developing biosensor devices for detecting threatening micro-organisms in water supply systems. B. atrophaeus spores and carbon nanotubes were subjected to a batch adsorption process to document their equilibria and kinetics. Here, commercial nanotubes were either studied as received or were acid-purified before adsorption experiments. The Bacillus spores appear to show higher affinity towards the purified nanotubes than to the as-received nanomaterial. The effective diffusivity of the spores onto the purified nanotubes was found to be approximately 30 percent higher than onto the as-received nanotubes. It seems that the removal of amorphous carbon from the as-received nanotubes through a purification process yielded an intimate nantoubes-spore interaction as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Freundlich model successfully correlated the adsorption equilibrium data for the nanotubes-spore interaction. Transmission electron micrographs showed extensive contact between the Bacillus and the purified nanotubes, but the association appeared less intimate between the spores and the as-received nanotubes.

  20. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    nanotubes are very interesting for integration in especially microfluidic devices, because they can readily be grown on planar substrates by means of chemical vapour deposition. In this way the cumbersome process of packing of the stationary phase in the finished microfluidic channels is avoided and the CNT...... surface can furthermore be used directly as a stationary phase in reverse-phase separations, thereby avoiding subsequent functionalization of the nanostructures. This significantly reduces the fabrication time and possibly also increases the reproducibility of the column performance. In this presentation......, microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis...

  1. Reprint of : Kondo effect in a carbon nanotube with spin-orbit interaction and valley mixing: A DM-NRG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Davide; Paşcu Moca, Cătălin; Zaránd, Gergely; Grifoni, Milena

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the effects of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and valley mixing on the transport and dynamical properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT) quantum dot in the Kondo regime. As these perturbations break the pseudo-spin symmetry in the CNT spectrum but preserve time-reversal symmetry, they induce a finite splitting Δ between formerly degenerate Kramers pairs. Correspondingly, a crossover from the SU(4) to the SU(2)-Kondo effect occurs as the strength of these symmetry breaking parameters is varied. Clear signatures of the crossover are discussed both at the level of the spectral function as well as of the conductance. In particular, we demonstrate numerically and support with scaling arguments that the Kondo temperature scales inversely with the splitting Δ in the crossover regime. In presence of a finite magnetic field, time reversal symmetry is also broken. We investigate the effects of both parallel and perpendicular fields (with respect to the tube's axis) and discuss the conditions under which Kondo revivals may be achieved.

  2. Structure Stability of Ⅰ-Type Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丹; 袁喆; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with junctions may play an important role in future ‘nanoelectronics' and future ‘nano devices'.In particular, junctions constructed with metal and semiconducting nanotubes have potential applications. Basedon the orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics method, we present our study of the structure stability ofI-type carbon nanotube junctions.

  3. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2016-03-01

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles.

  4. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L J; Ulmert, Hans David S; Brea, Elliott J; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans. PMID:27468684

  5. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  6. Making junctions between carbon nanotubes using an ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Krasheninnikov, A V; Keinonen, J; Banhart, F

    2003-01-01

    Making use of empirical potential molecular dynamics, we study ion bombardment of crossed single-walled carbon nanotubes as a tool to join the nanotubes. We demonstrate that ion irradiation should result in welding of crossed nanotubes, both suspended and deposited on substrates. We further predict optimum ion doses and energies for ion-mediated nanotube welding which may potentially be used for developing complicated networks of joined nanotubes.

  7. A new mechanism for carbon nanotube evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Key discoveries on the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes(CNTs) have recently been achieved by CAS researcher ZHU Zhenping and his research group at the State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion,the Institute of Coal Chemistry of CAS, funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the CAS Bairen Program.

  8. Chiral Anomaly in Toroidal Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K.

    2001-01-01

    It is pointed out that the chiral anomaly in 1+1 dimensions should be observed in toroidal carbon nanotubes on a planar geometry with varying magnetic field. We show that the chiral anomaly is closely connected with the persistent current in a one-dimensional metallic ring.

  9. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  10. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  11. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are small cylindrical molecules with a typical diameter of 1 nm and lengths of up to micrometers. These intriguing molecules exhibit, depending on the exact atomic structure, either semiconducting or metallic behavior. This makes them ideal candidates for possible future molecular e

  12. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  13. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Baun, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review...

  14. In-line manufacture of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Nicol Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo; Martini, Fabrizio; Corripio Luna, Oscar Enrique

    2015-04-28

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are facilitated by methods and apparatus disclosed herein. Advantageously, the methods and apparatus make use of a single production unit, and therefore provide for uninterrupted progress in a fabrication process. Embodiments of control systems for a variety of CNT production apparatus are included.

  15. Heat Transport in Liquid Polyester Resin with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales-Pinzón, C.; Quiñones-Weiss, G.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Medina-Esquivel, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent one of the most important materials in nanoscience and nanotechnology, due to their outstanding structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. It has been shown that when incorporated in a polymeric matrix, carbon nanotubes can improve its physical properties. In this work, thermal-diffusivity measurements of composite materials, prepared by mixing carbon nanotubes in liquid polyester resin, were performed by means of the thermal-wave resonant cavity. The results show an increase of the thermal diffusivity when the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes grows. It is also shown that this increase depends strongly on the diameter of the nanotubes.

  16. Carbon nanotubes for stem cell control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Stout

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, two major advancements have transformed the world of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine—stem cells and carbon nano-dimensional materials. In the past, stem cell therapy seemed like it may present a cure for all medical ailments, but problems arose (i.e., immune system clearance, control of differentiation in the body, etc. that have hindered progress. But, with the synergy of carbon nano-dimensional materials, researchers have been able to overcome these tissue engineering and regenerative medicine obstacles and have begun developing treatments for strokes, bone failure, cardiovascular disease, and many other conditions. Here, we briefly review research involving carbon nanotubes which are relevant to the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine field with a special emphasis on carbon nanotube applications for stem cell delivery, drug delivery applications, and their use as improved medical devices.

  17. Strong and tunable mode coupling in carbon nanotube resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Meerwaldt, Harold B.; Venstra, Warner J.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steele, Gary A.

    2012-07-01

    The nonlinear interaction between two mechanical resonances of the same freely suspended carbon nanotube resonator is studied. We find that, in the Coulomb-blockade regime, the nonlinear modal interaction is dominated by single-electron-tunneling processes and that the mode-coupling parameter can be tuned with the gate voltage, allowing both mode-softening and mode-stiffening behaviors. This is in striking contrast to tension-induced mode coupling in strings where the coupling parameter is positive and gives rise to a stiffening of the mode. The strength of the mode coupling in carbon nanotubes in the Coulomb-blockade regime is observed to be 6 orders of magnitude larger than the mechanical-mode coupling in micromechanical resonators.

  18. The structure and dynamics of water inside armchair carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiao-Yan; Lu Hang-Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present some simulation results about the behaviour of water molecules inside a single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT). We find that the confinement of water in an SWNT can induce a wave-like pattern distribution along the channel axis, similar phenomena are also observed in biological water channels. Carbon nanotubes(CNTs)can serve as simple nonpolar water channels. Molecular transport through narrow CNTs is highly collective because of tight hydrogen bonds in the protective environment of the pore. The hydrogen bond net is important for proton and other signal transports. The average dipoles of water molecules inside CNTs (7,7), (8,8) and (9,9) are discussed in detail. Simulation results indicate that the states of dipole are affected by the diameter of SWNT. The number of hydrogen bonds, the water-water interaction and water-CNT interaction are also studied in this paper.

  19. Synthesis of 1D-glyconanomaterials by a hybrid noncovalent-covalent functionalization of single wall carbon nanotubes: a study of their selective interactions with lectins and with live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernía Leal, M.; Assali, M.; Cid, J. J.; Valdivia, V.; Franco, J. M.; Fernández, I.; Pozo, D.; Khiar, N.

    2015-11-01

    To take full advantage of the remarkable applications of carbon nanotubes in different fields, there is a need to develop effective methods to improve their water dispersion and biocompatibility while maintaining their physical properties. In this sense, current approaches suffer from serious drawbacks such as loss of electronic structure together with low surface coverage in the case of covalent functionalizations, or instability of the dynamic hybrids obtained by non-covalent functionalizations. In the present work, we examined the molecular basis of an original strategy that combines the advantages of both functionalizations without their main drawbacks. The hierarchical self-assembly of diacetylenic-based neoglycolipids into highly organized and compacted rings around the nanotubes, followed by photopolymerization leads to the formation of nanotubes covered with glyconanorings with a shish kebab-type topology exposing the carbohydrate ligands to the water phase in a multivalent fashion. The glyconanotubes obtained are fully functional, and able to establish specific interactions with their cognate receptors. In fact, by taking advantage of this selective binding, an easy method to sense lectins as a working model of toxin detection was developed based on a simple analysis of TEM images. Remarkably, different experimental settings to assess cell membrane integrity, cell growth kinetics and cell cycle demonstrated the cellular biocompatibility of the sugar-coated carbon nanotubes compared to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes.To take full advantage of the remarkable applications of carbon nanotubes in different fields, there is a need to develop effective methods to improve their water dispersion and biocompatibility while maintaining their physical properties. In this sense, current approaches suffer from serious drawbacks such as loss of electronic structure together with low surface coverage in the case of covalent functionalizations, or instability of

  20. Advanced materials based on carbon nanotube arrays, yarns and papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Phlip David

    Carbon nanotubes have hundreds of potential applications but require innovative processing techniques to manipulate the microscopic carbon dust into useful devices and products. This thesis describes efforts to process carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using novel methods with the goals of: (1) improving the properties of energy absorbing and composite carbon nanotube materials and (2) increasing understanding of fundamental structure-property relationships within these materials. Millimeter long CNTs, in the form of arrays, yarns and papers, were used to produce energy absorbing foams and high volume fraction CNT composites. Vertically aligned CNT arrays were grown on silicon substrates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of ethylene gas over iron nano-particles. The low density, millimeter thick arrays were tested under compression as energy absorbing foams. With additional CVD processing steps, it was possible to tune the compressive properties of the arrays. After the longest treatment, the compressive strength of the arrays was increased by a factor of 35 with a density increase of only six fold, while also imparting recovery from compression to the array. Microscopy revealed that the post-synthesis CVD treatment increased the number of CNT walls through an epitaxial type radial growth on the surface of the as-grown tubes. The increase in tube radius and mutual support between nanotubes explained the increases in compressive strength while an increase in nanotube roughness was proposed as the morphological change responsible for recovery in the array. Carbon nanotube yarns were used as the raw material for macroscopic textile preforms with a multi-level hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) structure: nanotubes, bundles, spun single yarns, plied yarns and 3-D braids. In prior tensile tests, composites produced from the 3-D braids exhibited unusual mechanical behavior effects. The proposed physical hypotheses explained those effects by molecular level interactions and

  1. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bin; WEI Jinquan; CI Lijie; WU Dehai

    2004-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared using the floating chemical vapor deposition with methane as carbon source and adding small amount of sulfur into the ferrocene catalyst. The optimized technological parameters are: the reaction temperature is 1200℃; the catalyst vapor temperature is 80℃; the flow rate of argon is 2000 SCCM; the flow rate of methane is 5 SCCM. The purified DWNTs under these optimized technological parameters have high purity above 90 wt%.

  2. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qiu; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2008-08-01

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  3. Ion Exclusion by Sub 2-nm Carbon Nanotube Pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-04-09

    Carbon nanotubes offer an outstanding platform for studying molecular transport at nanoscale, and have become promising materials for nanofluidics and membrane technology due to their unique combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. In particular, both simulations and experiments have proved that fluid flow through carbon nanotubes of nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast compared to what continuum hydrodynamic theories would predict when applied on this length scale, and also, compared to conventional membranes with pores of similar size, such as zeolites. For a variety of applications such as separation technology, molecular sensing, drug delivery, and biomimetics, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we study the ion selectivity of membranes made of aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes with sub-2 nm diameter. Negatively charged groups are introduced at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by oxygen plasma treatment. Reverse osmosis experiments coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of permeate and feed show significant anion and cation rejection. Ion exclusion declines by increasing ionic strength (concentration) of the feed and by lowering solution pH; also, the highest rejection is observed for the A{sub m}{sup Z{sub A}} C{sub n}{sup Z{sub C}} salts (A=anion, C=cation, z= valence) with the greatest Z{sub A}/Z{sub C} ratio. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion

  4. Material and structural instabilities of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Wu; K. C. Hwang; J. Song; Y. Huang

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear atomistic interactions usually involve softening behavior. Instability resulting directly from this softening are called the material instability, while those unrelated to this softening are called the structural instability. We use the finite-deformation shell theory based on the interatomic potential to show that the tension instability of single-wall carbon nanotubes is the material instability, while the compression and torsion instabilities are structural instability.

  5. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li+/Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient dLi decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  6. Enhancement of carbon nanotube photoluminescence by photonic crystal nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Watahiki, R.; Shimada, T; Zhao, P; Chiashi, S.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are used to enhance photoluminescence from single-walled carbon nanotubes. Micelle-encapsulated nanotubes are deposited on nanocavities within Si photonic crystal slabs and confocal microscopy is used to characterize the devices. Photoluminescence spectra and images reveal nanotube emission coupled to nanocavity modes. The cavity modes can be tuned throughout the emission wavelengths of carbon nanotubes, demonstrating the ability to enhance photoluminescence from...

  7. Enhancement of carbon nanotube photoluminescence by photonic crystal nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Watahiki, R.; Shimada, T; Zhao, P; Chiashi, S.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are used to enhance photoluminescence from single-walled carbon nanotubes. Micelle-encapsulated nanotubes are deposited on nanocavities within Si photonic crystal slabs and confocal microscopy is used to characterize the devices.Photoluminescencespectra and images reveal nanotube emission coupled to nanocavity modes. The cavity modes can be tuned throughout the emission wavelengths of carbon nanotubes, demonstrating the ability to enhance photoluminescence from a...

  8. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Hybrids in Polymer Dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Liao, Kang-Shyang; Früchtl, Daniel; Tian, Ying; Gilchrist, Aisling, , T; Alley, Nigel; Andreoli, Enrico; Aitchison, Brad; Nasibulin, Albert; Byrne, Hugh; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Zhang, Long; Blau, Werner; Curran, Seamus

    2012-01-01

    A series of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized with selected organic chromophores, fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate (FITC), rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) and fullerene (C60) were synthesized by covalently linking these electron-donor groups to the metallic nanotubes. These versatile carbon nanotube composites show remarkable nonlinear optical (NLO) performance, due to a merged effect of the complementary NLO characteristics of the moiet...

  9. Electrostatic gating in carbon nanotube aptasensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han Yue; Alsager, Omar A.; Zhu, Bicheng; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Plank, Natalie O. V.

    2016-07-01

    Synthetic DNA aptamer receptors could boost the prospects of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electronic biosensors if signal transduction can be understood and engineered. Here, we report CNT aptasensors for potassium ions that clearly demonstrate aptamer-induced electrostatic gating of electronic conduction. The CNT network devices were fabricated on flexible substrates via a facile solution processing route and non-covalently functionalised with potassium binding aptamers. Monotonic increases in CNT conduction were observed in response to increasing potassium ion concentration, with a level of detection as low as 10 picomolar. The signal was shown to arise from a specific aptamer-target interaction that stabilises a G-quadruplex structure, bringing high negative charge density near the CNT channel. Electrostatic gating is established via the specificity and the sign of the current response, and by observing its suppression when higher ionic strength decreases the Debye length at the CNT-water interface. Sensitivity towards potassium and selectivity against other ions is demonstrated in both resistive mode and real time transistor mode measurements. The effective device architecture presented, along with the identification of clear response signatures, should inform the development of new electronic biosensors using the growing library of aptamer receptors.Synthetic DNA aptamer receptors could boost the prospects of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electronic biosensors if signal transduction can be understood and engineered. Here, we report CNT aptasensors for potassium ions that clearly demonstrate aptamer-induced electrostatic gating of electronic conduction. The CNT network devices were fabricated on flexible substrates via a facile solution processing route and non-covalently functionalised with potassium binding aptamers. Monotonic increases in CNT conduction were observed in response to increasing potassium ion concentration, with a level of detection as low as 10

  10. Carbon nanotubes on a spider silk scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Eden; Saleh, Wasan R.; Lebedev, Victor; Acquah, Steve F. A.; Laukhin, Vladimir; Alamo, Rufina G.; Brooks, James S.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the compatibility between spider silk and conducting materials is essential to advance the use of spider silk in electronic applications. Spider silk is tough, but becomes soft when exposed to water. Here we report a strong affinity of amine-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for spider silk, with coating assisted by a water and mechanical shear method. The nanotubes adhere uniformly and bond to the silk fibre surface to produce tough, custom-shaped, flexible and electrically conducting fibres after drying and contraction. The conductivity of coated silk fibres is reversibly sensitive to strain and humidity, leading to proof-of-concept sensor and actuator demonstrations.

  11. Transport characteristics of organic solvents through carbon nanotube filled styrene butadiene rubber nanocomposites: the influence of rubber-filler interaction, the degree of reinforcement and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jiji; Maria, Hanna J; George, Soney C; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2015-05-01

    The transport behaviour of some aromatic and aliphatic solvents through carbon nanotube filled styrene butadiene rubber composites has been investigated. The aim of the present work is to investigate the role of the sorption technique in analysing the compatibility and the reinforcing effect of MWCNTs as a filler in the SBR matrix. It also focuses on the investigation of the relationship between the dispersion of CNTs in the SBR matrix and its transport behaviour. The diffusion and transport of organic solvents through the membranes have been investigated in detail as a function of CNT content, nature of solvent and temperature in the range of 28-60 °C. Solvent uptake, diffusion, sorption and permeation constants were investigated and were found to decrease with the increase of CNT loading. Transport properties could be related to the morphology of the nanocomposites. At high concentration CNT particles form a local filler-filler network in the rubber matrix. As a result, the transport of solvent molecules through the polymer is hindered. The rubber-solvent interaction parameter, enthalpy and entropy of sorption have also been estimated from the transport data. The values of rubber-solvent interaction parameters obtained from the diffusion experiments have been used to calculate the molecular mass between the crosslinks of the network polymer. The better reinforcement at higher filler loading was confirmed from the cross-link density values. The extent of reinforcement was evaluated using Kraus and Cunneen and Russel equations. The Affine and Phantom models for chemical crosslinks were used to predict the mobility of the crosslinks. The Phantom model gave better fitting indicating that the chains can move freely through one another, i.e. the junction points fluctuate over time around their mean position without any hindrance from the neighbouring molecule. The diffusivity datas of the systems have shown dependence on the temperature and microstructure of the

  12. Analytical modeling of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Pourasl, Ali H; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmani, Meisam; Chin, Huei Chaeng; Lim, Cheng Siong; Ismail, Razali; Tan, Michael Loong Peng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes have received widespread attention as promising carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. Due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and electrical properties, namely a high surface-to-volume ratio, their enhanced electron transfer properties, and their high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes can be used effectively as electrochemical sensors. The integration of carbon nanotubes with a functional group provides a good and solid support for the immobilization...

  13. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekchang, SRC; Govindaraj, A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spect...

  14. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R C Vivekchand; A Govindaraj

    2003-10-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized singlewalled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Semipermeable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakajin, O

    2006-02-13

    The goal of this project is to measure transport through CNTs and study effects of confinement at molecular scale. This work is motivated by several simulation papers in high profile journals that predict significantly higher transport rates of gases and liquids through carbon nanotubes as compared with similarly-sized nanomaterials (e.g. zeolites). The predictions are based on the effects of confinement, atomically smooth pore walls and high pore density. Our work will provide the first measurements that would compare to and hopefully validate the simulations. Gas flux is predicted to be >1000X greater for SWNTs versus zeolitesi. A high flux of 6-30 H2O/NT/ns {approx} 8-40 L/min for a 1cm{sup 2} membrane is also predicted. Neutron diffraction measurements indicate existence of a 1D water chain within a cylindrical ice sheet inside carbon nanotubes, which is consistent with the predictions of the simulation. The enabling experimental platform that we are developing is a semipermeable membrane made out of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with gaps between nanotubes filled so that the transport occurs through the nanotubes. The major challenges of this project included: (1) Growth of CNTs in the suitable vertically aligned configuration, especially the single wall carbon nanotubes; (2) Development of a process for void-free filling gaps between CNTs; and (3) Design of the experiments that will probe the small amounts of analyte that go through. Knowledge of the behavior of water upon nanometer-scale confinement is key to understanding many biological processes. For example, the protein folding process is believed to involve water confined in a hydrophobic environment. In transmembrane proteins such as aquaporins, water transport occurs under similar conditions. And in fields as far removed as oil recovery and catalysis, an understanding of the nanoscale molecular transport occurring within the nanomaterials used (e.g. zeolites) is the key to process optimization

  16. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  17. Nanosystems of Polymerized Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Peter; Cui, Shen

    Nanosystems based on polymerized fullerenes and carbon-nanotubes begin to play an important role in the field of nanotechnology. Nanotubes can be used as molecular wires, and can even figure as building elements for molecular electronics. Furthermore nanotubes can be used as amplifiers in composite materials, as a result of their unique mechanical properties. Many other applications, as for example as electron emitters for flat screens, are currently under development. Fullerens are known to be strong electron acceptors, which enables them to support the electron-hole pair separation in polymer based photovoltaic cells. The use of fulleren chains instead of fullerenes could improve the anisotropic electronic conductivity in the contained polymer layer, and therefore enhance their performance.

  18. Mechanical properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) used to reinforce polymer matrix composites are functionalized to form covalent bonds with the polymer in order to enhance the CNT/polymer interfaces. These bonds destroy the perfect atomic structures of a CNT and degrade its mechanical properties. We use atomistic simulations to study the effect of hydrogenization on the mechanical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The elastic modulus of CNTs gradually decreases with the increasing functionalization (percentage of C-H bonds). However, both the strength and ductility drop sharply at a small percentage of functionalization, reflecting their sensitivity to C-H bonds. The cluster C-H bonds forming two rings leads to a significant reduction in the strength and ductility. The effect of carbonization has essentially the same effect as hydrogenization

  19. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes by Proton Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Euikwoun; Lee, Jeonggil; Lee, Younman; Jeon, Jaekyun; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jeongha; Shin, Kwanwoo; Youn, Sang-Pil; Kim, Kyeryung

    2007-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit variety of superior physical properties including well-defined nanodimensional structure, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and good mechanical stability against external irradiations. Further, a large specific surface area per unit weight suggests that carbon nanotubes could be excellent candidates for gas storage, purification, and separation. However, the practical application of CNTs is limited mainly due to the metallic impurities that were used as a catalyst during the fabrication process. Here, we irradiated CNTs by using high energy proton beams (35.7 MeV at the Bragg Peak). Interestingly, metallic impurities such as Fe, Ni, Co and chunk of amorphous carbon that were attached on the surface of CNTs were completely removed after the irradiation. The mechanism of such the purification process is not understood. The possible speculation will be demonstrated combined with the changes of physical properties including the appearance of the magnetism after the irradiation.

  20. Fast Triggering of Shape Memory Polymers using an Embedded Carbon Nanotube Sponge Network

    OpenAIRE

    Guoxiang Zhou; Heng Zhang; Shuping Xu; Xuchun Gui; Hongqiu Wei; Jinsong Leng; Nikhil Koratkar; Jing Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a 3-D porous carbon nanotube sponge (CNTS) was embedded within a shape memory polymer (SMPs) matrix. We demonstrate complete infiltration and filling of the SMPs into the CNTS by capillary force without any damage to the CNTS structure. With only ~0.2 wt% carbon nanotube loading, the glass transition temperature is increased by ~20 °C, indicating strong interaction between CNTS and the SMPs matrix. Further, we find that the uniform distribution of the carbon nanotubes in the nan...

  1. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  2. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Using Sol Gel Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2002-12-01

    Since 1990, carbon nanotubes were discovered and they have been the object of intense scientific study ever since. A carbon nanotube is a honeycomb lattice rolled into a cylinder. The diameter of a carbon nanotube is of nanometer size and the length is in the range of micrometer. Many of the extraordinary properties attributed to nanotubes, such as tensile strength and thermal stability, have inspired predictions of microscopic robots, dent-resistant car bodies and earthquake-resistant buildings. The first products to use nanotubes were electrical. Some General Motors cars already include plastic parts to which nanotubes were added; such plastic can be electrified during painting so that the paint will stick more readily. Two nanotube-based lighting and display products are well on their way to market. In the long term, perhaps the most valuable applications will take further advantage of nanotubes' unique electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes can in principle play the same role as silicon does in electronic circuits, but at a molecular scale where silicon and other standard semiconductors cease to work. There are several routes to synthesize carbon nanotubes; laser vaporization, carbon arc and vapor growth. We have applied a different route using sol gel chemistry to obtain carbon nanotubes. This work is patent-pending.

  3. Carbon nanotube-nucleobase hybrids: nanorings from uracil-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhpreet; Toma, Francesca Maria; Kumar, Jitendra; Venkatesh, V; Raya, Jesus; Prato, Maurizio; Verma, Sandeep; Bianco, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been covalently functionalized with uracil nucleobase. The hybrids have been characterized by using complementary spectroscopic and microscopic techniques including solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The uracil-functionalized SWCNTs are able to self-assemble into regular nanorings with a diameter of 50-70 nm, as observed by AFM and TEM. AFM shows that the rings do not have a consistent height and thickness, which indicates that they may be formed by separate bundles of CNTs. The simplest model for the nanoring formation likely involves two bundles of CNTs interacting with each other via uracil-uracil base-pairing at both CNT ends. These nanorings can be envisaged for the development of advanced electronic circuits.

  4. Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Dyke, Christopher A.; Maya, Francisco; Stewart, Michael P.; Chen, Bo; Flatt, Austen K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to covalently attach functionalized carbon nanotubes to silicon. This step allows for the introduction of carbon nanotubes onto all manner of silicon surfaces, and thereby introduction of carbon nano - tubes covalently into silicon-based devices, onto silicon particles, and onto silicon surfaces. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed as individuals in surfactant were functionalized. The nano - tube was first treated with 4-t-butylbenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate to give increased solubility to the carbon nanotube; the second group attached to the sidewall of the nanotube has a silyl-protected terminal alkyne that is de-protected in situ. This gives a soluble carbon nanotube that has functional groups appended to the sidewall that can be attached covalently to silicon. This reaction was monitored by UV/vis/NJR to assure direct covalent functionalization.

  5. Electrostatic gating in carbon nanotube aptasensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han Yue; Alsager, Omar A; Zhu, Bicheng; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Plank, Natalie O V

    2016-07-14

    Synthetic DNA aptamer receptors could boost the prospects of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electronic biosensors if signal transduction can be understood and engineered. Here, we report CNT aptasensors for potassium ions that clearly demonstrate aptamer-induced electrostatic gating of electronic conduction. The CNT network devices were fabricated on flexible substrates via a facile solution processing route and non-covalently functionalised with potassium binding aptamers. Monotonic increases in CNT conduction were observed in response to increasing potassium ion concentration, with a level of detection as low as 10 picomolar. The signal was shown to arise from a specific aptamer-target interaction that stabilises a G-quadruplex structure, bringing high negative charge density near the CNT channel. Electrostatic gating is established via the specificity and the sign of the current response, and by observing its suppression when higher ionic strength decreases the Debye length at the CNT-water interface. Sensitivity towards potassium and selectivity against other ions is demonstrated in both resistive mode and real time transistor mode measurements. The effective device architecture presented, along with the identification of clear response signatures, should inform the development of new electronic biosensors using the growing library of aptamer receptors. PMID:27376166

  6. Remote Joule heating by a carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Kamal H.; Voskanian, Norvik; Bronsgeest, Merijntje; Cumings, John

    2012-05-01

    Minimizing Joule heating remains an important goal in the design of electronic devices. The prevailing model of Joule heating relies on a simple semiclassical picture in which electrons collide with the atoms of a conductor, generating heat locally and only in regions of non-zero current density, and this model has been supported by most experiments. Recently, however, it has been predicted that electric currents in graphene and carbon nanotubes can couple to the vibrational modes of a neighbouring material, heating it remotely. Here, we use in situ electron thermal microscopy to detect the remote Joule heating of a silicon nitride substrate by a single multiwalled carbon nanotube. At least 84% of the electrical power supplied to the nanotube is dissipated directly into the substrate, rather than in the nanotube itself. Although it has different physical origins, this phenomenon is reminiscent of induction heating or microwave dielectric heating. Such an ability to dissipate waste energy remotely could lead to improved thermal management in electronic devices.

  7. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  8. Carbon nanotube-ceramic nanocomposites: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael David

    Ceramic materials are widely used in modern society for a variety of applications including fuel cell electrolytes, bio-medical implants, and jet turbines. However, ceramics are inherently brittle making them excellent candidates for mechanical reinforcement. In this work, the feasibility of dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes into a silicon carbide matrix for mechanical property enhancement is explored. Prior to dispersing, nanotubes were purified using an optimized, three step methodology that incorporates oxidative treatment, acid sonication, and thermal annealing rendering near-superhydrophobic behavior in synthesized thin films. Alkyl functionalized nanotube dispersability was characterized in various solvents. Dispersability was contingent on fostering polar interactions between the functionalized nanotubes and solvent despite the purely dispersive nature of the aliphatic chains. Interpretation of these results yielded values of 45.6 +/- 1.2, 0.78 +/- 0.04, and 2 4 +/- 0.9 mJ/m2 for the Lifshitz-van der Waals, electron acceptor and electron donor surface energy components respectively. Aqueous nanotube dispersions were prepared using a number of surfactants to examine surfactant concentration and pH effects on nanotube dispersability. Increasing surfactant concentrations resulted in a solubility plateau, which was independent of the surfactant's critical micelle concentration. Deviations from neutral pH demonstrated negligible influence on non-ionic surfactant adsorption while, ionic surfactants showed substantial pH dependent behavior. These results were explained in the context of nanotube surface ionization and Debye length variation. Successful MWNT dispersion into a silicon carbide based matrix is reported by in-situ ceramic formation using two routes; sol-gel chemistry and pre-ceramic polymeric precursor workup. For the former, nanotube dispersion was assisted by PluronicRTM surfactants. Pyrolytic treatment and consolidation of formed powders

  9. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  10. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons

  11. Automated circuit fabrication and direct characterization of carbon nanotube vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, G; Shlafman, M; Tabachnik, T; Rogachevsky, Z; Rechnitz, S; Goldshtein, I; Shlafman, S; Gordon, N; Alchanati, G; Itzhak, M; Moshe, Y; Hajaj, E M; Nir, H; Milyutin, Y; Izraeli, T Y; Razin, A; Shtempluck, O; Kotchtakov, V; Yaish, Y E

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have fascinated many researchers due to their unprecedented properties. However, a major drawback in utilizing carbon nanotubes for practical applications is the difficulty in positioning or growing them at specific locations. Here we present a simple, rapid, non-invasive and scalable technique that enables optical imaging of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotube scaffold serves as a seed for nucleation and growth of small size, optically visible nanocrystals. After imaging the molecules can be removed completely, leaving the surface intact, and thus the carbon nanotube electrical and mechanical properties are preserved. The successful and robust optical imaging allowed us to develop a dedicated image processing algorithm through which we are able to demonstrate a fully automated circuit design resulting in field effect transistors and inverters. Moreover, we demonstrate that this imaging method allows not only to locate carbon nanotubes but also, as in the case of suspended ones, to study their dynamic mechanical motion. PMID:27396506

  12. CARBON NANOTUBES: AN APPROACH TO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alai et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of material science as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They have unique electronic, mechanical, optical and chemical properties that make them good candidates for a wide variety of applications, including drug transporters, new therapeutics, delivery systems and diagnostics. Their unique surface area, stiffness, strength and resilience have led to much excitement in the field of pharmacy. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes, multiple walled nanotubes. Various techniques have been developed to produce nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition. They can pass through membranes, carrying therapeutic drugs, vaccines and nucleic acids deep into the cell to targets previously unreachable. Purification of the tubes can be divided into a couple of main techniques: oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering and functionalization techniques. The main problem of insolubility in aqueous media has been solved by developing a synthetic protocol that allows highly water-soluble carbon NTs to be obtained. The modifications are done to improve efficiency of carbon nanotubes by formulating luminescent carbon nanotubes, ultrathin carbon nanoneedles, magnetically guided nanotubes. The application of carbon nanotube in tissue engineering, drug carrier release system, wound healing, in cancer treatment and as biosensor. Researchers have recently developed a new approach to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the treatment of cancer using substituted Carborane-Appended Water-Soluble single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  13. Flow-driven voltage generation in carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Sood; S Ghosh; Anindya Das

    2005-10-01

    The flow of various liquids and gases over single-walled carbon nanotube bundles induces an electrical signal (voltage/current) in the sample along the direction of the flow. The electrical response generated by the flow of liquids is found to be logarithmic in the flow speed over a wide range. In contrast, voltage generated by the flow of gas is quadratically dependent on the gas flow velocity. It was found that the underlying physics for the generation of electrical signals by liquids and gases are different. For the liquid, the Coulombic interaction between the ions in the liquid and the charge carriers in the nanotube plays a key role while electrical signal generation due to gas flow is due to an interplay of Bernoulli's principle and Seebeck effect. Unlike the liquid case which is specific to the nanotubes, the gas flow effect can be seen for a variety of solids ranging from single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphite and doped semiconductors.

  14. Carbon nanotubes: are they dispersed or dissolved in liquids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Kurt Ernst; Premkumar, Thathan

    2011-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) constitute a novel class of nanomaterials with remarkable applications in diverse domains. However, the main intrincsic problem of CNTs is their insolubility or very poor solubility in most of the common solvents. The basic key question here is: are carbon nanotubes dissolved or dispersed in liquids, specifically in water? When analyzing the scientific research articles published in various leading journals, we found that many researchers confused between "dispersion" and "solubilization" and use the terms interchangeably, particularly when stating the interaction of CNTs with liquids. In this article, we address this fundamental issue to give basic insight specifically to the researchers who are working with CNTs as well asgenerally to scientists who deal with nano-related research domains.

  15. A Highly Viscous Imidazolium Ionic Liquid inside Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohba, T.; Chaban, Vitaly V.

    2014-01-01

    -3 nm wide CNTs at slightly elevated temperatures (323-363 K). Molecular simulations were used to assign atom-atom peaks. Experimental and simulated structures of RTIL inside CNT and in bulk phase are in good agreement. We emphasize a special role of the CNT-chloride interactions in the successful......We report a combined experimental (X-ray diffraction) and theoretical (molecular dynamics, hybrid density functional theory) study of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C2C1MIM][Cl], inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We show that despite its huge viscosity [C2C1MIM][Cl] readily penetrates into 1...... adsorption of [C2C1MIM][Cl] on the inner sidewalls of 1-3 nm carbon nanotubes....

  16. A highly viscous imidazolium ionic liquid inside carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Tomonori; Chaban, Vitaly V

    2014-06-12

    We report a combined experimental (X-ray diffraction) and theoretical (molecular dynamics, hybrid density functional theory) study of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C2C1MIM][Cl], inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We show that despite its huge viscosity [C2C1MIM][Cl] readily penetrates into 1-3 nm wide CNTs at slightly elevated temperatures (323-363 K). Molecular simulations were used to assign atom-atom peaks. Experimental and simulated structures of RTIL inside CNT and in bulk phase are in good agreement. We emphasize a special role of the CNT-chloride interactions in the successful adsorption of [C2C1MIM][Cl] on the inner sidewalls of 1-3 nm carbon nanotubes.

  17. Magnetic studies of polystyrene/iron-filled multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, T. L.; Zakharchuk, I.; Geydt, P.; Lahderanta, E.; Komlev, A. A.; Zyrianova, A. A.; Kanygin, M. A.; Sedelnikova, O. V.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Okotrub, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Polystyrene/iron-filled multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films were prepared by solution processing, forge-rolling and stretching methods. Elongated iron carbide nanoparticles formed because of catalytic growth are situated inside the hollow cavity of the nanotubes. Magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as records of isothermal hysteresis loops performed in three perpendicular directions of magnetic field confirmed that the nanotubes have a preferential alignment in the matrix. Strong diamagnetic anisotropy in the composites emerges not only from the MWCNTs but also from the polystyrene matrix. The polymer sticks to the honeycomb lattice through the interaction of the π-orbitals of the phenyl ring and those of the carbon nanotube, contributing to anisotropic diamagnetic response. The contribution of iron nanoparticles to overall magnetic response strongly depends on nanotube concentration in the composite as well as on matrix-filler non-covalent stacking, which influences magnetic interparticle interactions.

  18. Thermal Spreading in Carbon Nanotube Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duckjong; Shin, Dong-Sig; Yu, Jeonghwan; Kim, Haesik; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Woo, Chang-Su

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, have attracted significant attention as good candidates for next-generation heat-spreading materials because of their high thermal conductivity, mechanical flexibility, etc. Regarding the thermal spreading performance of carbon-based nanofilms, remarkable test results have been reported mainly from the industrial side, but their validity and the physical mechanism underlying the heat transfer enhancement are still under debate. In this study, we assess the thermal spreading performance of a multi-walled CNT film on a copper foil using a non-contact characterization method in a simple and methodical manner, and discuss the possibility of carbon nanofilms as heat spreaders based on the experimental and numerical results. This study provides useful information on heat transfer enhancement by carbon nanofilms and could contribute to the development of high-performance carbon-based heat-spreading coatings. PMID:26726629

  19. Hexagonal silicon nanotube confined inside a carbon nanotube: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weijuan; Yan, Xiaohong; Xiao, Yang

    2008-02-01

    We studied the stability, geometrical structures and electronic energy band of hexagonal silicon nanotube (SiNT) confined inside carbon nanotubes based on first-principle calculations. The results show that the encapsulating process of SiNT is exothermic in ( 9,9) carbon nanotube while endothermic in ( 8,8) and ( 7,7) carbon nanotubes. When the SiNT is inserted into ( 9,9) carbon nanotube, the insertion energy is about 0.09 eV. Energy band of SiNT@( 9,9) nanotube is not distorted greatly compared with the superposition of bands of isolated SiNT and ( 9,9) carbon nanotube. Especially, a parabolic band occurs near the Fermi level of energy band in SiNT@( 7,7) nanotube. Such a band could be a nearly free electronic state originating from carbon nanotube. Moreover, we discuss the variation of total energy as the SiNT rotates around its axis inside carbon nanotubes.

  20. Compressive strength and microstructure of carbon nanotubes-fly ash cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, carbon nanotubes of 0.5 and 1% by weight were added for the first time in a fly ash cement system to produce carbon nanotubes-fly ash composites in the form of pastes and mortars. Compressive strengths of the composites were then investigated. It was found that the use of carbon nanotubes resulted in higher strength of fly ash mortars. The highest strength obtained for 20% fly ash cement mortars was found at 1% carbon nanotubes where the compressive strength at 28 days was 51.8 MPa. This benefit can clearly be seen in fly ash cement with fly ash of 20% where the importance of the addition of carbon nanotubes means that the relative strength to that of Portland cement became almost 100% at 28 days. In addition, scanning electron micrographs also showed that good interaction between carbon nanotubes and the fly ash cement matrix is seen with carbon nanotubes acting as a filler resulting in a denser microstructure and higher strength when compared to the reference fly ash mix without CNTs.

  1. Carbon nanotubes instruct physiological growth and functionally mature syncytia: nongenetic engineering of cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Valentina; Cellot, Giada; Toma, Francesca Maria; Long, Carlin S; Caldwell, John H; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Turco, Antonio; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura; Mestroni, Luisa

    2013-07-23

    Myocardial tissue engineering currently represents one of the most realistic strategies for cardiac repair. We have recently discovered the ability of carbon nanotube scaffolds to promote cell division and maturation in cardiomyocytes. Here, we test the hypothesis that carbon nanotube scaffolds promote cardiomyocyte growth and maturation by altering the gene expression program, implementing the cell electrophysiological properties and improving networking and maturation of functional syncytia. In our study, we combine microscopy, biological and electrophysiological methodologies, and calcium imaging, to verify whether neonatal rat ventricular myocytes cultured on substrates of multiwall carbon nanotubes acquire a physiologically more mature phenotype compared to control (gelatin). We show that the carbon nanotube substrate stimulates the induction of a gene expression profile characteristic of terminal differentiation and physiological growth, with a 2-fold increase of α-myosin heavy chain (P carbon nanotubes appear to exert a protective effect against the pathologic stimulus of phenylephrine. Finally, cardiomyocytes on carbon nanotubes demonstrate a more mature electrophysiological phenotype of syncytia and intracellular calcium signaling. Thus, carbon nanotubes interacting with cardiomyocytes have the ability to promote physiological growth and functional maturation. These properties are unique in the current vexing field of tissue engineering, and offer unprecedented perspectives in the development of innovative therapies for cardiac repair.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Composites for Electronic Packaging Applications: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lavanya Aryasomayajula; Klaus-Juergen Wolter

    2013-01-01

    Composite engineering comprises of metal matrix composites. They have high strength-weight ratio, better stiffness, economical production, and ease of availability of raw materials. The discovery of carbon nanotubes has opened new possibilities to face challenges better. Carbon Nanotubes are known for their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal and electrical properties. Recent research has made progress in fabricating carbon nanotube metal matrix and polymer-based composites. The metho...

  3. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2010-01-01

    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  4. A statistical mechanics model of carbon nanotube macro-films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube macro-films are two-dimensional films with micrometer thickness and centimeter by centimeter in-plane dimension.These carbon nanotube macroscopic assemblies have attracted significant attention from the material and mechanics communities recently because they can be easily handled and tailored to meet specific engineering needs.This paper reports the experimental methods on the preparation and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube macro-films,and a statistical mechanics model on ...

  5. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  6. Mechanism of exciton dephasing in a single carbon nanotube studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Kohei; Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Matsuda, Kazunari; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    We studied the temperature and chirality dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) linewidth of single carbon nanotubes to clarify the mechanism of exciton dephasing. The PL linewidth of a single carbon nanotube broadened linearly with increasing temperature, indicating that the linewidth and exciton dephasing are determined through exciton-phonon interactions. From the chirality dependence of the PL linewidth, we concluded that exciton dephasing is caused by both the longitudinal acoustic and...

  7. Gate-controlled generation of optical pulse trains using individual carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, M; Kumamoto, Y.; Ishii, A; Yoshida, M.; Shimada, T; Kato, Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    In single-walled carbon nanotubes, electron–hole pairs form tightly bound excitons because of limited screening. These excitons display a variety of interactions and processes that could be exploited for applications in nanoscale photonics and optoelectronics. Here we report on optical pulse-train generation from individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes under an application of square-wave gate voltages. Electrostatically induced carrier accumulation quenches photoluminescence, while a voltag...

  8. The preparation of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes as high efficiency DNA carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The positively charged single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs+) were prepared by conjugating with -CONH-C6H12-NH3+.The double strand DNA (dsDNA) chains were loaded onto SWNTs+ via the electrostatic interactions. SWNTs+ shows improved loading efficiency (353.5 μg/mg) toward dsDNA compared with that of charged free single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)(82.9 μg/mg).

  9. Carbon nanotubes buckypapers for potential transdermal drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwengber, Alex [PINMATE-Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Prado, Héctor J. [PINMATE-Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cátedra de Tecnología Farmacéutica II, Departamento de Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zilli, Darío A. [PINMATE-Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonelli, Pablo R. [PINMATE-Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-12-01

    Drug loaded buckypapers based on different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared and characterized in order to evaluate their potentialities for the design of novel transdermal drug delivery systems. Lab-synthesized CNTs as well as commercial samples were employed. Clonidine hydrochloride was used as model drug, and the influence of composition of the drug loaded buckypapers and processing variables on in vitro release profiles was investigated. To examine the influence of the drug nature the evaluation was further extended to buckypapers prepared with flurbiprofen and one type of CNTs, their selection being based on the results obtained with the former drug. Scanning electronic microscopy images indicated that the model drugs were finely dispersed on the CNTs. Differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction pointed to an amorphous state of both drugs in the buckypapers. A higher degree of CNT–drug superficial interactions resulted in a slower release of the drug. These interactions were in turn affected by the type of CNTs employed (single wall or multiwall CNTs), their functionalization with hydroxyl or carboxyl groups, the chemical structure of the drug, and the CNT:drug mass ratio. Furthermore, the application of a second layer of drug free CNTs on the loaded buckypaper, led to decelerate the drug release and to reduce the burst effect. - Highlights: • Drug loaded buckypapers from carbon nanotubes were prepared and characterized. • Their potentialities for transdermal drug delivery applications were evaluated. • Characteristics of carbon nanotubes and the structure of the drug affected release • A higher carbon nanotube:drug mass ratio decelerated release • Up to one week controlled release profiles were obtained for the drug flurbiprofen.

  10. Nanoscale fluid transportation through individual carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Cao, Di; Pang, Pei; Luo, Tao; Lindsay, Stuart; Kristic, Predrag; Nuckolls, Colin

    2011-03-01

    There are great interest in both simulation and experiment of fluid flow on the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes, with their extremely small inner diameter (usually below 2 nm) and atomic smooth inner surface, are ideal materials for studying nanoconfinement and ion and molecule nanoscale translocation. The excellent electrical properties of CNTs can also be integrated to achieve nanoelectrofluidic device. This presentation describes our recent progress in studying fluid transport through individual carbon nanotubes, including simultaneously ionic and electronic measurements during water, ion and molecule translocation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01).

  11. Advanced technology for functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Meng; Chuanlong Fu; Qinghua Lu

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted considerable interest in the fields of physics, chemistry, material science and biology. The functionalized CNTs exhibit improved properties enabling facile fabrication of novel nanomaterials and nanodevices. Most of the functionalization approaches developed at present could be categorized into the covalent attachment of functional groups and the non-covalent adsorption of various functional molecules onto the surface of CNTs. This review highlights recent development and our work in functionalization of carbon nanotubes, leading to bio-compatible CNTs, fluorescent CNTs and transition metal func-tionalizcd CNTs. These novel methods possess advantages such as simplified technical procedures and reduced cost of novel nanoma-terials and nanodcvices fabrication.

  12. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F.; Tu, Yi

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  13. Films, Buckypapers and Fibers from Clay, Chitosan and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc in het Panhuis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and electrical characteristics of films, buckypapers and fiber materials from combinations of clay, carbon nanotubes (CNTs and chitosan are described. The rheological time-dependent characteristics of clay are maintained in clay–carbon nanotube–chitosan composite dispersions. It is demonstrated that the addition of chitosan improves their mechanical characteristics, but decreases electrical conductivity by three-orders of magnitude compared to clay–CNT materials. We show that the electrical response upon exposure to humid atmosphere is influenced by clay-chitosan interactions, i.e., the resistance of clay–CNT materials decreases, whereas that of clay–CNT–chitosan increases.

  14. Carbon nanotube based stationary phases for microchip chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview and critical evaluation of the use of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microchip chromatography. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, such as a very high surface area and intriguing adsorptive behaviour, have...

  15. A Carbon Nanotube Cable for a Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in connection with the possibility to use them for the construction of a space elevator. From the fundamental information about the structure of a carbon nanotube and the chemical bond between carbon atoms, Young's modulus and the ultimate tensile strength are…

  16. Electrostatic sensing and electrochemistry with single carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental study of devices based on single carbon nanotubes in the context of (bio)sensing in aqueous solutions. Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules of sp2- carbon, about one nanometer in diameter and typically several micrometers long, which have semiconducting o

  17. Covalent cum noncovalent functionalizations of carbon nanotubes for effective reinforcement of a solution cast composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2012-04-01

    Although carbon nanotubes have impressive tensile properties, exploiting these properties in composites, especially those made by the common solution casting technique, seems to be elusive thus far. The reasons could be partly due to the poor nanotube dispersion and the weak nanotube/matrix interface. To solve this dual pronged problem, we combine noncovalent and covalent functionalizations of nanotubes in a single system by the design and application of a novel dispersant, hydroxyl polyimide-graft-bisphenol A diglyceryl acrylate (PI(OH)-BDA), and use them with epoxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (O-SWNTs). Our novel PI(OH)-BDA dispersant functionalizes the nanotubes noncovalently to achieve good dispersion of the nanotubes because of the strong π-π interaction due to main chain and steric hindrance of the BDA side chain. PI(OH)-BDA also functionalizes O-SWNTs covalently because it reacts with epoxide groups on the nanotubes, as well as the cyanate ester (CE) matrix used. The resulting solution-cast CE composites show 57%, 71%, and 124% increases in Young's modulus, tensile strength, and toughness over neat CE. These values are higher than those of composites reinforced with pristine SWNTs, epoxidized SWNTs, and pristine SWNTs dispersed with PI(OH)-BDA. The modulus and strength increase per unit nanotube weight fraction, i.e., dE/dW(NT) and dσ/dW(NT), are 175 GPa and 7220 MPa, respectively, which are significantly higher than those of other nanotube/thermosetting composites (22-70 GPa and 140-3540 MPa, respectively). Our study indicates that covalent cum noncovalent functionalization of nanotubes is an effective tool for improving both the nanotube dispersion and nanotube/matrix interfacial interaction, resulting in significantly improved mechanical reinforcement of the solution-cast composites. PMID:22432973

  18. Spontaneous exciton dissociation in carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumamoto, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Ishii, A; Yokoyama, A.; Shimada, T; Kato, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes reveal spontaneous dissociation of excitons into free electron-hole pairs. Correlation of luminescence intensity and photocurrent shows that a significant fraction of excitons are dissociating during their relaxation into the lowest exciton state. Furthermore, the combination of optical and electrical signals also allows for extraction of the absorption cross section and the oscillator st...

  19. Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes for Protein Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobin Fan; Fengbao Zhang; Guoliang Zhang; Xiuhui Diao; Hongyu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic separation is a promising strategy in protein separation. Owing to their unique one-dimensional structures and desired magnetic properties, stacked-cup carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles trapped in their tips can serve as train-like systems for protein separation. In this study, we functionalized the magnetic CSCNTs with high density of carboxyl groups by radical addition and then anchored 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) through amidation reaction to achieve orien...

  20. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hyeob Kim; Cheong Hoon Kwon; Changsun Lee; Jieun An; Tam Thi Thanh Phuong; Sun Hwa Park; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tong Mook Kang; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with p...

  1. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Valentini; Silvia Bittolo Bon; Stefano Signetti; Manoj Tripathi; Erica Iacob; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extr...

  2. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  3. Composites with polymer-grafted carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, M. C.; Novais, R. M.; Covas, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites exhibit the processability advantages of plastics, while conveying electrical conductivity characteristics suitable for electric transport, or for sensing functionalities. The success of their application depends on the ability to homogeneously disperse the CNT in the polymer matrices to form a stable conductive network. The structural strength of the nanocomposite is also desirable, and may be a requirement. The chemical functionalization of the CNT i...

  4. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Yuhe Zhu; Susan Liao; Jiajia Li

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matr...

  5. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  6. Carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposite infrared sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Basudev; Setyowati, Kristina; Liu, Haiying; Waldeck, David H; Chen, Jian

    2008-04-01

    The infrared photoresponse in the electrical conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is dramatically enhanced by embedding SWNTs in an electrically and thermally insulating polymer matrix. The conductivity change in a 5 wt % SWNT-polycarbonate nanocomposite is significant (4.26%) and sharp upon infrared illumination in the air at room temperature. While the thermal effect predominates in the infrared photoresponse of a pure SWNT film, the photoeffect predominates in the infrared photoresponse of SWNT-polycarbonate nanocomposites. PMID:18333623

  7. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future.

  8. Exciton-assisted optomechanics with suspended carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a framework for inducing strong optomechanical effects in a suspended carbon nanotube based on deformation potential (DP) exciton–phonon coupling. The excitons are confined using an inhomogeneous axial electric field which generates optically active quantum dots with a level spacing in the milli-electronvolt range and a characteristic size in the 10 nm range. A transverse field induces a tunable parametric coupling between the quantum dot and the flexural modes of the nanotube mediated by electron–phonon interactions. We derive the corresponding excitonic DPs and show that this interaction enables efficient optical ground-state cooling of the fundamental mode and could allow us to realize the strong and ultra-strong coupling regimes of the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi models. (paper)

  9. Fast Electromechanical Switches Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama; Wong, Eric; Epp, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated nanoelectromechanical switches based on carbon nanotubes have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop high-speed switches for a variety of stationary and portable electronic equipment. As explained below, these devices offer advantages over electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical switches, which, heretofore, have represented the state of the art of rapid, highly miniaturized electromechanical switches. Potential applications for these devices include computer memories, cellular telephones, communication networks, scientific instrumentation, and general radiation-hard electronic equipment. A representative device of the present type includes a single-wall carbon nanotube suspended over a trench about 130 nm wide and 20 nm deep in an electrically insulating material. The ends of the carbon nanotube are connected to metal electrodes, denoted the source and drain electrodes. At bottom of the trench is another metal electrode, denoted the pull electrode (see figure). In the off or open switch state, no voltage is applied, and the nanotube remains out of contact with the pull electrode. When a sufficiently large electric potential (switching potential) is applied between the pull electrode and either or both of the source and drain electrodes, the resulting electrostatic attraction bends and stretches the nanotube into contact with the pull electrode, thereby putting the switch into the "on" or "closed" state, in which substantial current (typically as much as hundreds of nanoamperes) is conducted. Devices of this type for use in initial experiments were fabricated on a thermally oxidized Si wafer, onto which Nb was sputter-deposited for use as the pull-electrode layer. Nb was chosen because its refractory nature would enable it to withstand the chemical and thermal conditions to be subsequently imposed for growing carbon nanotubes. A 200- nm-thick layer of SiO2 was formed on top of the Nb layer by plasma

  10. Ferroelectric–carbon nanotube memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional ferroelectric nanostructures, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and CNT–inorganic oxides have recently been studied due to their potential applications for microelectronics. Here, we report coating of a registered array of aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) grown on silicon substrates by functional ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) which produces structures suitable for commercial prototype memories. Microstructural analysis reveals the crystalline nature of PZT with small nanocrystals aligned in different directions. First-order Raman modes of MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si show the high structural quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition at elevated temperature. PZT exists mostly in the monoclinic Cc/Cm phase, which is the origin of the high piezoelectric response in the system. Low–loss square piezoelectric hysteresis obtained for the 3D bottom-up structure confirms the switchability of the device. Current–voltage mapping of the device by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) indicates very low transient current. Fabrication and functional properties of these hybrid ferroelectric–carbon nanotubes is the first step towards miniaturization for future nanotechnology sensors, actuators, transducers and memory devices. (paper)

  11. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  12. Fluoride and lead adsorption on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuguang; LI Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The properties and applications of CNT have been studied extensively since Iijima discovered them in 1991[1,2]. They have exceptional mechanical properties and unique electrical property, highly chemical stability and large specific surface area. Thus far, they have widely potential applications in many fields. They can be used as reinforcing materials in composites[3], field emissions[4], hydrogen storage[5], nanoelectronic components[6], catalyst supports[7], adsorption material and so on. However, the study on the potential application of CNT, environmental protection field in particular, was hardly begun.Long[8] et al. reported that CNT had a significantly higher dioxin removal efficiency than that of activated carbon. The Langmuir adsorption constant is 2.7 × 1052, 1.3 × 1018 respectively. The results indicated that CNT is potential candidate for the removal of micro-organic pollutants. However, the reports on the CNT used as fluoride and heavy metal adsorbent are seldom.In this paper, A novel material, alumina supported on carbon nanotubes (Al2O3/CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and Al(NO3)3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra demonstrate that alumina is amorphous, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that CNT and alumina are homogeneously mixed. Furthermore, the fluoride adsorption behavior on the surface of Al2O3/CNT has been investigated and compared with other adsorbents. The results indicate that Al2O3/CNT has a high adsorption capacity, with a saturation adsorption capacity of 39.4 mg/g. It is also found that the adsorption capacity of Al2O3/CNT is 3.0~4.5 times that of γ-Al2O3while almost equal to that of IRA-410 polymeric resin at 25 ℃. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride on Al2O3/CNT is fit the Freundlich equation well, optimal pH ranging from 5.0 to 9.0.Also in this paper, a novel material, modified carbon nanotubes (CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and HNO3 under boiling condition. Infrared spectroscopy (IR

  13. Preparation of carbon nanotubes by MPECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the synthesis of CNTs due to the vertical alignment, the large area growth, the lower growth temperature, uniform heat distribution and the good control of the different growth parameters. In this work we present our results about the preparation of carbon nanotube with different morphologies by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition MPECVD. Well aligned, curly and coiled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. We have investigated the effect of the different growth condition parameters such as type of the catalyst, pressure and the hydrogen to methane flow rate ratio on the morphology of the carbon nanotubes. The results were showed that there is a great dependence of the morphology of carbon nanotubes on these parameters. There is a linear relation between the growth rate and the methane to hydrogen ratio. We found that the growth rate has a great dependence on the amount of methane. For example the growth rate varied from the value 1,34 μm/min when the methane flow rate was 10 sccm to more than 14 μm/min when the methane flow rate was raised to 50 sccm. This growth rate is greater than that reported in the literature. The effect of the gas pressure on the CNTs was also studied. The Raman spectra (excitation wavelength 473 nm) of all samples show D-band peak at around 1300 cm-1 and G-band peak at around 1580 cm-1, which indicate that our CNTs are multi wall CNTs (MWCNTs). The D-band and the G-band correspond to sp2 and sp3 carbon stretching modes relatively, and their intensity ratio is a measure of the amount of disorder in the CNTs. The D-band is known to be attributed to the carbonaceous particles, defects in the curved graphitic sheet and tube ends. It has been suggested that lower Ig/Id ratios and narrower first and second order D and G bands are suggestive of well-aligned NNTs. The photoluminescence PL

  14. Exciton decay dynamics in individual carbon nanotubes at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gokus, Tobias; Hartschuh, Achim; Harutyunyan, Hayk; Allegrini, Maria; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred; Green, Alexander A.; Hersam, Mark C.; Araujo, Paulo T.; Jorio, Ado

    2008-01-01

    We studied the exciton decay dynamics of individual semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes at room temperature using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence decay from nanotubes of the same (n,m) type follows a single exponential decay function, however, with lifetimes varying between about 1 and 40 ps from nanotube to nanotube. A correlation between broad photoluminescence spectra and short lifetimes was found and explained by defects promoting both nonradi...

  15. Modelling the elastic behaviour of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Otero-Gruer, Fermín; Oller Martínez, Sergio Horacio; Martínez García, Javier; Salomón, Ramón Omar

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), since their discovery by Lij ima in 1991 [1], are considered a new generation of reinforcement [2]. Their "nano" size structure makes them potentially free of defects, which provides them with excellent physical properties [3,4]. There are two main nanotube types: single wall nanotubes (SWNT), which are made of a single wall tube; and multiwall nanotubes (MWNT), which consist in several concentric walls, one inside the other. In a composite, one the most importa...

  16. Numerical modelling of behaviour of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Otero-Gruer, Fermín; Oller Martínez, Sergio Horacio; Martínez García, Javier; Salomón, Ramón Omar

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery by Lijima in 1991[1], carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are considered a new generation of reinforcement [2]. Their "nano" size structure makes them potentially free of defects, which provides them with excellent physical properties [3,4]. There are two main nanotube types: single wall nanotubes (SWNT) and multi wall nanotubes (MWNT). These last ones consist in several concentric walls, one inside the other. In a composite, one the most important factors that condition thei...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube reinforced copper thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    Two model composites of copper and carbon nanotubes were fabricated by very different deposition methods. Copper electrodeposition in a plating bath containing nanotubes created a 3D matrix of randomly oriented CNTs within a thick, 20 micron Cu film. In contrast, sandwiching a layer of well-separated nanotubes between two sub-micron sputtered Cu layers produced a 2D-composite with nanotubes lying parallel to the substrate surface. These composites, which were mechanically tested using var...

  18. Carbon Nanotubes:from Nanoscale Building Blocks to Macrostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have fascinating properties.In order to use these novel one-dimensional structures for applications such as in nano-electronic,nano-mechanical and electrochemical energy storage device and as structural elements in various composites,the structure of nanotubes needs to be tailored and various architectures and macroscale assembles have to be configured using nanotube building blocks.Nanotube macrostructures are macroscopically organized groups of CNTs,which are expecte...

  19. Electronic transport properties of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹觉先; 颜晓红; 肖杨; 丁建文

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the differential conductance of metallic carbon nanotubes by the scatter matrix method. It is found that the differential conductance of metallic nanotube-based devices oscillates as a function of the bias voltage between the two leads and the gate voltage. Oscillation period T is directly proportional to the reciprocal of nanotube length. In addition, we found that electronic transport properties are sensitive to variation of the length of the nanotube.

  20. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J.; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting–dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension...

  1. Ecotoxicological effects of carbofuran and oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the freshwater fish Nile tilapia: nanotubes enhance pesticide ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Garcia, Janaína; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T; Alves, Oswaldo L; Leonardo, Antônio Fernando Gervásio; Barbieri, Edison

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of carbon nanotubes with pesticides, such as carbofuran, classical contaminants (e.g., pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and dyes) and emerging contaminants, including endocrine disruptors, are critical components of the environmental risks of this important class of carbon-based nanomaterials. In this work, we studied the modulation of acute carbofuran toxicity to the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes, termed HNO3-MWCNT. Nitric acid oxidation is a common chemical method employed for the purification, functionalisation and aqueous dispersion of carbon nanotubes. HNO3-MWCNT were not toxic to Nile tilapia at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L for exposure times of up to 96 h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the LC50 values of carbofuran were 4.0, 3.2, 3.0 and 2.4 mg/mL, respectively. To evaluate the influence of carbofuran-nanotube interactions on ecotoxicity, we exposed the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of carbofuran mixed together with a non-toxic concentration of HNO3-MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, the LC50 values of carbofuran plus nanotubes were 3.7, 1.6, 0.7 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. These results demonstrate that HNO3-MWCNT potentiate the acute toxicity of carbofuran, leading to a more than five-fold increase in the LC50 values. Furthermore, the exposure of Nile tilapia to carbofuran plus nanotubes led to decreases in both oxygen consumption and swimming capacity compared to the control. These findings indicate that carbon nanotubes could act as pesticide carriers affecting fish survival, metabolism and behaviour.

  2. Van Hove singularities and nonlinear photoluminescence in multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yan-hong; MIAO Run-cai; LIU Bao-ying

    2006-01-01

    The absorption spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of multiwalled carbon nanotubes(MWNTs) and the peaks related with Van Hove singularities(VHS) were obtained experimentally.Both the VHS formation and the change of band gaps in MWNTs depend on the intershell interaction.The VHS makes the probability of optical transitions enhanced,but the intershell interaction suppresses such radiative transitions.The excitation in the experiment involves a two-photon absorption process and the emission light has the effect of the optical frequency up-conversion.

  3. Terahertz response of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terahertz (THz) research field is expected to serve as a new platform for studying low-energy excitation in solids and higher-order structures in large molecules, and for realizing applications in medicine, agriculture, security, and high-capacity communications. The THz frequency region, however, is located between the electronic and photonic bands, hampering the development of basic components like detectors and sources. This article presents an overview of basic background information about THz waves and THz detector applications and describes the THz response of carbon-based low-dimensional systems, such as single carbon nanotubes (CNT), CNT-array films, and graphene. (author)

  4. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarillo-Herrero, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic transport through nanostructures can be very different from trans- port in macroscopic conductors, especially at low temperatures. Carbon na- notubes are tiny cylinders made of carbon atoms. Their remarkable electronic and mechanical properties, together with their small size (a few nm in

  5. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Levitsky, Igor A; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials describes physical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the emerging class of nanocomposites formed from carbon nanotubes (CNTs)  interfacing with organic and inorganic materials. The three main chapters detail novel trends in  photophysics related to the interaction of  light with various carbon nanotube composites from relatively simple CNT/small molecule assemblies to complex hybrids such as CNT/Si and CNT/DNA nanostructures.   The latest experimental results are followed up with detailed discussions and scientific and technological perspectives to provide a through coverage of major topics including: ·   Light harvesting, energy conversion, photoinduced charge separation  and transport  in CNT based nanohybrids · CNT/polymer composites exhibiting photoactuation; and ·         Optical  spectroscopy  and structure of CNT/DNA complexes. Including original data and a short review of recent research, Phot...

  6. Excitonic nonlinearities in single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.T.; Voisin, C.; Roussignol, P. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR8551, Paris (France); Roquelet, C.; Lauret, J.S. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan (France); Cassabois, G. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR8551, Paris (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR5221, Universite Montpellier 2, Montpellier (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR5221, Montpellier (France)

    2012-05-15

    Excitons are composite bosons that allow a fair description of the optical properties in solid state systems. The quantum confinement in nanostructures enhances the excitonic effects and impacts the exciton-exciton interactions, which tailor the performances of classical and quantum optoelectronic devices, such as lasers or single-photon emitters. The excitonic nonlinearities exhibit significant differences between organic and inorganic compounds. Tightly bound Frenkel excitons in molecular crystals are for instance affected by an efficient exciton-exciton annihilation (EEA). This Auger process also governs the population relaxation dynamics in carbon nanotubes that share many physical properties with organic materials. Here, we show that this similarity breaks down for the excitonic decoherence in carbon nanotubes. Original nonlinear spectral-hole burning experiments bring evidence of pure dephasing induced by exciton-exciton scattering (EES) in the k-space. This mechanism controls the exciton collision-induced broadening, as for Wannier excitons in inorganic semiconductors. We demonstrate that this singular behavior originates from the intrinsic one-dimensionality of excitons in carbon nanotubes, which display unique hybrid features of organic and inorganic systems. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Carbon nanotube based gecko inspired self-cleaning adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunny; Ge, Liehui; Ajayan, Pulickel; Ali, Dhinojwala

    2008-03-01

    Wall climbing organisms like geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without use of any viscoelastic material. The hairy structure found in gecko feet allows them to obtain intimate contact over a large area thus allowing then to adhere using van der Waals interactions. Not only high adhesion, the geometry of the hairs makes gecko feet self cleaning, thus allowing them to walk continuously without worrying about loosing adhesive strength. Such properties if mimicked synthetically could form basis of a new class of materials, which, unlike conventional adhesives would show two contradictory properties, self cleaning and high adhesion. Such materials would form essential component of applications like wall climbing robot. We tried to synthesize such material using micropatterened vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. When dealing with large areas, probability of defects in the structure increase, forming patterns instead of using uniform film of carbon nanotubes helps to inhibit crack propagation, thus gives much higher adhesive strength than a uniform film. When carbon nanotube patterns with optimized aspect ratio are used, both high adhesion and self cleaning properties are observed.

  8. Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, Hamid Reza; Moghadam, Firoozeh Karimi [Department of Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes.

  9. Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes

  10. Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Ying; Liu, Ying; Doyle, James; He, Nan; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Bai, Jinrui; Blau, Werner J

    2007-01-01

    Optical limiting is an important application of nonlinear optics, useful for the protection of human eyes, optical elements, and optical sensors from intense laser pulses. An optical limiter is such a device that strongly attenuates high intensity light and potentially damaging light such as focused laser beams, whilst allowing for the high transmission of ambient light. Optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube suspensions, solubilized carbon nanotubes, small molecules doped carbon nanotubes and polymer/carbon nanotube composites have been reviewed. The optical limiting responses of carbon nanotube suspensions are shown to be dominated by nonlinear scattering as a result of thermally induced solvent-bubble formation and sublimation of the nanotubes, while the solubilized carbon nanotubes optically limit through nonlinear absorption mechanism and exhibit significant solution-concentration-dependent optical limiting responses. In the former case the optical limiting results are independent of nanotube concentrations at the same linear transmittance as that of the solubilized systems. Many efforts have been invested into the research of polymer/carbon nanotube composites in an attempt to allow for the fabrication of films required for the use of nanotubes in a real optical limiting application. The higher carbon nanotube content samples block the incident light more effectively at higher incident energy densities or intensities. The optical limiting mechanism of these composite materials is quite complicated. Besides nonlinear scattering contribution to the optical limiting, there may also be other contributions e.g., nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction, electronic absorption and others to the optical limiting. Further improvements in the optical limiting efficiency of the composites and in the dispersion and alignment properties of carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix could be realized by variation of both nanostructured guest and polymer host, and by

  11. Noncovalent Attachment of PbS Quantum Dots to Single- and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of PbS quantum dots (QD to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT is described; wherein commercially obtained PbS-QD of size 2.7 nm, stabilized by oleic acid, are added to a suspension of single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT prefunctionalized noncovalently with 1,2-benzenedimethanethiol (1,2-BDMT in ethanol. The aromatic part of 1,2-BDMT attaches to the CNT by π-π stacking interactions, noncovalently functionalizing the CNT. The thiol part of the 1,2-BDMT on the functionalized CNT replaces oleic acid on the surface of the QD facilitating the noncovalent attachment of the QD to the CNT. The composites were characterized by TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. Quenching of NIR fluorescence of the PbS-QD on attachment to the carbon nanotubes (CNT was observed, indicating FRET from the QD to the CNT.

  12. Effect of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes on Cellulose Phenylcarbamate Chiral Stationary Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yin-xia; REN Chao-xing; RUAN Qiong; YUAN Li-ming

    2007-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) have a high adsorption ability and nanoscale interactions. Cellulose trisphenylcarbamates possess high enantioseparation ability in high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Single-walled carbon nanotubes mixed with cellulose trisphenylcarbamate are coated on the silica gel as chiral stationary phases and higher enantioseparation factors are obtained. After a single-walled carbon nanotube is linked to the 6-position of cellulose 2,3-bisphenylcarbamate, its enantioseparation resolution increases compared to that of the cellulose trisphenylcarbamate. It is the first time that SWNTs have been applied to enantioseparation. The results indicate that the single-walled carbon nanotubes are good promoters of chiral recognition. This method can be used to improve the enantioseparation efficiency of the polysaccharide chiral stationary phases.

  13. Multiwall carbon nanotubes doped ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: A study of modified electrical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj, E-mail: neerajvenus@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sant Hira Dass Kanya Maha Vidyalaya, Kala Sanghian, Kapurthala 144623, Punjab (India); Raina, K.K., E-mail: kkraina@gmail.com [Materials Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, Punjab (India)

    2014-02-01

    We systematically investigated the role of carbon nanotubes and their nature of interaction with the high polarization ferroelectric liquid crystal molecules that causes a change in the dynamic behavior of the liquid crystals. The carbon nanotubes were functionalized with carboxyl group (–COOH) before dispersion in order to enhance their stability in the liquid crystal medium. For the systematic investigation of a non linear behavior of dispersed composite systems, results for various physical properties were determined by thermal, morphological and dielectric studies in the planer aligned 5 μm thickness cells. An effort has also gone into detail to investigate these properties with varying concentration (0.02 wt%, 0.05 wt% and 0.1 wt%) of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The various carbon nanotubes doped ferroelectric liquid crystal thin film composites have shown enhanced dielectric strength and dielectric permittivity values as compared to the undoped sample.

  14. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja;

    2013-01-01

    We present here a proof of concept for a novel fabrication method of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, utilizing black silicon nanograss (a forest of silicon nanometer-sized spikes created with reactive ion etching) coated with titanium tungsten diffusion barrier as a template. The method...... allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  15. Controlling growth of aligned carbon nanotubes from porous silicon templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐东升; 郭国霖; 桂琳琳; 唐有祺; 施祖进; 金朝霞; 顾振南

    2000-01-01

    Fabricating well-aligned carbon nanotubes, especially, on a silicon substrate is very important for their applications. In this paper, an aligned carbon nanotube array has been prepared by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons catalyzed by nickel nanoparticles embedded in porous silicon (PS) templates. High-magnification transmission electron microscopy images confirm that the nanotubes are well graphitized. The PS substrates with pore sizes between 10 and 100 nm play a control role on the growth of carbon nanotubes and the diameters of the tubes increase with the enlargement of the pores of the substrates. However, such a control role cannot be found in the macro-PS substrates.

  16. Fabrication, structure, and electron emission of single carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gongpu

    Carbon nanotubes possess many excellent field emission properties. An obstacle to these applications is that there is no simple and reproducible method to prepare a single carbon nanotube field emitter. In this dissertation, individual carbon nanotube field emitters have been fabricated in a two-step process involving (a) producing micron-size carbon fibers which contain single carbon nanotubes at their cores and (b) exposing the nanotubes by fracturing the fiber with mechanical forces and mounting the fiber to a copper ribbon with a groove. This fabrication method has the potential to be the production method for single carbon nanotube field emission point electron sources. The cold field emission properties of single carbon nanotubes have been studied. These carbon nanotubes exhibit large field enhancement factors of 1.1x107 m-1 and low turn-on fields of 1.1 V/mum. An empirical model has been developed to calculate the field enhancement factor of an open end nanotube attached on a carbon fiber. The lifetime measurements show that a single carbon nanotube can continuously emit electrons over 100 hours without significant current drops. The emission stability measurements show that the maximum current drift is 3.6%. It is also shown experimentally that a carbon nanotube has a high reduced brightness 2.9x 108 ASr-1m-2 V-1, which is two orders of magnitude higher than those of the thermionic electron sources. The thermal field emission properties of a single carbon nanotube have been systemically studied. It is found that there is a gap between the intermediate region and the field emission region which is not covered by either the Fowler-Nordheim theory or the Murphy-Good theory. We have developed an analytical equation that describes the thermal field emission behavior of a single carbon nanotube within the gap. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions. We also studied the effect of Cs doping on the field emission properties and

  17. Phonon and thermal properties of achiral single wall carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prapti Saxena; Sankar P Sanyal

    2006-08-01

    A detailed theoretical study of the phonon and thermal properties of achiral single wall carbon nanotubes has been carried out using force constant model considering up to third nearest-neighbor interactions. We have calculated the phonon dispersions, density of states, radial breathing modes (RBM) and the specific heats for various zigzag and armchair nanotubes, with radii ranging from 2.8 Å to 11.0 Å. A comparative study of phonon spectrum with measured Raman data reveals that the number of Raman active modes for a tube does not depend on the number of atoms present in the unit cell but on its chirality. Calculated phonon modes at the zone center more or less accurately predicted the Raman active modes. The radial breathing mode is of particular interest as for a specific radius of a nanotube it is found to be independent of its chirality. We have also calculated the variation of RBM and G-band modes for tubes of different radii. RBM shows an inverse dependence on the radius of the tube. Finally, the values of specific heat are calculated for various nanotubes at room temperature and it was found that the specific heat shows an exponential dependence on the diameter of the tube.

  18. Laser patterning of vertically grown carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won Seok [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The selective patterning of a carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on a Si substrate has been performed using a femtosecond laser. The high shock wave generated by the femtosecond laser effectively removed the CNTs without damage to the Si substrate. This process has many advantages because it is performed without chemicals and can be easily applied to large area patterning. The CNTs grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have a catalyst cap at the end of the nanotube owing to the tip growth mode mechanism. For the application of an electron emission and biosensor probe, the catalyst cap is usually removed chemically, which damages the surface of the CNT wall. Precise control of the femtosecond laser power and focal position could solve this problem. Furthermore, selective CNT cutting using a femtosecond laser is also possible without any phase change in the CNTs, which is usually observed in the focused ion beam irradiation of CNTs.

  19. Carbon nanotube growth by PECVD: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyyappan, M; Delzeit, Lance; Cassell, Alan; Hash, David [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), due to their unique electronic and extraordinary mechanical properties, have been receiving much attention for a wide variety of applications. Recently, plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) has emerged as a key growth technique to produce vertically-aligned nanotubes. This paper reviews various plasma sources currently used in CNT growth, catalyst preparation and growth results. Since the technology is in its early stages, there is a general lack of understanding of growth mechanisms, the role of the plasma itself, and the identity of key species responsible for growth. This review is aimed at the low temperature plasma research community that has successfully addressed such issues, through plasma and surface diagnostics and modelling, in semiconductor processing and diamond thin film growth.

  20. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Lerner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (<1000 cfu/ml. In contrast, the carrier mobility is affected comparably by Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml.

  1. Batch fabrication of carbon nanotube bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative displacements between the atomically smooth, nested shells in multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be used as a robust nanoscale motion enabling mechanism. Here, we report on a novel method suited for structuring large arrays of MWNTs into such nanobearings in a parallel fashion. By creating MWNT nanostructures with nearly identical electrical circuit resistance and heat transport conditions, uniform Joule heating across the array is used to simultaneously engineer the shell geometry via electric breakdown. The biasing approach used optimizes process metrics such as yield and cycle-time. We also present the parallel and piecewise shell engineering at different segments of a single nanotube to construct multiple, but independent, high density bearings. We anticipate this method for constructing electromechanical building blocks to be a fundamental unit process for manufacturing future nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) with sophisticated architectures and to drive several nanoscale transduction applications such as GHz-oscillators, shuttles, memories, syringes and actuators

  2. Carbon nanotube as a gramicidin analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A.; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a carbon nanotube that is selectively permeable to monovalent cations, binds divalent cations and rejects anions. The nanotubes, with an effective radius of 4.53 Å and length of 36 Å, are terminated with hydrogen atoms and are exohydrogenated in two regions near the entrance and exit. Using molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations we examine the free energy, current-voltage-concentration profiles and ion binding sites. The characteristics of this channel are comparable to the antibiotic gramicidin-A, but the potassium current is six times larger. At 40 mM calcium concentration the current is reduced from 26 pA to 4 pA due to a calcium ion binding at the channel entrance.

  3. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Carbon Nanotube Composite Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Libo

    2011-01-01

    The project has been concerned with structure/property relationships in a series of different carbon nanotube (CNT) composite fibres. Raman spectroscopy has been proved to be a powerful technique to characterise the CNT-containing fibres. Electrospinning has been used to prepare poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibres containing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The effect of the processing conditions including the polymer concentration, electric voltage, tip-to-collector distance, nanotube ...

  4. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis via Arc Discharge with a Yttria Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Mohammad; Ahmed A. Moosa; J.H. Potgieter; Mustafa K. Ismael

    2013-01-01

    A facile method is proposed to use a computer controlled Arc discharge gap between graphite electrodes together with an yttria-nickel catalyst to synthesize carbon nanotubes under an Ar-H2 gases mixture atmosphere by applying different DC currents and pressure. This produces carbon nanotubes with decreased diameters and increased length. XRD evidence indicated a shift toward higher crystallinity nanotubes. Yields of the CNTs after purification were also enhanced.

  5. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polyamide 6 for microinjection moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Tânia; Paiva, M. C.; Pontes, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the dispersion state of pure and functionalized carbon nanotubes in polyamide 6, on composites prepared by twin-screw extrusion and then processed by microinjection moulding. Nanocomposites were prepared with different carbonvnanotube compositions, with and without functionalization. The nanotubes were functionalized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The dispersion of the carbon nanotube agglomerates was quantified using optical microscop...

  6. Molecular-dynamic studies of carbon-water-carbon composite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Ji, Baohua; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2006-11-01

    We recently reported the discovery via molecular-dynamic simulations that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameters, lengths, and chiralities can coaxially self-assemble into multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in water via the spontaneous insertion of smaller tubes into larger ones. Here, we extend that study to investigate the various water structures formed between two selected SWCNTs after such coaxial assembly. Depending on the tube geometry, typical water structures, besides the bulk phase, include a one-dimensional (1D) ordered water chain inside the smaller tube, a uniform or nonuniform water shell between the two tubes, and a "boundary layer" of water near the exterior wall of the larger tube. It was found that a concentric water shell consisting of up to three layers of water molecules can form between the two SWCNTs, which leads to a class of carbon-water-carbon composite nanotubes. Analysis of the potential energy of the SWCNT-water system indicated that the composite nanotubes are stabilized by both the tube-tube and tube-water van der Waals interactions. Geometrically confined between the two SWCNTs, water mono- and bilayers are found to be stable, highly condensed, and ordered, although the average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule is reduced. In contrast, a water trilayer between the two CNTs can be easily disrupted by thermal fluctuations.

  7. Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI REN ZHONG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a Ni–Cu–Al catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 20–60 nm, while their outer diameter is about 40–80 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the Ni–Cu–Al catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.

  8. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  9. Very short functionalized carbon nanotubes for membrane applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, A.; Reijerkerk, S.R.; Potreck, J.; Nijmeijer, D.C.; Mekhalif, Z.; Delhalle, J.

    2010-01-01

    The cutting and functionalization of carbon nanotubes is described, applying a single-step ball-mill based process. Very short carbon nanotubes bearing primary amine functions were produced, characterized and incorporated in polymeric membranes. The gas separation performance of the composite membra

  10. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  11. A New Application of Carbon Nanotubes Constructing Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes used for constructing biosensor was described for the first time. Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with carboxylic acid groups were used to immobilize glucose oxidase forming a glucose biosensor. The biosensor response can be determined by amperometric method at a low applied potential (0.40 V).

  12. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny;

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...

  13. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe Fetterman, Yevgeny Raitses, and Michael Keidar

    2008-04-08

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  14. Cross-linking of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with polymeric amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Stuart, M. C. A.; Landaluce, T. F.; Fausti, D.; Rudolf, P.; Picchioni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes is considered as an essential step to enable their manipulation and application in potential end-use products. In this paper we introduce a new approach to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by applying an amidation-type grafting reaction with am

  15. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  16. Properties of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Finite Lengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Di-Li; PAN Bi-Cai

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with finite lengths should be natural components of future "nano devices". Based on orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations, we report on our study of formation energies, optimal geometrical structures and active sites of carbon nanotubes with finite lengths. This should be useful to understand the properties of such natural components.

  17. Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dommele, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen containing Carbon Nanotubes (NCNT) have altered physical- and chemical properties with respect to polarity, conductivity and reactivity as compared to conventional carbon nanotubes (CNT) and have potential for use in electronic applications or catalysis. In this thesis the incorporation of

  18. Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-09-01

    Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.

  19. Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-09-07

    Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.

  20. Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-01-01

    Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter. PMID:27604947