WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon nanotube arrays

  1. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  2. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  3. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng F.; Tu, Yi

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  4. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J.; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting–dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension...

  5. Preparation of array of long carbon nanotubes and fibers therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Paul N.; DePaula, Ramond F.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Usov, Igor O.

    2015-11-19

    An array of carbon nanotubes is prepared by exposing a catalyst structure to a carbon nanotube precursor. Embodiment catalyst structures include one or more trenches, channels, or a combination of trenches and channels. A system for preparing the array includes a heated surface for heating the catalyst structure and a cooling portion that cools gas above the catalyst structure. The system heats the catalyst structure so that the interaction between the precursor and the catalyst structure results in the formation of an array of carbon nanotubes on the catalyst structure, and cools the gas near the catalyst structure and also cools any carbon nanotubes that form on the catalyst structure to prevent or at least minimize the formation of amorphous carbon. Arrays thus formed may be used for spinning fibers of carbon nanotubes.

  6. Gas Composition Sensing Using Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a lightweight, small sensor for inert gases that consumes a relatively small amount of power and provides measurements that are as accurate as conventional approaches. The sensing approach is based on generating an electrical discharge and measuring the specific gas breakdown voltage associated with each gas present in a sample. An array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a substrate is connected to a variable-pulse voltage source. The CNT tips are spaced appropriately from the second electrode maintained at a constant voltage. A sequence of voltage pulses is applied and a pulse discharge breakdown threshold voltage is estimated for one or more gas components, from an analysis of the current-voltage characteristics. Each estimated pulse discharge breakdown threshold voltage is compared with known threshold voltages for candidate gas components to estimate whether at least one candidate gas component is present in the gas. The procedure can be repeated at higher pulse voltages to estimate a pulse discharge breakdown threshold voltage for a second component present in the gas. The CNTs in the gas sensor have a sharp (low radius of curvature) tip; they are preferably multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or carbon nanofibers (CNFs), to generate high-strength electrical fields adjacent to the tips for breakdown of the gas components with lower voltage application and generation of high current. The sensor system can provide a high-sensitivity, low-power-consumption tool that is very specific for identification of one or more gas components. The sensor can be multiplexed to measure current from multiple CNT arrays for simultaneous detection of several gas components.

  7. Biochemical Sensors Using Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for detecting presence of biomolecules in a selected subset, or in each of several selected subsets, in a fluid. Each of an array of two or more carbon nanotubes ("CNTs") is connected at a first CNT end to one or more electronics devices, each of which senses a selected electrochemical signal that is generated when a target biomolecule in the selected subset becomes attached to a functionalized second end of the CNT, which is covalently bonded with a probe molecule. This approach indicates when target biomolecules in the selected subset are present and indicates presence or absence of target biomolecules in two or more selected subsets. Alternatively, presence of absence of an analyte can be detected.

  8. Preparation of arrays of long carbon nanotubes using catalyst structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuntian T.; Arendt, Paul; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Xiefie

    2016-03-22

    A structure for preparing an substantially aligned array of carbon nanotubes include a substrate having a first side and a second side, a buffer layer on the first side of the substrate, a catalyst on the buffer layer, and a plurality of channels through the structure for allowing a gaseous carbon source to enter the substrate at the second side and flow through the structure to the catalyst. After preparing the array, a fiber of carbon nanotubes may be spun from the array. Prior to spinning, the array can be immersed in a polymer solution. After spinning, the polymer can be cured.

  9. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Cavoto, G.; Cirillo, E. N. M.; Cocina, F.; Ferretti, J.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy lo...

  10. Scattering by an array of parallel metallic carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afshin Moradi

    2013-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic wave by an array of parallel metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes is investigated based on the boundary-value method.Electronic excitations over each nanotube surface are modeled as an infinitesimally thin cylindrical layer of the free-electron gas.The scattering cross section of both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) uniform plane waves by the system at normal incidences is obtained.

  11. Fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geohegan, David B [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilya N [Knoxville, TN; Puretzky, Alexander A [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-27

    Methods and apparatus are described for fabrication of high thermal conductivity arrays of carbon nanotubes and their composites. A composition includes a vertically aligned nanotube array including a plurality of nanotubes characterized by a property across substantially all of the vertically aligned nanotube array. A method includes depositing a vertically aligned nanotube array that includes a plurality of nanotubes; and controlling a deposition rate of the vertically aligned nanotubes array as a function of an in situ monitored property of the plurality of nanotubes.

  12. Advanced materials based on carbon nanotube arrays, yarns and papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Phlip David

    Carbon nanotubes have hundreds of potential applications but require innovative processing techniques to manipulate the microscopic carbon dust into useful devices and products. This thesis describes efforts to process carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using novel methods with the goals of: (1) improving the properties of energy absorbing and composite carbon nanotube materials and (2) increasing understanding of fundamental structure-property relationships within these materials. Millimeter long CNTs, in the form of arrays, yarns and papers, were used to produce energy absorbing foams and high volume fraction CNT composites. Vertically aligned CNT arrays were grown on silicon substrates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of ethylene gas over iron nano-particles. The low density, millimeter thick arrays were tested under compression as energy absorbing foams. With additional CVD processing steps, it was possible to tune the compressive properties of the arrays. After the longest treatment, the compressive strength of the arrays was increased by a factor of 35 with a density increase of only six fold, while also imparting recovery from compression to the array. Microscopy revealed that the post-synthesis CVD treatment increased the number of CNT walls through an epitaxial type radial growth on the surface of the as-grown tubes. The increase in tube radius and mutual support between nanotubes explained the increases in compressive strength while an increase in nanotube roughness was proposed as the morphological change responsible for recovery in the array. Carbon nanotube yarns were used as the raw material for macroscopic textile preforms with a multi-level hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) structure: nanotubes, bundles, spun single yarns, plied yarns and 3-D braids. In prior tensile tests, composites produced from the 3-D braids exhibited unusual mechanical behavior effects. The proposed physical hypotheses explained those effects by molecular level interactions and

  13. Electrical breakdown gas detector featuring carbon nanotube array electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongyul; Pal, Sunil; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate here detection of dichloro-difluoro-methane and oxygen in mixtures with helium using a carbon nanotube electrical breakdown sensor device. The sensor is comprised of an aligned array of multiwalled carbon nanotubes deposited on a nickel based super-alloy (Inconel 600) as the anode; the counter electrode is a planar nickel sheet. By monitoring the electrical breakdown characteristics of oxygen and dichloro-difluoro-methane in a background of helium, we find that the detection limit for dichloro-difluoro-methane is approximately 0.1% and the corresponding limit for oxygen is approximately 1%. A phenomenologigal model is proposed to describe the trends observed in detection of the two mixtures. These results indicate that carbon nanotube based electrical breakdown sensors show potential as end detectors in gas-chromatography devices. PMID:18468093

  14. Memristive model of hysteretic field emission from carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Gorodetskiy, D. V.; Guselnikov, A. V.; Kanygin, S. N. Shevchenko M. A.; Okotrub, A. V.; Pershin, Y. V.

    2016-01-01

    Some instances of electron field emitters are characterized by frequency-dependent hysteresis in their current-voltage characteristics. We argue that such emitters can be classified as memristive systems and introduce a general framework to describe their response. As a specific example of our approach, we consider field emission from a carbon nanotube array. Our experimental results demonstrate a low-field hysteresis, which is likely caused by an electrostatic alignment of some of the nanotu...

  15. Drying induced upright sliding and reorganization of carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qingwen [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); De Paula, Raymond [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhang Xiefei [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zheng Lianxi [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Arendt, Paul N [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mueller, Fred M [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhu, Y T [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tu Yi [CVD-First Nano, 1860 Smithtown Avenue, Ronkonkoma, NY 11779 (United States)

    2006-09-28

    Driven by capillary force, wet carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been found to reorganize into cellular structures upon drying. During the reorganization process, individual CNTs are firmly attached to the substrate and have to lie down on the substrate at cell bottoms, forming closed cells. Here we demonstrate that by modifying catalyst structures, the adhesion of CNTs to the substrate can be weakened. Upon drying such CNT arrays, CNTs may slide away from their original sites on the surface and self-assemble into cellular patterns with bottoms open. It is also found that the sliding distance of CNTs increases with array height, and drying millimetre tall arrays leads to the sliding of CNTs over a few hundred micrometres and the eventual self-assembly into discrete islands. By introducing regular vacancies in CNT arrays, CNTs may be manipulated into different patterns.

  16. Drying induced upright sliding and reorganization of carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driven by capillary force, wet carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been found to reorganize into cellular structures upon drying. During the reorganization process, individual CNTs are firmly attached to the substrate and have to lie down on the substrate at cell bottoms, forming closed cells. Here we demonstrate that by modifying catalyst structures, the adhesion of CNTs to the substrate can be weakened. Upon drying such CNT arrays, CNTs may slide away from their original sites on the surface and self-assemble into cellular patterns with bottoms open. It is also found that the sliding distance of CNTs increases with array height, and drying millimetre tall arrays leads to the sliding of CNTs over a few hundred micrometres and the eventual self-assembly into discrete islands. By introducing regular vacancies in CNT arrays, CNTs may be manipulated into different patterns

  17. Highly Ordered Carbon Nanotube Arrays with Open Ends Grown in Anodic Alumina Nanoholes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Highly ordered multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays were fabricated by pyrolysis of acetylene within anodic alumina templates.Nanotubes are very uniform in diameter and open at both ends. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis show that the carbon nanotubes are well graphitized. These standing and open carbon nanotubes are possible to offer a potential elegant technique for electron emitting devices,chemical functionalization and nanotube composites.

  18. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavoto, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Cirillo, E.N.M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento SBAI, Rome (Italy); Cocina, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Ferretti, J. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Polosa, A.D. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (∼ 11 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the target channeling efficiency. (orig.)

  19. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoto, G.; Cirillo, E. N. M.; Cocina, F.; Ferretti, J.; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-06-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (≈ 11 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the target channeling efficiency.

  20. Measurement of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array Compression Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changhong

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the form of vertically aligned arrays or films has been of interest due to the super-compressible response and the ability to be used as electrical and thermal contacts. CNT arrays have shown the remarkable ability to react as foam-like structures and exhibit localized, coordinated buckling within specific regions. An understanding of the buckling region evolution and the resulting effects on the bulk CNT array response are important, unanswered fundamental questions necessary for the future application of CNT arrays. Here, we report on the low-cycle compression of bulk vertically aligned CNT arrays to observe initiation and growth of the buckling as a function of compressive strain and the contacting substrate material. A critical strain of ˜5.5% is found above which the buckling region length increased and below which remained at or below the applied strain. The results are corroborated with nanoindentation on the surfaces, which indicate a stiffening of the near surface by 9.4%-16.5% with increasing applied strain. Also, contact counterfaces with different stiffness, lithium niobate and a polymer gel, were compared, which resulted in changes of ˜32% in total array height after cyclic compression. Raman spectroscopy on CNT arrays before and after compressive deformation was performed observing repeatable vibrational shifts in the strained regions. Also, to observe the applicability of CNT arrays as contact sensors, electrical resistance change during compression was measured and found to increase by 4 times in the parallel versus vertical direction. Observation and results of the buckling region nature and relationship with applied strain and contacting substrates are important for applying the nanotube arrays to energy absorbing cushions, tunable dampers, thermal contacts, contact sensing, chemical sensing, or in sliding contact.

  1. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cavoto, G; Cocina, F; Ferretti, J; Polosa, A D

    2016-01-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (~ 10 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with ...

  2. Suspended, straightened carbon nanotube arrays by gel chapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunyan; Li, Hongbian; Zhang, Luhui; Liu, Yu; Li, Yan; Jia, Yi; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shi, Enzheng; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan

    2011-07-26

    We report large-scale self-assembly of suspended, straightened, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) across regular TiO(2) gel islands. By coating a SWNT network on top of a pool of the TiO(2) colloid and inducing a rapid drying and chapping process, initially curled, random SWNTs can be straightened into aligned arrays and suspended across the island gaps. The suspended SWNT arrays were grafted by semiconducting or metallic nanoparticles, resulting in hybrid structures with tailored and neat morphology, and enhanced photoresponse. We further demonstrate these suspended SWNTs can sustain high speed gas blowing (up to 20 m per second) reversibly for hundreds of cycles, and detect gas velocity by the resistance change. PMID:21699200

  3. Analytical optimization for field emission of carbon nanotube array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XinQing; LI Liang; CHEN Min; JIN HongXiao; JIN DingFeng; PENG Min; GE HongLiang

    2009-01-01

    To optimize field emission (FE) property of carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a planar cathode surface,the Fowler-Nordheim formula has been used to discuss the maximum of the emission current density with the floating sphere model in this paper. The emission current density is dominating as the ane-lytical Fowler-Nordheim function of the intertube distance, and the maximum of the emission current density is deduced and discussed. The results indicate that the intertube distance in CNT array criti-cally affects the field enhancement factor and the emission current density, whose maximum occurs at the intertube distance approximating a tenth of the tube height. Considering the emission current den-sity and the field enhancement factor, the FE can be optimized analytically when the intertube distance is about a tenth of the tube height.

  4. Physicochemical Characteristics and Droplet Impact Dynamics of Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Aria, Adrianus I.; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical and droplet impact dynamics of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays are investigated. These superhydrophobic arrays are fabricated simply by exposing the as-grown carbon nanotube arrays to a vacuum annealing treatment at a moderate temperature. This treatment, which allows a significant removal of oxygen adsorbates, leads to a dramatic change in wettability of the arrays, from mildly hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. Such change in wettability is also accompanied by a su...

  5. Regrowth of Carbon Nanotubes Array on Al Layer Coated Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chao Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT arrays have been synthesized by a repeated growth method using a custom-fabricated plasma-enhanced thermal chemical vapor deposition (PE-thermal CVD apparatus. The initial catalyst is a layered structure prepared by depositing 10 nm of Al followed by 3 nm of Fe on an oxidized silicon substrate. Following CNT growth, the CNT arrays are removed using an ultrasonic cleaner, and another CNT array is grown on the remaining Fe-Al bimetalic nanoparticles without the addition of more catalyst. Annealing the catalytic substrate in air between growth cycles results in the removal of residual amorphous carbon along with the CNTs, and oxidation of the Fe-Al nanoparticles. The diameter of CNTs is reduced with repeated growth-annealing cycles, an effect of which is attributed to the diminishing size of the catalytically active nanoparticles with each cycle. After two growth cycles, SWNTs with the extraordinarily narrow diameter of 0.86 nm are synthesized. The ID/IG ratio derived from the Raman spectrum of these of the SWNT arrays shows the remarkably low value of 0.22.

  6. Efficient fabrication of carbon nanotube micro tip arrays by tailoring cross-stacked carbon nanotube sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yang; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Feng; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan

    2012-04-11

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) micro tip arrays with hairpin structures on patterned silicon wafers were efficiently fabricated by tailoring the cross-stacked CNT sheet with laser. A blade-like structure was formed at the laser-cut edges of the CNT sheet. CNT field emitters, pulled out from the end of the hairpin by an adhesive tape, can provide 150 μA intrinsic emission currents with low beam noise. The nice field emission is ascribed to the Joule-heating-induced desorption of the emitter surface by the hairpin structure, the high temperature annealing effect, and the surface morphology. The CNT emitters with hairpin structures will greatly promote the applications of CNTs in vacuum electronic devices and hold the promises to be used as the hot tips for thermochemical nanolithography. More CNT-based structures and devices can be fabricated on a large scale by this versatile method. PMID:22433000

  7. An active, flexible carbon nanotube microelectrode array for recording electrocorticograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chan; Hsu, Hui-Lin; Lee, Yu-Tao; Su, Huan-Chieh; Yen, Shiang-Jie; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Yew, Tri-Rung; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Yao, Da-Jeng; Chang, Yen-Chung; Chen, Hsin

    2011-06-01

    A variety of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) has been developed for monitoring intra-cortical neural activity at a high spatio-temporal resolution, opening a promising future for brain research and neural prostheses. However, most MEAs are based on metal electrodes on rigid substrates, and the intra-cortical implantation normally causes neural damage and immune responses that impede long-term recordings. This communication presents a flexible, carbon-nanotube MEA (CMEA) with integrated circuitry. The flexibility allows the electrodes to fit on the irregular surface of the brain to record electrocorticograms in a less invasive way. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) further improve both the electrode impedance and the charge-transfer capacity by more than six times. Moreover, the CNTs are grown on the polyimide substrate directly to improve the adhesion to the substrate. With the integrated recording circuitry, the flexible CMEA is proved capable of recording the neural activity of crayfish in vitro, as well as the electrocorticogram of a rat cortex in vivo, with an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the proposed CMEA can be employed as a less-invasive, biocompatible and reliable neuro-electronic interface for long-term usage.

  8. Physicochemical characteristics and droplet impact dynamics of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Adrianus I; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-06-17

    The physicochemical and droplet impact dynamics of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays are investigated. These superhydrophobic arrays are fabricated simply by exposing the as-grown carbon nanotube arrays to a vacuum annealing treatment at a moderate temperature. This treatment, which allows a significant removal of oxygen adsorbates, leads to a dramatic change in wettability of the arrays, from mildly hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. Such change in wettability is also accompanied by a substantial change in surface charge and electrochemical properties. Here, the droplet impact dynamics are characterized in terms of critical Weber number, coefficient of restitution, spreading factor, and contact time. Based on these characteristics, it is found that superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays are among the best water-repellent surfaces ever reported. The results presented herein may pave a way for the utilization of superhydrophobic carbon nanotube arrays in numerous industrial and practical applications, including inkjet printing, direct injection engines, steam turbines, and microelectronic fabrication. PMID:24866696

  9. Transmission properties of terahertz waves through asymmetric rectangular aperture arrays on carbon nanotube films

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Wang; Yijing Tong; Xin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Transmission spectra of terahertz waves through a two-dimensional array of asymmetric rectangular apertures on super-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube films were obtained experimentally. In this way, the anisotropic transmission phenomena of carbon nanotube films were observed. For a terahertz wave polarization parallel to the orientation of the carbon nanotubes and along the aperture short axis, sharp resonances were observed and the resonance frequencies coincided well with the surface p...

  10. Synthesis of carbon nanotube array using corona discharge plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A corona discharge plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with the features of atmospheric pressure and low temperature has been developed to synthesize the carbon nanotube array. The array was synthesized from methane and hydrogen mixture in anodic aluminum oxide template channels in that cobalt was electrodeposited at the bottom. The characterization results by the scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the array consists of carbon nanotubes with the diameter of about 40 nm and the length of more than 4 -m, and the carbon nanotubes are mainly restrained within the channels of templates.

  11. Adhesion and friction characteristics of carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a great deal of interest in understanding, design and fabrication of bio-mimetic and bio-inspired adhesives in recent years. In this paper we present theoretical investigations on adhesion, friction behaviors and characteristics of fibrillar arrays composed of noninteracting carbon nanotubes for bio-inspired dry adhesives. Contact, compression, subsequent pulling off and dry sliding friction simulations were performed. It is demonstrated that there are two different adhesion forces during pull off. Static friction force values are in between 40 and 60 N cm−2 at different loads and they are significantly larger than the normal adhesion forces. Dynamic friction force and load are anisotropic and they depend on the direction of the motion. It is also found that friction force values and friction coefficients decrease although contact length and contact area increase when the loads are high. This is due to the arms of the nanotubes which bend significantly and act as stiffer springs at high loads. (paper)

  12. Fabrication of Dense Horizontally Aligned Arrays of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes from Vertically Aligned Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xueshen; Li, Qunqing; Xie, Jing; Zhu, Zhendong; Zou, Yuan; Liu, Junku; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan

    2011-01-01

    The as-grown vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) arrays are transferred from the original silicon substrate to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate, which acts as a stamp. Thin SWNT films can be applied from the stamp to the target substrate and subsequently treated by an ultrasonic process to reduce their thickness to 6.6 nm. The transferred SWNT thin film retains the advantageous super-alignment and high-density properties of the vertical SWNT arrays. The linear density, transmittance, and square resistance of the thin film are as high as 15 tubes per micrometer, 99% at 550 nm, and 16 kΩ, respectively.

  13. Thermally Conductive Tape Based on Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ali

    2011-01-01

    To increase contact conductance between two mating surfaces, a conductive tape has been developed by growing dense arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, graphite layers folded into cylinders) on both sides of a thermally conductive metallic foil. When the two mating surfaces are brought into contact with the conductive tape in between, the CNT arrays will adhere to the mating surface. The van der Waals force between the contacting tubes and the mating surface provides adhesion between the two mating surfaces. Even though the thermal contact conductance of a single tube-to-tube contact is small, the tremendous amount of CNTs on the surface leads to a very large overall contact conductance. Interface contact thermal resistance rises from the microroughness and the macroscopic non-planar quality of mating surfaces. When two surfaces come into contact with each other, the actual contact area may be much less than the total area of the surfaces. The real area of contact depends on the load, the surface roughness, and the elastic and inelastic properties of the surface. This issue is even more important at cryogenic temperatures, where materials become hard and brittle and vacuum is used, which prevents any gas conduction through the interstitial region. A typical approach to increase thermal contact conductance is to use thermally conducting epoxies or greases, which are not always compatible with vacuum conditions. In addition, the thermal conductivities of these compounds are often relatively low. The CNTs used in this approach can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the folding angle and diameter. The electrical resistivity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been reported. MWCNTs can pass a current density and remain stable at high temperatures in air. The thermal conductivity of a MWCNT at room temperature is measured to be approximately 3,000 W/m-K, which is much larger than that of diamond. At room temperature, the thermal conductance of a 0.3 sq cm

  14. Control of neuronal network organization by chemical surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jie; Bibari, Olivier; Marchand, Gilles; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Sauter-Starace, Fabien [CEA, LETI-Minatec, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Appaix, Florence; De Waard, Michel, E-mail: fabien.sauter@cea.fr, E-mail: michel.dewaard@ujf-grenoble.fr [Inserm U836, Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience, Site Sante la Tronche, Batiment Edmond J Safra, Chemin Fortune Ferrini, BP170, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2011-05-13

    Carbon nanotube substrates are promising candidates for biological applications and devices. Interfacing of these carbon nanotubes with neurons can be controlled by chemical modifications. In this study, we investigated how chemical surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays (MWNT-A) influences neuronal adhesion and network organization. Functionalization of MWNT-A dramatically modifies the length of neurite fascicles, cluster inter-connection success rate, and the percentage of neurites that escape from the clusters. We propose that chemical functionalization represents a method of choice for developing applications in which neuronal patterning on MWNT-A substrates is required.

  15. Determination of the effective Young's modulus of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: a simple nanotube-based varactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Niklas; Ek-Weis, Johan; Eriksson, Anders; Idda, Tonio; Campbell, Eleanor E B

    2009-09-23

    The electromechanical properties of arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were studied in a parallel plate capacitor geometry. The electrostatic actuation was visualized using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and highly reproducible behaviour was achieved for actuation voltages below the pull-in voltage. The walls of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes behave as solid cohesive units. The effective Young's modulus for the carbon nanotube arrays was determined by comparing the actuation results with the results of electrostatic simulations and was found to be exceptionally low, of the order of 1-10 MPa. The capacitance change and Q-factor were determined by measuring the frequency dependence of the radio-frequency transmission. Capacitance changes of over 20% and Q-factors in the range 100-10 were achieved for a frequency range of 0.2-1.5 GHz.

  16. Transmission properties of terahertz waves through asymmetric rectangular aperture arrays on carbon nanotube films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transmission spectra of terahertz waves through a two-dimensional array of asymmetric rectangular apertures on super-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube films were obtained experimentally. In this way, the anisotropic transmission phenomena of carbon nanotube films were observed. For a terahertz wave polarization parallel to the orientation of the carbon nanotubes and along the aperture short axis, sharp resonances were observed and the resonance frequencies coincided well with the surface plasmon polariton theory. In addition, the minima of the transmission spectra were in agreement with the location predicted by the theory of Wood’s anomalies. Furthermore, it was found that the resonance profiles through the carbon nanotube films could be well described by the Fano model.

  17. Fabrication and electrochemical properties of carbon nanotube array electrode for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Ling Chen; Kuan Hong Xue; Wei Shen; Fei Fei Tao; Shou Yin Yin; Wen Xu [Nanjing Normal University (China). Chemistry Dept.

    2004-09-30

    The multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) array was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the template of porous alumina from the carbonaceous source of C{sub 2H}2 in the presence of a catalyst of ferric metals. To utilize the external surface other than the inner surface of the carbon nanotubes, 1 mol/L sulfuric acid was applied to remove off the most part of AAO template on the carbon nanotube electrode. The electrochemical performances of the carbon nanotube array electrode were investigated by use of the cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and ac impedance methods for its application in supercapacitors. The specific capacitance of 365 F/g of the electrode was achieved with the discharge current density of 210 mA/g in the solution of 1 mol/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. In addition, the carbon nanotube array electrode was found to have low equivalent series resistance (ESR) and good cycling stability. (author)

  18. Thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: Growth conditions and tube inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Pham, Quang N.; Saltonstall, Christopher B.; Norris, Pamela M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4746 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    The thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VACNTAs) grown on silicon dioxide substrates via chemical vapor deposition is measured using a 3ω technique. For each sample, the VACNTA layer and substrate are pressed to a heating line at varying pressures to extract the sample's thermophysical properties. The nanotubes' structure is observed via transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of hydrogen and water vapor in the fabrication process is tuned to observe the effect on measured thermal properties. The presence of iron catalyst particles within the individual nanotubes prevents the array from achieving the overall thermal conductivity anticipated based on reported measurements of individual nanotubes and the packing density.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of hydrogen physisorption in K-doped single walled carbon nanotube array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of hydrogen physisorption in K-doped single walled carbon nanotube array (SWCNTA) are investigated in detail by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. The optimization of hydrogen storage capacity at 293 K and 10 MPa as a function of K-doping schemes, K atoms' doped-sites, and SWCNTA configuration is discussed.

  20. Nanomanipulation of 2 inch wafer fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.; Eichhorn, Volkmar; Carlson, Kenneth;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are typically defined by electron beam lithography (EBL), and hence limited to small areas due to the low throughput. To obtain wafer‐scale fabrication we propose large area thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL). A 2‐inch stamp master is defined using EBL for subsequent......, efficient production of wafer‐scale/larger arrays of CNTs has been achieved. The CNTs have been deposited by wafer‐scale plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of C2H2/NH3. Substrates containing such nanotubes have been used to automate nanorobotic manipulation sequences of individual CNTs...

  1. Effects of nanostructure and coating on the mechanics of carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Poelma, René H.; Fan, Xuejun; Hu, Z.-Y.; Tendeloo, van, G.; Zeijl, van, C.J.J.; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Nanoscale materials are one of the few engineering materials that can be grown from the bottom up in a controlled manner. Here, the effects of nanostructure and nanoscale conformal coating on the mechanical behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays through experiments and simulation are systematically investigated. A modeling approach is developed and used to quantify the compressive strength and modulus of the CNT array under large deformation. The model accounts ...

  2. Controlling the morphology of carbon nanotube arrays: from spinnable forests to undulating foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zou, Guifu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hawley, Marilyn E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheehan, Chris J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhu, Yuntain [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doorn, Stephen K [NCSU; Htoon, Han [NCSU

    2009-01-01

    By controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions, we demonstrate that the degree of spinnability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is closely related to the morphology of CNT arrays. Shortest catalyst pretreatment time led to CNT arrays with the best spinnability, while prolonged pretreatment resulted in coarsening of catalyst particles and non-spinnable CNTs. We further demonstrate the growth of undulating CNT arrays with uniform and tunable waviness by controlling the coalescence of catalyst particles. The CNT arrays can be tuned from well-aligned, spinnable forests to uniformly wavy, foam-like films by controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions.

  3. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  4. Formation of an array of ordered nanocathodes based on carbon nanotubes by nanoimprint lithography and PECVD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, D. G.; Shulyat’ev, A. S., E-mail: ashuliatyev@gmail.com; Egorkin, V. I.; Zaitsev, A. A. [National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET” (Russian Federation); Skorik, S. N.; Galperin, V. A.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shamanaev, A. A. [National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET”, Research and Production Association “Technological Center” (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Technology for the production of an array of ordered nanoemitters based on carbon nanotubes is developed. The technological parameters of the fabrication of carbon nanotubes are chosen. It is shown that the structures produced exhibit field electron emission with an emission current of 8 μA and a threshold voltage of 80 V.

  5. Photoluminescence Properties of Silicon Nanowires and Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Nanowire Composite Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦轲; 陆梅; 孔令斌; 王成伟; 郭新勇; 力虎林

    2002-01-01

    Composite arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are fabricated by means of the chemical vapour deposition method in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates. The results of the scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have shown that SiNWs are successful nested or filled in the hollow cavities of synthesized MWNT arrays in AAO templates to form MWNT-SiNW composite arrays. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity degradation and a blueshift of PL peak position, usually created from the chemical instability of the SiNW surfaces, are decreased and eliminated clearly in the composite arrays. The composite arrays of MWNTs-SiNWs exhibit more enhanced intensity and stability of PL performance than the SiNW arrays deposited in AAO templates.

  6. Boron Nitride Coated Carbon Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Compressive Mechanical Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lin; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Li, Hongling; Tsang, Siu Hon; Tan, Dunlin; Zhang, Bowei; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) array is one of the most promising energy dissipating materials due to its excellent temperature invariant mechanical property. However, the CNT arrays with desirable recoverability after compression is still a challenge. Here, we report on the mechanical enhancement of the CNT arrays reinforced by coating with boron nitride (BN) layers. These BN coated CNT (BN/CNT) arrays exhibit excellent compressive strength and recoverability as compared to those of the as-prepared CNT arrays which totally collapsed after compression. In addition, the BN coating also provides better resistance to oxidation due to its intrinsic thermal stability. This work presented here opens a new pathway towards tuning mechanical behavior of any arbitrary CNT arrays for promising potential such as damper, vibration isolator and shock absorber applications.

  7. Field Emission Properties of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Silicon Nanoporous Pillar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-fen; Li, Long-yu; Xiao, Shun-hua; Yang, Xiao-hui; Jia, Min; Li, Xin-jian

    2007-12-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Surface morphologies and microstructure of the resultant were studied by a field emission scanning electron microscope, Raman spectrum, transmission electron microscope, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The composition of samples was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that a great deal of CNTs, with diameter in the range of 20-70 nm, incorporated with Si-NPA and a large scale nest array of CNTs/Si-NPA (NACNT/Si-NPA) was formed. EDS analysis showed that the composition of carbon nanotubes was carbon. Field emission measurements showed that a current density of 5 mA/cm2 was obtained at an electric field of 4.26 V/μm, with a turn-on field of 1.3 V/μm. The enhancement factor calculated according to the Fowler-Nordheim theory was ~11,000. This excellent field emission performance is attributed to the unique structure and morphology of NACNT/Si-NPA, especially the formation of a nest-shaped carbon nanotube array. A schematic drawing that illustrates the experimental configuration is given. These results indicate that NACNT/Si-NPA might be an ideal candidate cathode for potential applications in flat panel displays.

  8. Photo-Current Enhancement in Carbon Quantum Dots Functionalized Titania Nanotube Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sanju; Borse, Pramod H; Pareek, Alka; Rajalakshmi, N; Dhathathreyan, K S

    2016-06-01

    Highly aligned, vertically oriented, TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by electrochemical anodization were functionalised by carbon quantum dots (CQD) synthesized by an electrochemical reduction technique. Here, we report the photo-electrochemical properties of such TiO2 nanotubes array-CQD composite material and it has been found that the properties are significantly enhanced compared to that in pristine (bare) nanotubes. The TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, whereas the CQD samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy. CQDs synthesized under two different conditions showed a distinct size difference and corresponding absorption spectra revealed concominant shift in the absorption edges. Furthermore, the photo-electrochemical measurements were carried out with the help of photo-current, incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE), Mott-Schottky plots and the impedance analysis. The photo-current data revealed 30% improvement in TiO2-CQD samples compared to bare TiO2 nanotubes samples. A higher photo-conversion efficiency was observed along with the shifting of the peak value towards visible wavelengths. The Mott-Schottky plots revealed shift in the flat-band potential in the CQD-TiO2 samples and corresponding lowering of the charge transfer resistance was observed through the impedance spectroscopy.

  9. Photo-Current Enhancement in Carbon Quantum Dots Functionalized Titania Nanotube Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sanju; Borse, Pramod H; Pareek, Alka; Rajalakshmi, N; Dhathathreyan, K S

    2016-06-01

    Highly aligned, vertically oriented, TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by electrochemical anodization were functionalised by carbon quantum dots (CQD) synthesized by an electrochemical reduction technique. Here, we report the photo-electrochemical properties of such TiO2 nanotubes array-CQD composite material and it has been found that the properties are significantly enhanced compared to that in pristine (bare) nanotubes. The TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, whereas the CQD samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy. CQDs synthesized under two different conditions showed a distinct size difference and corresponding absorption spectra revealed concominant shift in the absorption edges. Furthermore, the photo-electrochemical measurements were carried out with the help of photo-current, incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE), Mott-Schottky plots and the impedance analysis. The photo-current data revealed 30% improvement in TiO2-CQD samples compared to bare TiO2 nanotubes samples. A higher photo-conversion efficiency was observed along with the shifting of the peak value towards visible wavelengths. The Mott-Schottky plots revealed shift in the flat-band potential in the CQD-TiO2 samples and corresponding lowering of the charge transfer resistance was observed through the impedance spectroscopy. PMID:27427662

  10. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Synthesis of carbon nanotube arrays using ethanol in porous anodic aluminum oxide template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guojun; WANG Sen; GONG Jinlong; ZHU Dezhang; HE Suixia; LI Yulan; ZHU Zhiyuan

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays confined by porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template were synthesized using ethanol as reactant carbon source at low pressure. Images by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low magnification transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that these CNTs have highly uniform outer diameter and length, absolutely controlled by the diameter and depth of nano-channel arrays of the AAO. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging indicates that the graphitization of the CNT walls is better than the results reported on this kind of template-based CNT arrays, although it is not so good as that of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by catalysis. CNTs synthesized using acetylene as reactant gas show much less graphitization than those prepared using ethanol by comparing the results of HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy. The etching effects of decomposed OH radicals on the amorphous carbon and the roughness of AAO nano-channel arrays on the CNTs growth were employed to explain the graphitization and growth of the CNTs.

  12. Coaxial carbon@boron nitride nanotube arrays with enhanced thermal stability and compressive mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lin; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Li, Hongling; Tsang, Siu Hon; Huang, Jingfeng; Tan, Dunlin; Zhang, Bowei; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2016-05-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have aroused considerable interest because of their remarkable mechanical properties. However, the mechanical behaviour of as-synthesized CNT arrays could vary drastically at a macro-scale depending on their morphologies, dimensions and array density, which are determined by the synthesis method. Here, we demonstrate a coaxial carbon@boron nitride nanotube (C@BNNT) array with enhanced compressive strength and shape recoverability. CNT arrays are grown using a commercially available thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique and an outer BNNT with a wall thickness up to 1.37 nm is introduced by a post-growth TCVD treatment. Importantly, compared to the as-grown CNT arrays which deform almost plastically upon compression, the coaxial C@BNNT arrays exhibit an impressive ~4-fold increase in compressive strength with nearly full recovery after the first compression cycle at a 50% strain (76% recovery maintained after 10 cycles), as well as a significantly high and persistent energy dissipation ratio (~60% at a 50% strain after 100 cycles), attributed to the synergistic effect between the CNT and outer BNNT. Additionally, the as-prepared C@BNNT arrays show an improved structural stability in air at elevated temperatures, attributing to the outstanding thermal stability of the outer BNNT. This work provides new insights into tailoring the mechanical and thermal behaviours of arbitrary CNT arrays which enables a broader range of applications.Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have aroused considerable interest because of their remarkable mechanical properties. However, the mechanical behaviour of as-synthesized CNT arrays could vary drastically at a macro-scale depending on their morphologies, dimensions and array density, which are determined by the synthesis method. Here, we demonstrate a coaxial carbon@boron nitride nanotube (C@BNNT) array with enhanced compressive strength and shape recoverability

  13. Collisions of three-dimensional bipolar optical solitons in an array of carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukov, Alexander V; Malomed, Boris A; Leblond, Hervé; Mihalache, Dumitru; Fedorov, Eduard G; Rosanov, Nikolay N; Belonenko, Mikhail B

    2016-01-01

    We study interactions of extremely short three-dimensional bipolar electromagnetic pulses propagating towards each other in an array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes, along any direction perpendicular to their axes. The analysis provides a full account of the effects of the nonuniformity of the pulses' fields along the axes. The evolution of the electromagnetic field and charge density in the sample is derived from the Maxwell's equations and the continuity equation, respectively. In particular, we focus on indirect interaction of the pulses via the action of their fields on the electronic subsystem of the nanotube array. Changes in the shape of pulses in the course of their propagation and interaction are analyzed by calculating and visualizing the distribution of the electric field in the system. The numerical analysis reveals a possibility of stable post-collision propagation of pulses over distances much greater than their sizes.

  14. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yun, H.; McAllister, K.; Lee, S. W., E-mail: leesw@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.; Kim, G. T. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. J.; Jeong, G. H. [Department of Nano Applied Engineering, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, I.; Kim, K. S. [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems.

  15. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems

  16. Nanoscale thermocapillarity enabled purification for horizontally aligned arrays of single walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Hun; Dunham, Simon; Xie, Xu; Rogers, John A.

    2015-09-01

    Among the remarkable variety of semiconducting nanomaterials that have been discovered over the past two decades, single-walled carbon nanotubes remain uniquely well suited for applications in high-performance electronics, sensors and other technologies. The most advanced opportunities demand the ability to form perfectly aligned, horizontal arrays of purely semiconducting, chemically pristine carbon nanotubes. Here, we present strategies that offer this capability. Nanoscale thermos-capillary flows in thin-film organic coatings followed by reactive ion etching serve as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous aligned arrays grown on quartz substrates. The low temperatures and unusual physics associated with this process enable robust, scalable operation, with clear potential for practical use. Especially for the purpose of selective joule heating over only metallic nanotubes, two representative platforms are proposed and confirmed. One is achieved by selective joule heating associated with thin film transistors with partial gate structure. The other is based on a simple, scalable, large-area scheme through microwave irradiation by using micro-strip dipole antennas of low work-function metals. In this study, based on purified semiconducting SWNTs, we demonstrated field effect transistors with mobility (> 1,000 cm2/Vsec) and on/off switching ratio (~10,000) with current outputs in the milliamp range. Furthermore, as one demonstration of the effectiveness over large area-scalability and simplicity, implementing the micro-wave based purification, on large arrays consisting of ~20,000 SWNTs completely removes all of the m-SWNTs (~7,000) to yield a purity of s-SWNTs that corresponds, quantitatively, to at least to 99.9925% and likely significantly higher.

  17. A polymeric nanocoating on carbon nanotube arrays for developing imprinted protein sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Zhao, H. Z.; Xu, C. J.; Yu, Y.; Wang, H. Z.; Lan, Y. C.; Wagner, D.; Naughton, M. J.; Ren, Z. F.; Chiles, T. C.; Cai, D.

    2010-03-01

    Polyphenol (PPn) was electrodeposited on carbon nanotubes (CNT) arrays at nanoscale thickness. PPn is a non-conductive polymer, so increase of sensor impedance was observed with high density CNT array, low density CNT array, and tip-polished CNT array (tCNTA), while tCNTA was determined to be the best nanosensor platform to incorporate the imprinted PPn coating due to the highest impedance increase. The PPn was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry for its thickness, uniformity, stability, resistivity and permittivity etc., as well as the protein entrapment and removal process. The density of the imprint was also evaluated by a PPn refilling experiment. Finally, ferritin was used as the template to develop a highly sensitive and selective protein nanosensor. Therefore, a novel strategy was demonstrated here to deposit and characterize polymeric nanocoating, also to evaluate imprints and detect proteins.

  18. Conformal atomic layer deposition of alumina on millimeter tall, vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Kelly L; Carroll, Murphy; Padbury, Richard; McCord, Marian; Jur, Jesse S; Bradford, Philip D

    2014-11-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to coat high aspect ratio and high surface area substrates with conformal and precisely controlled thin films. Vertically aligned arrays of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with lengths up to 1.5 mm were conformally coated with alumina from base to tip. The nucleation and growth behaviors of Al2O3 ALD precursors on the MWCNTs were studied as a function of CNT surface chemistry. CNT surfaces were modified through a series of post-treatments including pyrolytic carbon deposition, high temperature thermal annealing, and oxygen plasma functionalization. Conformal coatings were achieved where post-treatments resulted in increased defect density as well as the extent of functionalization, as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using thermogravimetric analysis, it was determined that MWCNTs treated with pyrolytic carbon and plasma functionalization prior to ALD coating were more stable to thermal oxidation than pristine ALD coated samples. Functionalized and ALD coated arrays had a compressive modulus more than two times higher than a pristine array coated for the same number of cycles. Cross-sectional energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that Al2O3 could be uniformly deposited through the entire thickness of the vertically aligned MWCNT array by manipulating sample orientation and mounting techniques. Following the ALD coating, the MWCNT arrays demonstrated hydrophilic wetting behavior and also exhibited foam-like recovery following compressive strain.

  19. Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes based on aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Zhu, Xingzhong; Huang, Xiaolu; Cheng, Yingwu; Liu, Yun; Geng, Huijuan; Wu, Yue; Su, Yanjie; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2013-11-01

    Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes were fabricated based on aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method with the assistance of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different micro brushes from CNT arrays were constructed on silicon, glass, and polyimide substrates, respectively. The micro brushes had highly uniform hole spacing originating from the regularly periodic pore structure of AAO template. The CNT arrays, serving as bristles, were firmly grafted on the substrates. The brushes can easily clean particles with scale of micrometer on the surface of silicon wafer and from the narrow spaces between the electrodes in a series of cleaning experiments. The results show the potential application of the CNT micro brushes as a cleaning tool in microelectronics manufacture field.

  20. Influence of field evaporation treatment on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xin; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Gengmin

    2010-04-01

    Field evaporation was used in the post-fabrication treatment of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs) array and effectively modified the CNTs morphology in favor of the field emission under a moderate field. After the field evaporation treatment, the uniformity of the emission site distribution improved but the onset voltage rose. Using the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the actual onset field and the evaporation field around the CNT were calculated to be -4.6-5 and 9-12 V/nm, respectively. These values are close to those obtained from the individual CNT samples. The above results have provided an alternative to modify the configuration of an array sample and demonstrated the feasibility of tackling the problem of the disparity in the field emission capability of different CNTs in an array.

  1. Influence of Zn ion implantation on structures and field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The structures and field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays implanted with Zn+ by MEVVA ion implanter have been investigated.The results revealed that Zn+implantation induced structural damage and that the top of carbon nanotubes with multi-layered graphite structure were transformed into carbon nanowires with amorphous structure.Meanwhile,C:Zn solid solution was synthesized after Zn+ implantation.The turn-on field and threshold field were 0.80 and 1.31 V/μm,respectively for original multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays and were reduced to 0.66 and 1.04 V/μm due to the synthesis of C and Zn composite,in which the work function was reduced after low doses of Zn+implantation.It is indicated that low doses of Zn+implantation can improve field emission performance of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays.Otherwise,high doses of Zn+implantation can reduce field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays,because radiation damage reduces the electric field enhancement factor.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Arrays with Strong Shear Binding-On and Easy Normal Lifting-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming; Stone, Morley; Xia, Zhenhai; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-10-01

    The ability of gecko lizards to adhere to a vertical solid surface comes from their remarkable feet with aligned microscopic elastic hairs. By using carbon nanotube arrays that are dominated by a straight body segment but with curly entangled top, we have created gecko-foot mimetic dry adhesives that show macroscopic adhesive forces of ~100 newtons per square centimeter, almost 10 times that of a gecko foot, and a much stronger shear adhesion force than the normal adhesion force, to ensure strong binding along the shear direction and easy lifting in the normal direction. This anisotropic force distribution is due to the shear-induced alignments of the curly segments of the nanotubes. The mimetic adhesives can be alternatively binding-on and lifting-off over various substrates for simulating the walking of a living gecko.

  3. A practical dimensionless equation for the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and CNT arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results reported in the last decade on the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs have shown a fairly divergent behavior. An underlying intrinsic consistency was believed to exist in spite of the divergence in the thermal conductivity data of various CNTs. A dimenisonless equation that describes the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity was derived by introducing reduced forms relative to a chosen reference point. This equation can serve as a practical approximation to characterize the conductivity of individual CNT with different structural parameters as well as bulk CNT arrays with different bundle configurations. Comparison of predictions by the equation and historical measurements showed good agreements within their uncertainties.

  4. Multifunctional Material Structures Based on Laser-Etched Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Emplit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-power electronics in the transportation and aerospace sectors need size and weight reduction. Multifunctional and multistructured materials are currently being developed to couple electromagnetic (EM and thermal properties, i.e., shielding against electromagnetic impulsions, and thermal management across the thermal interface material (TIM. In this work, we investigate laser-machined patterned carbon nanotube (CNT micro-brushes as an alternative to metallic structures for driving simultaneously EM and heat propagation. The thermal and electromagnetic response of the CNT array is expected to be sensitive to the micro-structured pattern etched in the CNT brush.

  5. Photoluminescence enhancement of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Manuel; Zakharko, Yuriy; Gannott, Florentina; Grimm, Stefan B.; Zaumseil, Jana

    2015-10-01

    The photoluminescence of as-grown, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on quartz is strongly quenched and barely detectable. Here we show that transferring these SWNTs to another substrate such as clean quartz or glass increases their emission efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. By statistical analysis of large nanotube arrays we show at what point of the transfer process the emission enhancement occurs and how it depends on the receiving substrate and the employed transfer polymer. We find that hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) as the transfer polymer results in higher photoluminescence enhancement than the more hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Possible mechanisms for this enhancement such as strain relief, disruption of the strong interaction of SWNTs with the substrate and localized emissive states are discussed.The photoluminescence of as-grown, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on quartz is strongly quenched and barely detectable. Here we show that transferring these SWNTs to another substrate such as clean quartz or glass increases their emission efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. By statistical analysis of large nanotube arrays we show at what point of the transfer process the emission enhancement occurs and how it depends on the receiving substrate and the employed transfer polymer. We find that hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) as the transfer polymer results in higher photoluminescence enhancement than the more hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Possible mechanisms for this enhancement such as strain relief, disruption of the strong interaction of SWNTs with the substrate and localized emissive states are discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05163k

  6. Preparation of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Amino-Terminated Ionic Liquid Arrays and Their Electrocatalysis towards Oxygen Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Li Niu; Ari Ivaska; Carita Kvarnström; Rose-Marie Latonen; Zhijuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    Arrays of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-ionic liquid (MIL) were assembled on silicon wafers (Si-MIL). Formation of Si-MIL was confirmed by ATR-FTIR, AFM and Raman techniques. The electrochemical measurements indicated that Si-MIL showed good electrocatalysis towards oxygen reduction compared with MIL drop-cast on a glassy carbon electrode.

  7. GCMC simulation of hydrogen adsorption in densely packed arrays of Li-doped and hydrogenated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabella, Simone [Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria (Italy); Celino, Massimo [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia (Italy); Zollo, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.zollo@uniroma1.it [Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    The upper threshold of hydrogen adsorption in Li-doped and hydrogenated carbon nanotube densely packed arrays is calculated to check the ability of such systems to fulfill the target indicated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). To this aim, model potential parameters have been obtained by Density Functional Theory and have been used to calculate the adsorption isotherms in honeycomb arrays containing up to seven tubes by means of Grand-Canonical Monte Carlo simulations. A hybrid model has been developed involving both atomistic potentials for short-range interactions and integrated potentials for hydrogen interacting with distant tubes. In the pressure range explored, it is shown that the hydrogen adsorption performances of Li-doped carbon nanotubes arranged in close packed honeycomb arrays, while being enhanced with respect to pristine carbon nanotubes, are still well below the DOE targets.

  8. Enhanced field emission from a nest array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinjian; Jiang Weifen [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2007-02-14

    A large scale nest array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NACNT) was grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapour deposition. Field emission measurements showed that a current density of 6.8 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained at an electric field of 3.1 V {mu}m{sup -1}, with a turn-on field of 0.56 V {mu}m{sup -1}. The enhancement factor calculated according to the Fowler-Nordheim theory was {approx}25 000. This excellent field emission performance was attributed to the unique structure and morphology of NACNT/Si-NPA, especially the formation of NACNT, and the presence of numerous iron particles encapsulated in the CNTs. These results indicated that NACNT/Si-NPA might be an ideal candidate cathode for potential applications in flat panel displays.

  9. Enhanced field emission from a nest array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin Jian; Jiang, Wei Fen

    2007-02-01

    A large scale nest array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NACNT) was grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapour deposition. Field emission measurements showed that a current density of 6.8 mA cm-2 was obtained at an electric field of 3.1 V µm-1, with a turn-on field of 0.56 V µm-1. The enhancement factor calculated according to the Fowler-Nordheim theory was ~25 000. This excellent field emission performance was attributed to the unique structure and morphology of NACNT/Si-NPA, especially the formation of NACNT, and the presence of numerous iron particles encapsulated in the CNTs. These results indicated that NACNT/Si-NPA might be an ideal candidate cathode for potential applications in flat panel displays.

  10. Lung Microtissue Array to Screen the Fibrogenic Potential of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaowei; Wang, Qixin; Asmani, Mohammadnabi; Li, Yan; Liu, Chang; Li, Changning; Lippmann, Julian M.; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Ruogang

    2016-01-01

    Due to their excellent physical and chemical characteristics, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have the potential to be used in structural composites, conductive materials, sensors, drug delivery and medical imaging. However, because of their small-size and light-weight, the applications of MWCNT also raise health concerns. In vivo animal studies have shown that MWCNT cause biomechanical and genetic alterations in the lung tissue which lead to lung fibrosis. To screen the fibrogenic risk factor of specific types of MWCNT, we developed a human lung microtissue array device that allows real-time and in-situ readout of the biomechanical properties of the engineered lung microtissue upon MWCNT insult. We showed that the higher the MWCNT concentration, the more severe cytotoxicity was observed. More importantly, short type MWCNT at low concentration of 50 ng/ml stimulated microtissue formation and contraction force generation, and caused substantial increase in the fibrogenic marker miR-21 expression, indicating the high fibrogenic potential of this specific carbon nanotube type and concentration. The presented microtissue array system provides a powerful tool for high-throughput examination of the therapeutic and toxicological effects of target compounds in realistic tissue environment. PMID:27510174

  11. Lung Microtissue Array to Screen the Fibrogenic Potential of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaowei; Wang, Qixin; Asmani, Mohammadnabi; Li, Yan; Liu, Chang; Li, Changning; Lippmann, Julian M; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Ruogang

    2016-01-01

    Due to their excellent physical and chemical characteristics, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have the potential to be used in structural composites, conductive materials, sensors, drug delivery and medical imaging. However, because of their small-size and light-weight, the applications of MWCNT also raise health concerns. In vivo animal studies have shown that MWCNT cause biomechanical and genetic alterations in the lung tissue which lead to lung fibrosis. To screen the fibrogenic risk factor of specific types of MWCNT, we developed a human lung microtissue array device that allows real-time and in-situ readout of the biomechanical properties of the engineered lung microtissue upon MWCNT insult. We showed that the higher the MWCNT concentration, the more severe cytotoxicity was observed. More importantly, short type MWCNT at low concentration of 50 ng/ml stimulated microtissue formation and contraction force generation, and caused substantial increase in the fibrogenic marker miR-21 expression, indicating the high fibrogenic potential of this specific carbon nanotube type and concentration. The presented microtissue array system provides a powerful tool for high-throughput examination of the therapeutic and toxicological effects of target compounds in realistic tissue environment. PMID:27510174

  12. Dysprosium-Catalyzed Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this letter, we report that dysprosium is an effective catalyst for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs growth via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD process for the first time. Horizontally superlong well-oriented SWNT arrays on SiO2/Si wafer can be fabricated by EtOH-CVD under suitable conditions. The structure and properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results show that the SWNTs from dysprosium have better structural uniformity and better conductivity with fewer defects. This rare earth metal provides not only an alternative catalyst for SWNTs growth, but also a possible method to generate high percentage of superlong semiconducting SWNT arrays for various applications of nanoelectronic device.

  13. Printable nanoscale metal ring arrays via vertically aligned carbon nanotube platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ho; Yoon, Seungha; Jeong, Huisu; Han, Mingu; Choi, Sung Mook; Kim, Jong Guk; Park, Ji-Woong; Jung, Gun Young; Cho, Beong Ki; Kim, Won Bae

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a novel and efficient strategy for fabricating sub-100 nm metal ring arrays using a simple printing process. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes that are supported by hexagonally ordered channels of alumina matrices are used as a stamp to print nanoscale ring patterns, which is a very unique stamping platform that has never been reported. Using this strategy, uniform nanoring patterns of various metals can be directly printed onto a wide range of substrate surfaces under ambient conditions. Significantly, the size and interval of the printed nanorings can be systematically tuned by controlling the ring-shaped tip dimensions of the pristine stamps. An advanced example of these printable nanoscale metal ring arrays is explicitly embodied in this work by investigation of the plasmon resonances of metal nanorings with different sizes and intervals.

  14. Strong adhesion and friction coupling in hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays for dry adhesive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Xia, Zhenhai; Gao, Xiaosheng

    2012-04-01

    The adhesion and friction coupling of hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays was investigated with a hierarchical multiscale modeling approach. At device level, vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) arrays with laterally distributed segments on top were analyzed via finite element methods to determine the macroscopic adhesion and friction force coupling. At the nanoscale, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to explore the origin of the adhesion enhancement due to the existence of the laterally distributed CNTs. The results show interfacial adhesion force is drastically promoted by interfacial friction force when a single lateral CNT is being peeled from an amorphous carbon substrate. By fitting with experiments, we find that under shearing loadings the maximum interfacial adhesion force is increased by a factor of ~5, compared to that under normal loadings. Pre-existing surface asperities of the substrate have proven to be the source of generating large interfacial friction, which in turn results in an enhanced adhesion. The critical peeling angles derived from the continuum and nano- levels are comparable to those of geckos and other synthetic adhesives. Our analysis indicates that the adhesion enhancement factor of the hierarchically structured VA-CNT arrays could be further increased by uniformly orienting the laterally distributed CNTs on top. Most importantly, a significant buckling of the lateral CNT at peeling front is captured on the molecular level, which provides a basis for the fundamental understanding of local deformation, and failure mechanisms of nanofibrillar structures. This work gives an insight into the durability issues that prevent the success of artificial dry adhesives.

  15. Low-Field Emission from Iron Oxide-Filled Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Yang; YU Li-Gang; WANG Ming-Sheng; ZHANG Qi-Feng; WU Jin-Lei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) filled with iron oxide have been fabricated by a one-step route based on the pyrolysis of ferrocene under a well-chosen synthesis condition.The MWCNT arrays were observed with a scanning electron microscope, with which an energy dispersive x-ray spectrum (EDXS) was also acquired, and they are analysed by x-ray diffraction.Furthermore, individual MWCNTs were studied by using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and the EDXS in a transmission electron microscopy observation.All the observation and analysis confirmed that the MWCNTs were filled with iron oxide.Field emission from these arrays of iron oxide-filled MWCNTs was measured and the turn-on field was determined to range from 0.83-1.01 V/μm, appearing to be much lower than those of arrays of pure MWCNTs and arrays of nitrogen-doped MWCNTs fabricated in similar ways.The possible reasons of the observed low-field emission are discussed.

  16. Determination of the effective Young's modulus of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: a simple nanotube-based varactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, Niklas; Eriksson, Anders [Department of Physics, Goeteborg University, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Ek-Weis, Johan; Campbell, Eleanor E B [School of Chemistry, Edinburgh University, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Idda, Tonio, E-mail: eleanor.campbell@ed.ac.u [LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2009-09-23

    The electromechanical properties of arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were studied in a parallel plate capacitor geometry. The electrostatic actuation was visualized using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and highly reproducible behaviour was achieved for actuation voltages below the pull-in voltage. The walls of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes behave as solid cohesive units. The effective Young's modulus for the carbon nanotube arrays was determined by comparing the actuation results with the results of electrostatic simulations and was found to be exceptionally low, of the order of 1-10 MPa. The capacitance change and Q-factor were determined by measuring the frequency dependence of the radio-frequency transmission. Capacitance changes of over 20% and Q-factors in the range 100-10 were achieved for a frequency range of 0.2-1.5 GHz.

  17. Aligned carbon nanotube array stiffness from stochastic three-dimensional morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Itai Y.; Lewis, Diana J.; Wardle, Brian L.

    2015-11-01

    The landmark theoretical properties of low dimensional materials have driven more than a decade of research on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and related nanostructures. While studies on isolated CNTs report behavior that aligns closely with theoretical predictions, studies on cm-scale aligned CNT arrays (>1010 CNTs) oftentimes report properties that are orders of magnitude below those predicted by theory. Using simulated arrays comprised of up to 105 CNTs with realistic stochastic morphologies, we show that the CNT waviness, quantified via the waviness ratio (w), is responsible for more than three orders of magnitude reduction in the effective CNT stiffness. Also, by including information on the volume fraction scaling of the CNT waviness, the simulation shows that the observed non-linear enhancement of the array stiffness as a function of the CNT close packing originates from the shear and torsion deformation mechanisms that are governed by the low shear modulus (~1 GPa) of the CNTs.The landmark theoretical properties of low dimensional materials have driven more than a decade of research on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and related nanostructures. While studies on isolated CNTs report behavior that aligns closely with theoretical predictions, studies on cm-scale aligned CNT arrays (>1010 CNTs) oftentimes report properties that are orders of magnitude below those predicted by theory. Using simulated arrays comprised of up to 105 CNTs with realistic stochastic morphologies, we show that the CNT waviness, quantified via the waviness ratio (w), is responsible for more than three orders of magnitude reduction in the effective CNT stiffness. Also, by including information on the volume fraction scaling of the CNT waviness, the simulation shows that the observed non-linear enhancement of the array stiffness as a function of the CNT close packing originates from the shear and torsion deformation mechanisms that are governed by the low shear modulus (~1 GPa) of the CNTs. Electronic

  18. Investigating the antifungal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on branched carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branched carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on a silicon substrate. Ni was used as the catalyst and played an important role in the realization of branches in vertically aligned nanotubes. TiO2 nanoparticles on the branched CNTs were produced by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition followed by a 500 0C annealing step. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic techniques were used to study the morphology of the TiO2/branched CNT structures while x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to verify the characteristics of the prepared nanostructures. Their antifungal effect on Candida albicans biofilms under visible light was investigated and compared with the activity of TiO2/CNT arrays and thin films of TiO2. The TiO2/branched CNTs showed a highly improved photocatalytic antifungal activity in comparison with the TiO2/CNTs and TiO2 film. The excellent visible light-induced photocatalytic antifungal activity of the TiO2/branched CNTs was attributed to the generation of electron-hole pairs by visible light excitation with a low recombination rate, in addition to the high surface area provided for the interaction between the cells and the nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the resulting morphological changes in the cell body of the biofilms existing on the antifungal samples.

  19. Interaction of high-power nanosecond electric pulses with an array of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear current induced in carbon nanotubes with metallic conductivity and in graphene nanoribbons by an alternating electric field with a subnanosecond width of the leading edge in the presence of a static electric field has been theoretically studied. The parameters of the static electric field for simple carbon nanotubes coincide with the parameters of nanosecond electric pulses

  20. Well-aligned carbon nanotube array membrane synthesized in porous alumina template by chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new simple approach was developed for preparing well-aligned and monodispersed carbon nanotube (CNT) array membrane within the cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene and hydrogen were used in the CVD process with Fe-catalyzer at 700℃ under 250 Pa. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to characterize the resulting highly- oriented uniform hollow tube array which had a diameter of about 250 nm, a tube density of 5.3′ 108 cm-2 and a length of about 60 m m. The length and diameter of the tubes depend on the thickness and pore diameter of the template. The growth properties of the CNT array film can be achieved by controlling the structure of the template, the particle size of Fe-catalyzer, the temperature in the reactor, the flow ratio and the deposition time. The highly-oriented and uniform CNT array membrane fabricated by this simple method is very much useful in a variety of applications.

  1. A one-step technique to prepare aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanandia, Pitamber [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)], E-mail: pitam@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2008-04-16

    A simple effective pyrolysis technique has been developed to synthesize aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without using any carrier gas in a single-stage furnace at 700 deg. C. This technique eliminates nearly the entire complex and expensive machinery associated with other extensively used methods for preparation of CNTs such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and pyrolysis. Carbon source materials such as xylene, cyclohexane, camphor, hexane, toluene, pyridine and benzene have been pyrolyzed separately with the catalyst source material ferrocene to obtain aligned arrays of MWCNTs. The synthesized CNTs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectroscopy. In this technique, the need for the tedious and time-consuming preparation of metal catalysts and continuously fed carbon source material containing carrier gas can be avoided. This method is a single-step process where not many parameters are required to be monitored in order to prepare aligned MWCNTs. For the production of CNTs, the technique has great advantages such as low cost and easy operation.

  2. Charge trapping in aligned single-walled carbon nanotube arrays induced by ionizing radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esqueda, Ivan S., E-mail: isanchez@isi.edu [Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Arlington, Virginia 22203 (United States); Cress, Cory D. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Che, Yuchi; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Chongwu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    The effects of near-interfacial trapping induced by ionizing radiation exposure of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) arrays are investigated via measurements of gate hysteresis in the transfer characteristics of aligned SWCNT field-effect transistors. Gate hysteresis is attributed to charge injection (i.e., trapping) from the SWCNTs into radiation-induced traps in regions near the SWCNT/dielectric interface. Self-consistent calculations of surface-potential, carrier density, and trapped charge are used to describe hysteresis as a function of ionizing radiation exposure. Hysteresis width (h) and its dependence on gate sweep range are investigated analytically. The effects of non-uniform trap energy distributions on the relationship between hysteresis, gate sweep range, and total ionizing dose are demonstrated with simulations and verified experimentally.

  3. Control of Carbon Nanotube Density and Tower Height in an Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for controlling density or tower height of carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays grown in spaced apart first and second regions on a substrate. CNTs having a first density range (or first tower height range) are grown in the first region using a first source temperature range for growth. Subsequently or simultaneously, CNTs having a second density range (or second tower height range), having an average density (or average tower height) in the second region different from the average density (or average tower height) for the first region, are grown in the second region, using supplemental localized hearing for the second region. Application for thermal dissipation and/or dissipation of electrical charge or voltage in an electronic device are discussed.

  4. Capacitive humidity sensing properties of carbon nanotubes grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapor deposition method, and the structural and capacitive humidity sensing properties of CNT/Si-NPA were studied. It was found that with the relative humidity (RH) changing from 11% to 95%, a device re-sponse of ~480% was achieved at the frequency of 50000 Hz, and a linear device response curve could be obtained by adopting longitudinal logarithmic coordinate. The response/recovery times were measured to be ~20 s and ~10 s, respectively, which indicated a rather fast response/recovery rate. The adsorption-desorption dynamic cycle experiments demonstrated the high measurement reproducibility of CNT/Si-NPA sensors. These excellent performances were attributed to the unique surface structure, morphology and chemical inertness of CNT/Si-NPA.

  5. First human trials of a dry electrophysiology sensor using a carbon nanotube array interface

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, G; Fuentemilla, L; Grau, C; Farres, E; Marco-Pallares, J; Watts, P C P; Silva, S R P

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue, sleepiness and disturbed sleep are important factors in health and safety in modern society and there is considerable interest in developing technologies for routine monitoring of associated physiological indicators. Electrophysiology, the measurement of the electrical activity of biological origin, is a key technique for the measurement of physiological parameters in several applications, but it has been traditionally difficult to develop sensors for measurements outside the laboratory or clinic with the required quality and robustness. In this paper we report the results from first human experiments using a new electrophysiology sensor called ENOBIO, using carbon nanotube arrays for penetration of the outer layers of the skin and improved electrical contact. These tests, which have included traditional protocols for the analysis of the electrical activity of the brain--spontaneous EEG and ERP--indicate performance on a par with state of the art research-oriented wet electrodes, suggesting that the ...

  6. Capacitive humidity sensing properties of carbon nanotubes grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WeiFen; XIAO ShunHua; ZHANG HuanYun; DONG YongFen; LI XinJian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapor deposition method, and the structural and capacitive humidity sensing properties of CNT/Si-NPA were studied. It was found that with the relative humidity (RH) changing from 11% to 95%, a device response of ~480% was achieved at the frequency of 50000 Hz, and a linear device response curve could be obtained by adopting longitudinal logarithmic coordinate. The response/recovery times were measured to be ~20 s and ~10 s, respectively, which indicated a rather fast response/recovery rate. The adsorption-desorption dynamic cycle experiments demonstrated the high measurement reproducibility of CNT/Si-NPA sensors. These excellent performances were attributed to the unique surface structure, morphology and chemical inertness of CNT/Si-NPA.

  7. Continuous graphene and carbon nanotube based high flexible and transparent pressure sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Songtao; Wang, Meng; Yu, Jia; Khan, Qasim; Shang, Jintang; Ba, Long

    2015-03-01

    The transparent pressure sensing arrays durable to severe deformation are fabricated by covering the continuous graphene sheets on the tip of thermal plastic polyurethane (TPU) pyramids, while most of the TPU surface is covered by a layer of densely entangled single wall carbon nanotubes. The transparency of the conducting layer exceeds 91%. The capacitance variations between TPU surface and flat electrode under compressive deformation show high sensitivity and a broad dynamic range from hundreds Pa to MPa. The measured capacitance variations show high load sensitivity and stability under repeated deformation cycles. Finite element numerical simulations present that the contact area change under deformation increases the capacitance variation. The high stability of the capacitance response to fluctuated loads demonstrates that graphene layer on the surface of TPU pyramids maintains the continuity of electric contact under a large deformation ratio and high repeating cycles. 16 × 16 arrays are connected to a circuit and a typical load distribution is regenerated by mapping the local capacitance variations on the arrays with sub-minimeter spatial resolution.

  8. Field emission from optimized structure of carbon nanotube field emitter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, V.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S.

    2016-04-01

    The authors report a detail study on the emission properties of field emitter array (FEA) of micro-circular emitters of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The FEAs were fabricated on patterned substrates prepared with an array of circular titanium (Ti) islands on titanium nitride coated tantalum substrates. CNTs were rooted into these Ti islands to prepare an array of circular emitters. The circular emitters were prepared in different diameters and pitches in order to optimize their structure for acquiring a high emission current. The pitch was varied from 0 to 600 μm, while a diameter of circular emitters was kept constant to be 50 μm in order to optimize a pitch. For diameter optimization, a diameter was changed from 50 to 200 μm while keeping a constant edge-to-edge distance of 150 μm between the circular emitters. The FEA with a diameter of 50 μm and a pitch of 120 μm was found to be the best to achieve an emission current of 47 mA corresponding to an effective current density of 30.5 A/cm2 at 7 V/μm. The excellent emission current was attributed to good quality of CNT rooting into the substrate and optimized FEA structure, which provided a high electric field on a whole circular emitter of 50 μm and the best combination of the strong edge effect and CNT coverage. The experimental results were confirmed with computer simulation.

  9. Quasi-ballistic carbon nanotube array transistors with current density exceeding Si and GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Gerald J; Way, Austin J; Safron, Nathaniel S; Evensen, Harold T; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are tantalizing candidates for semiconductor electronics because of their exceptional charge transport properties and one-dimensional electrostatics. Ballistic transport approaching the quantum conductance limit of 2G 0 = 4e (2)/h has been achieved in field-effect transistors (FETs) containing one CNT. However, constraints in CNT sorting, processing, alignment, and contacts give rise to nonidealities when CNTs are implemented in densely packed parallel arrays such as those needed for technology, resulting in a conductance per CNT far from 2G 0. The consequence has been that, whereas CNTs are ultimately expected to yield FETs that are more conductive than conventional semiconductors, CNTs, instead, have underperformed channel materials, such as Si, by sixfold or more. We report quasi-ballistic CNT array FETs at a density of 47 CNTs μm(-1), fabricated through a combination of CNT purification, solution-based assembly, and CNT treatment. The conductance is as high as 0.46 G 0 per CNT. In parallel, the conductance of the arrays reaches 1.7 mS μm(-1), which is seven times higher than the previous state-of-the-art CNT array FETs made by other methods. The saturated on-state current density is as high as 900 μA μm(-1) and is similar to or exceeds that of Si FETs when compared at and equivalent gate oxide thickness and at the same off-state current density. The on-state current density exceeds that of GaAs FETs as well. This breakthrough in CNT array performance is a critical advance toward the exploitation of CNTs in logic, high-speed communications, and other semiconductor electronics technologies.

  10. Quasi-ballistic carbon nanotube array transistors with current density exceeding Si and GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Gerald J.; Way, Austin J.; Safron, Nathaniel S.; Evensen, Harold T.; Gopalan, Padma; Arnold, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are tantalizing candidates for semiconductor electronics because of their exceptional charge transport properties and one-dimensional electrostatics. Ballistic transport approaching the quantum conductance limit of 2G0 = 4e2/h has been achieved in field-effect transistors (FETs) containing one CNT. However, constraints in CNT sorting, processing, alignment, and contacts give rise to nonidealities when CNTs are implemented in densely packed parallel arrays such as those needed for technology, resulting in a conductance per CNT far from 2G0. The consequence has been that, whereas CNTs are ultimately expected to yield FETs that are more conductive than conventional semiconductors, CNTs, instead, have underperformed channel materials, such as Si, by sixfold or more. We report quasi-ballistic CNT array FETs at a density of 47 CNTs μm−1, fabricated through a combination of CNT purification, solution-based assembly, and CNT treatment. The conductance is as high as 0.46 G0 per CNT. In parallel, the conductance of the arrays reaches 1.7 mS μm−1, which is seven times higher than the previous state-of-the-art CNT array FETs made by other methods. The saturated on-state current density is as high as 900 μA μm−1 and is similar to or exceeds that of Si FETs when compared at and equivalent gate oxide thickness and at the same off-state current density. The on-state current density exceeds that of GaAs FETs as well. This breakthrough in CNT array performance is a critical advance toward the exploitation of CNTs in logic, high-speed communications, and other semiconductor electronics technologies. PMID:27617293

  11. Carbon-coated silicon nanotube arrays on carbon cloth as a hybrid anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gu, Lin; Qian, Haolei; Zhao, Ming; Ding, Xi; Peng, Xinsheng; Sha, Jian; Wang, Yewu

    2016-03-01

    Silicon hollow nanostructure has been considered as one of the most promising material for commercial application in lithium-ion batteries due to its significant improvement of cycling stability. The fabricated hybrid structures, carbon-coated silicon nanotube arrays on carbon cloth substrate, with a high surface area and short electron collection pathway have been directly used as anode electrodes without any additional binder. The electrodes exhibit high capacity, excellent rate capability and good cycling stability. The discharge capacity of the hybrid electrode (the deposition time of silicon shell: 5 min) keeps stable, and after 100 cycles, the discharge capacities still remain 3654 mAh g-1 at the rate of 0.5 C.

  12. Rate-independent dissipation and loading direction effects in compressed carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrays of nominally-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under compression deform locally via buckling, exhibit a foam-like, dissipative response, and can often recover most of their original height. We synthesize millimeter-scale CNT arrays and report the results of compression experiments at different strain rates, from 10−4 to 10−1 s−1, and for multiple compressive cycles to different strains. We observe that the stress–strain response proceeds independently of the strain rate for all tests, but that it is highly dependent on loading history. Additionally, we examine the effect of loading direction on the mechanical response of the system. The mechanical behavior is modeled using a multiscale series of bistable springs. This model captures the rate independence of the constitutive response, the local deformation, and the history-dependent effects. We develop here a macroscopic formulation of the model to represent a continuum limit of the mesoscale elements developed previously. Utilizing the model and our experimental observations we discuss various possible physical mechanisms contributing to the system’s dissipative response. (paper)

  13. Chemical Bath Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Buffer on Curved Surfaces for Growing Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Na, Chongzheng

    2015-07-01

    Direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on substrates requires the deposition of an aluminum oxide buffer (AOB) layer to prevent the diffusion and coalescence of catalyst nanoparticles. Although AOB layers can be readily created on flat substrates using a variety of physical and chemical methods, the preparation of AOB layers on substrates with highly curved surfaces remains challenging. Here, we report a new solution-based method for preparing uniform layers of AOB on highly curved surfaces by the chemical bath deposition of basic aluminum sulfate and annealing. We show that the thickness of AOB layer can be increased by extending the immersion time of a substrate in the chemical bath, following the classical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov crystallization kinetics. The increase of AOB thickness in turn leads to the increase of CNT length and the reduction of CNT curviness. Using this method, we have successfully synthesized dense aligned CNT arrays of micrometers in length on substrates with highly curved surfaces including glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and porous ceramic foam. PMID:26053766

  14. Remarkably enhanced thermal transport based on a flexible horizontally-aligned carbon nanotube array film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Wang, Xiaotian; Su, Guoping; Tang, Dawei; Zheng, Xinghua; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Zhiguo; Norris, Pamela M.; Bradford, Philip D.; Zhu, Yuntian

    2016-01-01

    It has been more than a decade since the thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays was reported possible to exceed that of the best thermal greases or phase change materials by an order of magnitude. Despite tremendous prospects as a thermal interface material (TIM), results were discouraging for practical applications. The primary reason is the large thermal contact resistance between the CNT tips and the heat sink. Here we report a simultaneous sevenfold increase in in-plane thermal conductivity and a fourfold reduction in the thermal contact resistance at the flexible CNT-SiO2 coated heat sink interface by coupling the CNTs with orderly physical overlapping along the horizontal direction through an engineering approach (shear pressing). The removal of empty space rapidly increases the density of transport channels, and the replacement of the fine CNT tips with their cylindrical surface insures intimate contact at CNT-SiO2 interface. Our results suggest horizontally aligned CNT arrays exhibit remarkably enhanced in-plane thermal conductivity and reduced out-of-plane thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance. This novel structure makes CNT film promising for applications in chip-level heat dissipation. Besides TIM, it also provides for a solution to anisotropic heat spreader which is significant for eliminating hot spots. PMID:26880221

  15. Remarkably enhanced thermal transport based on a flexible horizontally-aligned carbon nanotube array film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Wang, Xiaotian; Su, Guoping; Tang, Dawei; Zheng, Xinghua; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Zhiguo; Norris, Pamela M.; Bradford, Philip D.; Zhu, Yuntian

    2016-02-01

    It has been more than a decade since the thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays was reported possible to exceed that of the best thermal greases or phase change materials by an order of magnitude. Despite tremendous prospects as a thermal interface material (TIM), results were discouraging for practical applications. The primary reason is the large thermal contact resistance between the CNT tips and the heat sink. Here we report a simultaneous sevenfold increase in in-plane thermal conductivity and a fourfold reduction in the thermal contact resistance at the flexible CNT-SiO2 coated heat sink interface by coupling the CNTs with orderly physical overlapping along the horizontal direction through an engineering approach (shear pressing). The removal of empty space rapidly increases the density of transport channels, and the replacement of the fine CNT tips with their cylindrical surface insures intimate contact at CNT-SiO2 interface. Our results suggest horizontally aligned CNT arrays exhibit remarkably enhanced in-plane thermal conductivity and reduced out-of-plane thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance. This novel structure makes CNT film promising for applications in chip-level heat dissipation. Besides TIM, it also provides for a solution to anisotropic heat spreader which is significant for eliminating hot spots.

  16. Near-field radiation between graphene-covered carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Richard Z.; Liu, Xianglei; Zhang, Zhuomin M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    It has been shown that at small separation distances, thermal radiation between hyperbolic metamaterials is enhanced over blackbodies. This theoretical study considers near-field radiation when graphene is covered on the surfaces of two semi-infinite vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays separated by a sub-micron vacuum gap. Doped graphene is found to improve photon tunneling in a broad hyperbolic frequency range, due to the interaction with graphene-graphene surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). In order to elucidate the SPP resonance between graphene on hyperbolic substrates, vacuum-suspended graphene sheets separated by similar gap distances are compared. Increasing the Fermi energy through doping shifts the spectral heat flux peak toward higher frequencies. Although the presence of graphene on VACNT does not offer huge near-field heat flux enhancement over uncovered VACNT, this study identifies conditions (i.e., gap distance and doping level) that best utilize graphene to augment near-field radiation. Through the investigation of spatial Poynting vectors, heavily doped graphene is found to increase penetration depths in hyperbolic modes and the result is sensitive to the frequency regime. This study may have an impact on designing carbon-based vacuum thermophotovoltaics and thermal switches.

  17. Near-field radiation between graphene-covered carbon nanotube arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Z. Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that at small separation distances, thermal radiation between hyperbolic metamaterials is enhanced over blackbodies. This theoretical study considers near-field radiation when graphene is covered on the surfaces of two semi-infinite vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT arrays separated by a sub-micron vacuum gap. Doped graphene is found to improve photon tunneling in a broad hyperbolic frequency range, due to the interaction with graphene-graphene surface plasmon polaritons (SPP. In order to elucidate the SPP resonance between graphene on hyperbolic substrates, vacuum-suspended graphene sheets separated by similar gap distances are compared. Increasing the Fermi energy through doping shifts the spectral heat flux peak toward higher frequencies. Although the presence of graphene on VACNT does not offer huge near-field heat flux enhancement over uncovered VACNT, this study identifies conditions (i.e., gap distance and doping level that best utilize graphene to augment near-field radiation. Through the investigation of spatial Poynting vectors, heavily doped graphene is found to increase penetration depths in hyperbolic modes and the result is sensitive to the frequency regime. This study may have an impact on designing carbon-based vacuum thermophotovoltaics and thermal switches.

  18. Near-field radiation between graphene-covered carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that at small separation distances, thermal radiation between hyperbolic metamaterials is enhanced over blackbodies. This theoretical study considers near-field radiation when graphene is covered on the surfaces of two semi-infinite vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays separated by a sub-micron vacuum gap. Doped graphene is found to improve photon tunneling in a broad hyperbolic frequency range, due to the interaction with graphene-graphene surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). In order to elucidate the SPP resonance between graphene on hyperbolic substrates, vacuum-suspended graphene sheets separated by similar gap distances are compared. Increasing the Fermi energy through doping shifts the spectral heat flux peak toward higher frequencies. Although the presence of graphene on VACNT does not offer huge near-field heat flux enhancement over uncovered VACNT, this study identifies conditions (i.e., gap distance and doping level) that best utilize graphene to augment near-field radiation. Through the investigation of spatial Poynting vectors, heavily doped graphene is found to increase penetration depths in hyperbolic modes and the result is sensitive to the frequency regime. This study may have an impact on designing carbon-based vacuum thermophotovoltaics and thermal switches

  19. Stationary chest tomosynthesis using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Tucker, Andrew W.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Heath, Michael D.; Wang, Xiaohui; Foos, David H.; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Chest tomosynthesis is a low-dose, quasi-3D imaging modality that has been demonstrated to improve the detection sensitivity for small lung nodules, compared to 2D chest radiography. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility and system requirements of stationary chest tomosynthesis (s-DCT) using a spatially distributed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, where the projection images are collected by electronically activating individual x-ray focal spots in the source array without mechanical motion of the x-ray source, detector, or the patient. A bench-top system was constructed using an existing CNT field emission source array and a flat panel detector. The tube output, beam quality, focal spot size, system in-plane and in-depth resolution were characterized. Tomosynthesis slices of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were reconstructed for image quality assessment. All 75 CNT sources in the source array were shown to operate reliably at 80 kVp and 5 mA tube current. Source-to-source consistency in the tube current and focal spot size was observed. The incident air kerma reading per mAs was measured as 74.47 uGy mAs-1 at 100 cm. The first half value layer of the beam was 3 mm aluminum. An average focal spot size of 2.5  ×  0.5 mm was measured. The system MTF was measured to be 1.7 cycles mm-1 along the scanning direction, and 3.4 cycles mm-1 perpendicular to the scanning direction. As the angular coverage of 11.6°-34°, the full width at half maximum of the artifact spread function improved greatly from 9.5 to 5.2 mm. The reconstructed tomosynthesis slices clearly show airways and pulmonary vascular structures in the anthropomorphic lung phantom. The results show the CNT source array is capable of generating sufficient dose for chest tomosynthesis imaging. The results obtained so far suggest an s-DCT using a distributed CNT x-ray source array is feasible.

  20. Synthesis of Millimeter-Scale Carbon Nanotube Arrays and Their Applications on Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinwei

    This research is aimed at synthesizing millimeter-scale carbon nanotube arrays (CNTA) by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) and water-assisted chemical vapor deposition (WACVD) methods, and exploring their application as catalyst supports for electrochemical supercapacitors. The growth mechanism and growth kinetics of CNTA under different conditions were systematically investigated to understand the relationship among physical characteristics of catalyst particles, growth parameters, and carbon nanotube (CNT) structures within CNTAs. Multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) array growth demonstrates lengthening and thickening stages in CCVD and WACVD. In CCVD, the lengthening and thickening were found to be competitive. By investigating catalyst particles after different pretreatment conditions, it has been found that inter-particle spacing plays a significant role in influencing CNTA height, CNT diameter and wall number. In WACVD, a long linear lengthening stage has been found. CNT wall number remains constant and catalysts preserve the activity in this stage, while MWCNTs thicken substantially and catalysts deactivate following the previously proposed radioactive decay model in the thickening stage of WACVD. Water was also shown to preserve the catalyst activity by significantly inhibiting catalyst-induced and gas phase-induced thickening processes in WACVD. Mn3O4 nanoparticles were successfully deposited and uniformly distributed within millimeter-long CNTAs by dip-casting method from non-aqueous solutions. After modification with Mn3O4 nanoparticles, CNTAs have been changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic without their alignment and integrity being destroyed. The hydrophilic Mn 3O4/CNTA composite electrodes present ideal capacitive behavior with high reversibility. This opens up a new route of utilizing ultra-long CNTAs, based on which a scalable and cost-effective method was developed to fabricate composite electrodes using millimeter-long CNTAs. To improve the

  1. Single Molecule Detection of H2O2 Mediating Angiogenic Redox Signaling on Fluorescent Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Array

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Arkalgud, Jyoti R.; Boghossian, Ardemis A; Zhang, Jingqing; Han, Jae-Hee; Reuel, Nigel F.; Ahn, Jin-Ho; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Strano, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, specifically hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), activate signal transduction pathways during angiogenesis, and therefore play an important role in physiological development as well as various pathophysiologies. Herein, we utilize a near infrared fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) sensor array to measure the single molecule efflux of H2O2 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in response to angiogenic stimulation. Two angiogenic agents were investiga...

  2. Detection of the Odor Signature of Ovarian Cancer using DNA-Decorated Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher; Kybert, Nicholas; Yodh, Jeremy; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    Carbon nanotubes are low-dimensional materials that exhibit remarkable chemical and bio-sensing properties and have excellent compatibility with electronic systems. Here, we present a study that uses an electronic olfaction system based on a large array of DNA-carbon nanotube field effect transistors vapor sensors to analyze the VOCs of blood plasma samples collected from patients with malignant ovarian cancer, patients with benign ovarian lesions, and age-matched healthy subjects. Initial investigations involved coating each CNT sensor with single-stranded DNA of a particular base sequence. 10 distinct DNA oligomers were used to functionalize the carbon nanotube field effect transistors, providing a 10-dimensional sensor array output response. Upon performing a statistical analysis of the 10-dimensional sensor array responses, we showed that blood samples from patients with malignant cancer can be reliably differentiated from those of healthy control subjects with a p-value of 3 x 10-5. The results provide preliminary evidence that the blood of ovarian cancer patients contains a discernable volatile chemical signature that can be detected using DNA-CNT nanoelectronic vapor sensors, a first step towards a minimally invasive electronic diagnostic technology for ovarian cancer.

  3. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  4. Large-scale submicron horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotube surface arrays on various substrates produced by a fluidic assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been assembled on various substrates over mm-scale surface areas by combining fluidic alignment with soft lithography (micropatterning in capillaries) techniques. The feature size of the nanotube patterns reaches down to submicrometre scale. To this end, tailored substrate surface modification and pre-alignment of chopped CNTs in suspension are highly critical

  5. Crack-free and scalable transfer of carbon nanotube arrays into flexible and highly thermal conductive composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Chen, Hongyuan; Lin, Wei; Li, Zhuo; Li, Qiang; Chen, Minghai; Meng, Fancheng; Xing, Yajuan; Yao, Yagang; Wong, Ching-ping; Li, Qingwen

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays show great promise in developing anisotropic thermal conductive composites for efficiently dissipating heat from high-power devices along thickness direction. However, CNT arrays are always grown on some substrates and liable to be deformed and broken into pieces during transfer and solution treatment. In the present study, we intentionally synthesized well-crystallized and large-diameter (~80 nm) multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) arrays by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) method. Such arrays provided high packing density and robust structure from collapse and crack formation during post solution treatment and therefore favored to maintain original thermal and electrical conductive paths. Under optimized condition, the CNT arrays can be transferred into flexible composite films. Furthermore, the composite film also exhibited excellent thermal conductivity at 8.2 W/(m·K) along thickness direction. Such robust, flexible, and highly thermal conductive composite film may enable some prospective applications in advanced thermal management.

  6. Hydrophilic modification of neural microelectrode arrays based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Chuang, Shih-Chang; Lee, Yu-Tao; Chang, Yen-Chung; Yao, Da-Jeng [Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Su, Huan-Chieh; Yen, Shiang-Jie; Yew, Tri-Rung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yung-Chan; Chen, Hsin [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Shih-Rung, E-mail: djyao@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Molecular Medicine, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-03

    To decrease the impedance of microelectrode arrays, for neuroscience applications we have fabricated and tested MEA based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes. With decreasing physical size of a microelectrode, its impedance increases and charge-transfer capability decreases. To decrease the impedance, the effective surface area of the electrode must generally be increased. We explored the effect of plasma treatment on the surface wettability of MWCNT. With a steam-plasma treatment the surface of MWCNT becomes converted from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic; this hydrophilic property is attributed to -OH bonding on the surface of MWCNT. We reported the synthesis at 400 deg. C of MWCNT on nickel-titanium multilayered metal catalysts by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Applying plasma with a power less than 25 W for 10 s improved the electrochemical and biological properties, and circumvented the limitation of the surface reverting to a hydrophobic condition; a hydrophilic state is maintained for at least one month. The MEA was used to record neural signals of a lateral giant cell from an American crayfish. The response amplitude of the action potential was about 275 {mu}V with 1 ms period; the recorded data had a ratio of signal to noise up to 40.12 dB. The improved performance of the electrode makes feasible the separation of neural signals and the recognition of their distinct shapes. With further development the rapid treatment will be useful for long-term recording applications.

  7. Tunable and label-free virus enrichment for ultrasensitive virus detection using carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yin-Ting; Tang, Yi; Sebastian, Aswathy; Dasgupta, Archi; Perea-Lopez, Nestor; Albert, Istvan; Lu, Huaguang; Terrones, Mauricio; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Viral infectious diseases can erupt unpredictably, spread rapidly, and ravage mass populations. Although established methods, such as polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and next-generation sequencing have been used to detect viruses, field samples with low virus count pose major challenges in virus surveillance and discovery. We report a unique carbon nanotube size-tunable enrichment microdevice (CNT-STEM) that efficiently enriches and concentrates viruses collected from field samples. The channel sidewall in the microdevice was made by growing arrays of vertically aligned nitrogen-doped multiwalled CNTs, where the intertubular distance between CNTs could be engineered in the range of 17 to 325 nm to accurately match the size of different viruses. The CNT-STEM significantly improves detection limits and virus isolation rates by at least 100 times. Using this device, we successfully identified an emerging avian influenza virus strain [A/duck/PA/02099/2012(H11N9)] and a novel virus strain (IBDV/turkey/PA/00924/14). Our unique method demonstrates the early detection of emerging viruses and the discovery of new viruses directly from field samples, thus creating a universal platform for effectively remediating viral infectious diseases. PMID:27730213

  8. Matrix-free Laser Desorption/Ionization on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated that relatively small peptides dropped and dried on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays can be efficiently desorbed and ionized with 337 nm laser pulses. Since the vertically aligned CNTa can be easily fabricated in various patterns on substrate by well-established semiconductor fabrication technology and can be stored for a long time without decay of performance, it may be an excellent substrate for matrix-free LDI of various small molecules. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has established its position as one of the most useful ionization techniques in mass spectrometry and its contribution to the scientific communities related to mass spectrometry was appreciated with the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry given to the first developer, Tanaka. It is really an effective and sensitive ion formation technique which commonly employs an organic acid as the matrix. The use of such organic acids as the matrices has provided the high efficiency of desorption and ionization of large molecules including peptides, proteins, synthetic polymers, etc. for the MALDI technique. Interestingly, the matrix, which made the MALDI technique practical, poses an intrinsic constraint to the analyses of relatively small molecules below 1000 Da because the low mass regions in MALDI mass spectra are dominated by the strong background signals of the matrix molecule, its dimer, and their clusters with solvent molecules. Several approaches have been tried to find the methods that give the high desorption/ionization efficiency of MALDI without using the organic matrices

  9. 1D goes 2D: A Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in superconducting arrays of 4-Angstrom carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhe

    2010-10-01

    We report superconducting resistive transition characteristics for array(s) of coupled 4-Angstrom single wall carbon nanotubes embedded in aluminophosphate-five zeolite. The transition was observed to initiate at 15 K with a slow resistance decrease switching to a sharp, order of magnitude drop between 7.5 and 6.0 K with strong (anisotropic) magnetic field dependence. Both the sharp resistance drop and its attendant nonlinear IV characteristics are consistent with the manifestations of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition that establishes quasi long range order in the plane transverse to the c-axis of the nanotubes, leading to an inhomogeneous system comprising 3D superconducting regions connected by weak links. Global coherence is established at below 5 K with the appearance of a well-defined supercurrent gap/low resistance region at 2 K. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M [ENEA, Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, PO Box 51 Br-4, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy); Serra, E, E-mail: michele.penza@enea.it [ENEA, Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-12

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) layers were synthesized on Fe-coated low-cost alumina substrates using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology. A miniaturized CNT-based gas sensor array was developed for monitoring landfill gas (LFG) at a temperature of 150 deg. C. The sensor array was composed of 4 sensing elements with unmodified CNT, and CNT loaded with 5 nm nominally thick sputtered nanoclusters of platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and silver (Ag). Chemical analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures constituted of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CO and NO{sub 2} has been performed by the array sensor responses and pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA results demonstrate that the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor array is able to discriminate the NO{sub 2} presence in the multicomponent mixture LFG. The NO{sub 2} gas detection in the mixture LFG was proved to be very sensitive, e.g.: the CNT:Ru sensor shows a relative change in the resistance of 1.50% and 0.55% for NO{sub 2} concentrations of 3.3 ppm and 330 ppb dispersed in the LFG, respectively, with a wide NO{sub 2} gas concentration range measured from 0.33 to 3.3 ppm, at the sensor temperature of 150 deg. C. The morphology and structure of the CNT networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. A forest-like nanostructure of vertically aligned CNT bundles in the multi-walled form appeared with a height of about 10 {mu}m and a single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5-35 nm. The intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy D-peak and G-peak indicates the presence of disorder and defects in the CNT networks. The size of the metal (Pt, Ru, Ag) nanoclusters decorating the CNT top surface varies in the range of 5-50 nm. Functional characterization based on electrical charge transfer sensing mechanisms in the metal

  11. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A., E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Li, Yuhang [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tomic, Bojan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Huang, Jiyuan [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burns, Branden [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Song, Jizhou [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Soft Matter Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, Yonggang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  12. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups

  13. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  14. Effect of density variation and non-covalent functionalization on the compressive behavior of carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been proposed for different applications, including electrochemical energy storage and shock-absorbing materials. Understanding their mechanical response, in relation to their structural characteristics, is important for tailoring the synthesis method to the different operational conditions of the material. In this paper, we grow vertically aligned CNT arrays using a thermal chemical vapor deposition system, and we study the effects of precursor flow on the structural and mechanical properties of the CNT arrays. We show that the CNT growth process is inhomogeneous along the direction of the precursor flow, resulting in varying bulk density at different points on the growth substrate. We also study the effects of non-covalent functionalization of the CNTs after growth, using surfactant and nanoparticles, to vary the effective bulk density and structural arrangement of the arrays. We find that the stiffness and peak stress of the materials increase approximately linearly with increasing bulk density.

  15. Directed assembly of carbon nanotubes on soft substrates for use as a flexible biosensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Juntae; Yi, Mihye; Lee, Byung Yang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Jhon, Young Min; Hong, Seunghun

    2008-12-01

    We have developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for use as flexible biosensors. In this strategy, a thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and a linker-free assembly process was applied on the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited a typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neurotransmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  16. Directed-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes on Soft Substrates for Flexible Biosensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Woo; Koh, Juntae; Lee, Byung Yang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Hong, Seunghun; Yi, Mihye; Jhon, Young Min

    2009-03-01

    We developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for flexible biosensors. In this strategy, thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and linker-free assembly process was applied onto the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neuro-transmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  17. Ruthenium oxide modified titanium dioxide nanotube arrays as carbon and binder free lithium-air battery cathode catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Niu, Yanning; Zhang, Li; Sun, Kening

    2014-12-01

    RuO2 modified TiO2 nanotube arrays, growing on Ti foams, are used as carbon and binder free cathodes for Li-O2 batteries. The micrometer pores in Ti foams and nanometer pores in TiO2 nanotubes supply facilitated transport channels for oxygen diffusing into/out of the catalysts in discharge and charge processes. The RuO2 catalyst exhibits outstanding catalytic active toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which leads the charge voltage maintaining around 3.7 V all through the battery cycling. The stability of TiO2/Ti support, abundant oxygen transport path and favorable catalytic activity of RuO2 toward OER enable the Li-O2 batteries exhibiting 130 cycle discharge/charge.

  18. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) coated titanium oxide nanotube arrays with enhanced photo-electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Fang, Yalin; Kong, Yuanyuan; Sun, Shanfu; Yu, Zhishui; Umar, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we report the successful formation of graphitic carbon nitride coated titanium oxide nanotube array thin films (g-C3N4/TiO2) via the facile thermal treatment of anodized Ti sheets over melamine. The proportion of C3N4 and TiO2 in the composite can be adjusted by changing the initial addition mass of melamine. The as-prepared samples are characterized by several techniques in order to understand the morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties. UV-vis absorption studies exhibit a remarkable red shift for the g-C3N4/TiO2 thin films as compared to the pristine TiO2 nanotubes. Importantly, the prepared composites exhibit an enhanced photocurrent and photo-potential under both UV-vis and visible light irradiation. Moreover, the observed maximum photo-conversion efficiency of the prepared composites is 1.59 times higher than that of the pristine TiO2 nanotubes. The optical and electrochemical impedance spectra analysis reveals that the better photo-electrochemical performance of the g-C3N4/TiO2 nanotubes is mainly due to the wider light absorption and reduced impedance compared to the bare TiO2 nanotube electrode. The presented work demonstrates a facile and simple method to fabricate g-C3N4/TiO2 nanotubes and clearly revealed that the introduction of g-C3N4 is a new and innovative approach to improve the photocurrent and photo-potential efficiencies of TiO2.

  19. Label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using carbon nanotube antibody micro-arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Farhad; Trainor, Patrick; Rai, Shesh N.; Kloecker, Goetz; Wickstrom, Eric; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the rapid and label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using nanotube-antibody micro-arrays. Single wall carbon nanotube arrays were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were functionalized to the surface of the nanotube devices using 1-pyrene-butanoic acid succinimidyl ester functionalization method. Following functionalization, plain buffy coat and MCF7 cell spiked buffy coats were adsorbed on to the nanotube device and electrical signatures were recorded for differences in interaction between samples. A statistical classifier for the ‘liquid biopsy’ was developed to create a predictive model based on dynamic time warping to classify device electrical signals that corresponded to plain (control) or spiked buffy coats (case). In training test, the device electrical signals originating from buffy versus spiked buffy samples were classified with ˜100% sensitivity, ˜91% specificity and ˜96% accuracy. In the blinded test, the signals were classified with ˜91% sensitivity, ˜82% specificity and ˜86% accuracy. A heatmap was generated to visually capture the relationship between electrical signatures and the sample condition. Confocal microscopic analysis of devices that were classified as spiked buffy coats based on their electrical signatures confirmed the presence of cancer cells, their attachment to the device and overexpression of EpCAM receptors. The cell numbers were counted to be ˜1-17 cells per 5 μl per device suggesting single cell sensitivity in spiked buffy coats that is scalable to higher volumes using the micro-arrays.

  20. Label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using carbon nanotube antibody micro-arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Farhad; Trainor, Patrick; Rai, Shesh N; Kloecker, Goetz; Wickstrom, Eric; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the rapid and label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in buffy coats using nanotube-antibody micro-arrays. Single wall carbon nanotube arrays were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were functionalized to the surface of the nanotube devices using 1-pyrene-butanoic acid succinimidyl ester functionalization method. Following functionalization, plain buffy coat and MCF7 cell spiked buffy coats were adsorbed on to the nanotube device and electrical signatures were recorded for differences in interaction between samples. A statistical classifier for the 'liquid biopsy' was developed to create a predictive model based on dynamic time warping to classify device electrical signals that corresponded to plain (control) or spiked buffy coats (case). In training test, the device electrical signals originating from buffy versus spiked buffy samples were classified with ∼100% sensitivity, ∼91% specificity and ∼96% accuracy. In the blinded test, the signals were classified with ∼91% sensitivity, ∼82% specificity and ∼86% accuracy. A heatmap was generated to visually capture the relationship between electrical signatures and the sample condition. Confocal microscopic analysis of devices that were classified as spiked buffy coats based on their electrical signatures confirmed the presence of cancer cells, their attachment to the device and overexpression of EpCAM receptors. The cell numbers were counted to be ∼1-17 cells per 5 μl per device suggesting single cell sensitivity in spiked buffy coats that is scalable to higher volumes using the micro-arrays.

  1. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Haider; Yetisen, Ali K.; Ahmed, Rajib; Yun, Seok Hyun; Dai, Qing

    2015-03-01

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2-3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  2. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Ahmed, Rajib [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-03-23

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2–3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  3. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  4. Plumbing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures-from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes-regardless of their diameters-to form new nanotube structures.

  5. Influence of growth time on field emission properties from carbon nanotubes deposited on arrayed nanoporous silicon pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Weifen, E-mail: gingerwfj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Hao Haoshan [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Henan Institute of Engineering, Zhengzhou 451191 (China); Wang Yusheng; Xu Lei; Zhang Tianjie [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China)

    2011-05-15

    We investigated the influence of growth time on field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes deposited on silicon nanoporous pillar array (MWCNTs/Si-NPA), which were fabricated by thermal chemical vapour deposition at 800 deg. C for 5, 15 and 25 min respectively, to better understand the origins of good field emission properties. The results showed that the MWCNTs/Si-NPA grown for 15 min had the highest field emission efficiency of the three types of samples. Morphologies of the products were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscope, and the excellent field emission performance was attributed not only to the formation of a nest array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, which would largely reduce the electrostatic shielding among the emitters and resulted in a great enhancement factor, but also to the medium MWCNTs density films, there was an ideal compromise between the emitter density and the intertube distance, which also could effectively avoid electrostatic shielding effects, along with a high emitter density.

  6. Reliable Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays by Chemical Vapor Deposition and In-situ Measurement of Fundamental Growth Kinetics in Oxygen-free Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    IN, JUNG BIN

    2011-01-01

    Vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays are both an important technological system, and a fascinating system for studying basic principles of nanomaterial synthesis. However, despite continuing efforts for the past decade, important questions about this process remain largely unexplained. Recently, nanotube research investigations have been conducted, aiming at revealing the underlying growth mechanisms, rather than merely studying the feasibility on new growth methods. Nonetheless,...

  7. Nanotube Arrays in Porous Anodic Alumina Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang LI; Naoto KOSHIZAKI; Guanghai LI

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the various techniques developed for fabricating nanotube arrays in porous anodic alumina membranes (AAMs). After a brief introduction to the fabrication process of AAMs, taking carbons, metals, semiconductors, organics, biomoleculars, and heterojunctions as typical examples, attention will be focused on the recently established methods to fabricate nanotubes in AAM, including electrochemical deposition, surface sol-gel, modified chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, and layer-by-layer growth. Every method is demonstrated by one or two reported results. Finally, this review is concluded with some perspectives on the research directions and focuses on the AAM-based nanotubes fields.

  8. Optical antenna arrays of carbon nanotubes and their fabrication on polyimide and transparent conducting oxides for direct device integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Kempa, K.; Kimball, B.; Ren, Z. F.

    2005-11-01

    Vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes/nanofibers grown on various substrates by a direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method have been shown experimentally to function as classical low-loss dipole antenna arrays at optical frequencies. Two fundamental antenna effects, e.g., the polarization effect and length matching effect, directly observed on large-scale CNT arrays in visible frequency range, hold them promising for industry-level fabrication of devices including linear/beam-splitting polarizers, solar energy converters, THz demodulators, etc., some of which will, however, require or prefer a flexible and/or transparent conducting substrate to be compatible for multi-level integration and low-cost manufacturing process. A low-energy dark discharge fabrication technique is therefore devised which successfully yields CNT antennas directly on polyimide films and transparent conducting oxides (ITO, ZnO) with the absence of a buffer layer.

  9. Growth process and mechanism of a multi-walled carbon nanotube nest deposited on a silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Weifen, E-mail: gingerwfj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, No. 36 Beihuan Road, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Jian Lv; Yang Xiaohui [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, No. 36 Beihuan Road, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Li Xinjian [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2010-03-01

    A large scale nest array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NACNTs) was grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Through observing its macro/micromorphology and structure, ascertaining the catalyst component and its locations at different growth time by hiring field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and selected area electron diffraction, the growth process was deduced. Its thermal properties were also investigated by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Our experiments demonstrated that the CNTs growth by means of root-growth mechanism at the initial growth stage, then a continuous growth process with its tip open is suggested, finally, a schematic growth model of NACNT/Si-NPA was presented.

  10. SERS activity of Au nanoparticles coated on an array of carbon nanotube nested into silicon nanoporous pillar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Weifen, E-mail: gingerwfj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Zhang Yanfeng [School of Computer and Information Engeering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang Yusheng; Xu Lei [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Li Xinjian [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2011-12-15

    A novel composite structure, Au nanoparticles coated on a nest-shaped array of carbon nanotube nested into a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Au/NACNT/Si-NPA), was fabricated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The morphology of the Au/NACNT/Si-NPA composite structure was characterized with the aid of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction instrumentation and Transmission electron microscopy. Compared with SERS of rhodamine 6G (R6G) adsorbed on SERS-active Au substrate reported, the SERS signals of R6G adsorbed on these gold nanoparticles were obviously improved. This was attributed to the enlarged specific surface area for adsorption of target molecules brought by the nest-shaped CNTs structure.

  11. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes/Si nanowires core-sheath structure arrays and their field emission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.; Li, M.K.; Zhang, Z.J.; Li, H.L

    2003-09-30

    A new composite structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/Si nanowires (SiNWs) arrays have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) within the pores of microporous alumina template. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microcopy (TEM) reveal that the obtained well-aligned composite structure has a core-sheath structure and the deposited material in the carbon sheath is polycrystalline silicon. Field emission from these CNTs-sheathed SiNWs exhibits significant enhancement compared to the pure SiNWs in turn-on field, total emission current and stability. The field emission characteristics of the composite structure are analyzed based on Fowler-Nordheim theory. The electron field emission increased with decreasing diameter of such structure. The well-aligned core-sheath structure provides an important means to fabricate emitter devices with chemically inert surface as well as with superior performance of field emission properties.

  12. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes/Si nanowires core-sheath structure arrays and their field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.; Li, M. K.; Zhang, Z. J.; Li, H. L.

    2003-09-01

    A new composite structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/Si nanowires (SiNWs) arrays have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) within the pores of microporous alumina template. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microcopy (TEM) reveal that the obtained well-aligned composite structure has a core-sheath structure and the deposited material in the carbon sheath is polycrystalline silicon. Field emission from these CNTs-sheathed SiNWs exhibits significant enhancement compared to the pure SiNWs in turn-on field, total emission current and stability. The field emission characteristics of the composite structure are analyzed based on Fowler-Nordheim theory. The electron field emission increased with decreasing diameter of such structure. The well-aligned core-sheath structure provides an important means to fabricate emitter devices with chemically inert surface as well as with superior performance of field emission properties.

  13. Carbon treated self-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with enhanced lithium-ion intercalation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Sik [Energy Material Group, Lotte Chemical, 115, Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-726 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Research Center for Energy Conversion and Storage, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soon Hyung, E-mail: skang@jnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • C-doped TONT was prepared by anodization, followed by acetylene treatment. • C-doped TONT exhibited the superior cycle performance and electrochemical kinetics. • It was attributed from the enhanced electrical conductivity from carbon doping. - Abstract: Vertically aligned TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TONT) arrays on titanium substrate developed by facile electrochemical anodization in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 0.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, 0.2 M sodium citrate, and 0.5 wt% NaF were prepared having a pore diameter and thickness of 100 nm and 1.2 μm, respectively. The undoped (u-doped) TONT arrays possessing an anatase phase were again annealed at 500 °C under a mixed gas flux of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), to induce the enhancement of electrical conductivity. It was designated as carbon-doped (c-doped) TONT arrays. Undoped and c-doped TONT arrays were compared using various characterization tools, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, based on several electrochemical tests (galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)), it was observed that c-doped TONT arrays revealed improved charge/discharge capacity, cycle stability, and rate capability, due to the enhanced electrical conductivity of c-doped TONT arrays.

  14. Investigating the antifungal activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles deposited on branched carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbari, S; Abdi, Y; Haghighi, N [Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi, F [Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, S, E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [Thin Film Laboratory, ECE Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-22

    Branched carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on a silicon substrate. Ni was used as the catalyst and played an important role in the realization of branches in vertically aligned nanotubes. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the branched CNTs were produced by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition followed by a 500 {sup 0}C annealing step. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic techniques were used to study the morphology of the TiO{sub 2}/branched CNT structures while x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to verify the characteristics of the prepared nanostructures. Their antifungal effect on Candida albicans biofilms under visible light was investigated and compared with the activity of TiO{sub 2}/CNT arrays and thin films of TiO{sub 2}. The TiO{sub 2}/branched CNTs showed a highly improved photocatalytic antifungal activity in comparison with the TiO{sub 2}/CNTs and TiO{sub 2} film. The excellent visible light-induced photocatalytic antifungal activity of the TiO{sub 2}/branched CNTs was attributed to the generation of electron-hole pairs by visible light excitation with a low recombination rate, in addition to the high surface area provided for the interaction between the cells and the nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the resulting morphological changes in the cell body of the biofilms existing on the antifungal samples.

  15. Densification effects of the carbon nanotube pillar array on field-emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuang-Yu; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Liao, Chan-Yu; Li, Yu-Ren; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a simple densification method for carbon nanotube (CNT) pillars is proposed to achieve high-performance field emission characteristics and stable emission. Through capillary force during solution evaporation, the CNT density in each pillar can be increased by about six times without causing damage to the crystallinity of CNTs. The densified CNT pillars exhibit lower series resistance, sharper pillars, better contacts, higher thermal conductivity, and better mechanical stiffness than as-grown ones. Therefore, the threshold field of the field emitter with such CNT pillars of 50 µm height can be reduced to 1.98 V/µm, as compared with 2.2 V/µm for the undensified ones. Moreover, the fluctuation of field-emission current decreases from 15.5 to 9.4% after the stress tests at a field of 2 V/µm for 1800 s. These findings imply that the densified CNT pillars are promising for the field-emission applications.

  16. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  17. A flexible and implantable microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertical carbon nanotubes and a biocompatible polymer substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) integrated on a flexible and biocompatible parylene substrate. A simple microfabrication process is proposed to unite the high quality vertical CNTs grown at high temperature with the heat sensitive parylene substrate in a highly controllable manner. Briefly, the CNTs electrode is encapsulated by two layers of parylene and the device is released using xenon difluoride (XeF2). The process is compatible with wafer-scale post complementary metal oxide semiconductor integration. Lower impedance and larger interfacial capacitance have been demonstrated using CNTs compared to a Pt electrode. The flexible CNT electrodes have been utilized for extracellular neuronal recording and stimulation in rats. The signal-to-noise ratio of the device is about 12.5. The threshold voltage for initiating action potential is about 0.5 V. (paper)

  18. Carbon Nanotube Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Delzeit, Clement J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method for cleaning or otherwise removing amorphous carbon and other residues that arise in growth of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array. The CNT array is exposed to a plurality of hydroxyls or hydrogen, produced from a selected vapor or liquid source such as H2O or H2O2. and the hydroxyls or hydrogen (neutral or electrically charged) react with the residues to produce partly or fully dissolved or hydrogenated or hydroxylizated products that can be removed or separated from the CNT array. The hydroxyls or hydrogen can be produced by heating the CNT array, residue and selected vapor or liquid source or by application of an electromagnetic excitation signal with a selected frequency or range of frequencies to dissociate the selected vapor or liquid. The excitation frequency can be chirped to cover a selected range of frequencies corresponding to dissociation of the selected vapor or liquid. Sonication may be uscd to supplement dissociation of the H2O and/or H2O2.

  19. Teslaphoresis of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R; Castillo, Aida C; Smalley, Preston R; Kittrell, Carter; James, Dustin K; Brinson, Bruce E; Rybolt, Thomas R; Johnson, Bruce R; Cherukuri, Tonya K; Cherukuri, Paul

    2016-04-26

    This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil's antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (>30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale. PMID:27074626

  20. Enzyme assays using sensor arrays based on ion-selective carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, K; Bhatt, V Deep; Jaworska, E; Mittermeier, R; Maksymiuk, K; Michalska, A; Lugli, P

    2016-10-15

    In the fields of clinical diagnostics and point-of-care diagnosis as well as food and environmental monitoring there is a high demand for reliable high-throughput, rapid and highly sensitive assays for a simultaneous detection of several analytes in complex and low-volume samples. Sensor platforms based on solution-processable electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are a simple and cost-effective alternative for conventional assays. In this work we demonstrate a selective as well as direct detection of the products of an enzyme-substrate interaction, here the for metabolic processes important urea-urease system, with sensors based on spray-coated CNT-FETs. The selective and direct detection is achieved by immobilizing the enzyme urease via certain surface functionalization techniques on the sensor surface and further modifying the active interfaces with polymeric ion-selective membranes as well as pH-sensitive layers. Thereby, we can avoid the generally applied approach for a field-effect based detection of enzyme reactions via detecting changes in the pH value due to an on-going enzymatic reaction and directly detect selectively the products of the enzymatic conversion. Thus, we can realize a buffering-capacity independent monitoring of changes in the substrate concentration. PMID:27140308

  1. Wet Purification of Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays and Its Impact on the Morphology of the Carbon Nanotube Arrays%湿法纯化碳纳米管阵列及其对碳纳米管阵列形貌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹灵超; 刘云圻; 王钰; 魏大程; 付磊; 胡平安; 张洪亮; 黄丽平; 于贵

    2008-01-01

    采用酸溶液处理方法对垂直于衬底生长的碳纳米管阵列的纯化进行了研究.利用扫描电子显微镜、X射线光电子能谱等手段对纯化前后的碳纳米管阵列的结构、形貌及化学组成进行表征.实验结果表明,通过控制条件,酸溶液处理方法能够在有效地去除催化剂粒子等杂质的同时又保持阵列的相对完整性.纯化后的碳纳米管阵列会促进其在电子学领域的进一步应用.%A simple acid treatment method was applied to remove the catalyst impurities and other residues contaminated in the vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays. We demonstrated that acid treatment was an efficient approach for aligned carbon nanotube purification. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the aligned carbon nanotube arrays and to determine the efficiency of the purification. Using hydrochloric acid could efficiently eliminate catalyst impurities and retain the original structures of the aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The method provided a simple, economical, and effective way to purify the aligned carbon nanotubes, and it would promote the applications of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays in electronics field.

  2. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhou, Otto Z.

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists worldwide. The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a very unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review we describe some of the important materials science applications of carbon nanotubes. Specifically we discuss the electronic and electrochemical applications of nanotubes, nanotubes as mechanical reinforcements in high performance composites, nanotube-based field emitters, and their use as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations, and as templates for the creation of other nanostructures. Electronic properties and device applications of nanotubes are treated elsewhere in the book. The challenges that ensue in realizing some of these applications are also discussed from the point of view of manufacturing, processing, and cost considerations.

  3. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  4. Engineering carbon nanotubes and nanotube circuits using electrical breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P G; Arnold, M S; Avouris, P

    2001-04-27

    Carbon nanotubes display either metallic or semiconducting properties. Both large, multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), with many concentric carbon shells, and bundles or "ropes" of aligned single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), are complex composite conductors that incorporate many weakly coupled nanotubes that each have a different electronic structure. Here we demonstrate a simple and reliable method for selectively removing single carbon shells from MWNTs and SWNT ropes to tailor the properties of these composite nanotubes. We can remove shells of MWNTs stepwise and individually characterize the different shells. By choosing among the shells, we can convert a MWNT into either a metallic or a semiconducting conductor, as well as directly address the issue of multiple-shell transport. With SWNT ropes, similar selectivity allows us to generate entire arrays of nanoscale field-effect transistors based solely on the fraction of semiconducting SWNTs.

  5. Carbon nanotube macroelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialu

    In this dissertation, I discuss the application of carbon nanotubes in macroelectronis. Due to the extraordinary electrical properties such as high intrinsic carrier mobility and current-carrying capacity, single wall carbon nanotubes are very desirable for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications such as flat panel display, transparent electronics, as well as flexible and stretchable electronics. Compared with other popular channel material for TFTs, namely amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon and organic materials, nanotube thin-films have the advantages of low-temperature processing compatibility, transparency, and flexibility, as well as high device performance. In order to demonstrate scalable, practical carbon nanotube macroelectroncis, I have developed a platform to fabricate high-density, uniform separated nanotube based thin-film transistors. In addition, many other essential analysis as well as technology components, such as nanotube film density control, purity and diameter dependent semiconducting nanotube electrical performance study, air-stable n-type transistor fabrication, and CMOS integration platform have also been demonstrated. On the basis of the above achievement, I have further demonstrated various kinds of applications including AMOLED display electronics, PMOS and CMOS logic circuits, flexible and transparent electronics. The dissertation is structured as follows. First, chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes, which serves as the background knowledge for the following chapters. In chapter 2, I will present our approach of fabricating wafer-scale uniform semiconducting carbon nanotube thin-film transistors and demonstrate their application in display electronics and logic circuits. Following that, more detailed information about carbon nanotube thin-film transistor based active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is discussed in chapter 3. And in chapter 4, a technology to

  6. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-06-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 °C min-1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 °C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 µm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 µm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm-1, increased to 0.7 S cm-1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  7. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  8. FLUIDIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wei; Cang Huang; Yao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fluidized in the form of fluidlike agglomerates made of many three-dimensional sub-agglomerates, having a multi-stage agglomerate (MSA) structure and containing large amounts of twisting CNTs of micrometer magnitude.

  9. Carbon nanotubes: Fibrillar pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms by which chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes flow in blood and are excreted through the kidneys illustrate the unconventional behaviour of these fibrillar nanostructures, and the opportunities they offer as components for the design of advanced delivery vehicles.

  10. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  11. Carbon nanotube solar cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klinger

    Full Text Available We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement.

  12. Crossover from Peierls distortion to one-dimensional superconductivity in arrays of (5,0) carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Sun, Ming Yuan; Wang, Zhe; Shi, Wu; Sheng, Ping

    2013-03-01

    We consider the electronic instabilities in (3,3)@(8,8) and (5,0)@(15,0) metallic double wall carbon nanotubes. Using 2rd order renormalization group method, we find that in the single wall (3,3) and (5,0) CNTs, the Peierls transition dominates, while if dressed with metallic outer shell, namely the (8,8) CNT and (15,0) CNT to form double wall carbon nanotube system(DWNT), the screening effect greatly reduces the Coulomb interaction of inner tubes, and supercondutivity(SS) instability is identified to be the groud state, although the crossover temperature of which SS response functions take over could be very low.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmi Koo; Vesselin N. Shanov; Yeoheung Yun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT) array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The de...

  14. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  15. Rational design of coaxial mesoporous birnessite manganese dioxide/amorphous-carbon nanotubes arrays for advanced asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Shijin

    2015-03-01

    Coaxial mesoporous MnO2/amorphous-carbon nanotubes have been synthesized via a facile and cost-effective strategy at room temperature. The coaxial double nanotubes of inner (outer) MnO2 and outer (inner) amorphous carbon can be obtained via fine tuning the preparative factors (e.g., deposition order and processing temperature). Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of the coaxial nanotubes were evaluated by cycle voltammetric (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GC) measurements. The as-prepared coaxial double nanotubes of outer MnO2 and inner amorphous carbon exhibit the optimized pseudocapacitance performance (362 F g-1) with good cycling stability, and ideal rate capability owning to the unique nanostructures. When assembled into two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor, an energy density of 22.56 W h kg-1 at a power density of 224.9 W kg-1 is obtained. These findings provide a new and facile approach to fabricate high-performance electrode for supercapacitors.

  16. Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochik Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of growing carbon nanotubes uses a synthesized mesoporous si lica template with approximately cylindrical pores being formed there in. The surfaces of the pores are coated with a carbon nanotube precu rsor, and the template with the surfaces of the pores so-coated is th en heated until the carbon nanotube precursor in each pore is convert ed to a carbon nanotube.

  17. Carbon nanotube junctions and devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, H.W.Ch.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Postma presents transport experiments performed on individual single-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are molecules entirely made of carbon atoms. The electronic properties are determined by the exact symmetry of the nanotube lattice, resulting in either metallic or semiconduct

  18. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. (paper)

  19. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  20. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabr...

  1. Carbon nanotube growth density control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for combined coarse scale control and fine scale control of growth density of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a substrate, using a selected electrical field adjacent to a substrate surface for coarse scale density control (by one or more orders of magnitude) and a selected CNT growth temperature range for fine scale density control (by multiplicative factors of less than an order of magnitude) of CNT growth density. Two spaced apart regions on a substrate may have different CNT growth densities and/or may use different feed gases for CNT growth.

  2. Enhanced graphitization of c-CVD grown multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays assisted by removal of encapsulated iron-based phases under thermal treatment in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncel, Slawomir, E-mail: slawomir.boncel@polsl.pl [Department of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 4, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koziol, Krzysztof K.K., E-mail: kk292@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Annealing of the c-CVD MWCNT arrays toward complete removal of iron nanoparticles. • The ICP-AES protocol established for quantitative analysis of Fe-content in MWCNTs. • The vertical alignment from the as-grown MWCNT arrays found intact after annealing. • A route to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the MWCNT graphene walls. • A foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs. - Abstract: The effect of annealing on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays grown via catalytic Chemical Vapour Deposition (c-CVD) was studied. The treatment enabled to decrease number of defects/imperfections in the graphene walls of MWCNTs’, which was reflected in Raman spectroscopy by reduction of the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio by 27%. Moreover, the vertical alignment from the as-synthesized nanotube arrays was found intact after annealing. Not only graphitization of the nanotube walls occurred under annealing, but the amount of metal iron-based catalyst residues (interfering with numerous physicochemical properties, and hence applications of MWCNTs) was reduced from 9.00 wt.% (for pristine MWCNTs) to 0.02 wt.% as detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This value, established by a new analytical protocol, is the lowest recorded by now for purified c-CVD MWCNTs and, due to operating under atmospheric pressure, medium temperature regime (as for annealing processes), reasonable time-scale and metal residue non-specificity, it could lay the foundation for commercial purification of c-CVD derived MWCNTs.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Purification and Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Mintz, Eric; Smalley, Richard E.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to significantly enhance the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymers. However, dispersion of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix is hindered by the electrostatic forces that cause them to agglomerate. Chemical modification of the nanotubes is necessary to minimize these electrostatic forces and promote adhesion between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix. In a collaborative research program between Clark Atlanta University, Rice University, and NASA Glenn Research Center several approaches are being explored to chemically modify carbon nanotubes. The results of this research will be presented.

  4. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the 20-200 GHz frequency range with arrays of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atdayev, Agylych; Danilyuk, Alexander L; Prischepa, Serghej L

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) is considered within the model of distributed random nanoparticles with a core-shell morphology. The approach is based on a system composed of a CNT conducting resistive matrix, ferromagnetic inductive nanoparticles and the capacitive interface between the CNT matrix and the nanoparticles, which form resonance resistive-inductive-capacitive circuits. It is shown that the influence of the resonant circuits leads to the emergence of specific resonances, namely peaks and valleys in the frequency dependence of the permeability of the nanocomposite, and in the frequency dependence of the reflection and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.

  5. Preparation of well-aligned carbon nanotubes/silicon nanowires core-sheath composite structure arrays in porous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦轲; 陆梅; 王成伟; 力虎林

    2002-01-01

    The well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arrays with opened ends were prepared in ordered pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. After then, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were deposited in the hollow cavities of CNTs. By using this method, CNTs/SiNWs core-sheath composite structure arrays were synthesized successfully. Growing structures and physical properties of the CNTs/SiNWs composite structure arrays were analyzed and researched by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD), respectively. The field emission (FE) behavior of the CNTs/SiNWs composite structure arrays was studied based on Fowler- Nordheim tunneling mechanism and current-voltage (I -V) curve. And the photoluminescence (PL) was also characterized. Significantly, the CNTs/SiNWs core-sheath composite structure nanowire fabricated by AAO template method is characteristic of a metal/semiconductor (M/S) behavior and can be utilized to synthesize nanoscale PN junction or Schottky diode device. This process also could be useful for the fabrication of SiNWs and other nanoscale core-sheath composite structure nanowires with chemically inert interfaces for nanoscale electronic and device applications where surface oxidation is undesirable. The diameters and lengths of nanoscale composite structure arrays can be dominated easily, and the experimental result shows that the curling and twisting structures are fewer than those prepared by other synthesized methods.

  6. Carbon nanotube network varactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalov, A. A.; Anoshkin, I. V.; Erdmanis, M.; Lioubtchenko, D. V.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Räisänen, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling.

  7. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  8. From Carbon Nanotube Crystals to Carbon Nanotube Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhengjun; ZHAO Ye; ZHOU Ya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the very initial deposition stages of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) and xylene (C8H10) for growing carbon nanotubes, and made clear that the mechanism for the self-organization behaviors of nanotubes at different growth stages by this approach. For instance, the organization of nanotubes into flower-like structures at prolonged deposition is developed from the crystal-like structures formed at early growth stages, both of which are closely related to and determined by the very initial deposition stages of this CVD approach. Based on this approach, ways have been established to build up different architectures of carbon nanotubes, by controlling the initial deposition stages of the CVD process, with which we have realized the selective growth of self-organized carbon nanotube structures. This study provides a new idea for growing carbon nanotube architectures by CVD.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  10. Carbon nanotube core graphitic shell hybrid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Hart, Amelia H C; Song, Sung Moo; Nam, Jaewook; Jung, Hyun Young; Hashim, Daniel Paul; Li, Bo; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Park, Chi-Dong; Zhao, Yao; Vajtai, Robert; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Hayashi, Takuya; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Endo, Morinobu; Barrera, Enrique; Jung, Yung Joon; Thomas, Edwin L; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-12-23

    A carbon nanotube yarn core graphitic shell hybrid fiber was fabricated via facile heat treatment of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8) on carbon nanotube yarn. The effective encapsulation of carbon nanotube yarn in carbon fiber and a glassy carbon outer shell determines their physical properties. The higher electrical conductivity (than carbon fiber) of the carbon nanotube yarn overcomes the drawbacks of carbon fiber/glassy carbon, and the better properties (than carbon nanotubes) of the carbon fiber/glassy carbon make up for the lower thermal and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube yarn via synergistic hybridization without any chemical doping and additional processes. PMID:24224730

  11. Magnetoresistance of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Lei-Mei; GAO Wei; CAO Shi-Xun; ZHANG Jin-Cang

    2008-01-01

    We measure zero-field resistivity and magnetoresistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube yarns (CNTYs). The CNTYs are drawn from superaligned multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays synthesized by the low-pressure chemical vapour deposition method. The zero-field resistivity shows a logarithmic decrease from 2 K to 300 K. In the presence of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the yarn axis, a pronounced negative magnetoresistance is observed. A magnetoresistance ratio of 22% is obtained. These behaviours can be explained by the weak localization effect.

  12. A carbon nanotube-based sensing element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHOU Zhao-ying; WU Ying; ZHANG Jin; ZHANG Ying-ying

    2007-01-01

    A carbon nanotube-based(CNT) sensing element is presented, which consists of substrate, insulating layer, electrodes,carbon nanotube and measuring circuit. The sensing components are a single or array of CNTs, which are located on the two electrodes. The CNT-based sensing element is fabricated by CVD (chemical vapor deposition)-direct-growth on microelectrodes. The sensing model and measurement method of electromechanical property are also presented. Finally, the voltage-current characteristics are measured, which show that the CNT-based sensing element has good electrical properties.

  13. Fabrication of a gas sensor array with micro-wells for VOCs gas sensing based on polymer/carbon nanotube thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guangzhong; Xie, Tao; Zhu, Tao; Jiang, Yadong; Tai, Huiling

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, gas sensor array with micro-well was designed and prepared by Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The micro-well and interdigital electrodes of sensor array were prepared using photolithography process, reactive ion etching (RIE) process, wet etching and conventional vacuum evaporation. In the manufacture process of the gas sensor array, KOH wet etching process was mainly discussed. The optimum etching processing parameters were as follows: 30 wt% KOH solution at 80 °C, a cooling back-flow device and a magnetic stirrer. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-polyethyleneoxide (PEO) and MWNTs-Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) composite films were utilized as sensitive layers to test gas-sensing properties. Response performances of MWCNTs- PEO and MWNTs-PVP composite films to toluene vapor and methanol vapor at room temperature were investigated. The results revealed that the sensor array showed a larger sensitivity to toluene vapor than to methanol vapor. In addition, the sensing mechanisms were studied as well.

  14. Preparation of well-aligned carbon nanotubes/silicon nanowires core-sheath composite structure arrays in porous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦轲; 力虎林; 陆梅; 王成伟

    2002-01-01

    The well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arrays with opened ends were prepared in ordered pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. After then, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were deposited in the hollow cavities of CNTs. By using this method, CNTs/SiNWs core-sheath composite structure arrays were synthesized successfully. Growing structures and physical properties of the CNTs/SiNWs composite structure arrays were analyzed and researched by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD), respectively. The field emission (FE) behavior of the CNTs/SiNWs composite structure arrays was studied based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism and current-voltage (/-V) curve. And the photoluminescence (PL) was also characterized. Significantly, the CNTs/SiNWs core-sheath composite structure nanowire fabricated by AAO template method is characteristic of a metal/semiconductor (M/S) behavior and can be

  15. High-Conductance Thermal Interfaces Based on Carbon Nanotubes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel thermal interface material (TIM) that is based on an array of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for high heat flux applications. For...

  16. Controlling growth of aligned carbon nanotubes from porous silicon templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐东升; 郭国霖; 桂琳琳; 唐有祺; 施祖进; 金朝霞; 顾振南

    2000-01-01

    Fabricating well-aligned carbon nanotubes, especially, on a silicon substrate is very important for their applications. In this paper, an aligned carbon nanotube array has been prepared by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons catalyzed by nickel nanoparticles embedded in porous silicon (PS) templates. High-magnification transmission electron microscopy images confirm that the nanotubes are well graphitized. The PS substrates with pore sizes between 10 and 100 nm play a control role on the growth of carbon nanotubes and the diameters of the tubes increase with the enlargement of the pores of the substrates. However, such a control role cannot be found in the macro-PS substrates.

  17. Studies of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneba, Gerard T.

    2005-01-01

    The fellowship experience for this summer for 2004 pertains to carbon nanotube coatings for various space-related applications. They involve the following projects: (a) EMI protection films from HiPco-polymers, and (b) Thermal protection nanosilica materials. EMI protection films are targeted to be eventually applied onto casings of laptop computers. These coatings are composites of electrically-conductive SWNTs and compatible polymers. The substrate polymer will be polycarbonate, since computer housings are typically made of carbon composites of this type of polymer. A new experimental copolymer was used last year to generate electrically-conductive and thermal films with HiPco at 50/50 wt/wt composition. This will be one of the possible formulations. Reference films will be base polycarbonate and neat HiPco onto polycarbonate films. Other coating materials that will be tried will be based on HiPco composites with commercial enamels (polyurethane, acrylic, polyester), which could be compatible with the polycarbonate substrate. Nanosilica fibers are planned for possible use as thermal protection tiles on the shuttle orbiter. Right now, microscale silica is used. Going to the nanoscale will increase the surface-volume-per-unit-area of radiative heat dissipation. Nanoscale carbon fibers/nanotubes can be used as templates for the generation of nanosilica. A sol-gel operation is employed for this purpose.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Electron Emitter for X-ray Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Su Kang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The carbon nanotube field emitter array was grown on silicon substrate through a resist-assisted patterning (RAP process. The shape of the carbon nanotube array is elliptical with 2.0 × 0.5 mm2 for an isotropic focal spot size at anode target. The field emission properties with triode electrodes show a gate turn-on field of 3 V/µm at an anode emission current of 0.1 mA. The author demonstrated the X-ray source with triode electrode structure utilizing the carbon nanotube emitter, and the transmitted X-ray image was of high resolution.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Electron Emitter for X-ray Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Su Kang; Je Hwang Ryu; Kyu Chang Park

    2012-01-01

    The carbon nanotube field emitter array was grown on silicon substrate through a resist-assisted patterning (RAP) process. The shape of the carbon nanotube array is elliptical with 2.0 × 0.5 mm2 for an isotropic focal spot size at anode target. The field emission properties with triode electrodes show a gate turn-on field of 3 V/µm at an anode emission current of 0.1 mA. The author demonstrated the X-ray source with triode electrode structure utilizing the carbon nanotube em...

  20. Luminescence of carbon nanotube bulbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuanGang; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; WEI BingQing; ZHU HongWei; WANG ZhiCheng; LUO JianBin; LIU WenJin; ZHENG MingXin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bulbs made of decimeter-scale double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) strands and films were fabricated and their luminescence properties, including the lighting efficiency, voltage-current relation and thermal stability were investigated. The results show that the DWCNT bulb has a comparable spectrum of visible light with tungsten bulb and its average efficiency is 40% higher than that of a tungsten filament at the same temperature (1400-2300 K). The nanotube filaments show both resistance and thermal stability over a large temperature region. No obvious damage was found for a nanotube bulb illuminating at 2300 K for more than 24 hours in vacuum.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of CaP-coated nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Kuan-Chen; Chen, Jia-Ling [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Ting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzer-Min, E-mail: tmlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Medical Device Innovation Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    Modified anodization techniques have been shown to improve the biocompatibility of titanium. This study demonstrated the anodic formation of self-organized nanotube arrays on titanium from an electrolyte solution containing 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 1 wt% hydrofluoric acid (HF). Our aim was to investigate the effects of sputter-deposited CaP on nanotube arrays. SEM images revealed a surface with uniform morphology and an average pore diameter of 29 nm. XRD results indicated that the phase of the nanotube arrays was amorphous. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) confirmed that the nanotube arrays were coated with calcium and phosphorus. Cell culture experiments using human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells demonstrated that the CaP/nanotube arrays had a pronounced effect on initial cell attachment as well as on the number of cells at 1, 7, and 14 days. Compared to as-polished titanium, the CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated cell proliferation, attachment, and spreading. Our results demonstrate the pronounced effects of CaP/nanotube arrays on the biological responses of HOS cells. - Highlights: • Self-organized nanotube arrays were anodically formed on titanium. • Surfaces of nanotube arrays exhibited uniform morphology and pore size. • According to ESCA results, Ca and P were successfully coated on nanotube arrays. • CaP/nanotube arrays accelerated the attachment and spreading of cells. • CaP/nanotube arrays were shown to affect biological responses of cells.

  3. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  4. Effect of van der Waals forces on thermal conductance at the interface of a single-wall carbon nanotube array and silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Feng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to evaluate the effect of van der Waals forces among single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs on the interfacial thermal conductance between a SWNT array and silicon substrate. First, samples of SWNTs vertically aligned on silicon substrate are simulated, where both the number and arrangement of SWNTs are varied. Results reveal that the interfacial thermal conductance of a SWNT array/Si with van der Waals forces present is higher than when they are absent. To better understand how van der Waals forces affect heat transfer through the interface between SWNTs and silicon, further constructs of one SWNT surrounded by different numbers of other ones are studied, and the results show that the interfacial thermal conductance of the central SWNT increases with increasing van der Waals forces. Through analysis of the covalent bonds and vibrational density of states at the interface, we find that heat transfer across the interface is enhanced with a greater number of chemical bonds and that improved vibrational coupling of the two sides of the interface results in higher interfacial thermal conductance. Van der Waals forces stimulate heat transfer at the interface.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  6. Carbon nanotube optical mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes (CNT) embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation. Moreover, as the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and three-dimensional printing. Therefore, the technology holds promise for the development of a new generation of lightweight, compact "smart" telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics, active optics experiments, and numerical modeling. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  7. Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the...

  8. Molybdenum Disulfide Sheathed Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chun SONG; Zhu De XU; Yi Fan ZHENG; Gui HAN; Bo LIU; Wei Xiang CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Single and double layered MoS2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNs) were successfully prepared by pyrolyzing (NH4)2MoS4-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes in an H2 atmosphere at 900℃. MoS2-coated MWCNs would be expected to have different tribological and mechanical properties compared to MoS2, so it may have potential applications in many fields.

  9. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kuemmeth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications.

  10. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  11. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Churchill, H O H; Herring, P K;

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual......, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications....

  12. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO2 nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingyang; Zhu, Lin; Geng, Ping; Chen, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO2. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO2, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation.

  13. Carbon-dot-decorated TiO₂ nanotube arrays used for photo/voltage-induced organic pollutant degradation and the inactivation of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lingyan; Sun, Hanjun; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-03-18

    Photoluminescent carbon dots (c-dots) have recently attracted growing interest as a new member of the carbon-nanomaterial family. Here, we report for the first time that c-dot-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays (c-dot/TiNTs) exhibit highly enhanced abilities regarding photo/voltage-induced organic pollutant degradation and bacterial inactivation. By applying UV irradiation (365 nm) or an electrochemical potential over 3 V (versus Ag/AgCl), an organic dye and a herbicide were efficiently degraded. Moreover, the inactivation of Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coli bacteria was realized on a c-dot/TiNT film. The c-dots were able to absorb light efficiently resulting in multiple exciton generation and also a reduction in the recombination of the e(-)/h(+) pair produced in c-dot/TiNT film during photo/voltage-induced degradation. It was also possible to readily regenerate the surface using ultraviolet light irradiation, leaving the whole film structure undamaged and with high reproducibility and stability. PMID:26870882

  14. Carbon-dot-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays used for photo/voltage-induced organic pollutant degradation and the inactivation of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lingyan; Sun, Hanjun; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-03-01

    Photoluminescent carbon dots (c-dots) have recently attracted growing interest as a new member of the carbon-nanomaterial family. Here, we report for the first time that c-dot-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays (c-dot/TiNTs) exhibit highly enhanced abilities regarding photo/voltage-induced organic pollutant degradation and bacterial inactivation. By applying UV irradiation (365 nm) or an electrochemical potential over 3 V (versus Ag/AgCl), an organic dye and a herbicide were efficiently degraded. Moreover, the inactivation of Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coli bacteria was realized on a c-dot/TiNT film. The c-dots were able to absorb light efficiently resulting in multiple exciton generation and also a reduction in the recombination of the e-/h+ pair produced in c-dot/TiNT film during photo/voltage-induced degradation. It was also possible to readily regenerate the surface using ultraviolet light irradiation, leaving the whole film structure undamaged and with high reproducibility and stability.

  15. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO2 nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingyang; Zhu, Lin; Geng, Ping; Chen, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO2. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO2, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation. PMID:27232727

  16. Carbon nanotube computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaker, Max M; Hills, Gage; Patil, Nishant; Wei, Hai; Chen, Hong-Yu; Wong, H-S Philip; Mitra, Subhasish

    2013-09-26

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy-delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. Owing to substantial fundamental imperfections inherent in CNTs, however, only very basic circuit blocks have been demonstrated. Here we show how these imperfections can be overcome, and demonstrate the first computer built entirely using CNT-based transistors. The CNT computer runs an operating system that is capable of multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we implement 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This experimental demonstration is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet realized. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next generation of highly energy-efficient electronic systems.

  17. Production of single-walled carbon nanotube grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-12-03

    A method of forming a nanotube grid includes placing a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles on a grid framework, contacting the catalyst nanoparticles with a gas mixture that includes hydrogen and a carbon source in a reaction chamber, forming an activated gas from the gas mixture, heating the grid framework and activated gas, and controlling a growth time to generate a single-wall carbon nanotube array radially about the grid framework. A filter membrane may be produced by this method.

  18. Batch fabrication of carbon nanotube bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative displacements between the atomically smooth, nested shells in multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be used as a robust nanoscale motion enabling mechanism. Here, we report on a novel method suited for structuring large arrays of MWNTs into such nanobearings in a parallel fashion. By creating MWNT nanostructures with nearly identical electrical circuit resistance and heat transport conditions, uniform Joule heating across the array is used to simultaneously engineer the shell geometry via electric breakdown. The biasing approach used optimizes process metrics such as yield and cycle-time. We also present the parallel and piecewise shell engineering at different segments of a single nanotube to construct multiple, but independent, high density bearings. We anticipate this method for constructing electromechanical building blocks to be a fundamental unit process for manufacturing future nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) with sophisticated architectures and to drive several nanoscale transduction applications such as GHz-oscillators, shuttles, memories, syringes and actuators

  19. Carbon nanotube based separation columns for high electrical field strengths in microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mølhave, Kristian;

    2011-01-01

    Patterning carbon nanotubes into an array of pillars makes it possible to increase the electrical field strength applied across a separation column by more than one order of magnitude.......Patterning carbon nanotubes into an array of pillars makes it possible to increase the electrical field strength applied across a separation column by more than one order of magnitude....

  20. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  1. Kondo physics in carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Nygard, Jesper; Cobden, David Henry; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    The connection of electrical leads to wire-like molecules is a logical step in the development of molecular electronics, but also allows studies of fundamental physics. For example, metallic carbon nanotubes are quantum wires that have been found to act as one-dimensional quantum dots, Luttinger-liquids, proximity-induced superconductors and ballistic and diffusive one-dimensional metals. Here we report that electrically-contacted single-wall nanotubes can serve as powerful probes of Kondo ph...

  2. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale production and application at large scale, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may cause ad-verse response to the environment and human health. Thus, study on bio-effects and safety of CNTs has attracted great attention from scientists and governments worldwide. This report briefly summa-rizes the main results from the in vitro toxicity study of CNTs. The emphasis is placed on the descrip-tion of a variety of factors affecting CNTs cytotoxicity, including species of CNTs, impurities contained, lengths of CNTs, aspect ratios, chemical modification, and assaying methods of cytotoxicity. However, experimental information obtained thus far on CNTs’ cytotoxicity is lacking in comparability, and some-times there is controversy about it. In order to assess more accurately the potential risks of CNTs to human health, we suggest that care should be taken for issues such as chemical modification and quantitative characterization of CNTs in cytotoxicity assessment. More importantly, studies on physical and chemical mechanisms of CNTs’ cytotoxicity should be strengthened; assaying methods and evaluating criteria characterized by nanotoxicology should be gradually established.

  3. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying; LI WenXin

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale production and application at large scale, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may cause ad-verse response to the environment and human health. Thus, study on bio-effects and safety of CNTs has attracted great attention from scientists and governments worldwide. This report briefly summa-rizes the main results from the in vitro toxicity study of CNTs. The emphasis is placed on the descrip-tion of a variety of factors affecting CNTs cytotoxicity, including species of CNTs, impurities contained,lengths of CNTs, aspect ratios, chemical modification, and assaying methods of cytotoxicity. However,experimental information obtained thus far on CNTs' cytotoxicity is lacking in comparability, and some-times there is controversy about it. In order to assess more accurately the potential risks of CNTs to human health, we suggest that care should be taken for issues such as chemical modification and quantitative characterization of CNTa in cytotoxicity assessment. More importantly, studies on physical and chemical mechanisms of CNTs' cytotoxicity should be strengthened; assaying methods and evaluating criteria characterized by nanotoxicology should be gradually established.

  4. Titania nanotube arrays as interfaces for neural prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorkin, Jonathan A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO 80523 (United States); Hughes, Stephen [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO 80523 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO 80523 (United States); Soares, Paulo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic School, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); Popat, Ketul C., E-mail: ketul.popat@colostate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO 80523 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO 80523 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Neural prostheses have become ever more acceptable treatments for many different types of neurological damage and disease. Here we investigate the use of two different morphologies of titania nanotube arrays as interfaces to advance the longevity and effectiveness of these prostheses. The nanotube arrays were characterized for their nanotopography, crystallinity, conductivity, wettability, surface mechanical properties and adsorption of key proteins: fibrinogen, albumin and laminin. The loosely packed nanotube arrays fabricated using a diethylene glycol based electrolyte, contained a higher presence of the anatase crystal phase and were subsequently more conductive. These arrays yielded surfaces with higher wettability and lower modulus than the densely packed nanotube arrays fabricated using water based electrolyte. Further the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of the C17.2 neural stem cell line was investigated on the nanotube arrays. The proliferation ratio of the cells as well as the level of neuronal differentiation was seen to increase on the loosely packed arrays. The results indicate that loosely packed nanotube arrays similar to the ones produced here with a DEG based electrolyte, may provide a favorable template for growth and maintenance of C17.2 neural stem cell line. - Highlights: • Titania nanotube arrays can be fabricated with to have loosely or densely packed morphologies. • Titania nanotube arrays support higher C17.2 neural stem cell adhesion and proliferation. • Titania nanotube arrays support higher C17.2 neural stem cell differentiation towards neuronal lineage.

  5. Terahertz response of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terahertz (THz) research field is expected to serve as a new platform for studying low-energy excitation in solids and higher-order structures in large molecules, and for realizing applications in medicine, agriculture, security, and high-capacity communications. The THz frequency region, however, is located between the electronic and photonic bands, hampering the development of basic components like detectors and sources. This article presents an overview of basic background information about THz waves and THz detector applications and describes the THz response of carbon-based low-dimensional systems, such as single carbon nanotubes (CNT), CNT-array films, and graphene. (author)

  6. INFLUENCES OF DENSITY AND DIMENSION OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON THEIR FIELD EMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.B. Zhu; W.L. Wang; C.G. Hu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of density and dimension of carbon nanotubes on their electron emission from arrays are studied. The tip electric field of nanotubes, electric field enhancement factor, and optimum nanotube density are expressed by analytic equations. The theoretical analyses show that the field enhancement factor is sensitive to nanotube density, and can be sharply improved at a specific and optimum density. Some experiments have demonstrated these. Owning to electrostatic screening effect, the length of carbon nanotubes has little effect on their emission. A uniformly-distributed carbon nanotube array model is set up, and applied to analysis of carbon nanotube arrays.The results obtained here are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Hybrid Composite of Polyaniline Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polyaniline hybrid material was synthesized by emulsion polymerization in-situ. The morphology of hybrid material was studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity of nanocomposite increases with the increasing of carbon nanotube content because of the new conductivity passageways formed by carbon nanotubes.

  8. Synthesis and Application of Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Zeng; Zhenhua Li; Yuhong Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the unique structure, the superior physical and chemical properties, the super strong mechanical performances, and so on, carbon nanotubes have attracted the attention of researchers all over the world. In this article, the basic properties and the main production processes of carbon nanotubes are introduced in brief, and the progress of applied research for carbon nanotubes is reviewed.

  9. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  10. Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printing technologies offer large-area, high-throughput production capabilities for electronics and sensors on mechanically flexible substrates that can conformally cover different surfaces. These capabilities enable a wide range of new applications such as low-cost disposable electronics for health monitoring and wearables, extremely large format electronic displays, interactive wallpapers, and sensing arrays. Solution-processed carbon nanotubes have been shown to be a promising candidate for such printing processes, offering stable devices with high performance. Here, recent progress made in printed carbon nanotube electronics is discussed in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications. Research challenges and opportunities moving forward from processing and system-level integration points of view are also discussed for enabling practical applications.

  11. Adsorption on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; YANG Xiao-bao; NI Jun

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is a subject of growing experimental and theoretical interest.The possible adsorbed patterns of atoms and molecules on the single-walled carbon nanotubes vary with the diameters and chirality of the tubes due to the confinement.The curvature of the carbon nanotube surface enlarges the distance of the adsorbate atoms and thus enhances the stability of high coverage structures of adsorbate.There exist two novel high-coverage stable structures of potassium adsorbed on SWCNTs,which are not stable on graphite.The electronic properties of SWCNTs can be modified by adsorbate atoms and metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semi-conductor transitions can be achieved by the doping of alkali atoms.

  12. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  13. Gears Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Deardorff, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Gears based on carbon nanotubes (see figure) have been proposed as components of an emerging generation of molecular- scale machines and sensors. In comparison with previously proposed nanogears based on diamondoid and fullerene molecules, the nanotube-based gears would have simpler structures and are more likely to be realizable by practical fabrication processes. The impetus for the practical development of carbon-nanotube- based gears arises, in part, from rapid recent progress in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes with prescribed diameters, lengths, chiralities, and numbers of concentric shells. The shafts of the proposed gears would be made from multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The gear teeth would be rigid molecules (typically, benzyne molecules), bonded to the nanotube shafts at atomically precise positions. For fabrication, it may be possible to position the molecular teeth by use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) or other related techniques. The capability to position individual organic molecules at room temperature by use of an STM tip has already been demonstrated. Routes to the chemical synthesis of carbon-nanotube-based gears are also under investigation. Chemical and physical aspects of the synthesis of molecular scale gears based on carbon nanotubes and related molecules, and dynamical properties of nanotube- based gears, have been investigated by computational simulations using established methods of quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics. Several particularly interesting and useful conclusions have been drawn from the dynamical simulations performed thus far: The forces acting on the gears would be more sensitive to local molecular motions than to gross mechanical motions of the overall gears. Although no breakage of teeth or of chemical bonds is expected at temperatures up to at least 3,000 K, the gears would not work well at temperatures above a critical range from about 600 to about 1,000 K. Gear temperature could probably be controlled by

  14. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries, enabled by sophisticated fabrication, have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two....... In single quantum dots defined in short lengths of nanotube, the energy levels associated with each degree of freedom, and the spin-orbit coupling between them, are revealed by Coulomb blockade spectroscopy. In double quantum dots, the combination of quantum numbers modifies the selection rules of Pauli...

  15. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  16. Highly ordered and ultra-long carbon nanotube arrays as air cathodes for high-energy-efficiency Li-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruimin; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Dong, Shaoming

    2016-02-01

    Carbonaceous air cathodes with rational architecture are vital for the nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries to achieve large energy density, high energy efficiency and long cycle life. In this work, we report the cathodes made of highly ordered and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on permeable Ta foil substrates (VACNTs-Ta) via thermal chemical vapour deposition. The VACNTs-Ta, composed of uniform carbon nanotubes with approximately 240 μm in superficial height, has the super large surface area. Meanwhile, the oriented carbon nanotubes provide extremely outstanding passageways for Li ions and oxygen species. Electrochemistry tests of VACNTs-Ta air cathodes show enhancement in discharge capacity and cycle life compared to those made from short-range oriented and disordered carbon nanotubes. By further combining with the LiI redox mediator that is dissolved in the tetraethylene dimethyl glycol based electrolytes, the batteries exhibit more than 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g-1 with a cut-off discharge capacity of 1000 mAh g-1, and their energy efficiencies increase from 50% to 82%. The results here demonstrate the importance of cathode construction for high-energy-efficiency and long-life Li-O2 batteries.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes as Active Components for Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-De Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique structure of carbon nanotubes endows them with fantastic physical and chemical characteristics. Carbon nanotubes have been widely studied due to their potential applications in many fields including conductive and high-strength composites, energy storage and energy conversion devices, sensors, field emission displays and radiation sources, hydrogen storage media, and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and quantum wires. Some of these applications have been realized in products, while others show great potentials. The development of carbon nanotubes-based sensors has attracted intensive interest in the last several years because of their excellent sensing properties such as high selectivity and prompt response. Carbon nanotube-based gas sensors are summarized in this paper. Sensors based on single-walled, multiwalled, and well-aligned carbon nanotubes arrays are introduced. Modification of carbon nanotubes with functional groups, metals, oxides, polymers, or doping carbon nanotubes with other elements to enhance the response and selectivity of the sensors is also discussed.

  18. Modified carbon nanotubes and methods of forming carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Amy M.; Risser, Steven; Elhard, Joel D.; Moore, Bryon P.; Liu, Tao; Vijayendran, Bhima R.

    2016-06-14

    In this invention, processes which can be used to achieve stable doped carbon nanotubes are disclosed. Preferred CNT structures and morphologies for achieving maximum doping effects are also described. Dopant formulations and methods for achieving doping of a broad distribution of tube types are also described.

  19. Carbon nanotube diameter selection by pretreatment of metal catalysts on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Robert H.; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Shan, Hongwei; Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kim, Myung Jong; Schmidt, Howard K.; Kittrell, W. Carter

    2012-02-28

    A new and useful nanotube growth substrate conditioning processes is herein disclosed that allows the growth of vertical arrays of carbon nanotubes where the average diameter of the nanotubes can be selected and/or controlled as compared to the prior art.

  20. Selective growth of carbon nanotube on silicon substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xiao-ping; H. ABE; T. SHIMIZU; A. ANDO; H. TOKUMOT; ZHU Shen-ming; ZHOU Hao-shen

    2006-01-01

    The carbon nanotube (CNT) growth of iron oxide-deposited trench-patterns and the locally-ordered CNT arrays on silicon substrate were achieved by simple thermal chemical vapor deposition(STCVD) of ethanol vapor. The CNTs were uniformly synthesized with good selectivity on trench-patterned silicon substrates. This fabrication process is compatible with currently used semiconductor-processing technologies,and the carbon-nanotube fabrication process can be widely applied for the development of electronic devices using carbon-nanotube field emitters as cold cathodes and can revolutionize the area of field-emitting electronic devices. The site-selective growth of CNT from an iron oxide nanoparticle catalyst patterned were also achieved by drying-mediated self-assembly technique. The present method offers a simple and cost-effective method to grow carbon nanotubes with self-assembled patterns.

  1. Synthesis, assembly, and applications of single-walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Koungmin

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, and their applications in both nano-electronics such as transistor and integrated circuits and macro-electronics in energy conversion devices as transparent conducting electrodes. Also, the high performance chemical sensor using metal oxide nanowire has been demonstrated. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction of carbon nanotube, followed by discussion of a new synthesis technique using nanosphere lithography to grow highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes atop quartz and sapphire substrates. This method offers great potential to produce carbon nanotube arrays with simultaneous control over the nanotube orientation, position, density, diameter and even chirality. Chapter 3 introduces the wafer-scale integration and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, including full-wafer scale synthesis and transfer of massively aligned carbon nanotube arrays, and nanotube device fabrication on 4 inch Si/SiO2 wafer to yield submicron channel transistors with high on-current density ˜ 20 muA/mum and good on/off ratio and CMOS integrated circuits. In addition, various chemical doping methods for n-type nanotube transistors are studied to fabricate CMOS integrated nanotube circuits such as inverter, NAND and NOR logic devices. Furthermore, defect-tolerant circuit design for NAND and NOR is proposed and demonstrated to guarantee the correct operation of logic circuit, regardless of the presence of mis-aligned or mis-positioned nanotubes. Carbon nanotube flexible electronics and smart textiles for ubiquitous computing and sensing are demonstrated in chapter 4. A facile transfer printing technique has been introduced to transfer massively aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from the original sapphire/quartz substrates to virtually any other substrates, including glass, silicon, polymer sheets, and even fabrics. The characterization of transferred nanotubes reveals that the transferred

  2. CARBON NANOTUBES AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Pavani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are often described as a graphene sheet rolled up into the shape of a cylinder. These have fascinated scientists with their extraordinary properties. These compounds have become increasingly popular in various fields simply because of their small size and amazing optical, electric and magnetic properties when used alone or with additions of metals. Carbon nanotubes have potential therapeutic applications in the field of drug delivery, diagnostics, and biosensing. Functionalized carbon nanotubes can also act as vaccine delivery systems.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered to be one of the innovative resources in nanotechnology with possible use in wide range of biomedical applications viz. cancer treatment, bioengineering, cardiac autonomic regulation, platelet activation and tissue regeneration. The effect of CNTs on cells and tissues are extremely important for their use in various complex biological systems. With the increasing interest shown by the nanotechnology research community in this field, it is expected that plenty of applications of CNTs will be explored in future.

  3. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This revie

  4. Ferroelectric–carbon nanotube memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional ferroelectric nanostructures, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and CNT–inorganic oxides have recently been studied due to their potential applications for microelectronics. Here, we report coating of a registered array of aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) grown on silicon substrates by functional ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) which produces structures suitable for commercial prototype memories. Microstructural analysis reveals the crystalline nature of PZT with small nanocrystals aligned in different directions. First-order Raman modes of MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si show the high structural quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition at elevated temperature. PZT exists mostly in the monoclinic Cc/Cm phase, which is the origin of the high piezoelectric response in the system. Low–loss square piezoelectric hysteresis obtained for the 3D bottom-up structure confirms the switchability of the device. Current–voltage mapping of the device by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) indicates very low transient current. Fabrication and functional properties of these hybrid ferroelectric–carbon nanotubes is the first step towards miniaturization for future nanotechnology sensors, actuators, transducers and memory devices. (paper)

  5. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmi Koo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.

  6. Using carbon nanotubes-gold nanocomposites to quench energy from pinnate titanium dioxide nanorods array for signal-on photoelectrochemical aptasensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenping; Shen, Lei; Wang, Xiu; Yang, Chunlei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-08-15

    On the basis of the absorption and emission spectra overlap, an enhanced resonance energy transfer caused by excition-plasmon resonance between carbon nanotubes-gold nanoparticles (CNTs-Au) and pinnate titanium dioxide nanorods array (P-TiO2 NA) was obtained. Three-dimensional single crystalline P-TiO2 were prepared successfully on fluorine-doped tin oxide conducting glass (FTO glass), and its optical absorption properties and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were investigated. With the synergy of CNTs-Au as energy acceptor, it resulted in the enhancement of energy transfer between excited P-TiO2 NA and CNTs-Au. Upon the novel sandwichlike structure formed via DNA hybridization, the exciton produced in P-TiO2 NA was annihilated and a damped photocurrent was obtained. With the use of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a model which bonded to its specific aptamer and destroyed the sandwichlike structure, the energy transfer efficiency was lowered, leading to PEC response augment. Thus a signal-on PEC aptasensor was constructed. Under the optimal conditions, the PEC aptasensor for CEA determination exhibited a linear range from 0.001 to 2.5ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.39pgmL(-1) and was satisfactory for clinical sample detection. Furthermore, the proposed aptasensor shows satisfying performance, such as easy preparation, rapid detection and so on. Moreover, since different aptamer can specifically bind to different target molecules, the designed strategy has an expansive application for the construction of versatile PEC platforms.

  7. PtNi alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays for photo-assisted methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop anode catalysts for photo-assisted direct methanol fuel cell (PDMFC), carbon-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays-supported PtNi alloy nanoparticles with different Pt/Ni atomic ratio (PtNi/C-TiO2NTs) prepared by pulsed electrodeposition method are evaluated as catalysts for photo-assisted methanol oxidation. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry results show that the PtNi/C-TiO2NTs prepared at tonPt:tonNi: = 10:7 (ton is the current-on time) with a Pt:Ni atomic ratio of 6.1:5.7 presents the highest catalytic activity for methanol oxidation both in the dark and under illumination. In addition, according to the results obtained from the CO stripping voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, it was found that the light play an accelerative role in the oxidation of methanol on PtNi/C-TiO2NTs under illumination. The effect of illumination which enhancing the catalytic activity of PtNi/C-TiO2NTs are attributed to (1) methanol and the intermediates be oxidized directly on C-TiO2NTs for the light-induced catalytic effect; (2) more abundant oxygen-donating species be produced on C-TiO2NTs in the presence of light; (3) less COads adsorbing on catalysts due to the presence of stronger metal–support interactions between PtNi alloy nanoparticles and C-TiO2NTs under illumination

  8. Using carbon nanotubes-gold nanocomposites to quench energy from pinnate titanium dioxide nanorods array for signal-on photoelectrochemical aptasensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenping; Shen, Lei; Wang, Xiu; Yang, Chunlei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-08-15

    On the basis of the absorption and emission spectra overlap, an enhanced resonance energy transfer caused by excition-plasmon resonance between carbon nanotubes-gold nanoparticles (CNTs-Au) and pinnate titanium dioxide nanorods array (P-TiO2 NA) was obtained. Three-dimensional single crystalline P-TiO2 were prepared successfully on fluorine-doped tin oxide conducting glass (FTO glass), and its optical absorption properties and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were investigated. With the synergy of CNTs-Au as energy acceptor, it resulted in the enhancement of energy transfer between excited P-TiO2 NA and CNTs-Au. Upon the novel sandwichlike structure formed via DNA hybridization, the exciton produced in P-TiO2 NA was annihilated and a damped photocurrent was obtained. With the use of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a model which bonded to its specific aptamer and destroyed the sandwichlike structure, the energy transfer efficiency was lowered, leading to PEC response augment. Thus a signal-on PEC aptasensor was constructed. Under the optimal conditions, the PEC aptasensor for CEA determination exhibited a linear range from 0.001 to 2.5ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.39pgmL(-1) and was satisfactory for clinical sample detection. Furthermore, the proposed aptasensor shows satisfying performance, such as easy preparation, rapid detection and so on. Moreover, since different aptamer can specifically bind to different target molecules, the designed strategy has an expansive application for the construction of versatile PEC platforms. PMID:27088368

  9. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Lerner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (<1000 cfu/ml. In contrast, the carrier mobility is affected comparably by Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml.

  10. Increased Alignment in Carbon Nanotube Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for fabricating an array of two or more carbon nanotube (CNT) structures on a coated substrate surface, the structures having substantially the same orientation with respect to a substrate surface. A single electrode, having an associated voltage source with a selected voltage, is connected to a substrate surface after the substrate is coated and before growth of the CNT structures, for a selected voltage application time interval. The CNT structures are then grown on a coated substrate surface with the desired orientation. Optionally, the electrode can be disconnected before the CNT structures are grown.

  11. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  12. From carbon nanotubes to carbon atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas García, Gilberto; Zhang, Weijia; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Carbyne is a linear allotrope of carbon. It is formed by a linear arrangement of carbon atoms with sp-hybridization. We present a reliable and reproducible experiment to obtain these carbon atomic chains using few-layer-graphene (FLG) sheets and a HRTEM. First the FLG sheets were synthesized from worm-like exfoliated graphite and then drop-casted on a lacey-carbon copper grid. Once in the TEM, two holes are opened near each other in a FLG sheet by focusing the electron beam into a small spot. Due to the radiation, the carbon atoms rearrange themselves between the two holes and form carbon fibers. The beam is concentrated on the carbon fibers in order excite the atoms and induce a tension until multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is formed. As the radiation continues the MWCNT breaks down until there is only a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Then, when the SWCNT breaks, an atomic carbon chain is formed, lasts for several seconds under the radiation and finally breaks. This demonstrates the stability of this carbon structure.

  13. General theories for the electrical transport properties of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, L T; Nanda, K K, E-mail: nanda@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

    2011-08-05

    We have shown that the general theories of metals and semiconductors can be employed to understand the diameter and voltage dependency of current through metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes, respectively. The current through a semiconducting multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is associated with the energy gap that is different for different shells. The contribution of the outermost shell is larger as compared to the inner shells. The general theories can also explain the diameter dependency of maximum current through nanotubes. We have also compared the current carrying ability of a MWCNT and an array of the same diameter of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and found that MWCNTs are better suited and deserve further investigation for possible applications as interconnects.

  14. Electroluminescent Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes for Flat Panel Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Dai; Limin Dong; Mei Gao; Shaoming Huang; Oddvar Johansen; Albert W.H.Mau,Zoran Vasic; Berthold Winkler; Yongyuang Yang

    2000-01-01

    polymeric light-emitting diodes(LEDs) with sufficient brightness. efficiencies, low driving voltages, and various interesting features have been reported. The relatively short device lifetime, however, still remains as a major problem to be solved before any commercial applications will be realized. In this regard,carbon nanotubes have recently been proposed as more robust electron field emitters for flat panel displays. We have synthesised large arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, from which micropatterns of the aligned nanotubes suitable for flat panel displays were fabricated on various substrates. In this paper, we summarise our work on the synthesis and microfabrication of electroluminescent polymers and carbon nanotubes for flat panel displays with reference to other complementary work as appropriate.

  15. Bloch oscillations in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Esther; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Rojas, Fernando

    2009-05-27

    Bloch oscillations arise when electrons are in a one-dimensional linear chain of atoms under a constant electric field. In this paper we show numerically that electrons in different types of carbon nanotubes show oscillations with a Bloch frequency proportional to the constant electric field applied along the nanotube axis. We show these oscillations, calculating the quadratic displacement as a function of the electric field. Because of the double periodicity of the nanotubes' geometry (the lattice constant and the lines of atoms) two frequencies appear, one twice the value of the other. These frequencies coincide perfectly with those predicted for a linear chain of atoms, taking into account the periodicity considered in each case.

  16. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, David H.; Bonner, Brian P.

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  17. Roping and wrapping carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Kevin D.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Boul, Peter; Ericson, Lars M.; Casavant, Michael J.; Walters, Deron A.; Huffman, Chad; Saini, Rajesh; Wang, Yuhuang; Haroz, Erik; Billups, Edward W.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be dispersed into solvents by ultrasonication to the point that primarily individual tubes, cut to a few hundred nanometers in length, are present. However, when such dispersions are filtered to a thick mat, or paper, only tangles of uniform, seemingly endless ropes are observed. The factors contributing to this "roping" phenomenon, akin to aggregation or crystallization, will be discussed. We have developed methods for generating "super-ropes" more than twenty times the diameter of those formed by filtration, involving the extraction of nanotube material from an oleum dispersion. Nanotubes have been solubilized in water, largely individually, by non-covalently wrapping them with linear polymers. The general thermodynamic drive for this wrapping involves the polymer disrupting both the hydrophobic interface with water and the smooth tube-tube interaction in aggregates. The nanotubes can be recovered from their polymeric wrapping by changing their solvent system. This solubilization process opens the door to solution chemistry on pristine nanotubes, as well as their introduction into biologically relevant systems.

  18. Photoluminescence enhancement of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer transfer† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05163k Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Manuel; Zakharko, Yuriy; Gannott, Florentina; Grimm, Stefan B.

    2015-01-01

    The photoluminescence of as-grown, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on quartz is strongly quenched and barely detectable. Here we show that transferring these SWNTs to another substrate such as clean quartz or glass increases their emission efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. By statistical analysis of large nanotube arrays we show at what point of the transfer process the emission enhancement occurs and how it depends on the receiving substrate and the employed transfer polymer. We find that hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) as the transfer polymer results in higher photoluminescence enhancement than the more hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Possible mechanisms for this enhancement such as strain relief, disruption of the strong interaction of SWNTs with the substrate and localized emissive states are discussed. PMID:26400227

  19. Fast photoresponse of zinc ferrite nanotube arrays fabricated by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although nano-sized zinc ferrite materials exhibit excellent visible light activity, their photoresponse characteristics as photodetectors have rarely been investigated. In this paper, zinc ferrite nanotube arrays were fabricated using electrodeposition with the aid of zinc oxide nanowire arrays as a template. These nanotube arrays showed tens of milliseconds-response photocurrents under the irradiation of a 532 nm solid-state laser, and the magnitudes of the photocurrents were linearly increased with increasing laser power. These features of ZnFe2O4 nanotube arrays revealed their potential applications in high-frequency or high-speed photodevices. (paper)

  20. Fracture of Carbon Nanotube - Amorphous Carbon Composites: Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for use as reinforcements in next generation structural composite materials because of their extremely high specific stiffness and strength. They cannot, however, be viewed as simple replacements for carbon fibers because there are key differences between these materials in areas such as handling, processing, and matrix design. It is impossible to know for certain that CNT composites will represent a significant advance over carbon fiber composites before these various factors have been optimized, which is an extremely costly and time intensive process. This work attempts to place an upper bound on CNT composite mechanical properties by performing molecular dynamics simulations on idealized model systems with a reactive forcefield that permits modeling of both elastic deformations and fracture. Amorphous carbon (AC) was chosen for the matrix material in this work because of its structural simplicity and physical compatibility with the CNT fillers. It is also much stiffer and stronger than typical engineering polymer matrices. Three different arrangements of CNTs in the simulation cell have been investigated: a single-wall nanotube (SWNT) array, a multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) array, and a SWNT bundle system. The SWNT and MWNT array systems are clearly idealizations, but the SWNT bundle system is a step closer to real systems in which individual tubes aggregate into large assemblies. The effect of chemical crosslinking on composite properties is modeled by adding bonds between the CNTs and AC. The balance between weakening the CNTs and improving fiber-matrix load transfer is explored by systematically varying the extent of crosslinking. It is, of course, impossible to capture the full range of deformation and fracture processes that occur in real materials with even the largest atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. With this limitation in mind, the simulation results reported here provide a plausible upper limit on

  1. Carbon nanotube suspensions, dispersions, & composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trevor John

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are amazing structures that hold the potential to revolutionize many areas of scientific research. CNTs can be behave both as semiconductors and metals, can be grown in highly ordered arrays and patterns or in random orientation, and can be comprised of one graphene cylinder (single wall nanotube, SWNT) or several concentric graphene cylinders (multi-wall nanotube, MWNT). Although these structures are usually only a few nanometers wide, they can be grown up to centimeter lengths, and in massive quantities. CNTs can be produced in a variety of processes ranging from repeated combustion of organic material such as dried grass, arc-discharge with graphite electrodes, laser ablation of a graphitic target, to sophisticated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. CNTs are stronger than steel but lighter than aluminum, and can be more conductive than copper or semiconducting like silicon. This variety of properties has been matched by the wide variety of applications that have been developed for CNTs. Many of these applications have been limited by the inability of researchers to tame these structures, and incorporating CNTs into existing technologies can be exceedingly difficult and prohibitively expensive. It is therefore the aim of the current study to develop strategies for the solution processing and deposition of CNTs and CNT-composites, which will enable the use of CNTs in existing and emerging technologies. CNTs are not easily suspended in polar solvents and are extremely hydrophobic materials, which has limited much of the solution processing to organic solvents, which also cannot afford high quality dispersions of CNTs. The current study has developed a variety of aqueous CNT solutions that employ surfactants, water-soluble polymers, or both to create suspensions of CNTs. These CNT 'ink' solutions were deposited with a variety of techniques that have afforded many interesting structures, both randomly oriented as well as highly

  2. Carbon Nanotubes - Polymer Composites with Enhanced Conductivity using Functionalized Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, Rajagopal; Chen, Jian; Gupta, Rishi

    2003-03-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes show superior electrical, mechanical and thermal properties [1]. Composite materials using carbon nanotubes as fillers are predicted to show similar superior properties. However, realization of such composites has been plagued by poor dispersion of carbon nanotubes in solvents and in polymer matrices. We have developed a method to homogenously disperse carbon nanotubes in polymer matrices using functionalized nanotubes [2]. Thin films of functionalized single walled nanotubes (SWNT) - polystyrene composites and functionalized SWNT - polycarbonate composites were prepared using solution evaporation and spin coating. Both of the composites show several orders of magnitude increase in conductivity for less than 1 wt thresholds of the composites are less than 0.2 wt nanotubes. We attribute the enhanced conduction to the superior dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes in the polymer matrix and to the reduced nanotube waviness resulting from the rigid backbone of the conjugated polymer. References: [1]. R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov and W. A. de Heer, Science v297, p787 (2002); [2]. J. Chen, H. Liu, W. A. Weimer, M. D. Halls, D. H. Waldeck and G. C. Walker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. v124, p9034 (2002).

  3. Watching Nanotubes Grow: In situ Photography of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Growth During CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geohegan, David B.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jesse, Stephen; Eres, Gyula

    2004-03-01

    In situ photography of growing vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays has been performed using remote microscopy within a conventional CVD tube furnace reactor. Time-lapse photography permits growth kinetics measurements over long times and growth to long lengths, a technique which is complementary to recently developed in situ time resolved reflectometry (which provides similar information for the first ten microns of growth). Here we report kinetics measurements and newly-discovered phenomena during the growth longer nanotube arrays (up to 4 millimeters). Vertically-aligned arrays of multiwall carbon nanotubes were grown on silicon wafers coated with metal catalyst films using gas acetylene mixtures. For example, the measurements reveal that these nanotube arrays display a cooperative growth mode and that growth sometimes terminates and spontaneously restarts. Most importantly, the technique enables in situ adjustment of the standard processing parameters and the results of exploratory treatments intended to prolong or reinitiate growth of nanotubes to long lengths - an essential milestone for energy management and and multifunctional composite applications. This research was sponsored by DARPA and the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC.

  4. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, S; Al-Marzouki, F.; Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi; Abdel-Daiem, A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc....

  5. Bio-inspired hierarchical polymer fiber-carbon nanotube adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zhuxia; Zhou, Yanmin; Chen, Bingan; Robertson, John; Federle, Walter; Hofmann, Stephan; Steiner, Ullrich; Goldberg-Oppenheimer, Pola

    2014-03-01

    Hierarchical pillar arrays consisting of micrometer-sized polymer setae covered by carbon nanotubes are engineered to deliver the role of spatulae, mimicking the fibrillar adhesive surfaces of geckos. These biomimetic structures conform well and achieve better attachment to rough surfaces, providing a new platform for a variety of applications.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsuk Mukhopadhyay

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists world wide. The small dimensions,strength, and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review, the structural aspects, the advantages and disadvantages of different for their procedures synthesis, the qualitative and quantitative estimation of carbon nanotubes by different analytical techniques, the present status on their applications as well as the current challenges faced in the application field, national, in particular DRDO, DMSRDE status, and interest in this field, have been discussed.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4, pp.437-450, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1666

  7. Ballistic Fracturing of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Sehmus; Machado, Leonardo D; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Autreto, Pedro A S; Vajtai, Robert; Barrera, Enrique V; Galvao, Douglas S; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-09-21

    Advanced materials with multifunctional capabilities and high resistance to hypervelocity impact are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their lightweight and high strength properties are alternative to metals and/or metallic alloys conventionally used in aerospace applications. Here we report a detailed study on the ballistic fracturing of CNTs for different velocity ranges. Our results show that the highly energetic impacts cause bond breakage and carbon atom rehybridizations, and sometimes extensive structural reconstructions were also observed. Experimental observations show the formation of nanoribbons, nanodiamonds, and covalently interconnected nanostructures, depending on impact conditions. Fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out in order to gain further insights into the mechanism behind the transformation of CNTs. The simulations show that the velocity and relative orientation of the multiple colliding nanotubes are critical to determine the impact outcome.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Amperometric Chips with Pneumatic Micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Yuichi; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Chikae, Miyuki; Torai, Soichiro; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-04-01

    We fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) amperometric chips with pneumatic micropumps by the combination of amperometric biosensors based on CNT-arrayed electrodes and microchannels with pneumatic micropumps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane). On the chip, phosphate buffer solution and potassium ferricyanide, K3[Fe(CN)6], were introduced into the CNT electrodes using each pneumatic micropump and electrochemically measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that our chip can automatically exchange reagents on the CNT electrodes and clearly detect molecules. Moreover, by modifying the CNT electrodes with enzyme glucose oxidase, glucose molecules could be detected using our chips by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. We conclude that microfluidic chips with CNT-arrayed electrodes are a promising candidate for the development of hand-held electrochemical biosensors.

  9. Photoluminescence Study of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, H. X.; Li, G. H.; Ge, W. K.; Wang, Z. P.; Xu, Z. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Chang, B H; Sun, L. F.; Wang, B S; G. Xu; Su, Z.B.

    2000-01-01

    ultiwalled carbon nanotubes, prepared by both electric arc discharge and chemical vapor deposition methods, show a strong visible light emission in photoluminescence experiments. All the samples employed in the experiments exhibit nearly same super-linear intensity dependence of the emission bands on the excitation intensity, and negligible temperature dependence of the central position and the line shapes of the emission bands. Based upon theoretical analysis of the electronic band structure...

  10. Photonics based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Qingyuan; Gicquel-Guézo, Maud; Loualiche, Slimane; Pouliquen, Julie Le; Batte, Thomas; Folliot, Hervé; Dehaese, Olivier; Grillot, Frederic; Battie, Yann; Loiseau, Annick; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Among direct-bandgap semiconducting nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit strong quasi-one-dimensional excitonic optical properties, which confer them a great potential for their integration in future photonics devices as an alternative solution to conventional inorganic semiconductors. In this paper, we will highlight SWCNT optical properties for passive as well as active applications in future optical networking. For passive applications, we directly compare the effi...

  11. OPPORTUNITIES OF BIOMEDICAL USE OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Mitrofanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials  –  materials,  whouse  structure  elements  has  proportions  doesn’t  exceed  100  nm.  In superdispersed state matter acquire new properties. In the last decade, carbon nanotubes become the most popular nanomaterials, that cause attention of representatives of various scientific field. The сarbon nanotubes offer new opportunities for biological and medical applications: imaging at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels, biosensors and electrodes based on carbon nanotubes, target delivery of various substances, radiation and photothermal therapy. The most promising of carbon nanotubes in the context of biomedical applications is their ability to penetrate the various tissues of the body and carry large doses of agents, providing diagnostic and therapeutic effects. Functionalized nanotubes are biodegradable. Other current direction of using carbon nanotubes in medicine and biology is to visualize objects on the molecular, cellular and tissue level. Associated with carbon nanotubes contrasting substances improve the visualization of cells and tissues, which can detected new patterns of development of the pathological process. Due to the vagueness of the question of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes possibility of their practical application is hampered. Before the introduction of carbon nanotubes into practical health care is necessary to provide all the possible consequences of using nanotubes. High rates of properties and development of new nanostructures based on carbon nanotubes in the near future will lead to new advances related to the application and development of new parameters that will determine their properties and effects. In these review attention is paid to the structure, physico-chemical properties of nanotubes, their functionalization, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and all aspects of using of carbon nanotubes.

  12. LDRD final report on carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, P.A.; Rand, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes and their composites were examined using computational and experimental techniques in order to modify the mechanical and electrical properties of resins. Single walled nanotubes were the focus of the first year effort; however, sufficient quantities of high purity single walled nanotubes could not be obtained for mechanical property investigations. The unusually high electrical conductivity of composites loaded with <1% of multiwalled nanotubes is useful, and is the focus of continuing, externally funded, research.

  13. TiO2 nanotube arrays and TiO2-nanotube-array based dye-sensitized solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YanBiao; ZHOU BaoXue; XIONG BiTao; BAI Jing; LI LongHai

    2007-01-01

    To substitute the non-regular nano-crystalline semiconductor for a novel kind of ordered microstructure is a very important aspect in the domain of dye-sensitized solar cell.One of the researching hotspots is the highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube architecture.As a new type of titania nano-material,titania nanotube arrays have drawn extraordinary attention due to its distinctive morphology,notable photoelectrical and hydro-sensitive performance.At 100% sun the new kind of TiO2 nanotube arrays solar cell exhibits an overall conversion efficiency of 5.44%.This paper introduces the preparation methods of titania nanotube arrays,the existing problems and recent progress in titania nanotube arrays solar cell.

  14. Advanced Physical Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Pandey, Gaind P.

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of exciting research and applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) stimulated by deeper understanding of their fundamental properties and increasing production capability. The intrinsic properties of various CNTs were found to strongly depend on their internal microstructures. This review summarizes the fundamental structure-property relations of seamless tube-like single- and multiwalled CNTs and conically stacked carbon nanofibers, as well as the organized architectures of these CNTs (including randomly stacked thin films, parallel aligned thin films, and vertically aligned arrays). It highlights the recent development of CNTs as key components in selected applications, including nanoelectronics, filtration membranes, transparent conductive electrodes, fuel cells, electrical energy storage devices, and solar cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the link between the basic physical chemical properties of CNTs and the organized CNT architectures with their functions and performance in each application.

  15. Spectroscopy of Individual Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and their Synthesis via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kiowski, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor was designed, built and used to grow vertically and horizontally aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The as-grown nanotubes were investigated on a single tube level using nearinfrared photoluminescence (PL) microscopy as well as Raman, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy of individual, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), a specialized PL set-up was constructed.

  16. Dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotube devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria

    The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane....... The electrical resistance of carbon nanotubes has been shown to be extremely sensitive to gas molecules. Dielectrophoresis is a method capable of quickly attracting nanotubes on microelectrodes by using an electric field, thus enabling nanotube integration in microsystems. Dielectrophoresis offers also...... the potential of distinguishing between nanotubes of different electrical properties, which is very important for the optimisation of the properties of the carbon nanotube sensors. Various cantilever and planar structures were designed, fabricated and tested both with multi-walled and single-walled carbon...

  17. Study of Carbon Nanotube-Substrate Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline S. Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental effects are very important in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This work reviews the importance of the substrate in single-wall carbon nanotube properties. Contact with a substrate can modify the nanotube properties, and such interactions have been broadly studied as either a negative aspect or a solution for developing carbon nanotube-based nanotechnologies. This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental studies where the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the substrate affects the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of the tubes.

  18. CARBON NANOTUBES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, John, E.

    2009-07-24

    Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as a minority byproduct of fullerene synthesis. Remarkable progress has been made in the ensuing years, including the discovery of two basic types of nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall), great strides in synthesis and purification, elucidation of many fundamental physical properties, and important steps towards practical applications. Both the underlying science and technological potential of SWNT can profitably be studied at the scale of individual tubes and on macroscopic assemblies such as fibers. Experiments on single tubes directly reveal many of the predicted quantum confinement and mechanical properties. Semiconductor nanowires have many features in common with nanotubes, and many of the same fundamental and practical issues are in play – quantum confinement and its effect on properties; possible device structures and circuit architectures; thermal management; optimal synthesis, defect morphology and control, etc. In 2000 we began a small effort in this direction, conducted entirely by undergraduates with minimal consumables support from this grant. With DOE-BES approval, this grew into a project in parallel with the carbon nanotube work, in which we studied of inorganic semiconductor nanowire growth, characterization and novel strategies for electronic and electromechanical device fabrication. From the beginnings of research on carbon nanotubes, one of the major applications envisioned was hydrogen storage for fuel-cell powered cars and trucks. Subsequent theoretical models gave mixed results, the most pessimistic indicating that the fundamental H2-SWNT interaction was similar to flat graphite (physisorption) with only modest binding energies implying cryogenic operation at best. New material families with encouraging measured properties have emerged, and materials modeling has gained enormously in predictive power, sophistication, and the ability to treat a realistically representative number of atoms. One of

  19. A Tunable Carbon Nanotube Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Vera

    2005-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) hold promise for a number of scientific and technological applications. Carbon nanotubes (NT) are perhaps the ultimate material for realizing a NEMS device as they are the stiffest material known, have low density, ultrasmall cross sections and can be defect-free. Equally important, a nanotube can act as a transistor and thus is able to sense its own motion. Here, we report the electrical actuation and detection of the guitar-string oscillation modes of doubly-clamped NT oscillators. We observed resonance frequencies in the 5MHz to 150MHz range with quality factors in the 50 to 100 range. We showed that the resonance frequencies can be widely tuned by a gate voltage. We also report on the temperature dependence of the quality factor and present a discussion of possible loss mechanisms.

  20. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  2. Functional Materials based on Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Adrian Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, no matter if they are single-walled or multi-walled, are an integral component in the vastly growing field of nanotechnology. Since their discovery by TEM and the invention of numerous large-scale production techniques, nanotubes are close to making their way into industrial products. Although many properties and modification processes are still under intensive research, the first real-market applications for carbon nanotubes have already been presented. However, if function...

  3. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    CERN Document Server

    Karachevtsev, V A; Zarudnev, E S; Karachevtsev, M V; Leontiev, V S; Linnik, A S; Lytvyn, O S; Plokhotnichenko, A M; Stepanian, S G

    2012-01-01

    When elaborating the biosensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), it is necessary to solve such an important problem as the immobilization of a target biomolecule on the nanotube surface. In this work, the enzyme (glucose oxidase (GOX)) was immobilized on the surface of a nanotube network, which was created by the deposition of nanotubes from their solution in 1,2-dichlorobenzene by the spray method. 1-Pyrenebutanoic acid succinimide ester (PSE) was used to form the molecular interface, the bifunctional molecule of which provides the covalent binding with the enzyme shell, and its other part (pyrene) is adsorbed onto the nanotube surface. First, the usage of such a molecular interface leaves out the direct adsorption of the enzyme (in this case, its activity decreases) onto the nanotube surface, and, second, it ensures the enzyme localization near the nanotube. The comparison of the resonance Raman (RR) spectrum of pristine nanotubes with their spectrum in the PSE environment evidences the creat...

  4. Effect of Source, Surfactant, and Deposition Process on Electronic Properties of Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of arrays of carbon nanotubes from several different sources differing in the manufacturing process used with a variety of average properties such as length, diameter, and chirality are studied. We used several common surfactants to disperse each of these nanotubes and then deposited them on Si wafers from their aqueous solutions using dielectrophoresis. Transport measurements were performed to compare and determine the effect of different surfactants, deposition processes, and synthesis processes on nanotubes synthesized using CVD, CoMoCAT, laser ablation, and HiPCO.

  5. Carbon nanotube based NEMS actuators and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Michael; Poler, Jordan

    2011-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been widely studied due to superior mechanical and electrical properties. We have grown vertically aligned SWNTs (VA-SWNTs) onto microcantilever (MC) arrays, which provides an architecture for novel actuators and sensors. Raman spectroscopy confirms that the CVD-grown nanotubes are SWNTs and SEM confirms aligned growth. As an actuator, this hybrid MC/VA-SWNT system can be electrostatically modulated. SWNTs are excellent electron acceptors, so we can charge up the VA-SWNT array by applying a voltage. The electrostatic repulsion among the charged SWNTs provides a surface stress that induces MC deflection. Simulation results show that a few electrons per SWNT are needed for measureable deflections, and experimental actuators are being characterized by SEM, Raman, and an AFM optical lever system. The applied voltage is sinusoidally modulated, and deflection is measured with a lock-in amplifier. These actuators could be used for nano-manipulation, release of drugs from a capsule, or nano-valves. As a sensor, this MC/VA-SWNT system offers an improved sensitivity for chemical and bio-sensing compared to surface functionalized MC-based sensors. Those sensors only have a 2D sensing surface, but a MC/VA-SWNT system has significantly more sensing surface because the VA-SWNTs extend microns off the MC surface.

  6. Polymer Self-assembly on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianini, Michele; Motta, Nunzio

    This chapter analyses the poly(3-hexylthiophene) self-assembly on carbon nanotubes and the interaction between the two materials forming a new hybrid nanostructure. The chapter starts with a review of the several studies investigating polymers and biomolecules self-assembled on nanotubes. Then conducting polymers and polythiophenes are briefly introduced. Accordingly, carbon nanotube structure and properties are reported in Sect. 3. The experimental section starts with the bulk characterisation of polymer thin films with the inclusion of uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes. By using volume film analysis techniques (AFM, TEM, UV-Vis and Raman), we show how the polymer's higher degree of order is a direct consequence of interaction with carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, it is through the use of nanoscale analysis and molecular dynamic simulations that the self-assembly of the polymer on the nanotube surface can be clearly evidenced and characterised. In Sect. 6, the effect of the carbon templating structure on the P3HT organisation on the surface is investigated, showing the chirality-driven polymer assembly on the carbon nanotube surface. The interaction between P3HT and CNTs brings also to charge transfer, with the modification of physical properties for both species. In particular, the alteration of the polymer electronic properties and the modification of the nanotube mechanical structure are a direct consequence of the P3HT π-π stacking on the nanotube surface. Finally, some considerations based on molecular dynamics studies are reported in order to confirm and support the experimental results discussed.

  7. Suspended carbon nanotubes coupled to superconducting circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are unique candidates to study quantum mechanical properties of a nanomechanical resonator. However to access this quantum regime, present detectors are not yet sensitive enough. In this thesis we couple a carbon nanotube CNT mechanical resonator to a superconducting circuit which i

  8. Light Emission in Silicon from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaufrès, Etienne; Noury, Adrien; Roux, Xavier Le; Rasigade, Gilles; Beck, Alexandre; Vivien, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The use of optics in microelectronic circuits to overcome the limitation of metallic interconnects is more and more considered as a viable solution. Among future silicon compatible materials, carbon nanotubes are promising candidates thanks to their ability to emit, modulate and detect light in the wavelength range of silicon transparency. We report the first integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon waveguides, successfully coupling their emission and absorption properties. A complete study of this coupling between carbon nanotubes and silicon waveguides was carried out, which led to the demonstration of the temperature-independent emission from carbon nanotubes in silicon at a wavelength of 1.3 {\\mu}m. This represents the first milestone in the development of photonics based on carbon nanotubes on silicon.

  9. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2.xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2.xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75%. In addition, supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  10. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁志; 魏秉庆; 徐才录; 梁吉; 吴德海

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2 ·xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2· xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75% . In addition , supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  11. Computational Aspects of Carbon and Boron Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hexagonal nanotubes, boron triangular nanotubes and boron a-nanotubes are a few popular nano structures. Computational researchers look at these structures as graphs where each atom is a node and an atomic bond is an edge. While researchers are discussing the differences among the three nanotubes, we identify the topological and structural similarities among them. We show that the three nanotubes have the same maximum independent set and their matching ratios are independent of the number of columns. In addition, we illustrate that they also have similar underlying broadcasting spanning tree and identical communication behavior.

  12. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms...... an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From...... the calculated energies we determine the elastic properties of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (Young modulus, curvature constant) and perform a comparison with available experimental measurements and earlier theoretical predictions....

  13. Carbon Nanotubes as Resonators for RF Spectrum Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian; Noca, Flavio; Hoenk, Michael

    2003-01-01

    a microwave power device. Instead, this carbon nanotube mechanical resonator would be useful primarily as part of a highly precise, sensitive, frequency-selective detector. An array of such devices featuring nanotubes of different lengths (and thus different frequencies) could be made to operate as a highspeed spectrum analyzer (see Figure 2)

  14. Growing carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Ando

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of ‘fullerenes’ added a new dimension to the knowledge of carbon science1; and the subsequent discovery of ‘carbon nanotubes’ (CNTs, the elongated fullerene added a new dimension to the knowledge of technology2;. Today, ‘nanotechnology’ is a hot topic attracting scientists, industrialists, journalists, governments, and even the general public. Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on the nanometer scale and the exploitation of novel phenomena and properties of matter (physical, chemical, biological, electrical, etc. at that length scale. CNTs are supposed to be a key component of nanotechnology. Almost every week a new potential application of CNTs is identified, stimulating scientists to peep into this tiny tube with ever increasing curiosity.

  15. Carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuhong

    The interface between carbon fibers (CFs) and the resin matrix in traditional high performance composites is characterized by a large discontinuity in mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties which can cause inefficient energy transfer. Due to the exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their growth at the surface of carbon fibers is a promising approach to controlling interfacial interactions and achieving the enhanced bulk properties. However, the reactive conditions used to grow carbon nanotubes also have the potential to introduce defects that can degrade the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber (CF) substrate. In this study, using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, high density multi-wall carbon nanotubes have been successfully synthesized directly on PAN-based CF surface without significantly compromising tensile properties. The influence of CVD growth conditions on the single CF tensile properties and carbon nanotube (CNT) morphology was investigated. The experimental results revealed that under high temperature growth conditions, the tensile strength of CF was greatly decreased at the beginning of CNT growth process with the largest decrease observed for sized CFs. However, the tensile strength of unsized CFs with CNT was approximately the same as the initial CF at lower growth temperature. The interfacial shear strength of CNT coated CF (CNT/CF) in epoxy was studied by means of the single-fiber fragmentation test. Results of the test indicate an improvement in interfacial shear strength with the addition of a CNT coating. This improvement can most likely be attributed to an increase in the interphase yield strength as well as an improvement in interfacial adhesion due to the presence of the nanotubes. CNT/CF also offers promise as stress and strain sensors in CF reinforced composite materials. This study investigates fundamental mechanical and electrical properties of CNT/CF using nanoindentation method by designed

  16. Improved synthesis of carbon nanotubes with junctions and of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F L Deepak; A Govindaraj; C N R Rao

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of thiophene over nickel nanoparticles dispersed on silica is shown to yield Yjunction carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters than those obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallicthiophene mixtures. In the presence of water vapour, the pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures yields single-walled nanotubes, as well as relatively narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes with Y-junctions. Pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures, in the absence of water vapour, only gives nanotubes with T- and Y-junctions.

  17. Carbon nanotubes field effect transistors biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Marco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube transistor arrays (CNTFETs wereused as biosensors to detect DNA hybridization andto recognize two anabolic steroids, stanozolol (Stzand methylboldenone (MB. Single strand DNA andantibodies specific for STz and MB were immobilizedon the carbon nanotubes (CNTs in situ in the deviceusing two different approaches: direct noncovalentbonding of antibodies to the devices and covalentlytrough a polymer previously attached to theCNTFETs. A new approach to ensure specificadsorption of the biomolecules to the nanotubeswas developed. The polymer poly(methylmethacrylate0.8-co-poly (ethyleneglycolmethacrylate0.8-co-N-succinimidyl methacrylate0.1was synthesized and bonded noncovalently to thenanotube. Aminated single-strand DNA or antibodiesspecific for Stz and MB were then attached covalentlyto the polymer. Statistically significant changes wereobserved in key transistor parameters for both DNAhybridization and steroids recognition. Regardingthe detection mechanism, in addition to chargetransfer, Schottky barrier, SB, modification, andscattering potential reported by other authors, anelectron/hole trapping mechanism leading tohysteresis modification has been determined. Thepresence of polymer seems to hinder the modulationof the electrode-CNT contact.

  18. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Highly Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes from Polymer Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Y. Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a facile one-step approach which involves no flammable gas, no catalyst, and no in situ polymerization for the preparation of well-aligned carbon nanotube array. A polymer precursor is placed on top of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO membrane containing regular nanopore arrays, and slow heating under Ar flow allows the molten polymer to wet the template through adhesive force. The polymer spread into the nanopores of the template to form polymer nanotubes. Upon carbonization the resulting multi-walled carbon nanotubes duplicate the nanopores morphology precisely. The process is demonstrated for 230, 50, and 20 nm pore membranes. The synthesized carbon nanotubes are characterized with scanning/transmission electron microscopies, Raman spectroscopy, and resistive measurements. Convenient functionalization of the nanotubes with this method is demonstrated through premixing CoPt nanoparticles in the polymer precursors.

  20. Fabrication of Microscale Carbon Nanotube Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengzhi Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have excellent mechanical, chemical, and electronic properties, but realizing these excellences in practical applications needs to assemble individual CNTs into larger-scale products. Recently, CNT fibers demonstrate the potential of retaining CNT's superior properties at macroscale level. High-performance CNT fibers have been widely obtained by several fabrication approaches. Here in this paper, we review several key spinning techniques including surfactant-based coagulation spinning, liquid-crystal-based solution spinning, spinning from vertical-aligned CNT arrays, and spinning from CNT aerogel. The method, principle, limitations, and recent progress of each technique have been addressed, and the fiber properties and their dependences on spinning parameters are also discussed.

  1. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  2. Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels;

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties...... of nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....

  3. Ballasted and electrically steerable carbon nanotube field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M. T.; Li, C.; Qu, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B.; Pribat, D.; Milne, W. I.

    2012-09-01

    Here we present our on-going efforts toward the development of stable ballasted carbon nanotube-based field emitters employing hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowires and thin film silicon-on-insulator substrates. The semiconducting channel in each controllably limits the emission current thereby preventing detrimental burn-out of individual emitters that occurs due to unavoidable statistical variability in emitter characteristics, particularly in their length. Fabrication details and emitter characterization are discussed in addition to their field emission performance. The development of a beam steerable triode electron emitter formed from hexagonal carbon nanotube arrays with central focusing nanotube electrodes, is also described. Numerical ab-initio simulations are presented to account for the empirical emission characteristics. Our engineered ballasted emitters have shown some of the lowest reported lifetime variations (sources.

  4. Ordered phases of cesium in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung; Song, Ki Oh; Choi, Won Young; Byun, Ki Ryang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Woo [Juseong College, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    We investigate the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes by using a structural optimization process applied to an atomistic simulation method. As the radius of the carbon nanotubes is increased, the structures are found in various phases from an atomic strand to multishell packs composed of coaxial cylindrical shells. Both helical structures and layered structures are found. The numbers of helical atom rows composed of coaxial tubes and the orthogonal vectors of the circular rolling of a triangular network can explain the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes.

  5. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  6. Microcapsule carbon nanotube devices for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulamarva, Arun; Raja, Pavan M. V.; Bhathena, Jasmine; Chen, Hongmei; Talapatra, Saikat; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Prakash, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a new class of nanomaterials that have immense potential in the field of biomedicine. Their ability to carry large quantities of therapeutic molecules makes them prime candidates for providing targeted delivery of therapeutics for use in various diseases. However, their utility is limited due to the problems faced during their delivery to target sites. This article for the first time describes the design of a novel microcapsule carbon nanotube targeted delivery device. This device has potential in the targeted delivery of carbon nanotubes in suitable membranes along with their cargo, safely and effectively to the target loci.

  7. Defect-Free Carbon Nanotube Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmi, Nitzan; Kremen, Anna; Frenkel, Yiftach; Lapin, Zachary J; Machado, Leonardo D; Legoas, Sergio B; Bitton, Ora; Rechav, Katya; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Galvão, Douglas S; Jorio, Ado; Novotny, Lukas; Kalisky, Beena; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotubes are promising building blocks for various nanoelectronic components. A highly desirable geometry for such applications is a coil. However, coiled nanotube structures reported so far were inherently defective or had no free ends accessible for contacting. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous self-coiling of single-wall carbon nanotubes into defect-free coils of up to more than 70 turns with identical diameter and chirality, and free ends. We characterize the structure, formation mechanism, and electrical properties of these coils by different microscopies, molecular dynamics simulations, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical and magnetic measurements. The coils are highly conductive, as expected for defect-free carbon nanotubes, but adjacent nanotube segments in the coil are more highly coupled than in regular bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes, owing to their perfect crystal momentum matching, which enables tunneling between the turns. Although this behavior does not yet enable the performance of these nanotube coils as inductive devices, it does point a clear path for their realization. Hence, this study represents a major step toward the production of many different nanotube coil devices, including inductors, electromagnets, transformers, and dynamos. PMID:26708150

  8. Methods for preparation of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakov, Eduard G [D.I. Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-31

    The most important methods of synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes, a new form of material, are described. The prospects for increasing the scale of preparation processes and for more extensive application of nanotubes are evaluated. The bibliography includes 282 references.

  9. Charge Screening Effect in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K

    2001-01-01

    Charge screening effect in metallic carbon nanotubes is investigated in a model including the one-dimensional long-range Coulomb interaction. It is pointed out that an external charge which is being fixed spatially is screened by internal electrons so that the resulting object becomes electrically neutral. We found that the screening length is given by about the diameter of a nanotube.

  10. Carbon Nanotubes for Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Files, Brad; Yowell, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes offer the promise of a new class of revolutionary materials for space applications. The Carbon Nanotube Project at NASA Johnson Space Center has been actively researching this new technology by investigating nanotube production methods (arc, laser, and HiPCO) and gaining a comprehensive understanding of raw and purified material using a wide range of characterization techniques. After production and purification, single wall carbon nanotubes are processed into composites for the enhancement of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. This "cradle-to-grave" approach to nanotube composites has given our team unique insights into the impact of post-production processing and dispersion on the resulting material properties. We are applying our experience and lessons-learned to developing new approaches toward nanotube material characterization, structural composite fabrication, and are also making advances in developing thermal management materials and electrically conductive materials in various polymer-nanotube systems. Some initial work has also been conducted with the goal of using carbon nanotubes in the creation of new ceramic materials for high temperature applications in thermal protection systems. Human space flight applications such as advanced life support and fuel cell technologies are also being investigated. This discussion will focus on the variety of applications under investigation.

  11. The electrical conduction variation in stained carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Jye; Wei Fan, Jun; Lin, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes become stained from coupling with foreign molecules, especially from adsorbing gas molecules. The charge exchange, which is due to the orbital hybridization, occurred in the stained carbon nanotube induces electrical dipoles that consequently vary the electrical conduction of the nanotube. We propose a microscopic model to evaluate the electrical current variation produced by the induced electrical dipoles in a stained zigzag carbon nanotube. It is found that stronger orbital hybridization strengths and larger orbital energy differences between the carbon nanotube and the gas molecules help increasing the induced electrical dipole moment. Compared with the stain-free carbon nanotube, the induced electrical dipoles suppress the current in the nanotube. In the carbon nanotubes with induced dipoles the current increases as a result of increasing orbital energy dispersion via stronger hybridization couplings. In particular, at a fixed hybridization coupling, the current increases with the bond length for the donor-carbon nanotube but reversely for the acceptor-carbon nanotube.

  12. Covalent enzyme immobilization onto carbon nanotubes using a membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Gales, Ovidiu; Nechifor, Gheorghe

    2011-05-01

    Composite porous polysulfone-carbon nanotubes membranes were prepared by dispersing carbon nanotubes into a polysulfone solution followed by the membrane formation by phase inversion-immersion precipitation technique. The carbon nanotubes with amino groups on surface were functionalized with different enzymes (carbonic anhydrase, invertase, diastase) using cyanuric chloride as linker between enzyme and carbon nanotube. The composite membrane was used as a membrane reactor for a better dispersion of carbon nanotubes and access to reaction centers. The membrane also facilitates the transport of enzymes to active carbon nanotubes centers for functionalization (amino groups). The functionalized carbon nanotubes are isolated by dissolving the membranes after the end of reaction. Carbon nanotubes with covalent immobilized enzymes are used for biosensors fabrications. The obtained membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and functionalized carbon nanotubes were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  13. Coulomb drag in multiwall armchair carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, A.M.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the transresistivity rho(21) between two concentric armchair nanotubes in a diffusive multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F). We approximate the tight-binding band structure by two crossing bands with a linear dispersion near the Fermi...... surface. The cylindrical geometry of the nanotubes and the different parities of the Bloch states are accounted for in the evaluation of the effective Coulomb interaction between charges in the concentric nanotubes. We find a broad peak in rho(21) as a function of temperature at roughly T similar to 0.4T...

  14. Microfabricated electroactive carbon nanotube actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Arti; Baughman, Ray H.; De Rossi, Danilo; Mazzoldi, Alberto; Tesconi, Mario; Tognetti, Alessandro; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2001-07-01

    A variety of microfabrication techniques have been developed at the University of Pisa. They are based either on pressure or piston actuated microsyringes or modified ink-jet printers. This work present the results of a study aimed at fabricating carbon nanotube (NT) actuators using micro-syringes. In order to prevent the nanotubes from aggregating into clumps, they were enclosed in a partially cross-linked polyvinylalcohol - polyallylamine matrix. After sonication the solution remained homogenously dispersed for about 40 minutes, which was sufficient time for deposition. Small strips of NT, about 5 mm across and 15 mm long were deposited. Following deposition, the films were baked at 80 degree(s)C and their thickness, impedance and mechanical resistance measured. The results indicate that 50 minutes of baking time is sufficient to give a constant resistivity of 1.12 x 10-2 (Omega) m per layer similar to a typical semiconductor, and each layer has a thickness of about 6 micrometers .

  15. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Composites: Strongest Engineering Material Ever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Nikolaev, Pavel; Proft, William; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of the carbon nanotube project at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to fabricate structural materials with a much higher strength-to-weight ratio than any engineered material today, Single-wall nanotubes present extraordinary mechanical properties along with new challenges for materials processing. Our project includes nanotube production, characterization, purification, and incorporation into applications studies. Now is the time to move from studying individual nanotubes to applications work. Current research at JSC focuses on structural polymeric materials to attempt to lower the weight of spacecraft necessary for interplanetary missions. These nanoscale fibers present unique new challenges to composites engineers. Preliminary studies show good nanotube dispersion and wetting by the epoxy materials. Results of tensile strength tests will also be reported. Other applications of nanotubes are also of interest for energy storage, gas storage, nanoelectronics, field emission, and biomedical uses.

  17. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L.; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J. Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Ulmert, Hans David S.; Brea, Elliott J.; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans.

  18. Carbon nanotubes – becoming clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Grobert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are now well into their teenage years. Early on, theoretical predictions and experimental data showed that CNTs possess chemical and mechanical properties that exceed those of many other materials. This has triggered intense research into CNTs. A variety of production methods for CNTs have been developed; chemical modification, functionalization, filling, and doping have been achieved; and manipulation, separation, and characterization of individual CNTs is now possible. Today, products containing CNTs range from tennis rackets and golf clubs to vehicle fenders, X-ray tubes, and Li ion batteries. Breakthroughs for CNT-based technologies are anticipated in the areas of nanoelectronics, biotechnology, and materials science. In this article, I review the current situation in CNT production and highlight the importance of clean CNT material for the success of future applications.

  19. "Drawing with nanotubes": creating nanowires with complex geometries by pulsed electrodeposition on self-organized carbon nanotube patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, Tohar S; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2010-11-10

    We present a new approach for the creation of nanowires with well-defined complex geometries by electrodeposition onto self-organized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The concept is demonstrated by generation of continuous Au nanowires with various geometries, including parallel arrays, serpentines, and coils. The generality of this approach is further illustrated by synthesizing Bi(2)Te(3) nanowires. Our concept of "drawing with nanotubes" offers to combine different material properties with complex geometries on the route to new functional nanosystems.

  20. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electrodes for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Meyyappan, M.

    2008-01-01

    A nanotube array based on vertically aligned nanotubes or carbon nanofibers has been invented for use in localized electrical stimulation and recording of electrical responses in selected regions of an animal body, especially including the brain. There are numerous established, emerging, and potential applications for localized electrical stimulation and/or recording, including treatment of Parkinson s disease, Tourette s syndrome, and chronic pain, and research on electrochemical effects involved in neurotransmission. Carbon-nanotube-based electrodes offer potential advantages over metal macroelectrodes (having diameters of the order of a millimeter) and microelectrodes (having various diameters ranging down to tens of microns) heretofore used in such applications. These advantages include the following: a) Stimuli and responses could be localized at finer scales of spatial and temporal resolution, which is at subcellular level, with fewer disturbances to, and less interference from, adjacent regions. b) There would be less risk of hemorrhage on implantation because nano-electrode-based probe tips could be configured to be less traumatic. c) Being more biocompatible than are metal electrodes, carbon-nanotube-based electrodes and arrays would be more suitable for long-term or permanent implantation. d) Unlike macro- and microelectrodes, a nano-electrode could penetrate a cell membrane with minimal disruption. Thus, for example, a nanoelectrode could be used to generate an action potential inside a neuron or in proximity of an active neuron zone. Such stimulation may be much more effective than is extra- or intracellular stimulation via a macro- or microelectrode. e) The large surface area of an array at a micron-scale footprint of non-insulated nanoelectrodes coated with a suitable electrochemically active material containing redox ingredients would make it possible to obtain a pseudocapacitance large enough to dissipate a relatively large amount of electric charge

  1. Piezoresistive Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotube Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jian-wei; WANG Wan-lu; LIAO Ke-jun; WANG Yong-tian; LIU CHang-lin; Zeng Qing-gao

    2005-01-01

    Piezoresistive effect of carbon nanotube films was investigated by a three-point bending test.Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition.The experimental results showed that the carbon nanotubes have a striking piezoresistive effect.The relative resistance was changed from 0 to 10.5×10-2 and 3.25×10-2 for doped and undoped films respectively at room temperature when the microstrain under stress from 0 to 500. The gauge factors for doped and undoped carbon nanotube films under 500 microstrain were about 220 and 67 at room temperature, respectively, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃.The origin of the resistance changes in the films may be attributed to a strain-induced change in the band gap for the doped tubes and the defects for the undoped tubes.

  2. Self Assembled Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to develop single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) based ultracapacitors for energy storage devices (ESD) application, using...

  3. A Thermal Model for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Mayberry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied Joule heating in carbon nanotube based very large scale integration (VLSI interconnects and incorporated Joule heating influenced scattering in our previously developed current transport model. The theoretical model explains breakdown in carbon nanotube resistance which limits the current density. We have also studied scattering parameters of carbon nanotube (CNT interconnects and compared with the earlier work. For 1 µm length single-wall carbon nanotube, 3 dB frequency in S12 parameter reduces to ~120 GHz from 1 THz considering Joule heating. It has been found that bias voltage has little effect on scattering parameters, while length has very strong effect on scattering parameters.

  4. Carbon nanotube polymer composition and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen; Kerr, John B.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2011-06-14

    A thin film device and compound having an anode, a cathode, and at least one light emitting layer between the anode and cathode, the at least one light emitting layer having at least one carbon nanotube and a conductive polymer.

  5. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  6. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  7. Growth of ZnO nanotube arrays and nanotube based piezoelectric nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Xi, Yi

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the growth of hexagonal ZnO nanotube arrays using a solution chemical method by varying the growth temperature (<100 °C), time and solution concentration. A piezoelectric nanogenerator using the as-grown ZnO nanotube arrays has been demonstrated for the first time. The nanogenerator gives an output voltage up to 35 mV. The detailed profile of the observed electric output is understood based on the calculated piezoelectric potential in the nanotube with consideration of the Schottky contact formed between the metal tip and the nanotube; and the mechanism agrees with that proposed for nanowire based nanogenerator. Our study shows that ZnO nanotubes can also be used for harvesting mechanical energy. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  9. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  10. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  11. ALUMINUM FOIL REINFORCED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Alekseev; PREDTECHENSKIY M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In our research, the method of manufacturing an Al-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite by hot pressing and cold rolling was attempted. The addition of one percent of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by OCSiAl provides a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength of aluminum. The tensile strength of the obtained composite material is at the tensile strength level of medium-strength aluminum alloys.

  12. Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect-Transistors (FETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    This five page presentation is grouped into 11 numbered viewgraphs, most of which contain one or more diagrams. Some of the diagrams are accompanied by captions, including: 2) Nanotube FET by Delft, IBM; 3) Nanotube FET/Standard MOSFET; 5) Saturation with carrier-carrier; 7) Electronic properties of carbon nanotube; 8) Theoretical nanotube FET characteristics; 11) Summary: Delft and IBM nanotube FET analysis.

  13. Self-Consistent Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipes, R. B.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Hubert, P.; Saether, E.

    2002-12-01

    A set of relationships is developed for selected physical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN) and their hexagonal arrays as a function of nanotube size in terms of the chiral vector integer pair, (n,m). Properties include density, principal Young's modulus, and specific Young's modulus. Relationships between weight fraction and volume fraction of SWCN and their arrays are developed for polymeric mixtures.

  14. ON THE CONTINUUM MODELING OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 黄永刚; Philippe H.Geubelle; 黄克智

    2002-01-01

    We have recently proposed a nanoscale continuum theory for carbonnanotubes. The theory links continuum analysis with atomistic modeling by incor-porating interatomic potentials and atomic structures of carbon nanotubes directlyinto the constitutive law. Here we address two main issues involved in setting upthe nanoscale continuum theory for carbon nanotubes, namely the multi-body in-teratomic potentials and the lack of centrosymmetry in the nanotube structure. Weexplain the key ideas behind these issues in establishing a nanoscale continuum theoryin terms of interatomic potentials and atomic structures.

  15. Improved synthesis of carbon nanotubes with junctions and of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, FL; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, CNR

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of thiophene over nickel nanoparticles dispersed on silica is shown to yield Y-junction carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters than those obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallic-thiophene mixtures. In the presence of water vapour, the pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures yields single-walled nanotubes, as well as relatively narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes with Y-junctions. Pyrolysis-of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures, in the absence of water vapour, only gives ...

  16. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  17. Fast readout of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Harold; Singh, Vibhor; Schneider, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van der Zant, Herre; Steele, Gary

    2013-03-01

    We perform fast readout measurements of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. Using an electronic mixing scheme, we can detect the amplitude of the mechanical motion with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 46 MHz and a timeconstant of 1 us, up to 5 orders of magnitude faster than before. Previous measurements suffered from a low bandwidth due to the combination of the high resistance of the carbon nanotube and a large stray capacitance. We have increased the bandwidth significantly by using a high-impedance, close-proximity HEMT amplifier. The increased bandwidth should allow us to observe the nanotube's thermal motion and its transient response, approaching the regime of real-time detection of the carbon nanotube's mechanical motion.

  18. Manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomanipulation plays an important role in nanofabrication, it is also a technology necessary in exploring the secrets of nanoworld, and it thus beco mesa start point to research future nanomachine. In this study, manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes have been conducted in order to examine whether we can move a nanocomponent from one site to another by using the tip of atomic fo rce microscope (AFM). The technique may also be valuable for providing the const ructive materials of nanofabrication. While exploring the method for manipulatin g and cutting of nanotubes, some new phenomena have been observed during the process. Results show that carbon nanotubes present a feature of deformation combin ing bending and distortion when subjected to large mechanical forces exerted by the tip of AFM. In special cases, long carbon nanotubes can be cut into two part s, by which we can remove the part where crystal lattice is flawed, and therefor e a perfect nanocomponent can be obtained.

  19. Fabrication of nylon-6/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Jia, Z.; Wu, D.; Han, Q.; Meek, T.

    2006-05-01

    A new technique to fabricate nylon-6/carbon nanotube (PA6/CNT) composites is presented. The method involves a pretreatment of carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon and an improved in-situ process for mixing nanotubes with the nylon 6 matrix. A good bond between carbon nanotubes and the nylon-6 matrix is obtained. Mechanical property measurements indicate that the tensile strength of PA6/CNT composites is improved significantly while the toughness and elongation are somewhat compromised. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured tensile specimens reveals cracking initiated at the wrapping of the CNTs PA6 layer/PA6 matrix interface rather than at the PA6/CNT interface.

  20. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  1. Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives using self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoying; Comeras, Jose Miguel M. Lobez; Park, Hongsik; Tang, Jianshi; Afzali, Ali; Tulevski, George S.; Hannon, James B.; Liehr, Michael; Han, Shu-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Information security underpins many aspects of modern society. However, silicon chips are vulnerable to hazards such as counterfeiting, tampering and information leakage through side-channel attacks (for example, by measuring power consumption, timing or electromagnetic radiation). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are a potential replacement for silicon as the channel material of transistors due to their superb electrical properties and intrinsic ultrathin body, but problems such as limited semiconducting purity and non-ideal assembly still need to be addressed before they can deliver high-performance electronics. Here, we show that by using these inherent imperfections, an unclonable electronic random structure can be constructed at low cost from carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are self-assembled into patterned HfO2 trenches using ion-exchange chemistry, and the width of the trench is optimized to maximize the randomness of the nanotube placement. With this approach, two-dimensional (2D) random bit arrays are created that can offer ternary-bit architecture by determining the connection yield and switching type of the nanotube devices. As a result, our cryptographic keys provide a significantly higher level of security than conventional binary-bit architecture with the same key size.

  2. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnen, Sandra; Meißner, Frank; Krug, Mario; Baltz, Thomas; Endler, Ingolf; Mokwa, Wilfried; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe) or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti) acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28) cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue. PMID:27200182

  3. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Johnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28 cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue.

  4. Modeling of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, G.; Kumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet stringent environmental, safety and performance requirements from respective regulatory bodies, various technology-based industries are promoting the use of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced lightweight and high strength polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) as a substitute to conventional materials both in structural and non-structural applications. The superior mechanical properties of PNCs made up of CNTs or bundles of CNTs can be attributed to the interfacial interaction between the CNTs and matrix, CNT's morphologies and to their uniform dispersion in the matrix. In PNCs, CNTs physically bond with polymeric matrix at a level where the assumption of continuum level interactions is not applicable. Modeling and prediction of mechanical response and failure behavior of CNTs and their composites becomes a complex task and is dealt with the help of up-scale modeling strategies involving multiple spatial and temporal scales in hierarchical or concurrent manner. Firstly, the article offers an insight into various modeling techniques in studying the mechanical response of CNTs; namely, equivalent continuum approach, quasi-continuum approach and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In the subsequent steps, these approaches are combined with analytical and numerical micromechanics models in a multiscale framework to predict the average macroscopic response of PNCs. The review also discusses the implementation aspects of these computational approaches, their current status and associated challenges with a future outlook.

  5. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional forms of carbon are composed of sp 2-hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal, honeycomb lattice. The two-dimensional form, called graphene, is a single atomic layer of hexagonally-bonded carbon atoms. The one-dimensional form, known as a carbon nanotube, can be conceptualized as a rectangular piece of graphene wrapped into a seamless, high-aspect-ratio cylinder or tube. This dissertation addresses the physics and applied physics of these one and two-dimensional carbon allotropes in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). First, we give a theoretical background on the electrodynamics and mechanics of carbon nanotube NEMS. We then describe basic experimental techniques, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, that we then use to probe static and dynamic mechanical and electronic behavior of the carbon nanotube NEMS. For example, we observe and control non-linear beam bending and single-electron quantum tunneling effects in carbon nanotube resonators. We then describe parametric amplification, self-oscillation behavior, and dynamic, non-linear effects in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. We also report a novel approach to fabricate carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, and show that they can lead to exceptional lateral resolution enhancement in AFM when imaging both hard and soft (biological) materials. Finally, we describe novel fabrication techniques for large-area, suspended graphene membranes, and utilize these membranes as TEM-transparent, AFM-compatible, NEMS resonators. Laser-driven mechanical vibrations of the graphene resonators are detected by optical interferometry and several vibration harmonics are observed. A degeneracy splitting is observed in the vibrational modes of square-geometry resonators. We then attribute the observed degeneracy splitting to local mass inhomogeneities and membrane defects, and find good overall agreement with the developed theoretical model.

  6. Thermal characterization of carbon nanotube foam using MEMS microhotplates and thermographic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, C.; Riccio, M.; Poelma, R. H.; B. Morana; Vollebregt, S.; Santagata, F.; Irace, A.; Zhang, G Q; Sarro, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal material properties play a fundamental role in the thermal management of microelectronic systems. The porous nature of carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays results in a very high surface area to volume ratio, which makes the material attractive for surface driven heat transfer mechanisms. Here, we report on the heat transfer performance of lithographically defined micropins made of carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofoam, directly grown on microhotplates (MHPs). The MHP is used as an in situ character...

  7. Carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in amphibians: assessment of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and comparison with double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Florence; Landois, Perine; Puech, Pascal; Pinelli, Eric; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gauthier, Laury

    2010-08-01

    The potential impact of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was investigated under normalized laboratory conditions according to the International Standard micronucleus assay ISO 21427-1 for 12 days of half-static exposure to 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/l of MWNTs in water. Three different end points were carried out for 12 days of exposure: mortality, growth inhibition and micronuclei induction in erythrocytes of the circulating blood of larvae. Raman spectroscopy analysis was used to study the presence of carbon nanotubes in the biological samples. Considering the high diversity of carbon nanotubes according to their different characteristics, MWNTs were analyzed in Xenopus larvae, comparatively to double-walled carbon nanotubes used in a previous study in similar conditions. Growth inhibition in larvae exposed to 50 mg/l of MWNTs was evidenced; however, no genetoxicity (micronucleus assay) was noticed, at any concentration. Carbon nanotube localization in the larvae leads to different possible hypothesis of mechanisms explaining toxicity in Xenopus.

  8. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  9. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  10. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  11. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  12. Carbon Nanotube-Based Permeable Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Park, H G; Bakajin, O; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D

    2004-04-06

    A membrane of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for use in studying fluid mechanics on the nanometer scale. Characterization by fluorescent tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is void-free near the silicon substrate on which it rests, implying that the hollow core of the nanotube is the only conduction path for molecular transport. Assuming Knudsen diffusion through this nanotube membrane, a maximum helium transport rate (for a pressure drop of 1 atm) of 0.25 cc/sec is predicted. Helium flow measurements of a nanoporous silicon nitride membrane, fabricated by sacrificial removal of carbon, give a flow rate greater than 1x10{sup -6} cc/sec. For viscous, laminar flow conditions, water is estimated to flow across the nanotube membrane (under a 1 atm pressure drop) at up to 2.8x10{sup -5} cc/sec (1.7 {micro}L/min).

  13. 碳纳米管/硅纳米孔柱阵列的场发射性能%Field Emission Properties of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Silicon Nanoporous Pillar Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜卫粉; 李隆玉; 肖顺华; 杨晓辉; 贾敏; 李新建

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Surface morphologies and microstructure of the resultant were studied by a field emission scanning electron microscope, Raman spectrum, transmission electron microscope, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy. The composition of samples was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that a great deal of CNTs, with diameter in the range of 20-70 nm, incorporated with Si-NPA and a large scale nest array of CNTs/Si-NPA (NACNT/Si-NPA)was formed. EDS analysis showed that the composition of carbon nanotubes was carbon. Field emission measurements showed that a current density of 5 mA/cm2 was obtained at an electric field of 4.26 V/μm, with a turn-on field of 1.3 V/μm. The enhancement factor calculated according to the Fowler-Nordheim theory was ~11,000. This excellent field emission performance is attributed to the unique structure and morphology of NACNT/Si-NPA, especially the formation of a nest-shaped carbon nanotube array. A schematic drawing that illustrates the experimental configuration is given. These results indicate that NACNT/Si-NPA might be an ideal candidate cathode for potential applications in flat panel displays.%通过热化学气相沉积的方法将碳纳米管生长到硅纳米孔柱阵列衬底上.采用场发射扫描电子显微镜、透射电子显微镜、高分辨透射电子显微镜、拉曼光谱和X射线能谱对所制备的样品形貌、组成进行了分析.分析结果发现,所制备产物为一种具有面积大、准周期性的碳纳米管/硅巢状阵列复合结构.能谱分析表明碳纳米管仅含有碳元素.对样品进行场发射性能测试表明该结构开启电压为1.3 V/μm,当外加电压为4.26 V/μm,发射电流为5 mA/cm2.由FN公式计算相应的场增强因子约为1.1×104.碳纳米管/硅纳米孔柱阵列好的场发射性能

  14. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Barna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis.

  15. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Vasi, S.; M. A. Monaca; Donato, M. G.; Bonaccorso, F.; Privitera, G; Trushkevych, O.; G. Calogero; Fazio, B.; Irrera, A.; M.A. Iati'; Saija, R.; Denti, P.; F. Borghese; Jones, P H; Ferrari, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fuctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double ...

  16. Efficiently Dispersing Carbon Nanotubes in Polyphenylene Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Kevin M; Pipes, R. Byron

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plastics are replacing conventional metals in the aerospace, sporting, electronics, and other industries. Thermal plastics are able to withstand relatively high temperatures, have good fatigue properties, and are lighter than metals. Unfortunately, they are not very electrically conductive. However, adding carbon nanotubes to thermal plastics such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) can drastically increase the plastic's conductivity at a low weight percent of nanotubes called the percolat...

  17. Thermal Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Jeremy; Moore, Andrew; Khatun, Mahfuza

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in nanostructure technology have made it possible to create small devices at the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes (CNT's) are among the most exciting building blocks of nanotechnology. Their versatility and extremely desirable properties for electronic and other devices have driven intense research and development efforts in recent years. A review of electrical and thermal conduction of the structures will be presented. The theoretical investigation is mainly based on molecular dynamics. Green Kubo relation is used for the study of thermal conductivity. Results include kinetic energy, potential energy, heat flux autocorrelation function, and heat conduction of various CNT structures. Most of the computation and simulation has been conducted on the Beowulf cluster at Ball State University. Various software packages and tools such as Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD), Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), and NanoHUB, the open online resource at Purdue University have been used for the research. The work has been supported by the Indiana Academy of Science Research Fund, 2010-2011.

  18. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mostofi, Arash A. [Department of Materials and Department of Physics, and the Thomas Young Centre for Theory and Simulation of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Å, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup −4} e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  19. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  20. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S; Al-Marzouki, F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Abdel-Daiem, A

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc. For commercial applications, large quantities and high purity of carbon nanotubes are needed. Different types of carbon nanotubes can be synthesized in various ways. The most common techniques currently practiced are arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition and flame synthesis. The purification of CNTs is carried out using various techniques mainly oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering chemical functionalization, etc. However, high-purity purification techniques still have to be developed. Real applications are still under development. This paper addresses the current research on the challenges that are associated with synthesis methods, purification methods, and dispersion and toxicity of CNTs within the scope of different engineering applications, energy, and environmental impact.

  1. Edge effects in finite elongated carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, O; Scuseria, G E; Hod, Oded; Peralta, Juan E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of finite-size effects for the electronic structure of long zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes is studied. We analyze the electronic structure of capped (6,6), (8,0), and (9,0) single walled carbon nanotubes as a function of their length up to 60 nm, using a divide and conquer density functional theory approach. For the metallic nanotubes studied, most of the physical features appearing in the density of states of an infinite carbon nanotube are recovered at a length of 40 nm. The (8,0) semi-conducting nanotube studied exhibits pronounced edge effects within the energy gap that scale as the inverse of the length of the nanotube. As a result, the energy gap reduces from the value of ~1 eV calculated for the periodic system to a value of ~0.25 eV calculated for a capped 62 nm long CNT. These edge effects are expected to become negligible only at tube lengths exceeding 6 micrometers. Our results indicate that careful tailoring of the nature of the system and its capping units should be applied w...

  2. TiO(2) nanotube arrays: intrinsic peroxidase mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Han, Lei; Hu, Peng; Wang, Li; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-11-18

    TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTA), prepared by potentiostatic anodization, were discovered to possess an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The colorimetric and electrochemical assays both demonstrated their excellent catalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction. On this basis, a simple and inexpensive electrochemical biosensor for glucose detection was developed. PMID:24084751

  3. Chitosan-mediated synthesis of carbon nanotube-gold nanohybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRAVEL; Edmond; FOILLARD; Stéphanie; DORIS; Eric

    2010-01-01

    Metal-nanotube nanohybrids were produced by in situ synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles on chitosan-functionalized carbon nanotubes.The formation of gold nanoparticles from tetrachloroauric acid was observed after only a few minutes of contact with the functionalized nanotubes,at room temperature.These results suggest that adsorption of chitosan at the surface of carbon nanotubes permits smooth reduction of the metallic salt and efficient anchoring of gold nanoparticles to the nanotubes.

  4. Transport Properties of Carbon-Nanotube/Cement Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Yang, Z.; Shi, X.; Yu, X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper preliminarily investigates the general transport properties (i.e., water sorptivity, water permeability, and gas permeability) of carbon-nanotube/cement composites. Carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are dispersed into cement mortar to fabricate the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rei

  5. Deposition of the platinum crystals on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique and the affecting factors for depositing platinum on the carbon nanotubes were investigated. The results show that the deposited platinum crystals in the atmosphere of hydrogen or nitrogen have a small size and a homogeneous distribution on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. The pretreatment would decrease the platinum particles on the carbon nanotubes significantly.

  6. Decoration of activated carbon nanotubes by assembling nano-silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-sha Li; Bin-song Wang; Ying-jie Qiao; Wei-zhe Lu; Ji Liang

    2009-01-01

    A facile solution processed strategy of synthesizing nano silver assembled on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at room tempera-ture was put forward. Activated carbon nanotubes were used as precursors for preparing silver-decorated nanotubes. The nature of the decorated nanotubes was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and en-ergy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The inert surfaces of carbon nanotubes were activated by introducing catalytic nuclei via an oxidation-sensitization-activation approach. Activated carbon nanotubes catalyzed the metal deposition specifically onto their surfaces upon immersion in electroless plating baths. The method produced nanotubes decorated with silver. The extent of silver decoration was found to be dependent on fabrication conditions. Dense nano silver assembled on nanotube surfaces could be ob-tained by keeping a low reaction rate in the solution phase. The results here show that this method is an efficient and simple means of achieving carbon nanotubes being assembled by nano metal.

  7. Broadband laser polarization control with aligned carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, He; Lia, Diao; Chen, Ya; Mattila, Marco; Tian, Ying; Yong, Zhenzhong; Yang, Changxi; Tittonen, Ilkka; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jingtao; Li, Qingwen; Kauppinen, Esko I; Lipsanen, Harri; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a simple approach to fabricate aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) device for broadband polarization control in fiber laser systems. The ACNT device was fabricated by pulling from as-fabricated vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. Their anisotropic property is confirmed with optical and scanning electron microscopy, and with polarized Raman and absorption spectroscopy. The device was then integrated into fiber laser systems (at two technologically important wavelengths of 1 and 1.5 um) for polarization control. We obtained a linearly-polarized light output with the maximum extinction ratio of ~12 dB. The output polarization direction could be fully controlled by the ACNT alignment direction in both lasers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that ACNT device is applied to polarization control in laser systems. Our results exhibit that the ACNT device is a simple, low-cost, and broadband polarizer to control laser polarization dynamics, for various photonic applications (such as ...

  8. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  9. Geometric and electronic structure of carbon nanotube networks: 'super'-carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluci, V. R.; Galvão, D. S.; Jorio, A.

    2006-02-01

    Structures of the so-called super-carbon nanotubes are proposed. These structures are built from single walled carbon nanotubes connected by Y-like junctions forming a 'super'-sheet that is then rolled into a seamless cylinder. Such a procedure can be repeated several times, generating a fractal structure. This procedure is not limited to carbon nanotubes, and can be easily modified for application to other systems. Tight binding total energy and density of states calculations showed that the 'super'-sheets and tubes are stable and predicted to present metallic and semiconducting behaviour.

  10. Nanocrystalline cobalt oxides for carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2007-09-01

    Thin Films of nanocrystalline cobalt oxide were formed by sol-gel method. Structure, optical properties and surface properties of these films were investigated by numerous characterization techniques. These films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates below 500°C. . Micropatterns of cobalt oxide thin films were also fabricated on glass and silicon substrates by employing a lift-off method. Crystal size of these nanocrystalline cobalt films could be successfully controllable by varying the amount of cobalt precursors and number of layers. These films were used as the seeding layers for carbon nanotube growth in a CVD process By changing the concentration of monomer precursors in the solgel coating solutions, different size nanoclusters hence different size carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in CVD process. This method can be used for controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for many different applications. In this paper, detail of these experimental results will be presented.

  11. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  12. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-07-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs.

  13. Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Razumiene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate.

  14. Modelling carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Petrauskas, Karolis; Razumiene, Julija

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate. PMID:23012537

  15. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-05-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  16. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  17. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  18. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis Through Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Pablo; Garcia, Rafael; Montes, Jorge; Melendrez, Rodrigo; Barboza, Marcelino; Contreras, Oscar

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes show a great potential of applications since there discovery by Iijima in 1991[1] due to their numerous physical-chemical properties such as their high weight to strength relationship, which make them ideal to use in high resistance compound materials, and in many other applications[2] In this work, a novel method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes is presented, starting from an ultra-thin sheet of graphite synthesized by the chemical vapor decomposition technique (CVD), using ultra high purity methane and hydrogen at 1200°C in a horizontal quartz reactor. For the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, the graphite sheets were exposed to different doses of radiation, with the objective of breaking the graphite bonds and form carbon nanotubes; a Gammacell equipment model 220 Excel was used for the purpose, which counts with a radiation source of cobalt 60, and a current radiation rate of 0.9 Gy/seconds. The time of exposure to radiation was varied in each sample, according to the desired dose of radiation in each case, afterwards the samples were characterized using the Raman spectroscopy and TEM microscopy techniques with the objective of observing the kind of nanotubes formed, their morphology and their number of defects. Results will be shown during the poster session.

  19. Investigating the effect of carbon nanotube diameter and wall number in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Grace; LePing Yu; Christopher Gibson; Daniel Tune; Huda Alturaif; Zeid Al Othman; Joseph Shapter

    2016-01-01

    Suspensions of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were generated in the same solvent at similar concentrations. Films were fabricated from these suspensions and used in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells and their properties were compared with reference to the number of walls in the nanotube samples. It was found that single-walled nanotubes generally produced more favorable results; however, the double and multi-walled nanotube films used in...

  20. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars R.; Pyrz, Ryszard

    2004-06-01

    The tensile modulus of individual nanotubes and nanotube-polypropylene composites has been determined using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes showed that their tensile modulus was dependent on the tube structure and the diameter if the diameter was below 1,6 nm. The tensile modulus was determined for an infinite single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an amorphous polypropylene matrix and for a finite and capped single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a polypropylene matrix. For the infinite nanotube-polypropylene system the modulus was found to correspond to the one given by the Voigt approximation. For the finite nanotube-polypropylene system the reinforcing effect of the nanotube was not very pronounced. A pull out simulation showed that the length of the nanotube in the simulation was much smaller than the critical length and hence no load transfer between the nanotube and the matrix existed.

  1. Microcavity-Integrated Carbon Nanotube Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wu, Gongtao; Wei, Nan; Huang, Le; Huang, Huixin; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-07-26

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered to be highly promising nanomaterials for multiwavelength, room-temperature infrared detection applications. Here, we demonstrate a single-tube diode photodetector monolithically integrated with a Fabry-Pérot microcavity. A ∼6-fold enhanced optical absorption can be achieved, because of the confined effect of the designed optical mode. Furthermore, taking advantage of Van-Hove-singularity band structures in CNTs, we open the possibility of developing chirality-specific (n,m) CNT-film-based signal detectors. Utilizing a concept of the "resonance and off-resonance" cavity, we achieved cavity-integrated chirality-sorted CNT-film detectors working at zero bias and resonance-allowed mode, for specific target signal detection. The detectors exhibited a higher suppression ratio until a power density of 0.07 W cm(-2) and photocurrent of 5 pA, and the spectral full width at half-maximum is ∼33 nm at a signal wavelength of 1200 nm. Further, with multiple array detectors aiming at different target signals integrated on a chip, a multiwavelength signal detector system can be expected to have applications in the fields of monitoring, biosensing, color imaging, signal capture, and on-chip or space information transfers. The approach can also bring other nanomaterials into on-chip or information optoelectronics, regardless of the available doping polarity. PMID:27379375

  2. Aligned carbon nanotube sheet piezoresistive strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Bradford, Philip D.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a unique set of properties that may be useful in the production of next generation structural health monitoring composites. This research introduces a novel CNT based material system for strain and damage sensing applications. An aligned sheet of interconnected CNTs was drawn from a chemical vapor deposition grown CNT array and then bonded to the surface of glass fiber/epoxy composite coupons. Various types of mechanical tests were conducted, accompanied by real-time electrical data acquisition, in order to evaluate the electro-mechanical behavior of the developed sensing material. Specimens were loaded in the longitudinal and transverse CNT sheet orientations to investigate the anisotropy of the piezoresistive effect. The CNT sheets exhibited good sensing stability, linearity, sensitivity and repeatability within a practical strain range; which are crucial sensor features for health monitoring. It was also demonstrated that the CNT orientation in the sheet had a dramatic effect on the sensitivity, thus validating the usefulness of this sensing material for directional strain/damage monitoring. Finally, pre-straining of the CNT sheet sensors was conducted to further enhance the linearity of electro-mechanical response and long-term stability of the sensors during cyclic loading.

  3. Particle trapping using dielectrophoretically patterned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Zhang, Chen; Nahavandi, Saeid; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J; Baratchi, Sara; Hu, Zheng; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2010-04-01

    This study presents the dielectrophoretic (DEP) assembly of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between curved microelectrodes for the purpose of trapping polystyrene microparticles within a microfluidic system. Under normal conditions, polystyrene particles exhibit negative DEP behaviour and are repelled from microelectrodes. Interestingly, the addition of MWCNTs to the system alters this situation in two ways: first, they coat the surface of particles and change their dielectric properties to exhibit positive DEP behaviour; second, the assembled MWCNTs are highly conductive and after the deposition serve as extensions to the microelectrodes. They establish an array of nanoelectrodes that initiates from the edge of microelectrodes and grow along the electric field lines. These nanoelectrodes can effectively trap the MWCNT-coated particles, since they cover a large portion of the microchannel bottom surface and also create a much stronger electric field than the primary microelectrodes as confirmed by our numerical simulations. We will show that the presence of MWCNT significantly changes performance of the system, which is investigated by trapping sample polystyrene particles with plain, COOH and goat anti-mouse IgG surfaces. PMID:20301125

  4. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L.; Cola, Baratunde A.

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna—a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current—was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ˜2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (˜10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation.

  5. Micromechanics of carbon nanotube turfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Hamid

    Complex structures consisting of intertwined, nominally vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are called turfs. Unique electrical, thermal, optical, and permeability properties of these turfs have attracted growing attention during the past decade, and have rendered them as appropriate candidates for applications such as contact thermal switches. These properties are controlled by the details of the turf microstructures. Due to the application of the turfs in different fields, they are subjected to different loading conditions. Deformation changes the microstructure of a CNT turf, which results in change of effective properties. Many researchers have recently studied the collective mechanical behavior of CNT turfs to compression loading, as this behavior determines their performance. However, their complex and intertwined structure must be investigated in more details to find the relation between their deformation and their underlying morphology. Under uniform compression experiments, CNT turfs exhibit irreversible collective buckling of a layer preceded by reorientation of CNT segments. Experimentally observed independence of the buckling stress and the buckling wavelength on the turf width suggests the existence of an intrinsic material length. To investigate the relationship the macroscopic material properties and the statistical parameters describing the nano-scale geometry of the turf (tortuosity, density and connectivity) we develop a nano-scale computational model, based on the representation of CNT segments as elastica finite elements with van der Waals interactions. The virtual turfs are generated by means of a constrained random walk algorithm and subsequent relaxation. The resulting computational model is robust and is capable of modeling the collective behavior of CNTs. We first establish the dependence of statistical parameters on the computational parameters used for turf generation, then establish relationships between post-buckling stress, initial

  6. Nitrogen in highly crystalline carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducati, C; Koziol, K; Stavrinadis, A; Friedrichs, S; Windle, A H; Midgley, P A [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-22

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an unprecedented degree of internal order were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) adding a nitrogen-containing compound to the hydrocarbon feedstock. Ferrocene was used as the metal catalyst precursor. The remarkable crystallinity of these nanotubes lies both in the isochirality and in the crystallographic register of their walls, as demonstrated by electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy experiments. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the walls of the nanotubes consist of truncated stacked cones, instead of perfect cylinders, with a range of apex angles that appears to be related to the nitrogen concentration in the synthesis process. The structure of armchair, zigzag and chiral nanotubes is modelled and discussed in terms of density of topological defects, providing an interesting comparison with our microscopy experiments. A growth mechanism based on the interplay of base- and tip-growth is proposed to account for our experimental observations.

  7. A tunable carbon nanotube electromechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Vera; Yaish, Yuval; Üstünel, Hande; Roundy, David; Arias, Tomás A.; McEuen, Paul L.

    2004-09-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) hold promise for a number of scientific and technological applications. In particular, NEMS oscillators have been proposed for use in ultrasensitive mass detection, radio-frequency signal processing, and as a model system for exploring quantum phenomena in macroscopic systems. Perhaps the ultimate material for these applications is a carbon nanotube. They are the stiffest material known, have low density, ultrasmall cross-sections and can be defect-free. Equally important, a nanotube can act as a transistor and thus may be able to sense its own motion. In spite of this great promise, a room-temperature, self-detecting nanotube oscillator has not been realized, although some progress has been made. Here we report the electrical actuation and detection of the guitar-string-like oscillation modes of doubly clamped nanotube oscillators. We show that the resonance frequency can be widely tuned and that the devices can be used to transduce very small forces.

  8. Carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The latest progress of using carbon nanotubes(CNTs) for in vivo cancer nanotechnology is reviewed.CNTs can be functionalized by either covalent or non-covalent chemistry to produce functional bioconjugates for many in vivo applications.In vivo behaviors and toxicology studies of CNTs are summarized,suggesting no significant toxicity of well functionalized CNTs to the treated mice.Owing to their unique chemical and physical properties,CNTs,especially single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs),have been widely used for various modalities of in vivo cancer treatment and imaging.Future development of CNT-based nanomedicine may bring novel opportunities to cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2010-03-02

    An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

  10. Piezoresistive effect in carbon nanotube films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The piezoresistive effect of the pristine carbon nanotube (CNT) films has been studied. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The piezoresistive effect in the pristine CNT films was studied by a three-point bending test. The gauge factor for the pristine CNT films under 500 microstrains was found to be at least 65 at room temperature, and increased with temperature, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃. The origin of the piezoresistivity in CNT films may be ascribed to a pressure-induced change in the band gap and the defects.

  11. Recent advances in molecular electronics based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Campidelli, Stéphane; Chenevier, Pascale; Derycke, Vincent; Filoramo, Arianna; Goffman, Marcelo F

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional physical properties that make them one of the most promising building blocks for future nanotechnologies. They may in particular play an important role in the development of innovative electronic devices in the fields of flexible electronics, ultra-high sensitivity sensors, high frequency electronics, opto-electronics, energy sources and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). Proofs of concept of several high performance devices already exist, usually at the single device level, but there remain many serious scientific issues to be solved before the viability of such routes can be evaluated. In particular, the main concern regards the controlled synthesis and positioning of nanotubes. In our opinion, truly innovative use of these nano-objects will come from: (i) the combination of some of their complementary physical properties, such as combining their electrical and mechanical properties, (ii) the combination of their properties with additional benefits coming from other molecules grafted on the nanotubes, and (iii) the use of chemically- or bio-directed self-assembly processes to allow the efficient combination of several devices into functional arrays or circuits. In this article, we outline the main issues concerning the development of carbon nanotubes based electronics applications and review our recent results in the field.

  12. Carbon nanotube-reinforced composites as structural materials for microactuators in microelectromechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocomposites are a promising new class of structural materials for the mechanical components of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This paper presents a detailed theoretical investigation of the utility of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites for designing actuators with low stiffness and high natural frequencies of vibration. The actuators are modelled as beams of solid rectangular cross-section consisting of an isotropic matrix reinforced with transversely isotropic carbon nanotubes. Three different types of nanotube reinforcements are considered: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and arrays of SWNTs. The effects of nanotube aspect ratio, dispersion, alignment and volume fraction on the elastic modulus and longitudinal wave velocity are analysed by recourse to the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka theory. The calculated bounds on Young's modulus and wave velocity capture the trend of the experimental results reported in the literature. Polymer-matrix nanocomposites reinforced with aligned, dispersed SWNTs are identified as excellent candidates for microactuators and microresonators, with properties rivalling those of monolithic metallic and ceramic structures used in the current generation of MEMS. A qualitative comparison between the state-of-the-art in nanocomposite manufacturing technology and the predicted upper bound on Young's modulus and longitudinal wave velocity highlights the enormous improvements needed in materials processing and micromachining to harness the full potential of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites for microactuator applications. These results have immediate and significant implications for the use of nanotube composites in MEMS

  13. Computational Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomechanics of individual carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes and their application as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites has been reviewed with interplay of theoretical modeling, computer simulations and experimental observations. The emphasis in this work is on elucidating the multi-length scales of the problems involved, and of different simulation techniques that are needed to address specific characteristics of individual nanotubes and nanotube polymer-matrix interfaces. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are shown to be sufficient to describe the generic behavior such as strength and stiffness modulus but are inadequate to describe elastic limit and nature of plastic buckling at large strength. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations are shown to bring out explicit atomic nature dependent behavior of these nanoscale materials objects that are not accessible either via continuum mechanics based descriptions or through classical molecular dynamics based simulations. As examples, we discus local plastic collapse of carbon nanotubes under axial compression and anisotropic plastic buckling of boron-nitride nanotubes. Dependence of the yield strain on the strain rate is addressed through temperature dependent simulations, a transition-state-theory based model of the strain as a function of strain rate and simulation temperature is presented, and in all cases extensive comparisons are made with experimental observations. Mechanical properties of nanotube-polymer composite materials are simulated with diverse nanotube-polymer interface structures (with van der Waals interaction). The atomistic mechanisms of the interface toughening for optimal load transfer through recycling, high-thermal expansion and diffusion coefficient composite formation above glass transition temperature, and enhancement of Young's modulus on addition of nanotubes to polymer are discussed and compared with experimental observations.

  14. Carbon nanotubes as tips for atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立秋; 徐宗伟; 赵铁强; 赵清亮; 张飞虎; 董申

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary AFM probes' characters prevent the AFM' s application in various scopes. Carbon nanotubes represent ideal AFM probe materials for their higher aspect ratio, larger Young' s modulus, unique chemical structure, and well-defined electronic property. Carbon nanotube AFM probes are obtained by using a new method of attaching carbon nanotubes to the end of ordinary AFM probes, and are then used for doing AFM experiments. These experiments indicated that carbon nanotube probes have higher elastic deformation, higher resolution and higher durability. And it was also found that carbon nanotube probes can accurately reflect the morphology of deep narrow gaps, while ordinary probes can not reflect.

  15. A High-Flux, Flexible Membrane with Parylene-encapsulated Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H G; In, J; Kim, S; Fornasiero, F; Holt, J K; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-03-14

    We present fabrication and characterization of a membrane based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and parylene. Carbon nanotubes have shown orders of magnitude enhancement in gas and water permeability compared to estimates generated by conventional theories [1, 2]. Large area membranes that exhibit flux enhancement characteristics of carbon nanotubes may provide an economical solution to a variety of technologies including water desalination [3] and gas sequestration [4]. We report a novel method of making carbon nanotube-based, robust membranes with large areas. A vertically aligned dense carbon nanotube array is infiltrated with parylene. Parylene polymer creates a pinhole free transparent film by exhibiting high surface conformity and excellent crevice penetration. Using this moisture-, chemical- and solvent-resistant polymer creates carbon nanotube membranes that promise to exhibit high stability and biocompatibility. CNT membranes are formed by releasing a free-standing film that consists of parylene-infiltrated CNTs, followed by CNT uncapping on both sides of the composite material. Thus fabricated membranes show flexibility and ductility due to the parylene matrix material, as well as high permeability attributed to embedded carbon nanotubes. These membranes have a potential for applications that may require high flux, flexibility and durability.

  16. Improved Method of Purifying Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of removing the residues of fabrication from carbon nanotubes has been invented. These residues comprise amorphous carbon and metal particles that are produced during the growth process. Prior methods of removing the residues include a variety of processes that involved the use of halogens, oxygen, or air in both thermal and plasma processes. Each of the prior methods entails one or more disadvantages, including non-selectivity (removal or damage of nanotubes in addition to removal of the residues), the need to dispose of toxic wastes, and/or processing times as long as 24 hours or more. In contrast, the process described here does not include the use of toxic chemicals, the generation of toxic wastes, causes little or no damage to the carbon nanotubes, and involves processing times of less than 1 hour. In the improved method, purification is accomplished by flowing water vapor through the reaction chamber at elevated temperatures and ambient pressures. The impurities are converted to gaseous waste products by the selective hydrogenation and hydroxylation by the water in a reaction chamber. This process could be performed either immediately after growth or in a post-growth purification process. The water used needs to be substantially free of oxygen and can be obtained by a repeated freeze-pump-thaw process. The presence of oxygen will non-selectively attach the carbon nanotubes in addition to the amorphous carbon.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of today’s carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Porifera’s carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.

  18. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    nanotubes are very interesting for integration in especially microfluidic devices, because they can readily be grown on planar substrates by means of chemical vapour deposition. In this way the cumbersome process of packing of the stationary phase in the finished microfluidic channels is avoided and the CNT...... surface can furthermore be used directly as a stationary phase in reverse-phase separations, thereby avoiding subsequent functionalization of the nanostructures. This significantly reduces the fabrication time and possibly also increases the reproducibility of the column performance. In this presentation......, microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis...

  19. Metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes separation using an aqueous two-phase separation technique: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Malcolm S. Y.; Ng, Eng-Poh; Juan, Joon Ching; Ooi, Chien Wei; Ling, Tau Chuan; Woon, Kai Lin; Loke Show, Pau

    2016-08-01

    It is known that carbon nanotubes show desirable physical and chemical properties with a wide array of potential applications. Nonetheless, their potential has been hampered by the difficulties in acquiring high purity, chiral-specific tubes. Considerable advancement has been made in terms of the purification of carbon nanotubes, for instance chemical oxidation, physical separation, and myriad combinations of physical and chemical methods. The aqueous two-phase separation technique has recently been demonstrated to be able to sort carbon nanotubes based on their chirality. The technique requires low cost polymers and salt, and is able to sort the tubes based on their diameter as well as metallicity. In this review, we aim to provide a review that could stimulate innovative thought on the progress of a carbon nanotubes sorting method using the aqueous two-phase separation method, and present possible future work and an outlook that could enhance the methodology.

  20. Structure Stability of Ⅰ-Type Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丹; 袁喆; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with junctions may play an important role in future ‘nanoelectronics' and future ‘nano devices'.In particular, junctions constructed with metal and semiconducting nanotubes have potential applications. Basedon the orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics method, we present our study of the structure stability ofI-type carbon nanotube junctions.

  1. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L J; Ulmert, Hans David S; Brea, Elliott J; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans. PMID:27468684

  2. Making junctions between carbon nanotubes using an ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Krasheninnikov, A V; Keinonen, J; Banhart, F

    2003-01-01

    Making use of empirical potential molecular dynamics, we study ion bombardment of crossed single-walled carbon nanotubes as a tool to join the nanotubes. We demonstrate that ion irradiation should result in welding of crossed nanotubes, both suspended and deposited on substrates. We further predict optimum ion doses and energies for ion-mediated nanotube welding which may potentially be used for developing complicated networks of joined nanotubes.

  3. MnO 2 nanotube and nanowire arrays by electrochemical deposition for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Feng, Jinkui; Wang, Hailong; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    Highly ordered MnO 2 nanotube and nanowire arrays are successfully synthesized via a electrochemical deposition technique using porous alumina templates. The morphologies and microstructures of the MnO 2 nanotube and nanowire arrays are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the MnO 2 nanotube array electrode has superior capacitive behaviour to that of the MnO 2 nanowire array electrode. In addition to high specific capacitance, the MnO 2 nanotube array electrode also exhibits good rate capability and good cycling stability, which makes it promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  4. MnO{sub 2} nanotube and nanowire arrays by electrochemical deposition for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Hui; Feng, Jinkui; Wang, Hailong; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2010-07-01

    Highly ordered MnO{sub 2} nanotube and nanowire arrays are successfully synthesized via a electrochemical deposition technique using porous alumina templates. The morphologies and microstructures of the MnO{sub 2} nanotube and nanowire arrays are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the MnO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode has superior capacitive behaviour to that of the MnO{sub 2} nanowire array electrode. In addition to high specific capacitance, the MnO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode also exhibits good rate capability and good cycling stability, which makes it promising candidate for supercapacitors. (author)

  5. A new mechanism for carbon nanotube evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Key discoveries on the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes(CNTs) have recently been achieved by CAS researcher ZHU Zhenping and his research group at the State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion,the Institute of Coal Chemistry of CAS, funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the CAS Bairen Program.

  6. Chiral Anomaly in Toroidal Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K.

    2001-01-01

    It is pointed out that the chiral anomaly in 1+1 dimensions should be observed in toroidal carbon nanotubes on a planar geometry with varying magnetic field. We show that the chiral anomaly is closely connected with the persistent current in a one-dimensional metallic ring.

  7. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  8. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  9. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are small cylindrical molecules with a typical diameter of 1 nm and lengths of up to micrometers. These intriguing molecules exhibit, depending on the exact atomic structure, either semiconducting or metallic behavior. This makes them ideal candidates for possible future molecular e

  10. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  11. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  12. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  13. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Baun, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review...

  14. In-line manufacture of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Nicol Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo; Martini, Fabrizio; Corripio Luna, Oscar Enrique

    2015-04-28

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are facilitated by methods and apparatus disclosed herein. Advantageously, the methods and apparatus make use of a single production unit, and therefore provide for uninterrupted progress in a fabrication process. Embodiments of control systems for a variety of CNT production apparatus are included.

  15. Heat Transport in Liquid Polyester Resin with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales-Pinzón, C.; Quiñones-Weiss, G.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Medina-Esquivel, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent one of the most important materials in nanoscience and nanotechnology, due to their outstanding structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. It has been shown that when incorporated in a polymeric matrix, carbon nanotubes can improve its physical properties. In this work, thermal-diffusivity measurements of composite materials, prepared by mixing carbon nanotubes in liquid polyester resin, were performed by means of the thermal-wave resonant cavity. The results show an increase of the thermal diffusivity when the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes grows. It is also shown that this increase depends strongly on the diameter of the nanotubes.

  16. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14C-labeled MWCNTs into 14CO2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14CO2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  17. Carbon nanotubes for stem cell control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Stout

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, two major advancements have transformed the world of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine—stem cells and carbon nano-dimensional materials. In the past, stem cell therapy seemed like it may present a cure for all medical ailments, but problems arose (i.e., immune system clearance, control of differentiation in the body, etc. that have hindered progress. But, with the synergy of carbon nano-dimensional materials, researchers have been able to overcome these tissue engineering and regenerative medicine obstacles and have begun developing treatments for strokes, bone failure, cardiovascular disease, and many other conditions. Here, we briefly review research involving carbon nanotubes which are relevant to the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine field with a special emphasis on carbon nanotube applications for stem cell delivery, drug delivery applications, and their use as improved medical devices.

  18. Mass Transport Through Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongzhou; Tran, Tuan

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been widely used as test channels to study nanofluidic transport, which has been found to have distinctive properties compared to transport of fluids in macroscopic channels. A long-standing challenge in the study of mass transport through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is the determination of flow enhancement. Various experimental investigations have been conducted to measure the flow rate through CNTs, mainly based on either vertically aligned CNT membranes or individual CNTs. Here, we proposed an alternative approach that can be used to quantify the mass transport through CNTs. This is a simple method relying on the use of carbon nanotube-polystyrene bundles, which are made of CNTs pulled out from a vertically aligned CNT array and glued together by polystyrene. We experimentally showed by using fluorescent tagging that the composite bundles allowed measureable and selective mass transport through CNTs. This type of composite bundle may be useful in various CNT research areas as they are simple to fabricate, less likely to form macroscopic cracks, and offer a high density of CNT pores while maintaining the aligned morphology of CNTs.

  19. Effect of Catalytic Layer Thickness on Diameter of Vertically Aligned Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyung Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of catalytic thin film thickness on the diameter control of individual carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Individual carbon nanotubes were grown on catalytic nanodot arrays, which were fabricated by e-beam lithography and e-beam evaporation. During e-beam evaporation of the nanodot pattern, more catalytic metal was deposited at the edge of the nanodots than the desired catalyst thickness. Because of this phenomenon, carbon atoms diffused faster near the center of the dots than at the edge of the dots. The carbon atoms, which were gathered at the interface between the catalytic nanodot and the diffusion barrier, accumulated near the center of the dot and lifted the catalyst off. From the experiments, an individual carbon nanotube with the same diameter as that of the catalytic nanodot was obtained from a 5 nm thick catalytic nanodot; however, an individual carbon nanotube with a smaller diameter (~40% reduction was obtained from a 50 nm thick nanodot. We found that the thicker the catalytic layer, the greater the reduction in diameter of the carbon nanotubes. The diameter-controlled carbon nanotubes could have applications in bio- and nanomaterial scanning and as a contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bin; WEI Jinquan; CI Lijie; WU Dehai

    2004-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared using the floating chemical vapor deposition with methane as carbon source and adding small amount of sulfur into the ferrocene catalyst. The optimized technological parameters are: the reaction temperature is 1200℃; the catalyst vapor temperature is 80℃; the flow rate of argon is 2000 SCCM; the flow rate of methane is 5 SCCM. The purified DWNTs under these optimized technological parameters have high purity above 90 wt%.

  1. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qiu; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2008-08-01

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  2. Excitation transfer and luminescence in porphyrin-carbon nanotube complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Magadur, G; Alain-Rizzo, V; Voisin, C; Roussignol, Ph; Deleporte, E; Delaire, J A

    2007-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with hydrosoluble porphyrins (TPPS) is achieved by "$\\pi$-stacking". The porphyrin/nanotube interaction is studied by means of optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies. The main absorption line of the porphyrins adsorbed on nanotubes exhibits a 120 meV red shift, which we ascribe to a flattening of the molecule in order to optimize $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions. The porphyrin-nanotube complex shows a strong quenching of the TPPS emission while the photoluminescence intensity of the nanotubes is enhanced when the excitation laser is in resonance with the porphyrin absorption band. This reveals an efficient excitation transfer from the TPPS to the carbon nanotube.

  3. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li+/Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient dLi decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  4. Enhancement of carbon nanotube photoluminescence by photonic crystal nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Watahiki, R.; Shimada, T; Zhao, P; Chiashi, S.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are used to enhance photoluminescence from single-walled carbon nanotubes. Micelle-encapsulated nanotubes are deposited on nanocavities within Si photonic crystal slabs and confocal microscopy is used to characterize the devices. Photoluminescence spectra and images reveal nanotube emission coupled to nanocavity modes. The cavity modes can be tuned throughout the emission wavelengths of carbon nanotubes, demonstrating the ability to enhance photoluminescence from...

  5. Enhancement of carbon nanotube photoluminescence by photonic crystal nanocavities

    OpenAIRE

    Watahiki, R.; Shimada, T; Zhao, P; Chiashi, S.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are used to enhance photoluminescence from single-walled carbon nanotubes. Micelle-encapsulated nanotubes are deposited on nanocavities within Si photonic crystal slabs and confocal microscopy is used to characterize the devices.Photoluminescencespectra and images reveal nanotube emission coupled to nanocavity modes. The cavity modes can be tuned throughout the emission wavelengths of carbon nanotubes, demonstrating the ability to enhance photoluminescence from a...

  6. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Hybrids in Polymer Dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Liao, Kang-Shyang; Früchtl, Daniel; Tian, Ying; Gilchrist, Aisling, , T; Alley, Nigel; Andreoli, Enrico; Aitchison, Brad; Nasibulin, Albert; Byrne, Hugh; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Zhang, Long; Blau, Werner; Curran, Seamus

    2012-01-01

    A series of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized with selected organic chromophores, fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate (FITC), rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) and fullerene (C60) were synthesized by covalently linking these electron-donor groups to the metallic nanotubes. These versatile carbon nanotube composites show remarkable nonlinear optical (NLO) performance, due to a merged effect of the complementary NLO characteristics of the moiet...

  7. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    B. Arash; Wang, Q.(The University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA); Varadan, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, such as high elastic modulus and tensile strength, make them the most ideal and promising reinforcements in substantially enhancing the mechanical properties of resulting polymer/carbon nanotube composites. It is acknowledged that the mechanical properties of the composites are significantly influenced by interfacial interactions between nanotubes and polymer matrices. The current challenge of the application of nanotubes in the compos...

  8. Carbon nanotubes on a spider silk scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Eden; Saleh, Wasan R.; Lebedev, Victor; Acquah, Steve F. A.; Laukhin, Vladimir; Alamo, Rufina G.; Brooks, James S.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the compatibility between spider silk and conducting materials is essential to advance the use of spider silk in electronic applications. Spider silk is tough, but becomes soft when exposed to water. Here we report a strong affinity of amine-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for spider silk, with coating assisted by a water and mechanical shear method. The nanotubes adhere uniformly and bond to the silk fibre surface to produce tough, custom-shaped, flexible and electrically conducting fibres after drying and contraction. The conductivity of coated silk fibres is reversibly sensitive to strain and humidity, leading to proof-of-concept sensor and actuator demonstrations.

  9. Analytical modeling of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Pourasl, Ali H; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmani, Meisam; Chin, Huei Chaeng; Lim, Cheng Siong; Ismail, Razali; Tan, Michael Loong Peng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes have received widespread attention as promising carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. Due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and electrical properties, namely a high surface-to-volume ratio, their enhanced electron transfer properties, and their high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes can be used effectively as electrochemical sensors. The integration of carbon nanotubes with a functional group provides a good and solid support for the immobilization...

  10. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekchang, SRC; Govindaraj, A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spect...

  11. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R C Vivekchand; A Govindaraj

    2003-10-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized singlewalled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  13. Controlled carbon nanotube synthesis for quantification of polymer-nanotube composite micromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Justin Bernard

    Conventional experimental approaches to the understanding of nanotube-polymer micro-mechanics have struggled to produce reproducible data due to the inherent difficulty in physically manipulating the nanotube in-situ. To avoid the problems scale represents in nanotube-polymer composites a novel approach of using Polarized Raman spectroscopy was developed. The Raman spectroscopic technique has the advantage of using non-invasive analysis to compute the composite micro mechanical properties of interfacial shear stress and critical length. Composites with nanotubes of defined length were needed in order to use the Raman technique. To satisfy this requirement a new thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) tool capable of reproducibly growing aligned length uniformity with large mass yield was designed and built. The course of developing these furnace capabilities led to the investigation of nanotube growth mechanics. It is shown herein that a stable passivation barrier is required for nanotube growth. Using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling of metal substrate growth conclusively shows the presence of a stable catalyst layer on the outer surface of stable oxides of greater than 100 nm. By analyzing the diffusion profile represented in the XPS data it is shown that a critical thickness for the passivation oxide can be calculated as a function of time and temperature. For the growth parameters used in this study the critical thickness was found to be between 10 nm and 30 nm depending on the diffusivity value used for iron in chromia. This value agrees well with experimental observation. Uniformly grown carbon nanotubes with lengths of 4, 14, 17, 22, 43, 74, and 116 mum were incorporated into a polycarbonate matrix polymer via solvent-antisolvent processing. The nanotube composites of varied length were tested in tensile strain while Raman spectra were taken concurrently to deduce the load transfer to the nanotube due to composite strain. It is found

  14. Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Semipermeable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakajin, O

    2006-02-13

    The goal of this project is to measure transport through CNTs and study effects of confinement at molecular scale. This work is motivated by several simulation papers in high profile journals that predict significantly higher transport rates of gases and liquids through carbon nanotubes as compared with similarly-sized nanomaterials (e.g. zeolites). The predictions are based on the effects of confinement, atomically smooth pore walls and high pore density. Our work will provide the first measurements that would compare to and hopefully validate the simulations. Gas flux is predicted to be >1000X greater for SWNTs versus zeolitesi. A high flux of 6-30 H2O/NT/ns {approx} 8-40 L/min for a 1cm{sup 2} membrane is also predicted. Neutron diffraction measurements indicate existence of a 1D water chain within a cylindrical ice sheet inside carbon nanotubes, which is consistent with the predictions of the simulation. The enabling experimental platform that we are developing is a semipermeable membrane made out of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with gaps between nanotubes filled so that the transport occurs through the nanotubes. The major challenges of this project included: (1) Growth of CNTs in the suitable vertically aligned configuration, especially the single wall carbon nanotubes; (2) Development of a process for void-free filling gaps between CNTs; and (3) Design of the experiments that will probe the small amounts of analyte that go through. Knowledge of the behavior of water upon nanometer-scale confinement is key to understanding many biological processes. For example, the protein folding process is believed to involve water confined in a hydrophobic environment. In transmembrane proteins such as aquaporins, water transport occurs under similar conditions. And in fields as far removed as oil recovery and catalysis, an understanding of the nanoscale molecular transport occurring within the nanomaterials used (e.g. zeolites) is the key to process optimization

  15. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  16. On the Nanoindentation of the Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre P. Teodorescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new inverse approach is proposed in this paper, which combines elements of nonlocal theory and molecular mechanics, based on the experimental results available in the nanoindentation literature. The effect of the inlayer van der Waals atomistic interactions for carbon nanotubes with multiple walls (MWCNT is included by means of the Brenner-Tersoff potential and experimental results. The neighboring walls of MWCNT are coupled through van der Waals interactions, and the shell buckling would initiate in the outermost shell, when nanotubes are short. The nanoindentation technique is simulated for the axially compressed of individual nanotubes, in order to evaluate the load-unloaded-displacement, the curve critical buckling and the appropriate values for local Lamé constants.

  17. Nanosystems of Polymerized Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Peter; Cui, Shen

    Nanosystems based on polymerized fullerenes and carbon-nanotubes begin to play an important role in the field of nanotechnology. Nanotubes can be used as molecular wires, and can even figure as building elements for molecular electronics. Furthermore nanotubes can be used as amplifiers in composite materials, as a result of their unique mechanical properties. Many other applications, as for example as electron emitters for flat screens, are currently under development. Fullerens are known to be strong electron acceptors, which enables them to support the electron-hole pair separation in polymer based photovoltaic cells. The use of fulleren chains instead of fullerenes could improve the anisotropic electronic conductivity in the contained polymer layer, and therefore enhance their performance.

  18. Mechanical properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) used to reinforce polymer matrix composites are functionalized to form covalent bonds with the polymer in order to enhance the CNT/polymer interfaces. These bonds destroy the perfect atomic structures of a CNT and degrade its mechanical properties. We use atomistic simulations to study the effect of hydrogenization on the mechanical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The elastic modulus of CNTs gradually decreases with the increasing functionalization (percentage of C-H bonds). However, both the strength and ductility drop sharply at a small percentage of functionalization, reflecting their sensitivity to C-H bonds. The cluster C-H bonds forming two rings leads to a significant reduction in the strength and ductility. The effect of carbonization has essentially the same effect as hydrogenization

  19. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes by Proton Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Euikwoun; Lee, Jeonggil; Lee, Younman; Jeon, Jaekyun; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jeongha; Shin, Kwanwoo; Youn, Sang-Pil; Kim, Kyeryung

    2007-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit variety of superior physical properties including well-defined nanodimensional structure, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and good mechanical stability against external irradiations. Further, a large specific surface area per unit weight suggests that carbon nanotubes could be excellent candidates for gas storage, purification, and separation. However, the practical application of CNTs is limited mainly due to the metallic impurities that were used as a catalyst during the fabrication process. Here, we irradiated CNTs by using high energy proton beams (35.7 MeV at the Bragg Peak). Interestingly, metallic impurities such as Fe, Ni, Co and chunk of amorphous carbon that were attached on the surface of CNTs were completely removed after the irradiation. The mechanism of such the purification process is not understood. The possible speculation will be demonstrated combined with the changes of physical properties including the appearance of the magnetism after the irradiation.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes for Space Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiadis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Landi, Brian J.; Denno, Patrick L.; DiLeo, Roberta A.; VanDerveer, William; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be envisioned as an individual graphene sheet rolled into a seamless cylinder (single-walled, SWNT), or concentric sheets as in the case of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) (1). The role-up vector will determine the hexagonal arrangement and "chirality" of the graphene sheet, which will establish the nanotube to be metallic or semiconducting. The optoelectronic properties will depend directly on this chiral angle and the diameter of the SWNT, with semiconductor types exhibiting a band gap energy (2). Characteristic of MWNTs are the concentric graphene layers spaced 0.34 nm apart, with diameters from 10-200 nm and lengths up to hundreds of microns (2). In the case of SWNTs, the diameters range from 0.4 - 2 nm and lengths have been reported up to 1.5 cm (3). SWNTs have the distinguishable property of "bundling" together due to van der Waal's attractions to form "ropes." A comparison of these different structural types is shown in Figure 1. The use of SWNTS in space photovoltaic (PV) applications is attractive for a variety of reasons. Carbon nanotubes as a class of materials exhibit unprecedented optical, electrical, mechanical properties, with the added benefit of being nanoscale in size which fosters ideal interaction in nanomaterial-based devices like polymeric solar cells. The optical bandgap of semiconducting SWNTs can be varied from approx. 0.4 - 1.5 eV, with this property being inversely proportional to the nanotube diameter. Recent work at GE Global Research has shown where a single nanotube device can behave as an "ideal" pn diode (5). The SWNT was bridged over a SiO2 channel between Mo contacts and exhibited an ideality factor of 1, based on a fit of the current-voltage data using the diode equation. The measured PV efficiency under a 0.8 eV monochromatic illumination showed a power conversion efficiency of 0.2 %. However, the projected efficiency of these junctions is estimated to be > 5 %, especially when one considers the

  1. Carbon nanotube materials from hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Bekkedahl, T.A.; Cahill, A.F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The lack of convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage is a major impediment to wide scale use of hydrogen in the United States energy economy. Improvements in the energy densities of hydrogen storage systems, reductions in cost, and increased compatibility with available and forecasted systems are required before viable hydrogen energy use pathways can be established. Carbon-based hydrogen adsorption materials hold particular promise for meeting and exceeding the U.S. Department of Energy hydrogen storage energy density targets for transportation if concurrent increases in hydrogen storage capacity and carbon density can be achieved. These two goals are normally in conflict for conventional porous materials, but may be reconciled by the design and synthesis of new adsorbent materials with tailored pore size distributions and minimal macroporosity. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to explore new designs for adsorbents because they can be fabricated with small size distributions, and naturally tend to self-assemble by van der Waals forces. This year we report heats of adsorption for hydrogen on nanotube materials that are 2 and 3 times greater than for hydrogen on activated carbon. The hydrogen which is most strongly bound to these materials remains on the carbon surface to temperatures greater than 285 K. These results suggest that nanocapillary forces are active in stabilizing hydrogen on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes, and that optimization of the adsorbent will lead to effective storage at higher temperatures. In this paper we will also report on our activities which are targeted at understanding and optimizing the nucleation and growth of single wall nanotubes. These experiments were made possible by the development of a unique feedback control circuit which stabilized the plasma-arc during a synthesis run.

  2. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Using Sol Gel Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek

    2002-12-01

    Since 1990, carbon nanotubes were discovered and they have been the object of intense scientific study ever since. A carbon nanotube is a honeycomb lattice rolled into a cylinder. The diameter of a carbon nanotube is of nanometer size and the length is in the range of micrometer. Many of the extraordinary properties attributed to nanotubes, such as tensile strength and thermal stability, have inspired predictions of microscopic robots, dent-resistant car bodies and earthquake-resistant buildings. The first products to use nanotubes were electrical. Some General Motors cars already include plastic parts to which nanotubes were added; such plastic can be electrified during painting so that the paint will stick more readily. Two nanotube-based lighting and display products are well on their way to market. In the long term, perhaps the most valuable applications will take further advantage of nanotubes' unique electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes can in principle play the same role as silicon does in electronic circuits, but at a molecular scale where silicon and other standard semiconductors cease to work. There are several routes to synthesize carbon nanotubes; laser vaporization, carbon arc and vapor growth. We have applied a different route using sol gel chemistry to obtain carbon nanotubes. This work is patent-pending.

  3. Use of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Covalent Attachment of Nanotubes to Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Dyke, Christopher A.; Maya, Francisco; Stewart, Michael P.; Chen, Bo; Flatt, Austen K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to covalently attach functionalized carbon nanotubes to silicon. This step allows for the introduction of carbon nanotubes onto all manner of silicon surfaces, and thereby introduction of carbon nano - tubes covalently into silicon-based devices, onto silicon particles, and onto silicon surfaces. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed as individuals in surfactant were functionalized. The nano - tube was first treated with 4-t-butylbenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate to give increased solubility to the carbon nanotube; the second group attached to the sidewall of the nanotube has a silyl-protected terminal alkyne that is de-protected in situ. This gives a soluble carbon nanotube that has functional groups appended to the sidewall that can be attached covalently to silicon. This reaction was monitored by UV/vis/NJR to assure direct covalent functionalization.

  4. Remote Joule heating by a carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Kamal H.; Voskanian, Norvik; Bronsgeest, Merijntje; Cumings, John

    2012-05-01

    Minimizing Joule heating remains an important goal in the design of electronic devices. The prevailing model of Joule heating relies on a simple semiclassical picture in which electrons collide with the atoms of a conductor, generating heat locally and only in regions of non-zero current density, and this model has been supported by most experiments. Recently, however, it has been predicted that electric currents in graphene and carbon nanotubes can couple to the vibrational modes of a neighbouring material, heating it remotely. Here, we use in situ electron thermal microscopy to detect the remote Joule heating of a silicon nitride substrate by a single multiwalled carbon nanotube. At least 84% of the electrical power supplied to the nanotube is dissipated directly into the substrate, rather than in the nanotube itself. Although it has different physical origins, this phenomenon is reminiscent of induction heating or microwave dielectric heating. Such an ability to dissipate waste energy remotely could lead to improved thermal management in electronic devices.

  5. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  6. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  7. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons

  8. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Nanotube Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hua; GAO Daqiang; ZHANG Jing; YANG Guijin; ZHANG Jinlin; SHI Zhenhua; XUE Desheng

    2012-01-01

    CuFe2O4 nanotube arrays with different outer diameters were synthesized in anodic aluminum oxide templates through sol-gel techniques followed by heating treatment processes.The morphology of the nanotube arrays was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy,suggesting that the nanotube arrays are ordered and uniform.The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the crystal structure of the nanotube arrays is polycrystalline with a spinel-type structure.The measurements of magnetic properties indicate that CuFe2O4 nanotube arrays with outer diameter of 200 nm exhibit magnetic anisotropy with easy magnetization direction along the axis of nanotubes.

  9. Automated circuit fabrication and direct characterization of carbon nanotube vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, G; Shlafman, M; Tabachnik, T; Rogachevsky, Z; Rechnitz, S; Goldshtein, I; Shlafman, S; Gordon, N; Alchanati, G; Itzhak, M; Moshe, Y; Hajaj, E M; Nir, H; Milyutin, Y; Izraeli, T Y; Razin, A; Shtempluck, O; Kotchtakov, V; Yaish, Y E

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have fascinated many researchers due to their unprecedented properties. However, a major drawback in utilizing carbon nanotubes for practical applications is the difficulty in positioning or growing them at specific locations. Here we present a simple, rapid, non-invasive and scalable technique that enables optical imaging of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotube scaffold serves as a seed for nucleation and growth of small size, optically visible nanocrystals. After imaging the molecules can be removed completely, leaving the surface intact, and thus the carbon nanotube electrical and mechanical properties are preserved. The successful and robust optical imaging allowed us to develop a dedicated image processing algorithm through which we are able to demonstrate a fully automated circuit design resulting in field effect transistors and inverters. Moreover, we demonstrate that this imaging method allows not only to locate carbon nanotubes but also, as in the case of suspended ones, to study their dynamic mechanical motion. PMID:27396506

  10. CARBON NANOTUBES: AN APPROACH TO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alai et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of material science as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They have unique electronic, mechanical, optical and chemical properties that make them good candidates for a wide variety of applications, including drug transporters, new therapeutics, delivery systems and diagnostics. Their unique surface area, stiffness, strength and resilience have led to much excitement in the field of pharmacy. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes, multiple walled nanotubes. Various techniques have been developed to produce nanotubes in sizeable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition. They can pass through membranes, carrying therapeutic drugs, vaccines and nucleic acids deep into the cell to targets previously unreachable. Purification of the tubes can be divided into a couple of main techniques: oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering and functionalization techniques. The main problem of insolubility in aqueous media has been solved by developing a synthetic protocol that allows highly water-soluble carbon NTs to be obtained. The modifications are done to improve efficiency of carbon nanotubes by formulating luminescent carbon nanotubes, ultrathin carbon nanoneedles, magnetically guided nanotubes. The application of carbon nanotube in tissue engineering, drug carrier release system, wound healing, in cancer treatment and as biosensor. Researchers have recently developed a new approach to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the treatment of cancer using substituted Carborane-Appended Water-Soluble single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  11. Anodic Fabrication of Ti-Nb-Zr-O Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotube arrays were fabricated through pulse anodic oxidation of Ti-Nb-Zr alloy in 1 M NaH2PO4 containing 0.5 wt% HF electrolytes. The effect of anodization parameters and Zr content on the microstructure and composition of Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotubes was investigated using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was found that length of the Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotubes increased with increase of Zr contents. The diameter and the length of Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanotubes could be controlled by pulse voltage. XRD analysis of Ti-Nb-Zr-O samples annealed at 500°C in air indicated that the (101 diffraction peaks shifted from 25.78° to 25.05° for annealed Ti-Nb-Zr-O samples with different Zr contents because of larger lattice parameter of Ti-Nb-Zr-O compared to that of undoped TiO2.

  12. Thermal Spreading in Carbon Nanotube Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duckjong; Shin, Dong-Sig; Yu, Jeonghwan; Kim, Haesik; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Woo, Chang-Su

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, have attracted significant attention as good candidates for next-generation heat-spreading materials because of their high thermal conductivity, mechanical flexibility, etc. Regarding the thermal spreading performance of carbon-based nanofilms, remarkable test results have been reported mainly from the industrial side, but their validity and the physical mechanism underlying the heat transfer enhancement are still under debate. In this study, we assess the thermal spreading performance of a multi-walled CNT film on a copper foil using a non-contact characterization method in a simple and methodical manner, and discuss the possibility of carbon nanofilms as heat spreaders based on the experimental and numerical results. This study provides useful information on heat transfer enhancement by carbon nanofilms and could contribute to the development of high-performance carbon-based heat-spreading coatings. PMID:26726629

  13. Hexagonal silicon nanotube confined inside a carbon nanotube: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weijuan; Yan, Xiaohong; Xiao, Yang

    2008-02-01

    We studied the stability, geometrical structures and electronic energy band of hexagonal silicon nanotube (SiNT) confined inside carbon nanotubes based on first-principle calculations. The results show that the encapsulating process of SiNT is exothermic in ( 9,9) carbon nanotube while endothermic in ( 8,8) and ( 7,7) carbon nanotubes. When the SiNT is inserted into ( 9,9) carbon nanotube, the insertion energy is about 0.09 eV. Energy band of SiNT@( 9,9) nanotube is not distorted greatly compared with the superposition of bands of isolated SiNT and ( 9,9) carbon nanotube. Especially, a parabolic band occurs near the Fermi level of energy band in SiNT@( 7,7) nanotube. Such a band could be a nearly free electronic state originating from carbon nanotube. Moreover, we discuss the variation of total energy as the SiNT rotates around its axis inside carbon nanotubes.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Composites for Electronic Packaging Applications: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lavanya Aryasomayajula; Klaus-Juergen Wolter

    2013-01-01

    Composite engineering comprises of metal matrix composites. They have high strength-weight ratio, better stiffness, economical production, and ease of availability of raw materials. The discovery of carbon nanotubes has opened new possibilities to face challenges better. Carbon Nanotubes are known for their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal and electrical properties. Recent research has made progress in fabricating carbon nanotube metal matrix and polymer-based composites. The metho...

  15. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2010-01-01

    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  16. A statistical mechanics model of carbon nanotube macro-films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube macro-films are two-dimensional films with micrometer thickness and centimeter by centimeter in-plane dimension.These carbon nanotube macroscopic assemblies have attracted significant attention from the material and mechanics communities recently because they can be easily handled and tailored to meet specific engineering needs.This paper reports the experimental methods on the preparation and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube macro-films,and a statistical mechanics model on ...

  17. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  18. Thermal characterization of carbon nanotube foam using MEMS microhotplates and thermographic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, C.; Riccio, M.; Poelma, R.H.; Morana, B.; Vollebregt, S.; Santagata, F.; Irace, A.; Zhang, G.Q.; Sarro, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal material properties play a fundamental role in the thermal management of microelectronic systems. The porous nature of carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays results in a very high surface area to volume ratio, which makes the material attractive for surface driven heat transfer mechanisms. Here, we r

  19. Forced assembly of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes trapped in paper for cheap gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xinyue; Huang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Shujun; Qian, Qiuping; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Yapei

    2013-11-25

    A versatile and readily scalable approach to fabricate a cheap and sensitive paper gas sensor is described. Chemically acidified single-walled carbon nanotubes are assembled in paper, forming continuous sensing arrays with a low detection limit and high detection selectivity for ammonia gas.

  20. Friction and adhesion of hierarchical carbon nanotube structures for biomimetic dry adhesives: multiscale modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Jiang, Haodan; Xia, Zhenhai; Gao, Xiaosheng

    2010-09-01

    With unique hierarchical fibrillar structures on their feet, gecko lizards can walk on vertical walls or even ceilings. Recent experiments have shown that strong binding along the shear direction and easy lifting in the normal direction can be achieved by forming unidirectional carbon nanotube array with laterally distributed tips similar to gecko's feet. In this study, a multiscale modeling approach was developed to analyze friction and adhesion behaviors of this hierarchical fibrillar system. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube array with laterally distributed segments at the end was simulated by coarse grained molecular dynamics. The effects of the laterally distributed segments on friction and adhesion strengths were analyzed, and further adopted as cohesive laws used in finite element analysis at device scale. The results show that the laterally distributed segments play an essential role in achieving high force anisotropy between normal and shear directions in the adhesives. Finite element analysis reveals a new friction-enhanced adhesion mechanism of the carbon nanotube array, which also exists in gecko adhesive system. The multiscale modeling provides an approach to bridge the microlevel structures of the carbon nanotube array with its macrolevel adhesive behaviors, and the predictions from this modeling give an insight into the mechanisms of gecko-mimicking dry adhesives.

  1. Nanoscale fluid transportation through individual carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Cao, Di; Pang, Pei; Luo, Tao; Lindsay, Stuart; Kristic, Predrag; Nuckolls, Colin

    2011-03-01

    There are great interest in both simulation and experiment of fluid flow on the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes, with their extremely small inner diameter (usually below 2 nm) and atomic smooth inner surface, are ideal materials for studying nanoconfinement and ion and molecule nanoscale translocation. The excellent electrical properties of CNTs can also be integrated to achieve nanoelectrofluidic device. This presentation describes our recent progress in studying fluid transport through individual carbon nanotubes, including simultaneously ionic and electronic measurements during water, ion and molecule translocation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01).

  2. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  3. Advanced technology for functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Meng; Chuanlong Fu; Qinghua Lu

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted considerable interest in the fields of physics, chemistry, material science and biology. The functionalized CNTs exhibit improved properties enabling facile fabrication of novel nanomaterials and nanodevices. Most of the functionalization approaches developed at present could be categorized into the covalent attachment of functional groups and the non-covalent adsorption of various functional molecules onto the surface of CNTs. This review highlights recent development and our work in functionalization of carbon nanotubes, leading to bio-compatible CNTs, fluorescent CNTs and transition metal func-tionalizcd CNTs. These novel methods possess advantages such as simplified technical procedures and reduced cost of novel nanoma-terials and nanodcvices fabrication.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  5. Improving the Electrical Contact Prop erty of Single-Walled Carb on Nanotub e Arrays by Electro dep osition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhang∗

    2013-01-01

    A parallel method for the fabrication of metal contacts on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) arrays was presented and the electrical contact property was evaluated by a SWNT-field effect transistor struc-ture. Copper and gold contacts were fabricated on both semiconducting SWNTs and metallic SWNTs by using a maskless electrodeposition process. The SWNT array remained a p-type semiconductor after the electrode-position. The contact resistance between SWNT array and microelectrodes was reduced more than 50%by the established copper contacts. The source-drain current of the carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET) structure can be further increased from 7.9 µA to 9.2 µA when the copper contacts were replaced by gold ones, which is probably due to the better contact property to SWNT of gold contacts with fine grain size.

  6. Carbon nanotube based stationary phases for microchip chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview and critical evaluation of the use of carbon nanotubes and related carbon-based nanomaterials for microchip chromatography. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, such as a very high surface area and intriguing adsorptive behaviour, have...

  7. A Carbon Nanotube Cable for a Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed in connection with the possibility to use them for the construction of a space elevator. From the fundamental information about the structure of a carbon nanotube and the chemical bond between carbon atoms, Young's modulus and the ultimate tensile strength are…

  8. Electrostatic sensing and electrochemistry with single carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, I.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental study of devices based on single carbon nanotubes in the context of (bio)sensing in aqueous solutions. Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules of sp2- carbon, about one nanometer in diameter and typically several micrometers long, which have semiconducting o

  9. Electrical transport measurements of individual bismuth nanowires and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Wan Young

    have also studied electric transport measurements of carbon nanotubes grown in AAO templates. These vertically grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for field emission device. In addition, ultra-density vertical CNT transistor arrays have also been proposed based on these nanotube structures. To realize these interesting electronic applications, a detailed understanding of the electronic transport properties of the nanotubes is needed. In particular, nanotubes grown in the AAO templates are known to possess significant amount of structural disorder. It is thus important to elucidate the effect of disorder on the electronic properties of these nanotubes. Electrical transport measurements of individual carbon nanotubes are studied, The four-terminal resistance at room temperature scales linearly with the nanotube length indicating diffusive nature of transport. The conductance shows an exp[(-1/T)1/3] dependence on temperature T, suggesting that two-dimensional variable-range hopping is the dominant conduction mechanism. The maximum current density carried by these nanotubes is on the order of 106 A/cm 2.

  10. Spontaneous exciton dissociation in carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumamoto, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Ishii, A; Yokoyama, A.; Shimada, T; Kato, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes reveal spontaneous dissociation of excitons into free electron-hole pairs. Correlation of luminescence intensity and photocurrent shows that a significant fraction of excitons are dissociating during their relaxation into the lowest exciton state. Furthermore, the combination of optical and electrical signals also allows for extraction of the absorption cross section and the oscillator st...

  11. On the Nanoindentation of the Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Petre P.Teodorescu; Veturia Chiroiu; Ligia Munteanu; Valeria Moşneguţu

    2010-01-01

    A new inverse approach is proposed in this paper, which combines elements of nonlocal theory and molecular mechanics, based on the experimental results available in the nanoindentation literature. The effect of the inlayer van der Waals atomistic interactions for carbon nanotubes with multiple walls (MWCNT) is included by means of the Brenner-Tersoff potential and experimental results. The neighboring walls of MWCNT are coupled through van der Waals interactions, and the shell buckling would ...

  12. Magnetic Carbon Nanotubes for Protein Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobin Fan; Fengbao Zhang; Guoliang Zhang; Xiuhui Diao; Hongyu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic separation is a promising strategy in protein separation. Owing to their unique one-dimensional structures and desired magnetic properties, stacked-cup carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) with magnetic nanoparticles trapped in their tips can serve as train-like systems for protein separation. In this study, we functionalized the magnetic CSCNTs with high density of carboxyl groups by radical addition and then anchored 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) through amidation reaction to achieve orien...

  13. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hyeob Kim; Cheong Hoon Kwon; Changsun Lee; Jieun An; Tam Thi Thanh Phuong; Sun Hwa Park; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tong Mook Kang; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with p...

  14. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Valentini; Silvia Bittolo Bon; Stefano Signetti; Manoj Tripathi; Erica Iacob; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extr...

  15. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  16. Composites with polymer-grafted carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, M. C.; Novais, R. M.; Covas, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites exhibit the processability advantages of plastics, while conveying electrical conductivity characteristics suitable for electric transport, or for sensing functionalities. The success of their application depends on the ability to homogeneously disperse the CNT in the polymer matrices to form a stable conductive network. The structural strength of the nanocomposite is also desirable, and may be a requirement. The chemical functionalization of the CNT i...

  17. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Yuhe Zhu; Susan Liao; Jiajia Li

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matr...

  18. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  19. Carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposite infrared sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Basudev; Setyowati, Kristina; Liu, Haiying; Waldeck, David H; Chen, Jian

    2008-04-01

    The infrared photoresponse in the electrical conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is dramatically enhanced by embedding SWNTs in an electrically and thermally insulating polymer matrix. The conductivity change in a 5 wt % SWNT-polycarbonate nanocomposite is significant (4.26%) and sharp upon infrared illumination in the air at room temperature. While the thermal effect predominates in the infrared photoresponse of a pure SWNT film, the photoeffect predominates in the infrared photoresponse of SWNT-polycarbonate nanocomposites. PMID:18333623

  20. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future.

  1. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  2. Fast Electromechanical Switches Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama; Wong, Eric; Epp, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated nanoelectromechanical switches based on carbon nanotubes have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop high-speed switches for a variety of stationary and portable electronic equipment. As explained below, these devices offer advantages over electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical switches, which, heretofore, have represented the state of the art of rapid, highly miniaturized electromechanical switches. Potential applications for these devices include computer memories, cellular telephones, communication networks, scientific instrumentation, and general radiation-hard electronic equipment. A representative device of the present type includes a single-wall carbon nanotube suspended over a trench about 130 nm wide and 20 nm deep in an electrically insulating material. The ends of the carbon nanotube are connected to metal electrodes, denoted the source and drain electrodes. At bottom of the trench is another metal electrode, denoted the pull electrode (see figure). In the off or open switch state, no voltage is applied, and the nanotube remains out of contact with the pull electrode. When a sufficiently large electric potential (switching potential) is applied between the pull electrode and either or both of the source and drain electrodes, the resulting electrostatic attraction bends and stretches the nanotube into contact with the pull electrode, thereby putting the switch into the "on" or "closed" state, in which substantial current (typically as much as hundreds of nanoamperes) is conducted. Devices of this type for use in initial experiments were fabricated on a thermally oxidized Si wafer, onto which Nb was sputter-deposited for use as the pull-electrode layer. Nb was chosen because its refractory nature would enable it to withstand the chemical and thermal conditions to be subsequently imposed for growing carbon nanotubes. A 200- nm-thick layer of SiO2 was formed on top of the Nb layer by plasma

  3. Fluoride and lead adsorption on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuguang; LI Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The properties and applications of CNT have been studied extensively since Iijima discovered them in 1991[1,2]. They have exceptional mechanical properties and unique electrical property, highly chemical stability and large specific surface area. Thus far, they have widely potential applications in many fields. They can be used as reinforcing materials in composites[3], field emissions[4], hydrogen storage[5], nanoelectronic components[6], catalyst supports[7], adsorption material and so on. However, the study on the potential application of CNT, environmental protection field in particular, was hardly begun.Long[8] et al. reported that CNT had a significantly higher dioxin removal efficiency than that of activated carbon. The Langmuir adsorption constant is 2.7 × 1052, 1.3 × 1018 respectively. The results indicated that CNT is potential candidate for the removal of micro-organic pollutants. However, the reports on the CNT used as fluoride and heavy metal adsorbent are seldom.In this paper, A novel material, alumina supported on carbon nanotubes (Al2O3/CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and Al(NO3)3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra demonstrate that alumina is amorphous, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that CNT and alumina are homogeneously mixed. Furthermore, the fluoride adsorption behavior on the surface of Al2O3/CNT has been investigated and compared with other adsorbents. The results indicate that Al2O3/CNT has a high adsorption capacity, with a saturation adsorption capacity of 39.4 mg/g. It is also found that the adsorption capacity of Al2O3/CNT is 3.0~4.5 times that of γ-Al2O3while almost equal to that of IRA-410 polymeric resin at 25 ℃. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride on Al2O3/CNT is fit the Freundlich equation well, optimal pH ranging from 5.0 to 9.0.Also in this paper, a novel material, modified carbon nanotubes (CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and HNO3 under boiling condition. Infrared spectroscopy (IR

  4. Preparation of carbon nanotubes by MPECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the synthesis of CNTs due to the vertical alignment, the large area growth, the lower growth temperature, uniform heat distribution and the good control of the different growth parameters. In this work we present our results about the preparation of carbon nanotube with different morphologies by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition MPECVD. Well aligned, curly and coiled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. We have investigated the effect of the different growth condition parameters such as type of the catalyst, pressure and the hydrogen to methane flow rate ratio on the morphology of the carbon nanotubes. The results were showed that there is a great dependence of the morphology of carbon nanotubes on these parameters. There is a linear relation between the growth rate and the methane to hydrogen ratio. We found that the growth rate has a great dependence on the amount of methane. For example the growth rate varied from the value 1,34 μm/min when the methane flow rate was 10 sccm to more than 14 μm/min when the methane flow rate was raised to 50 sccm. This growth rate is greater than that reported in the literature. The effect of the gas pressure on the CNTs was also studied. The Raman spectra (excitation wavelength 473 nm) of all samples show D-band peak at around 1300 cm-1 and G-band peak at around 1580 cm-1, which indicate that our CNTs are multi wall CNTs (MWCNTs). The D-band and the G-band correspond to sp2 and sp3 carbon stretching modes relatively, and their intensity ratio is a measure of the amount of disorder in the CNTs. The D-band is known to be attributed to the carbonaceous particles, defects in the curved graphitic sheet and tube ends. It has been suggested that lower Ig/Id ratios and narrower first and second order D and G bands are suggestive of well-aligned NNTs. The photoluminescence PL

  5. Excitation transfer and luminescence in porphyrin-carbon nanotube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Magadur, Gurvan; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Alain-Rizzo, Valérie; C. Voisin; Roussignol, Ph.; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Delaire, Jacques,

    2007-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with hydrosoluble porphyrins (TPPS) is achieved by "$\\pi$-stacking". The porphyrin/nanotube interaction is studied by means of optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies. The main absorption line of the porphyrins adsorbed on nanotubes exhibits a 120 meV red shift, which we ascribe to a flattening of the molecule in order to optimize $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions. The porphyrin-nanotube complex shows a strong quenching ...

  6. Exciton decay dynamics in individual carbon nanotubes at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gokus, Tobias; Hartschuh, Achim; Harutyunyan, Hayk; Allegrini, Maria; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred; Green, Alexander A.; Hersam, Mark C.; Araujo, Paulo T.; Jorio, Ado

    2008-01-01

    We studied the exciton decay dynamics of individual semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes at room temperature using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence decay from nanotubes of the same (n,m) type follows a single exponential decay function, however, with lifetimes varying between about 1 and 40 ps from nanotube to nanotube. A correlation between broad photoluminescence spectra and short lifetimes was found and explained by defects promoting both nonradi...

  7. Modelling the elastic behaviour of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Otero-Gruer, Fermín; Oller Martínez, Sergio Horacio; Martínez García, Javier; Salomón, Ramón Omar

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), since their discovery by Lij ima in 1991 [1], are considered a new generation of reinforcement [2]. Their "nano" size structure makes them potentially free of defects, which provides them with excellent physical properties [3,4]. There are two main nanotube types: single wall nanotubes (SWNT), which are made of a single wall tube; and multiwall nanotubes (MWNT), which consist in several concentric walls, one inside the other. In a composite, one the most importa...

  8. Numerical modelling of behaviour of carbon nanotube-reinforced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Otero-Gruer, Fermín; Oller Martínez, Sergio Horacio; Martínez García, Javier; Salomón, Ramón Omar

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery by Lijima in 1991[1], carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are considered a new generation of reinforcement [2]. Their "nano" size structure makes them potentially free of defects, which provides them with excellent physical properties [3,4]. There are two main nanotube types: single wall nanotubes (SWNT) and multi wall nanotubes (MWNT). These last ones consist in several concentric walls, one inside the other. In a composite, one the most important factors that condition thei...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube reinforced copper thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    Two model composites of copper and carbon nanotubes were fabricated by very different deposition methods. Copper electrodeposition in a plating bath containing nanotubes created a 3D matrix of randomly oriented CNTs within a thick, 20 micron Cu film. In contrast, sandwiching a layer of well-separated nanotubes between two sub-micron sputtered Cu layers produced a 2D-composite with nanotubes lying parallel to the substrate surface. These composites, which were mechanically tested using var...

  10. Carbon Nanotubes:from Nanoscale Building Blocks to Macrostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have fascinating properties.In order to use these novel one-dimensional structures for applications such as in nano-electronic,nano-mechanical and electrochemical energy storage device and as structural elements in various composites,the structure of nanotubes needs to be tailored and various architectures and macroscale assembles have to be configured using nanotube building blocks.Nanotube macrostructures are macroscopically organized groups of CNTs,which are expecte...

  11. Electronic transport properties of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹觉先; 颜晓红; 肖杨; 丁建文

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the differential conductance of metallic carbon nanotubes by the scatter matrix method. It is found that the differential conductance of metallic nanotube-based devices oscillates as a function of the bias voltage between the two leads and the gate voltage. Oscillation period T is directly proportional to the reciprocal of nanotube length. In addition, we found that electronic transport properties are sensitive to variation of the length of the nanotube.

  12. Studies of DNA-carbon nanotube interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mary Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Recently a new biomaterial consisting of a DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotube, and known as a DNA/SWNT, has been discovered. The possible applications of this hybrid are varied and range from genomic sequencing to nanoscale electronics to molecular delivery. The realization of these potential applications requires more knowledge about the microscopic properties of this material. In this thesis, I present studies of: the orientation of nucleobases on the nanotube sidewall; the sequence and length dependence of the DNA-nanotube interaction; and solution conditions to manipulate the DNA/SWNT hybrid. The measurement of the UV optical absorbance of DNA/SWNT and the nucleotide absorbance from DNA/SWNT provide the first experimental confirmation that DNA binds to nanotubes through pi-stacking. Because the hypochromic absorbance typical of pi-stacked structures are expected to occur primarily for DNA dipole transitions that lie along the axis of the optically anisotropic SWNTs, the absorbance changes following binding of DNA to the nanotubes reveals the preferred orientation assumed by each of the four bound nucleotides with respect to the nanotube's long axis. The first observations of pronounced sequence- and length-dependent variations in the binding between ssDNA and SWNTs in aqueous solution are presented. These observations rely on the discovery that there exists a range of DNA lengths able to hybridize with SWNTs that can nevertheless be dissociated at temperatures below the boiling point of water. Quantitative results comparing the isochronal dissociation temperatures and binding energies of DNA/SWNT composed of differing DNA sequences and lengths are given. These results indicate variability and complexity in the binding mechanism responsible for the stability of the hybrid system that transcends simple models based on the sum of independent base-nanotube interactions. Binding energies between a DNA base and nanotube (0.05 to 0.09 eV per base) are similar

  13. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube based photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells with a three dimensional (3D) morphology are an exciting new research thrust with promise to create cheaper, more efficient solar cells. This work introduces a new type of 3D PV device based on carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. These arrays are paired with the thin film heterojunction, CdTe/CdS, to form a complete 3D carbon nanotube PV device (3DCNTPV). Marriage of a complicated 3D structure with production methods traditionally used for planar CdTe solar cell is challenging. This work examines the problems associated with processing these types of cells and systematically alters production methods of the semiconductor layers and electrodes to increase the short circuit current (Isc), eliminate parasitic shunts, and increase the open circuit voltage (Voc). The main benefit of 3D solar cell is the ability to utilize multiple photon interactions with the solar cell surface. The three dimensionality allows photons to interact multiple times with the photoactive material, which increases the absorption and the overall power output over what is possible with a two dimensional (2D) morphology. To quantify the increased power output arising from these multiple photon interactions, a new absorption efficiency term, eta3D, is introduced. The theoretical basis behind this new term and how it relates to the absorption efficiency of a planar cell, eta 2D, is derived. A unique model for the average number of multiple photon impingements, Gamma, is proposed based on three categories of 3D morphology: an infinite trench, an enclosed box, and an array of towers. The derivation of eta3D and Gamma for these 3D PV devices gives a complete picture of the enhanced power output over 2D cells based on CNT array height, pitch, radius, and shape. This theory is validated by monte carlo simulations and experiment. This new type of 3D PV devices has been shown to work experimentally. The first 3DCNTPV cells created posses Isc values of 0.085 to 17.872mA/cm2 and Voc values

  14. Carbon nanotube-based substrates for modulation of human pluripotent stem cell fate

    OpenAIRE

    Pryzhkova, Marina V; Aria, Indrat; Cheng, Qingsu; Harris, Greg M.; Zan, Xingjie; Gharib, Morteza; Jabbarzadeh, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the biological response of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) cultured on a carbon nanotube (CNT) array-based substrate with the long term goal to direct hPSC germ layer specification for a wide variety of tissue engineering applications. CNT arrays were fabricated using a chemical vapor deposition system allowing for control over surface roughness and mechanical stiffness. Our results demonstrated that hPSCs readily attach to hydrophilized and extracellular matrix coated CN...

  15. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarillo-Herrero, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic transport through nanostructures can be very different from trans- port in macroscopic conductors, especially at low temperatures. Carbon na- notubes are tiny cylinders made of carbon atoms. Their remarkable electronic and mechanical properties, together with their small size (a few nm in

  16. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Jones, K.M.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen burns pollution-free and may be produced from renewable energy resources. It is therefore an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels as an energy carrier. However, the lack of a convenient and cost-effective hydrogen storage system greatly impedes the wide-scale use of hydrogen in both domestic and international markets. Although several hydrogen storage options exist, no approach satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. A material consisting exclusively of micropores with molecular dimensions could simultaneously meet all of the requirements for transportation use if the interaction energy for hydrogen was sufficiently strong to cause hydrogen adsorption at ambient temperatures. Small diameter ({approx}1 mm) carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are elongated micropores of molecular dimensions, and materials composed predominantly of SWNTs may prove to be the ideal adsorbent for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen. Last year the authors reported that hydrogen could be adsorbed on arc-generated soots containing 12{Angstrom} diameter nanotubes at temperatures in excess of 285K. In this past year they have learned that such adsorption does not occur on activated carbon materials, and that the cobalt nanoparticles present in their arc-generated soots are not responsible for the hydrogen which is stable at 285 K. These results indicate that enhanced adsorption forces within the internal cavities of the SWNTs are active in stabilizing hydrogen at elevated temperatures. This enhanced stability could lead to effective hydrogen storage under ambient temperature conditions. In the past year the authors have also demonstrated that single-wall carbon nanotubes in arc-generated soots may be selectively opened by oxidation in H{sub 2}O resulting in improved hydrogen adsorption, and they have estimated experimentally that the amount of hydrogen stored is {approximately}10% of the nanotube weight.

  17. Carbon nanotube-based functional materials for optical limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Ying; Liu, Ying; Doyle, James; He, Nan; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Bai, Jinrui; Blau, Werner J

    2007-01-01

    Optical limiting is an important application of nonlinear optics, useful for the protection of human eyes, optical elements, and optical sensors from intense laser pulses. An optical limiter is such a device that strongly attenuates high intensity light and potentially damaging light such as focused laser beams, whilst allowing for the high transmission of ambient light. Optical limiting properties of carbon nanotube suspensions, solubilized carbon nanotubes, small molecules doped carbon nanotubes and polymer/carbon nanotube composites have been reviewed. The optical limiting responses of carbon nanotube suspensions are shown to be dominated by nonlinear scattering as a result of thermally induced solvent-bubble formation and sublimation of the nanotubes, while the solubilized carbon nanotubes optically limit through nonlinear absorption mechanism and exhibit significant solution-concentration-dependent optical limiting responses. In the former case the optical limiting results are independent of nanotube concentrations at the same linear transmittance as that of the solubilized systems. Many efforts have been invested into the research of polymer/carbon nanotube composites in an attempt to allow for the fabrication of films required for the use of nanotubes in a real optical limiting application. The higher carbon nanotube content samples block the incident light more effectively at higher incident energy densities or intensities. The optical limiting mechanism of these composite materials is quite complicated. Besides nonlinear scattering contribution to the optical limiting, there may also be other contributions e.g., nonlinear absorption, nonlinear refraction, electronic absorption and others to the optical limiting. Further improvements in the optical limiting efficiency of the composites and in the dispersion and alignment properties of carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix could be realized by variation of both nanostructured guest and polymer host, and by

  18. Design, fabrication and properties of novel architectures made from carbon nanotubes and nano-porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sumanjeet

    Nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous potential applications due to their unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Building macroscopic architectures using these nanocomponents requires new approaches for organization or assembly of these components. This can be achieved by using various techniques like capillary-induced compaction, template-assisted growth and other synthesis techniques. The vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays were grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Evaporation of liquid from such vertically aligned nanotube arrays induces the assembly of nanotubes into cellular patterns. The role of substrate and orientation of the carbon nanotube array was investigated and analyzed to gain more control over the pattern formation that could help in designing new structures. Electrical measurements on the CNT patterns before and after capillary-induced compaction revealed that compaction results in four-fold increase in electrical conductivity, making them a potential candidate for vertical interconnects. A new method to fabricate a syringe with nanopores by using anodization technique was demonstrated. Experimental parameters were investigated to control the dimension and morphology of the nanopores in the syringe. Capillary force was used to infiltrate and replicate the complete 3D architecture into polymers. The usefulness of syringe as a biological sampler (DNA-RNA separation) was demonstrated. Layered structure of exfoliated mica was used as a substrate for growth of CNTs. This resulted in novel layered hybrid architecture of mica and carbon nanotube arrays. Mechanical properties of such architectures were investigated. Such architectures could be very useful as foams. These simple techniques can be used to assemble nanoscale components into well-defined macroscopic architectures and thus broaden the range of applications where their unique properties can be put into use.

  19. Engineered nanowires, carbon nanotubes and graphene for sensors, actuators and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.

    2010-02-01

    We are exploring nanoelectronic engineering areas based on low dimensional materials, including carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our primary research focus is investigating carbon nanotube and graphene architectures for field emission applications, energy harvesting and sensing. In a second effort, we are developing a high-throughput desktop nanolithography process. Lastly, we are studying nanomechanical actuators and associated nanoscale measurement techniques for re-configurable arrayed nanostructures with applications in antennas, remote detectors and biomedical nanorobots. The devices we fabricate, assemble, manipulate and characterize potentially have a wide range of applications including sensors, detectors, system-on-a-chip, system-in-a-package, programmable logic controls, energy storage systems and allelectronic systems.

  20. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja;

    2013-01-01

    We present here a proof of concept for a novel fabrication method of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, utilizing black silicon nanograss (a forest of silicon nanometer-sized spikes created with reactive ion etching) coated with titanium tungsten diffusion barrier as a template. The method...... allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  1. Effects of Atomic-Scale Structure on the Fracture Properties of Amorphous Carbon - Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The fracture of carbon materials is a complex process, the understanding of which is critical to the development of next generation high performance materials. While quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are the most accurate way to model fracture, the fracture behavior of many carbon-based composite engineering materials, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) composites, is a multi-scale process that occurs on time and length scales beyond the practical limitations of QM methods. The Reax Force Field (ReaxFF) is capable of predicting mechanical properties involving strong deformation, bond breaking and bond formation in the classical molecular dynamics framework. This has been achieved by adding to the potential energy function a bond-order term that varies continuously with distance. The use of an empirical bond order potential, such as ReaxFF, enables the simulation of failure in molecular systems that are several orders of magnitude larger than would be possible in QM techniques. In this work, the fracture behavior of an amorphous carbon (AC) matrix reinforced with CNTs was modeled using molecular dynamics with the ReaxFF reactive forcefield. Care was taken to select the appropriate simulation parameters, which can be different from those required when using traditional fixed-bond force fields. The effect of CNT arrangement was investigated with three systems: a single-wall nanotube (SWNT) array, a multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) array, and a SWNT bundle system. For each arrangement, covalent bonds are added between the CNTs and AC, with crosslink fractions ranging from 0-25% of the interfacial CNT atoms. The SWNT and MWNT array systems represent ideal cases with evenly spaced CNTs; the SWNT bundle system represents a more realistic case because, in practice, van der Waals interactions lead to the agglomeration of CNTs into bundles. The simulation results will serve as guidance in setting experimental processing conditions to optimize the mechanical properties of CNT

  2. Fabrication, structure, and electron emission of single carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gongpu

    Carbon nanotubes possess many excellent field emission properties. An obstacle to these applications is that there is no simple and reproducible method to prepare a single carbon nanotube field emitter. In this dissertation, individual carbon nanotube field emitters have been fabricated in a two-step process involving (a) producing micron-size carbon fibers which contain single carbon nanotubes at their cores and (b) exposing the nanotubes by fracturing the fiber with mechanical forces and mounting the fiber to a copper ribbon with a groove. This fabrication method has the potential to be the production method for single carbon nanotube field emission point electron sources. The cold field emission properties of single carbon nanotubes have been studied. These carbon nanotubes exhibit large field enhancement factors of 1.1x107 m-1 and low turn-on fields of 1.1 V/mum. An empirical model has been developed to calculate the field enhancement factor of an open end nanotube attached on a carbon fiber. The lifetime measurements show that a single carbon nanotube can continuously emit electrons over 100 hours without significant current drops. The emission stability measurements show that the maximum current drift is 3.6%. It is also shown experimentally that a carbon nanotube has a high reduced brightness 2.9x 108 ASr-1m-2 V-1, which is two orders of magnitude higher than those of the thermionic electron sources. The thermal field emission properties of a single carbon nanotube have been systemically studied. It is found that there is a gap between the intermediate region and the field emission region which is not covered by either the Fowler-Nordheim theory or the Murphy-Good theory. We have developed an analytical equation that describes the thermal field emission behavior of a single carbon nanotube within the gap. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions. We also studied the effect of Cs doping on the field emission properties and

  3. Laser patterning of vertically grown carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won Seok [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The selective patterning of a carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on a Si substrate has been performed using a femtosecond laser. The high shock wave generated by the femtosecond laser effectively removed the CNTs without damage to the Si substrate. This process has many advantages because it is performed without chemicals and can be easily applied to large area patterning. The CNTs grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have a catalyst cap at the end of the nanotube owing to the tip growth mode mechanism. For the application of an electron emission and biosensor probe, the catalyst cap is usually removed chemically, which damages the surface of the CNT wall. Precise control of the femtosecond laser power and focal position could solve this problem. Furthermore, selective CNT cutting using a femtosecond laser is also possible without any phase change in the CNTs, which is usually observed in the focused ion beam irradiation of CNTs.

  4. Carbon nanotube growth by PECVD: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyyappan, M; Delzeit, Lance; Cassell, Alan; Hash, David [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), due to their unique electronic and extraordinary mechanical properties, have been receiving much attention for a wide variety of applications. Recently, plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) has emerged as a key growth technique to produce vertically-aligned nanotubes. This paper reviews various plasma sources currently used in CNT growth, catalyst preparation and growth results. Since the technology is in its early stages, there is a general lack of understanding of growth mechanisms, the role of the plasma itself, and the identity of key species responsible for growth. This review is aimed at the low temperature plasma research community that has successfully addressed such issues, through plasma and surface diagnostics and modelling, in semiconductor processing and diamond thin film growth.

  5. Carbon nanotube as a gramicidin analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A.; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a carbon nanotube that is selectively permeable to monovalent cations, binds divalent cations and rejects anions. The nanotubes, with an effective radius of 4.53 Å and length of 36 Å, are terminated with hydrogen atoms and are exohydrogenated in two regions near the entrance and exit. Using molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations we examine the free energy, current-voltage-concentration profiles and ion binding sites. The characteristics of this channel are comparable to the antibiotic gramicidin-A, but the potassium current is six times larger. At 40 mM calcium concentration the current is reduced from 26 pA to 4 pA due to a calcium ion binding at the channel entrance.

  6. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Carbon Nanotube Composite Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Libo

    2011-01-01

    The project has been concerned with structure/property relationships in a series of different carbon nanotube (CNT) composite fibres. Raman spectroscopy has been proved to be a powerful technique to characterise the CNT-containing fibres. Electrospinning has been used to prepare poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibres containing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The effect of the processing conditions including the polymer concentration, electric voltage, tip-to-collector distance, nanotube ...

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis via Arc Discharge with a Yttria Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Mohammad; Ahmed A. Moosa; J.H. Potgieter; Mustafa K. Ismael

    2013-01-01

    A facile method is proposed to use a computer controlled Arc discharge gap between graphite electrodes together with an yttria-nickel catalyst to synthesize carbon nanotubes under an Ar-H2 gases mixture atmosphere by applying different DC currents and pressure. This produces carbon nanotubes with decreased diameters and increased length. XRD evidence indicated a shift toward higher crystallinity nanotubes. Yields of the CNTs after purification were also enhanced.

  8. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polyamide 6 for microinjection moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Tânia; Paiva, M. C.; Pontes, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the dispersion state of pure and functionalized carbon nanotubes in polyamide 6, on composites prepared by twin-screw extrusion and then processed by microinjection moulding. Nanocomposites were prepared with different carbonvnanotube compositions, with and without functionalization. The nanotubes were functionalized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The dispersion of the carbon nanotube agglomerates was quantified using optical microscop...

  9. Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI REN ZHONG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a Ni–Cu–Al catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 20–60 nm, while their outer diameter is about 40–80 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the Ni–Cu–Al catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.

  10. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  11. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang; Hauge, Robert H.; Schmidt, Howard K.; Kim, Myung Jong; Kittrell, W. Carter

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  12. Very short functionalized carbon nanotubes for membrane applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, A.; Reijerkerk, S.R.; Potreck, J.; Nijmeijer, D.C.; Mekhalif, Z.; Delhalle, J.

    2010-01-01

    The cutting and functionalization of carbon nanotubes is described, applying a single-step ball-mill based process. Very short carbon nanotubes bearing primary amine functions were produced, characterized and incorporated in polymeric membranes. The gas separation performance of the composite membra

  13. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  14. A New Application of Carbon Nanotubes Constructing Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes used for constructing biosensor was described for the first time. Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with carboxylic acid groups were used to immobilize glucose oxidase forming a glucose biosensor. The biosensor response can be determined by amperometric method at a low applied potential (0.40 V).

  15. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny;

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...

  16. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe Fetterman, Yevgeny Raitses, and Michael Keidar

    2008-04-08

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  17. Cross-linking of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with polymeric amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Stuart, M. C. A.; Landaluce, T. F.; Fausti, D.; Rudolf, P.; Picchioni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes is considered as an essential step to enable their manipulation and application in potential end-use products. In this paper we introduce a new approach to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by applying an amidation-type grafting reaction with am

  18. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  19. Properties of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Finite Lengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Di-Li; PAN Bi-Cai

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with finite lengths should be natural components of future "nano devices". Based on orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations, we report on our study of formation energies, optimal geometrical structures and active sites of carbon nanotubes with finite lengths. This should be useful to understand the properties of such natural components.

  20. Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dommele, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen containing Carbon Nanotubes (NCNT) have altered physical- and chemical properties with respect to polarity, conductivity and reactivity as compared to conventional carbon nanotubes (CNT) and have potential for use in electronic applications or catalysis. In this thesis the incorporation of