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Sample records for carbon monoxide oxidation

  1. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute alguns aspectos importantes relacionados à reação de eletrooxidação do monóxido de carbono sobre monocristais de platina, em meio ácido. Aspectos mecanísticos são discutidos em termos da formação das estruturas compactas que o CO forma quando este é adsorvido. As principais idéias aqui apresentadas, levam em consideração as existências dessas estruturas. Os clássicos mecanismos Lagmuir-Hinshelwood e Eley-Rideal são aqui discutidos, especialmente o primeiro considerando a mobilidade do CO e também a nucleação e crescimento de ilhas formadas por espécies adsorvidas contendo oxigênio.////////// This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  3. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, it is highly desirable to operate a CO2 laser in a sealed condition, for in an open system the laser requires a continuous flow of laser gas to remove the dissociation products that occur in the discharge zone of the laser, in order to maintain a stable power output. This adds to the operating cost of the laser, and in airborne or space applications, it also adds to the weight penalty of the laser. In a sealed CO2 laser, a small amount of CO2 gas is decomposed in the electrical discharge zone into corresponding quantities of CO and O2. As the laser continues to operate, the concentration of CO2 decreases, while the concentrations of CO and O2 correspondingly increase. The increasing concentration of O2 reduces laser power, because O2 scavenges electrons in the electrical discharge, thereby causing arcing in the electric discharge and a loss of the energetic electrons required to boost CO2 molecules to lasing energy levels. As a result, laser power decreases rapidly. The primary object of this invention is to provide a catalyst that, by composition of matter alone, contains chemisorbed water within and upon its structure. Such bound moisture renders the catalyst highly active and very long-lived, such that only a small quantity of it needs to be used with a CO2 laser under ambient operating conditions. This object is achieved by a catalyst that consists essentially of about 1 to 40 percent by weight of one or more platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Pt being preferred); about 1 to 90 percent by weight of one or more oxides of reducible metals having multiple valence states (such as Sn, Ti, Mn, Cu, and Ce, with SnO2 being preferred); and about 1 to 90 percent by weight of a compound that can bind water to its structure (such as silica gel, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hydrated alumina, and magnesium perchlorate, with silica gel being preferred). Especially beneficial results are obtained when platinum is present in the

  4. Oxidation of carbon monoxide by perferrylmyoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libardi, Silvia H; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Perferrylmyoglobin is found to oxidize CO in aerobic aqueous solution to CO2. Tryptophan hydroperoxide in the presence of tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrinate-iron(III) or simple iron(II)/(III) salts shows similar reactivity against CO. The oxidation of CO is for tryptophan hydroperoxide concluded...... to depend on the formation of alkoxyl radicals by reductive cleavage by iron(II) or on the formation of peroxyl radicals by oxidative cleavage by iron(III). During oxidation of CO, the tryptophan peroxyl radical was depleted with a rate constant of 0.26 ± 0.01 s(-1) for CO-saturated aqueous solution of pH 7.......4 at 25 °C without concomitant reduction of the iron(IV) center. Carbon monoxide is as a natural metabolite accordingly capable of scavenging tryptophan radicals in myoglobin activated by peroxides with a second-order rate constant of (3.3 ± 0.6) × 10(2) L mol(-1) s(-1), a reaction that might...

  5. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I.

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. Therefore the diffusion capacity of the lung for nitric oxide (DLNO) should reflect the alveolocapillary membrane diffusing capacity only, and should not be influenced by the vascular component. In this...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 μmol min−1 mg of wet cells−1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 (35°C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was “ping-pong,” indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  7. Inhibition of trichloroethylene oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, S M; Grbić-Galić, D

    1991-01-01

    Inhibition of trichloroethylene (TCE) oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide (CO) was evaluated with the aquifer methanotroph Methylomonas sp. strain MM2. CO was a TCE transformation intermediate. During TCE oxidation, approximately 9 mol% of the TCE was transformed to CO. CO was oxidized by Methylomonas sp. strain MM2, and when formate was provided as an electron donor, the CO oxidation rate doubled. The rate of CO oxidation without formate was 4.6 liter mg (dry weight)...

  8. Exergy parametric study of carbon monoxide oxidation in moist air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Ferhat; Benmalek, Toufik; Yesaad, Billel; Baik, Mouloud

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide in moist air from the second thermodynamic law aspect. A mathematical model of laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow has been achieved by numerical solution of the boundary layer equation using a self-made code. The chemical kinetic mechanism for flameless combustion of fuel, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water vapor, is modeled by 34 elementary reactions that incorporate (09) nine chemical species: CO, O, CO2, O2, H2O, H, H2, HO2, and OH. The salient point is that for all the parameters we considered, the exergy of the process is completely destroyed by irreversibilities. From the chemical viewpoint, the OH radical plays an essential role in CO oxidation. This latter point has already been mentioned by previous investigators.

  9. Nitric oxide increases carbon monoxide production by piglet cerebral microvessels

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, Charles W.; Balabanova, Liliya; Fedinec, Alexander L.; Parfenova, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) can be involved in regulation of cerebral circulation. Inhibition of production of either one of these gaseous intercellular messengers inhibits newborn pig cerebral arteriolar dilation to the excitatory amino acid glutamate. Glutamate can increase NO production. Therefore, the present study tests the hypothesis that NO, which is increased by glutamate, stimulates the production of CO by cerebral microvessels. Experiments used freshly isolated cerebr...

  10. Membrane topography of anaerobic carbon monoxide oxidation in Rhodocyclus gelatinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodocyclus gelatinosus 1 grows anaerobically in the dark at the expense of carbon monoxide. Topographical studies with methyl viologen as the membrane probe indicated that CO oxidation and H2 production sites were on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Membrane-associated hydrogen gas production appeared to be a unidirectional reaction. In the dark, strain 1 whole cells oxidized CO and incorporated about 306 pmol of 32P/sub i/ into ATP per min per mg of protein. With CO as the sole energy-yielding substrate, cells grew with a low growth yield coefficient of 3.7 g (dry weight) of cells per mg of CO oxidized

  11. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the plan does not...) and carbon monoxide in the San Francisco Bay Area, San Diego, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin...

  12. A nine-atom rhodium–aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium–aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  13. A nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  14. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U3O8) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U3O8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  15. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly ( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon monoxide, or “CO,” is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. Carbon monoxide detector Where is CO found? CO is ...

  17. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) » Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  18. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis oxidation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irreversible kinetic surface-reaction model, based upon the reaction of carbon monoxide nd oxygen on a catalyst surface is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The adsorbed molecules/atoms on the surface undergo both first and second order kinetic phase transitions. The first order transition is found to occur at x/sub/co=x/sub/2=0.5255 with an error bar of 0.0003, where x/sub/co is the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gas phase. The time evolution of this catalytic reaction is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. Slightly above x/sub/2, the oxygen coverage relaxation time for the oxygen is found to diverage as the inverse of 3.54 times the absolute of the difference of x/sub/2 and x/sub/co. (orig./A.B.)

  19. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mark A.; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated.

  20. The oxidation of moderator graphites irradiated in carbon dioxide containing carbon monoxide, methane and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) was introduced for the second generation of British nuclear power stations. It was recognised that problems of compatibility between the carbon dioxide coolant and the moderator graphite would arise because of the increased power rating of the reactor compared with the first generation MAGNOX system. This led to the realisation that it would be necessary to reduce the rate of oxidation of the moderator to acceptable levels by the addition of inhibitors to the coolant and to this end carbon monoxide and methane were chosen. This paper describes experiments which have been made in a materials testing reactor at AERE Harwell in which moderator graphite reaction rates have been measured in carbon dioxide containing carbon monoxide at concentrations between 0.03% and 2% and methane concentrations up to 600 vpm. The effect of impressing a flow of coolant through the graphite structure, the so-called ventilation effect, and the role of coolant temperature and pressure have also been assessed. The results confirm the inhibiting power of methane and carbon monoxide on the graphite/CO2 reaction and demonstrate that the application of ventilation in the presence of these inhibitors enhances their effect. A minimum or 'terminal' oxidation rate may be achieved by the CAGR Gilso carbon graphites when irradiated in the presence of 200 vpm methane, or more, under appropriate conditions. (author)

  1. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, ...

  2. Chlorination of niobium oxide in the presence of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination kinetics of niobium pentoxide in the presence of carbon monoxide between 500-8000C of temperature is studied. The following variable that influences on the reaction rate are analysed: gas flow, geometry and volume of the Nb2O5 samples, reaction temperature and composition of the chlorinated mixture. At the same time, two other materials were studied: the CaO.Nb2O5 (synthetized in laboratory) and pyrochlorine concentrates. The three materials are compared for the chlorination method used. (M.A.C.)

  3. Catalytic Reduction of Nitrous Oxide with Carbon Monoxide over Calcined Co–Mn–Al Hydrotalcite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacultová, K.; Obalová, L.; Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 137, 2-4 (2008), s. 358-389. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * carbon monoxide * mixed oxide catalysts Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2008

  4. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu].

  5. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu]. PMID:26744146

  6. The global balance of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstock, Bernhard; Yup Chang, Tai

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive carbon-14 monoxide produced by cosmic ray neutrons provides a useful tracer to deduce the residence time of carbon monoxide in the troposphere. From the steady-state equations for stable carbon monoxide and radioactive carbon monoxide, the production rate of stable carbon monoxide can also be derived. This rate is an order of magnitude greater than that estimated for CO sources such as the oceans, combustion, and chlorophyll decay. The oxidation of tropospheric methane initiated b...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community ... KB | Spanish PDF 645 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  10. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage;

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...

  11. Carbon monoxide-induced reduction and healing of graphene oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayanan, B.; Weeks, S. L.; Jariwala, B. N.; Macco, B.; Weber, J.; Rathi, S. J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Sutter, P.; Agarwal, S.; Ciobanu, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide holds promise as a carbon-based nanomaterial that can be produced inexpensively in large quantities. However, its structural and electrical properties remain far from those of the graphene sheets obtained by mechanical exfoliation or by chemical vapor deposition unless efficient reduc

  12. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  13. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  16. Carbon Monoxide Reduces Neuropathic Pain and Spinal Microglial Activation by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hervera, Arnau; Leánez, Sergi; Negrete, Roger; Motterlini, Roberto; Pol, Olga

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized by heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) exerts antinociceptive effects during inflammation but its role during neuropathic pain remains unknown. Our objective is to investigate the exact contribution of CO derived from HO-1 in the modulation of neuropathic pain and the mechanisms implicated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of CO following sciatic nerve injury in wild type (WT) or inducible nitric oxide...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another ...

  18. Nitrogen oxide reduction by carbon monoxide in the presence of oxygen over a fresh and aged Pd/alumina catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of nitrogen oxide with carbon monoxide in presence of oxygen over a palladium based catalyst is studied. Metal dispersion decreases with the thermal aging of the fresh solid in a wet and oxidant atmosphere. However, the aged solid shows a catalytic activity for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and the reduction of nitrogen oxide higher than the fresh solid. After reaction, particle sizes and surface state were determined. The state of oxidation and the kind of surface oxide are different for the fresh and aged solids

  19. Gold catalysts supported on nanosized iron oxide for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Yi; Huang, Zuming; Guo, Huishan; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize synthesis of gold catalyst supported on nanosized iron oxide and to evaluate the activity in oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared from a colloidal dispersion of hydrous iron oxide through a dispersion-precipitation method. Gold was adsorbed onto nanosized iron oxide under self-generated basic conditions. Characterization results indicate that the iron oxide consisted of hematite/maghemite composite with primary particle sizes of 6-8 nm. Gold was highly dispersed on the surface of the support. The catalysts showed good activity in the oxidation of airborne carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The optimal pH for their synthesis was ∼7. The catalytic performance could be enhanced by extending the adsorption time of gold species on the support within 21 h. The optimized catalyst was capable of achieving complete oxidation of 1% carbon monoxide at -20 °C and 33% conversion of 450 ppm formaldehyde at ambient temperature. The catalyst may be applicable to indoor air purification.

  20. Catalytic and electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on a Fe electrode in a solid electrolyte cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on Fe catalyst was studied at 300-500C and atmospheric total pressure. The reaction was studied under both open- and closed-circuit operation in an yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte cell. The technique of Solid Electrolyte Potentiometry (SEP) was used to monitor the thermodynamic activity of oxygen adsorbed on the Fe electrode under open circuit. Kinetic and potentiometric measurements were combined in order to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The results are in agreement with a Langmuir-Hinselwood type of adsorption-reaction with two different adsorption sites for carbon monoxide and oxygen. Under closed circuit, the effect of electrochemical oxygen 'pumping' to the catalyst was examined. The operation of the cell was almost Faradaic as the rate enhancement factor (λ) values measured were close to unity

  1. Carbon monoxide oxidation on lithium fluoride supported gold nanoparticles: A significance of F-centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvauri, I. V.; Gergieva, B. E.; Magkoeva, V. D.; Grigorkina, G. S.; Bliev, A. P.; Ashkhotov, O. G.; Sozaev, V. A.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2015-07-01

    Oxidation of carbon monoxide on ultrasmall Au particles supported on LiF film has been studied by means of vibrational and thermal desorption spectroscopy. It is found that the efficiency of this process is dramatically enhanced when Au is deposited on defect LiF film obtained by electron bombardment to produce Fx--centers. Local electronic charge of the Fx- center is a key point determining formation of an (C-O-O*) intermediate on (Au-Fx-) adsorption site as carbon dioxide precursor.

  2. Oxidation of a Single Carbon Monoxide Molecule Manipulated and Induced with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon monoxide molecule (CO) was positioned with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at various distances from an oxygen atom (O) on the Ag(110) surface at 13K. At the closest separation, carbon dioxide (CO2) production was induced by tunneling electrons. Direct reaction of a CO desorbed from the STM tip with an O atom on Ag(110) illustrates another catalytic oxidation mechanism. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with the STM was used to monitor the vibrations of CO in its different environment

  3. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, K P; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1–50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 ± 3 and 2204 ± 1 cm−1, which are ascribed to CO adsorbed on copper(II) oxide and on isolated copper(II) ions in the silica surface, respectively. Reduction and reoxidation removed the band at 2204 cm−1...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  5. Study of carbon monoxide oxidation on mesoporous platinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterle, Thomas F; Russell, Andrea E; Bartlett, Philip N

    2010-09-10

    H(1) mesoporous platinum surfaces formed by electrodeposition from lyotropic liquid crystalline templates have high electroactive surface areas (up to 60 m(2) g(-1)) provided by the concave surface within their narrow (≈2 nm diameter) pores. In this respect, they are fundamentally different from the flat surfaces of ordinary Pt electrodes or the convex surfaces of high-surface-area Pt nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry of H(1) mesoporous Pt films in acid solution is identical to that for polycrystalline Pt, suggesting that the surfaces of the pores are made up of low-index Pt faces. In contrast, CO stripping voltammetry on H(1) mesoporous Pt is significantly different from the corresponding voltammetry on polycrystalline Pt and shows a clear prewave for CO oxidation and the oxidation CO at lower overpotential. These differences in CO stripping are related to the presence of trough sites where the low-index Pt faces that make up the concave surface of the pore walls meet. PMID:20578119

  6. Copper-cerium oxides supported on carbon nanomaterial for preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高美怡; 江楠; 赵宇宏; 徐长进; 苏海全; 曾尚红

    2016-01-01

    The CuxO-CeO2/Fe@CNSs, CuxO-CeO2/MWCNTs-Co and CuxO-CeO2/MWCNTs-Ni catalysts were prepared by the im-pregnation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffrac-tion, H2-temperature programmed reduction and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. It was found that the Fe nanoparticles were encapsulated into the multi-layered carbon nanospheres (CNSs). However, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) were generated on the Co/Al2O3 and Ni/Al2O3 precursor. The addition of carbon nanomaterial as supports could improve structural properties and low-temperature activity of the CuO-CeO2 catalyst, and save the used amount of metal catalysts in the temperature range with high selectivity for CO oxidation. The copper-cerium oxides supported on carbon nanomaterial had good resistence to H2O and CO2.

  7. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituyi, E.; Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O. [University of Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry; Marufu, L.; Andreae, M.O.; Helas, G. [Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2001-09-01

    Emission ratios (ER) of CO and NO relative to CO{sub 2} are reported from real time emission measurements on biofuel fires in Kenya. The experiments were based on available fuels burning in local popular traditional and improved stoves. The mean dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratios were 71, 79 and 74 mmol mol{sup -1} for firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues, respectively, while the corresponding mean dNO/dCO{sub 2} ratios for these fuels, in the same order, were 1.8, 2 and 2.2 mmol mol{sup -1}, respectively. Whereas stove design characteristics largely influenced the dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratios, the fuel nitrogen content was the major factor determining the dNO/dCO{sub 2} ratios. The dCO/dCO{sub 2} ratio for fuel derived NO is not affected by fire temperature but linearly depend on the fuel nitrogen content. Other important fuel parameters that influenced the observed emission ratio patterns include fuel moisture content, size and volatile matter content in the case of charcoal. In comparison to savanna and forest fires, biofuel fires tend to favour formation of reduced or partially oxidized compounds. It is clear that a change in energy preference up the ''energy ladder'' leads to a reduction in the CO ER, and important results for emission mitigation policy design. (author)

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  9. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Network Community Outreach Resource Center CO Poster Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / ... VIDEO CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest View the blog SAFETY GUIDE Clues You Can ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics March 09, 2016 Supplemental Memos Regarding Some of the Hazards Associated with Engine-Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other CO Topics Safety Tips Recalls and News Questions and Answers Charcoal Portable Heaters & Camping Equipment Home Heating Equipment On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Inside CPSC: Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources International Newsroom ...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates October 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  18. Low-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysed by regenerable atomically dispersed palladium on alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric J.; Delariva, Andrew T.; Lin, Sen; Johnson, Ryan S.; Guo, Hua; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hun Kwak, Ja; Peden, Charles H. F.; Kiefer, Boris; Allard, Lawrence F.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2014-09-01

    Catalysis by single isolated atoms of precious metals has attracted much recent interest, as it promises the ultimate in atom efficiency. Most previous reports are on reducible oxide supports. Here we show that isolated palladium atoms can be catalytically active on industrially relevant γ-alumina supports. The addition of lanthanum oxide to the alumina, long known for its ability to improve alumina stability, is found to also help in the stabilization of isolated palladium atoms. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the presence of intermingled palladium and lanthanum on the γ-alumina surface. Carbon monoxide oxidation reactivity measurements show onset of catalytic activity at 40 °C. The catalyst activity can be regenerated by oxidation at 700 °C in air. The high-temperature stability and regenerability of these ionic palladium species make this catalyst system of potential interest for low-temperature exhaust treatment catalysts.

  19. Study of the catalytic activity of mixed non-stoichiometric uranium-thorium oxides in carbon monoxide oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work has been to study the catalytic properties of non-stoichiometric uranium-thorium oxides having the general formula UxTh1-xO2+y, for the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The preparation of pure, homogeneous, isotropic solids having good structural stability and a surface area as high as possible calls for a strict control of the conditions of preparation of these oxides right from the preparation of 'mother salts': the mixed oxalates UxTh1-x(C2O4)2, 2H2O. A study has been made of their physico-chemical properties (overall and surface chemical constitution, texture, structure, electrical conductivity), as well as of their adsorption properties with respect to gaseous species occurring in the catalytic reaction. This analysis has made it possible to put forward a reaction mechanism based on successive oxidations and reductions of the active surface by the reactants. A study of the reactions kinetics has confirmed the existence of this oxidation-reduction mechanism which only occurs for oxides having a uranium content of above 0.0014. The carbon dioxide produced by the reaction acts as an inhibitor by blocking the sites on which carbon monoxide can be adsorbed. These non-stoichiometric mixed oxides are a particularly clear example of catalysis by oxygen exchange between the solid and the gas phase. (author)

  20. On the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation on the surface of gold nanoclusters supported on titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvauri, I. V.; Remar, D. F.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2010-05-01

    The process of carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation on the surface of a system comprising nanodimensional gold clusters deposited onto thin films of titanium oxide of variable stoichiometry formed on a Re(1000) single crystal surface has been studied by methods of thermodesorption, IR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is established that oxygen contained in titanium oxide plays an important role in the conversion of CO into CO2. The efficiency of this process on the Au/TiO x ( x < 2) system surface is significantly higher that that on the Au/TiO2 system.

  1. Advanced Catalysts for the Ambient Temperature Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalette, Tim; Eldridge, Christopher; Yu, Ping; Alpetkin, Gokhan; Graf, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary applications for ambient temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts include emergency breathing masks and confined volume life support systems, such as those employed on the Shuttle. While Hopcalite is typically used in emergency breathing masks for terrestrial applications, in the 1970s, NASA selected a 2% platinum (Pt) on carbon for use on the Shuttle since it is more active and also more tolerant to water vapor. In the last 10-15 years there have been significant advances in ambient temperature CO oxidation catalysts. Langley Research Center developed a monolithic catalyst for ambient temperature CO oxidation operating under stoichiometric conditions for closed loop carbon dioxide (CO2) laser applications which is also advertised as having the potential to oxidize formaldehyde (HCHO) at ambient temperatures. In the last decade it has been discovered that appropriate sized nano-particles of gold are highly active for CO oxidation, even at sub-ambient temperatures, and as a result there has been a wealth of data reported in the literature relating to ambient/low temperature CO oxidation. In the shorter term missions where CO concentrations are typically controlled via ambient temperature oxidation catalysts, formaldehyde is also a contaminant of concern, and requires specially treated carbons such as Calgon Formasorb as untreated activated carbon has effectively no HCHO capacity. This paper examines the activity of some of the newer ambient temperature CO and formaldehyde (HCHO) oxidation catalysts, and measures the performance of the catalysts relative to the NASA baseline Ambient Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer (ATCO) catalyst at conditions of interest for closed loop trace contaminant control systems.

  2. Physiological and Metabolic Effects of Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in the Model Marine Bacterioplankton Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3

    OpenAIRE

    Cunliffe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ruegeria pomeroyi expresses carbon monoxide (CO) dehydrogenase and oxidizes CO; however, CO has no effect on growth. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed that CO has no effect on cellular metabolite profiles. These data support ecosystem models proposing that, even though bacterioplankton CO oxidation is biogeochemically significant, it has an insignificant effect on bacterioplankton productivity.

  3. A Tracer Analysis Study on the Redistribution and Oxidization of Endogenous Carbon Monoxide in the Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Sawano, Makoto; Shimouchi, Akito

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that some carbon monoxide (CO) moves from blood haemoglobin to tissue cells and that mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase oxidizes CO to carbon dioxide (CO2). However, no study has demonstrated this redistribution and oxidization of CO under physiological conditions. The objective of this study was to trace the redistribution and oxidization of CO in the human body by detecting 13CO2 production after the inhalation of 13CO. In Experiment 1, we asked a healthy subject...

  4. Reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide on the Al-Mo(110) surface alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorkina, G. S.; Tvauri, I. V.; Kaloeva, A. G.; Burdzieva, O. G.; Sekiba, D.; Ogura, S.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2016-05-01

    Coadsorption and reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) on Al-Mo(110) surface alloy have been studied by means of Auger electron, reflection-absorption infrared and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopies (AES, RAIRS, TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and work function measurements. The Al-Mo(110) surface alloy was obtained by thermal annealing at 800 K of aluminum film deposited on Mo(110) held at room temperature. Upon annealing Al penetrates the surface, most likely forming stoichiometric hexagonal surface monolayer of the compound Al2Mo. The NO and CO adsorb molecularly on this alloy surface at 200 K, unlike totally dissociative adsorption on bare Mo(110) and Al(111) film. Adsorption of CO on NO precovered Al-Mo(110) substrate dramatically affects the state of NO molecules, most probably displacing them to higher-coordinated sites with their simultaneous tilting to the surface plane. Heating to about room temperature (320 K) causes reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide, yielding CO2, and substrate nitridation. This behavior can be associated with the surface reconstruction providing additional Al/Mo interface reaction sites and change of the d-band upon alloying.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Businesses Contact CPSC Website Design Feedback Consumers: Español Businesses: Español , 中文 , Tiếng Việt Connect with Us : Twitter YouTube ... Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon ...

  6. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for COPROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 22nd October 2010, Revised: 12nd January 2011, Accepted: 19th January 2011[How to Cite: A. Mishra, R. Prasad. (2011. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (1: 1-14. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/191] | View in 

  7. Digital Carbon Monoxide Detector /11/

    OpenAIRE

    Grognia, M. T.; Hecq, A.; Dauchot, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The switch off concentration phenomena in carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum and the parallel steep variation of resistance or surface potential of thin platinum films are used to develop a carbon detector. Coating the platinum film with an increasing thickness of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) makes this switch off point move to increasing CO concentrations. Therefore a series of electrical elements, platinum thin film resistances, platinum M.O.S. diodes or platinum gate M.O.S. transistors...

  8. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  9. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J.; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

    2000-01-01

    The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute carbon monoxide poisoning with 1-year computed tomographic follow-up is presented. The typical initial bilateral symmetrical low-density areas in the basal ganglia were found to have decreased markedly in size in the latter scan. These appearances coincided with the initial early oedematous phase of infarction ending in the late permanent necrotic stage

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students). Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high in...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Memos Regarding Some of the Hazards Associated with Engine-Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non- ... Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and Other Engine-Driven Tools, 2004– ...

  13. A new apparatus for carbon monoxide oxidation studies performed over thin film catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we describe the apparatus developed in our laboratory for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation studies dedicated to test thin film catalysts deposited on flat substrates. Our apparatus is original for its unique technical solutions, especially in continuous gas flow mode, and specifically as: (i) the sample holder is designed such that it can allow the gas flow to interact with the entire surface of the catalyst film to be utilized for the CO oxidation reaction, (ii) three different mass flow controllers permit a gas mixture of any composition during the measurement, (iii) CO to CO2 conversion is continuously monitored for long periods of time and can be tested in a wide range of temperatures (30–500 °C) with high accuracy on-line gas chromatography, and (iv) several security measures are guaranteed during the handling of CO gas. To test the efficiency of the apparatus, an experiment for CO oxidation was carried out at various temperatures using cobalt oxide cluster-assembled thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition over a glass substrate. (paper)

  14. Oxidation behaviour of carbon monoxide at the photostimulated surface of ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally carbon monoxide is considered to be a reducing agent, which can be used for CO detection. However, oxidizing behaviour of CO, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported. In this work, we find that CO can also act as oxidizing gas at room temperature on photostimulated ZnO nanowires. For photostimulation, the low intensity of light emitting diodes is used to induce a very low photocurrent, which, however, leads to a large resistance change due to the ultraviolet light interaction with the nanowire surface. During CO detection, the oxygen vacancies enhance the CO adsorption on the nanowire surface even at room temperature. CO molecules adsorbing on the surface are presumably bound to a zinc-oxygen vacancy complex, causing a reduction in free electron concentration, which leads to an oxidizing effect of CO gas. An adsorption model for CO is proposed to explain the experimental observations. These results shed light on developing room-temperature CO sensor using oxide nanostructures with the help of high energetic photon replacing the high-temperature process normally used in traditional gas sensors.

  15. The reactivity of stoichiometric tungsten oxide clusters towards carbon monoxide: the effects of cluster sizes and charge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Juan; Cheng, Jing; Zhang, Chang-Fu; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yong-Fan; Huang, Xin

    2015-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are employed to investigate the reactivity of tungsten oxide clusters towards carbon monoxide. Extensive structural searches show that all the ground-state structures of (WO3)n(+) (n = 1-4) contain an oxygen radical center with a lengthened W-O bond which is highly active in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. Energy profiles are calculated to determine the reaction mechanisms and evaluate the effect of cluster sizes. The monomer WO3(+) has the highest reactivity among the stoichiometric clusters of different sizes (WO3)n(+) (n = 1-4). The reaction mechanisms for CO with mono-nuclear stoichiometric tungsten oxide clusters with different charges (WO3(-/0/+)) are also studied to clarify the influence of charge states. Our calculated results show that the ability to oxidize CO gets weaker from WO3(+) to WO3(-) as the negative charge accumulates progressively. PMID:25854200

  16. Ultra-High Sensitivity Zinc Oxide Nanocombs for On-Chip Room Temperature Carbon Monoxide Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an on-chip gas sensor based on novel zinc oxide (ZnO nanocombs for carbon monoxide (CO sensing. With ZnO gas sensing nanocombs fully integrated on a single silicon chip, the concept of low cost complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS microsensor capable of on-chip gas sensing and processing is enabled. Compared with all previous implementations, the proposed ZnO nanocombs feature much larger effective sensing area and exhibit ultra-high sensitivity even at the room temperature. Specifically, at room temperature, we demonstrate peak sensitivities as high as 7.22 and 8.93 for CO concentrations of 250 ppm and 500 ppm, respectively. As a result, by operating the proposed ZnO-nanocomb-based gas sensor at the room temperature, the widely adopted power consuming heating components are completely removed. This leads to not only great power saving, but also full compatibility between the gas sensor and the on-chip circuitry in term of acceptable operating temperature. In addition, the reported fast response/recovery time of ~200 s/~50 s (250 ppm CO makes it well suited to real-life applications.

  17. Highly n-Type Titanium Oxide as an Electronically Active Support for Platinum in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Baker, L. Robert

    2011-08-18

    The role of the oxide-metal interface in determining the activity and selectivity of chemical reactions catalyzed by metal particles on an oxide support is an important topic in science and industry. A proposed mechanism for this strong metal-support interaction is electronic activation of surface adsorbates by charge carriers. Motivated by the goal of using electronic activation to drive nonthermal chemistry, we investigated the ability of the oxide support to mediate charge transfer. We report an approximately 2-fold increase in the turnover rate of catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum nanoparticles supported on stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2) when the TiO2 is made highly n-type by fluorine (F) doping. However, for nonstoichiometric titanium oxide (TiOX<2) the effect of F on the turnover rate is negligible. Studies of the titanium oxide electronic structure show that the energy of free electrons in the oxide determines the rate of reaction. These results suggest that highly n-type TiO2 electronically activates adsorbed oxygen (O) by electron spillover to form an active O- intermediate. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate neurons in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured changes in nitric oxide (·NO) concentration in the cerebral cortex during experimental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and assessed the role for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a glutamate receptor subtype, with progression of CO-mediated oxidative stress. Using microelectrodes, ·NO concentration was found to nearly double to 280 nM due to CO exposure, and elevations in cerebral blood flow, monitored as laser Doppler flow (LDF), were found to loosely correlate with ·NO concentration. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity was the cause of the ·NO elevation based on the effects of specific NOS inhibitors and observations in nNOS knockout mice. Activation of nNOS was inhibited by the NMDARs inhibitor, MK 801, and by the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, thus demonstrating a link to excitatory amino acids. Cortical cyclic GMP concentration was increased due to CO poisoning and shown to be related to ·NO, versus CO, mediated guanylate cyclase activation. Elevations of ·NO were inhibited when rats were infused with superoxide dismutase and in rats depleted of platelets or neutrophils. When injected with MK 801 or 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, rats did not exhibit CO-mediated nitrotyrosine formation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) elevation (indicative of neutrophil sequestration), or impaired learning. Similarly, whereas CO-poisoned wild-type mice exhibited elevations in nitrotyrosine and myeloperoxidase, these changes did not occur in nNOS knockout mice. We conclude that CO exposure initiates perivascular processes including oxidative stress that triggers activation of NMDA neuronal nNOS, and these events are necessary for the progression of CO-mediated neuropathology

  19. Luminescence of carbon monoxide hemocyanins.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiper, H.A.; Agrò, A F; Antonini, E; Brunori, M

    1980-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide on the luminescence properties of Helix pomatia alpha-hemocyanin and Panulirus interruptus hemocyanin has been studied. These proteins, when saturated with carbon monoxide, show, besides the intrinsic fluorescence arising from the aromatic amino acid residues, emission in the visible region with a maximum between 540 and 560 nm. Results of carbon monoxide titration experiments and data from absorption and excitation-emission spectra provide convincing evidence th...

  20. Kinetics of carbon monoxide oxidation over modified supported CuO catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loc, Luu Cam; Tri, Nguyen; Cuong, Hoang Tien; Thoang, Ho Si [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    The following supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts: 10(wt.)%CuO (CuAl), 10%CuO+10%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CuCrAl) and 10%CuO+20%CeO{sub 2} (CuCeAl) were under the investigation. Physico-chemical characteristics of the catalysts were determined by the methods of BET, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR). A strong interaction of copper with support in CuAl resulted in the formation of low active copper aluminates. The bi-oxide CuCrAl was more active than CuAl owing to the formation of high catalytically active spinel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The fact of very high activity of the sample CuCeAl can be explained by the presence of the catalytically active form of CuO-CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The kinetics of CO total oxidation was studied in a gradientless flow-circulating system at the temperature range between 200 C and 270 C. The values of initial partial pressures of carbon monoxide (P{sup o}{sub CO}), oxygen (P{sup o}{sub O2}), and specially added carbon dioxide (P{sup o}{sub CO{sub 2}}) were varied in ranges (hPa): 10 / 45; 33 / 100, and 0 / 30, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Plasma coating formed TIO2 catalysts usage in cleaning the air from nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Vitalij Kolodynskij; Pranas Baltrėnas

    2015-01-01

    The present catalytic air purification device–air cleaning device is capable to reduce nitrogen oxide sand carbon monoxide concentrations in polluted air stream and to achieve high cleaning efficiency. The principle of operation of catalytic air cleaning device is based on plasma coating formed catalysts usage. At high temperatures and oxygen concentrations in the experimental device channel, catalysts become active and reactions of conversion of pollutants start. In this research, the effici...

  2. Dispersive oxidation of rhodium clusters in Na-Y by the combined action of zeolite protons and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and temperature programmed mass-spectrometric analysis to study the interaction of Na-Y supported rhodium with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and zeolite protons. This report attempts to clarify the mechanism of dispersive oxidation of reduced Rh particles in the presence of CO, leading to the formation of Rh+(CO)2 cations

  3. Interaction between endogenous nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the interaction between nitric oxygenase (NOS)/ nitric oxide (NO) and heme oxygenase (HO)/ carbon monoxide (CO) system in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. On a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, the pulmonary artery pressure was measured, and NO formation and expression of NOS in pulmonary tissues were examined after treatment with ZnPP-IX, an HO-1 inhibitor. The pulmonary artery pressure, CO formation and expression of HO-1 in pulmonary tissues were examined after treatment with L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. We found that pulmonary hypertension developed after 2-week hypoxia, while the concentration of NO in the pulmonary tissue homogenates and the expression of NOS in intrapulmonary artery endothelial cells decreased markedly. ZnPP-IX worsened pulmonary hypertension of hypoxic rats. However, it increased endogenous production of NO and the expression of NOS obviously. The concentration of CO in the pulmonary tissue homogenates and the expression of HO-1 in intrapulmonary artery smooth muscle cells increased markedly with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. L-NAME worsened pulmonary hypertension of hypoxic rats, but inhibited CO formation and HO-1 expression (P < 0.01). The results of this study suggested that endogenous NOS/NO and HO/CO systems might interact with each other and therefore play an important regulating role in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Different mechanisms underlying the stimulation of KCa channels by nitric oxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyun; Cao, Kun; Lu, Yanjie; Wang, Rui

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), individually and collectively, on large-conductance calcium-activated K+ (KCa) channels were investigated in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Both NO and CO increased the activity of native KCa channels. Dehydrosoyasaponin-I, a specific agonist for β subunit of KCa channels, increased the open probability of native KCa channels only when it was delivered to the cytoplasmic surface of membrane. CO, but not NO, further increased the activity of native KCa channels that had been maximally stimulated by dehydrosoyasaponin-I. After treatment of SMCs with anti–KCa,β subunit antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, the stimulatory effect of NO, but not of CO, on KCa channels was nullified. CO, but not NO, enhanced the KCa current densities of heterologously expressed cloned KCa,α subunit, showing that the presence of KCa,β subunit is not a necessity for the effect of CO but essential for that of NO. Finally, pretreatment of SMCs with NO abolished the effects of subsequently applied CO or diethyl pyrocarbonate on KCa channels. In summary, the stimulatory effects of CO and NO on KCa channels rely on the specific interactions of these gases with KCa,α and KCa,β subunits. PMID:12208870

  5. Iron-zirconium oxide catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide: In situ studies by iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some unsupported iron-zirconium oxide catalysts have been prepared by the calcination in air of precipitates containing 15 mole% iron. The catalyst formed at 5000C was shown by powder X-ray diffraction to consist of a non-equilibriated solid solution of iron(III) in a tetragonal or cubic zirconium dioxide structure whereas the catalyst formed at 10000C was found to contain a zirconium-doped α-iron(III) oxide, or a magnetically ordered iron-zirconium oxide, in combination with an iron-containing monoclinic polymorph of zirconium dioxide. The 57Fe Moessbauer spectra recorded in situ following the pretreatment of the solids in nitrogen, carbon monoxide and hydrogen showed that little change is induced in the catalysts under such conditions. The 57Fe Moessbauer spectra also showed that the pretreated catalysts were unchanged by exposure to a 1:1 mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 2700C and 1 atmosphere pressure but were partially converted to iron carbide when used for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide at 3300C and at 20 atmospheres pressure. The hydrocarbon product distribution showed Schulz-Flory α-values of 0.73 to 0.76 which were higher than the α-values obtained from pure iron catalysts which had been prepared and pretreated in a similar fashion. The 57Fe Moessbauer spectra and the results of the catalytic evaluation may be associated with an interaction between zirconium(IV) and the electron-rich atoms of the reactant carbon monoxide. (orig.)

  6. Electrolysis of carbon dioxide for carbon monoxide production in a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An experimental study for the CO regeneration was demonstrated. • Higher current densities at higher temperatures were obtained. • The scale of the combined system was estimated experimentally at 800 °C. • The required surface area of the cells was estimated to be 65.6 km2/BF unit. • The combined system may contribute to establishing a low-carbon society. - Abstract: An active carbon recycling energy system (ACRES) based on carbon recycling has been proposed as a new energy transformation system. This energy transformation system reduces the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere during the iron-making process. An experimental study for electrochemical CO production by CO2 electrolysis based on the ACRES concept was carried out using a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell. Experimental results show that the CO and oxygen (O2) production rates at 800, 850, and 900 °C were almost proportional to the current passing through the cell. Both ionic conductivity and the chemical kinetics of CO2 decomposition increased with increasing temperature. The highest current density and CO production rate at 900 °C were 2.97 mA/cm2 and 0.78 μmol/(min cm2), respectively. On the basis of the electrolytic characteristics of the cell, the scale of the combined ACRES CO2 electrolysis/iron-making system was estimated

  7. Associations of Exhaled Carbon Monoxide and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide with Metabolic Syndrome: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Ma, Jixuan; Lu, Wei; He, Jintong; Zhang, Runbo; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could reflect underlying inflammatory and oxidative stresses, which play important roles in pathogenetic pathways of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, epidemiologic evidence was limited. We conducted a study in Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) cohort of 3649 community participants to investigate the association between eCO, FeNO and MetS in both cross-sectional and prospective ways. The results showed that higher eCO and FeNO were associated cross-sectionally with a higher prevalence of MetS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for MetS at baseline were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11 to 1.35) associated with per log eCO and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.30) associated with per log FeNO. During a follow-up of 3 years, 358/2181 new developed MetS cases were identified. Compared with lowest quartile of eCO and FeNO, the multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.48 (1.06 to 2.06) related to the highest quartile of eCO. These findings remained consistent across sex but not smoking status, eCO was only associated with MetS in non-smokers when stratified by smoking status. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that eCO and FeNO were independently and positively associated with the prevalence of MetS cross-sectionally, while only eCO was positively related with the incidence of MetS prospectively. PMID:27076211

  8. Feasibility of Using Oscillatory Catalytic Oxidation Phenomenon for Selective Carbon Monoxide Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Heikki Torvela

    1987-01-01

    Tin dioxide based sensors with different additives were constructed and tested in air environment containing carbon monoxide. Conductance oscillations were observed in samples containing palladium but not in those without. Oscillations occurred at temperatures ranging from 150℃ to 320℃. Within this temperature region the range of CO concentrations at which oscillations appeared became higher as the test temperature increased. The lowest CO concentration at which oscillations were observed was...

  9. Visible-light photocatalytic conversion of carbon monoxide to methane by nickel(II) oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Francesc; Corma, Avelino; García, Hermenegildo

    2013-12-01

    Solar Fuels: Different n- and p-type semiconductors have been investigated for sustainable solar fuel production. p-Type semiconductors, such as NiO, Fe3 O4 , Co3 O4 , and CuO, are able to reduce carbon monoxide by water or hydrogen to methane. The highest CH4 yield achieved was 17.26 mmol of CH4 per gram of catalyst using NiO in an excess of H2 . PMID:24167093

  10. Carbon Monoxide Interacts with Auxin and Nitric Oxide to Cope with Iron Deficiency in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Ji, Jianhui; Wang, Hongliang; Harris-Shultz, Karen R.; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Luo, Yuming; Guan, Yanlong; Hu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the roles of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and auxin in the plant response to iron deficiency (–Fe), and to establish how the signaling molecules interact to enhance Fe acquisition, we conducted physiological, genetic, and molecular analyses that compared the responses of various Arabidopsis mutants, including hy1 (CO deficient), noa1 (NO deficient), nia1/nia2 (NO deficient), yuc1 (auxin over-accumulation), and cue1 (NO over-accumulation) to –Fe stress. We also generated a HY1 over-expression line (named HY1-OX) in which CO is over-produced compared to wild-type. We found that the suppression of CO and NO generation using various inhibitors enhanced the sensitivity of wild-type plants to Fe depletion. Similarly, the hy1, noa1, and nia1/nia2 mutants were more sensitive to Fe deficiency. By contrast, the yuc1, cue1, and HY1-OX lines were less sensitive to Fe depletion. The hy1 mutant with low CO content exhibited no induced expression of the Fe uptake-related genes FIT1 and FRO2 as compared to wild-type plants. On the other hand, the treatments of exogenous CO and NO enhanced Fe uptake. Likewise, cue1 and HY1-OX lines with increased endogenous content of NO and CO, respectively, also exhibited enhanced Fe uptake and increased expression of bHLH transcriptional factor FIT1as compared to wild-type plants. Furthermore, we found that CO affected auxin accumulation and transport in the root tip by altering the PIN1 and PIN2 proteins distribution that control lateral root structure under –Fe stress. Our results demonstrated the integration of CO, NO, and auxin signaling to cope with Fe deficiency in Arabidopsis. PMID:27014280

  11. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Interacts with Auxin and Nitric Oxide to Cope with Iron Deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Ji, Jianhui; Wang, Hongliang; Harris-Shultz, Karen R; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Luo, Yuming; Guan, Yanlong; Hu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the roles of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and auxin in the plant response to iron deficiency (-Fe), and to establish how the signaling molecules interact to enhance Fe acquisition, we conducted physiological, genetic, and molecular analyses that compared the responses of various Arabidopsis mutants, including hy1 (CO deficient), noa1 (NO deficient), nia1/nia2 (NO deficient), yuc1 (auxin over-accumulation), and cue1 (NO over-accumulation) to -Fe stress. We also generated a HY1 over-expression line (named HY1-OX) in which CO is over-produced compared to wild-type. We found that the suppression of CO and NO generation using various inhibitors enhanced the sensitivity of wild-type plants to Fe depletion. Similarly, the hy1, noa1, and nia1/nia2 mutants were more sensitive to Fe deficiency. By contrast, the yuc1, cue1, and HY1-OX lines were less sensitive to Fe depletion. The hy1 mutant with low CO content exhibited no induced expression of the Fe uptake-related genes FIT1 and FRO2 as compared to wild-type plants. On the other hand, the treatments of exogenous CO and NO enhanced Fe uptake. Likewise, cue1 and HY1-OX lines with increased endogenous content of NO and CO, respectively, also exhibited enhanced Fe uptake and increased expression of bHLH transcriptional factor FIT1as compared to wild-type plants. Furthermore, we found that CO affected auxin accumulation and transport in the root tip by altering the PIN1 and PIN2 proteins distribution that control lateral root structure under -Fe stress. Our results demonstrated the integration of CO, NO, and auxin signaling to cope with Fe deficiency in Arabidopsis. PMID:27014280

  13. Study of the catalytic activity of pure or cerium-containing thoria in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have undertaken research into the oxidation of carbon monoxide on pure thoria prepared by the decomposition of thorium nitrate, and on the same oxide containing small amounts of cerium. The results we have obtained, both as concerns the chemisorption of the various gases as well as the conductivity of the absorbent and the kinetics of the oxidation itself, appear to be quite coherent. The following steps occur: 1) The carbon monoxide is adsorbed on a clean catalyst surface, the oxygen remaining un-adsorbed. 2) The oxygen is adsorbed on a previously adsorbed carbon, monoxide layer, and reacts to give carbon dioxide (no role being played by the lattice oxygen). This behaviour is usual for a p-type semiconductor. We have in fact confirmed that semi-conductivity is of this type, and the gas-solid interactions can be written: (1) CO(g) ↔ CO+(a) + e- (2) CO+ 1/2 O2(g) + 2 e- → CO-2(a) (3) CO-2(a) ↔ CO2(g) + e- The kinetic equation obtained by supposing that step (2) is the slowest, makes it possible to deduce correctly the experimental results which can be expressed as: dp / dt = k (P0.3CO x P0.5O2) / (1+ k' x PCO2) The influence of the addition of small amounts of cerium can also be explained logically by this process; there is in fact both a decrease in the conductivity and an increase in the catalytic activity, this being characteristic, according to VOLKENSTEIN [52] of an n-type rate-determining reaction occurring on a p-type semi-conductor. We believe that these first results could be advantageously complemented by a study of thoria prepared by other means and doped differently. (author)

  14. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Guidance for primary�care�on how to deal with�patients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  15. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    Guidance for primarycareon how to deal withpatients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  16. Oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3 limited by carbon monoxide oxidation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, van, D.; Elshof, ten, J.E.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3-δ (y = 0.1, 0.2) in a large oxygen partial pressure gradient (air/CO, CO2 mixture) was found to be limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate at the low oxygen partial pressure side of the membrane. The oxygen permeation flux through the membrane was almost independent of its thickness (1 versus 2 mm) and strontium dopant concentration. The deposition of a 50 nm thin porous platinum layer at the low oxygen pressure side of the membrane increa...

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Water Vapor On the Performance of NASA's NMRO Catalysts for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.; Ammons, Vaughnery; Battle, Taikelia; Gay, Amy; Bray, Kyle; Washington, Boe; Schryer, David (Technical Monitor); Jordan, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Noble Metal Reducible Oxide (NMRO) catalysts for the low temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide were developed by NASA for the reoxidation of carbon monoxide which forms by the dissociation of carbon dioxide during the operation of sealed carbon dioxide lasers. The NMRO catalyst, which consists of a noble metal in conjunction with a reducible metal oxide, was evaluated under conditions that will be encountered in a CO2 laser operation, namely temperatures in the range 298 to 373 K and no significant reaction gas components other than CO, CO2 and O2. The NMRO catalysts may have significant potential for spin-off applications such as the prevention of carbon monoxide build-up in closed spaces as in space vehicle cabins or submarines, and the elimination of the cold start-up problem of automobile exhaust catalysts. The most significant difference in the conditions of these possible future applications is the high moisture content of the gases to be processed. Lack of understanding of the effects of water vapor and high temperature on catalyst activity and operation for extended periods are currently the main stumbling blocks for the transfer of this NASA technology to be used for commercial purposes. In the original proposal the following objectives were stated: To obtain experimental data on the adsorption, desorption and reaction characteristics of CO and CO2 the catalysts under high moisture conditions; to collect evidence on the presence of carbonate and hydroxyl surface species and their involvement in the CO oxidation mechanism; and to model the reaction system using a Monte-Carlo simulation to gain insight on the various steps involved. After the work has commenced the NASA technical monitor Mr. David Scheyer informed us that there was increased interest in the possible use of the NMRO catalysts as automobile exhaust catalysts and therefore NASA wanted to know whether the catalysts can operate at high temperatures as well as with high moisture gases. At

  18. An analytical study of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in hydrocarbon combustion with added nitrogen - Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of ground-based gas turbine combustor operating conditions and fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) found in coal-derived liquid fuels on the formation of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide is investigated. Analytical predictions of NOx and CO concentrations are obtained for a two-stage, adiabatic, perfectly-stirred reactor operating on a propane-air mixture, with primary equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.7, secondary equivalence ratios of 0.5 or 0.7, primary stage residence times from 12 to 20 msec, secondary stage residence times of 1, 2 and 3 msec and fuel nitrogen contents of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt %. Minimum nitrogen oxide but maximum carbon monoxide formation is obtained at primary zone equivalence ratios between 1.4 and 1.5, with percentage conversion of FBN to NOx decreasing with increased fuel nitrogen content. Additional secondary dilution is observed to reduce final pollutant concentrations, with NOx concentration independent of secondary residence time and CO decreasing with secondary residence time; primary zone residence time is not observed to affect final NOx and CO concentrations significantly. Finally, comparison of computed results with experimental values shows a good semiquantitative agreement.

  19. An analytical study of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in hydrocarbon combustion with added nitrogen, preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of combustor operating conditions on the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) to nitrogen oxides NO sub x was analytically determined. The effect of FBN and of operating conditions on carbon monoxide (CO) formation was also studied. For these computations, the combustor was assumed to be a two stage, adiabatic, perfectly-stirred reactor. Propane-air was used as the combustible mixture and fuel-bound nitrogen was simulated by adding nitrogen atoms to the mixture. The oxidation of propane and formation of NO sub x and CO were modeled by a fifty-seven reaction chemical mechanism. The results for NO sub x and CO formation are given as functions of primary and secondary stage equivalence ratios and residence times.

  20. Morphology and physiology of facultative autotrophic coryneformic bacteria with ability of carbon monoxide oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two coryneform bacterial strains (IFAM 1131 and IFAM 1133) capable of living on CO as the sole energy and carbon source were selected from a number of co-tolerant bacteria and studied more closely. Both strains could provisionally be grouped in the genera Arthrobacter. Their ability for hetorotrophic growth with a variety of C-sources and also autotrophic growth under CO and H2 atmospheric conditions characterised the test strains as facultative autotrophs. They could clearly be distinguished from all other CO- and H2-autotrophic bacterial strains described in the literature. Studies on strain IFAM 1131 using 14CO shared that for CO-autotrophic growth, carbon monoxide is oxidised to CO2. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, only found in autotrophically - grown cells, provided evidence for CO2 as the C-source and its fixation via the calvin cycle. The CO-oxidising system was also active in the absence of CO2. Gas chromatographically determined conversion rates for CO-autotrophically-grown static cultures of the strain IFAM 1131 revealed that some 20% of the CO oxidised to CO2 was fixed during logarithmic growth. (orig./MG)

  1. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The carbon... employees shall be removed from the enclosed space if the carbon monoxide concentration exceeds a ceiling...

  2. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  3. Catalytic Oxidation of Propylene, Toluene, Carbon Monoxide, and Carbon Black over Au/CeO 2 Solids: Comparing the Impregnation and the Deposition-Precipitation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Aboukaïs; Samer Aouad; Houda El-Ayadi; Mira Skaf; Madona Labaki; Renaud Cousin; Edmond Abi-Aad

    2013-01-01

    Au/CeO2 solids were prepared by two methods: deposition-precipitation (DP) and impregnation (Imp). The prepared solids were calcined under air at 400°C. Both types of catalysts have been tested in the total oxidation of propylene, toluene, carbon monoxide, and carbon black. Au/CeO2-DP solids were the most reactive owing to the high number of gold nanoparticles and Au+ species and the low concentration of Cl- ions present on its surface compared to those observed in Au/CeO2-Imp solids.

  4. Tips on Protecting Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, invisible gas produced when ... room and tell the physician you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning. If carbon monoxide poisoning has occurred, it often can be ...

  5. Emissions to air in Sweden: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and sulphur dioxide 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gases - Carbon dioxide from combustion and motor fuels, Methane and Laughing gas from agriculture Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Sweden amounted to 56 million tonnes in 2000, which is minor decrease since 1990. Combustion of fossil fuels and the use of fuels in vehicles are the major sources of CO2 emissions. Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas, and it is emitted when bacteria degrade organic matter. In Sweden the main source is enteric fermentation from cattle. The emissions of methane were 324 000 tonnes 1990. In 2000 the emissions amounted to 280 000 tonnes, or a 14 per cent decrease. The third greenhouse gas, N2O is mostly emitted from agriculture. N2O emissions have fallen somewhat. Total emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, counted as NO2) in Sweden were 58,000 and 247,000 tonnes respectively in 2000. International air and maritime traffic is not included. The major source of SO2 emissions is combustion of fossil fuels. Road traffic is the major source of NOX emissions. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are also presented in this report. The main source of CO is road traffic, while NMVOCs come from household combustion and road traffic. Emission trends for fluoride carbon greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 are also presented. These gases mainly emit from refrigerators, freezing and air conditioning equipment (e.g. in cars and buildings) and from heat pumps

  6. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  7. Emissions to air in Sweden: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for calculating emissions to air has been revised, which has led to adjustments. Because of this, emissions in 1999 cannot yet be compared with previous years. Emissions in 1990 - 1998 are being recalculated now using the new method and are expected to be ready during 2001. Emissions to air of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Sweden was 56.58 million tonnes in 1999, not including emissions from biofuels and international bunkers. The major sources of CO2 emissions are the combustion of fossil fuels and the use of fuels for mobile sources. Total emissions to air of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, counted as NO2) in Sweden was 66 000 and 263 000 tonnes respectively in 1999. International bunkers are not included. The major source of SO2 emissions is combustion of fossil fuels. Road traffic is the major source of NOx emissions. Emissions to air of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in 1999 were 253 000, 26 000, 924 000 and 430 000 tonnes respectively, not including international bunkers. Agriculture is the major source of CH4 and N2O emissions. CO mainly derives from road traffic and NMVOC mainly derives from household combustion and road traffic

  8. Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sawano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have confirmed the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO gas as a signal transmitter. However, CO is considered an intracellular transmitter, as no studies have demonstrated the redistribution of CO from the blood to tissue cells. Tracer analyses of 13 CO 2 production following 13 CO gas inhalation demonstrated that CO is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO 2 in the body and that CO oxidation does not occur in the circulation. However, these results could not clearly demonstrate the redistribution of CO, because oxidation may have occurred in the airway epithelium. The objective of this study, therefore, was to definitively demonstrate and quantify the redistribution and oxidation of CO using time-course analyses of CO and 13 CO 2 production following 13 CO-hemoglobin infusion. The subject was infused with 0.45 L of 13 CO-saturated autologous blood. Exhaled gas was collected intermittently for 36 hours for measurement of minute volumes of CO/CO 2 exhalation and determination of the 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 ratio. 13 CO 2 production significantly increased from 3 to 28 hours, peaking at 8 hours. Of the infused CO, 81% was exhaled as CO and 2.6% as 13 CO 2 . Identical time courses of 13 CO 2 production following 13 CO-hemoglobin infusion and 13 CO inhalation refute the hypothesis that CO is oxidized in the airway epithelium and clearly demonstrate the redistribution of CO from the blood to the tissues. Quantitative analyses have revealed that 19% of CO in the circulating blood is redistributed to tissue cells, whereas 2.6% is oxidized there. Overall, these results suggest that CO functions as a systemic signal transmitter.

  9. A rational design approach to nanostructured catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacki, Christopher

    The extraordinary energetic properties of subnanometer (model for the nanosciences, where molecular species are synthesized, scaled, and engineered into functional materials. Gold nanoparticles as isolated structures are not useful as real catalysts and must co-exist with supports that provide enhanced stability and activity. Support oxides such as TiO2, Fe2O 3, CeO2, SiO2, Al2O3, ZrO 2, and graphitic (active) carbons have been shown to increase the active nature of AuNP and have been the subject of several thousand publications in the past decade. Zirconia compared to titania as a support for Au NP catalysis has been studied with limited success. In fact, the majority of observations show that zirconia is one of the lowest performing metal oxide supports involving Au NP oxidation catalysis. The likely reason for these observations is a lack of understanding of the relationship between structure and surface functionality as it pertains to ambient temperature oxidation catalysis (ATOC). Furthermore, virtually all substrate and catalyst preparations in earlier work were performed at high temperatures, typically 400--900°C, thus forming progressively monomorphic structures containing larger crystals with reduced surface functionality and porosity. In this research, I established the hypothesis based on a structural model that surface functional hydroxides are important to sustained hydrolytic reactions, such as those involving Au NP for the oxidation of CO to CO 2. Theoretical calculations by Ignatchenko, Vittadini, et al. show that zirconia readily dissociates adsorbed water on the most active and stable crystal structures (111) compared to other metal oxides, such as the common anatase (101) form of titania. Also, the support must provide a source of activated oxygen as a means to oxidize intermediate carbonates with CO 2 formation. The role of the support is to provide lattice oxygen in an activated state (O2-) for oxidation of adsorbed CO the Au NP

  10. Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides From a 25 kW Boiler Supplied Periodically and Continuously with Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juszczak Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the fuel feeding mode (continuous or periodic with different stand-by/operation time ratios on carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NOx concentration values in the flue gas was analysed for coniferous wood pellet firing. Experiments were performed in a 25 kW water boiler equipped with an over-fed wood pellet furnace located in a full scale heat station simulating real-life conditions. Influence of oxygen concentration and temperature in the combustion chamber on carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations was presented in diagrams. Dust and hydrocarbon concentrations were also monitored. It was concluded that the commonly used periodic fuel supply does not necessarily cause a significant increase of carbon monoxide concentration, as compared to the continuous fuel feeding mode. Continuous fuel supply can even induce higher carbon monoxide concentrations when fuel mass stream is not chosen properly. Each time new fuel type is used in a specific furnace, one should perform experiments to determine the adequate settings (stand-by/operation time ratio, fuel mass streams, air stream to obtain the optimal, lowest possible emission for a certain boiler heat output

  11. Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Knauert; Sandeep Vangala; Maria Haslip; Patty Lee

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laborat...

  12. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Xing, Mingyou [Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Liu, Liegang [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Yao, Ping, E-mail: yaoping@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  13. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Flickr SlideShare All Pages & Documents Recalls & News Releases Home Recalls CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits Recalls by ... CO Poster Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon ...

  15. IR Laser-Produced Carbon-Phase Shield to Oxidation of Nanosized Titanium Monoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, Věra; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2011), s. 287-291. ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720619; GA MŠk LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium monoxide * nanoparticles * carbothermal reduction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.487, year: 2011

  16. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  17. Au/Ce0.72Zr0.18Pr0.1O2 nanodisperse catalyst for oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, E. Yu.; Naumkin, A. V.; Mikhailichenko, A. I.; Batrakova, M. K.; Maslakov, K. I.; Revina, A. A.; Papkova, M. V.; Kon'kova, T. V.; Grunskii, V. N.; Gasparyan, M. D.; Karpovich, A. L.; Lizunova, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The nanodisperse Au/Ce0.72Zr0.18Pr0.1O2 catalysts for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide were synthesized. The compounds were identified by XRD, XPS, TEM, ISP-MS, and gas chromatography. The samples containing gold nanoparticles obtained by radiation chemical reduction in reverse micellar dispersion exhibited higher activity than the catalysts obtained by deposition-precipitation (DP) despite the higher content of the active component.

  18. Operando atomic structure and active sites of TiO2(110)-supported gold nanoparticles during carbon monoxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Lager, Marie-Claire; Laoufi, Issam; Bailly, Aude

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that gold nanoparticles supported on TiO2 act as a catalyst for CO oxidation, even below room temperature. Despite extensive studies, the origin of this catalytic activity remains under debate. Indeed, when the particle size decreases, many changes may occur; thus modifying the nanoparticles' electronic properties and consequently their catalytic performances. Thanks to a state-of-the-art home-developed setup, model catalysts can be prepared in ultra-high vacuum and their morphology then studied in operando conditions by Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering, as well as their atomic structure by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction as a function of their catalytic activity. We previously reported on the existence of a catalytic activity maximum observed for three-dimensional gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3 nm and a height of 6-7 atomic planes. In the present work we correlate this size dependence of the catalytic activity to the nanoparticles' atomic structure. We show that even when their size decreases below the optimum diameter, the gold nanoparticles keep the face-centered cubic structure characteristic of bulk gold. Nevertheless, for these smallest nanoparticles, the lattice parameter presents anisotropic strains with a larger contraction in the direction perpendicular to the surface. Moreover a careful analysis of the atomic-scale morphology around the catalytic activity maximum tends to evidence the role of sites with a specific geometry at the interface between the nanoparticles and the substrate. This argues for models where atoms at the interface periphery act as catalytically active sites for carbon monoxide oxidation. PMID:24015583

  19. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  20. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Aydın; Mürüvet Akın; Emel Boyraz; Murat Çolakkaya

    2011-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  1. Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Davous, P; Rondot, P; Marion, M H; Gueguen, B

    1986-01-01

    Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

  2. Intestinal infarction following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M.; Cacciottolo, J. M.; Casha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 65 year old patient admitted with carbon monoxide poisoning developed acute pulmonary oedema during treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. After initial recovery he developed extensive intestinal ischaemia which rapidly led to death. It is suggested that intestinal vasoconstriction due to left ventricular failure made the gut much more vulnerable to the hypoxic effects of carbon monoxide than the brain and heart.

  3. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  4. Role of Carbon Monoxide in Kidney Function: Is a little Carbon Monoxide Good for the Kidney?

    OpenAIRE

    Csongrádi Éva (1969-) (szakorvos); Juncos, Luis A.; Drummond, Heather A.; Vera, Trinity; Stec, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies us...

  5. Self-sustained carbon monoxide oxidation oscillations on size-selected platinum nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert; Andersen, Thomas; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev;

    2013-01-01

    High-quality mass spectrometry data of the oscillatory behavior of CO oxidation on SiO2 supported Pt-nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure have been acquired as a function of pressure, coverage, gas composition and nanoparticle size. The oscillations are self-sustained for several days at constan...

  6. Interaction of adsorbed carbon monoxide with surface hydroxyl groups of yttrium erbium and holmium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of oxygen-containing organic compounds appeared on the surfaces of yttrium, erbium and holmium oxides during the reaction of CO with hydroxyl groups was studied by diffusion reflection IR spectroscopy . Formiate (HCO-2), formyl (HCO-) and, perhaps, dioxomethylene (H2CO22-) groups was demonstrated to be by them. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Kinetics of Carbon Monoxide Electro-Oxidation in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells from Ni-YSZ Patterned-Anode Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, J.

    2013-04-17

    A mathematical model is developed around the framework of a reduced mechanism describing electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide on Ni-YSZ patterned anodes. The electro-oxidation mechanism involves three reactions, one describing adsorption/ desorption of COonNi, and two single-electron charge-transfer steps inwhich the surface adsorbate CO(Ni) participates directly. These steps are coupled with surface transport in a reaction-diffusion model for which analytic equilibrium and steady-state solutions are derived. As much as possible, we make use of existing, independent, published information about heterogeneous chemistry, surface transport, and other model parameters. The only unknowns in our model are taken to be the kinetic rate constants of the electrochemical reactions, which we evaluate by fitting the model predictions to previously published patterned-anode experiments [B. Habibzadeh, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (2007)]. The results show that diffusion of CO on the Ni surface to the three-phase boundary is the rate-controlling process for CO electro-oxidation. Moreover, from a reaction standpoint, the charge-transfer process is dominated by a slow step involving CO(Ni). These findings collectively demonstrate the critical dependence of the electro-oxidation process to the direct participation of CO. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  8. A Functional Coupling Between Carbon Monoxide and Nitric Oxide Contributes to Increased Vasopressin Neuronal Activity in Heart Failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Wagner L; Biancardi, Vinicia C; Zhou, Yiqiang; Stern, Javier E

    2016-05-01

    Despite the pathophysiological importance of neurohumoral activation in patients with heart failure (HF), the precise underlying mechanisms contributing to elevated vasopressin (VP) activation in HF remains unknown. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that stimulates VP neuronal firing activity. Recently, we showed that the excitatory effect of CO on VP neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was mediated by inhibition of nitric oxide (NO). Given that previous studies showed that VP neuronal activity is enhanced, whereas NO inhibitory signaling is blunted in HF rats, we tested whether an enhanced endogenous CO availability within the PVN contributes to elevated VP neuronal activity and blunted NO signaling in HF rats. We found that both haeme-oxygenase 1 (the CO-synthesizing enzyme) protein and mRNA expression levels were enhanced in the PVN of HF compared with sham rats (∼18% and ∼38%, respectively). We report that in sham rats, bath application of a CO donor (tricarbonyldichlororuthenium dimer) increased the firing activity of identified PVN VP neurons (P < .05), whereas inhibition of endogenous CO production (Tin-protoporphyrin IX [SnPP]) failed to affect neuronal activity. In HF rats, however, SnPP decreased VP activity (P < .05), an effect that was occluded by previous NO synathase blockade NG-nitro-larginine methyl ester. Finally, we found that SnPP increased the mean frequency of γ-aminobutyric acid inhibitory postsynaptic currents in VP neurons in HF (P < .05) but not sham rats. Our results support an enhanced endogenous CO excitatory signaling in VP neurons, which likely contributes to blunted NO and γ-aminobutyric acid inhibitory function in HF rats. PMID:26982634

  9. Understanding the carbon-monoxide oxidation mechanism on ultrathin palladium nanowires: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Ju, Shin-Pon; Lai, Zhu-Min; Lin, Jenn-Sen; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan

    2016-01-28

    The CO oxidation mechanism catalyzed by ultrathin helical palladium nanowires (PdNW) was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The helical PdNW structure was constructed on the basis of the simulated annealing basin-hopping (SABH) method with the tight-binding potential and the penalty method in our previous studies (J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22, 20319). The low-lying adsorption configurations as well as the adsorption energies for O2 and CO molecules on different PdNW adsorption sites were obtained by DFT calculation. The most stable adsorption configurations for the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism processes were considered for investigating the CO oxidation mechanism. The nudged elastic band (NEB) method was adopted to obtain the transition state configuration and the minimum energy pathways (MEPs). PMID:26701650

  10. Understanding the carbon-monoxide oxidation mechanism on ultrathin palladium nanowires: a density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Ju, Shin-Pon; Lai, Zhu-Min; Lin, Jenn-Sen; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The CO oxidation mechanism catalyzed by ultrathin helical palladium nanowires (PdNW) was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The helical PdNW structure was constructed on the basis of the simulated annealing basin-hopping (SABH) method with the tight-binding potential and the penalty method in our previous studies (J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22, 20319). The low-lying adsorption configurations as well as the adsorption energies for O2 and CO molecules on different PdNW adsorption sites were obtained by DFT calculation. The most stable adsorption configurations for the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism processes were considered for investigating the CO oxidation mechanism. The nudged elastic band (NEB) method was adopted to obtain the transition state configuration and the minimum energy pathways (MEPs).

  11. Irrelevance of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Methanol Oxidation Reaction on a PtRu Electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Jun; Tong, YuYe J

    2015-08-01

    Based on detailed in situ attenuated total-reflection-surface-enhanced IR reflection absorption spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS) studies of the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) on Ru/Pt thin film and commercial Johnson-Matthey PtRu/C, a revised MOR enhancement mechanism is proposed in which CO on Pt sites is irrelevant but instead Pt-Ru boundary sites catalyze the oxygen insertion reaction that leads to the formation of formate and enhances the direct reaction pathway. PMID:26148459

  12. How surface reparation prevents catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on atomic gold at defective magnesium oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpfer, Kai; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-07-21

    In this contribution, we study using first principles the co-adsorption and catalytic behaviors of CO and O2 on a single gold atom deposited at defective magnesium oxide surfaces. Using cluster models and point charge embedding within a density functional theory framework, we simulate the CO oxidation reaction for Au1 on differently charged oxygen vacancies of MgO(001) to rationalize its experimentally observed lack of catalytic activity. Our results show that: (1) co-adsorption is weakly supported at F(0) and F(2+) defects but not at F(1+) sites, (2) electron redistribution from the F(0) vacancy via the Au1 cluster to the adsorbed molecular oxygen weakens the O2 bond, as required for a sustainable catalytic cycle, (3) a metastable carbonate intermediate can form on defects of the F(0) type, (4) only a small activation barrier exists for the highly favorable dissociation of CO2 from F(0), and (5) the moderate adsorption energy of the gold atom on the F(0) defect cannot prevent insertion of molecular oxygen inside the defect. Due to the lack of protection of the color centers, the surface becomes invariably repaired by the surrounding oxygen and the catalytic cycle is irreversibly broken in the first oxidation step. PMID:27345190

  13. Polymer-Based Carbon Monoxide Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Kisor, A. K.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Ryan, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based sensors have been used primarily to detect volatile organics and inorganics; they are not usually used for smaller, gas phase molecules. We report the development and use of two types of polymer-based sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide. Further understanding of the experimental results is also obtained by performing molecular modeling studies to investigate the polymer-carbon monoxide interactions. The first type is a carbon-black-polymer composite that is comprised of a non-conducting polymer base that has been impregnated with carbon black to make it conducting. These chemiresistor sensors show good response to carbon monoxide but do not have a long lifetime. The second type of sensor has a non-conducting polymer base but includes both a porphyrin-functionalized polypyrrole and carbon black. These sensors show good, repeatable and reversible response to carbon monoxide at room temperature.

  14. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

    2005-06-01

    Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

  15. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus of this project is on developing new approaches for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. The strategies to accomplish CO reduction are based on favorable thermodynamics manifested by rhodium macrocycles for producing a series of intermediates implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Metalloformyl complexes from reactions of H2 and CO, and CO reductive coupling to form metallo α-diketone species provide alternate routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics are promising candidates for future development

  16. Hydrogenase activity in Azospirillum brasilense is inhibited by nitrite, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibelius, K.H.; Knowles, R.

    1984-10-01

    Nitrite, NO, CO, and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ inhibited O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake (H/sup 3/H oxidation) in denitrifying Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 grown anaerobically on N/sub 2/O or NO/sub 3//sup -/. The apparent K/sub i/ values for inhibition of O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake were 20 ..mu..M for NO/sub 2//sup -/, 0.4 ..mu..M for NO, 28 ..mu..M for CO, and 88 ..mu..M for C/sub 2/H/sub 2/. These inhibitors also affected methylene blue-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake, presumably by acting directly on the hydrogenase. Nitrite and NO inhibited H/sub 2/ uptake irreversibly, whereas inhibition due to CO was easily reversed by repeatedly evacuating and backfilling with N/sub 2/. The C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ inhibition was not readily reversed, partly due to difficulty in removing the last traces of this gas from solution. The NO/sub 2//sup -/ inhibition of malate-dependent respiration was readily reversed by repeatedly washing the cells, in contrast to the effect of NO/sub 2//sup -/ on H/sub 2/-dependent respiration. These results suggest that the low hydrogenase activities observed in NO/sub 3//sup -/-grown cultures of A. brasilense may be due to the irreversible inhibition of hydrogenase by NO/sub 2//sup -/ and NO produced by NO/sub 3//sup -/ reduction.

  17. IR Laser-Induced Carbothermal Reduction of Titanium Monoxide: Carbon-Phase Shield to Nanosized TiO Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, Věra; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    Ostrava: TANGER, 2010, s. 381-384. ISBN 978-80-87294-19-2. [NANOCON 2010. International Conference /2./. Olomouc (CZ), 12.10.2010-14.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720619; GA MŠk LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium monoxide nanoparticles * carbon -protection in air * laser-induced carbothermal reduction Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry

  18. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  19. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  2. Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J H; Cunningham, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

  3. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, H

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen.

  6. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Hossein Davari; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Mohammad Reza Vahidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Maryam Bahaloo; Pedram Shokouh

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months...

  7. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  8. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  9. XPS study on the surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The carbon monoxide adsorption on the surface oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy and the content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased. O/U radio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The investigation indicated the surface layer of uranium metal was further reduced in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide at high temperature. (3 refs., 5 figs.)

  10. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play an...... important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...... of cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathways. Here, we review the literature about carbon monoxide-induced headache and its possible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: We suggest, for the first time, that carbon monoxide may play an important role in the mechanisms of migraine and other headaches....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  12. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon... introduction into service and annually thereafter, the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked...

  13. Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

  14. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  15. Occupational medicine effects of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, W.M. [South African Society of Occupational Medicine (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon monoxide can affect the body if it is inhaled or if liquid carbon monoxide comes in contact with the eyes or skin. The effects of overexposure are discussed and a brief explanation of the toxicological effects of CO given. Methods of control of CO from common operations (exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines, the chemical industry and foundries, welding, mines or tunnels, fire damp explosions, industrial heating) are by local exhaust ventilation or use of a respiratory protective device. The South African hazardous chemical substance regulation NO. R. 1179 of 25 August 1995 stipulates maximum safe levels of CO concentration. 4 refs., 1 photo.

  16. Breath analysis to detect recent exposure to carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnington, A; Hormbrey, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the normal range for carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaled breath of subjects in the emergency department and to develop a protocol for the use of a breath analyser to detect abnormal carbon monoxide exposure.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan. The submittal pertained to a plan...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental... Island has committed to year round carbon monoxide monitoring at the East Providence...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  3. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  4. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  6. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  7. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

    1996-08-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

  8. Carbon monoxide: The 21st century poison that goes unnoticed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial article describes the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on human beings and the mechanisms involving carbon monoxide saturation of haemoglobin that are responsible for it. The initial research done in the mid-1800s by Claude Bernard is presented. Methods of treatment for persons poisoned by carbon monoxide are discussed and the experiments made by J.B.S. Haldane on himself by breathing in carbon monoxide are described. Acclimatisation effects observed by Haldane and his co-workers and concerning persons occupationally exposed to carbon monoxide emissions are described

  9. Reactivity of atomic oxygen radical anions bound to titania and zirconia nanoparticles in the gas phase: low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia-Bi; Xu, Bo; Meng, Jing-Heng; Wu, Xiao-Nan; Ding, Xun-Lei; Li, Xiao-Na; He, Sheng-Gui

    2013-02-27

    Titanium and zirconium oxide cluster anions with dimensions up to nanosize are prepared by laser ablation and reacted with carbon monoxide in a fast low reactor. The cluster reactions are characterized by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and density functional theory calculations. The oxygen atom transfers from (TiO(2))(n)O(-) (n = 3-25) to CO and formations of (TiO(2))(n)(-) are observed, whereas the reactions of (ZrO(2))(n)O(-) (n = 3-25) with CO generate the CO addition products (ZrO(2))(n)OCO(-), which lose CO(2) upon the collisions (studied for n = 3-9) with a crossed helium beam. The computational study indicates that the (MO(2))(n)O(-) (M = Ti, Zr; n = 3-8) clusters are atomic radical anion (O(-)) bonded systems, and the energetics for CO oxidation by the O(-) radicals to form CO(2) is strongly dependent on the metals as well as the cluster size for the titanium system. Atomic oxygen radical anions are important reactive intermediates, while it is difficult to capture and characterize them for condensed phase systems. The reactivity pattern of the O(-)-bonded (TiO(2))(n)O(-) and (ZrO(2))(n)O(-) correlates very well with different behaviors of titania and zirconia supports in the low-temperature catalytic CO oxidation. PMID:23368886

  10. Carbon monoxide: present and future indications for a medical gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., \\(H_2S\\), nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme ...

  11. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Mao; Sun Yun; Bai Jianling; Yu Rongbin; Yao Xin; Zhang Jingying; Adcock Ian M; Barnes Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language ar...

  12. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon Kyung Choi; Por, Elaine D.; Young-Guen Kwon; Young-Myeong Kim

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angio...

  13. Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schiller, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on ...

  14. Tropospheric carbon monoxide: satellite observations and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    MacCallum, Stuart Neil

    2008-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the troposphere as a product of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons. It is the principal sink of the hydroxyl radical (OH), thereby affecting the concentrations of greenhouse gases such as CH4 and O3. Consequently, CO has an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months, making it a good tracer for studying the long range transport of pollution. Satellite observations present a valuable tool to investigate tropospheric CO....

  15. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an exceedance of the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in any of the... monoxide ambient air quality standard were to occur, the State would be required to reimplement the program...)(3) and 187(a)(7) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, as revisions to the carbon monoxide...

  16. Role of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-resistant acetylcholine-induced relaxation in chicken carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Marie Dennis Marcus; Siddegowda, Yeshavanth K B; Kumar, Dinesh; Tandan, Surendra K; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Prakash, Vellanki Ravi; Mishra, Santosh K

    2008-10-31

    The current study examined the hypothesis that acetylcholine-induced N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-resistant endothelium-dependent relaxations in the chicken carotid artery are mediated by nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Acetylcholine (1 nM-3 microM) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation (pD(2) 6.81+/-0.05, R(max) 115+/-3%) of the artery segments precontracted with phenylephrine (3 microM). L-NAME (1 mM) decreased the sensitivity (pD(2) 6.44+/-0.06), but not the efficacy (R(max) 108+/-3%) of acetylcholine. It also partially decreased the acetylcholine (3 microM)-stimulated nitrite release. While treatment with N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine (l-NNA; 1 mM) plus L-NAME (1 mM) decreased the acetylcholine-stimulated nitrite release to the basal level, it moderately inhibited (R(max) 77+/-3%) the maximal relaxation elicited with the muscarinic agonist. 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO; 100 microM) a specific scavenger of nitric oxide (NO) plus the two NOS inhibitors further decreased the acetylcholine-evoked relaxation (R(max) 34+/-2%). Although soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 microM) markedly inhibited the acetylcholine-stimulated increase in tissue cGMP to less than the basal levels, it only decreased the sensitivity, but not the efficacy of the agonist either in the presence or absence of L-NAME (1 mM). Zinc Protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP; 10 microM), a hemeoxygenase (HO) inhibitor, partially inhibited (R(max) 72+/-3%) the L-NAME-resistant acetylcholine-induced relaxations. A combined treatment of the arterial rings with L-NAME, l-NNA, PTIO and ZnPP nearly abolished (R(max) 7+/-0.9%) the vasodilator responses to acetylcholine. Endothelium removal abolished the relaxation response to acetylcholine. In conclusion, it is suggested that the acetylcholine-induced L-NAME-resistant relaxation is primarily, mediated by NO with a small but significant contribution from

  17. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pillion, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  18. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Shruti; Gupta Rahul; Paul Barinder; Puri Sandeep; Garg Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign...

  19. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  20. Smernice zdravljenja zastrupitev z ogljikovim monoksidom: Carbon monoxide treatment guidelines:

    OpenAIRE

    Brvar, Miran; Jamšek, Marija; Šarc, Lucija; Grenc, Damjan; Finderle, Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon...

  1. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gonullu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  2. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2σ significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  3. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  4. Beneficial effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in mice: Role of oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxorubicin (DXR) has been used in variety of human malignancies for decades. Despite its efficacy in cancer, clinical usage is limited because of its cardiotoxicity, which has been associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been shown to reduce the oxidative damage and apoptosis. The present study investigated the effects of CORM-2, a fast CO-releaser, against DXR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice using biochemical, histopathological and gene expression approaches. CORM-2 (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 days and terminated the study on day 11. DXR (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected before 72 h of termination. Mice treated with DXR showed cardiotoxicity as evidenced by elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3 and decrease the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in heart tissues. Pre- and post-treatment with CORM-2 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) elicited significant improvement in CK, LDH, MDA, caspase-3 and TAS levels. Histopathological studies showed that cardiac damage with DXR has been reversed with CORM-2 + DXR treatment. There was dramatic decrease in hematological count in DXR-treated mice, which has been improved with CORM-2. Furthermore, there was also elevation of mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease in inducible-nitric oxide synthase expression upon treatment with CORM-2 that might be linked to cardioprotection. These data suggest that CORM-2 treatment provides cardioprotection against acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and this effect may be attributed to CORM-2-mediated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.

  5. Possible role of antioxidants and nitric oxide inhibitors against carbon monoxide poisoning: Having a clear conscience because of their potential benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Sumeyya; Yuksel, Sevda; Pehlivan, Sultan; Erdemli, Haci Kemal; Gulec, Mehmet Akif; Adam, Bahattin; Akyol, Omer

    2016-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the important emergency situations manifested by primarily acute and chronic anoxic central nervous system (CNS) injuries and other organ damages. Current descriptions and therapeutic approaches have been focused on the anoxic pathophysiology. However, this point of view incompletely explains some of the outcomes and needs to be investigated extensively. Considering this, we propose that reactive oxygen species (ROS) including especially nitric oxide (NO) are likely to be a key concept to understand the emergency related to CO poisoning and to discover new therapeutic modalities in CO toxicity. If we consider the hypothesis that ROS is involved greatly in acute and chronic toxic effects of CO on CNS and some other vital organs such as heart, it follows that the antioxidant and anti-NO therapies might give the clinicians more opportunities to prevent deep CNS injury. In support of this, we review the subject in essence and summarize clinical and experimental studies that support a key role of ROS in the explanation of pathophysiology of CO toxicity as well as new treatment modalities after CO poisoning. PMID:27241244

  6. Cardiovascular deaths related to Carbon monoxide Exposure in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Goudarzi; Sahar Geravandi; Mehdi Vosoughi; Mohammad javad Mohammadi; Abdolkazem neisi; Sepideh sadat Taghavirad

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas that emitted from combustion. Carbon monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body's organs (like the heart and brain), tissues, fibrinolysis effects, abortion and death at extremely high levels. The aim of this study was to assess health- effects of carbon monoxide exposure in Ahvaz city. Data were collected through Ahvaz Meteorological Organization and Department of Environment. Raw data processing b...

  7. Case of carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking shisha

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Beng Leong; Lim, Ghee Hian; Seow, Eillyne

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning has been reported as a result of exposure to various sources of smoke, such as car exhaust fumes, home water heaters and tobacco smoke. We describe a case of symptomatic, moderately severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a young Mediterranean man after smoking a waterpipe, or shisha. This case highlights the importance of considering carbon monoxide exposure in patients presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms to the emergency department (ED).

  8. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation of TLCO either a known inspired oxygen concentration should b...

  9. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  10. Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Stephen R.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Han, Shih-Tsung; Clark, James M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet–neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neurologic sequelae.

  11. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  12. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS, heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  13. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  14. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  15. Vasorelaxing effects and inhibition of nitric oxide in macrophages by new iron-containing carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

    OpenAIRE

    Motterlini, Roberto; Sawle, Philip; Hammad, Jehad; Mann, Brian; Johnson, Tony; Green, Colin; Foresti, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are a class of organometallo carbonyl complexes capable of delivering controlled quantities of CO gas to cells and tissues thus exerting a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. Here we report on the chemical synthesis, CO releasing properties, cytotoxicity profile and pharmacological activities of four novel structurally related iron-allyl carbonyls. The major difference among the new CO-RMs tested was that three compounds (CORM-307, CORM-308 ...

  16. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms. PMID:27120897

  17. Carbon monoxide modeling studies : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobile exhaust has been identified as a major source of carbon monoxide (CO), a pollutant gas known to have physiological effects on people. This study emphasized the importance of CO modelling, given the increased use of automobiles and the resulting increase in ambient air pollution. Computational models plays an important role in the environmental regulatory process because modeling processes can clarify the complex relationship between environmental emissions, the quality of the environment, and human and ecological impacts. Carbon monoxide (CO) is given the least attention for imperative modeling, despite the fact that frequent exceedance of CO emissions can be harmful to human health and the environment. An accurate emissions estimate and an efficient model for forecasting the future status of CO is needed in order to effectively manage CO. Most CO forecast models describe the temporal and spatial distribution of CO on roadways. The main categories of CO models are deterministic, statistical, hybrid, and neural network in nature. This paper reviewed recent studies that attempted CO dispersion modeling. The Gaussian model was generally accepted for prediction of long-term average concentrations, but it is best suited to explain routine behaviour of dispersion. The scope and restraint associated with various modeling attempts was also discussed. 345 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Photo catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide over NiO/SnO2 Nano composites under UV Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NiO/SnO2 nano composites have been prepared by the simple coprecipitation method and further characterized by the XRD, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis, and BET. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data analyses indicate the exclusive formation of nano sized particles with rutile-type phase (tetragonal SnO2) for Ni contents below 10 mol%. Only above 10 mol% Ni, the formation of a second NiO-related phase has been determined. The particle size is in the range from 12 to 6 nm. It decreases with increasing amounts of doping NiO. The morphology of NiO-doped SnO2 nanocrystalline powders is spherical, and the distribution of particle size is uniform, as seen from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photo catalytic oxidation of CO over NiO/SnO2 photo catalyst has been investigated under UV irradiation. Effects of NiO loading on SnO2, photo catalyst loading, and reaction time on photo catalytic oxidation of CO have been systematically studied. Compared with pure SnO2, the 33.3 mol% NiO/SnO2 composite exhibited approximately twenty fold enhancement of photo catalytic oxidation of CO. Our results provide a method for pollutants removal. Due to simple preparation, high photo catalytic oxidation of CO, and low cost, the NiO/SnO2 photo catalyst will find wide application in the coming future of photo catalytic oxidation of CO

  19. Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Excess Hydrogen over Au/Co3O4- CeO2 Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Au/Co3O4-CeO2 mixed-oxide catalysts were shown experimentally to be highly active and selective for the oxidation of CO in hydrogen-rich mixture. Activity was markedly influenced by the composition of the support, aging temperature and Au-loading temperature. It provided that single-step removal of CO from hydrogen-rich stream both in the absence and presence of CO2 and H2O to a PEMFC tolerant level. It was found that catalytic activity is greatly affected by adding CO2 in the mixture and increased by farther adding H2O. It meants H2O has the effect to rise catalytic activity. Moreover,it shows better stability with reaction time for the preferential CO oxidation.

  20. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  1. Zeolite MCM-22 Modified with Au and Cu for Catalytic Total Oxidation of Methanol and Carbon Monoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminski, P.; Sobczak, I.; Decyk, P.; Ziolek, M.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy; Campo, B.; Daturi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 5 (2013), s. 2147-2159. ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0189 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : adsorption * carbon dioxide * MCM-22 zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.835, year: 2013

  2. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “serious” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December..., revised Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Denver, as adopted by the Colorado Air Quality Control... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions...

  3. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy:...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system....

  7. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Improved Method of its Spot Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Rajwar

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews some investigations on carbon monoxide poisoning and describes a detailed method for detection of carbon monoxide. A comparative study indicating the scope, limitation and range of the various other methods of spot detection has also been given.

  8. Variability in Carbon Monoxide Concentration in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Ariko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Carbon Monoxide concentrations in Urban core and Control station in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. USB-CO data loggers were used for data acquisition for a period of one month. 1hour mean of Carbon Monoxide concentrations for Urban core and Control station were subjected to student “t” test to determine any significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentration between the two sampled sites. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test was employed to test the temporal variability in Carbon Monoxide concentrations in the Urban core. The “t” test results showed a significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentrations, between the Urban core and the Control station. The ANOVA results showed that there is a significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentrations level between different times of the day. The 1 h mean WHO recommendation for Carbon Monoxide concentration was occasionally exceeded, while the 8 h mean was daily exceeded in the evening periods in Urban core. In the Control station, there was no time both 1 h and 8 h means WHO recommendation were exceeded. These imply that the Rural environment is relatively more livable than the Urban environment in Kaduna metropolis in terms of Carbon Monoxide concentration levels.

  9. A Myoclonus Case Related to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Özışık, Handan Işın; Kızkın, Sibel; Cemal ÖZCAN; Bölük, Ayhan; Çalışkan, Özden

    2005-01-01

    Delayed neurological findings due to carbon monoxide poisoning are changes in cognition and personality, psychotic behavior and parkinsonism. Rarely, these patients have movement disorders such dystonia, chorea and myoclonus. In this case study, we reported a case in which myoclonus appeared in the late stage of CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide poisoning, Movement disorders, Myoclonus.

  10. Acetaldehyde as an Intermediate in the Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol on Oxide-Derived Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide;

    2016-01-01

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at −0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a mino...

  11. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  12. Acetaldehyde as an Intermediate in the Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol on Oxide-Derived Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; H. Montoya, Joseph; Trimarco, Daniel Bøndergaard; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.; E. L. Stephens, Ifan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at −0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor...... solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results represent an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes....

  13. Isotopic composition of carbon monoxide in St. Louis, Missouri area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and isotropic composition of carbon monoxide were determined for air samples taken in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, to provide information as to the movement of the pollutant plume from the city. Urban air was detected as far as 48 miles downwind of St. Louis; however, movement of the pollutant plume was not detected. The effect of engine carbon monoxide produced along a highway in a rural area was found to be minimal three miles downwind of the highway. Diurnal studies demonstrated an inverse relationship between carbon monoxide concentration and oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios during the night. A parallel relation prevailed during the day

  14. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Infrared Spectra of High Pressure Carbon Monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, W J; Lipp, M J; Lorenzana, H E

    2001-09-21

    We report infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) at high pressures. Although CO is one of the simplest heteronuclear diatomic molecules, it displays surprisingly complex behavior at high pressures and has been the subject of several studies [1-5]. IR spectroscopic studies of high pressures phases of CO provide data complementing results from previous studies and elucidating the nature of these phases. Though a well-known and widely utilized diagnostic of molecular systems, IR spectroscopy presents several experimental challenges to high pressure diamond anvil cell research. We present measurements of the IR absorption bands of CO at high pressures and experimentally illustrate the crucial importance of accurate normalization of IR spectra specially within regions of strong absorptions in diamond.

  16. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  17. Electron energy deposition in carbon monoxide gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihong; Victor, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive set of electron impact cross sections for carbon monoxide molecules is presented on the basis of the most recent experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. The processes by which energetic electrons lose energy in CO gas are analyzed with these input cross sections. The efficiencies are computed of vibrational and electronic excitation, dissociation, ionization, and heating for CO gas with fractional ionization ranging from 0% to 10%. The calculated mean energy per ion pair for neutral CO gas is 32.3 eV, which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 32.2 eV. It increases to 35.6 eV at a fractional ionization of 1%, typical of supernovae ejecta.

  18. Cardiovascular deaths related to Carbon monoxide Exposure in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas that emitted from combustion. Carbon monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body's organs (like the heart and brain, tissues, fibrinolysis effects, abortion and death at extremely high levels. The aim of this study was to assess health- effects of carbon monoxide exposure in Ahvaz city. Data were collected through Ahvaz Meteorological Organization and Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software includes (instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering and after the impact of meteorological parameters was converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, health-effects of carbon monoxide exposure were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of carbon monoxide was 7.41 mg/m3 in Ahvaz as annual average. Sum of total numbers of deaths attributed to carbon monoxide was 16 cases within a year. Approximately 4.3% of total Cardiovascular deaths happened when the carbon monoxide concentrations was more than 20 mg/m3. This could be due to higher fuel consumption gasoline in vehicles, Oil industry, steel and Heavy industries in Ahwaz. Mortality and Morbidity risks were detected at current ambient concentrations of air pollutants.

  19. Adsorption of carbon monoxide on small aluminum oxide clusters: Role of the local atomic environment and charge state on the oxidation of the CO molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present extensive density functional theory (DFT) calculations dedicated to analyze the adsorption behavior of CO molecules on small AlxOy± clusters. Following the experimental results of Johnson et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 4732 (2008)], we consider structures having the bulk composition Al2O3, as well as smaller Al2O2 and Al2O units. Our electron affinity and total energy calculations are consistent with aluminum oxide clusters having two-dimensional rhombus-like structures. In addition, interconversion energy barriers between two- and one-dimensional atomic arrays are of the order of 1 eV, thus clearly defining the preferred isomers. Single CO adsorption on our charged AlxOy± clusters exhibits, in general, spontaneous oxygen transfer events leading to the production of CO2 in line with the experimental data. However, CO can also bind to both Al and O atoms of the clusters forming aluminum oxide complexes with a CO2 subunit. The vibrational spectra of AlxOy + CO2 provides well defined finger prints that may allow the identification of specific isomers. The AlxOy+ clusters are more reactive than the anionic species and the final Al2O+ + CO reaction can result in the production of atomic Al and carbon dioxide as observed from experiments. We underline the crucial role played by the local atomic environment, charge density distribution, and spin-multiplicity on the oxidation behavior of CO molecules. Finally, we analyze the importance of coadsorption and finite temperature effects by performing DFT Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Our calculations show that CO oxidation on AlxOy+ clusters can be also promoted by the binding of additional CO species at 300 K, revealing the existence of fragmentation processes in line with the ones experimentally inferred

  20. 75 FR 3668 - Conditional Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; Ohio; Carbon Monoxide and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... (OAC) 3745-21 (Carbon Monoxide, Photochemically Reactive Materials, Hydrocarbons, and related Materials... compound containing carbon, excluding: Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide; carbonic acid; metallic carbides... economic feasibility. On March 23, 1995, (60 FR 15235), EPA inadvertently approved a version of...

  1. Rhabdomyolysis after Intentional Acetaminophen and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Iago Rodríguez–Lago; Delia D’Avola; Mercedes Iñarrairaegui; José Ignacio Herrero; Bruno Sangro; Jorge Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen is one of the most frequent causes of acute liverfailure. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare adverse reaction reported withthis drug. Carbon monoxide (CO) can also lead to muscle injury butonly after severe intoxication. We present a case of rhabdomyolysisassociated to Acetaminophen over dosage and mild carbon monoxideexposure. A 38-year-old man was admitted because of acute hepaticinjury due to voluntary acetaminophen overdose. He also reporteda mild carbon monoxide exposure. He showed a...

  2. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monoxide national ambient air quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Lake and Marion Counties for an additional ten years. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  3. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  4. Evidence for oxidative stress in the developing cerebellum of the rat after chronic mild carbon monoxide exposure (0.0025% in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Ivan A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic very mild prenatal carbon monoxide (CO exposure (25 parts per million subverts the normal development of the rat cerebellar cortex. Studies at this chronic low CO exposure over the earliest periods of mammalian development have not been performed to date. Pregnant rats were exposed chronically to CO from gestational day E5 to E20. In the postnatal period, rat pups were grouped as follows: Group A: prenatal exposure to CO only; group B: prenatal exposure to CO then exposed to CO from postnatal day 5 (P5 to P20; group C: postnatal exposure only, from P5 to P20, and group D, controls (air without CO. At P20, immunocytochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers, and structural and functional proteins were assessed in the cerebellar cortex of the four groups. Quantitative real time PCR assays were performed for inducible (iNOS, neuronal (nNOS, and endothelial (eNOS nitric oxide synthases. Results Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, SOD2, and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 immunoreactivity increased in cells of the cerebellar cortex of CO-exposed pups. INOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity also increased in blood vessels and Purkinje cells (PCs of pups from group-A, B and C. By contrast, nNOS immunoreactivity decreased in PCs from group-B. Endothelial NOS immunoreactivity showed no changes in any CO-exposed group. The mRNA levels for iNOS were significantly up-regulated in the cerebellum of rats from group B; however, mRNA levels for nNOS and eNOS remained relatively unchanged in groups A, B and C. Ferritin-H immunoreactivity increased in group-B. Immunocytochemistry for neurofilaments (structural protein, synapsin-1 (functional protein, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, were decreased in groups A and B. Immunoreactivity for two calcium binding proteins, parvalbumin and calbindin, remained

  5. An Organocobalt–Carbon Nanotube Chemiresistive Carbon Monoxide Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sophie F.; Lin, Sibo; Swager, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    A chemiresistive detector for carbon monoxide was created from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by noncovalent modification with diiodo(η5: η1-1-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)-cobalt(III) ([Cp^CoI2]), an organocobalt complex with an intramolecular amino ligand coordinated to the metal center that is displaced upon CO binding. The unbound amino group can subsequently be transduced chemiresistively by the SWCNT network. The resulting device was shown to...

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell reversible performance loss induced by carbon monoxide produced during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoopman, B.; Vincent, R.; Rosini, S.; Paganelli, G.; Thivel, P.-X.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry measurements at the anode have been carried out and reveal the presence of carbon monoxide in steady-state operation, with pure hydrogen. Experiments have been performed both in single cell and in stack to find out its origin. The contamination of the anode catalyst is partly due the reverse-water gas shift (RWGS) with carbon dioxide from the cathode. However, this study shows a temperature-activated and time-related corrosion mechanism which appears under humidified hydrogen. Due to this degradation mechanism, a reversible 25 mV-loss of performances is observed and can be recovered by oxidizing carbon monoxide on the anode.

  7. Carbon monoxide toxicity in Dammam, KSA: Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aldossary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO toxicity is one of the common types of poisoning, and the aim of this study is to evaluate CO poisoning during 2004–2013. The study was based on autopsy samples sent to the forensic chemistry laboratory in Dammam during the study period. The findings showed that 68 out of 894 autopsy cases were diagnosed as acute CO toxicity; 91% of the cases were classified as accidental; 83% of cases were male while only 11% were female. The highest rate was in the winter months (50%, and highest age group was between 40 and 50 years, followed by 31–40. The average carbon monoxide percentage was 49%. Carbon monoxide toxicity in Dammam is not a very common occurrence; however, this study may help control and prevent carbon monoxide toxicity for protection of the society.

  8. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  9. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  10. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  11. CT and clinical patterns in suicidal carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial CT is important to exclude the presence of a mass in the cavum cranii in case of an unclear suicide attempt, particularly a traumatic mass. It can be helpful also in cases of carbon monoxide intoxications. (orig.)

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbon Monoxide Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbonmonoxidepoisoning.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  13. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Ozkan; Tayfun Ozturk; Yavuz Ozmen; Polat Durukan

    2013-01-01

    Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Concentration in Different Districts of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    K A'azam; Mojgan Baniardalani; F. Changani

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem in Tehran. Most important agents responsible for the high pollution include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons and suspended particles. Determination of quality and quantity of polluting agents is of great importance for sustaining the inhabitants health level. We studied carbon monoxide, one of the most hazardous air-polluting agents, in 22 urban districts of Tehran. The results showed that in average 4.39% of the air in Tehran ha...

  15. Carbon monoxide and exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Calverley, P. M.; Leggett, R J; Flenley, D C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide on exercise tolerance as assessed by the distance walked in 12 minutes were studied in 15 patients with severe chronic bronchitis and emphysema (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 0.56 1, mean forced vital capacity 1.54 1). Each subject walked breathing air and oxygen before and after exposure to sufficient carbon monoxide to raise their venous carboxyhaemoglobin concentration by 9%. There was a significant reduction in the walking distance when the pat...

  16. Neuroprotective, neurotherapeutic, and neurometabolic effects of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, Vicki L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies in animal models show that the primary mechanism by which heme-oxygenases impart beneficial effects is due to the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO). Produced in humans mainly by the catabolism of heme by heme-oxygenase, CO is a neurotransmitter important for multiple neurologic functions and affects several intracellular pathways as a regulatory molecule. Exogenous administration of inhaled CO or carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORM’s) impart similar neurophysiological respon...

  17. Epidemiological bases for the current ambient carbon monoxide standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, L H; Radford, E P

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is widely distributed in the environment, and acute or chronic toxic effects may be of considerable public health significance. A review of the basis for current ambient standards is given. Mortality and morbidity studies have been negative or equivocal in relating carbon monoxide levels to health effects, but studies in human subjects with compromised coronary or peripheral circulation support an effect of acute exposure to CO at blood levels equivalent to about 20 ppm over s...

  18. Carbon monoxide in supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of carbon monoxide (CO) in the infrared spectra of SN 1987A and of CO+ represents the first ever detection of a molecule in a supernova. In IR spectra obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), first overtone emission from CO was observed near 2.3 μm as early as day 112 after the explosion, and was clearly detectable in all subsequent spectra. Spectra of the CO fundamental at 4.6 μm support this identification. We argue that the CO forms part of the supernova ejecta, and present a preliminary analysis of the first overtone band using Boltzmann population statistics. The model reproduces well the spectra obtained on days 192 and 255 and implies the presence of about 5X10-5 solar mass of CO by day 255. By day 284 the fit is less good, due to increasingly prominent emission from other species, possibly in combination with the breakdown of the Boltzmann distribution

  19. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  20. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  1. Demonstration of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Propellants for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, proposed planetary exploration missions must be small, with low costs and a short development time. Relatively high-risk technologies are being accepted for such missions if they meet these guidelines. For a Mars sample-return mission, one of the higher risk technologies is the use of return propellants produced from indigenous materials such as the Martian atmosphere. This consists of 96 percent carbon dioxide, which can be processed into oxygen and carbon monoxide. This year, the NASA Lewis Research Center completed the experimental evaluation and subscale technology development of an oxygen/carbon monoxide propellant combination. Previous research included ignition characterization, combustion performance, and heat transfer characterization with gaseous propellants at room temperature. In this year s tests, we studied the ignition characteristics and combustion of oxygen and carbon monoxide at near liquid temperatures. The mixture ratio boundaries for oxygen and carbon monoxide were determined as a function of propellant temperature in a spark torch igniter. With both propellants at room temperature, the ignition range was between 0.50 and 1.44; and with both propellants chilled to near-liquid temperatures, it was between 2.4 and 3.1. Statistical analysis of the mean value of the ignition boundaries provided models that describe the combination of oxygen temperature, carbon monoxide temperature, and mixture ratio that resulted in ignition. This range is the larger boxed area shown in the figure. The smaller boxed area indicates the range at which there is a 90-percent confidence that ignition will occur. The relatively small range at only 90-percent confidence indicates that using the oxygen/carbon monoxide combination as its own ignition source may not be the best design for a remote engine operating on Mars. Tests also were performed in a simulated small rocket engine that used oxygen/hydrogen combustion gases as the ignition source for oxygen/carbon

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a patient with carbon dioxide retention: a therapeutic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Tristan RA; Williamson, Wilby J; Brostoff, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 70 year-old man with carbon monoxide poisoning following a house fire. A significant smoking history and likely underlying chronic lung pathology complicated treatment, as due to symptomatic retention of carbon dioxide we were unable to use high-flow oxygen to facilitate the elimination of carbon monoxide. We suggest that patients with risk factors for obstructive lung disease be monitored extremely carefully during treatment for carbon monoxide toxicity.

  3. Chromo-fluorogenic probes for carbon monoxide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Hernández, Cristina; Toscani, Anita; Sancenón, Félix; Wilton-Ely, James D E T; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2016-05-21

    The sensing of carbon monoxide (CO) using electrochemical cells or semiconducting metal oxides has led to inexpensive alarms for the home and workplace. It is now recognised that chronic exposure to low levels of CO also poses a significant health risk. It is perhaps surprising therefore that the CO is used in cell-signalling pathways and plays a growing role in therapy. However, the selective monitoring of low levels of CO remains challenging, and it is this area that has benefited from the development of probes which give a colour or fluorescence response. This feature article covers the design of chromo-fluorogenic probes and their application to CO sensing in air, solution and in cells. PMID:27029422

  4. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues. PMID:26869408

  5. Influence of the nature of the oxidizing agents on the mechanism of the oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of an aqua complex of palladium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of the oxidation of CO in the presence of an aqua complex of Pd(II) by VO+2 and Fe(III) ions and by heteropolyacids (HPA) viz., H3PMo12O40,H4PMo11 VO40, and H4PW11VO40, was studied. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of the oxidation of CO by strong oxidizing agents - Cr2O72- and Ce(IV) ions - made it possible to conclude that rapid occurrence of the reaction requires an optimum potential of the oxidizing agent 0.7 < E < 1 V. This confirms the assumption that the intermediate carbonyl complexes of partially reduced palladium are the most active in this reaction

  6. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  7. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurement techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, C.; C. Hüglin; Klausen, J.; M. Steinbacher; Vollmer, M.; Buchmann, B

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of carbon monoxide (CO) for the overall oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, there is still considerable uncertainty in ambient measurements of CO. To address this issue, an inter-comparison between four different measurement techniques was made over a period of two months at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ), Switzerland. The measurement techniques were Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR), Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF), gas chromatographic separa...

  8. Hydrogen reactivity toward carbon monoxide under mechanochemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delogu, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, I-09123 Cagliari (Italy); Garroni, Sebastiano; Mulas, Gabriele [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The study focuses on the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over Co-Fe-based catalysts. The catalytic reactions were performed under both isothermal and mechanical activation conditions and their rates estimated by monitoring the gradual consumption of carbon monoxide. Aimed at carrying out a sound comparison, the rate of mechanically activated processes was referred to individual collisions by normalizing its value to the amount of powder involved in individual collisions and to the time interval of ongoing deformation. This allowed to point out that the amount of carbon monoxide converted per unit of catalyst mass and unit of time under mechanical activation conditions is at least four orders of magnitude larger than the one reacted under thermal activation conditions. This result is tentatively connected with the generation of local excited states at the catalyst surface. (author)

  9. Development of an enzymatic sensor for carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and the pursuit of gases that contribute in the increase of the atmospheric contamination are a necessity, for what the electrochemical sensors have potential industrial applications for the control of the quality of the air. The development of amperometric sensor based on enzymes offers advantages, since the use of the biological component provides him high selectivity due to the great specificity of the substrate of the enzyme. The monoxide of carbon (CO) it is a polluting, poisonous gas, taken place during the incomplete combustion of organic materials (natural gas, petroleum, gasoline, coal and vegetable material). The determination of monoxide of carbon (CO) it can be reached by electrochemical mediums using the methylene blue like the electronic mediator for the enzyme monoxide of carbon oxidase (COx)

  10. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6 x 1013 g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8 x 1014 g CO may be released annually from biomass burning. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

  11. Effect the conditions of the acid-thermal modification of clinoptilolite have on the catalytic properties of palladium-copper complexes anchored on it in the reaction of carbon monoxide oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitskaya, T. L.; Kiose, T. A.; Ennan, A. A.; Golubchik, K. O.; Oleksenko, L. P.; Gerasiova, V. G.

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of the physicochemical and structural-adsorption properties of natural and acid-thermal modified clinoptilolite, and of Pd(II)-Cu(II) catalysts based on them, on the duration of acid-thermal modification is investigated. The samples under study are described via XRD and thermal gravimetric (DTG and DTA) analysis, IR, DR UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy, and water vapor adsorption. Values of both the specific surface area ( S sp) and pH of aqueous suspensions are determined. The resulting catalysts are tested in the reaction of low-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation with air oxygen. A conclusion is drawn about the nature of surface bimetallic Pd(II)-Cu(II) complexes. The greatest catalytic activity is shown by complexes based on clinoptilolite and modified with 3 M HNO3 for 0.5 and 1 h.

  12. Contribution to the study of isotopic exchange of oxygen between nickel oxide and the gases arising from the oxidation reaction of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3 isotopic reactions of oxygen: C18O + Ni16O ↔ C16O + Ni18O, 16O18O + Ni16O ↔ 16O2 + Ni18O, and C16O18O + Ni16O ↔ C16O2 + Ni18O between CO, CO2, O2 and NiO are studied using a mass spectrometer. The isotopic gaseous mixtures are prepared from oxygen-18 enriched water. A first order kinetic law has been found for these reactions in the gaseous phase, and the activation energies have been determined. Only CO and CO2 exchange oxygen, at room temperature, but only with part of the oxide surface. Gaseous O2 reacts with the whole surface at 250 C, the slow step of the exchange process, in the gaseous phase, being certainly the mobility of oxygen ions on the surface of NiO. (author)

  13. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  14. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26078257

  15. Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU-Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.; Sridhar, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolyzers, such as electrolysis cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconia, can produce oxygen from Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide and reject carbon monoxide and unreacted carbon dioxide in a separate stream. The oxygen-production process has been shown to be far more efficient if the high-pressure, unreacted carbon dioxide can be separated and recycled back into the feed stream. Additionally, the mass of the adsorption compressor can be reduced. Also, the carbon monoxide by-product is a valuable fuel for space exploration and habitation, with applications from fuel cells to production of hydrocarbons and plastics. In our research, we will design, construct, and test an innovative, robust, low mass, low power separation device that can recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU. Such fundamental process technology, involving gas-solid phase separation in a reduced gravitational environment, will help to enable Human Exploration and Development of Space. The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, respectively. In our research, we will design, construct, and test an innovative, robust, low mass, low power separation device that can recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU, Such fundamental process technology, involving gas-solid phase separation in a reduced gravitational environment, will help to enable Human Exploration and Development of Space. The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, Research needs for the design shown are as follows: (1) The best adsorbent

  16. Circulatory effects and kinetics following acute administration of carbon monoxide in a porcine model.

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Anna-Maja; Hultin, Magnus; ABRAHAMSSON, Pernilla; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in the endothelial cells and has possible vasodilator activity through three different pathways. The aim of this study was to demonstrate circulatory effects after administration of saturated carbon monoxide blood and to describe the pharmacokinetics of carbon monoxide. Six pigs were anesthetized and 150 ml blood was removed. This blood was bubbled with carbon monoxide until the carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels were 90-99%. A specific amount of this blood was then i...

  17. The solubility of very low concentratiions of carbon monoxide in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, R. W.; Spedding, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    The solubility of carbon monoxide in natural waters has been determined when the partial pressure of carbon monoxide in the gas phase approaches atmospheric concentrations. For both pure water and seawater the solubilities were found to be more than eight times the values which have previously been observed with an atmosphere of pure carbon monoxide present. Carbon monoxide therefore does not obey Henry's law over the pressure range from approximately 10?5 atmospheres to greater than one atmo...

  18. Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hatami, Mehrangiz; Naftolin, Frederick; Khatamee, Masood A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive he...

  19. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared. ► Catalytic removal of CO over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. ► Effects of Pd %, CO conc., humidity, GHSV and reaction environment were studied. - Abstract: Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO2 through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO + 1/2O2 → CO2. Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO.

  20. Effect of emissions uncertainty and variability on high-resolution concentrations of carbon monoxide, fine particle black carbon, and nitrogen oxides in Fort Collins, Colorado: development of a Bayesian uncertainty modeling and evaluation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Stuart, A. L.; Dagne, G.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainties in emissions estimates are known to be one of the primary sources of uncertainty in calculating concentrations and subsequent exposure estimates. Despite continued improvement in the accuracy of emissions downscaling, the quantification of uncertainties is necessary in order to generate a representative emissions product. Bayesian data assimilation is a promising approach to uncertainty estimation when used to calibrate model results with measurement data. This study discusses an emissions inventory and concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle (PM2.5) black carbon, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the city of Fort Collins, Colorado. The development of a Bayesian framework for updating estimates of emissions and concentrations in multiple stages, using measurement data, is also presented. The emissions inventory was constructed using the 2008 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual and county-level resolution for point, nonpoint, and nonroad sources. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach (using emission factors and activities) for large roadway links within Fort Collins with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were obtained from local 2009 travel demand model results and automatic traffic recorder (ATR) data. The CALPUFF Gaussian puff dispersion model was used to estimate air pollutant concentrations. Hourly, 1.33 km x 1.33 km MM5 meteorological data was used to capture temporal variability in transport. Distributions of concentrations are obtained for spatial locations and time spans using a Monte Carlo sampling approach. Data for ensemble members are sampled from distributions defined from the emissions inventory and meteorological data. Modeled concentrations of CO, PM2

  1. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  2. A Case of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Thrombus in Right Atrium

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyoin; Kim, Dae-Hee; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Joon-Seok; Yang, Jeeeun; Kim, Sun-Mok; Park, So Young; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a nonirritant, odorless, colorless gas. Its effects are prominent in organs most sensitive to oxygen deprivation, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Although less frequently, an association between thromboembolic events and carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown in the literatures. In this case, we report a case of atrial thrombus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  3. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the Commonwealth... implemented strategies will not create carbon monoxide violations elsewhere in the vicinity after the...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Bilateral lesions in the thalamus on MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging of the brain in a child with carbon monoxide poisoning revealed bilateral diffuse high signal in the centrum semiovale and the previously unreported finding of bilateral high intensity lesions the anterior thalami. This case illustrates a previously unrecognized effect of carbon monoxide poisoning and demonstrates the superiority of MR imaging over computed tomography in cases of carbon monoxide poisoning. (orig.)

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Kurdish (کوردی) Laotian (Lao) Portuguese (português) Somali (af Soomaali) ... Khmer) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kurdish (کوردی) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  6. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  7. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  8. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013

  9. Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, B.; Crawford, R

    1996-01-01

    Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

  10. Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT. (orig.)

  11. Carbon Monoxide Isotopes: On the Trail of Galactic Chemical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.

    1995-01-01

    From the early days of the discovery of radio emission from carbon monoxide it was realized that it offered unusual potential for under- standing the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and external galaxies through measurements of molecular isotopes. These results bear on stellar nucleosynthesis, star formation, and gases in the interstellar medium. Progress in isotopic radio measurements will be reviewed.

  12. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop to...

  13. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  14. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

  15. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  16. Analysis of Alternative National Ambient Carbon Monoxide Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph L. Keeney; Rakesh K. Sarin; Winkler, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A risk assessment model is developed to relate adverse health effects to alternative carbon monoxide standards. The analysis requires information in the form of available data and expert judgments concerning factors such as ambient CO level, human exposure to CO, physiological responses, and dose-response relationships. Quantitative estimates, including probabilities, are obtained for selected summary measures of adverse health effects.

  17. Trend of exposure to carbon monoxide in Tehran taxi drivers during one year

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Golhosseini; Hossein Kakooei; Jamaleddin Shahtaheri; Kamal Azam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Motor vehicles are an absolute necessity used extensively in all countries of the world. They are a major cause of air pollution with highly undesirable consequences. Thus, exposure to traffic pollution is a growing public health concern. Several studies indicate that people in the cabin of a vehicle inhale air with high concentrations of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides(NOx), particulate matter (PM), volatile compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO).   Materials and Me...

  18. A Study on Catalysis by Ferrospinels for Preventing Atmospheric Pollution from Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Chennampilly Ummer Aniz; Thengumthanam Damodaran Radhakrishnan Nair

    2011-01-01

    Ferrospinel catalyst samples containing Nickel, Cobalt and Copper have been synthesized by room temperature co-precipitation route and have been found to be effective for the oxidative removal of carbon monoxide from automobile exhaust gases even at relatively lower temperatures (cold-start). These catalyst materials have been characterized by modern physico-chemical techniques such as XRD, TG, BET-BJH and SEM etc. Nitrogen adsorption studies shows the samples are mesoporous in nature with po...

  19. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis and Secondary Necrosis in Syncytiotrophoblast

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Belkacemi, Louiza; Dickinson, Michelle; Graham, Charles H.; Smith, Graeme N

    2006-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, affects 5 to 7% of pregnancies. Oxidative stress-induced placental injury and subsequent release of placental debris into the maternal circulation are key pathogenic events in the progression of pre-eclampsia. Women who smoke cigarettes throughout pregnancy are 33% less likely to develop this disorder than nonsmoking women. We postulated that elevated carbon monoxide concentrations in serum of smoking women inhibits apoptosis and debris she...

  20. Exploring the potential of low doses carbon monoxide as therapy in pregnancy complications

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mousleh Tarek; Casalis Pablo A; Wollenberg Ivonne; Zenclussen Maria L; Volk Hans D; Langwisch Stefanie; Jensen Federico; Zenclussen Ana C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been shown to play a pivotal role in pregnancy outcome and its ablation leads to abnormal placentation, intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and subsequent intrauterine fetal death. Carbon monoxide (CO) has been found to mimic the protective effects of HO-1 activity, rescuing HO-1-deficient fetuses. This gasotransmitter arises in biological systems during the oxidative catabolism of heme by HO. Here, we explored the potential of CO in preventing IU...

  1. Carbon monoxide mediates vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated nonadrenergic/noncholinergic neurotransmission

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Crystal C.; Boehning, Darren; Kaplin, Adam I.; Rao, Mahil; Ferris, Christopher D.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized by heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) and nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) mediate nonadrenergic/noncholinergic (NANC) intestinal relaxation. In many areas of the gastrointestinal tract, NO and CO function as coneurotransmitters. In the internal anal sphincter (IAS), NANC relaxation is mediated primarily by CO. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has also been shown to participate in NANC relaxation throughout the intestine, including the IAS....

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide in Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Myrna Constantin; Choi, Alexander J. S.; Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Ryter, Stefan W.

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), a catabolic enzyme, provides the rate-limiting step in the oxidative breakdown of heme, to generate carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin-IX\\(\\alpha\\). Induction of the inducible form, HO-1, in tissues is generally regarded as a protective mechanism. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in defining the therapeutic potential of HO-1 in a number of preclinical models of lung tissue injury and disease. Likewise, tissue-protective effects of CO, when...

  3. 78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... demonstrates that the Fairbanks Area will maintain the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards... Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to approve a carbon monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan for the Fairbanks...

  4. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiya N. Parshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB are able to use carbon monoxide (CO as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide as an electron donor.

  5. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  6. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  7. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  9. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  10. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Suppresses Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhihong; Song, Ruiping; Fattman, Cheryl L.; Greenhill, Sara; Alber, Sean; Oury, Tim D.; Augustine M K Choi; Morse, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an incurable fibrosing disorder that progresses relentlessly to respiratory failure. We hypothesized that a product of heme oxygenase activity, carbon monoxide (CO), may have anti-fibrotic effects. To test this hypothesis, mice treated with intratracheal bleomycin were exposed to low-concentration inhaled CO or ambient air. Lungs of mice treated with CO had significantly lower hydroxyproline accumulation than controls. Fibroblast proliferation, thought to play...

  12. Modeling carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires

    OpenAIRE

    YUAN, LIMING; Zhou, Lihong; Smith, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of mine fire fatalities in underground mines. To reduce the hazard of CO poisoning in underground mines, it is important to accurately predict the spread of CO in underground mine entries when a fire occurs. This paper presents a study on modeling CO spread in underground mine fires using both the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the MFIRE programs. The FDS model simulating part of the mine ventilation network was calibrated...

  13. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied ...

  14. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R. A.; F. Kozma; E. Colombari

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and...

  15. MR Imaging of brain changes from carbon-monoxide intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of carbon-monoxide intoxication were studied with MR imaging. The main MR findings were discussed and compared with CT results. MR imaging demonstrated SNC lesion sooner and better than CT-its images corresponding to the anatomic-pathological patterns described in literature.However, sever MR limitations-i.e. the very long execution time and the difficult monitoring of the patients-prevent this methodology from being more extensively employed in this kind of pathology

  16. Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in polycythaemia rubra vera.

    OpenAIRE

    Greening, A P; Patel, K.; Goolden, A W; Munro, A J; Hughes, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The diffusing capacity of the lung, or transfer factor, for carbon monoxide (TLCO) was measured in 12 patients with polycythaemia rubra vera. This was significantly raised (mean 152% predicted, SEM +/- 14%) and remained so even after correction to a standard haemoglobin concentration of 14 . 6 g/dl (mean 139% predicted, SEM +/- 13%). Serial measurements of TLCO on two patients after treatment of polycythaemia rubra vera showed a greater fall in relation to haemoglobin concentration than would...

  17. Rates of carbon monoxide elimination in males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Zavorsky, Gerald S.; Tesler, Janet; Rucker, Joshua; Fedorko, Ludwik; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to verify the previously reported shorter half‐time of elimination (t ½) of carbon monoxide (CO) in females compared to males. Seventeen healthy subjects (nine men) completed three sessions each, on separate days. For each session, subjects were exposed to CO to raise the carboxyhemoglobin percentage (COHb) to ~10%; then breathed in random order, either (a) 100% O2 at poikilocapnia (no CO2 added), or (b) hyperoxia while maintaining normocapnia using sequ...

  18. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra-Beigom seyd-Aghamiri; Mohsen Vijeh; Fereshte Farzianpoor; Zahra kazemi-Asfe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M. V.; Agius, G.; Galea Debono, A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the patient, and other members of the household who could subsequently become intoxicated. Guidance on the correct ...

  20. Quoth the Raven: carbon monoxide and nothing more

    OpenAIRE

    Otterbein, Leo E.

    2013-01-01

    The articles contained in this review series exemplify the diverse applications and succinct biological relevance of this simple gas. Articles summarizing the important effects of carbon monoxide in preventing the rejection of an organ, in its neuroprotective properties in piglets, regulation of mycobacterial growth, in its anti-inflammatory effects in the gut and in its use in new and innovative modalities and avenues by which to harness adjuvant therapies are eloquently and precisely descri...

  1. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Amano Mariane; Camara Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO) had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The p...

  2. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Çiftçi; Murat Günday; Mustafa Çaliskan; Hakan Güllü; Rafi Dogan; Aytekin Güven; Haldun Müderrisoglu

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Ec...

  3. Inhaled Carbon Monoxide Provides Cerebral Cytoprotection in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, Vicki L.; Zurakowski, David; Otterbein, Leo E.; Pigula, Frank Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) at low concentrations imparts protective effects in numerous preclinical small animal models of brain injury. Evidence of protection in large animal models of cerebral injury, however, has not been tested. Neurologic deficits following open heart surgery are likely related in part to ischemia reperfusion injury that occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Using a model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in piglets, we evaluated the effects of CO to reduce...

  4. The Social Network of Carbon Monoxide in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Wegiel, Barbara; Hanto, Douglas W.; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2012-01-01

    Networking between cells is critical for proper functioning of the cellular milieu and is mediated by cascades of highly regulated and overlapping signaling molecules. The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) generates three separate signaling molecules through the catalysis of heme – carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron – each of which acts via distinct molecular targets to influence cell function, both proximally and distally. This review focuses on state-of-the art developments and insight...

  5. Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Porokhnya Maria V; Haertdinov Nail N; Abramochkin Denis V; Zefirov Andrew L; Sitdikova Gusel F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and vent...

  6. Carbon monoxide as a signaling molecule in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Meng eWang; Weibiao eLiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its role in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enha...

  7. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meng; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can en...

  8. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  9. Isotopes of carbon monoxide in the free troposphere and their implications to atmospheric chemistry. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The thesis project was designed to provide information for the following questions: what is the oxidative capacity of the troposphere, and how are the source strengths of carbon monoxide partitioned. Because of its active role in tropospheric chemistry, carbon monoxide is important in determining the fate of a number of species, including hydroxyl radicals. (14)CO serves as a natural tracer for its destruction, as the source function can be well contrained. By determining the tropospheric inventory of (14)CO and calculating its source strength, one may realize the rate of destruction. Similarly, because certain sources have unique stable isotope signatures, an analysis of the stable isotopes provides information on the relative source strengths. A sampling system was built which allowed for the collection of large, whole air samples from an aircraft platform. CO was extracted and the isotopes were determined, and from these data an OH abundance was calculated using a 2-D transport model.

  10. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

  11. [Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed. PMID:24860052

  12. Carbon monoxide: A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    OpenAIRE

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf; Meijer, Harro; Schroeder, Hartwig; LEVIN Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The observations were compared with model estimates simulated with the regional transport model REMO at 0.5°x0.5° resolution in Europe for 2002. These estimates are based on two available emissions inventories...

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  14. Interaction of carbon monoxide and oxygen at the surface of inverse titania/Au model catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T.

    2007-07-01

    Interaction of carbon monoxide and oxygen on the surface of titania/Au(1 1 1) inverse model catalyst held at 200 K has been studied by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. It was found that CO adsorbs on the oxide/Au perimeter interface, whereas no or very weak adsorption was observed on Au(1 1 1) or titania surface, respectively. Exposing of such species to oxygen results in their decay possibly due to carbon dioxide formation. Efficiency of this effect is higher at lower CO initial concentration which points at the importance of free surface sites for the reaction process.

  15. Study on Oxidation Mechanism of Nitrogen Monoxide in Indoor Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG,Dan(郑丹); AN,Cong-Jun(安从俊); YANG,Bo(杨波); DING,Zong-Zhou(丁宗洲)

    2002-01-01

    With the aid of wind-tunnel experimentai setup, the possibilities that nitrogen monoxide (NO) is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in various environments were stucied, which include indoor, outdoor and darkroom conditions. By comparing their effects, a conclusion can be drawn that NO can be oxidized to NO2 in indoor environment with a low rate, and micro amountof ozone, propylene and methane can accele rate the reaction:2NO+O2→NO2. The initial concentration of NO has effect on the oxidation rate. When the initial concentration of NO ranges between 500 and 900 μg/L, natural iogarithm of iinitial rate and natural logarithm of initial concentration have a good linear relation, so do In(1/[NO]) and the time (t). Besides that,the possible oxidation mechanism of indoor NO has also been studied.

  16. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  17. Carbon Monoxide bands in M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlenko, Ya V; Pavlenko, Yakiv V.; Jones, Hugh R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We compare the observational and theoretical spectra of the $\\Delta v$ = 2 CO bands in a range of M dwarfs. We investigate the dependence of theoretical spectra on effective temperatures as well as carbon abundance. In general we find that the synthetic CO bands fit the observed data extremely well and are excellent diagnostics. In particular the synthetic spectra reasonably match observations and the best fit temperatures are similar to those found by empirical methods. We also examine the \\CDC isotopic ratio. We find that fundamental $^{13}$CO bands around 2.345 and 2.375 $\\mu$m are good discriminators for the \\CDC ratio in M dwarfs. The 2.375 $\\mu$m is more useful because it doesn't suffer such serious contamination by water vapour transitions. Our current dataset does not quite have the wavelength coverage to perform a reliable determination of the \\CDC ratio in M dwarfs. For this we recommend observing the region 2.31--2.40 $\\mu$m at a resolution of better than 1000. Alternatively the observational probl...

  18. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  19. Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, L.; Ho, KF; Wang, T.; Qiu, H.; Pun, VC; Chan, CS; Louie, PKK; Yu, ITS

    2014-01-01

    Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of sh...

  20. [Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers. PMID:25261170

  1. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity: The difficulty in diagnosing this leading cause of poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. Th...

  2. Changes in Arterial Oxygen Tension Correlate with Changes in End-expiratory Carbon Monoxide Level

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Patrick; Kalmanowicz, Melanie; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Weimann, Joerg; Loer, Stephan A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen compete for haemoglobin binding sites. While the effects of increased inspiratory oxygen fractions on exhaled carbon monoxide concentrations have been studied previously, the relationships between intravascular oxygen tension, blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels and expiratory CO concentrations remain unclear. We therefore studied the effects of increases in arterial oxygen tension as crucial determinant for the displacement of carbon monoxide from its ha...

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. Materials and methods A male patient was broug...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India, carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness. PMID:26873733

  5. Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow

  6. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, J.S.; Helling, Ch.; Friberg, P.

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan ...

  7. Real time carbon monoxide measurements from 270 UK homes

    OpenAIRE

    Croxford, B. J. F.; Hutchinson, E.; Leonardi, G. S.; McKenna, L.; L. Nicholson; Volans, G; Wilkinson, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study carried out in Winter 2004/2005 where a large number of homes were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the main living room for a period of at least one week. The homes were all owner-occupied; all had at least one of the following gas appliances, cooker, water heater, or gas fire; all home owners were in the low income group, considered vulnerable with the occupants generally over 60 and receiving state benefits of some kind. Dwel...

  8. Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

  9. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured b...

  10. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  11. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in African savannah air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Chatfield, R. B.

    Recent measurements of tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and carbon monoxide (CO) from the Kenyan savannah are reported. NMHC mixing ratios are among the lowest reported for the continental boundary layer. CO mixing ratios are higher than marine measurements at these latitudes. Biomass burning may contribute significantly to mixing ratios of CO and NMHC’s. Calculations based on the reactivity of the OH radical with NMHC’s and CO indicate that NMHC’s often initially consume more OH than CO.

  12. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ13C, δ18O and Δ17O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13CO/12CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH4) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The inaccurate surface

  13. Carbon monoxide mediated chemical deposition of Pt or Pd quasi-monolayer on Au surfaces with superior electrocatalysis for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Jiang, Kun; Chen, Qiaoli; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Cai, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Electroless deposition of a quasi-monolayer (q-ML) of Pt and/or Pd on different Au substrates is achieved by using CO as both reducing and quenching agents, imparting Au@Pt/C or Au@Pd/C with superior electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. PMID:26523296

  14. The redox combustion of carbon monoxide for recovering pure carbon dioxide by using molten (Na+,K+)2(CO32-,SO42-) mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Satoshi; Asakura, Shukuji

    2006-06-01

    Large-scale combustion systems, such as thermal power plants, emit large amounts of carbon dioxide, which can increase global warming. A molten salt redox combustion system was proposed to recover pure carbon dioxide exhausted from the combustion of fossil fuels. This system is composed of two successive processes by using reactions occurring in a molten salt. The molten salt is the mixture of the molten alkali metal sulfates and carbonates. The sulfate ions oxidize the fuels in first processes, being changed to reductive species such as sulfide ions. In this process, carbon dioxide and water are exclusively exhausted. The reductive species of sulfur compounds are oxidized to regenerate the sulfate ions by air in the second process. In this study, these above two processes were tried by using molten [(Na(+))(0.5),(K(+))(0.5)](2)[(CO(3)(2-))(0.9),(SO(4)(2-))(0.1)] alternatively. The oxidation of carbon monoxide as fuel by sulfate ions and the regeneration of sulfate ions by air were investigated in the temperature range of 700-950 degrees C, respectively. These reactions were exothermic. The rate of the regeneration of the sulfate ions was extremely high. During the oxidation of carbon monoxide, the reaction was first order in carbon monoxide with an activation energy of 101 kJ mol(-1). The optimum condition to recover pure carbon dioxide on practical operation was discussed. PMID:16337672

  15. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-10-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  16. On the interactions between carbon monoxide and transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sticking of carbon monoxide on surface atoms of transition metals is a collective phenomenon: according to the adsorption process period which is considered, this phenomenon may be formally described either by the Elovich equation or essentially from a steric point of view. The process rate depends upon the nature of the metal, the carbon monoxide pressure the temperature and the population densities of the induced and fundamental energy levels of the gas-solid bond. At least one of these induced levels tends to disappear with increasing time. For a localised adsorption and taking into account the surface Rayleigh waves, the analysis of the surface entropy yields the so-called iso-kinetic temperature for thermal desorption. This temperature is correlated with the cohesive energy of the metal surface atoms. Finally, it is shown that the interactions of a low energy electron bean with adsorbed molecules - reflection and energy exchange, desorption, ionization or dissociative ionization are strongly dependent on the energy levels of the gas-solid bond and the relative populations of these levels. (author)

  17. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  18. Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porokhnya Maria V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and ventricular myocardium. Contractions of atrial myocardial stripes were registered via force transducer. Results CO (10-4 - 10-3 M caused prominent decrease of action potential duration (APD in working atrial myocardium as well as significant acceleration of sinus rhythm. In addition CO reduced force of contractions and other parameters of contractile activity. Inhibitor of heme oxygenase zinc protoporphyrin IX exerts opposite effects: prolongation of action potential, reduction of sinus rhythm rate and enhancement of contractile function. Therefore, endogenous CO, which may be generated in the heart due to the presence of active heme oxygenase, is likely to exert the same effects as exogenous CO applied to the perfusing medium. In ventricular myocardium preparations exogenous CO also induced shortening of action potential, while zinc protoporphyrin IX produced the opposite effect. Conclusions Thus, endogenous or exogenous carbon monoxide may act as an important regulator of electrical and contractile cardiac activity.

  19. Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 μM KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O2. The enzyme was nearly homogenous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in 63Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent K/sub m/ of 5 mM for CO and a V/sub max/ of 1300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed

  20. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  1. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... existing violations, or delay timely attainment of the national ambient air quality standards. The minimum... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation... budget (MVEB) in the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State...

  2. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by...

  3. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by: (1) A reference method based on appendix C and... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air......

  4. 78 FR 48611 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... II, Section III.C): Air Quality Emissions Data (Section III.C.3), Carbon Monoxide Network Monitoring... demonstrates that the Fairbanks Area will maintain the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  5. The transport coefficients of electron swarms in hydrogen and carbon monoxide at moderate E/N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drift velocity in hydrogen and carbon monoxide and the ratio of the lateral diffusion coefficient to mobility in carbon monoxide were measured at ambient temperature and over the ranges of the reduced electric field E/N. The results are 250 < E/N <= 350 Td and 5 <= E/N <= 350 Td, and 75<= E/N <= 500 Td, respectively. (author)

  6. Evidence for a nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammel, K E; Cornwell, K L; Diekert, G B; Thauer, R K

    1984-01-01

    In growing cultures of Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus (Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus), the synthesis of active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase required nickel. The 21-fold-purified enzyme from 63Ni-labeled cells of M. arboriphilicus comigrated with 63Ni during gel filtration. These results provide evidence that the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase of methanogens is a nickel protein.

  7. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  8. A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

  9. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

  10. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases

  11. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  12. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  13. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy

  14. Identification of Unknown Carboxydovore Bacteria Dominant in Deciduous Forest Soil via Succession of Bacterial Communities, coxL Genotypes, and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Activity in Soil Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Isabelle; Constant, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Surveys of the coxL gene, encoding the large subunit of the CO dehydrogenase, are used as a standard approach in ecological studies of carboxydovore bacteria scavenging atmospheric CO. Recent soil surveys unveiled that the distribution of coxL sequences encompassing the atypical genotype coxL type I group x was correlated to the CO oxidation activity. Based on phylogenetic analysis including the available coxL reference genome sequences, this unusual genotype was assigned to an unknown member of the Deltaproteobacteria, with the coxL sequence from Haliangium ochraceum being the sole and closest reference sequence. Here we seek to challenge the proposed taxonomic assignation of the coxL group x genotype through the monitoring of CO consumption activity and microbial community successions during the colonization of sterile soil microcosms inoculated with indigenous microorganisms. In our study, we established that the estimated population density of Deltaproteobacteria was too small to account for the abundance of the coxL group x genotype detected in soil. Furthermore, we computed a correlation network to relate 16S rRNA gene profiles with the succession of coxL genotypes and CO uptake activity in soil. We found that most of the coxL genotypes for which the colonization profile displayed covariance with CO uptake activity were related to potential carboxydovore bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Our analysis did not provide any evidence that coxL group x genotypes belonged to Deltaproteobacteria. Considering the colonization profile of CO-oxidizing bacteria and the theoretical energy yield of measured CO oxidation rates in soil microcosms, we propose that unknown carboxydovore bacteria harboring the atypical coxL group x genotype are mixotrophic K-strategists. PMID:26682854

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Children: Diagnosis And Management In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnow, Theodore E; Waltzman, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 5000 children present to the emergency department annually with unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Children may be more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of their increased metabolic demand and their inability to vocalize symptoms or recognize a dangerous exposure, and newborn infants are more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of the persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning may present as viral symptoms in the absence of fever. While headache, nausea, and vomiting are the most common presenting symptoms in children, the most common symptom in infants is consciousness disturbance. This review discusses the limitations of routine pulse oximetry and carboxyhemoglobin measurement in determining carbon monoxide exposure, and notes effects of co-ingestions and comorbidities. Although the mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen, the current evidence and controversies in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in pediatric patients is reviewed, along with its possible benefit in preventing delayed neurologic sequelae. PMID:27547917

  16. Cocatalyzed oxidation of carbon monoxide and triphenylphosphine using complexes derived from hexarhodium hexadecacarbonyl as homogeneous catalyst. Characterization of rhodium carbonyl intermediates, oxygen-18 labeling to identify oxygen atom sources, and observation of catalyzed oxygen atom exchange between carbon dioxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexarhodium hexadecacarbonyl, Rh6(CO)16, will cocatalyze a reaction with molecular oxygen involving the conversion both of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and of triphenylphosphine (PPh3) to triphenylphosphine oxide (OPPh3). Solution infrared spectroscopy in the carbonyl region in benzene solvent shows that the catalytic cycle passes through the red Rh2(CO)2-(PPh3)4(C6H6)2, the yellow Rh2(CO)6(PPh3)2, and the red Rh4(CO)10(PPh3)2. Final return to Rh6(CO)16 does not occur under the ambient temperature and pressure conditions used but can be achieved by elevating these conditions. Addition of carbon dioxide to a mixture of Rh6(CO)16, CO, and PPh3 in the presence of added 18OH2 shows that the rhodium compounds will catalyze oxygen exchange between carbon dioxide and the oxygen atom of water. A pathway for equilibration of oxygen isotope in the catalyzed conversion of coordinated carbonyl to carbon dioxide via metallocarboxylate intermediates is proposed. The equilibration of oxygen isotope from water into carbon dioxide catalyzed by rhodium carbonyl clusters is suggested to proceed via hydroxyrhodium intermediates. 3 figures, 3 tables

  17. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  18. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been o...

  19. Carbon monoxide detection of chemisorbed oxygen in coal and other carbonaceous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, C.C.; Wiltowski, T.; Wiltowska, T.; Ellison, D.W.; Shiley, R.H.; Wu, L.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation of carbon monoxide by mildly oxidized and devolatilized coal samples was studied thermogravimetrically. The oxidation was attributed to oxygen chemisorbed on inorganic components of the coals. The reaction of CO with pyrite producing carbonyl sulphide, OCS, accompanied the oxidation. A mechanism for CO oxidation is proposed in which active oxygen chemisorbed on the inorganic components of the coal directly oxidized CO to CO2, and facilitates the chemisorption of CO on the coal as carbonate. A factor, ?? = ( 11 14) [1 - ( Wn Wc)], was derived where Wn is the sample weight loss not attributed to OCS formation, and Wc is the estimated weight of evolved CO2. This quantity is proportional to the fraction of CO2 produced by the direct oxidation of CO, and was used to compare the coal samples studied. Samples of an Illinois No. 5 coal yielded average ?? values of 0.7 and those of an Illinois No. 6 coal yielded values of 0.6, indicating that in these cases, the majority of CO2 produced came from the direct oxidation of CO. The results obtained for the coal samples are compared with a selection of carbonaceous samples for which the proposed mechanism does not apply. ?? 1990.

  20. A 3-year study of relationships among atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides at an urban site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle-bound carcinogenic PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzofluoranthene isomers, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene), benzo[e]pyrene (selected as a stable reference PAH), CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and NOx) were simultaneously measured at a street site in Rome. The aim was to investigate the possibility of using a conventional air quality parameter as a surrogate for carcinogenic PAHs at urban sites. Eighty-seven sample sets, corresponding to 344 sampling days, were statistically treated by standard univariate and bivariate methods. NO and NOx were the parameters most strongly correlated with PAHs (overall mean r=0.92, for both), with the highest linearity and lowest scattering of data in the regression lines, but CO also showed a very good correlation (r=0.86). Temporal variations of all these substances were substantially superimposable throughout the study. Summer results indicate, however, that PAH degradation may affect correlation under conditions of relatively high temperature and sunlight intensity. This preliminary investigation suggests that, at street level where pollution is traffic dominated, NO could be the most valid surrogate to roughly estimate PAH concentrations and trends, or PAH pollution ranking within a monitoring network

  1. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N2/CH4 to a variety of energy sources. However, many N2/CH4 atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  2. Symmetrical Femoral Neuropathy and Rhabdomyolysis Complicating Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hua Kuo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Although carbon monoxide (CO is a common cause of morbidity due to poisoning,peripheral neuropathy following CO poisoning has rarely been reported. Furthermore, rhabdomyolysiscaused of CO poisoning is also uncommon. The report focuses on a patient withsymmetrical femoral neuropathy and rhabdomyolysis associated with CO poisoning.A 32-year-old male was admitted to hospital in a deep coma following CO poisoning.On admission, rhabdomylosis was also identified (total creatinine phosphokinase, 19662IU/L; CK-MB, 272 IU/L. After receiving hyperbaric oxygen, the patient regained consciousness;however, bilateral hip flexors and knee extensors were still weak in accordanceto the manual muscle test. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performedand did not reveal any abnormal lesions. Nerve conduction examination and electromyographyresults indicated symmetrical femoral neuropathy. After taking the rehabilitation programfor peripheral and central nervous system lesions, the patient achieved functionalimprovement in ambulation, endurance and balance.

  3. Modelling Of Carbon Monoxide Generation In A Compartment During Fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cause of death in building fires is smoke inhalation with the majority of deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning. A new methodology for predicting species levels at the exit plane of an enclosure was developed. The proposed methodology correlated the species yields based on the combustion within the compartment as a function of the global equivalence ratio. The present study introduce a combustion model of propane and determine each parameter used in the model as a function of equivalence ratio. The species assumed to be generated in the model were CO2 , CO, O2 , H2O, H2 and unburned fuel. The model agrees with the previous experimental results for other studies (Gottuk et al., 1992 and Beyler, 1986).

  4. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability. PMID:25536918

  5. Acute Lung Injury Due To Carbon Monoxide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzkeser M et al.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old woman, who was found unconscious in the bed by the morning, was brought to emergency department. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 20.2%. The portable chest X-ray showed bilaterally alveolar and interstitial infiltration. Initial pO 2 /FIO 2 ratio was calculated as 119 mmHg. Acute lung injury due to carbon monoxide intoxication was considered. She was intubated and mechanical ventilation was applied. In the second day of hospitalization, a clear improvement was observed on the chest X-ray. She was discharged without any complication on the seventh day of hospitalization. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent progression of ARDS and progression of permanent damage, and may lead to complete recovery.

  6. Multiple targets of carbon monoxide gas in the intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract. It is important to investigate the precise pathogenesis of IBD, to evaluate new anti-inflammatory agents, and to develop novel drugs. Carbon monoxide (CO) has emerged as an important regulator of acute and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory effects is only partially understood. Recent reports have demonstrated that CO could play a role in the functional modulation of epithelial and immunological cells in the intestine. In this short review, we have highlighted the recent findings that CO stimulates the epithelial cell restitution and FGF production from myofibroblasts. CO was also shown to regulate T cell activation and differentiation, and to activate macrophages. Finally, we have discussed the direction of translational research with respect to launching a novel agent for releasing CO in the intestine. PMID:27095232

  7. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  8. Carbon monoxide as a signaling molecule in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its role in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defence system. Moreover, CO shows cross talk with other signaling molecules including NO, phytohormone (IAA, ABA and GA and other gas signaling molecules (H2S, H2, CH4.

  9. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system. Moreover, CO shows cross talk with other signaling molecules including NO, phytohormones (IAA, ABA, and GA) and other gas signaling molecules (H2S, H2, CH4). PMID:27200045

  10. Design of biomaterials for intracellular delivery of carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroshi; Fujita, Kenta; Ueno, Takafumi

    2015-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is recognized as one of the most important gas signaling molecules involved in governing various therapeutic responses. Intracellular generation of CO is spatiotemporally controlled by catalytic reactions of heme oxygenases (HOs). Thus, the ability to control intracellular CO delivery with modulation of the CO-release rate in specific amounts and locations is expected to improve our fundamental understanding of the functions of CO and the development of clinical applications. For this purpose, CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been developed and investigated in vitro and in vivo. Most CORMs are based on transition metal carbonyl complexes. Recently, various biomaterials consisting of metal carbonyls with biomacromolecular scaffolds have been reported to improve the properties of bare metal carbonyls. In this mini-review, current progress in CO delivery, recent strategies for the development of CORMs, and future directions in this field are discussed. PMID:26252321

  11. Broad carbon monoxide line wings near T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report observations of carbon monoxide (CO) toward 26 T Tauri stars and related objects. In 19 of these objects, broad CO line wings of intensity > or approx. =0.1 K were detected, implying mass outflow is a common phenomenon in T Tauri stars. The velocity width (full width) of the wings ranges from 10 to 80 km s-1 and clusters around 25 km s-1. In general, the line wings are asymmetric with respect to the line core and the sense of asymmetry varies among sources. In the case of T Tauri, which has the broadest wing detected in these sources, the sense of wing asymmetry varies with position and may be due to source geometry

  12. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  13. Carbon nanotube prepared from carbon monoxide by CVD method and its application as electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yuliang; YUAN Xia; CHENG Shinan; GEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with larger inner diameter were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon monoxide (CO) on iron catalyst using H2S as promoting agent.It is found that the structure and morphology of carbon nanotubes can be tailored, to some degree, by varying the experimental conditions such as precursor components and process parameters.The results show that the presence of H2S may play key role for growing Y-branched carbon nanotubes.The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively.Furthermore, the obtained carbon nanotubes were explored as electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  14. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  15. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Surmiak, Marcin; Adamski, Juliusz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pajdo, Robert; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1-10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g.)), RuCl₃ (1 mg/kg i.g.), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), hemin (1-10 mg/kg i.g.) and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) combined with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p.), indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.), SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g.), and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g.) affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). Gastric blood flow (GBF), the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO) contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g.) significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl₃ was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO's hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO. PMID:27023525

  16. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Magierowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO produced by heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II dimer (CORM-2 causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g., RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g., zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p., hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g. and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p., 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p., indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p., SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g., and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g. affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS. Gastric blood flow (GBF, the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g. significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO.

  17. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  18. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 6. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Jessiman, Barry J.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IS AN ENIGMATIC ILLNESS. The symptoms are often nonspecific or masked by an exacerbation of an underlying illness, such as congestive heart failure, that has been triggered by carbon monoxide inhalation. The effects can range from mild, annoying symptoms relieved by removal of the source to severe morbidity with profound central nervous system dysfunction, acute complications and delayed sequelae. Estimates suggest that about one-third of nonfatal cases of carbon mon...

  19. Reduction of carbon monoxide emissions in burning processes of gaseous fuel mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon monoxide produced in the combustion of gaseous fuel mixtures of low hydrocarbon-air content represents a transition component of high risk for living organisms. The limit of admissible concentration of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is 50 ppm. The paper presents a method of reduction of monoxide carbon present in the combustion emissions which can be can achieved by means of the chemical reaction CO+OH -> H + CO2. The hydroxyl radical can be obtained either by thermic decomposition or by hydrogen injection. (author). 3 figs., 4 refs

  20. CARBON MONOXIDE: ITS ROLE IN MITOCHONDRIAL PATHWAY OF APOPTOSIS INDUCTION IN JURKAT CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Starikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract. This study demonstrates ability of carbon monoxide to trigger mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis induction of Jurcat cells. We have shown that proapoptotic action of carbon monoxide is coupled to permeabilization of cellular mitochondrial membranes. Imbalance in Bcl-2 family of regulatory proteins may be considered among possible reasons of the membrane pore formation. We have shown downregulated cl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNA expression and decreased levels of antiapoptotic proteins, along wih decreased mRNA expression and increase of Bad proapototic protein level in Jurkat cells following incubation with 50 μm of CORM-2, a carbon monoxide donor.

  1. Emerging concepts on the anti-inflammatory actions of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

    OpenAIRE

    Motterlini Roberto; Haas Benjamin; Foresti Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are a class of organometallo compounds capable of delivering controlled quantities of CO gas to cells and tissues thus exerting a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. CO-RMs containing transition metal carbonyls were initially implemented to mimic the function of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), a stress inducible defensive protein that degrades heme to CO and biliverdin leading to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Ten years after...

  2. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  3. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  4. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Tetrachloride to 1-Octene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群健; 孙均华; 江焕峰; 欧阳小月; 程金生

    2003-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride to 1-octene gave coadduct [alkyl 2-( 2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl)octanoate] as the major product in supercritical carbon dioxide by using pyridine as the base. It was found that the selectivity and the yield of coadduct were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the amounts of alcohol and base used.

  6. Carbon monoxide improves neuronal differentiation and yield by increasing the functioning and number of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-01

    The process of cell differentiation goes hand-in-hand with metabolic adaptations, which are needed to provide energy and new metabolites. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and improve mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal differentiation processes were studied using the NT2 cell line, which is derived from human testicular embryonic teratocarcinoma and differentiates into post-mitotic neurons upon retinoic acid treatment. CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1) was used do deliver CO into cell culture. CO treatment improved NT2 neuronal differentiation and yield, since there were more neurons and the total cell number increased following the differentiation process. CO supplementation enhanced the mitochondrial population in post-mitotic neurons derived from NT2 cells, as indicated by an increase in mitochondrial DNA. CO treatment during neuronal differentiation increased the extent of the classical metabolic change that occurs during neuronal differentiation, from glycolytic to more oxidative metabolism, by decreasing the ratio of lactate production and glucose consumption. The expression of pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenases was higher, indicating an augmented oxidative metabolism. Moreover, these findings were corroborated by an increased percentage of (13) C incorporation from [U-(13) C]glucose into the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites malate and citrate, and also glutamate and aspartate in CO-treated cells. Finally, under low levels of oxygen (5%), which enhances glycolytic metabolism, some of the enhancing effects of CO on mitochondria were not observed. In conclusion, our data show that CO improves neuronal and mitochondrial yield by stimulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and thus oxidative metabolism of NT2 cells during the process of neuronal differentiation. The process of cell differentiation is coupled with metabolic adaptations. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective

  7. Characteristics of autoignited laminar lifted flames in heated coflow jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2012-06-01

    The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  8. Characteristics of autoignited laminar lifted flames in heated coflow jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process

  9. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning: correlation of neurological findings between accident and emergency departments and a hyperbaric unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, R.; Laden, G; Grout, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate and quantify the differences in neurological examination findings in patients acutely poisoned with carbon monoxide, between initial assessment at accident and emergency (A&E) departments and subsequently at a hyperbaric unit.

  12. A case of first degree AV block in carbon monoxide poisoning patient

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Salih Bin; Alenezi, Helal; Alghamdi, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is one of the most common types of poisoning. Cardiac manifestations of CO poisoning are limited to case reports of Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, myocardial dysfunction and myocardial ischemia.

  13. Isotope brain scanning with Tc-HMPAO: a predictor of outcome in carbon monoxide poisoning?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner., M; Kemp, P M

    1997-01-01

    Tc-HMPAO isotope brain scans were performed in three patients who received hyperbaric oxygen treatment following carbon monoxide poisoning. Cerebral perfusion imaging provides an index of severity of the initial cerebral damage which correlated with outcome.

  14. sup 1 H NMR studies of hydrogen and carbon monoxide chemisorption on the EUROPt-1 catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Bouyssy, P X

    2001-01-01

    possible carbon monoxide-induced reorganisation of the surface sites available for hydrogen, following a carbon monoxide precoverage above a critical level. It also shows that carbon monoxide blocks hydrogen adsorption but not in the manner expected. No desorption of carbon monoxide was observed with gas phase infrared experiments even at hydrogen coverages approaching saturation. Secondly, to further the understanding of the dynamics of adsorbed hydrogen exchanging between the strongly bound and the weakly bound sites, proton relaxation NMR experiments were undertaken. T sub 1 and T sub 1 subrho measurements were carried out as a function of hydrogen coverage at room temperature and as a function of temperature at fixed hydrogen coverage. These experiments proved to be experimentally challenging and the data obtained do not show a clear enough trend to reach a significant conclusion as was firstly expected. A specially designed sup 1 H NMR probe, capable of holding a large quantity of catalyst sample for in ...

  15. Atmospheric pollution due to carbon monoxide from vehicular exhaust in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide is a major air pollutant and its main source being vehicular exhaust. Peshawar, like other major cities in Pakistan is facing a serious problem of air pollution due to rapidly increasing traffic. Carbon monoxide level during 600 hours to 1800 hours was studied at sixteen different location were found to have an average carbon monoxide concentration above the threshold limits of nine ppm for eight hours exposure whereas, at one location average carbon monoxide concentration reached the mulimit of 35 ppm for one hour average exposure. Results suggest that at these twelve location, the calculated carboxy haemoglobin level that could be present in the blood of people exposed for eight hours are in the range 2.04-4.85% which can adversely affect the central nervous system and can bring changes in psycho motor functions. (author)

  16. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Farris, Thomas Stephen

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  17. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Isotope analysis of carbon monoxide in atmospheric samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique was established that allows the analysis of carbon and oxygen isotope composition of CO in small air samples (250ml). The method is based on the oxidation of CO to CO2 with iodine pentoxide and the subsequent isotope analysis of CO2. Potential applications include the use of CO and its isotopes as a tracer to distinguish different pollution sources. (author)

  20. Autumn Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Chunyan; YANG Guipeng; LU Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dis-solved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that:1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction;2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98μmol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35%of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

  1. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN) for Ambient Air Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn; Mingming Lu; Keener, Tim C.; Soon-Jai Khang

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The syst...

  2. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in...... nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  3. The range of 1-3 keV electrons in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror-substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements on solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen. (orig.)

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Clinical Manifestations, Consequences, Monitoring, Diagnosis and Treatment of Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feruze Turan Sönmez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a multisystem condition that may present with a wide range of symptoms and can cause a confusing constellation of clinical features. Diagnosis may be easily missed if physician is not alert about. Carbon monoxide intoxication is more frequent than it is reported. It has a simple treatment if diagnosed, and has many long-term sequela if under-treated.

  5. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen;

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in...... nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen in the subacute phase

    OpenAIRE

    Coric, V.; Oren, D.; Wolkenberg, F.; Kravitz, R.

    1998-01-01

    The use of normobaric versus hyperbaric (>2 atm) oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide intoxication continues to be a matter of debate despite reports of increased efficacy with hyperbaric oxygen. When hyperbaric oxygen is used, immediate treatment is preferred for best results. The therapeutic window of time, however, is unknown. A patient presented with acute confusion and partial retrograde and total anterograde memory loss due to carbon monoxide poisoning. He was ...

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Uysalol, Metin; Uysalol, Ezgi Paslı; SARAÇOĞLU, GAMZE VAROL; Kayaoğlu, Semra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female) who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis. Results...

  8. Application of Statistical Methods to Assess Carbon Monoxide Pollution Variations within an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Capilla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there have been considerable new legislation and efforts by vehicle manufactures aimed at reducing pollutant emission to improve air quality in urban areas. Carbon monoxide is a major pollutant in urban areas, and in this study we analyze monthly carbon monoxide (CO) data from Valencia City, a representative Mediterranean city in terms of its structure and climatology. Temporal and spatial trends in pollution were recorded from a monitoring net- work that consisted of five mon...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Modeling from Vehicular Sources in Puebla City, México

    OpenAIRE

    Sthephany Sedeño-Cisneros; María Auxilio Osorio-Lama; Miguel Ángel Valera-Pérez; René Bernardo Elías Cabrera-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    The results of dispersion modeling of carbon monoxide are reported in this paper. The results of applying the technique of Rapid Assessment of Sources of Environmental Pollution (RASEP) database and the Air Monitoring State System in the City of Puebla, México, were employed. Concentrations of carbon monoxide emitted by cars inferred by RASAP technique with those reported by the environmental monitoring station “Nymphs”, were compared. The date of 21 June 2005-2010 was se...

  10. Relative intakes of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide from cigarettes of different yields.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N. J.; Boreham, J; Bailey, A.

    1984-01-01

    The relative intakes of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were estimated in 2455 cigarette smokers, who freely smoked their usual brands of cigarette. The estimates were derived by using an objective index of inhaling based on the measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin divided by the carbon monoxide yield of the cigarettes smoked, after background and carry over carboxyhaemoglobin effects had been allowed for. Separate analyses were performed according to the yield and type (plain, filter, etc) o...

  11. Isotope chromato-spectral determination of carbon monoxide in pure inorganic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of isotope-chromato-spectral method for determination of carbon monoxide impurities in pure He, Ne, Ar, N2 and H2 is considered. Isotopic dilution of a sample of the gas under analysis is performed using carbon monoxide enriched by 13C with source relative isotope concentration 12C/13C=0.39. Limits of determining CO in gases by the method indicated make up nx(10-7-10-6) %

  12. Displacement of iodine adatoms by carbon monoxide at a platinized platinum electrode: a tracer technique study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentiality of actually complete replacement of iodine adatoms with carbon monoxide on a platinized electrode, which has been previously established on the basis of electrochemical measurements, was confirmed by the tracer technique study using 125I radioisotope. It has been revealed for the first time that in case of iodide-anions adsorption in the presence of silver adatom monolayer no replacement of iodine adatoms with carbon monoxide takes place. Possible reasons for the effect are discussed

  13. Preservation of the kidney by carbon monoxide: a black swan phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Karl A.

    2008-01-01

    Nakao and colleagues demonstrate that carbon monoxide added to organ preservation solution reduces donor-kidney injury that occurs after cold storage and transplantation and improves the survival of the recipient. These findings are important because they highlight the role of the cytochrome P450 system in the pathogenesis of donor-kidney injury and they suggest a strategy for preserving the donor kidney, namely, the addition of carbon monoxide to organ preservation solution.

  14. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the principal reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for prevention of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. Nowadays the diagnosis may be performed through determination of COHb in a fast and non-invasive way, both outside and inside hospitals, thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxymetrers. After confirmation the patient has to be classified with a grading score for severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for the choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  15. Modeling carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Zhou, Lihong; Smith, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of mine fire fatalities in underground mines. To reduce the hazard of CO poisoning in underground mines, it is important to accurately predict the spread of CO in underground mine entries when a fire occurs. This paper presents a study on modeling CO spread in underground mine fires using both the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the MFIRE programs. The FDS model simulating part of the mine ventilation network was calibrated using CO concentration data from full-scale mine fire tests. The model was then used to investigate the effect of airflow leakage on CO concentration reduction in the mine entries. The inflow of fresh air at the leakage location was found to cause significant CO reduction. MFIRE simulation was conducted to predict the CO spread in the entire mine ventilation network using both a constant heat release rate and a dynamic fire source created from FDS. The results from both FDS and MFIRE simulations are compared and the implications of the improved MFIRE capability are discussed. PMID:27069400

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of carbon monoxide poisoning in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in three patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in chronic stage by comparison with serial X-ray computed tomography (CT). In Case 1 and 3, no pallidal lesions believed to be the most common lesion of the gray matter in CO poisoning were found in the serial X-ray CT scans. In the other case (Case 2), the typical initial bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the globus pallidus were found to have decreased markedly in size and finally disappeared in the latter X-ray CT scan. But MRI using inversion recovery (IR) or spin echo (SE) pulse sequence clearly showed bilateral symmetrical decreased or increased signal intensity areas in the globus pallidus in all three cases. In Case 3, chronic CO poisoning was confirmed by the bilateral symmetrical pallidal lesions on MRI, although differential diagnosis was difficult. Furthermore, in Case 2, with pure alexia, MRI using IR or SE pulse sequence demonstrated a patchy decreased or increased signal intensity area in the subcortical white matter at the left angular gyrus, although X-ray CT scan showed no abnormal findings. MRI is useful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning, especially chronic CO poisoning, because necrosis, cavitation, demyelination, gliosis and so on due to hypoxia of CO poisoning were sensitively detected from changes in the proton density and the T1 or T2 relaxation time value on MRI. (J.P.N.)

  17. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çiftçi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

  18. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  19. Frequency of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Turkey in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In Turkey, studies about frequency of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning are rare. In this study, it is aimed to determine the frequency of the CO poisoning cases occurring all around the country. METHOD: This study was planned as a descriptive study covering Turkey in general as stage. In this study, the CO poisoning case records of Ministry of Health Treat Services General Directorate in 2010 have been examined. The distribution of cases among regions-provinces, mortality rates, types of CO sources, seasonal and monthly dispersions have been examined. RESULTS: According to the records, totally 10.154 cases of CO poisoning were detected in Turkey in 2010 and only 39 of them were ended with death. It is determined that the frequency of cases is 0,0137% (approximately 14 in every 100.000 and mortality rate is about 5 in every 10 million. Poisoning cases have been occurred mostly in Marmara Region (3.426 cases, 33,7%. When it is evaluated in regard to the population, cases are mostly seen in Kilis (0,1998%. As of mortality rates, Bursa has the most number of cases ending with death (18 cases. CONCLUSION: Compared to studies in other countries, according to our data, Turkey was faced with more frequent cases of CO poisoning. The number of cases has increased, especially during the winter months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 587-592

  20. Carbon monoxide in the environs of the star WR 16

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Bronfman, L

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the carbon monoxide emission around the star WR 16 aiming to chieve a better understanding of the interaction between massive stars with their surroundings. We study the molecular gas in a region of 86.'4 x 86.'4 in size using CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0) line data obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope. Radio continuum archival data at 4.85 GHz, obtained from the Parkes-MIT-NRAO Southern Radio Survey, are also analyzed to account for the ionized gas. Available IRAS (HIRES) 60 and 100 microns images are used to study the characteristics of the dust around the star. Our new CO and 13CO data allow the low/intermediate density molecular gas surrounding the WR nebula to be completely mapped. We report two molecular features at -5 km/s and -8.5 km/s (component 1 and component 2, respectively) having a good morphological resemblance with the Halpha emission of the ring nebula. Component 2 seems to be associated with the external ring, whilst component 1 is placed at the interface between component 2 and t...

  1. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  2. Cross-correlations as a carbon monoxide detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pullen, Anthony; Dore, Olivier; Lidz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of the large-scale structure (LSS) itself, the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other tracers of LSS offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the formalism and model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. As an illustration, we propose a novel use of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) dataset. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 6 and 7 respectively. We are not able ...

  3. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  4. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  5. The neurotoxicology of carbon monoxide - Historical perspective and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Oliver T; Walker, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recognized as a poison for centuries, and remains one of the most common causes of both accidental and deliberate poisoning worldwide. Despite this, there are widespread misconceptions with regards to the mechanisms, diagnosis and outcomes of CO induced poisoning such as the idea that CO poisoning is rare; that carboxyhaemoglobin levels above 20% and loss of consciousness are required before nervous system damage ensues; and that the binding of CO to haemoglobin is the only mechanism of toxicity. Prevention and diagnosis of CO poisoning is hampered by the lack of awareness of CO as a cause of illness, among both the general public and healthcare professionals. To complicate matters further there is no standardized definition of CO poisoning. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels are often used as a marker of CO poisoning, yet plasma levels rapidly reduce upon removal of the source and are therefore an unreliable biomarker of exposure and tissue damage. Adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes after CO poisoning are difficult to define, especially as they fluctuate, mimic other non-specific complaints, and are not present in all survivors. This paper challenges a number of misconceptions about CO poisoning which can result in misdiagnosis, and consequently in mismanagement. We illustrate how recent developments in the understanding of CO toxicology explain the particular susceptibility of the central nervous system to the effects of CO exposure. PMID:26341269

  6. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  7. Carbon monoxide observed in Venus' atmosphere with SOIR/VEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Mahieux, A.; Chamberlain, S.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Thomas, I. R.; Trompet, L.; Wilquet, V.; Bertaux, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    The SOIR instrument on board the ESA Venus Express mission has been operational during the complete duration of the mission, from April 2006 up to December 2014. Spectra were recorded in the IR spectral region (2.2-4.3 μm) using the solar occultation geometry, giving access to a vast number of ro-vibrational lines and bands of several key species of the atmosphere of Venus. Here we present the complete set of vertical profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) densities and volume mixing ratios (vmr) obtained during the mission. These profiles are spanning the 65-150 km altitude range. We discuss the variability which is observed on the short term, but also the long term trend as well as variation of CO with solar local time and latitude. Short term variations can reach one order of magnitude on less than one month periods. SOIR does not observe a marked long term trend, except perhaps at the beginning of the mission where an increase of CO density and vmr has been observed. Evening abundances are systematically higher than morning values at altitudes above 105 km, but the reverse is observed at lower altitudes. Higher abundances are observed at the equator than at the poles for altitude higher than 105 km, but again the reverse is seen at altitudes lower than 90 km. This illustrates the complexity of the 90-100 km region of the Venus' atmosphere where different wind regimes are at play.

  8. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

  9. Carbon monoxide effects on calcium levels in vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously the authors showed that carbon monoxide (CO) relaxes vascular smooth muscle in the working heart and thoracic aorta preparation perfused with hemoglobin-free, Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution. The CO-induced relaxation was not caused by hypoxia, nor was it mediated by adrenergic influences, adenosine, or prostaglandins. In these studies the effect of CO on calcium (Ca++) concentrations in vascular smooth muscle was determined using 45Ca as a tracer. Isolated rat thoracic aorta segments were incubated with 45Ca and gassed with O2, N2, or CO for 60 min. Verapamil was used to verify the effectiveness of the test system. Ca++ concentrations were 488 /+ -/ 35 and 515 /+ -/ 26 mM/g tissue (X /+ -/ SE) in aortic rings gassed with O2 and N2, respectively. CO reduced Ca++ concentrations significantly (P++ concentrations by 40% to 314 /+ -/ 23 mM/g tissue. These results suggest that CO relaxes vascular smooth muscle and dilates blood vessels by decreasing Ca++ concentrations in vascular smooth muscle

  10. Carbon monoxide stability in stored postmortem blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsman, G W; Presses, C L; Rodriguez, P

    2000-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of both suicidal and accidental deaths in the United States. As a consequence, determination of the percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb) level in postmortem blood is a common analysis performed in toxicology laboratories. The blood specimens analyzed are generally preserved with either EDTA or sodium fluoride. Potentially problematic scenarios that may arise in conjunction with CO analysis are a first analysis or a reanalysis requested months or years after the initial toxicology testing is completed; both raise the issue of the stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored postmortem blood specimens. A study was conducted at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office to evaluate the stability of CO in blood samples collected in red-, gray-, and purple-top tubes by comparing results obtained at the time of the autopsy and after two years of storage at 3 degrees C using either an IL 282 or 682 CO-Oximeter. The results from this study suggest that carboxyhemoglobin is stable in blood specimens collected in vacutainer tubes, with or without preservative, and stored refrigerated for up to two years. PMID:11043662

  11. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  12. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured systems: A mechanochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Gabriele; Campesi, Renato; Garroni, Sebastiano; Delogu, Francesco; Milanese, Chiara

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated the mechanochemical hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured FeCo- and Mg 2Ni-based catalysts. To this aim powdered materials, prepared by mechanical alloying, were subjected to mechanical treatment under CO + H 2 atmosphere. A methodology to evaluate the activity of the solid catalysts on an absolute basis was developed. Conversion data were, indeed, expressed as turnover frequency, TOF, and related to the occurrence of ball to powder collision events through the mechanochemical turnover frequency parameter, MTOF. Differences in the catalytic activity and selectivity were observed for the two FeCo-based studied systems, the solid solution Fe 50Co 50 and its dispersion on TiO 2 support. As for the Mg 2Ni system, we explored the possibility to estimate the specific role of hydrogen pre-activation step. The catalytic properties of the mechanically alloyed Mg 2Ni system were compared with the conversion data shown by the same system pre-hydrogenated and subsequently milled under CO atmosphere.

  13. Epidemiology of carbon monoxide gas poisoning deaths in Ardabil city, 2008-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Farzaneh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide gas is odorless, colorless and toxic which are the most abundant pollutants in the lower atmosphere. Carbon monoxide poisoning is considered as one of the most common causes of mortality in Iran and Ardabil province. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of carbon monoxide gas poisoning died patients during 2008 to 2013. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, with referral to the Ardabil coroner center and poisoning ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, the statistics related to carbon monoxide poisoning died patients have been extracted and entered into the Checklists then analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.19. Results: The number of deceased in this study was 35 people with a mean age of 33.66 +/- 21.38. Of them, 19 (54.3% were male and 16 (45.7% were female. 85.7 percent of the deceased had been poisoned at home which from them 71.4% died before transaction to hospital. The season winter with 48.6% include the most of cases and the most common vehicle of intoxication was water heater with 48.6%. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide gas poisoning is one of the cases that causes to death of people in Ardabil every year and so promoting public awareness about risks due to Carbon monoxide could have a considerable role in the prevention of poisoning. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 929-932

  14. Synergistic effect of carbon monoxide with other biologically active injurious factors on the organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, D.; Ponsold, W.

    1974-09-01

    The combined effects on biological organisms are reported for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sodium nitrite, hydrocyanic acid, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane, benzene, iodine acetate, cholesterol, benzpyrene, hexobarbitol, zoxazolamine, nembutal, luminal, morphine, adrenalin, persantin, cytochrome c, aldrin, carbaryl, cyclodiene epoxide; and physical influences such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, ionizing radiation, noise, and vibration. A literature review shows that with increasing CO/sub 2/ and decreasing oxygen concentration in the inhalation air, the toxicity of CO increased in experiments with mice and canaries. Oxides of nitrogen enhance the toxic effect of CO in an additive way and at times synergistically. At 500 m from a metallurgical plant in the USSR the maximum allowable immission concentrations for CO and SO/sub 2/ were exceeded. In children residing there a higher normal erythrocyte number, hemoglobin content, and catalase activity were found in the blood along with higher concentrations of coproporphyrin and 17-ketosteroids. All values returned to normal after an 8-week stay of these children away from the metallurgical plant.

  15. Interaction of terbium group metal oxides with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanism of carbothermal reduction of terbium group metals from oxides is investigated using thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. Interaction of metal oxides with carbon covers dissociation of metal oxides and reduction by carbon monoxide, which contribution into general reduction depends on CO pressure. Temperatures of reaction beginning for batch initial components at P=1.3x10-4 and PCO=0.1 MPa and of formation of oxycarbide melts are determined

  16. Carbon monoxide production from five volatile anesthetics in dry sodalime in a patient model: halothane and sevoflurane do produce carbon monoxide; temperature is a poor predictor of carbon monoxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desflurane and enflurane have been reported to produce substantial amounts of carbon monoxide (CO in desiccated sodalime. Isoflurane is said to produce less CO and sevoflurane and halothane should produce no CO at all. The purpose of this study is to measure the maximum amounts of CO production for all modern volatile anesthetics, with completely dry sodalime. We also tried to establish a relationship between CO production and temperature increase inside the sodalime. Methods A patient model was simulated using a circle anesthesia system connected to an artificial lung. Completely desiccated sodalime (950 grams was used in this system. A low flow anesthesia (500 ml/min was maintained using nitrous oxide with desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane or sevoflurane. For immediate quantification of CO production a portable gas chromatograph was used. Temperature was measured within the sodalime container. Results Peak concentrations of CO were very high with desflurane and enflurane (14262 and 10654 ppm respectively. It was lower with isoflurane (2512 ppm. We also measured small concentrations of CO for sevoflurane and halothane. No significant temperature increases were detected with high CO productions. Conclusion All modern volatile anesthetics produce CO in desiccated sodalime. Sodalime temperature increase is a poor predictor of CO production.

  17. Revised Evaluation of Health Effects Associated with Carbon Monoxide Exposure: An Addendum to the 1979 U.S. EPA Air Quality Criteria Document for Carbon Monoxide (1984)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addendum re-evaluates the scientific data base concerning health effects associated with exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) at ambient or near ambient levels by providing: (1) a concise summary of key health effects information pertaining to relatively low-level CO exposure; an...

  18. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55°C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55°C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population an

  19. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production. PMID:27000012

  20. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20–2.54), and those aged <=49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38–4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96–3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  1. Carbon Monoxide Poisonings from Forklift Use During Produce Packing Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Anne E; Langley, Ricky L; McDaniel, Jesse S

    2016-01-01

    In August 2013, the North Carolina Division of Public Health investigated a carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on a farm. Two employees were overcome by CO and lost consciousness while using a propane-powered forklift to load produce into a refrigerated trailer backed up to a warehouse. One employee died, and the second employee was admitted to the hospital for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Eighteen people, ranging in age from 18 to 69 years, were potentially exposed to CO, including the two employees, a family member who discovered the employees, two bystanders who stopped to offer assistance, and 13 first responders. Thirteen people who assisted in the emergency response experienced symptoms such as headache and dizziness, and all 16 who assisted were evaluated in a local hospital emergency department and released after receiving 100% oxygen. Blood tests showed five people (the two employees, family member, and two bystanders) had elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, but all first responders had levels within normal range. Firefighters measured a peak CO concentration of 2214 parts per million in the warehouse. The North Carolina Division of Occupational Safety and Health investigated and determined that the forklift, operated inside the trailer with no ventilation, was the source of the CO. Public health investigation activities included interviewing responders, obtaining ambient CO concentration measurements from the fire department, advising the local health director, reviewing medical records, and developing a line listing of exposed persons. To prevent CO poisoning, employers should consider replacing gas-powered equipment with electric equipment, which does not produce CO. PMID:26788681

  2. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  3. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future. PMID:25772154

  4. CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Lyα-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.

  5. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice

  6. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Gerrit J; Lipscomb, Gina L; Nguyen, Diep M N; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na(+) motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na(+)-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms. PMID:26858706

  7. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  8. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  9. Measurements on high temperature fuel cells with carbon monoxide-containing fuel gases; Messungen an Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit kohlenmonoxidhaltigen Brenngasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, Holger

    2012-10-10

    In the present work the different power density of anode-supported high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) were examined for carbon monoxide-containing fuels. In addition to wet hydrogen / carbon monoxide mixtures the cells were run with synthetic gas mixtures resembling the products of an autothermal reformer, and actual reformate generated by a 2 kW autothermal reformer. It was found that the power-voltage characteristics of an ASC depends primarily on the open circuit voltages of different gas mixtures, but is nearly independent of the hydrogen concentration of the fuel, although the reaction rates of other potential fuels within the gas mixture, namely carbon monoxide and methane, are much lower that the hydrogen reaction rate. The probable reason is that the main fuel for the electrochemical oxidation within the cell is hydrogen, while the nickel in the base layer of the anode acts as a reformer which replenishes the hydrogen by water reduction via carbon monoxide and methane oxidation.

  10. Indoor air quality: Carbon monoxide, molds and beyond. Current issue paper number 198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of several of the major indoor air pollutants and some of the ways in which indoor air quality is addressed by governments in the United States and Canada. The emphasis is on non-industrial settings. Pollutants discussed include carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke, radon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, wood smoke and particles, volatile organic compounds, and molds

  11. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  12. Cardioprotective actions by a water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James E; Naughton, Patrick; Shurey, Sandra; Green, Colin J; Johnson, Tony R; Mann, Brian E; Foresti, Roberta; Motterlini, Roberto

    2003-07-25

    Carbon monoxide, which is generated in mammals during the degradation of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase, is an important signaling mediator. Transition metal carbonyls have been recently shown to function as carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) and to elicit distinct pharmacological activities in biological systems. In the present study, we report that a water-soluble form of CO-RM promotes cardioprotection in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, we found that tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3) is stable in water at acidic pH but in physiological buffers rapidly liberates CO in solution. Cardiac cells pretreated with CORM-3 (10 to 50 micromol/L) become more resistant to the damage caused by hypoxia-reoxygenation and oxidative stress. In addition, isolated hearts reperfused in the presence of CORM-3 (10 micromol/L) after an ischemic event displayed a significant recovery in myocardial performance and a marked and significant reduction in cardiac muscle damage and infarct size. The cardioprotective effects mediated by CORM-3 in cardiac cells and isolated hearts were totally abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels. Predictably, cardioprotection is lost when CORM-3 is replaced by an inactive form (iCORM-3) that is incapable of liberating CO. Using a model of cardiac allograft rejection in mice, we also found that treatment of recipients with CORM-3 but not iCORM-3 considerably prolonged the survival rate of transplanted hearts. These data corroborate the notion that transition metal carbonyls could be used as carriers to deliver CO and highlight the bioactivity and potential therapeutic features of CO-RMs in the mitigation of cardiac dysfunction. The full text of this article is available online at http://www.circresaha.org. PMID:12842916

  13. Detection of carbon monoxide poisoning that occurred before a house fire in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Toru; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Sasao, Ako; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-09-01

    In our institutes, we perform a quantitative evaluation of volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood in all fatal fire-related cases using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We previously reported that benzene concentrations in the blood were positively correlated with carbon monoxide-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentrations in fire-related deaths. Here, we present 3 cases in which benzene concentrations in the blood were not correlated with CO-Hb concentrations. A high CO-Hb concentration without a hydrocarbon component, such as benzene, indicates that the deceased inhaled carbon monoxide that was not related to the smoke from the fire. Comparing volatile hydrocarbons with CO-Hb concentrations can provide more information about the circumstances surrounding fire-related deaths. We are currently convinced that this is the best method to detect if carbon monoxide poisoning occurred before a house fire started. PMID:26004303

  14. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  15. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurement techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of carbon monoxide (CO for the overall oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, there is still considerable uncertainty in ambient measurements of CO. To address this issue, an inter-comparison between four different measurement techniques was made over a period of two months at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland. The measurement techniques were Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR, Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF, gas chromatographic separation with a mercuric oxide reduction detector (GC/HgO, and gas chromatographic separation followed by reduction on a nickel catalyst and analysis by a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The agreement among all techniques was better than 2% for one-hourly averages, which confirmed the suitability of the NDIR method for CO measurements even at remote sites. The inter-comparison added to the validation of the 12-year record (1996–2007 of continuous CO measurements at JFJ. To date this is one of the longest time series of continuous CO measurements in the free troposphere over Central Europe. This data record was further investigated with a focus on trend analysis. A significant negative trend was observed at JFJ showing a decrease of 21.4±0.3% over the investigated period, or an average annual decrease of 1.78%/yr (2.65±0.04 ppb/yr. These results were compared with emission inventory data reported to the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention. It could be shown that long range transport significantly influences the CO levels observed at JFJ, with air masses of non-European origin contributing at least one third of the observed mole fractions.

  16. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronic excited state configuration.

  17. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  18. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.;

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result...

  19. Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to 125I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine

  20. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper particles

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, K P; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    2006-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide (20°C; 0.1– 100 Torr) on copper-on-silica catalysts differently prepared and pretreated. As determined by electron microscopy and X-ray line broadening, the catalysts contain copper particles having sizes of 60 to 5000 Å depending on the preparation procedure and the thermal treatment. Adsorbed carbon monoxide displays broad infrared absorption bands exhibiting a maximum at 2099 to 2146 cm-1. The position of the maximum ...

  1. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched-chain ethane-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Brabbs, T. A.; Snyder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants have been measured for ethane carbon monoxide oxygen mixtures by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 1700 K. The data were analyzed using an ethane oxidation mechanism involving seven elementary reaction steps. Calculated growth constants were close to experimental values at lower temperatures, up to about 1400 K, but at higher temperatures computed growth constants were considerably smaller than experiment. In attempts to explain these results additional branching reactions were added to the mechanism. However, these additional reactions did not appreciably change calculated growth constants.

  2. Measurement of uniform flame movement in carbon monoxide - air mixtures containing either added D2O or H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1950-01-01

    Relative velocities of the flame in a carbon monoxide - air mixture containing either added heavy water or light water were measured in a glass tube. Throughout the range of carbon monoxide - air composition, the flame containing added light water had a faster speed than the flame containing heavy water.

  3. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The criteria by which we determine whether a SIP... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  4. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  5. Isolation and characterization of two novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria from syngas - and carbon monoxide - degrading cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, J.I.; Alves, M.M.; Stams, A. J. M.; Plugge, C.M.; Sousa, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Syn(thesis)gas is a mixture containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, in variable ratios. Syngas is commonly produced from fossil fuels, but it can be generated from a vast array of feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass and carbon-based wastes, including recalcitrant wastes. Production of biofuels and bulk chemicals from syngas, both by thermochemical or microbial processes, is a field of promising technological developments. In this work, thermophilic (55ºC...

  6. Thermal property correlation package of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermophysical property correlation package of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane has been constructed from a critical evaluation of theoretical or empirical correlations available in the literature. The properties include density, isobaric specific heat, viscosity and thermal conductivity. Selected package correlations are summarized below: (1) For density, Peng-Robinson-Redlich-Kwong equation of state, (2) for specific heat, an expression from thermodynamic theory with the van der Waals equation of state and (3) for viscosity and thermal conductivity, generalized relationships by the use of dimensional analysis that were developed by G. Thodos group. From a comparative evaluation of the package correlations with measurements and selected values available, it has been concluded that except for specific heat these correlations are predictable with an acceptable accuracy. (author)

  7. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  8. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  9. Carbon monoxide and biliverdin prevent endothelial cell sloughing in rats with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodella, Luigi; Lamon, Brian D; Rezzani, Rita; Sangras, Bhavani; Goodman, Alvin I; Falck, John R; Abraham, Nader G

    2006-06-15

    Hyperglycemia has been linked to increased oxidative stress, a resultant endothelial cell dysfunction, and, ultimately, apoptosis. Heme oxygenases (HO-1/HO-2) and the products of their activity, biliverdin/bilirubin and carbon monoxide (CO), play a physiological role in the vascular system. The effects of heme-mediated HO-1 induction, CO, and biliverdin on urinary 8-epi-isoprostane PGF(2alpha) and endothelial cell sloughing were examined in an animal model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Hyperglycemia itself did not affect HO-1 and HO-2 protein levels, but caused a net decrease in HO activity. Weekly heme administration induced HO-1 protein, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Administration of biliverdin or the CO donor, CORM-3, decreased urinary 8-epi-isoprostane PGF(2alpha), P SnMP to CORM-3 diabetic rats only partially reversed the protective effects of CORM-3 on endothelial cell sloughing from 21.3 +/- 2.3 to 29 +/- 2.1 cells/ml, thus confirming a direct protective of CO, in addition to the ability of CORM-3 to induce HO-1 protein. These results demonstrate that exogenously administered CO or bilirubin can prevent endothelial cell sloughing in diabetic rats, likely via a decrease in oxidative stress, and thus represents a novel approach to prophylactic vascular protection in diabetes. PMID:16785033

  10. Sources of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde in North America determined from high-resolution atmospheric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Miller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the North American budget for carbon monoxide using data for CO and formaldehyde concentrations from tall towers and aircraft in a model-data assimilation framework. The Stochastic Time-Inverted, Lagrangian Transport model for CO (STILT-CO determines local to regional-scale CO contributions associated with production from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs using an ensemble of Lagrangian particles driven by high resolution assimilated meteorology. In most cases, the model demonstrates high fidelity simulations of hourly surface data from tall towers and point measurements from aircraft, with somewhat less satisfactory performance in coastal regions and when CO from large biomass fires in Alaska and the Yukon Territory influence the continental US.

    Inversions of STILT-CO simulations for CO and formaldehyde show that current inventories of CO emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significantly too high, by almost a factor of three in summer and a factor two in early spring, consistent with recent analyses of data from the INTEX-A aircraft program. Formaldehyde data help to show that sources of CO from oxidation of CH4 and other VOCs represent the dominant sources of CO over North America in summer.

  11. Carbon monoxide-induced adventitious rooting of hypocotyl cuttings from mung bean seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the regulatory role of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) during the generation and development of adventitious roots in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L. cv. Mingguang) hypocotyl cuttings was surveyed. The results indicated that, like nitric oxide (NO), CO donor Hematin induced adventitious rooting in dose- and time-de- pendent manners. These responses were also prov- en by the addition of gaseous CO aqueous solution with different concentrations. Additionally, the above CO-mediated effect was differently reversed when CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb), CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX, the auxin transport inhibitor NPA and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME were added with Hematin, respectively. Furthermore, after being treated with CO for 36 h, NO fluorescence was significantly enhanced and mainly distributed in the zone of vascular bundles whereas the specific NO scavenger cPTIO significantly inhibited NO fluorescence induced by CO, indicating that CO induces adventitious rooting of hypocotyl cuttings from mung bean seedling probably mediated by NO/NOS pathway.

  12. Deep Conversion of Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen and Formation of Acetate by the Anaerobic Thermophile Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henstra, A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium that catalyses the water gas shift reaction, the conversion of carbon monoxide with water to molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The thermodynamically favorable growth temperature, compared to existing industrial cat

  13. A Study of Different Doped Metal Cations on the Physicochemical Properties and Catalytic Activities of Ce20 M1 Ox (M=Zr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Sn) Composite Oxides for Nitric Oxide Reduction by Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changshun; Li, Min; Qian, Junning; Hu, Qun; Huang, Meina; Lin, Qingjin; Ruan, Yongshun; Dong, Lihui; Li, Bin; Fan, Minguang

    2016-08-01

    This work is mainly focused on investigating the effects of different doped metal cations on the formation of Ce20 M1 Ox (M=Zr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Sn) composite oxides and their physicochemical and catalytic properties for NO reduction by CO as a model reaction. The obtained samples were characterized by using N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction by hydrogen and by oxygen (H2 -TPR and O2 -TPD), in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, and the NO+CO model reaction. The results imply that the introduction of M(x+) into the lattice of CeO2 increases the specific surface area and pore volume, especially for variable valence metal cations, and enhances the catalytic performance to a great extent. In this regard, increases in the oxygen vacancies, reduction properties, and chemisorbed O2 (-) (and/or O(-) ) species of these Ce20 M1 Ox composite oxides (M refers to variable valence metals) play significant roles in this reaction. Among the samples, Ce20 Cr1 Ox exhibited the best catalytic performance, mainly because it has the best reducibility and more chemisorbed oxygen, and significant reasons for these attributes may be closely related to favorable synergistic interactions of the vacancies and near-surface Ce(3+) and Cr(3+) . Finally, a possible reaction mechanism was tentatively proposed to understand the reactions. PMID:27435470

  14. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurements techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 12-year record (1996–2007 of continuous carbon monoxide (CO measurements of the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, was investigated with a focus on trend analysis. To date this is one of the longest time series of continuous CO measurements in the free troposphere over Central Europe. A significant negative trend was observed at JFJ with a decrease of 21.4±0.3% in the investigated period, or an average annual decrease of 2.65±0.04 ppb/yr (1.78%/yr. These results were compared with emission inventory data reported to the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention. It could be shown that long range transport significantly influences the CO levels observed at JFJ, with air masses of non-European origin contributing to at least a third to observed mixing ratios.

    Such trend analysis and inter-comparison with emission inventories are only possible with data of known quality. To this end, the Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR technique used for CO measurements at JFJ was inter-compared over two months using three additional analytical techniques, namely Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF, gas chromatographic separation with a mercuric oxide reduction detector (GC/HgO, and gas chromatographic separation followed by reduction on a nickel catalyst and analysis by a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The agreement among all techniques was better than 2% for one-hourly averages which confirmed the suitability of the NDIR method for CO measurements even at remote sites.

  15. Delayed Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning by HbO2

    OpenAIRE

    LeDez, Kenneth M.; Davies, Andrew O.; Koch, G. Helge

    1989-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the importance of hyperbaric treatment in managing cases of known or suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. Even when prolonged delays in initiating this treatment are unavoidable, it can be beneficial. Prolonged administration of normobaric oxygen is inadequate treatment.

  16. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (1999) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revised criteria document consolidates and updates the current scientific basis for another reevaluation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide (CO), currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) for 1 h. Although emphasis is plac...

  17. 75 FR 54805 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota;...

  18. Kinetics of nanocrystallization in regular alternating terpolymers of ethene and propene with carbon monoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Privalko, V. P.; Dolgoshey, V. B.; Privalko, E. G.; Sikora, Antonín

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2003), s. 953-962. ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : alternating terpolymers of ethene and propene with carbon monoxide * nanocrystallinity * kinetics of nanocrystallization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2003

  19. Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

    2012-01-01

    Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

  20. Transient splenial lesion in a case with carbon monoxide poisoning: A clue supporting the excitotoxicity hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Rahşan; Ünal, Emre

    2015-11-01

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum are uncommon radiologic findings seen in a number of clinical conditions. Awareness of these lesions is crucial to prevent further invasive investigation and intervention. We report a unique case of transient splenial lesion in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26277728

  1. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  2. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from sand and living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide, CO, is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential of UV-induced CO emission by terrestrial surfaces. Real-time measurements of [CO] were made with a cavity enhanced laser connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a leaf scale...

  3. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  4. CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING ON AN URBAN ARTERIAL HIGHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. n each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the...

  5. Review: monoclinic zirconia, its surface sites and their interaction with carbon monoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouva, S.; Honkala, K.; Lefferts, L.; Kanervo, J.

    2015-01-01

    This review concerns monoclinic zirconia, its surface sites and their probing with carbon monoxide. The modifications of the surface sites using thermal treatments with vacuum or reactive gases are also included. In this work, we present information on the nature and manipulation of hydroxyl species

  6. Characteristics of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Detection for Carbon Monoxide Gas Based on DFB Diode Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weigen; PENG Xiaojuan; LIU Bingjie; SUN Caixin

    2012-01-01

    The dissolved gas analysis is one of the most effective and convenient methods to diagnose the early discharge faults of transformers. When the fault involves the solid insulation, oil-paper insulation cracks and releases carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Therefore, the detection of CO can forecast the potential inner faults of oil-filled transformers.

  7. Double Auger Emission of fixed-in-space Carbon Monoxide following Core-Excitation and Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double Auger decay after core-level photo excitation and after ionization through synchrotron radiation in gas phase carbon monoxide has been studied. We report the first experiment where both Auger electrons in double Auger decay have been measured in coincidence with the ionic fragments.

  8. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  9. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation...

  10. Carbon monoxide concentrations evaluated by traffic noise data in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that variations in carbon monoxide concentrations can be evaluated by measuring environmental noise, wind velocity and vertical thermal stability. The results can be justified on the basis of the theory of the street canyon effect. The methodology proposed was verified in two Italian cities with different characteristics: Milan and Ravenna (Italy)

  11. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...

  12. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  13. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions, in sev...

  14. Operations and maintenance manual, atmospheric contaminant sensor. Addendum 1: Carbon monoxide monitor model 204

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring the carbon monoxide content of the ambient atmosphere is described. The subjects discussed are: (1) theory of operation, (2) system features, (3) controls and monitors, (4) operational procedures, and (5) maintenance and troubleshooting. Block drawings and circuit diagrams are included to clarify the text.

  15. Adsorption of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and ethylene on the Pt(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and temperature programmed thermal desorption spectroscopy (TPDS) were applied in studying adsorption of oxygen, carbon monoxide and ethylene and reaction processes of ethylene and ethylene co-adsorbed with atomic oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, on Pt(111). (orig./FT)

  16. Carbon monoxide production in ventilated premature infants weighing less than 1500 g.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, A F; Ochikubo, C G; Vreman, H. J.; Stevenson, D. K.

    1987-01-01

    Mean pulmonary excretion rate of carbon monoxide in 13 premature babies on ventilators was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than that of 19 healthy infants born at full term. This correlated with carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in blood, indicating that the premature infants on ventilators produced abnormally large amounts of bilirubin.

  17. Feedback Response to Selective Depletion of Endogenous Carbon Monoxide in the Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Minegishi, Saika; Yumura, Aki; Negi, Shigeru; Taketani, Shigeru; Amagase, Yoko; Mizukawa, Yumiko; Urushidani, Tetsuro; Sugiura, Yukio; Kano, Koji

    2016-04-27

    The physiological roles of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) have not been fully understood because of the difficulty in preparing a loss-of-function phenotype of this molecule. Here, we have utilized in vivo CO receptors, hemoCDs, which are the supramolecular 1:1 inclusion complexes of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinatoiron(II) with per-O-methylated β-cyclodextrin dimers. Three types of hemoCDs (hemoCD1, hemoCD2, and hemoCD3) that exhibit different CO-affinities have been tested as CO-depleting agents in vivo. Intraperitoneally administered hemoCD bound endogenous CO within the murine circulation, and was excreted in the urine along with CO in an affinity-dependent manner. The sufficient administration of hemoCD that has higher CO-affinity than hemoglobin (Hb) produced a pseudoknockdown state of CO in the mouse in which heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was markedly induced in the liver, causing the acceleration of endogenous CO production to maintain constant CO-Hb levels in the blood. The contents of free hemin and bilirubin in the blood plasma of the treated mice significantly increased upon removal of endogenous CO by hemoCD. Thus, a homeostatic feedback model for the CO/HO-1 system was proposed as follows: HemoCD primarily removes CO from cell-free CO-Hb. The resulting oxy-Hb is quickly oxidized to met-Hb by oxidant(s) such as hydrogen peroxide in the blood plasma. The met-Hb readily releases free hemin that directly induces HO-1 in the liver, which metabolizes the hemin into iron, biliverdin, and CO. The newly produced CO binds to ferrous Hb to form CO-Hb as an oxidation-resistant state. Overall, the present system revealed the regulatory role of CO for maintaining the ferrous/ferric balance of Hb in the blood. PMID:27057920

  18. Superior preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-rich stream under visible light irradiation over gold loaded hedgehog-shaped titanium dioxide nanospheres: Identification of copper oxide decoration as an efficient promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Huang, Kun; Lin, Liuliu; Chen, Xun; Dai, Wenxin; Fu, Xianzhi

    2015-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles loaded on the special three-dimensional urchin-like micro/nano hierarchical TiO2 microspheres, with CuO layer modification, are performed for the CO preferential oxidation in H2-rich stream at room temperature under visible light irradiation or not. It is found that the suitable outer decoration of CuO in TiO2 microspheres can obviously improve the catalytic activity of Au/TiO2, and adding visible light can further promote the performance. Based on the characterizations of catalysts, it is proposed that the CuO layer distributed on the shell of TiO2 urchin-like microspheres can enhance the electron transfer among Au, TiO2 and CuO sites to drive the increase in surface electron densities of Au and support sites induced by both the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles and the photo-excitation of CuO under visible light irradiation, resulting in the adsorptions and activations of CO and O2. Therefore, as a synactic result of its unique band gap relation, its unique electron property and its morphologic effect, the novel CuO modified TiO2 support not only enhances the microstrain itself on the stabilization of the size of Au nanoparticles, but more importantly also reinforces the electron interaction between support and Au sites.

  19. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  20. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water in Hot, Hydrogen-dominated Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kevin; Lyons, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres in hot, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. We construct novel analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the m...