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Sample records for carbon monoxide intoxication

  1. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  2. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  3. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  4. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Aydın; Mürüvet Akın; Emel Boyraz; Murat Çolakkaya

    2011-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  5. MR Imaging of brain changes from carbon-monoxide intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of carbon-monoxide intoxication were studied with MR imaging. The main MR findings were discussed and compared with CT results. MR imaging demonstrated SNC lesion sooner and better than CT-its images corresponding to the anatomic-pathological patterns described in literature.However, sever MR limitations-i.e. the very long execution time and the difficult monitoring of the patients-prevent this methodology from being more extensively employed in this kind of pathology

  6. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Uysalol, Metin; Uysalol, Ezgi Paslı; SARAÇOĞLU, GAMZE VAROL; Kayaoğlu, Semra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female) who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis. Results...

  8. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  9. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication.

  10. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda;

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction and...

  11. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dianrong Gong,1 Haiyan Yu,1 Weihua Wang,2 Haixin Yang,1 Fabin Han1,21Department of Neurology, 2Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential treatments for neurological disorders. Since human umbilical cord stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection and promote neural regeneration, we have attempted to transplant the human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs to treat patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication (DEACOI. The hUCB-MNCs were isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood and were given to patients subarachnoidally. Physical examinations, mini-mental state examination scores, and computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the improvement of symptoms, signs, and pathological changes of the patient's brain before and after hUCB-MNC transplantation. A total of 12 patients with DEACOI were treated with hUCB-MNCs in this study. We found that most of the patients have shown significant improvements in movement, behavior, and cognitive function, and improved brain images in 1–4 months from the first transplantation of hUCB-MNCs. None of these patients have been observed to have any severe adverse effects. Our study suggests that the hUCB-MNC transplantation may be a safe and effective treatment for DEACOI. Further studies and clinical trials with more cases, using more systematic scoring methods, are needed to evaluate brain structural and functional improvements in patients with DEACOI after hUCB-MNC therapy.Keywords: human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, transplantation, delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication, MMSE

  12. Incorporation of 14C glucose into glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain following carbon monoxide intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporation of 14C glucose into glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain following carbon monoxide intoxication was studied. In brains of rats tested on the 20, 30 and 60th minute of exposure to CO and immediately after removal from the chamber the enzyme activity showed no essential deviation from the control level. In the group of rats tested 1 hour after taking them out from the chamber increase of the enzyme activity was noticed, amounting to about 33% of the control value. The brains tested 24 hours after exposure showed the largest increase of the enzyme activity by about 94%. In the next time periods, 48 and 72 hours after intoxication, the enzyme activity was decreasing. The glycogen content in brains of control animals increased 3 hours after CO intoxication by about 69%. The increase of glycogen synthesis was expressed by increase of the total radioactivity, which amounted to 160% of the control value. (Z.M.)

  13. Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates reversibility of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in gray matter after delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Vibeke Andree; Kondziella, Daniel; Larsen, Ole Hyldegaard; Danielsen, Else Rubæk; Jansen, Erik Christian; Hansen, Marco Bo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Predictive markers for long-term outcome in carbon monoxide-intoxicated patients with late encephalopathy are desired. Here we present the first data demonstrating a full reversibility pattern of specific brain substances measured by cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in...... a carbon monoxide-intoxicated victim. This may provide clinicians with important information when estimating patient outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with severe carbon monoxide poisoning who was treated with five repetitive sessions of hyperbaric...... mid-occipital gray matter and partial reversal in white matter. CONCLUSIONS: The present case indicates that cerebral proton magnetic spectroscopy provides valuable information on brain metabolism in patients presenting with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The full...

  14. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda;

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction and...... possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure and...

  15. Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication: Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance. Intoxicacion aguda por monoxido de carbono: tomografia computerizada y resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez Gomez, S.; Aguilera Navarro, J.M.; Gonzalez Garcia, A.; Gonzalez Marcos, J.R.; Fernandez Cruz, J. (Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio. Sevilla (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    We present a case of acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in a previously healthy 13-year-old girl, who was found in the bathroom, unconscious and with the gas-burning hot water thank operating. The neuroradiological study showed bilateral, symmetrical cortical and subcortical parietooccipital and temporal lesions as well as damage to the basal lymph nodes. These lesions were related to the anoxic situation induced by this type of intoxication. Clinicoradiological follow-up included CT and MR sequences over a period of 10 months. In this cases, we stress the greater sensitivity of MR in the early detection of the characteristic lesions in this situation and we analyze the evolution of the process. (Author)

  16. Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilsted Linda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen cyanide (HCN and carbon monoxide (CO may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood. Objective The purpose of the present study was to determine whole blood CN concentrations in fire victims before and after HBO treatment. Materials and methods The patients included were those admitted to the hospital because of CO intoxication, either as fire victims with smoke inhalation injuries or from other exposures to CO. In thirty-seven of these patients we measured CN concentrations in blood samples, using a Conway/microdiffusion technique, before and after HBO. The blood samples consisted of the remaining 2 mL from the arterial blood gas analysis. CN concentration in blood from fire victims was compared to 12 patients from non-fire accidents but otherwise also exposed to CO intoxication. Results The mean WB-CN concentration before patients received HBO did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients (p = 0.42. The difference between WB-CN before and after HBO did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients (p = 0.7. Lactate in plasma before and after did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients. Twelve of the 25 fire patients and one of the non-fire patients had been given a dose of hydroxycobalamin before HBO. Discussion and Conclusion CN

  17. Is one-time carbon monoxide intoxication harmless? Evaluation by argyrophilic nucleolar-organizing regions staining method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolakoğlu, S; Saritas, A; Eroz, R; Oktay, M; Yaykasli, K O; Akoz, A; Kaya, E; Kandis, H

    2015-01-01

    In carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, CO affects the oxygen-carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule. Nucleolar-organizing regions (NORs) are genetic loci on chromosomes that are composed of ribosomal DNA and proteins. NORs can be stained with silver. A total of 18 rats were exposed to CO in three different concentrations (1000, 3000, and 5000 ppm) with 6 rats as controls. The animals were euthanized 7 days after CO intoxication. Lung tissues were taken, embedded in paraffin blocks, and sectioned at 5 μm thickness. Argyrophilic nucleolar-organizing region (AgNOR) staining was carried out. One hundred nuclei per individual were evaluated, and total AgNOR number per total nuclear number and total AgNOR area per nuclear area (TAA/NA) for each nucleus were analyzed. The CO exposure groups had significantly higher TAA/NA values and AgNOR numbers than the control group (p 0.05). The increase in TAA/NA value depends on the increase in the CO exposure. Significant correlations between both the AgNOR values and histopathological scoring methods were found. Therefore, AgNOR staining method may be used as an indirect indicator for evaluating the degree of cell damage rate. PMID:24812150

  18. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon monoxide, or “CO,” is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. Carbon monoxide detector Where is CO found? CO is ...

  19. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) » Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  20. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008; Campagne de prevention des intoxications au monoxyde de carbone : automne-hiver 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J. [Direction de sante publique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lacoursiere, D. [Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services sociaux du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community ... KB | Spanish PDF 645 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  4. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  6. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another ...

  9. CT and clinical patterns in suicidal carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial CT is important to exclude the presence of a mass in the cavum cranii in case of an unclear suicide attempt, particularly a traumatic mass. It can be helpful also in cases of carbon monoxide intoxications. (orig.)

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Network Community Outreach Resource Center CO Poster Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / ... VIDEO CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest View the blog SAFETY GUIDE Clues You Can ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics March 09, 2016 Supplemental Memos Regarding Some of the Hazards Associated with Engine-Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other CO Topics Safety Tips Recalls and News Questions and Answers Charcoal Portable Heaters & Camping Equipment Home Heating Equipment On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  18. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Inside CPSC: Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources International Newsroom ...

  19. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates October 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Consumers Businesses Contact CPSC Website Design Feedback Consumers: Español Businesses: Español , 中文 , Tiếng Việt Connect with Us : Twitter YouTube ... Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon ...

  1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  2. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J.; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

    2000-01-01

    The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute carbon monoxide poisoning with 1-year computed tomographic follow-up is presented. The typical initial bilateral symmetrical low-density areas in the basal ganglia were found to have decreased markedly in size in the latter scan. These appearances coincided with the initial early oedematous phase of infarction ending in the late permanent necrotic stage

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students). Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high in...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Memos Regarding Some of the Hazards Associated with Engine-Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non- ... Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and Other Engine-Driven Tools, 2004– ...

  6. Rhabdomyolysis after Intentional Acetaminophen and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Iago Rodríguez–Lago; Delia D’Avola; Mercedes Iñarrairaegui; José Ignacio Herrero; Bruno Sangro; Jorge Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen is one of the most frequent causes of acute liverfailure. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare adverse reaction reported withthis drug. Carbon monoxide (CO) can also lead to muscle injury butonly after severe intoxication. We present a case of rhabdomyolysisassociated to Acetaminophen over dosage and mild carbon monoxideexposure. A 38-year-old man was admitted because of acute hepaticinjury due to voluntary acetaminophen overdose. He also reporteda mild carbon monoxide exposure. He showed a...

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M. V.; Agius, G.; Galea Debono, A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the patient, and other members of the household who could subsequently become intoxicated. Guidance on the correct ...

  8. Luminescence of carbon monoxide hemocyanins.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiper, H.A.; Agrò, A F; Antonini, E; Brunori, M

    1980-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide on the luminescence properties of Helix pomatia alpha-hemocyanin and Panulirus interruptus hemocyanin has been studied. These proteins, when saturated with carbon monoxide, show, besides the intrinsic fluorescence arising from the aromatic amino acid residues, emission in the visible region with a maximum between 540 and 560 nm. Results of carbon monoxide titration experiments and data from absorption and excitation-emission spectra provide convincing evidence th...

  9. A case of first degree AV block in carbon monoxide poisoning patient

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Salih Bin; Alenezi, Helal; Alghamdi, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is one of the most common types of poisoning. Cardiac manifestations of CO poisoning are limited to case reports of Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, myocardial dysfunction and myocardial ischemia.

  10. [Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed. PMID:24860052

  11. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Guidance for primary�care�on how to deal with�patients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  12. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    Guidance for primarycareon how to deal withpatients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  13. The global balance of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstock, Bernhard; Yup Chang, Tai

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive carbon-14 monoxide produced by cosmic ray neutrons provides a useful tracer to deduce the residence time of carbon monoxide in the troposphere. From the steady-state equations for stable carbon monoxide and radioactive carbon monoxide, the production rate of stable carbon monoxide can also be derived. This rate is an order of magnitude greater than that estimated for CO sources such as the oceans, combustion, and chlorophyll decay. The oxidation of tropospheric methane initiated b...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The carbon... employees shall be removed from the enclosed space if the carbon monoxide concentration exceeds a ceiling...

  15. Tips on Protecting Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, invisible gas produced when ... room and tell the physician you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning. If carbon monoxide poisoning has occurred, it often can be ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  17. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms. PMID:27120897

  18. Digital Carbon Monoxide Detector /11/

    OpenAIRE

    Grognia, M. T.; Hecq, A.; Dauchot, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The switch off concentration phenomena in carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum and the parallel steep variation of resistance or surface potential of thin platinum films are used to develop a carbon detector. Coating the platinum film with an increasing thickness of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) makes this switch off point move to increasing CO concentrations. Therefore a series of electrical elements, platinum thin film resistances, platinum M.O.S. diodes or platinum gate M.O.S. transistors...

  19. Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Knauert; Sandeep Vangala; Maria Haslip; Patty Lee

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laborat...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Clinical Manifestations, Consequences, Monitoring, Diagnosis and Treatment of Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feruze Turan Sönmez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a multisystem condition that may present with a wide range of symptoms and can cause a confusing constellation of clinical features. Diagnosis may be easily missed if physician is not alert about. Carbon monoxide intoxication is more frequent than it is reported. It has a simple treatment if diagnosed, and has many long-term sequela if under-treated.

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen in the subacute phase

    OpenAIRE

    Coric, V.; Oren, D.; Wolkenberg, F.; Kravitz, R.

    1998-01-01

    The use of normobaric versus hyperbaric (>2 atm) oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide intoxication continues to be a matter of debate despite reports of increased efficacy with hyperbaric oxygen. When hyperbaric oxygen is used, immediate treatment is preferred for best results. The therapeutic window of time, however, is unknown. A patient presented with acute confusion and partial retrograde and total anterograde memory loss due to carbon monoxide poisoning. He was ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Flickr SlideShare All Pages & Documents Recalls & News Releases Home Recalls CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits Recalls by ... CO Poster Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon ...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  4. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  5. Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Davous, P; Rondot, P; Marion, M H; Gueguen, B

    1986-01-01

    Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

  6. Intestinal infarction following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M.; Cacciottolo, J. M.; Casha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 65 year old patient admitted with carbon monoxide poisoning developed acute pulmonary oedema during treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. After initial recovery he developed extensive intestinal ischaemia which rapidly led to death. It is suggested that intestinal vasoconstriction due to left ventricular failure made the gut much more vulnerable to the hypoxic effects of carbon monoxide than the brain and heart.

  7. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  8. Polymer-Based Carbon Monoxide Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Kisor, A. K.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Ryan, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based sensors have been used primarily to detect volatile organics and inorganics; they are not usually used for smaller, gas phase molecules. We report the development and use of two types of polymer-based sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide. Further understanding of the experimental results is also obtained by performing molecular modeling studies to investigate the polymer-carbon monoxide interactions. The first type is a carbon-black-polymer composite that is comprised of a non-conducting polymer base that has been impregnated with carbon black to make it conducting. These chemiresistor sensors show good response to carbon monoxide but do not have a long lifetime. The second type of sensor has a non-conducting polymer base but includes both a porphyrin-functionalized polypyrrole and carbon black. These sensors show good, repeatable and reversible response to carbon monoxide at room temperature.

  9. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus of this project is on developing new approaches for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. The strategies to accomplish CO reduction are based on favorable thermodynamics manifested by rhodium macrocycles for producing a series of intermediates implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Metalloformyl complexes from reactions of H2 and CO, and CO reductive coupling to form metallo α-diketone species provide alternate routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics are promising candidates for future development

  10. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  13. Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J H; Cunningham, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

  14. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, H

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen.

  17. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Hossein Davari; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Mohammad Reza Vahidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Maryam Bahaloo; Pedram Shokouh

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months...

  18. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  19. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute alguns aspectos importantes relacionados à reação de eletrooxidação do monóxido de carbono sobre monocristais de platina, em meio ácido. Aspectos mecanísticos são discutidos em termos da formação das estruturas compactas que o CO forma quando este é adsorvido. As principais idéias aqui apresentadas, levam em consideração as existências dessas estruturas. Os clássicos mecanismos Lagmuir-Hinshelwood e Eley-Rideal são aqui discutidos, especialmente o primeiro considerando a mobilidade do CO e também a nucleação e crescimento de ilhas formadas por espécies adsorvidas contendo oxigênio.////////// This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  20. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  2. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon... introduction into service and annually thereafter, the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked...

  3. Epidemiology of carbon monoxide gas poisoning deaths in Ardabil city, 2008-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Farzaneh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide gas is odorless, colorless and toxic which are the most abundant pollutants in the lower atmosphere. Carbon monoxide poisoning is considered as one of the most common causes of mortality in Iran and Ardabil province. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of carbon monoxide gas poisoning died patients during 2008 to 2013. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, with referral to the Ardabil coroner center and poisoning ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, the statistics related to carbon monoxide poisoning died patients have been extracted and entered into the Checklists then analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.19. Results: The number of deceased in this study was 35 people with a mean age of 33.66 +/- 21.38. Of them, 19 (54.3% were male and 16 (45.7% were female. 85.7 percent of the deceased had been poisoned at home which from them 71.4% died before transaction to hospital. The season winter with 48.6% include the most of cases and the most common vehicle of intoxication was water heater with 48.6%. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide gas poisoning is one of the cases that causes to death of people in Ardabil every year and so promoting public awareness about risks due to Carbon monoxide could have a considerable role in the prevention of poisoning. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 929-932

  4. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  5. Occupational medicine effects of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, W.M. [South African Society of Occupational Medicine (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon monoxide can affect the body if it is inhaled or if liquid carbon monoxide comes in contact with the eyes or skin. The effects of overexposure are discussed and a brief explanation of the toxicological effects of CO given. Methods of control of CO from common operations (exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines, the chemical industry and foundries, welding, mines or tunnels, fire damp explosions, industrial heating) are by local exhaust ventilation or use of a respiratory protective device. The South African hazardous chemical substance regulation NO. R. 1179 of 25 August 1995 stipulates maximum safe levels of CO concentration. 4 refs., 1 photo.

  6. Acute Lung Injury Due To Carbon Monoxide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzkeser M et al.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old woman, who was found unconscious in the bed by the morning, was brought to emergency department. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 20.2%. The portable chest X-ray showed bilaterally alveolar and interstitial infiltration. Initial pO 2 /FIO 2 ratio was calculated as 119 mmHg. Acute lung injury due to carbon monoxide intoxication was considered. She was intubated and mechanical ventilation was applied. In the second day of hospitalization, a clear improvement was observed on the chest X-ray. She was discharged without any complication on the seventh day of hospitalization. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent progression of ARDS and progression of permanent damage, and may lead to complete recovery.

  7. Effects of Erythropoietin on Electrocardiogram Changes in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: an Experimental Study in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asgharian Rezaee, Mitra; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the electrocardiogram (ECG) changes following the moderate to severe CO intoxication in rats, and also evaluating the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on observed cardiac disturbances. The growing literature on erythropoietin effect on cardiac ischemia led us to question its effect on cardiotoxicity due to the carbon monoxide poisoning. Wistar rats were exposed to three different concentrations of CO (250 PPM, 1000 PPM or 3000 PPM). EPO was administrated (500...

  8. Breath analysis to detect recent exposure to carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnington, A; Hormbrey, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the normal range for carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaled breath of subjects in the emergency department and to develop a protocol for the use of a breath analyser to detect abnormal carbon monoxide exposure.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  10. Recovery of cognitive dysfunction in a case of delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning after treatment with donepezil hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy following carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious complication. Here, we report a patient with delayed encephalopathy who suffered from cognitive disorders and urinary incontinence after a temporal normal period of 15 days after acute intoxication, and his cognitive function recovered gradually following donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Now, he can undertake slight farming work.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan. The submittal pertained to a plan...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental... Island has committed to year round carbon monoxide monitoring at the East Providence...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  16. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  17. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in...

  18. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  19. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

    1996-08-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

  1. Carbon monoxide: The 21st century poison that goes unnoticed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial article describes the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on human beings and the mechanisms involving carbon monoxide saturation of haemoglobin that are responsible for it. The initial research done in the mid-1800s by Claude Bernard is presented. Methods of treatment for persons poisoned by carbon monoxide are discussed and the experiments made by J.B.S. Haldane on himself by breathing in carbon monoxide are described. Acclimatisation effects observed by Haldane and his co-workers and concerning persons occupationally exposed to carbon monoxide emissions are described

  2. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an exceedance of the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in any of the... monoxide ambient air quality standard were to occur, the State would be required to reimplement the program...)(3) and 187(a)(7) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, as revisions to the carbon monoxide...

  3. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pillion, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  4. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Shruti; Gupta Rahul; Paul Barinder; Puri Sandeep; Garg Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign...

  5. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  6. Smernice zdravljenja zastrupitev z ogljikovim monoksidom: Carbon monoxide treatment guidelines:

    OpenAIRE

    Brvar, Miran; Jamšek, Marija; Šarc, Lucija; Grenc, Damjan; Finderle, Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon...

  7. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gonullu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  9. Cardiovascular deaths related to Carbon monoxide Exposure in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Goudarzi; Sahar Geravandi; Mehdi Vosoughi; Mohammad javad Mohammadi; Abdolkazem neisi; Sepideh sadat Taghavirad

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas that emitted from combustion. Carbon monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body's organs (like the heart and brain), tissues, fibrinolysis effects, abortion and death at extremely high levels. The aim of this study was to assess health- effects of carbon monoxide exposure in Ahvaz city. Data were collected through Ahvaz Meteorological Organization and Department of Environment. Raw data processing b...

  10. Case of carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking shisha

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Beng Leong; Lim, Ghee Hian; Seow, Eillyne

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning has been reported as a result of exposure to various sources of smoke, such as car exhaust fumes, home water heaters and tobacco smoke. We describe a case of symptomatic, moderately severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a young Mediterranean man after smoking a waterpipe, or shisha. This case highlights the importance of considering carbon monoxide exposure in patients presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms to the emergency department (ED).

  11. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation of TLCO either a known inspired oxygen concentration should b...

  12. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  13. Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Stephen R.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Han, Shih-Tsung; Clark, James M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet–neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neurologic sequelae.

  14. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  15. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS, heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  16. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  17. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  18. Carbon monoxide modeling studies : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobile exhaust has been identified as a major source of carbon monoxide (CO), a pollutant gas known to have physiological effects on people. This study emphasized the importance of CO modelling, given the increased use of automobiles and the resulting increase in ambient air pollution. Computational models plays an important role in the environmental regulatory process because modeling processes can clarify the complex relationship between environmental emissions, the quality of the environment, and human and ecological impacts. Carbon monoxide (CO) is given the least attention for imperative modeling, despite the fact that frequent exceedance of CO emissions can be harmful to human health and the environment. An accurate emissions estimate and an efficient model for forecasting the future status of CO is needed in order to effectively manage CO. Most CO forecast models describe the temporal and spatial distribution of CO on roadways. The main categories of CO models are deterministic, statistical, hybrid, and neural network in nature. This paper reviewed recent studies that attempted CO dispersion modeling. The Gaussian model was generally accepted for prediction of long-term average concentrations, but it is best suited to explain routine behaviour of dispersion. The scope and restraint associated with various modeling attempts was also discussed. 345 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the principal reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for prevention of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. Nowadays the diagnosis may be performed through determination of COHb in a fast and non-invasive way, both outside and inside hospitals, thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxymetrers. After confirmation the patient has to be classified with a grading score for severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for the choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  20. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çiftçi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

  1. 1H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, D.; Danielsen, E.R.; Hansen, K.;

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication leads to acute and chronic neurological deficits, but little is known about the specific noxious mechanisms. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may allow insight into the pathophysiology of CO poisoning by monitoring neurochemical disturbances, yet only...... limited information is available to date on the use of this protocol in determining the neurological effects of CO poisoning. To further examine the short-term and long-term effects of CO on the central nervous system, we have studied seven patients with CO poisoning assessed by gray and white matter MRS...

  2. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “serious” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December..., revised Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Denver, as adopted by the Colorado Air Quality Control... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions...

  3. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy:...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system....

  7. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Improved Method of its Spot Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Rajwar

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews some investigations on carbon monoxide poisoning and describes a detailed method for detection of carbon monoxide. A comparative study indicating the scope, limitation and range of the various other methods of spot detection has also been given.

  8. Variability in Carbon Monoxide Concentration in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Ariko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Carbon Monoxide concentrations in Urban core and Control station in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. USB-CO data loggers were used for data acquisition for a period of one month. 1hour mean of Carbon Monoxide concentrations for Urban core and Control station were subjected to student “t” test to determine any significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentration between the two sampled sites. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test was employed to test the temporal variability in Carbon Monoxide concentrations in the Urban core. The “t” test results showed a significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentrations, between the Urban core and the Control station. The ANOVA results showed that there is a significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentrations level between different times of the day. The 1 h mean WHO recommendation for Carbon Monoxide concentration was occasionally exceeded, while the 8 h mean was daily exceeded in the evening periods in Urban core. In the Control station, there was no time both 1 h and 8 h means WHO recommendation were exceeded. These imply that the Rural environment is relatively more livable than the Urban environment in Kaduna metropolis in terms of Carbon Monoxide concentration levels.

  9. A Myoclonus Case Related to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Özışık, Handan Işın; Kızkın, Sibel; Cemal ÖZCAN; Bölük, Ayhan; Çalışkan, Özden

    2005-01-01

    Delayed neurological findings due to carbon monoxide poisoning are changes in cognition and personality, psychotic behavior and parkinsonism. Rarely, these patients have movement disorders such dystonia, chorea and myoclonus. In this case study, we reported a case in which myoclonus appeared in the late stage of CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide poisoning, Movement disorders, Myoclonus.

  10. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  11. Role of Carbon Monoxide in Kidney Function: Is a little Carbon Monoxide Good for the Kidney?

    OpenAIRE

    Csongrádi Éva (1969-) (szakorvos); Juncos, Luis A.; Drummond, Heather A.; Vera, Trinity; Stec, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies us...

  12. Isotopic composition of carbon monoxide in St. Louis, Missouri area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and isotropic composition of carbon monoxide were determined for air samples taken in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, to provide information as to the movement of the pollutant plume from the city. Urban air was detected as far as 48 miles downwind of St. Louis; however, movement of the pollutant plume was not detected. The effect of engine carbon monoxide produced along a highway in a rural area was found to be minimal three miles downwind of the highway. Diurnal studies demonstrated an inverse relationship between carbon monoxide concentration and oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios during the night. A parallel relation prevailed during the day

  13. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Infrared Spectra of High Pressure Carbon Monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, W J; Lipp, M J; Lorenzana, H E

    2001-09-21

    We report infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) at high pressures. Although CO is one of the simplest heteronuclear diatomic molecules, it displays surprisingly complex behavior at high pressures and has been the subject of several studies [1-5]. IR spectroscopic studies of high pressures phases of CO provide data complementing results from previous studies and elucidating the nature of these phases. Though a well-known and widely utilized diagnostic of molecular systems, IR spectroscopy presents several experimental challenges to high pressure diamond anvil cell research. We present measurements of the IR absorption bands of CO at high pressures and experimentally illustrate the crucial importance of accurate normalization of IR spectra specially within regions of strong absorptions in diamond.

  15. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  16. Electron energy deposition in carbon monoxide gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihong; Victor, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive set of electron impact cross sections for carbon monoxide molecules is presented on the basis of the most recent experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. The processes by which energetic electrons lose energy in CO gas are analyzed with these input cross sections. The efficiencies are computed of vibrational and electronic excitation, dissociation, ionization, and heating for CO gas with fractional ionization ranging from 0% to 10%. The calculated mean energy per ion pair for neutral CO gas is 32.3 eV, which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 32.2 eV. It increases to 35.6 eV at a fractional ionization of 1%, typical of supernovae ejecta.

  17. Cardiovascular deaths related to Carbon monoxide Exposure in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas that emitted from combustion. Carbon monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body's organs (like the heart and brain, tissues, fibrinolysis effects, abortion and death at extremely high levels. The aim of this study was to assess health- effects of carbon monoxide exposure in Ahvaz city. Data were collected through Ahvaz Meteorological Organization and Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software includes (instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering and after the impact of meteorological parameters was converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, health-effects of carbon monoxide exposure were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of carbon monoxide was 7.41 mg/m3 in Ahvaz as annual average. Sum of total numbers of deaths attributed to carbon monoxide was 16 cases within a year. Approximately 4.3% of total Cardiovascular deaths happened when the carbon monoxide concentrations was more than 20 mg/m3. This could be due to higher fuel consumption gasoline in vehicles, Oil industry, steel and Heavy industries in Ahwaz. Mortality and Morbidity risks were detected at current ambient concentrations of air pollutants.

  18. 75 FR 3668 - Conditional Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; Ohio; Carbon Monoxide and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... (OAC) 3745-21 (Carbon Monoxide, Photochemically Reactive Materials, Hydrocarbons, and related Materials... compound containing carbon, excluding: Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide; carbonic acid; metallic carbides... economic feasibility. On March 23, 1995, (60 FR 15235), EPA inadvertently approved a version of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monoxide national ambient air quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Lake and Marion Counties for an additional ten years. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  20. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  1. An Organocobalt–Carbon Nanotube Chemiresistive Carbon Monoxide Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sophie F.; Lin, Sibo; Swager, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    A chemiresistive detector for carbon monoxide was created from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by noncovalent modification with diiodo(η5: η1-1-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)-cobalt(III) ([Cp^CoI2]), an organocobalt complex with an intramolecular amino ligand coordinated to the metal center that is displaced upon CO binding. The unbound amino group can subsequently be transduced chemiresistively by the SWCNT network. The resulting device was shown to...

  2. Carbon monoxide toxicity in Dammam, KSA: Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aldossary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO toxicity is one of the common types of poisoning, and the aim of this study is to evaluate CO poisoning during 2004–2013. The study was based on autopsy samples sent to the forensic chemistry laboratory in Dammam during the study period. The findings showed that 68 out of 894 autopsy cases were diagnosed as acute CO toxicity; 91% of the cases were classified as accidental; 83% of cases were male while only 11% were female. The highest rate was in the winter months (50%, and highest age group was between 40 and 50 years, followed by 31–40. The average carbon monoxide percentage was 49%. Carbon monoxide toxicity in Dammam is not a very common occurrence; however, this study may help control and prevent carbon monoxide toxicity for protection of the society.

  3. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  4. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  5. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbon Monoxide Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbonmonoxidepoisoning.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  7. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Ozkan; Tayfun Ozturk; Yavuz Ozmen; Polat Durukan

    2013-01-01

    Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. ...

  8. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I.

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. Therefore the diffusion capacity of the lung for nitric oxide (DLNO) should reflect the alveolocapillary membrane diffusing capacity only, and should not be influenced by the vascular component. In this...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Concentration in Different Districts of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    K A'azam; Mojgan Baniardalani; F. Changani

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem in Tehran. Most important agents responsible for the high pollution include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons and suspended particles. Determination of quality and quantity of polluting agents is of great importance for sustaining the inhabitants health level. We studied carbon monoxide, one of the most hazardous air-polluting agents, in 22 urban districts of Tehran. The results showed that in average 4.39% of the air in Tehran ha...

  10. Carbon monoxide and exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Calverley, P. M.; Leggett, R J; Flenley, D C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide on exercise tolerance as assessed by the distance walked in 12 minutes were studied in 15 patients with severe chronic bronchitis and emphysema (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 0.56 1, mean forced vital capacity 1.54 1). Each subject walked breathing air and oxygen before and after exposure to sufficient carbon monoxide to raise their venous carboxyhaemoglobin concentration by 9%. There was a significant reduction in the walking distance when the pat...

  11. Neuroprotective, neurotherapeutic, and neurometabolic effects of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, Vicki L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies in animal models show that the primary mechanism by which heme-oxygenases impart beneficial effects is due to the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO). Produced in humans mainly by the catabolism of heme by heme-oxygenase, CO is a neurotransmitter important for multiple neurologic functions and affects several intracellular pathways as a regulatory molecule. Exogenous administration of inhaled CO or carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORM’s) impart similar neurophysiological respon...

  12. Epidemiological bases for the current ambient carbon monoxide standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, L H; Radford, E P

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is widely distributed in the environment, and acute or chronic toxic effects may be of considerable public health significance. A review of the basis for current ambient standards is given. Mortality and morbidity studies have been negative or equivocal in relating carbon monoxide levels to health effects, but studies in human subjects with compromised coronary or peripheral circulation support an effect of acute exposure to CO at blood levels equivalent to about 20 ppm over s...

  13. Carbon monoxide in supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of carbon monoxide (CO) in the infrared spectra of SN 1987A and of CO+ represents the first ever detection of a molecule in a supernova. In IR spectra obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), first overtone emission from CO was observed near 2.3 μm as early as day 112 after the explosion, and was clearly detectable in all subsequent spectra. Spectra of the CO fundamental at 4.6 μm support this identification. We argue that the CO forms part of the supernova ejecta, and present a preliminary analysis of the first overtone band using Boltzmann population statistics. The model reproduces well the spectra obtained on days 192 and 255 and implies the presence of about 5X10-5 solar mass of CO by day 255. By day 284 the fit is less good, due to increasingly prominent emission from other species, possibly in combination with the breakdown of the Boltzmann distribution

  14. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  15. Oxidation of carbon monoxide by perferrylmyoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libardi, Silvia H; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Perferrylmyoglobin is found to oxidize CO in aerobic aqueous solution to CO2. Tryptophan hydroperoxide in the presence of tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrinate-iron(III) or simple iron(II)/(III) salts shows similar reactivity against CO. The oxidation of CO is for tryptophan hydroperoxide concluded...... to depend on the formation of alkoxyl radicals by reductive cleavage by iron(II) or on the formation of peroxyl radicals by oxidative cleavage by iron(III). During oxidation of CO, the tryptophan peroxyl radical was depleted with a rate constant of 0.26 ± 0.01 s(-1) for CO-saturated aqueous solution of pH 7.......4 at 25 °C without concomitant reduction of the iron(IV) center. Carbon monoxide is as a natural metabolite accordingly capable of scavenging tryptophan radicals in myoglobin activated by peroxides with a second-order rate constant of (3.3 ± 0.6) × 10(2) L mol(-1) s(-1), a reaction that might...

  16. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  17. Demonstration of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Propellants for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, proposed planetary exploration missions must be small, with low costs and a short development time. Relatively high-risk technologies are being accepted for such missions if they meet these guidelines. For a Mars sample-return mission, one of the higher risk technologies is the use of return propellants produced from indigenous materials such as the Martian atmosphere. This consists of 96 percent carbon dioxide, which can be processed into oxygen and carbon monoxide. This year, the NASA Lewis Research Center completed the experimental evaluation and subscale technology development of an oxygen/carbon monoxide propellant combination. Previous research included ignition characterization, combustion performance, and heat transfer characterization with gaseous propellants at room temperature. In this year s tests, we studied the ignition characteristics and combustion of oxygen and carbon monoxide at near liquid temperatures. The mixture ratio boundaries for oxygen and carbon monoxide were determined as a function of propellant temperature in a spark torch igniter. With both propellants at room temperature, the ignition range was between 0.50 and 1.44; and with both propellants chilled to near-liquid temperatures, it was between 2.4 and 3.1. Statistical analysis of the mean value of the ignition boundaries provided models that describe the combination of oxygen temperature, carbon monoxide temperature, and mixture ratio that resulted in ignition. This range is the larger boxed area shown in the figure. The smaller boxed area indicates the range at which there is a 90-percent confidence that ignition will occur. The relatively small range at only 90-percent confidence indicates that using the oxygen/carbon monoxide combination as its own ignition source may not be the best design for a remote engine operating on Mars. Tests also were performed in a simulated small rocket engine that used oxygen/hydrogen combustion gases as the ignition source for oxygen/carbon

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a patient with carbon dioxide retention: a therapeutic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Tristan RA; Williamson, Wilby J; Brostoff, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 70 year-old man with carbon monoxide poisoning following a house fire. A significant smoking history and likely underlying chronic lung pathology complicated treatment, as due to symptomatic retention of carbon dioxide we were unable to use high-flow oxygen to facilitate the elimination of carbon monoxide. We suggest that patients with risk factors for obstructive lung disease be monitored extremely carefully during treatment for carbon monoxide toxicity.

  19. Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

  20. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2σ significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 μmol min−1 mg of wet cells−1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 (35°C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was “ping-pong,” indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  2. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  3. Hydrogen reactivity toward carbon monoxide under mechanochemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delogu, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, I-09123 Cagliari (Italy); Garroni, Sebastiano; Mulas, Gabriele [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The study focuses on the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over Co-Fe-based catalysts. The catalytic reactions were performed under both isothermal and mechanical activation conditions and their rates estimated by monitoring the gradual consumption of carbon monoxide. Aimed at carrying out a sound comparison, the rate of mechanically activated processes was referred to individual collisions by normalizing its value to the amount of powder involved in individual collisions and to the time interval of ongoing deformation. This allowed to point out that the amount of carbon monoxide converted per unit of catalyst mass and unit of time under mechanical activation conditions is at least four orders of magnitude larger than the one reacted under thermal activation conditions. This result is tentatively connected with the generation of local excited states at the catalyst surface. (author)

  4. Development of an enzymatic sensor for carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and the pursuit of gases that contribute in the increase of the atmospheric contamination are a necessity, for what the electrochemical sensors have potential industrial applications for the control of the quality of the air. The development of amperometric sensor based on enzymes offers advantages, since the use of the biological component provides him high selectivity due to the great specificity of the substrate of the enzyme. The monoxide of carbon (CO) it is a polluting, poisonous gas, taken place during the incomplete combustion of organic materials (natural gas, petroleum, gasoline, coal and vegetable material). The determination of monoxide of carbon (CO) it can be reached by electrochemical mediums using the methylene blue like the electronic mediator for the enzyme monoxide of carbon oxidase (COx)

  5. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6 x 1013 g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8 x 1014 g CO may be released annually from biomass burning. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

  6. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  7. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26078257

  8. Circulatory effects and kinetics following acute administration of carbon monoxide in a porcine model.

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Anna-Maja; Hultin, Magnus; ABRAHAMSSON, Pernilla; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in the endothelial cells and has possible vasodilator activity through three different pathways. The aim of this study was to demonstrate circulatory effects after administration of saturated carbon monoxide blood and to describe the pharmacokinetics of carbon monoxide. Six pigs were anesthetized and 150 ml blood was removed. This blood was bubbled with carbon monoxide until the carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels were 90-99%. A specific amount of this blood was then i...

  9. The solubility of very low concentratiions of carbon monoxide in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, R. W.; Spedding, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    The solubility of carbon monoxide in natural waters has been determined when the partial pressure of carbon monoxide in the gas phase approaches atmospheric concentrations. For both pure water and seawater the solubilities were found to be more than eight times the values which have previously been observed with an atmosphere of pure carbon monoxide present. Carbon monoxide therefore does not obey Henry's law over the pressure range from approximately 10?5 atmospheres to greater than one atmo...

  10. Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hatami, Mehrangiz; Naftolin, Frederick; Khatamee, Masood A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive he...

  11. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared. ► Catalytic removal of CO over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. ► Effects of Pd %, CO conc., humidity, GHSV and reaction environment were studied. - Abstract: Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO2 through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO + 1/2O2 → CO2. Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  13. A Case of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Thrombus in Right Atrium

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyoin; Kim, Dae-Hee; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Joon-Seok; Yang, Jeeeun; Kim, Sun-Mok; Park, So Young; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a nonirritant, odorless, colorless gas. Its effects are prominent in organs most sensitive to oxygen deprivation, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Although less frequently, an association between thromboembolic events and carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown in the literatures. In this case, we report a case of atrial thrombus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the Commonwealth... implemented strategies will not create carbon monoxide violations elsewhere in the vicinity after the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the plan does not...) and carbon monoxide in the San Francisco Bay Area, San Diego, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin...

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Bilateral lesions in the thalamus on MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging of the brain in a child with carbon monoxide poisoning revealed bilateral diffuse high signal in the centrum semiovale and the previously unreported finding of bilateral high intensity lesions the anterior thalami. This case illustrates a previously unrecognized effect of carbon monoxide poisoning and demonstrates the superiority of MR imaging over computed tomography in cases of carbon monoxide poisoning. (orig.)

  17. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Kurdish (کوردی) Laotian (Lao) Portuguese (português) Somali (af Soomaali) ... Khmer) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kurdish (کوردی) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  18. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  19. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  20. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013

  1. Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, B.; Crawford, R

    1996-01-01

    Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

  2. Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT. (orig.)

  3. Carbon Monoxide Isotopes: On the Trail of Galactic Chemical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.

    1995-01-01

    From the early days of the discovery of radio emission from carbon monoxide it was realized that it offered unusual potential for under- standing the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and external galaxies through measurements of molecular isotopes. These results bear on stellar nucleosynthesis, star formation, and gases in the interstellar medium. Progress in isotopic radio measurements will be reviewed.

  4. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop to...

  5. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  6. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

  7. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  8. Analysis of Alternative National Ambient Carbon Monoxide Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph L. Keeney; Rakesh K. Sarin; Winkler, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A risk assessment model is developed to relate adverse health effects to alternative carbon monoxide standards. The analysis requires information in the form of available data and expert judgments concerning factors such as ambient CO level, human exposure to CO, physiological responses, and dose-response relationships. Quantitative estimates, including probabilities, are obtained for selected summary measures of adverse health effects.

  9. The usefulness of the arterial blood gas in pure carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebby, T I; Zalenski, R; Hryhorczuk, D O; Leikin, J B

    1989-04-01

    In a retrospective study of 49 cases of carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication presented to the University of Illinois Hospital (UIH) Emergency Department between November 1986 and April 1988, we looked for a correlation between carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) as determined by a venous sample and the pH as determined by arterial blood gas analysis. The range of COHb levels in our study was 10-64% (mean 21.8% +/- 10.2%). Smoke inhalation cases (n = 3) were excluded from our study because they did not represent pure CO intoxication. Of the remaining 46 cases, 18 had arterial blood gases drawn. In none of these 18 cases (mean COHb 24.5% +/- 12.6%) did we find a correlation between COHb levels and the pH as determined by linear regression analysis. Also, in none of the 18 cases were there any therapeutic interventions associated with the arterial blood gas result. Additionally, in none of the remaining 28 cases were any therapeutic interventions performed with regards to patients' acidosis or ventilatory status (except 100% oxygen administration. We also retrospectively reviewed records of 104 cases who presented to Cook County Hospital Emergency Department with COHb levels over 10% during the period between March 1986 and May 1988. In these cases, we found no significant correlation between COHb level and arterial pH. We therefore conclude that arterial blood gases drawn in order to determine the degree of acidosis in mild CO intoxication without respiratory distress may not be useful in guiding therapeutic intervention and need not be routinely drawn. PMID:2929122

  10. 78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... demonstrates that the Fairbanks Area will maintain the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards... Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to approve a carbon monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan for the Fairbanks...

  11. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  12. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  13. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis oxidation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irreversible kinetic surface-reaction model, based upon the reaction of carbon monoxide nd oxygen on a catalyst surface is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The adsorbed molecules/atoms on the surface undergo both first and second order kinetic phase transitions. The first order transition is found to occur at x/sub/co=x/sub/2=0.5255 with an error bar of 0.0003, where x/sub/co is the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gas phase. The time evolution of this catalytic reaction is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. Slightly above x/sub/2, the oxygen coverage relaxation time for the oxygen is found to diverage as the inverse of 3.54 times the absolute of the difference of x/sub/2 and x/sub/co. (orig./A.B.)

  14. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  15. Exergy parametric study of carbon monoxide oxidation in moist air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Ferhat; Benmalek, Toufik; Yesaad, Billel; Baik, Mouloud

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide in moist air from the second thermodynamic law aspect. A mathematical model of laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow has been achieved by numerical solution of the boundary layer equation using a self-made code. The chemical kinetic mechanism for flameless combustion of fuel, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water vapor, is modeled by 34 elementary reactions that incorporate (09) nine chemical species: CO, O, CO2, O2, H2O, H, H2, HO2, and OH. The salient point is that for all the parameters we considered, the exergy of the process is completely destroyed by irreversibilities. From the chemical viewpoint, the OH radical plays an essential role in CO oxidation. This latter point has already been mentioned by previous investigators.

  16. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  17. Nitric oxide increases carbon monoxide production by piglet cerebral microvessels

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, Charles W.; Balabanova, Liliya; Fedinec, Alexander L.; Parfenova, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) can be involved in regulation of cerebral circulation. Inhibition of production of either one of these gaseous intercellular messengers inhibits newborn pig cerebral arteriolar dilation to the excitatory amino acid glutamate. Glutamate can increase NO production. Therefore, the present study tests the hypothesis that NO, which is increased by glutamate, stimulates the production of CO by cerebral microvessels. Experiments used freshly isolated cerebr...

  18. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Suppresses Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhihong; Song, Ruiping; Fattman, Cheryl L.; Greenhill, Sara; Alber, Sean; Oury, Tim D.; Augustine M K Choi; Morse, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an incurable fibrosing disorder that progresses relentlessly to respiratory failure. We hypothesized that a product of heme oxygenase activity, carbon monoxide (CO), may have anti-fibrotic effects. To test this hypothesis, mice treated with intratracheal bleomycin were exposed to low-concentration inhaled CO or ambient air. Lungs of mice treated with CO had significantly lower hydroxyproline accumulation than controls. Fibroblast proliferation, thought to play...

  20. Modeling carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires

    OpenAIRE

    YUAN, LIMING; Zhou, Lihong; Smith, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of mine fire fatalities in underground mines. To reduce the hazard of CO poisoning in underground mines, it is important to accurately predict the spread of CO in underground mine entries when a fire occurs. This paper presents a study on modeling CO spread in underground mine fires using both the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the MFIRE programs. The FDS model simulating part of the mine ventilation network was calibrated...

  1. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied ...

  2. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R. A.; F. Kozma; E. Colombari

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and...

  3. Inhibition of trichloroethylene oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, S M; Grbić-Galić, D

    1991-01-01

    Inhibition of trichloroethylene (TCE) oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide (CO) was evaluated with the aquifer methanotroph Methylomonas sp. strain MM2. CO was a TCE transformation intermediate. During TCE oxidation, approximately 9 mol% of the TCE was transformed to CO. CO was oxidized by Methylomonas sp. strain MM2, and when formate was provided as an electron donor, the CO oxidation rate doubled. The rate of CO oxidation without formate was 4.6 liter mg (dry weight)...

  4. Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in polycythaemia rubra vera.

    OpenAIRE

    Greening, A P; Patel, K.; Goolden, A W; Munro, A J; Hughes, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The diffusing capacity of the lung, or transfer factor, for carbon monoxide (TLCO) was measured in 12 patients with polycythaemia rubra vera. This was significantly raised (mean 152% predicted, SEM +/- 14%) and remained so even after correction to a standard haemoglobin concentration of 14 . 6 g/dl (mean 139% predicted, SEM +/- 13%). Serial measurements of TLCO on two patients after treatment of polycythaemia rubra vera showed a greater fall in relation to haemoglobin concentration than would...

  5. Rates of carbon monoxide elimination in males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Zavorsky, Gerald S.; Tesler, Janet; Rucker, Joshua; Fedorko, Ludwik; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to verify the previously reported shorter half‐time of elimination (t ½) of carbon monoxide (CO) in females compared to males. Seventeen healthy subjects (nine men) completed three sessions each, on separate days. For each session, subjects were exposed to CO to raise the carboxyhemoglobin percentage (COHb) to ~10%; then breathed in random order, either (a) 100% O2 at poikilocapnia (no CO2 added), or (b) hyperoxia while maintaining normocapnia using sequ...

  6. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra-Beigom seyd-Aghamiri; Mohsen Vijeh; Fereshte Farzianpoor; Zahra kazemi-Asfe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  7. Carbon monoxide: present and future indications for a medical gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., \\(H_2S\\), nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme ...

  8. Quoth the Raven: carbon monoxide and nothing more

    OpenAIRE

    Otterbein, Leo E.

    2013-01-01

    The articles contained in this review series exemplify the diverse applications and succinct biological relevance of this simple gas. Articles summarizing the important effects of carbon monoxide in preventing the rejection of an organ, in its neuroprotective properties in piglets, regulation of mycobacterial growth, in its anti-inflammatory effects in the gut and in its use in new and innovative modalities and avenues by which to harness adjuvant therapies are eloquently and precisely descri...

  9. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Amano Mariane; Camara Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO) had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The p...

  10. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Çiftçi; Murat Günday; Mustafa Çaliskan; Hakan Güllü; Rafi Dogan; Aytekin Güven; Haldun Müderrisoglu

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Ec...

  11. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Mao; Sun Yun; Bai Jianling; Yu Rongbin; Yao Xin; Zhang Jingying; Adcock Ian M; Barnes Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language ar...

  12. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon Kyung Choi; Por, Elaine D.; Young-Guen Kwon; Young-Myeong Kim

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angio...

  13. Inhaled Carbon Monoxide Provides Cerebral Cytoprotection in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, Vicki L.; Zurakowski, David; Otterbein, Leo E.; Pigula, Frank Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) at low concentrations imparts protective effects in numerous preclinical small animal models of brain injury. Evidence of protection in large animal models of cerebral injury, however, has not been tested. Neurologic deficits following open heart surgery are likely related in part to ischemia reperfusion injury that occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Using a model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in piglets, we evaluated the effects of CO to reduce...

  14. The Social Network of Carbon Monoxide in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Wegiel, Barbara; Hanto, Douglas W.; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2012-01-01

    Networking between cells is critical for proper functioning of the cellular milieu and is mediated by cascades of highly regulated and overlapping signaling molecules. The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) generates three separate signaling molecules through the catalysis of heme – carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron – each of which acts via distinct molecular targets to influence cell function, both proximally and distally. This review focuses on state-of-the art developments and insight...

  15. Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schiller, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on ...

  16. Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Porokhnya Maria V; Haertdinov Nail N; Abramochkin Denis V; Zefirov Andrew L; Sitdikova Gusel F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and vent...

  17. Carbon monoxide as a signaling molecule in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Meng eWang; Weibiao eLiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its role in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enha...

  18. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meng; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can en...

  19. Tropospheric carbon monoxide: satellite observations and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    MacCallum, Stuart Neil

    2008-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the troposphere as a product of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons. It is the principal sink of the hydroxyl radical (OH), thereby affecting the concentrations of greenhouse gases such as CH4 and O3. Consequently, CO has an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months, making it a good tracer for studying the long range transport of pollution. Satellite observations present a valuable tool to investigate tropospheric CO....

  20. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  1. Carbon monoxide: A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    OpenAIRE

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf; Meijer, Harro; Schroeder, Hartwig; LEVIN Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The observations were compared with model estimates simulated with the regional transport model REMO at 0.5°x0.5° resolution in Europe for 2002. These estimates are based on two available emissions inventories...

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  3. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  4. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play an...... important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...... of cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathways. Here, we review the literature about carbon monoxide-induced headache and its possible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: We suggest, for the first time, that carbon monoxide may play an important role in the mechanisms of migraine and other headaches....

  5. Guideline for local public health authorities. Carbon monoxide; GGD-richtlijn medische milieukunde. Koolmonoxide in woon- en verblijfsruimten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoff, R.L.H.; Boels, E.L.; Van Knapen, L.; Poelman, B.; Zwart-Voorspuij, W.A.; Van Brederode, N.E.

    2008-07-01

    This guideline provides local public health authorities active in the field of environmental medicine with a tool for tackling problems concerning carbon monoxide emissions in all types of living accommodations. The guideline discusses both the formulation of policy aimed at reducing the risk of carbon monoxide emission and the handling of reports of carbon monoxide emissions in living accommodations. The ultimate objective of the guideline is to reduce the risk of carbon monoxide intoxication to a minimum using available resources. In terms of formulating policy, the guideline provides an overview of key points that can be used by the local public health authority to determine the most feasible and the effective strategy to follow. In the case of an indoor air quality report in which carbon monoxide emissions are mentioned the local public health authority has the responsibility to carry out a risk assessment, to conduct measurements, to present recommendations for preventative measures as well as additional investigations and to provide easily accessible information on the health risks of carbon monoxide emissions. [Dutch] Het RIVM heeft een richtlijn ontwikkeld, die GGD'en handvatten biedt om de koolmonoxideproblematiek in woon- en verblijfsruimten binnen hun regio aan te pakken. Doel is om met de beschikbare middelen het risico op een koolmonoxidevergiftiging tot een minimum te beperken. De oorzaak van koolmonoxidevergiftiging is vrijwel altijd een verhoogde concentratie koolmonoxide in een woon- of verblijfsruimte. De richtlijn gaat in op zowel de beleidsmatige kant van het probleem, gericht op het voorkomen van koolmonoxideproblematiek, alsmede de behandeling van een melding waarbij koolmonoxide een rol speelt. Een belangrijk uitgangspunt van de richtlijn is dat maatregelen aan de bron (het tegengaan van koolmonoxide-emissie) de voorkeur hebben boven het enkel toepassen van effectgerichte risicobeheersende maatregelen, zoals het plaatsen van

  6. Carbon Monoxide bands in M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlenko, Ya V; Pavlenko, Yakiv V.; Jones, Hugh R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We compare the observational and theoretical spectra of the $\\Delta v$ = 2 CO bands in a range of M dwarfs. We investigate the dependence of theoretical spectra on effective temperatures as well as carbon abundance. In general we find that the synthetic CO bands fit the observed data extremely well and are excellent diagnostics. In particular the synthetic spectra reasonably match observations and the best fit temperatures are similar to those found by empirical methods. We also examine the \\CDC isotopic ratio. We find that fundamental $^{13}$CO bands around 2.345 and 2.375 $\\mu$m are good discriminators for the \\CDC ratio in M dwarfs. The 2.375 $\\mu$m is more useful because it doesn't suffer such serious contamination by water vapour transitions. Our current dataset does not quite have the wavelength coverage to perform a reliable determination of the \\CDC ratio in M dwarfs. For this we recommend observing the region 2.31--2.40 $\\mu$m at a resolution of better than 1000. Alternatively the observational probl...

  7. Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, L.; Ho, KF; Wang, T.; Qiu, H.; Pun, VC; Chan, CS; Louie, PKK; Yu, ITS

    2014-01-01

    Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of sh...

  8. [Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers. PMID:25261170

  9. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity: The difficulty in diagnosing this leading cause of poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. Th...

  10. Changes in Arterial Oxygen Tension Correlate with Changes in End-expiratory Carbon Monoxide Level

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Patrick; Kalmanowicz, Melanie; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Weimann, Joerg; Loer, Stephan A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen compete for haemoglobin binding sites. While the effects of increased inspiratory oxygen fractions on exhaled carbon monoxide concentrations have been studied previously, the relationships between intravascular oxygen tension, blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels and expiratory CO concentrations remain unclear. We therefore studied the effects of increases in arterial oxygen tension as crucial determinant for the displacement of carbon monoxide from its ha...

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. Materials and methods A male patient was broug...

  12. XPS study on the surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The carbon monoxide adsorption on the surface oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy and the content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased. O/U radio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The investigation indicated the surface layer of uranium metal was further reduced in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide at high temperature. (3 refs., 5 figs.)

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India, carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness. PMID:26873733

  14. Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow

  15. Chlorination of niobium oxide in the presence of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination kinetics of niobium pentoxide in the presence of carbon monoxide between 500-8000C of temperature is studied. The following variable that influences on the reaction rate are analysed: gas flow, geometry and volume of the Nb2O5 samples, reaction temperature and composition of the chlorinated mixture. At the same time, two other materials were studied: the CaO.Nb2O5 (synthetized in laboratory) and pyrochlorine concentrates. The three materials are compared for the chlorination method used. (M.A.C.)

  16. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, J.S.; Helling, Ch.; Friberg, P.

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan ...

  17. Real time carbon monoxide measurements from 270 UK homes

    OpenAIRE

    Croxford, B. J. F.; Hutchinson, E.; Leonardi, G. S.; McKenna, L.; L. Nicholson; Volans, G; Wilkinson, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study carried out in Winter 2004/2005 where a large number of homes were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the main living room for a period of at least one week. The homes were all owner-occupied; all had at least one of the following gas appliances, cooker, water heater, or gas fire; all home owners were in the low income group, considered vulnerable with the occupants generally over 60 and receiving state benefits of some kind. Dwel...

  18. Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

  19. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  20. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured b...

  1. Membrane topography of anaerobic carbon monoxide oxidation in Rhodocyclus gelatinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodocyclus gelatinosus 1 grows anaerobically in the dark at the expense of carbon monoxide. Topographical studies with methyl viologen as the membrane probe indicated that CO oxidation and H2 production sites were on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Membrane-associated hydrogen gas production appeared to be a unidirectional reaction. In the dark, strain 1 whole cells oxidized CO and incorporated about 306 pmol of 32P/sub i/ into ATP per min per mg of protein. With CO as the sole energy-yielding substrate, cells grew with a low growth yield coefficient of 3.7 g (dry weight) of cells per mg of CO oxidized

  2. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  3. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in African savannah air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Chatfield, R. B.

    Recent measurements of tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and carbon monoxide (CO) from the Kenyan savannah are reported. NMHC mixing ratios are among the lowest reported for the continental boundary layer. CO mixing ratios are higher than marine measurements at these latitudes. Biomass burning may contribute significantly to mixing ratios of CO and NMHC’s. Calculations based on the reactivity of the OH radical with NMHC’s and CO indicate that NMHC’s often initially consume more OH than CO.

  4. An Epidemiological Study of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Rate and a Comparison with Other Poisonings Recorded in Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine, 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and poisonous gas. Since there is currently no information on the prevalence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Mazandaran, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of carbon monoxide poisoning and compare its prevalence with other poisonings recorded in Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine, from 2009 to 2011. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study, in which the information was received from Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine. Results: Among the 2446 human deaths in 2009, 2010, 2011, 237 deaths were due to poisoning and 27 (11.4% were due to carbon monoxide poisoning, which ranked third after narcotic and Aluminum phosphide intoxication. Poisoning in males was 1.7 times more than females. Co was the most common cause of deaths among people aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusion: Considering the fact that in most cases of poisoning deaths caused by CO (silent killer come by quietly and in a hidden manner, CO actually makes any defense and escape impossible for the person and despite seeing the shadow of death, that person will inevitably surrender and will be defeated. Therefore, it is necessary to educate and inform the public through media and educational institutions about the risks and sources of CO poisoning.

  5. Hepatoprotective potential of three sargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Hira; Viqar Sultana; Jehan Ara; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Mohammad Athar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum variegatum (S. variegatum), Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum) and Sargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods: Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver ...

  6. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-10-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  7. On the interactions between carbon monoxide and transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sticking of carbon monoxide on surface atoms of transition metals is a collective phenomenon: according to the adsorption process period which is considered, this phenomenon may be formally described either by the Elovich equation or essentially from a steric point of view. The process rate depends upon the nature of the metal, the carbon monoxide pressure the temperature and the population densities of the induced and fundamental energy levels of the gas-solid bond. At least one of these induced levels tends to disappear with increasing time. For a localised adsorption and taking into account the surface Rayleigh waves, the analysis of the surface entropy yields the so-called iso-kinetic temperature for thermal desorption. This temperature is correlated with the cohesive energy of the metal surface atoms. Finally, it is shown that the interactions of a low energy electron bean with adsorbed molecules - reflection and energy exchange, desorption, ionization or dissociative ionization are strongly dependent on the energy levels of the gas-solid bond and the relative populations of these levels. (author)

  8. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  9. Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porokhnya Maria V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and ventricular myocardium. Contractions of atrial myocardial stripes were registered via force transducer. Results CO (10-4 - 10-3 M caused prominent decrease of action potential duration (APD in working atrial myocardium as well as significant acceleration of sinus rhythm. In addition CO reduced force of contractions and other parameters of contractile activity. Inhibitor of heme oxygenase zinc protoporphyrin IX exerts opposite effects: prolongation of action potential, reduction of sinus rhythm rate and enhancement of contractile function. Therefore, endogenous CO, which may be generated in the heart due to the presence of active heme oxygenase, is likely to exert the same effects as exogenous CO applied to the perfusing medium. In ventricular myocardium preparations exogenous CO also induced shortening of action potential, while zinc protoporphyrin IX produced the opposite effect. Conclusions Thus, endogenous or exogenous carbon monoxide may act as an important regulator of electrical and contractile cardiac activity.

  10. Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 μM KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O2. The enzyme was nearly homogenous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in 63Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent K/sub m/ of 5 mM for CO and a V/sub max/ of 1300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed

  11. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... existing violations, or delay timely attainment of the national ambient air quality standards. The minimum... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation... budget (MVEB) in the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State...

  12. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by...

  13. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by: (1) A reference method based on appendix C and... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air......

  14. 78 FR 48611 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... II, Section III.C): Air Quality Emissions Data (Section III.C.3), Carbon Monoxide Network Monitoring... demonstrates that the Fairbanks Area will maintain the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  15. The transport coefficients of electron swarms in hydrogen and carbon monoxide at moderate E/N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drift velocity in hydrogen and carbon monoxide and the ratio of the lateral diffusion coefficient to mobility in carbon monoxide were measured at ambient temperature and over the ranges of the reduced electric field E/N. The results are 250 < E/N <= 350 Td and 5 <= E/N <= 350 Td, and 75<= E/N <= 500 Td, respectively. (author)

  16. Evidence for a nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammel, K E; Cornwell, K L; Diekert, G B; Thauer, R K

    1984-01-01

    In growing cultures of Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus (Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus), the synthesis of active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase required nickel. The 21-fold-purified enzyme from 63Ni-labeled cells of M. arboriphilicus comigrated with 63Ni during gel filtration. These results provide evidence that the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase of methanogens is a nickel protein.

  17. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  18. A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

  19. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

  20. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases

  1. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Children: Diagnosis And Management In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnow, Theodore E; Waltzman, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 5000 children present to the emergency department annually with unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Children may be more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of their increased metabolic demand and their inability to vocalize symptoms or recognize a dangerous exposure, and newborn infants are more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of the persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning may present as viral symptoms in the absence of fever. While headache, nausea, and vomiting are the most common presenting symptoms in children, the most common symptom in infants is consciousness disturbance. This review discusses the limitations of routine pulse oximetry and carboxyhemoglobin measurement in determining carbon monoxide exposure, and notes effects of co-ingestions and comorbidities. Although the mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen, the current evidence and controversies in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in pediatric patients is reviewed, along with its possible benefit in preventing delayed neurologic sequelae. PMID:27547917

  3. Marijuana intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  4. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  5. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been o...

  6. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N2/CH4 to a variety of energy sources. However, many N2/CH4 atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  7. Chromo-fluorogenic probes for carbon monoxide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Hernández, Cristina; Toscani, Anita; Sancenón, Félix; Wilton-Ely, James D E T; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2016-05-21

    The sensing of carbon monoxide (CO) using electrochemical cells or semiconducting metal oxides has led to inexpensive alarms for the home and workplace. It is now recognised that chronic exposure to low levels of CO also poses a significant health risk. It is perhaps surprising therefore that the CO is used in cell-signalling pathways and plays a growing role in therapy. However, the selective monitoring of low levels of CO remains challenging, and it is this area that has benefited from the development of probes which give a colour or fluorescence response. This feature article covers the design of chromo-fluorogenic probes and their application to CO sensing in air, solution and in cells. PMID:27029422

  8. Symmetrical Femoral Neuropathy and Rhabdomyolysis Complicating Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hua Kuo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Although carbon monoxide (CO is a common cause of morbidity due to poisoning,peripheral neuropathy following CO poisoning has rarely been reported. Furthermore, rhabdomyolysiscaused of CO poisoning is also uncommon. The report focuses on a patient withsymmetrical femoral neuropathy and rhabdomyolysis associated with CO poisoning.A 32-year-old male was admitted to hospital in a deep coma following CO poisoning.On admission, rhabdomylosis was also identified (total creatinine phosphokinase, 19662IU/L; CK-MB, 272 IU/L. After receiving hyperbaric oxygen, the patient regained consciousness;however, bilateral hip flexors and knee extensors were still weak in accordanceto the manual muscle test. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performedand did not reveal any abnormal lesions. Nerve conduction examination and electromyographyresults indicated symmetrical femoral neuropathy. After taking the rehabilitation programfor peripheral and central nervous system lesions, the patient achieved functionalimprovement in ambulation, endurance and balance.

  9. Modelling Of Carbon Monoxide Generation In A Compartment During Fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cause of death in building fires is smoke inhalation with the majority of deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning. A new methodology for predicting species levels at the exit plane of an enclosure was developed. The proposed methodology correlated the species yields based on the combustion within the compartment as a function of the global equivalence ratio. The present study introduce a combustion model of propane and determine each parameter used in the model as a function of equivalence ratio. The species assumed to be generated in the model were CO2 , CO, O2 , H2O, H2 and unburned fuel. The model agrees with the previous experimental results for other studies (Gottuk et al., 1992 and Beyler, 1986).

  10. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability. PMID:25536918

  11. Multiple targets of carbon monoxide gas in the intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract. It is important to investigate the precise pathogenesis of IBD, to evaluate new anti-inflammatory agents, and to develop novel drugs. Carbon monoxide (CO) has emerged as an important regulator of acute and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory effects is only partially understood. Recent reports have demonstrated that CO could play a role in the functional modulation of epithelial and immunological cells in the intestine. In this short review, we have highlighted the recent findings that CO stimulates the epithelial cell restitution and FGF production from myofibroblasts. CO was also shown to regulate T cell activation and differentiation, and to activate macrophages. Finally, we have discussed the direction of translational research with respect to launching a novel agent for releasing CO in the intestine. PMID:27095232

  12. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  13. Carbon monoxide as a signaling molecule in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its role in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defence system. Moreover, CO shows cross talk with other signaling molecules including NO, phytohormone (IAA, ABA and GA and other gas signaling molecules (H2S, H2, CH4.

  14. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system. Moreover, CO shows cross talk with other signaling molecules including NO, phytohormones (IAA, ABA, and GA) and other gas signaling molecules (H2S, H2, CH4). PMID:27200045

  15. Design of biomaterials for intracellular delivery of carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroshi; Fujita, Kenta; Ueno, Takafumi

    2015-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is recognized as one of the most important gas signaling molecules involved in governing various therapeutic responses. Intracellular generation of CO is spatiotemporally controlled by catalytic reactions of heme oxygenases (HOs). Thus, the ability to control intracellular CO delivery with modulation of the CO-release rate in specific amounts and locations is expected to improve our fundamental understanding of the functions of CO and the development of clinical applications. For this purpose, CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been developed and investigated in vitro and in vivo. Most CORMs are based on transition metal carbonyl complexes. Recently, various biomaterials consisting of metal carbonyls with biomacromolecular scaffolds have been reported to improve the properties of bare metal carbonyls. In this mini-review, current progress in CO delivery, recent strategies for the development of CORMs, and future directions in this field are discussed. PMID:26252321

  16. Broad carbon monoxide line wings near T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report observations of carbon monoxide (CO) toward 26 T Tauri stars and related objects. In 19 of these objects, broad CO line wings of intensity > or approx. =0.1 K were detected, implying mass outflow is a common phenomenon in T Tauri stars. The velocity width (full width) of the wings ranges from 10 to 80 km s-1 and clusters around 25 km s-1. In general, the line wings are asymmetric with respect to the line core and the sense of asymmetry varies among sources. In the case of T Tauri, which has the broadest wing detected in these sources, the sense of wing asymmetry varies with position and may be due to source geometry

  17. Carbon nanotube prepared from carbon monoxide by CVD method and its application as electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yuliang; YUAN Xia; CHENG Shinan; GEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with larger inner diameter were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon monoxide (CO) on iron catalyst using H2S as promoting agent.It is found that the structure and morphology of carbon nanotubes can be tailored, to some degree, by varying the experimental conditions such as precursor components and process parameters.The results show that the presence of H2S may play key role for growing Y-branched carbon nanotubes.The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively.Furthermore, the obtained carbon nanotubes were explored as electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  18. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  19. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  20. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 6. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Jessiman, Barry J.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IS AN ENIGMATIC ILLNESS. The symptoms are often nonspecific or masked by an exacerbation of an underlying illness, such as congestive heart failure, that has been triggered by carbon monoxide inhalation. The effects can range from mild, annoying symptoms relieved by removal of the source to severe morbidity with profound central nervous system dysfunction, acute complications and delayed sequelae. Estimates suggest that about one-third of nonfatal cases of carbon mon...

  1. The oxidation of moderator graphites irradiated in carbon dioxide containing carbon monoxide, methane and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) was introduced for the second generation of British nuclear power stations. It was recognised that problems of compatibility between the carbon dioxide coolant and the moderator graphite would arise because of the increased power rating of the reactor compared with the first generation MAGNOX system. This led to the realisation that it would be necessary to reduce the rate of oxidation of the moderator to acceptable levels by the addition of inhibitors to the coolant and to this end carbon monoxide and methane were chosen. This paper describes experiments which have been made in a materials testing reactor at AERE Harwell in which moderator graphite reaction rates have been measured in carbon dioxide containing carbon monoxide at concentrations between 0.03% and 2% and methane concentrations up to 600 vpm. The effect of impressing a flow of coolant through the graphite structure, the so-called ventilation effect, and the role of coolant temperature and pressure have also been assessed. The results confirm the inhibiting power of methane and carbon monoxide on the graphite/CO2 reaction and demonstrate that the application of ventilation in the presence of these inhibitors enhances their effect. A minimum or 'terminal' oxidation rate may be achieved by the CAGR Gilso carbon graphites when irradiated in the presence of 200 vpm methane, or more, under appropriate conditions. (author)

  2. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U3O8) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U3O8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  3. Reduction of carbon monoxide emissions in burning processes of gaseous fuel mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon monoxide produced in the combustion of gaseous fuel mixtures of low hydrocarbon-air content represents a transition component of high risk for living organisms. The limit of admissible concentration of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is 50 ppm. The paper presents a method of reduction of monoxide carbon present in the combustion emissions which can be can achieved by means of the chemical reaction CO+OH -> H + CO2. The hydroxyl radical can be obtained either by thermic decomposition or by hydrogen injection. (author). 3 figs., 4 refs

  4. CARBON MONOXIDE: ITS ROLE IN MITOCHONDRIAL PATHWAY OF APOPTOSIS INDUCTION IN JURKAT CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Starikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract. This study demonstrates ability of carbon monoxide to trigger mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis induction of Jurcat cells. We have shown that proapoptotic action of carbon monoxide is coupled to permeabilization of cellular mitochondrial membranes. Imbalance in Bcl-2 family of regulatory proteins may be considered among possible reasons of the membrane pore formation. We have shown downregulated cl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNA expression and decreased levels of antiapoptotic proteins, along wih decreased mRNA expression and increase of Bad proapototic protein level in Jurkat cells following incubation with 50 μm of CORM-2, a carbon monoxide donor.

  5. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  6. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  7. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by

  8. Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Tetrachloride to 1-Octene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群健; 孙均华; 江焕峰; 欧阳小月; 程金生

    2003-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride to 1-octene gave coadduct [alkyl 2-( 2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl)octanoate] as the major product in supercritical carbon dioxide by using pyridine as the base. It was found that the selectivity and the yield of coadduct were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the amounts of alcohol and base used.

  9. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning: correlation of neurological findings between accident and emergency departments and a hyperbaric unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, R.; Laden, G; Grout, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate and quantify the differences in neurological examination findings in patients acutely poisoned with carbon monoxide, between initial assessment at accident and emergency (A&E) departments and subsequently at a hyperbaric unit.

  12. Isotope brain scanning with Tc-HMPAO: a predictor of outcome in carbon monoxide poisoning?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner., M; Kemp, P M

    1997-01-01

    Tc-HMPAO isotope brain scans were performed in three patients who received hyperbaric oxygen treatment following carbon monoxide poisoning. Cerebral perfusion imaging provides an index of severity of the initial cerebral damage which correlated with outcome.

  13. sup 1 H NMR studies of hydrogen and carbon monoxide chemisorption on the EUROPt-1 catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Bouyssy, P X

    2001-01-01

    possible carbon monoxide-induced reorganisation of the surface sites available for hydrogen, following a carbon monoxide precoverage above a critical level. It also shows that carbon monoxide blocks hydrogen adsorption but not in the manner expected. No desorption of carbon monoxide was observed with gas phase infrared experiments even at hydrogen coverages approaching saturation. Secondly, to further the understanding of the dynamics of adsorbed hydrogen exchanging between the strongly bound and the weakly bound sites, proton relaxation NMR experiments were undertaken. T sub 1 and T sub 1 subrho measurements were carried out as a function of hydrogen coverage at room temperature and as a function of temperature at fixed hydrogen coverage. These experiments proved to be experimentally challenging and the data obtained do not show a clear enough trend to reach a significant conclusion as was firstly expected. A specially designed sup 1 H NMR probe, capable of holding a large quantity of catalyst sample for in ...

  14. Atmospheric pollution due to carbon monoxide from vehicular exhaust in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide is a major air pollutant and its main source being vehicular exhaust. Peshawar, like other major cities in Pakistan is facing a serious problem of air pollution due to rapidly increasing traffic. Carbon monoxide level during 600 hours to 1800 hours was studied at sixteen different location were found to have an average carbon monoxide concentration above the threshold limits of nine ppm for eight hours exposure whereas, at one location average carbon monoxide concentration reached the mulimit of 35 ppm for one hour average exposure. Results suggest that at these twelve location, the calculated carboxy haemoglobin level that could be present in the blood of people exposed for eight hours are in the range 2.04-4.85% which can adversely affect the central nervous system and can bring changes in psycho motor functions. (author)

  15. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Farris, Thomas Stephen

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  16. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Autumn Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Chunyan; YANG Guipeng; LU Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dis-solved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that:1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction;2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98μmol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35%of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

  19. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN) for Ambient Air Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn; Mingming Lu; Keener, Tim C.; Soon-Jai Khang

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The syst...

  20. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in...... nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  1. The range of 1-3 keV electrons in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror-substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements on solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen. (orig.)

  2. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, ...

  3. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen;

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in...... nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  4. Application of Statistical Methods to Assess Carbon Monoxide Pollution Variations within an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Capilla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there have been considerable new legislation and efforts by vehicle manufactures aimed at reducing pollutant emission to improve air quality in urban areas. Carbon monoxide is a major pollutant in urban areas, and in this study we analyze monthly carbon monoxide (CO) data from Valencia City, a representative Mediterranean city in terms of its structure and climatology. Temporal and spatial trends in pollution were recorded from a monitoring net- work that consisted of five mon...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Modeling from Vehicular Sources in Puebla City, México

    OpenAIRE

    Sthephany Sedeño-Cisneros; María Auxilio Osorio-Lama; Miguel Ángel Valera-Pérez; René Bernardo Elías Cabrera-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    The results of dispersion modeling of carbon monoxide are reported in this paper. The results of applying the technique of Rapid Assessment of Sources of Environmental Pollution (RASEP) database and the Air Monitoring State System in the City of Puebla, México, were employed. Concentrations of carbon monoxide emitted by cars inferred by RASAP technique with those reported by the environmental monitoring station “Nymphs”, were compared. The date of 21 June 2005-2010 was se...

  6. Relative intakes of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide from cigarettes of different yields.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N. J.; Boreham, J; Bailey, A.

    1984-01-01

    The relative intakes of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were estimated in 2455 cigarette smokers, who freely smoked their usual brands of cigarette. The estimates were derived by using an objective index of inhaling based on the measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin divided by the carbon monoxide yield of the cigarettes smoked, after background and carry over carboxyhaemoglobin effects had been allowed for. Separate analyses were performed according to the yield and type (plain, filter, etc) o...

  7. Isotope chromato-spectral determination of carbon monoxide in pure inorganic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of isotope-chromato-spectral method for determination of carbon monoxide impurities in pure He, Ne, Ar, N2 and H2 is considered. Isotopic dilution of a sample of the gas under analysis is performed using carbon monoxide enriched by 13C with source relative isotope concentration 12C/13C=0.39. Limits of determining CO in gases by the method indicated make up nx(10-7-10-6) %

  8. Displacement of iodine adatoms by carbon monoxide at a platinized platinum electrode: a tracer technique study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentiality of actually complete replacement of iodine adatoms with carbon monoxide on a platinized electrode, which has been previously established on the basis of electrochemical measurements, was confirmed by the tracer technique study using 125I radioisotope. It has been revealed for the first time that in case of iodide-anions adsorption in the presence of silver adatom monolayer no replacement of iodine adatoms with carbon monoxide takes place. Possible reasons for the effect are discussed

  9. Preservation of the kidney by carbon monoxide: a black swan phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Karl A.

    2008-01-01

    Nakao and colleagues demonstrate that carbon monoxide added to organ preservation solution reduces donor-kidney injury that occurs after cold storage and transplantation and improves the survival of the recipient. These findings are important because they highlight the role of the cytochrome P450 system in the pathogenesis of donor-kidney injury and they suggest a strategy for preserving the donor kidney, namely, the addition of carbon monoxide to organ preservation solution.

  10. Modeling carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Zhou, Lihong; Smith, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of mine fire fatalities in underground mines. To reduce the hazard of CO poisoning in underground mines, it is important to accurately predict the spread of CO in underground mine entries when a fire occurs. This paper presents a study on modeling CO spread in underground mine fires using both the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the MFIRE programs. The FDS model simulating part of the mine ventilation network was calibrated using CO concentration data from full-scale mine fire tests. The model was then used to investigate the effect of airflow leakage on CO concentration reduction in the mine entries. The inflow of fresh air at the leakage location was found to cause significant CO reduction. MFIRE simulation was conducted to predict the CO spread in the entire mine ventilation network using both a constant heat release rate and a dynamic fire source created from FDS. The results from both FDS and MFIRE simulations are compared and the implications of the improved MFIRE capability are discussed. PMID:27069400

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of carbon monoxide poisoning in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in three patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in chronic stage by comparison with serial X-ray computed tomography (CT). In Case 1 and 3, no pallidal lesions believed to be the most common lesion of the gray matter in CO poisoning were found in the serial X-ray CT scans. In the other case (Case 2), the typical initial bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the globus pallidus were found to have decreased markedly in size and finally disappeared in the latter X-ray CT scan. But MRI using inversion recovery (IR) or spin echo (SE) pulse sequence clearly showed bilateral symmetrical decreased or increased signal intensity areas in the globus pallidus in all three cases. In Case 3, chronic CO poisoning was confirmed by the bilateral symmetrical pallidal lesions on MRI, although differential diagnosis was difficult. Furthermore, in Case 2, with pure alexia, MRI using IR or SE pulse sequence demonstrated a patchy decreased or increased signal intensity area in the subcortical white matter at the left angular gyrus, although X-ray CT scan showed no abnormal findings. MRI is useful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning, especially chronic CO poisoning, because necrosis, cavitation, demyelination, gliosis and so on due to hypoxia of CO poisoning were sensitively detected from changes in the proton density and the T1 or T2 relaxation time value on MRI. (J.P.N.)

  12. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  13. Frequency of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Turkey in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In Turkey, studies about frequency of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning are rare. In this study, it is aimed to determine the frequency of the CO poisoning cases occurring all around the country. METHOD: This study was planned as a descriptive study covering Turkey in general as stage. In this study, the CO poisoning case records of Ministry of Health Treat Services General Directorate in 2010 have been examined. The distribution of cases among regions-provinces, mortality rates, types of CO sources, seasonal and monthly dispersions have been examined. RESULTS: According to the records, totally 10.154 cases of CO poisoning were detected in Turkey in 2010 and only 39 of them were ended with death. It is determined that the frequency of cases is 0,0137% (approximately 14 in every 100.000 and mortality rate is about 5 in every 10 million. Poisoning cases have been occurred mostly in Marmara Region (3.426 cases, 33,7%. When it is evaluated in regard to the population, cases are mostly seen in Kilis (0,1998%. As of mortality rates, Bursa has the most number of cases ending with death (18 cases. CONCLUSION: Compared to studies in other countries, according to our data, Turkey was faced with more frequent cases of CO poisoning. The number of cases has increased, especially during the winter months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 587-592

  14. Carbon monoxide in the environs of the star WR 16

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Bronfman, L

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the carbon monoxide emission around the star WR 16 aiming to chieve a better understanding of the interaction between massive stars with their surroundings. We study the molecular gas in a region of 86.'4 x 86.'4 in size using CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0) line data obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope. Radio continuum archival data at 4.85 GHz, obtained from the Parkes-MIT-NRAO Southern Radio Survey, are also analyzed to account for the ionized gas. Available IRAS (HIRES) 60 and 100 microns images are used to study the characteristics of the dust around the star. Our new CO and 13CO data allow the low/intermediate density molecular gas surrounding the WR nebula to be completely mapped. We report two molecular features at -5 km/s and -8.5 km/s (component 1 and component 2, respectively) having a good morphological resemblance with the Halpha emission of the ring nebula. Component 2 seems to be associated with the external ring, whilst component 1 is placed at the interface between component 2 and t...

  15. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly ( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  16. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  17. Cross-correlations as a carbon monoxide detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pullen, Anthony; Dore, Olivier; Lidz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of the large-scale structure (LSS) itself, the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other tracers of LSS offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the formalism and model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. As an illustration, we propose a novel use of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) dataset. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 6 and 7 respectively. We are not able ...

  18. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  19. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  20. The neurotoxicology of carbon monoxide - Historical perspective and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Oliver T; Walker, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recognized as a poison for centuries, and remains one of the most common causes of both accidental and deliberate poisoning worldwide. Despite this, there are widespread misconceptions with regards to the mechanisms, diagnosis and outcomes of CO induced poisoning such as the idea that CO poisoning is rare; that carboxyhaemoglobin levels above 20% and loss of consciousness are required before nervous system damage ensues; and that the binding of CO to haemoglobin is the only mechanism of toxicity. Prevention and diagnosis of CO poisoning is hampered by the lack of awareness of CO as a cause of illness, among both the general public and healthcare professionals. To complicate matters further there is no standardized definition of CO poisoning. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels are often used as a marker of CO poisoning, yet plasma levels rapidly reduce upon removal of the source and are therefore an unreliable biomarker of exposure and tissue damage. Adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes after CO poisoning are difficult to define, especially as they fluctuate, mimic other non-specific complaints, and are not present in all survivors. This paper challenges a number of misconceptions about CO poisoning which can result in misdiagnosis, and consequently in mismanagement. We illustrate how recent developments in the understanding of CO toxicology explain the particular susceptibility of the central nervous system to the effects of CO exposure. PMID:26341269

  1. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  2. Carbon monoxide observed in Venus' atmosphere with SOIR/VEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Mahieux, A.; Chamberlain, S.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Thomas, I. R.; Trompet, L.; Wilquet, V.; Bertaux, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    The SOIR instrument on board the ESA Venus Express mission has been operational during the complete duration of the mission, from April 2006 up to December 2014. Spectra were recorded in the IR spectral region (2.2-4.3 μm) using the solar occultation geometry, giving access to a vast number of ro-vibrational lines and bands of several key species of the atmosphere of Venus. Here we present the complete set of vertical profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) densities and volume mixing ratios (vmr) obtained during the mission. These profiles are spanning the 65-150 km altitude range. We discuss the variability which is observed on the short term, but also the long term trend as well as variation of CO with solar local time and latitude. Short term variations can reach one order of magnitude on less than one month periods. SOIR does not observe a marked long term trend, except perhaps at the beginning of the mission where an increase of CO density and vmr has been observed. Evening abundances are systematically higher than morning values at altitudes above 105 km, but the reverse is observed at lower altitudes. Higher abundances are observed at the equator than at the poles for altitude higher than 105 km, but again the reverse is seen at altitudes lower than 90 km. This illustrates the complexity of the 90-100 km region of the Venus' atmosphere where different wind regimes are at play.

  3. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

  4. Carbon monoxide effects on calcium levels in vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously the authors showed that carbon monoxide (CO) relaxes vascular smooth muscle in the working heart and thoracic aorta preparation perfused with hemoglobin-free, Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution. The CO-induced relaxation was not caused by hypoxia, nor was it mediated by adrenergic influences, adenosine, or prostaglandins. In these studies the effect of CO on calcium (Ca++) concentrations in vascular smooth muscle was determined using 45Ca as a tracer. Isolated rat thoracic aorta segments were incubated with 45Ca and gassed with O2, N2, or CO for 60 min. Verapamil was used to verify the effectiveness of the test system. Ca++ concentrations were 488 /+ -/ 35 and 515 /+ -/ 26 mM/g tissue (X /+ -/ SE) in aortic rings gassed with O2 and N2, respectively. CO reduced Ca++ concentrations significantly (P++ concentrations by 40% to 314 /+ -/ 23 mM/g tissue. These results suggest that CO relaxes vascular smooth muscle and dilates blood vessels by decreasing Ca++ concentrations in vascular smooth muscle

  5. Carbon monoxide stability in stored postmortem blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsman, G W; Presses, C L; Rodriguez, P

    2000-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of both suicidal and accidental deaths in the United States. As a consequence, determination of the percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb) level in postmortem blood is a common analysis performed in toxicology laboratories. The blood specimens analyzed are generally preserved with either EDTA or sodium fluoride. Potentially problematic scenarios that may arise in conjunction with CO analysis are a first analysis or a reanalysis requested months or years after the initial toxicology testing is completed; both raise the issue of the stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored postmortem blood specimens. A study was conducted at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office to evaluate the stability of CO in blood samples collected in red-, gray-, and purple-top tubes by comparing results obtained at the time of the autopsy and after two years of storage at 3 degrees C using either an IL 282 or 682 CO-Oximeter. The results from this study suggest that carboxyhemoglobin is stable in blood specimens collected in vacutainer tubes, with or without preservative, and stored refrigerated for up to two years. PMID:11043662

  6. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  7. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured systems: A mechanochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Gabriele; Campesi, Renato; Garroni, Sebastiano; Delogu, Francesco; Milanese, Chiara

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated the mechanochemical hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured FeCo- and Mg 2Ni-based catalysts. To this aim powdered materials, prepared by mechanical alloying, were subjected to mechanical treatment under CO + H 2 atmosphere. A methodology to evaluate the activity of the solid catalysts on an absolute basis was developed. Conversion data were, indeed, expressed as turnover frequency, TOF, and related to the occurrence of ball to powder collision events through the mechanochemical turnover frequency parameter, MTOF. Differences in the catalytic activity and selectivity were observed for the two FeCo-based studied systems, the solid solution Fe 50Co 50 and its dispersion on TiO 2 support. As for the Mg 2Ni system, we explored the possibility to estimate the specific role of hydrogen pre-activation step. The catalytic properties of the mechanically alloyed Mg 2Ni system were compared with the conversion data shown by the same system pre-hydrogenated and subsequently milled under CO atmosphere.

  8. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mark A.; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated.

  9. Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU-Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.; Sridhar, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolyzers, such as electrolysis cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconia, can produce oxygen from Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide and reject carbon monoxide and unreacted carbon dioxide in a separate stream. The oxygen-production process has been shown to be far more efficient if the high-pressure, unreacted carbon dioxide can be separated and recycled back into the feed stream. Additionally, the mass of the adsorption compressor can be reduced. Also, the carbon monoxide by-product is a valuable fuel for space exploration and habitation, with applications from fuel cells to production of hydrocarbons and plastics. In our research, we will design, construct, and test an innovative, robust, low mass, low power separation device that can recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU. Such fundamental process technology, involving gas-solid phase separation in a reduced gravitational environment, will help to enable Human Exploration and Development of Space. The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, respectively. In our research, we will design, construct, and test an innovative, robust, low mass, low power separation device that can recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU, Such fundamental process technology, involving gas-solid phase separation in a reduced gravitational environment, will help to enable Human Exploration and Development of Space. The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, Research needs for the design shown are as follows: (1) The best adsorbent

  10. Hepatoprotective potential of three sargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum variegatum (S. variegatum, Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum and Sargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods: Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver damage in rats was induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen. Rats were administered with ethanol extracts of S. tenerrimum, S. variegatum and Sargassum binderi at 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days separately. Hepatotoxicity was determined in terms of cardiac and liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters. Results: S. variegatum showed highest activity by reducing the elevated level of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, serum glucose, triglyceride with restoration of cholesterol. Urea and creatinine concentrations were also significantly (P < 0.05 reduced as compared to acetaminophen intoxicated rats. S. tenerrimum and S. variegatum showed moderate activity against CCl4 hepatic toxicity. Conclusions: The protective role of S. variegatum against acetaminophen liver damage and its positive impact on disturbed lipid, glucose metabolism, kidney dysfunction and S. tenerrimum against CCl4 liver toxicity suggest that Sargassum species offer a non-chemical means for the treatment of toxicity mediated liver damage.

  11. Revised Evaluation of Health Effects Associated with Carbon Monoxide Exposure: An Addendum to the 1979 U.S. EPA Air Quality Criteria Document for Carbon Monoxide (1984)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addendum re-evaluates the scientific data base concerning health effects associated with exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) at ambient or near ambient levels by providing: (1) a concise summary of key health effects information pertaining to relatively low-level CO exposure; an...

  12. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55°C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55°C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population an

  13. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20–2.54), and those aged <=49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38–4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96–3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisonings from Forklift Use During Produce Packing Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Anne E; Langley, Ricky L; McDaniel, Jesse S

    2016-01-01

    In August 2013, the North Carolina Division of Public Health investigated a carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on a farm. Two employees were overcome by CO and lost consciousness while using a propane-powered forklift to load produce into a refrigerated trailer backed up to a warehouse. One employee died, and the second employee was admitted to the hospital for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Eighteen people, ranging in age from 18 to 69 years, were potentially exposed to CO, including the two employees, a family member who discovered the employees, two bystanders who stopped to offer assistance, and 13 first responders. Thirteen people who assisted in the emergency response experienced symptoms such as headache and dizziness, and all 16 who assisted were evaluated in a local hospital emergency department and released after receiving 100% oxygen. Blood tests showed five people (the two employees, family member, and two bystanders) had elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, but all first responders had levels within normal range. Firefighters measured a peak CO concentration of 2214 parts per million in the warehouse. The North Carolina Division of Occupational Safety and Health investigated and determined that the forklift, operated inside the trailer with no ventilation, was the source of the CO. Public health investigation activities included interviewing responders, obtaining ambient CO concentration measurements from the fire department, advising the local health director, reviewing medical records, and developing a line listing of exposed persons. To prevent CO poisoning, employers should consider replacing gas-powered equipment with electric equipment, which does not produce CO. PMID:26788681

  15. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  16. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  17. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future. PMID:25772154

  18. CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Lyα-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.

  19. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice

  20. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  1. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (pPhysalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug. PMID:24811807

  2. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage;

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...

  3. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell reversible performance loss induced by carbon monoxide produced during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoopman, B.; Vincent, R.; Rosini, S.; Paganelli, G.; Thivel, P.-X.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry measurements at the anode have been carried out and reveal the presence of carbon monoxide in steady-state operation, with pure hydrogen. Experiments have been performed both in single cell and in stack to find out its origin. The contamination of the anode catalyst is partly due the reverse-water gas shift (RWGS) with carbon dioxide from the cathode. However, this study shows a temperature-activated and time-related corrosion mechanism which appears under humidified hydrogen. Due to this degradation mechanism, a reversible 25 mV-loss of performances is observed and can be recovered by oxidizing carbon monoxide on the anode.

  5. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  6. Indoor air quality: Carbon monoxide, molds and beyond. Current issue paper number 198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of several of the major indoor air pollutants and some of the ways in which indoor air quality is addressed by governments in the United States and Canada. The emphasis is on non-industrial settings. Pollutants discussed include carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke, radon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, wood smoke and particles, volatile organic compounds, and molds

  7. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  8. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ13C, δ18O and Δ17O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13CO/12CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH4) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The inaccurate surface

  9. Detection of carbon monoxide poisoning that occurred before a house fire in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Toru; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Sasao, Ako; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-09-01

    In our institutes, we perform a quantitative evaluation of volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood in all fatal fire-related cases using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We previously reported that benzene concentrations in the blood were positively correlated with carbon monoxide-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentrations in fire-related deaths. Here, we present 3 cases in which benzene concentrations in the blood were not correlated with CO-Hb concentrations. A high CO-Hb concentration without a hydrocarbon component, such as benzene, indicates that the deceased inhaled carbon monoxide that was not related to the smoke from the fire. Comparing volatile hydrocarbons with CO-Hb concentrations can provide more information about the circumstances surrounding fire-related deaths. We are currently convinced that this is the best method to detect if carbon monoxide poisoning occurred before a house fire started. PMID:26004303

  10. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu].

  11. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu]. PMID:26744146

  12. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  13. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronic excited state configuration.

  14. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  15. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.;

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result...

  16. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues. PMID:26869408

  17. Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to 125I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine

  18. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper particles

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, K P; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    2006-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide (20°C; 0.1– 100 Torr) on copper-on-silica catalysts differently prepared and pretreated. As determined by electron microscopy and X-ray line broadening, the catalysts contain copper particles having sizes of 60 to 5000 Å depending on the preparation procedure and the thermal treatment. Adsorbed carbon monoxide displays broad infrared absorption bands exhibiting a maximum at 2099 to 2146 cm-1. The position of the maximum ...

  19. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurement techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, C.; C. Hüglin; Klausen, J.; M. Steinbacher; Vollmer, M.; Buchmann, B

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of carbon monoxide (CO) for the overall oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, there is still considerable uncertainty in ambient measurements of CO. To address this issue, an inter-comparison between four different measurement techniques was made over a period of two months at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ), Switzerland. The measurement techniques were Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR), Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF), gas chromatographic separa...

  20. Measurement of uniform flame movement in carbon monoxide - air mixtures containing either added D2O or H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1950-01-01

    Relative velocities of the flame in a carbon monoxide - air mixture containing either added heavy water or light water were measured in a glass tube. Throughout the range of carbon monoxide - air composition, the flame containing added light water had a faster speed than the flame containing heavy water.

  1. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The criteria by which we determine whether a SIP... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  2. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  3. Isolation and characterization of two novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria from syngas - and carbon monoxide - degrading cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, J.I.; Alves, M.M.; Stams, A. J. M.; Plugge, C.M.; Sousa, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Syn(thesis)gas is a mixture containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, in variable ratios. Syngas is commonly produced from fossil fuels, but it can be generated from a vast array of feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass and carbon-based wastes, including recalcitrant wastes. Production of biofuels and bulk chemicals from syngas, both by thermochemical or microbial processes, is a field of promising technological developments. In this work, thermophilic (55ºC...

  4. Thermal property correlation package of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermophysical property correlation package of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane has been constructed from a critical evaluation of theoretical or empirical correlations available in the literature. The properties include density, isobaric specific heat, viscosity and thermal conductivity. Selected package correlations are summarized below: (1) For density, Peng-Robinson-Redlich-Kwong equation of state, (2) for specific heat, an expression from thermodynamic theory with the van der Waals equation of state and (3) for viscosity and thermal conductivity, generalized relationships by the use of dimensional analysis that were developed by G. Thodos group. From a comparative evaluation of the package correlations with measurements and selected values available, it has been concluded that except for specific heat these correlations are predictable with an acceptable accuracy. (author)

  5. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  6. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  7. Deep Conversion of Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen and Formation of Acetate by the Anaerobic Thermophile Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henstra, A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium that catalyses the water gas shift reaction, the conversion of carbon monoxide with water to molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The thermodynamically favorable growth temperature, compared to existing industrial cat

  8. Lithium Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Kesebir, Sermin; Üstündağ, Mehmet Fatih; Kavzoğlu, Semine Özdoğan

    2011-01-01

    Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose...

  9. Hepatic ultrasonographic findings in experimental carbon tetrachloride intoxication of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, K; Albert, M; Vetési, F; Harmat, G y; Binder, K; Szaniszló, F

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken in dogs with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication to describe and follow the changes in the ultrasound appearance of the liver. Characteristic ultrasound features (enlarged liver, increased echogenicity with fine, tightly-packed echoes, and loss of echogenicity of the portal vein walls) were seen from day 2 of the experiment, culminating between days 2 and 7. Subsequently the liver gradually and almost completely regained its normal ultrasound appearance. Ultrasonographic findings corresponded to the severity of the clinicopathological parameters, and changed parallel with the results of liver biopsies. Histology of the biopsy samples revealed acute centrolobular lipid accumulation with necrobiosis and necrosis in the hepatocytes in the first stage of the disease. In the second stage, a secondary reparatory-inflammatory process and reparation in the interstitial tissue were seen. In some dogs, ill-defined hyperechoic foci were observed within the liver during the regenerative phase. Hepatic ultrasonography seems to be a reliable and relatively sensitive method for monitoring liver dystrophy with necrobiosis and lipid accumulation and to follow the course of steatosis in clinical cases. Ultrasound-guided biopsy can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in liver dystrophy. PMID:9270137

  10. Delayed Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning by HbO2

    OpenAIRE

    LeDez, Kenneth M.; Davies, Andrew O.; Koch, G. Helge

    1989-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the importance of hyperbaric treatment in managing cases of known or suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. Even when prolonged delays in initiating this treatment are unavoidable, it can be beneficial. Prolonged administration of normobaric oxygen is inadequate treatment.

  11. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (1999) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revised criteria document consolidates and updates the current scientific basis for another reevaluation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide (CO), currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) for 1 h. Although emphasis is plac...

  12. 75 FR 54805 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota;...

  13. Kinetics of nanocrystallization in regular alternating terpolymers of ethene and propene with carbon monoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Privalko, V. P.; Dolgoshey, V. B.; Privalko, E. G.; Sikora, Antonín

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2003), s. 953-962. ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : alternating terpolymers of ethene and propene with carbon monoxide * nanocrystallinity * kinetics of nanocrystallization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2003

  14. Catalytic Reduction of Nitrous Oxide with Carbon Monoxide over Calcined Co–Mn–Al Hydrotalcite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacultová, K.; Obalová, L.; Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 137, 2-4 (2008), s. 358-389. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * carbon monoxide * mixed oxide catalysts Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2008

  15. Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

    2012-01-01

    Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

  16. Transient splenial lesion in a case with carbon monoxide poisoning: A clue supporting the excitotoxicity hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Rahşan; Ünal, Emre

    2015-11-01

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum are uncommon radiologic findings seen in a number of clinical conditions. Awareness of these lesions is crucial to prevent further invasive investigation and intervention. We report a unique case of transient splenial lesion in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26277728

  17. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from sand and living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide, CO, is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential of UV-induced CO emission by terrestrial surfaces. Real-time measurements of [CO] were made with a cavity enhanced laser connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a leaf scale...

  18. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  19. CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING ON AN URBAN ARTERIAL HIGHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. n each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the...

  20. Review: monoclinic zirconia, its surface sites and their interaction with carbon monoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouva, S.; Honkala, K.; Lefferts, L.; Kanervo, J.

    2015-01-01

    This review concerns monoclinic zirconia, its surface sites and their probing with carbon monoxide. The modifications of the surface sites using thermal treatments with vacuum or reactive gases are also included. In this work, we present information on the nature and manipulation of hydroxyl species

  1. Characteristics of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Detection for Carbon Monoxide Gas Based on DFB Diode Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weigen; PENG Xiaojuan; LIU Bingjie; SUN Caixin

    2012-01-01

    The dissolved gas analysis is one of the most effective and convenient methods to diagnose the early discharge faults of transformers. When the fault involves the solid insulation, oil-paper insulation cracks and releases carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Therefore, the detection of CO can forecast the potential inner faults of oil-filled transformers.

  2. Double Auger Emission of fixed-in-space Carbon Monoxide following Core-Excitation and Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double Auger decay after core-level photo excitation and after ionization through synchrotron radiation in gas phase carbon monoxide has been studied. We report the first experiment where both Auger electrons in double Auger decay have been measured in coincidence with the ionic fragments.

  3. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  4. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation...

  5. Carbon monoxide concentrations evaluated by traffic noise data in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that variations in carbon monoxide concentrations can be evaluated by measuring environmental noise, wind velocity and vertical thermal stability. The results can be justified on the basis of the theory of the street canyon effect. The methodology proposed was verified in two Italian cities with different characteristics: Milan and Ravenna (Italy)

  6. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...

  7. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  8. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions, in sev...

  9. Operations and maintenance manual, atmospheric contaminant sensor. Addendum 1: Carbon monoxide monitor model 204

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring the carbon monoxide content of the ambient atmosphere is described. The subjects discussed are: (1) theory of operation, (2) system features, (3) controls and monitors, (4) operational procedures, and (5) maintenance and troubleshooting. Block drawings and circuit diagrams are included to clarify the text.

  10. Adsorption of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and ethylene on the Pt(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and temperature programmed thermal desorption spectroscopy (TPDS) were applied in studying adsorption of oxygen, carbon monoxide and ethylene and reaction processes of ethylene and ethylene co-adsorbed with atomic oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, on Pt(111). (orig./FT)

  11. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  12. Carbon monoxide production in ventilated premature infants weighing less than 1500 g.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, A F; Ochikubo, C G; Vreman, H. J.; Stevenson, D. K.

    1987-01-01

    Mean pulmonary excretion rate of carbon monoxide in 13 premature babies on ventilators was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than that of 19 healthy infants born at full term. This correlated with carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in blood, indicating that the premature infants on ventilators produced abnormally large amounts of bilirubin.

  13. Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ishigaki, Daiya [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Fujiwara, Shunrou; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Tomoyuki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Oikawa, Hirotaka [Iwate Prefectural Advanced Critical Care and Emergency, Morioka (Japan); Kamada, Katsura [Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Departments of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group A, patients with transit acute symptoms only; group P, patients with persistent neurological symptoms; and group D, patients with ''delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae'' occurring after a lucid interval. Median fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the centrum semiovale bilaterally at 2 weeks were compared between these groups and a control group of ten healthy volunteers. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was examined at 2 weeks to evaluate the degree of demyelination in patients. MBP concentration was abnormal or detectable for all group P and group D patients but was undetectable for all patients assigned to group A. Low FA values in groups P and D displaying chronic neurological symptoms clearly differed from those in controls and group A without chronic neurological symptoms, but ADC showed no significant differences between patient groups. MBP concentration at 2 weeks after CO inhalation confirmed a certain extent of demyelination in the central nervous system of patients who would develop chronic neurological symptoms. In these patients, FA sensitively represented damage to white matter fibers in the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of damage to cerebral white matter fiber in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by demyelination of cerebral white matter fibers. We examined whether diffusion tensor imaging can sensitively represent damage to fibers of the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. Subjects comprised 13 adult patients with CO poisoning, classified into three groups according to clinical behaviors: group A, patients with transit acute symptoms only; group P, patients with persistent neurological symptoms; and group D, patients with ''delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae'' occurring after a lucid interval. Median fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the centrum semiovale bilaterally at 2 weeks were compared between these groups and a control group of ten healthy volunteers. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was examined at 2 weeks to evaluate the degree of demyelination in patients. MBP concentration was abnormal or detectable for all group P and group D patients but was undetectable for all patients assigned to group A. Low FA values in groups P and D displaying chronic neurological symptoms clearly differed from those in controls and group A without chronic neurological symptoms, but ADC showed no significant differences between patient groups. MBP concentration at 2 weeks after CO inhalation confirmed a certain extent of demyelination in the central nervous system of patients who would develop chronic neurological symptoms. In these patients, FA sensitively represented damage to white matter fibers in the centrum semiovale in the subacute phase after CO intoxication. (orig.)

  15. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  16. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water in Hot, Hydrogen-dominated Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kevin; Lyons, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres in hot, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. We construct novel analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the m...

  17. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Simon P.; Loreta M. Rodrigues; Griffiths, John R.; Marion Stubbs

    1999-01-01

    The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing) were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MR images. This was ...

  18. Isotopic chromatographic-spectral determination of carbon monoxide in helium, neon and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic-chromatographic-spectral method is proposed for determination of carbon monoxide in helium, neon and nitrogen using carbon 12, 13 isotope dilution technique as well as cryogenic-adsorption accumulation and chromatographic separation of impurities. The limits for determination of CO in helium, neon and nitrogen are 1 x 10-6, 6 x 10-7 and 7 x 10-7 mol% respectively. Reference samples are not required

  19. A report of dangerously high carbon monoxide levels within the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smithline Howard A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to determine how quickly carbon monoxide would accumulate in the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle. Methods A 1992 sedan was buried in snow to the level of the undercarriage, the ignition was then engaged and carbon monoxide levels recorded at 2.5-minute intervals. The primary outcome was the time at which a lethal carbon monoxide level was detected. Six trials were conducted: windows closed; windows open one inch; windows open 6 inches; windows closed and tailpipe swept clear of snow; windows closed and one cubic foot of snow removed around tailpipe; windows closed and tailpipe completely cleared of snow to ground level in a path 12 inches wide. Results Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within 2.5 minutes in the vehicle when the windows were closed, within 5 minutes when the widows were opened one inch, and within 7.5 minutes when the widows were opened six inches. Dangerously high levels of carbon monoxide were detected within the vehicle when the tailpipe had been swept clear of snow and when a one cubic foot area had been cleared around the tailpipe. When the tailpipe was completely unobstructed the carbon monoxide level was zero. Conclusions Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within minutes in this snow-obstructed vehicle.

  20. Mechanism(s) Involved in Carbon Monoxide-releasing Molecule-2-mediated Cardioprotection During Ischaemia-reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, H. M.; Jain, M. R.; Anita A. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanism(s) involved in carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2, carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-induced cardioprotection. We used the transition metal carbonyl compound carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 that can act as carbon monoxide donor in cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury model using isolated rat heart preparation. Langendorff′s perfused rat hearts when treated with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (50 μM) for 10 min bef...

  1. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiya N. Parshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB are able to use carbon monoxide (CO as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide as an electron donor.

  2. Formation of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide on rhodium/alumina model catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When tunnel junctions containing carbon monoxide adsorbed on alumina-supported Rh are heated in hydrogen the vibrational peaks due to carbon monoxide decrease and a new set of vibrational peaks grows. Shifts in the positions of some of these new peaks are observed if the normal 12C16O is replaced by 13C16O, but not if it is replaced by 12C18O. This suggests that the new surface species includes the carbon from the CO, but not the oxygen. The set of new peaks grows together and is in one-to-one correspondence with the peaks of ethylidene as extrapolated between published spectra of halogenated derivatives. A different surface species, tentatively identified as formate ions, can be produced by heating without hydrogen. 33 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  3. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to continue the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon...

  4. 75 FR 4815 - Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... March 2008, a draft of EPA's ``Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon...'s Office of Research and Development as part of the review of the national ambient air quality... presence of such pollutant in the ambient air * * *.'' Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to...

  5. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water in Hot, Hydrogen-dominated Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kevin; Lyons, James R.

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres in hot, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. We construct novel analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios, we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if the metallicity is greatly enhanced, but this property is negated by temperatures above 1000 K. For hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, our generic result has the implication that retrieval studies may wish to set the subdominance of carbon dioxide as a prior of the calculation and not let its abundance completely roam free as a fitting parameter, because it directly affects the inferred value of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio and may produce unphysical conclusions. We discuss the relevance of these implications for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b and suggest that some of the previous results are chemically impossible. The relative abundance of carbon dioxide to acetylene is potentially a sensitive diagnostic of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio.

  6. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p 4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl4, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ► After 30-day chronic CCl4 intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ► The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ► Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ► The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  7. Fixation, retention and exhalation of carrier-free 11C-labelled carbon monoxide by man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier-free 11C-labelled carbon monoxide was produced by proton irradiation of a nitrogen gas flow target via the 14N(p,α)11C process followed by on-line reduction of the predominantly formed 11C-carbon dioxide with a yield of 0.4 mCi/μAmin. After appropriate quality control about 2 mCi of carrier-free 11C-carbon monoxide in 500 ml of nitrogen gas were inhaled by test subjects in one breath. The 11C-activity distribution was then followed in vivo by scanning above thorax, head, liver, thigh and os sacrum; simultaneously the 11C-activity of the blood was also followed by batch measurement. The data indicate that part of the 11C-activity migrates from the blood into the intercellular space, while another part is exhaled. The 11C-activity leaves the individual organs with a biological half-life ranging from about 120 to 200 min, a time which is short as compared to the one observed for 51Cr-labelled erythrocytes. A radio gas chromatographic analysis of the exhaled air showed that the 11C-activity leaves the body exclusively in the form of 11C-labelled carbon monoxide. Consequently, metabolism of the 11CO into 11Co2 or other compounds can be excluded. (orig.)

  8. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  9. Low pressure solubility and thermodynamics of solvation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in fluorinated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in three fluorinated liquids - perfluorohexylethane, perfluorooctane and bromoperfluorooctane - is presented. Mole fraction solubilities were calculated from new experimental Ostwald coefficient data for CO2 and CO, and from previously published values for O2, associated with original values of density and vapour pressure for the pure solvents. Carbon dioxide is the most soluble gas with mole fraction solubilities of the order of 10-2. Oxygen and carbon monoxide are one order of magnitude less soluble. The measurements were done as a function of temperature between (288 and 313) K and from the variation of the calculated Henry's law constants with temperature, the thermodynamic properties of solvation such as the Gibbs free energy, the enthalpy and the entropy were calculated. The precision of the experimental data, considered as the average absolute deviation of the Henry's law constants from appropriate smoothing equations is of 1% for carbon dioxide and oxygen and of 3% for carbon monoxide. The data obtained here are judged accurate to within ±5%

  10. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  11. Computation of diatomic molecular spectra for selected transitions of aluminum monoxide, cyanide, diatomic carbon, and titanium monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser ablation studies with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) typically emphasize atomic species yet fingerprints from molecular species can occur subsequently or concurrently. In this work, selected molecular transitions of aluminum monixide (AlO), diatomic carbon (C2), cyanide (CN), and titanium monoxide (TiO) are accurately computed. Line strength tables are used to describe the radiative transitions of diatomic molecules primarily in the visible, optical region. Details are elaborated of the computational procedure that allows one to utilize diatomic spectra as a predictive and as a diagnostic tool. In order to create a computed spectrum, the procedure requires information regarding the temperature of the diatomic transitions along with other input such as the spectral resolution. When combined with a fitting algorithm to optimize such parameters, this procedure is used to infer information from an experimentally obtained spectrum. Furthermore, the programs and data files are provided for LIBS investigations that also reveal AlO, C2, CN, and TiO diatomic spectra. - Highlights: • We present a program for fitting of molecular spectra. • This includes data base for AlO, C2, CN, and TiO. • We discuss the details of the program including fitting. • We show computed examples and reference current work

  12. Variation characteristics of carbon monoxide and ozone over the course of the 2014 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bokun; BIAN Lingen; ZHENG Xiangdong; DING Minghu; XIE Zhouqing

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon monoxide and ozone in the marine boundary layer were measured during the 6th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (from July to September, 2014). Carbon monoxide concentration ranged between 47.00 and 528.52 ppbv with an average of 103.59 ± 40.37 ppbv. A slight decrease with increasing latitude was observed, except for the extremely high values over the East China Sea which may be attributed to anthropogenic emissions. Ozone concentration ranged between 3.27 and 77.82 ppbv with an average of 29.46±10.48 ppbv. Ozone concentration decreased sharply with increasing latitude outside the Arctic Ocean (during both the northward and the southward course), while no significant variation was observed over the Arctic Ocean. The positive correlation between carbon monoxide and ozone in most sections suggests that the ozone in the marine boundary layer mainly originated from photochemical reactions involving carbon monoxide.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatef Tahouri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Tahouri A, Lyoussi B, Achour S. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:131-5.

  14. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography carbon monoxide total columns: statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  15. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; Werf, van der G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  16. Determination of single and repeated red cell volumes by the indicator dilution method using carbon monoxide as the indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive isotopes limits clinical applications of blood volume measurement in the ICU. We measured red cell volumes with carbon monoxide-labeled RBC in six dogs and five human volunteers. The measured values obtained on the dogs were compared with the simultaneous measurements with the 51Cr method; the ratio of the carbon monoxide to 51Cr values ranged from 0.86 to 1.17, and the mean ratio was 1.0 +/- 0.1 (SD), r = .93. We infer from these results that the carbon monoxide method has several advantages over the 51Cr method: (a) the short labeling time (about 1 min), (b) rapidly decreasing background levels of carbon monoxide with FIO2 1.0, and (c) repeatability at intervals of several hours

  17. Exposure to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and volatile organic compounds while commuting by bicycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being 10.5 ppm. Respirable suspended particulates, averaged over each journey period, were found at higher concentrations (mean 130 μg m-3) than would be expected in indoor situations. Mean exposure to benzene (at 56 μg m-3) and other aromatic volatile organic compounds was also relatively high. The influence of wind conditions on exposure was found to be significant. Commuting exposures to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and aromatic VOCs were found to be higher than exposures in a busy high street and on common parkland

  18. Range measurements of keV hydrogen ions in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranges of 1.3-3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen. The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees with that previously found for solid nitrogen. (orig.)

  19. Temporal Variations in Concentrations of Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide at Osijek, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Kovač-Andrić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide variations and their correlation with meteorological parameters in Osijek (Eastern Croatia during the summer seasons of 2002, 2007, and 2012. The measured data are discussed in relation to the EU guidelines (Directive 2002/3/EC, Directive 2008/50/EC. In order to characterize ambient air with respect to ozone photochemical pollution we calculated three photochemical pollution indicators. These indicators may also be a valid measure for harmful effects on living organisms. The influence of local meteorological parameters on the measured concentrations of ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide was also investigated. We have attempted to establish correlations between measured pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters using the technique of multivariate principal component analysis (PCA.

  20. Research progress in immunological mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai FENG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is a syndrome constituted by acute dementia, psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, which can be developed after the original clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning recovered. Lots of studies have been done to explain the mechanisms of DEACMP, and more and more researches have demonstrated that the immunological mechanism may be involved in or play an important role on the pathogenesis of the process. This article will review the researches of immunological mechanism of DEACMP in recent years and give some prompts to clinical study in the future. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.006

  1. Practice recommendations in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Piantadosi, Claude A; Thom, Stephen R; Weaver, Lindell K

    2012-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in modern society, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the United States annually. Over the past two decades, sufficient information has been published about carbon monoxide poisoning in the medical literature to draw firm conclusions about many aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of the syndrome, along with evidence-based recommendations for optimal clinical practice. This article provides clinical practice guidance to the pulmonary and critical care community regarding the diagnosis, management, and prevention of acute CO poisoning. The article represents the consensus opinion of four recognized content experts in the field. Supporting data were drawn from the published, peer-reviewed literature on CO poisoning, placing emphasis on selecting studies that most closely mirror clinical practice. PMID:23087025

  2. Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments: A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

  3. Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments - A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

  4. Isotopes of carbon monoxide in the free troposphere and their implications to atmospheric chemistry. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The thesis project was designed to provide information for the following questions: what is the oxidative capacity of the troposphere, and how are the source strengths of carbon monoxide partitioned. Because of its active role in tropospheric chemistry, carbon monoxide is important in determining the fate of a number of species, including hydroxyl radicals. (14)CO serves as a natural tracer for its destruction, as the source function can be well contrained. By determining the tropospheric inventory of (14)CO and calculating its source strength, one may realize the rate of destruction. Similarly, because certain sources have unique stable isotope signatures, an analysis of the stable isotopes provides information on the relative source strengths. A sampling system was built which allowed for the collection of large, whole air samples from an aircraft platform. CO was extracted and the isotopes were determined, and from these data an OH abundance was calculated using a 2-D transport model.

  5. Some effects of argon and helium upon explosions of carbon monoxide and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernst F; Roeder, Carl H

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study the effects of the inert gases, argon and helium, upon flame speed and expansion ratio in exploding mixtures of carbon monoxide, oxygen and water.For the particular gas mixtures investigated the results show that: (1) With the possible exception of helium in small amounts the addition of inert gas always produces decreased flame speed and expansion ratio; (2) like volumes of argon and helium have very different effects upon flame speed but practically the same effect upon expansion ratio; and (3) the difference in the effect of these two gases upon speed is independent of the ratio of carbon monoxide to oxygen. A discussion of some possible modes by which inert gases may produce the observed effects is included.

  6. Air humidity incidence on the carbon monoxide emissions a gas atmospheric burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to determine the variation of the carbon monoxide emission was carried out when the humidity of the premix air was modified in an atmospheric burner working with petroleum liquid gas and natural gas. When the total humidity from the primary air was modified from 0,01223 to 0,03493 water kg/dry air kg in the case of PLG, it was found that the level of co emissions varied in volume from 0,1819 % to 0,2540 %, representing an increase of 38 %. With natural gas the humidity was modified from 0,01397 to 0,03228 water kg/dry air kg, obtaining emissions of CO in volume from 0,0942 % to 0,1020 %, for a total increase of 8,5 %. The study showed that the effect on the air humidity was more pronounced when the combustion with PLG was made, over passing the maximum levels allowed of carbon monoxide

  7. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

  8. Catalytic and electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on a Fe electrode in a solid electrolyte cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on Fe catalyst was studied at 300-500C and atmospheric total pressure. The reaction was studied under both open- and closed-circuit operation in an yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte cell. The technique of Solid Electrolyte Potentiometry (SEP) was used to monitor the thermodynamic activity of oxygen adsorbed on the Fe electrode under open circuit. Kinetic and potentiometric measurements were combined in order to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The results are in agreement with a Langmuir-Hinselwood type of adsorption-reaction with two different adsorption sites for carbon monoxide and oxygen. Under closed circuit, the effect of electrochemical oxygen 'pumping' to the catalyst was examined. The operation of the cell was almost Faradaic as the rate enhancement factor (λ) values measured were close to unity

  9. A nine-atom rhodium–aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium–aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  10. A nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster oxidizes five carbon monoxide molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Hua-Min; Yuan, Zhen; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metals can promote the direct participation of lattice oxygen of very stable oxide materials such as aluminum oxide, to oxidize reactant molecules, while the fundamental mechanism of noble metal catalysis is elusive. Here we report that a single atom of rhodium, a powerful noble metal catalyst, can promote the transfer of five oxygen atoms to oxidize carbon monoxide from a nine-atom rhodium-aluminum oxide cluster. This is a sharp improvement in the field of cluster science where the transfer of at most two oxygen atoms from a doped cluster is more commonly observed. Rhodium functions not only as the preferred trapping site to anchor and oxidize carbon monoxide by the oxygen atoms in direct connection with rhodium but also the primarily oxidative centre to accumulate the large amounts of electrons and the polarity of rhodium is ultimately transformed from positive to negative. PMID:27094921

  11. Geostatistical modelling of carbon monoxide levels in Khartoum State (Sudan) - GIS pilot based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop a digital GIS model; that can evaluate, predict and visualize carbon monoxide (CO) levels in Khartoum state. To achieve this aim, sample data had been collected, processed and managed to generate a dynamic GIS model of carbon monoxide levels in the study area. Parametric data collected from the field and analysis carried throughout this study show that (CO) emissions were lower than the allowable ambient air quality standards released by National Environment Protection Council (NEPC-USA) for 1998. However, this pilot study has found emissions of (CO) in Omdurman city were the highest. This pilot study shows that GIS and geostatistical modeling can be used as a powerful tool to produce maps of exposure. (authors)

  12. Carbon monoxide adsorption on neutral and cationic vanadium doped gold clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hai Thuy; Lang, Sandra M; de Haeck, Jorg; Lievens, Peter; Janssens, Ewald

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a single vanadium dopant atom on the reactivity of small gold clusters is studied in the gas phase. In particular we investigated carbon monoxide adsorption on vanadium doped gold clusters using a low-pressure collision cell. Employing this technique the reactivity of both neutral and cationic clusters was studied under the same experimental conditions. Analysis of the kinetic data as a function of the pressure in the reaction cell shows that the reaction mechanism is composed o...

  13. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood : relation to cigarette smoking and other sources

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Anna-Maja; Nilsson Sojka, Birgitta; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umea, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked ...

  14. Airborne intercomparison of vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence and tunable diode laser absorption measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Holloway, J.; Jakoubek, R.; Parrish, D.; C. Gerbig; A. Volz-Thomas; Schmitgen, S.; Fried, A.; Wert, B; Henry, B; Drummond, J.

    2000-01-01

    During the fall 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97), two separate intercomparisons of aircraft-based carbon monoxide measurement instrumentation were conducted. On September 2, CO measurements were simultaneously made aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3 by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence and by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), On September 18, an intercomparison flight was conducted between two separate instruments, bo...

  15. Feasibility of Using Oscillatory Catalytic Oxidation Phenomenon for Selective Carbon Monoxide Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Heikki Torvela

    1987-01-01

    Tin dioxide based sensors with different additives were constructed and tested in air environment containing carbon monoxide. Conductance oscillations were observed in samples containing palladium but not in those without. Oscillations occurred at temperatures ranging from 150℃ to 320℃. Within this temperature region the range of CO concentrations at which oscillations appeared became higher as the test temperature increased. The lowest CO concentration at which oscillations were observed was...

  16. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific by voluntary observing ships

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H; Nojiri, Y.; H. Mukai; Machida, T.; Y. Tohjima

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruise routes: from Japan to Oceania, the United States, Canada, and Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in th...

  17. Temporal Variations in Concentrations of Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide at Osijek, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira Kovač-Andrić; Tatjana Radanović; Iva Topalović; Berislav Marković; Nikola Sakač

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide variations and their correlation with meteorological parameters in Osijek (Eastern Croatia) during the summer seasons of 2002, 2007, and 2012. The measured data are discussed in relation to the EU guidelines (Directive 2002/3/EC, Directive 2008/50/EC). In order to characterize ambient air with respect to ozone photochemical pollution we calculated three photochemical pollution indicators. These indic...

  18. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific Ocean by voluntary observing ships

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H; Nojiri, Y.; H. Mukai; Machida, T.; Y. Tohjima

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruising routes: from Japan to Oceania, from Japan to the United States, from Japan to Canada, and from Japan to Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected durin...

  19. Real Time Monitoring of Carbon Monoxide Using Value-at-Risk Measure and Control Charting

    OpenAIRE

    Bersimis, Sotirios; Degiannakis, Stavros; Georgakellos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important environmental health issues is air pollution, causing the deterioration of the population’s quality of life, principally in cities where the urbanization level seems limitless. Among ambient pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) is well known for its biological toxicity. Many studies report associations between exposure to CO and excess mortality. In this context, the present work provides an advanced modelling scheme for real time monitoring of pollution data and especia...

  20. Relation of Whole Blood Carboxyhemoglobin Concentration to Ambient Carbon Monoxide Exposure Estimated Using Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra, Carole B.; Williams, Michelle A.; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schiff, Melissa A.; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Dills, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and other ambient air pollutants is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While there are several methods of estimating CO exposure, few have been evaluated against exposure biomarkers. The authors examined the relation between estimated CO exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 708 pregnant western Washington State women (1996–2004). Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in whole blood drawn around 13 weeks’ gestation. CO exposure during the mon...

  1. Visible-light photocatalytic conversion of carbon monoxide to methane by nickel(II) oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Francesc; Corma, Avelino; García, Hermenegildo

    2013-12-01

    Solar Fuels: Different n- and p-type semiconductors have been investigated for sustainable solar fuel production. p-Type semiconductors, such as NiO, Fe3 O4 , Co3 O4 , and CuO, are able to reduce carbon monoxide by water or hydrogen to methane. The highest CH4 yield achieved was 17.26 mmol of CH4 per gram of catalyst using NiO in an excess of H2 . PMID:24167093

  2. Carbon Monoxide Chemisorption and Disproportionation on Thin Palladium Layers, Supported by Niobium and Niobium Pentoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plšek, Jan; Nikolajenko, Vladimír; Thiam, Michel Malick; Knor, Zlatko

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 10 (2003), s. 1833-1847. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/98/K002; GA ČR GA202/02/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : thermally programmed desorption * energy dissipation * carbon monoxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  3. Inhibition of the Cardiac Na+ Channel Nav1.5 by Carbon Monoxide*

    OpenAIRE

    Elies, J; Dallas, M.; Boyle, JP; Scragg, JL; Duke, A; Steele, DS; Peers, C

    2014-01-01

    Sublethal carbon monoxide (CO) exposure is frequently associated with myocardial arrhythmias, and our recent studies have demonstrated that these may be attributable to modulation of cardiac Na(+) channels, causing an increase in the late current and an inhibition of the peak current. Using a recombinant expression system, we demonstrate that CO inhibits peak human Nav1.5 current amplitude without activation of the late Na(+) current observed in native tissue. Inhibition was associated with a...

  4. Exposure to carbon monoxide from second-hand tobacco smoke in Polish pubs

    OpenAIRE

    Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Czogała, Jan; Kośmider, Leon; Koszowski, Bartosz; Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the more toxic agents present in the gas phase of second-hand tobacco smoke. There is sufficient evidence suggesting that passive smokers are involuntarily poisoned by low CO concentrations. At lower doses, CO affects the central nervous system leading to deterioration in visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, driving performance, and attention level. The effects of chronic inhalation of CO at doses corresponding to tobacco smoking on the cardiovascular ...

  5. Enantioselective Alternating Copolymerization of Propylene with Carbon Monoxide Using Cationic Palladium-Chiral Diphosphine Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Enantioselective alternating copolymerization of carbon monoxide with propylene was carried out using palladium catalyst modified by 1,4-3,6-dianhydro-2,5-dideoxy-2,5-bis (diphenylphosphino)-L-iditol (DDPPI). The chiral diphosphine was proved to be effective at enantioselective copolymerization. Optical rotation, elemental analysis, 1H, 13C-NMR and IR spectra showed that the copolymer was optically active, isotactic, alternating poly(1,4-ketone) structure.

  6. Effect of bronchodilatation on single breath pulmonary uptake of carbon monoxide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Simonetta; Fracchia, Claudio; Bruschi, Claudio; Dore, Roberto; Maestri, Roberto; Brusasco, Vito; Pellegrino, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    We studied 21 COPD patients in stable clinical conditions to evaluate whether changes in lung function induced by cumulative doses of salbutamol alter diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and whether this relates to the extent of emphysema as assessed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) quantitative analysis. Spirometry and DLCO were measured before and after cumulative doses of inhaled salbutamol (from 200 μg to 1000 μg). Salbutamol caused significant increments of forced...

  7. Efficient photosynthesis of carbon monoxide from CO2 using perovskite photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Marcel; Curvat, Laura; Giordano, Fabrizio; Steier, Ludmilla; Abate, Antonio; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Luo, Jingshan; Mayer, Matthew T.; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, mimicking nature in its efforts to store solar energy, has received considerable attention from the research community. Most of these attempts target the production of H2 as a fuel and our group recently demonstrated solar-to-hydrogen conversion at 12.3% efficiency. Here, in an effort to take this approach closer to real photosynthesis, which is based on the conversion of CO2, we demonstrate the efficient reduction of CO2 to carbon monoxide driven solely by simulate...

  8. Trend of exposure to carbon monoxide in Tehran taxi drivers during one year

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Golhosseini; Hossein Kakooei; Jamaleddin Shahtaheri; Kamal Azam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Motor vehicles are an absolute necessity used extensively in all countries of the world. They are a major cause of air pollution with highly undesirable consequences. Thus, exposure to traffic pollution is a growing public health concern. Several studies indicate that people in the cabin of a vehicle inhale air with high concentrations of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides(NOx), particulate matter (PM), volatile compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO).   Materials and Me...

  9. Air Pollution by Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisonous Gas in Lagos Area Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode S. John; Kamson Feyisayo

    2013-01-01

    We examined exposure to air pollution caused by households’ wood burning of cooking, generating sets and vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonous gas in the most populated urban city of Lagos Southwestern part of Nigeria. It is a known fact that many families including children and pregnant women; infant babies and individuals lost their lives due to poor quality air control policies, and inefficient control of air pollution caused by this deadly gas. Many ar...

  10. Latitudinal distribution of the sources of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed a vertically and zonally averaged model of the troposphere which calculates photochemical interactions and diffusive North-South transport of trace species. The model can be used to calculate the latitudinal distribution of the source function of a species if its concentration distribution is known. We have applied this procedure to carbon monoxide and find large sources outside the industrialized belt in the Northern Hemisphere

  11. Carbon monoxide pollution from cities and urban areas observed by the Terra/MOPITT mission

    OpenAIRE

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Edwards, David P.; Deeter, Merritt; Emmons, Louisa; Lamarque, Jean-François; Tie, Xue Xi; Massie, Steve T.; Gille, John

    2008-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key species for tracking pollution plumes. The Measurement Of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) mission onboard the Terra satellite has already provided 7.5 years of CO atmospheric concentration measurements around the globe. Limited sensitivity to the boundary layer is well known to be a weakness of nadir looking thermal infrared sounders. This paper investigates the possibility of using the MOPITT surface measurements to detect CO emitted by cities and urban ce...

  12. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; S. Sadeghian; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur...

  13. A Study on Catalysis by Ferrospinels for Preventing Atmospheric Pollution from Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Chennampilly Ummer Aniz; Thengumthanam Damodaran Radhakrishnan Nair

    2011-01-01

    Ferrospinel catalyst samples containing Nickel, Cobalt and Copper have been synthesized by room temperature co-precipitation route and have been found to be effective for the oxidative removal of carbon monoxide from automobile exhaust gases even at relatively lower temperatures (cold-start). These catalyst materials have been characterized by modern physico-chemical techniques such as XRD, TG, BET-BJH and SEM etc. Nitrogen adsorption studies shows the samples are mesoporous in nature with po...

  14. Unsuccessful Suicide by Carbon Monoxide: A Secondary Benefit of Emissions Control

    OpenAIRE

    Landers, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus,...

  15. Carbon monoxide pollution promotes cardiac remodeling and ventricular arrhythmia in healthy rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Lucas; Boissière, Julien; Reboul, Cyril; Perrier, Romain; Zalvidea, Santiago; Meyer, Gregory; Thireau, Jérôme; Tanguy, Stéphane; Bideaux, Patrice; Hayot, Maurice; Boucher, François; Obert, Philippe; Cazorla, Olivier; Richard, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Epidemiologic studies associate atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) pollution with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased cardiac mortality risk. However, there is a lack of data regarding cellular mechanisms in healthy individuals. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the chronic effects of environmentally relevant CO levels on cardiac function in a well-standardized healthy animal model. METHODS: Wistar rats were exposed for 4 weeks to filtered air (CO < 1 ppm) or air enriched with CO ...

  16. Short-Term Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Mortality: An Analysis within the APHEA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith,; Košnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea; Schwartz, Joel David

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. Methods: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two stages. In the first stage, data from each city were analyzed separately, whereas in the second stage the city-specific air pollution estimates were regressed on city-specific covariates to obtain ov...

  17. Does carbon monoxide treatment alter cytokine levels after endotoxin infusion in pigs? A randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Winsö Ola; Haney Michael; Johansson Göran; Abrahamsson Pernilla; Åberg Anna-Maja; Larsson Jan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties, but data seem to be contradictory and species-specific. Thus, in studies on macrophages and mice, pretreatment with CO attenuated the inflammatory response after endotoxin exposure. On the other hand, human studies showed no effect of CO on the inflammatory response. Anti-inflammatory efficacy of CO has been shown at concentrations above 10% carboxyhaemoglobin. This study was undertaken ...

  18. Carbon monoxide inhibits Fas activating antibody-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xue; Wang Yong; Lee Seon-Jin; Kim Hong Pyo; Choi Augustine MK; Ryter Stefan W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The extrinsic apoptotic pathway initiates when a death ligand, such as the Fas ligand, interacts with its cell surface receptor (ie., Fas/CD95), forming a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). The Fas-dependent apoptotic pathway has been implicated in several models of lung or vascular injury. Carbon monoxide, an enzymatic product of heme oxygenase-1, exerts antiapoptotic effects at low concentration in vitro and in vivo. Methods Using mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC...

  19. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis and Secondary Necrosis in Syncytiotrophoblast

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Belkacemi, Louiza; Dickinson, Michelle; Graham, Charles H.; Smith, Graeme N

    2006-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, affects 5 to 7% of pregnancies. Oxidative stress-induced placental injury and subsequent release of placental debris into the maternal circulation are key pathogenic events in the progression of pre-eclampsia. Women who smoke cigarettes throughout pregnancy are 33% less likely to develop this disorder than nonsmoking women. We postulated that elevated carbon monoxide concentrations in serum of smoking women inhibits apoptosis and debris she...

  20. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Laat, A.T.J. de; R. Dijkstra; H. Schrijver; Nédélec, P.; Aben, I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values &ndash...

  1. Exploring the potential of low doses carbon monoxide as therapy in pregnancy complications

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mousleh Tarek; Casalis Pablo A; Wollenberg Ivonne; Zenclussen Maria L; Volk Hans D; Langwisch Stefanie; Jensen Federico; Zenclussen Ana C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been shown to play a pivotal role in pregnancy outcome and its ablation leads to abnormal placentation, intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and subsequent intrauterine fetal death. Carbon monoxide (CO) has been found to mimic the protective effects of HO-1 activity, rescuing HO-1-deficient fetuses. This gasotransmitter arises in biological systems during the oxidative catabolism of heme by HO. Here, we explored the potential of CO in preventing IU...

  2. Carbon monoxide mediates vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated nonadrenergic/noncholinergic neurotransmission

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Crystal C.; Boehning, Darren; Kaplin, Adam I.; Rao, Mahil; Ferris, Christopher D.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized by heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) and nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) mediate nonadrenergic/noncholinergic (NANC) intestinal relaxation. In many areas of the gastrointestinal tract, NO and CO function as coneurotransmitters. In the internal anal sphincter (IAS), NANC relaxation is mediated primarily by CO. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has also been shown to participate in NANC relaxation throughout the intestine, including the IAS....

  3. Effect of hypoxia and carbon monoxide on collagen synthesis in cultured porcine and bovine aortic endothelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Levene, C. I.; Bartlet, C. P.; Fornieri, C.; Heale, G.

    1985-01-01

    The cell layers and medium of cultured porcine and bovine aortic endothelium have been examined to test the effects of 24 h treatment with two factors associated with cigarette smoke--hypoxia and carbon monoxide, on cell numbers, total protein including collagen/10(6) cells, collagen type profile and ultrastructure. The most significant findings were that the responses varied with the species and that the effects on protein synthesis including collagen differed depending on the nature of the ...

  4. Tristetraprolin Mediates Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Carbon Monoxide against DSS-Induced Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joe, Yeonsoo; Uddin, Md Jamal; Min ZHENG; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Chen, Yingqing; Yoon, Nal Ae; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Park, Jeong Woo; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is known to destabilize pro-inflammatory transcripts. Here we found that exogenous CO enhanced the decay of TNF-α mRNA and suppressed TNF-α expression in LPS-activated macrophages from wild-type (WT) mice. However, TTP deficiency abrogated the effects of exogenous CO. While CO treatment prior to DSS administration in WT mice significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine levels and colitis, it failed to reduc...

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide in Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Myrna Constantin; Choi, Alexander J. S.; Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Ryter, Stefan W.

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), a catabolic enzyme, provides the rate-limiting step in the oxidative breakdown of heme, to generate carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin-IX\\(\\alpha\\). Induction of the inducible form, HO-1, in tissues is generally regarded as a protective mechanism. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in defining the therapeutic potential of HO-1 in a number of preclinical models of lung tissue injury and disease. Likewise, tissue-protective effects of CO, when...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Reduces Neuropathic Pain and Spinal Microglial Activation by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hervera, Arnau; Leánez, Sergi; Negrete, Roger; Motterlini, Roberto; Pol, Olga

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized by heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) exerts antinociceptive effects during inflammation but its role during neuropathic pain remains unknown. Our objective is to investigate the exact contribution of CO derived from HO-1 in the modulation of neuropathic pain and the mechanisms implicated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of CO following sciatic nerve injury in wild type (WT) or inducible nitric oxide...

  7. Immunomodulatory effects of inhaled carbon monoxide on rat syngeneic small bowel graft motility

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, A; Moore, B A; Murase, N.; Liu, F; Zuckerbraun, B S; Bach, F H; Choi, A M K; Nalesnik, M. A.; Otterbein, L E; Bauer, A J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Intestinal transplantation provokes an intense inflammatory response within the graft muscularis that causes intestinal ileus. We hypothesised that endogenously produced anti-inflammatory substances could be utilised as novel therapeutics. Therefore, we tested the protective effects of inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and an endogenous haeme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) anti-inflammatory mediator on transplant induced inflammatory responses and intestinal ileus in the rat.

  8. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, N B; Norkool, D M

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. DESIGN - Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. SETTING - A private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. PATIENTS - Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age. INTERVENTION - All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Characteristics of the poisoning incident and clinical patient outcome. RESULTS - Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% +/- 2.4% (mean +/- SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. CONCLUSIONS - Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided. PMID:1370334

  10. A 60-yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Petrenko; P. Martinerie; Novelli, P.; Etheridge, D. M.; Levin, I.; Wang, Z.; Blunier, T.; J. Chappellaz; J. Kaiser; Lang, P.; L. P. Steele; Hammer, S.; Mak, J.; Langenfelds, R. L.; J. Schwander

    2013-01-01

    We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008). CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back ...

  11. A 60-yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Petrenko; P. Martinerie; Novelli, P.; Etheridge, D. M.; Levin, I.; Wang, Z.; Blunier, T.; J. Chappellaz; J. Kaiser; Lang, P.; L. P. Steele; Hammer, S.; Mak, J.; Langenfelds, R. L.; J. Schwander

    2012-01-01

    We present a reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008). CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back t...

  12. Vasoactive properties of CORM-3, a novel water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Foresti, Roberta; Hammad, Jehad; Clark, James E.; Johnson, Tony R.; Mann, Brian E.; Friebe, Andreas; Green, Colin J; Motterlini, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the end products of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase, possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory characteristics. We have recently discovered that certain transition metal carbonyls are capable of releasing CO in biological fluids and modulate physiological functions via the delivery of CO. Because the initial compounds identified were not water soluble, we have synthesized new CO-releasing molecules that are chemically modified to allow solubility in water. The...

  13. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonam, D; Lehman, L.; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of [35S]methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo an...

  14. An assessment on in-vehicle concentration of carbon monoxide for taxis in central business district of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi ollah Mansouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Carbon monoxide is colorless and odorless gas. In high concentrations, CO is deadly poisonous and in low concentrations can cause fatigue, headache, dizziness and seizures. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity to combines hemoglobin which can decrease oxygen capacity in blood. To address this problem, human body begins to produce red blood cells, this can increases blood viscosity and thus increase diseases such as stroke and heart attack. About 60 percent of total emissions of carbon monoxide are associated automobile exhaust. In this study, concentration of carbon monoxide has been measured in the cabin space of taxis in high-traffic areas of Tehran.Materials and Methods: This study is carried out in spring and summer 2011. Concentrations of carbon monoxide in different types of taxi cabin space (Peugeot, Samand, Pride and Peykan were measured by carbon monoxide meter Q RAE 2 models in different conditions of motion: high speed (over 45 kilometers per hour, low speed (15-30 kilometers per hour and stop (0 kilometers per hour. Results: Results showed that concentration of carbon monoxide in old vehicles (above 10 years is more than three times compared to new vehicles and outdoor. In addition, according to the measured values, at low speeds, values of CO rapidly increased, so that in speeds of less than 15 km, values of CO go beyond standard values (9 ppm.Conclusion: Results show that the mean value of the measured concentration of carbon monoxide is higher than amounts recommended by WHO and EPA and local authorities such as Air Quality Control Organization of Tehran. Concentrations observed in this study are up to 40 more than results of a study by German researchers in summer 1995 and winter 1996.

  15. CHANGE OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN PLASMA AND TISSUE DURING ACUTE HYPOXIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学琴; 刘贵明; 王俊科; 盛卓人

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To investigate the role of endogenous carbon monoxide(CO)in hypoxia. Methods. After rats were inhaled with hypoxic gases and the heme oxygenase inhibitor ZnPPIX was administered,we measured the CO levels in plasma,liver,lung and kidney. Meanwhile plasma cGMP levels were observed. Furthermore,we recorded the changes of hemodynamic and blood gases. Results. Acute mild hypoxia(10%O2)significantly increased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung,while acute severe hypoxia(5%O2)significantly decreased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung. In addition,the former significantly elevated cGMP levels in plasma while the latter markedly reduced cGMP levels in plasma. The hemodynamic changes occurred in accordance with the changes of carbon monoxide. Conclusions. Our results indicate,for the first time ,that the endogenous carbon monoxide plays an important role in regulating the vessel tone during hypoxia.

  16. The combined biological effects of low dose radiation, carbon monoxide, benzene and noise on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the combined biological effects of low dose radiation, carbon monoxide,benzene and noise on rats. Methods: Sixteen male SD rats were randomly divided into experiment group and control group. The experiment group was exposed to carbon monoxide, benzene, low dose radiation and noise daily, the control group was in common environment. Peripheral blood, organ index, and marrow DNA content were detected. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed on serum protein analysis. Differential expressed proteins were identified by a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MAIDI-TOF-MS). Results: Compared to control group, the liver index, spleen index, thymus index, leukocytes, platelets count, and marrow DNA content of the experiment group were decreased significantly (t=2.732, 4.141, 3.053, 2.211, 2.668, 11.592, P<0.05). 12 altered proteins were detected and through identification, 3 proteins were definite in terms of serum amyloid A-4 protein (SAA4), trichoplein keratin filament-binding protein (TCHP) and tubulin alpha-4A chain (TUBA4A). Conclusions: The hematopoietic system and immune system of rats are damaged significantly with the changes of several serum protein expressions by the combined exposure of low dose radiation, carbon monoxide, benzene and noise. This study may provide new information for the mechanism of the combination effects. (authors)

  17. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  18. Correlation radiometer measurements of carbon monoxide in Southern Africa during the 2000 dry season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents an innovative instrument that measures tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) and methane. The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere-Airborne (MOPITT-A) is a correlation radiometer that operates from the superpod of an ER-2 aircraft. It is equipped with 4 channels of which 3 are sensitive to tropospheric carbon monoxide and one is sensitive to methane. MOPITT-A participated in the SAFARI 2000 campaign in southern Africa to quantify atmospheric and land changes related to biomass burning. This work presents the case study for a flight conducted on September 7, 2000. Radiances from a single CO channel were used along with a regression scheme that relies on the fact radiances are typically a function of the surface temperature and the CO column. The product of retrieval is a tropospheric CO column based on a constant vertical profile. MOPITT-A can distinguish between clean air and polluted air filled with biomass burning material. Results are in good agreement with 2 carbon monoxide products independently derived from spectra recorded by the Scanning High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) on the ER-2

  19. Neutral dissociation of superexcited states in carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral photodissociation of CO has been investigated using synchrotron light in the range 19-26 eV by observing dispersed fluorescence from excited neutral C atoms. Follow-up ab initio calculations support the observed neutral carbon excitation functions, which to a large extent are associated with the CO Rydberg series converging to the CO+ C and D states. (author)

  20. Carbon monoxide-induced reduction and healing of graphene oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayanan, B.; Weeks, S. L.; Jariwala, B. N.; Macco, B.; Weber, J.; Rathi, S. J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Sutter, P.; Agarwal, S.; Ciobanu, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide holds promise as a carbon-based nanomaterial that can be produced inexpensively in large quantities. However, its structural and electrical properties remain far from those of the graphene sheets obtained by mechanical exfoliation or by chemical vapor deposition unless efficient reduc

  1. Isotope analysis of carbon monoxide in atmospheric samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique was established that allows the analysis of carbon and oxygen isotope composition of CO in small air samples (250ml). The method is based on the oxidation of CO to CO2 with iodine pentoxide and the subsequent isotope analysis of CO2. Potential applications include the use of CO and its isotopes as a tracer to distinguish different pollution sources. (author)

  2. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  3. The effects of carbon monoxide on respiratory chemoreflexes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As protection against low-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide environments, the respiratory chemoreceptors reflexly increase breathing. Since CO is also frequently present in such environments, it is important to know whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflexes responsiveness. Although the peripheral chemoreceptors fail to detect hypoxia produced by CO poisoning, whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide is unknown. The responsiveness of 10 healthy male volunteers were assessed before and after inhalation of ∼1200 ppm CO in air using two iso-oxic rebreathing tests; hypoxic, to emphasize the peripheral chemoreflex, and hyperoxic, to emphasize the central chemoreflex. Although mean (SEM) COHb values of 10.2 (0.2)% were achieved, no statistically significant effects of CO were observed. The average differences between pre- and post-CO values for ventilation response threshold and sensitivity were -0.5 (0.9) mmHg and 0.8 (0.3) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hyperoxia, and 0.7 (1.1) mmHg and 1.2 (0.8) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hypoxia. The 95% confidence intervals for the effect of CO were small. We conclude that environments with low levels of CO do not have a clinically significant effect acutely on either the central or the peripheral chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide

  4. Critical review of carbon monoxide pressure measurements in the uranium-carbon-oxygen ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high temperature reactors (HTR), the high level of fuel operating temperature in normal and accidental conditions requires to predict the possible chemical interactions between the fuel components. Among the concerns of the TRISO fuel particle thermomechanical behavior, it is necessary to better understand the carbon monoxide formation due to chemical interactions at the UO2 kernel and graphite buffer's interface. In a first step, the thermodynamic properties of the U-C-O system have to be assessed. The experimental data from literature on the equilibrium CO gas pressure measurements in the UO2-UC2-C ternary section of the U-C-O system are critically reviewed. Discrepancies between the different determinations can be explained - (i) by the different gaseous flow regimes in the experiments and - (ii) by the location of the measuring pressure gauge away from the reaction site. Experimental values are corrected - (i) from the gaseous flow type (molecular, transition or viscous) defined by the Knudsen number and - (ii) from the thermomolecular effect due to the temperature gradient inside the experimental vessels. Taking account of the selected and corrected values improves greatly the consistency of the original set of measurements

  5. Interaction of carbon monoxide and oxygen at the surface of inverse titania/Au model catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T.

    2007-07-01

    Interaction of carbon monoxide and oxygen on the surface of titania/Au(1 1 1) inverse model catalyst held at 200 K has been studied by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. It was found that CO adsorbs on the oxide/Au perimeter interface, whereas no or very weak adsorption was observed on Au(1 1 1) or titania surface, respectively. Exposing of such species to oxygen results in their decay possibly due to carbon dioxide formation. Efficiency of this effect is higher at lower CO initial concentration which points at the importance of free surface sites for the reaction process.

  6. Carbon monoxide oxidation on lithium fluoride supported gold nanoparticles: A significance of F-centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvauri, I. V.; Gergieva, B. E.; Magkoeva, V. D.; Grigorkina, G. S.; Bliev, A. P.; Ashkhotov, O. G.; Sozaev, V. A.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2015-07-01

    Oxidation of carbon monoxide on ultrasmall Au particles supported on LiF film has been studied by means of vibrational and thermal desorption spectroscopy. It is found that the efficiency of this process is dramatically enhanced when Au is deposited on defect LiF film obtained by electron bombardment to produce Fx--centers. Local electronic charge of the Fx- center is a key point determining formation of an (C-O-O*) intermediate on (Au-Fx-) adsorption site as carbon dioxide precursor.

  7. Anomalous behaviour of carbon monoxide formation at the initial stages of hydrogen corrosion of nuclear graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the study of hydrogen corrosion of nuclear graphites, by a small admixture of hydrogen in 1 atm of helium at 10250C, anomalous formation of CO was observed in the initial stages. An increase in concentration of the CO formed was attributed to chemisorbed oxygen, probably held at impurities in the graphite, even after high vacuum treatment at 10250C. This oxygen was apparently released as CO during carbon gasification with hydrogen. The behaviour of the carbon monoxide formation was found to be influenced by the kind of major impurities present in the graphite. (U.K.)

  8. Oxidation of a Single Carbon Monoxide Molecule Manipulated and Induced with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon monoxide molecule (CO) was positioned with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at various distances from an oxygen atom (O) on the Ag(110) surface at 13K. At the closest separation, carbon dioxide (CO2) production was induced by tunneling electrons. Direct reaction of a CO desorbed from the STM tip with an O atom on Ag(110) illustrates another catalytic oxidation mechanism. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with the STM was used to monitor the vibrations of CO in its different environment

  9. Mechanism of carbon monoxide reactions under high pressure catalyzed by acids and bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takezaki, Y.

    1978-05-01

    A review, based mainly on work done at Kyoto University, covers the mechanisms and kinetics of acid-catalyzed carbonylations, including the hydrogen fluoride-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide to methallyl chloride, the sulfuric acid-catalyzed synthesis of succinic acid from acrylic acid, and the conversion of toluene to p-tolualdehyde in hydrogen fluoride/boron trifluoride by the Gattermann-Koch reaction; and of base-catalyzed reactions, including the production of methyl formate from methanol with 1,8-diazabicyclo (5,4,0)undec-7-ene catalyst and of malonic acid from potassium acetate and potassium carbonate. Graphs, tables, and 34 references.

  10. Biological carbon monoxide conversion to acetate production by mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chul Woo; Jung, Kyung A; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-07-01

    To utilize waste CO for mixed culture gas fermentation, carbon sources (CO, CO2) and pH were optimized in the batch system to find out the center point and boundary of response surface method (RSM) for higher acetate (HAc) production (center points: 25% CO, 40% CO2, and pH 8). The concentrations of CO and CO2, and pH had significant effects on acetate production, but the pH was the most significant on the HAc production. The optimum condition for HAc production in the gas fermentation was 20.81% CO, 41.38% CO2, 37.81% N2, and pH 7.18. The continuous gas fermentation under the optimum condition obtained 1.66g/L of cell DW, 23.6g/L HAc, 3.11g/L propionate, and 3.42g/L ethanol. PMID:27035481

  11. Carbon monoxide - hydrogen combustion characteristics in severe accident containment conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide can be produced in severe accidents from interaction of ex-vessel molten core with concrete. Depending on the particular core-melt scenario, the type of concrete and geometric factors affecting the interaction, the quantities of carbon monoxide produced can vary widely, up to several volume percent in the containment. Carbon monoxide is a combustible gas. The carbon monoxide thus produced is in addition to the hydrogen produced by metal-water reactions and by radiolysis, and represents a possibly significant contribution to the combustible gas inventory in the containment. Assessment of possible accident loads to containment thus requires knowledge of the combustion properties of both CO and H2 in the containment atmosphere. Extensive studies have been carried out and are still continuing in the nuclear industry to assess the threat of hydrogen in a severe reactor accident. However the contribution of carbon monoxide to the combustion threat has received less attention. Assessment of scenarios involving ex-vessel interactions require additional attention to the potential contribution of carbon monoxide to combustion loads in containment, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed for hydrogen to effectively deal with particular aspects of carbon monoxide. The topic of core-concrete interactions has been extensively studied; for more complete background on the issue and on the physical/thermal-hydraulics phenomena involved, the reader is referred to Proceedings of CSNI Specialists Meetings (Ritzman, 1987; Alsmeyer, 1992) and a State-of-Art Report (European Commission, 1995). The exact amount of carbon monoxide present in a reactor pit or in various compartments (or rooms) in a containment building is specific to the type of concrete and the accident scenario considered. Generally, concrete containing limestone and sand have a high percentage of CaCO3. Appendix A provides an example of results of estimates of CO and CO2 production

  12. Radiation induced chemical reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies of radiation induced chemical reactions of CO-H2 mixture have revealed that the yields of oxygen containing products were larger than those of hydrocarbons. In the present study, methane was added to CO-H2 mixture in order to increase further the yields of the oxygen containing products. The yields of most products except a few products such as formaldehyde increased with the addition of small amount of methane. Especially, the yields of trioxane and tetraoxane gave the maximum values when CO-H2 mixture containing 1 mol% methane was irradiated. When large amounts of methane were added to the mixture, the yields of aldehydes and carboxylic acids having more than two carbon atoms increased, whereas those of trioxane and tetraoxane decreased. From the study at reaction temperature over the range of 200 to 473 K, it was found that the yields of aldehydes and carboxylic acids showed maxima at 323 K. The studies on the effects of addition of cationic scavenger (NH3) and radical scavenger (O2) on the products yields were also carried out on the CO-H2-CH4 mixture. (author)

  13. Carbon monoxide isotope fractionation in the dust cloud Lynds 134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior observations of isotopically substituted CO in Lynds 134 are used to discuss the spatial behavior of the [CO]/[13CO] abundance ratio as a function of visual extinction in the cloud. [CO]/[13CO] is determined from both LTE and non-LTE evaluations of the double ratio [13CO]/: C18O] by subsequent application of an assumed constant, terrestrial oxygen isotope ratio. It is found that [CO]/[13CO] is roughly terrestrial toward the central regions of L134 where A/sub ν/> or approx. =7 mag, and decreases in the cloud periphery where A/sub ν/ is lower. These results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectation for a low-temperature, chemically fractionated dark cloud, in which preferential 13CO enhancement is driven in low-extinction regions by the charge exchange 13C++12CO→12C+13CO. The impact of this result on previous studies of the carbon isotope ratio [12C]/[13C] in the sense interstellar medium is discussed

  14. Influence of short-term air pollution with carbon monoxide on the risk of ambulance call-outs related to arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Agnė Brazienė; Jonė Venclovienė; Rūta Babarskienė; Tautvydė Danilčikaitė

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution by carbon monoxide can be possibly related to the increase in arterial blood pressure and the risk of arterial hypertension. The study was made in Kaunas. The concentration of daily carbon monoxide was estimated according to the data provided by the Department of Environment of Kaunas and environmental monitoring stations of Kaunas city municipality. The study aims to determine a short-term impact of air pollution by carbon monoxide on the number of calls for ambulance due to th...

  15. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  16. Determining the diagnostic value of endogenous carbon monoxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether endogenous carbon monoxide levels in exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were higher compared to healthy individuals and to investigate alteration of carbon monoxide levels across the three different severity stages of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from January to March 2011 at two medical institutions in Ankara, Turkey, and comprised patients of acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. The severity of the exacerbations was based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Patients with active tobacco smoking, suspicious carbon monoxide poisoning and uncertain diagnosis were excluded. healthy control subjects who did not have any comorbid diseases and smoking habitus were also enrolled to compare the differences between carboxyhaemoglobin levels A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was done following a Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical purposes. Results: There were 90 patients and 81 controls in the study. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were higher in the patients than the controls (p<0.001). As for the three severity stages, Group 1 had a median carboxyhaemoglobin of 1.6 (0.95-2.00). The corresponding levels in Group 2 (1.8 (1.38-2.20)) and Group 3 (1.9 (1.5-3.0)) were higher than the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.005 respectively). No statistically significant difference between Group 1 and the controls (1.30 (1.10-1.55)) was observed (p<0.434). Conclusion: Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly higher in exacerbations compared with the normal population. Also, in more serious exacerbations, carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly increased compared with healthy individuals and mild exacerbations. (author)

  17. An operando FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic study of carbon monoxide pressure influence on rhodium-catalyzed olefin hydroformylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Christoph; Sawall, Mathias; Block, Axel; Neymeyr, Klaus; Ludwig, Ralf; Börner, Armin; Selent, Detlef

    2014-09-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide concentration on the kinetics of the hydroformylation of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene with a phosphite-modified rhodium catalyst has been studied for the pressure range p(CO)=0.20-3.83 MPa. Highly resolved time-dependent concentration profiles of the organometallic intermediates were derived from IR spectroscopic data collected in situ for the entire olefin-conversion range. The dynamics of the catalyst and organic components are described by enzyme-type kinetics with competitive and uncompetitive inhibition reactions involving carbon monoxide taken into account. Saturation of the alkyl-rhodium intermediates with carbon monoxide as a cosubstrate occurs between 1.5 and 2 MPa of carbon monoxide pressure, which brings about a convergence of aldehyde regioselectivity. Hydrogenolysis of the acyl intermediate is fast at 30 °C and low pressure of p(CO)=0.2 MPa, but is of minus first order with respect to the solution concentration of carbon monoxide. Resting 18-electron hydrido and acyl complexes that correspond to early and late rate-determining states, respectively, coexist as long as the conversion of the substrate is not complete. PMID:25081298

  18. AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe: Time Series from 8/1/2005 to 9/30/2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe Forest fires and agricultural burning create large amounts of carbon monoxide. AIRS provides daily global maps of carbon monoxide from space, allowing scientists to follow the global transport of this gas day-to-day. In this image sequence, carbon monoxide pollution from agricultural burning blooms repeatedly over the Amazonian basin. The gas is then transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Carbon monoxide pollution from fires in sub-Saharan Africa is also apparent. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. The effect of quaternary structure on the kinetics of conformational changes and nanosecond geminate rebinding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, L.P.; Hofrichter, J.; Henry, E.R.; Eaton, W.A. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Ikeda-Saito, Masao; Kitagishi, Keiko; Yonetani, Takashi (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

    1988-04-01

    To determine the effect of quaternary structure on the individual kinetic steps in the binding of carbon monoxide to the {alpha} subunit of hemoglobin, time-resolved absorption spectra were measured after photodissociation of carbon monoxide from a hemoglobin tetramer in which cobalt was substituted for iron in the {beta} subunits. Cobalt porphyrins do not bind carbon monoxide. Spectra were measured in the Soret region at room temperature after time delays that varied from a few nanoseconds to the completion of ligand rebinding at about 100 ms. The results show that the liganded molecule is in the R state, but can be almost completely switched into the T state by the allosteric effectors inositol hexaphosphate and bezafibrate. The geminate yield, which is the probability that the ligand rebinds to the heme from within the protein, is found to be 40% for the R state and <1% for the T state. According to the simplest kinetic model, these results indicate that carbon monoxide enters the protein in the R and T quaternary conformations at the same rate, and that the 60-fold decrease in the overall binding rate, of carbon monoxide to the {alpha} subunit in the T state compared to the R state is almost completely accounted for by the decreased probability of binding after the ligand has entered the protein. The results further suggest that the low probability for the T state results from a decreased binding rate to the heme and not from an increased rate of return of the ligand to the solvent.

  20. On the detection of carbon monoxide as an anti-biosignature in exoplanetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Tian, Feng; Li, Tong; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-03-01

    Recent works suggest that oxygen can be maintained on lifeless exoplanets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs as the results of photochemical reactions. However, the same photochemical models also predict high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the corresponding atmospheres. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to investigate the observation requirements of O2 and CO in such atmospheres. The results show that photochemically produced CO can be readily detected at 1.58, 2.34, and 4.67 μm. We suggest that future missions aiming at characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres consider detections of CO as an anti-biosignature.