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Sample records for carbon monoxide hydrogenation

  1. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1993-12-01

    Focus of this project is on developing new approaches for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. The strategies to accomplish CO reduction are based on favorable thermodynamics manifested by rhodium macrocycles for producing a series of intermediates implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Metalloformyl complexes from reactions of H 2 and CO, and CO reductive coupling to form metallo α-diketone species provide alternate routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics are promising candidates for future development

  2. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Hydrogenation on Ice Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahata, Kazuaki; Ohno, Kaoru

    2018-03-14

    We have performed density functional calculations to investigate the carbon monoxide hydrogenation reaction (H+CO→HCO), which is important in interstellar clouds. We found that the activation energy of the reaction on amorphous ice is lower than that on crystalline ice. In the course of this study, we demonstrated that it is roughly possible to use the excitation energy of the reactant molecule (CO) in place of the activation energy. This relationship holds also for small water clusters at the CCSD level of calculation and the two-layer-level ONIOM (CCSD : X3LYP) calculation. Generally, since it is computationally demanding to estimate activation energies of chemical reactions in a circumstance of many water molecules, this relationship enables one to determine the activation energy of this reaction on ice surfaces from the knowledge of the excitation energy of CO only. Incorporating quantum-tunneling effects, we discuss the reaction rate on ice surfaces. Our estimate that the reaction rate on amorphous ice is almost twice as large as that on crystalline ice is qualitatively consistent with the experimental evidence reported by Hidaka et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett., 2008, 456, 36.]. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kunugi, T.

    1978-03-01

    An alumina-supported 2% palladium catalyst had higher activity for carbon monoxide hydrogenation than a silica-supported 2% palladium catalyst, at 250/sup 0/-400/sup 0/C and 1 atm. The addition of lanthanum oxide or thorium oxide, but not of potassium oxide, to the silica-supported catalyst increased the conversion at 350/sup 0/C from 1.1% to 81.0% with a selectivity of 56.1% for methane, 1.4% for C/sub 2/ compounds, 0.1% for C/sub 3/ compounds, and 42.5% for carbon dioxide. Temperature-programed desorption of carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream showed that of two desorption peaks observed for carbon monoxide, the one at higher temperature corresponded to the carbon monoxide species which hydrogenates to methane and that the area of this peak increased with increasing thorium content of the catalyst. Graphs, tables, and 12 references.

  5. Carbon monoxide hydrogenation over ruthenium zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, P.A.; Nijs, H.H.; Verdonck, J.J.; Uytterhoeven, J.B.

    1978-03-01

    Ru zeolites are active and stable methanation catalysts. Under Fischer--Tropsch conditions they show a narrow product distribution. Further work is needed to assign this to a possible effect exerted by the zeolite cages. When the size of the Ru particles enclosed in the zeolite cages is increased, a lower methanation activity is found and a higher amount of C/sub 2/ and C/sub 3/ products are formed under Fischer--Tropsch conditions. This effect has not been reported until now on other supports. The less acidic zeolites act as promoters of the CO hydrogenation: under methanation conditions the activity is increased; under Fischer--Tropsch conditions, the selectivity is shifted toward higher hydrocarbons. This is explained by the particular zeolite property that electron deficient metal agglomerates seem to be formed on the acidic zeolites. With respect to kinetic behavior, relative activity of different metals, influence of reaction temperature on product distribution, the zeolite behaves in the same way a conventional alumina support. 4 figs., 4 tables.

  6. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  7. Mechanism of obtaining carbon monoxide and hydrogen during brown coal radiolysis. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustamov, V R; Kurbanov, M A; Dzantiev, B T; Kerimov, V K; Musaeva, P F

    1982-05-01

    This article analyzes effects of gamma radiation on the yield of products of coal gasification: hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Samples of brown coal from the Kansk-Achins basin were treated by gamma radiation with cobalt 60 radiation source. Analyses show that accumulation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in brown coal under influence of gamma radiation is characterized by a constant rate. Yields of carbon monoxide and hydrogen amount to 0.16 molecule/100 electro volt and 0.21 molecule/electro volt respectively. Reducing radiation dose from 2.5 to 0.7 millirad/h reduces yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Increasing temperature of vacuum brown coal pyrolysis from 200 to 600 C causes decrease of hydrogen yield. Hydrogen yield decrease during temperature increase is caused by a high content of aromatic nuclei in the samples used in the radiolysis. (5 refs.)

  8. Carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document identifies the main sources of carbon monoxide (CO) in the general outdoor atmosphere, describes methods of measuring and monitoring its concentration levels in the United Kingdom, and discusses the effects of carbon monoxide on human health. Following its review, the Panel has put forward a recommendation for an air quality standard for carbon monoxide in the United Kingdom of 10 ppm, measured as a running 8-hour average. The document includes tables and graphs of emissions of CO, in total and by emission source, and on the increase in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin with continuing exposure to CO. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Performance simulation of planar SOFC using mixed hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inui, Y. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)]. E-mail: inui@eee.tut.ac.jp; Urata, A. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Ito, N. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Nakajima, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    The authors investigate in detail the influence of the mixing ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the fuel on the cell performance of the SOFC through numerical simulations for a single cell plate of the co-flow type planar cell. It is made clear that the cell performance is almost the same and excellent, independent of the mixing ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide under the nominal operating condition. The electromotive force of the hydrogen rich fuel gas is a little higher than that of the carbon monoxide rich fuel gas. The internal voltage drop in the cell decreases as the fraction of carbon monoxide becomes high. Since the value of the single cell voltage is determined by the balance of these two phenomena, the lowering of the electromotive force is dominant and the single cell voltage of the hydrogen rich fuel gas is higher when the inlet gas temperature is high, whereas the voltage drop reduction is dominant and the single cell voltage of the carbon monoxide rich fuel gas is higher when the temperature is low. The effect of the additional gases of water vapor and carbon dioxide is restricted to the single cell voltage shift, and the qualitative dependence of the single cell voltage on the inlet gas temperature is determined by the mixing ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  10. Performance simulation of planar SOFC using mixed hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Y.; Urata, A.; Ito, N.; Nakajima, T.; Tanaka, T.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigate in detail the influence of the mixing ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the fuel on the cell performance of the SOFC through numerical simulations for a single cell plate of the co-flow type planar cell. It is made clear that the cell performance is almost the same and excellent, independent of the mixing ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide under the nominal operating condition. The electromotive force of the hydrogen rich fuel gas is a little higher than that of the carbon monoxide rich fuel gas. The internal voltage drop in the cell decreases as the fraction of carbon monoxide becomes high. Since the value of the single cell voltage is determined by the balance of these two phenomena, the lowering of the electromotive force is dominant and the single cell voltage of the hydrogen rich fuel gas is higher when the inlet gas temperature is high, whereas the voltage drop reduction is dominant and the single cell voltage of the carbon monoxide rich fuel gas is higher when the temperature is low. The effect of the additional gases of water vapor and carbon dioxide is restricted to the single cell voltage shift, and the qualitative dependence of the single cell voltage on the inlet gas temperature is determined by the mixing ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide

  11. Conversion of carbon monoxide intensities tomolecular hydrogen abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, M.L.; Leung, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    We present results of theoretical models (static spherical clouds with a microturbulent velocity field) to study the conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) line parameters into molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) column densities, N2. The three potential H 2 tracers that we investigate are the integrated 12 CO and 13 CO intensities, I 12 and I 13 , and the 13 CO LTE column density, N( 13 . We find that I 12 may be a reasonable tracer of N2 under conditions appropriate to the envelopes of giant molecular clouds and for studies involving cloud ensembles of different cloud sizes and velocity dispersions. However, it saturates under higher density conditions. It is important that empirical conversion factors be set using the types of objects to which they will be applied. For this reason, our analysis suggests that the conversion factor N2/I 12 for giant molecular clouds in the molecular ring of our galaxy may be a factor of 2 lower than the average used by many observers. This lower value is supported by some recent empirical determinations. The quantity I 13 is a good tracer of N2 over a wide range of densities but it is more sensitive to the actual 13 CO abundance. The quantity N( 13 is similar to I 13 as a good tracer of N2 except at low densities and temperatures. The ratio I 12 /I 13 may be used to delineate temperature and column density effects. Finally, we find a strong temperature dependence in the various conversion factors, with N2/I 12 scaling with gas temperature (T/sub k/ approximately as (T/sub k/)/sup -1.3/

  12. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the " ...

  15. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...... to 150°C. It was found that throughout the temperaturerange, the potential loss due to the CO poisoning can be reduced to a great extent by the injection of small amounts ofgaseous oxygen into the hydrogen gas containing carbon monoxide. By adding 5 volume percent (v/o) oxygen, an almost...

  16. Range measurements of keV hydrogen ions in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, J.; Soerensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.; Nielsen, M.; Rune, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3-3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen. The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees with that previously found for solid nitrogen. (orig.)

  17. Toxicity of carbon monoxide hydrogen cyanide gas mixtures : exposure concentration, time to incapacitation, carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    During aircraft interior fires, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are produced in sufficient amounts to cause incapacitation and death. Time-to-incapacitation (ti) is a practical parameter for estimating escape time in fire environments...

  18. Carbon monoxide - hydrogen combustion characteristics in severe accident containment conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Carbon monoxide can be produced in severe accidents from interaction of ex-vessel molten core with concrete. Depending on the particular core-melt scenario, the type of concrete and geometric factors affecting the interaction, the quantities of carbon monoxide produced can vary widely, up to several volume percent in the containment. Carbon monoxide is a combustible gas. The carbon monoxide thus produced is in addition to the hydrogen produced by metal-water reactions and by radiolysis, and represents a possibly significant contribution to the combustible gas inventory in the containment. Assessment of possible accident loads to containment thus requires knowledge of the combustion properties of both CO and H 2 in the containment atmosphere. Extensive studies have been carried out and are still continuing in the nuclear industry to assess the threat of hydrogen in a severe reactor accident. However the contribution of carbon monoxide to the combustion threat has received less attention. Assessment of scenarios involving ex-vessel interactions require additional attention to the potential contribution of carbon monoxide to combustion loads in containment, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed for hydrogen to effectively deal with particular aspects of carbon monoxide. The topic of core-concrete interactions has been extensively studied; for more complete background on the issue and on the physical/thermal-hydraulics phenomena involved, the reader is referred to Proceedings of CSNI Specialists Meetings (Ritzman, 1987; Alsmeyer, 1992) and a State-of-Art Report (European Commission, 1995). The exact amount of carbon monoxide present in a reactor pit or in various compartments (or rooms) in a containment building is specific to the type of concrete and the accident scenario considered. Generally, concrete containing limestone and sand have a high percentage of CaCO 3 . Appendix A provides an example of results of estimates of CO and CO 2

  19. Adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etherton, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts which were examined by a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The metal particle size and number of particles per area of catalyst increased with increasing metal loading. The particles were approx. 10 A. in diameter, cubo-octahedral shaped, and approx. 80-90% disperse. The STEM electron beam caused negligible damage to the samples. Hydrogen adsorption measurements showed that the hydrogen-iridium atom ratio was 1.2:1-1.3:1 and increased with decreasing metal loading. Temperature-programed desorption showed four types of adsorbed hydrogen desorbing at -90/sup 0/C (I), 15/sup 0/C (IV), 115/sup 0/C (II), and 245/sup 0/C (III). Types II and IV desorb from single atom sites and Types I and III from multiple atom sites. Type I is in rapid equilibrium with the gas phase. All desorption processes appear to be first order. Carbon monoxide adsorbed nondissociatively at 25/sup 0/C with approx. 0.7:1 CO/Ir atom ratio. It adsorbed primarily in linear forms at low coverage, but a bridged form appeared at high coverage.

  20. Radiation induced chemical reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shun-ichi; Nishii, Masanobu

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of radiation induced chemical reactions of CO-H 2 mixture have revealed that the yields of oxygen containing products were larger than those of hydrocarbons. In the present study, methane was added to CO-H 2 mixture in order to increase further the yields of the oxygen containing products. The yields of most products except a few products such as formaldehyde increased with the addition of small amount of methane. Especially, the yields of trioxane and tetraoxane gave the maximum values when CO-H 2 mixture containing 1 mol% methane was irradiated. When large amounts of methane were added to the mixture, the yields of aldehydes and carboxylic acids having more than two carbon atoms increased, whereas those of trioxane and tetraoxane decreased. From the study at reaction temperature over the range of 200 to 473 K, it was found that the yields of aldehydes and carboxylic acids showed maxima at 323 K. The studies on the effects of addition of cationic scavenger (NH 3 ) and radical scavenger (O 2 ) on the products yields were also carried out on the CO-H 2 -CH 4 mixture. (author)

  1. Deep Conversion of Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen and Formation of Acetate by the Anaerobic Thermophile Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    OpenAIRE

    Henstra, Anne M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium that catalyses the water gas shift reaction, the conversion of carbon monoxide with water to molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The thermodynamically favorable growth temperature, compared to existing industrial catalytic processes, makes this organism an interesting alternative for production of cheap hydrogen gas suitable to fuel CO-sensitive fuel cells in a future hydrogen economy, provided sufficiently lo...

  2. Ratio of carbon monoxide to molecular hydrogen in interstellar dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, R.L.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; and The Ivan A. Getting Laboratories, The Aerospace Corporation)

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen column densities are compared at various locations within 38 interstellar dark clouds. CO column densities were obtained from radio observations of the J=1→0 transitions of the 12 C 16 O and 13 C 16 O isotopic species of the molecule. Corresponding H 2 column densities were inferred by means of visual extinctions derived from star counts, since it is argued that the standard gas-to-extinction ratio can be expected to remain valid in the clouds studied. For locations in the sources possessing line-of-sight visual extinctions in the approximate range 1.5 -2 ) = (5.0 +- 2.5) x 10 5 N 13 between molecular hydrogen and 13 CO LTE column densities. The carbon monoxide molecule can therefore be used as a quantitative ''tracer'' for the (directly unobservable) H 2 content of dark clouds. The above relationship implies that at least approx.12% of the gas-phase carbon in the clouds studied is in the form of CO, provided that the clouds are assumed to be chemically homogeneous. Langer's ion-molecule chemistry for dark clouds appears to agree well with the present work if the fractionation channel of Watson, Anicich, and Huntress is included

  3. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Keep your community informed about the ... KB | Spanish PDF 592 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  4. Characteristics of autoignited laminar lifted flames in heated coflow jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2012-06-01

    The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  6. On Estimation of Contamination from Hydrogen Cyanide in Carbon Monoxide Line-intensity Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dongwoo T.; Li, Tony Y.; Viero, Marco P.; Church, Sarah E.; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: dongwooc@stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Line-intensity mapping surveys probe large-scale structure through spatial variations in molecular line emission from a population of unresolved cosmological sources. Future such surveys of carbon monoxide line emission, specifically the CO(1-0) line, face potential contamination from a disjointed population of sources emitting in a hydrogen cyanide emission line, HCN(1-0). This paper explores the potential range of the strength of HCN emission and its effect on the CO auto power spectrum, using simulations with an empirical model of the CO/HCN–halo connection. We find that effects on the observed CO power spectrum depend on modeling assumptions but are very small for our fiducial model, which is based on current understanding of the galaxy–halo connection. Given the fiducial model, we expect the bias in overall CO detection significance due to HCN to be less than 1%.

  7. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for COPROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 22nd October 2010, Revised: 12nd January 2011, Accepted: 19th January 2011[How to Cite: A. Mishra, R. Prasad. (2011. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (1: 1-14. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/191] | View in 

  8. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Progress report, December 15, 1991--December 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animals can also be poisoned by carbon monoxide. People who have pets at home may notice that their animals become ... or unresponsive from carbon monoxide exposure. Often the pets will ... these conditions. This can lead to a delay in getting help.

  10. Use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by a bacteria–animal symbiosis from seagrass sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Thomas; Lavik, Gaute; Harder, Jens; Lott, Christian; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Summary The gutless marine worm O lavius algarvensis lives in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria that provide nutrition by fixing carbon dioxide (CO 2) into biomass using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources. A recent metaproteomic analysis of the O . algarvensis symbiosis indicated that carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H 2) might also be used as energy sources. We provide direct evidence that the O . algarvensis symbiosis consumes CO and H 2. Single cell imaging using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed that one of the symbionts, the γ3‐symbiont, uses the energy from CO oxidation to fix CO 2. Pore water analysis revealed considerable in‐situ concentrations of CO and H 2 in the O . algarvensis environment, Mediterranean seagrass sediments. Pore water H 2 concentrations (89–2147 nM) were up to two orders of magnitude higher than in seawater, and up to 36‐fold higher than previously known from shallow‐water marine sediments. Pore water CO concentrations (17–51 nM) were twice as high as in the overlying seawater (no literature data from other shallow‐water sediments are available for comparison). Ex‐situ incubation experiments showed that dead seagrass rhizomes produced large amounts of CO. CO production from decaying plant material could thus be a significant energy source for microbial primary production in seagrass sediments. PMID:26013766

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  14. Occult carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J N

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  18. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  19. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  20. Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, John N.

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms ...

  1. Influence of carbon monoxide additions on the sensitivity of the dry hydrogen-air mixtures to detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magzumov, A.E.; Kirillov, I.A.; Fridman, A.A.; Rusanov, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions of water cooled nuclear reactors the hydrogen-air detonation represents one of the most hazardous events which can result in the reactor containment damage. An important factor related with the measure of gas mixture detonability is the detonation cell size which correlates with the critical tube diameter and detonation initiation energy. A numerical kinetic study is presented of the influence of carbon monoxide admixtures (from 0 vol.% to 40 vol.%) upon the sensitivity (detonation cell size) of the dry hydrogen-air gas mixtures to detonation in post-accident containment atmosphere. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide is known as the silent killer, being colorless, odourless, and tasteless. Initially non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply that prevents complete oxidation of carbon to C02. During World War II, Nazis used gas vans to kill an estimated over 700,000 prisoners by carbon monoxide poisoning. This method was also used in the gas chambers ofseveral death camps. The true number of incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning is unknown, since many non-lethal exposures go undetected From the available data, carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. Clinical features and management: The signs of carbon monoxide poisoning vary with concentration and length of exposure. Subtle cardiovascular or neurobehavioural effects occur at low concentration. The onset of chronic poisoning is usually insidious and easily mistaken for viral prodrome, depression, or gastroenteritis in children. The classic sign of carbon monoxide poisoning which is actually more often seen in the dead than the living is appearing red-cheeked and healthy. Cherry pink colour develops in nails, skin and mucosa. In acute poisoning, common abnormalities of posture and tone are cogwheel rigidity, opisthotonus, spasticity or flaccidity and seizures. Retinal haemorrhages and the classic cherry red skin colour are seldom seen. Different people andpopulations may have different carbon monoxide tolerance levels. On average, exposures at 100ppm or greater is dangerous to human health. Treatment and prevention: The mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen administration until the COHb level is normal When the patient is stable enough to be transported, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT should be considered This treatment is safe and well tolerated Public education about the danger of carbon monoxide, with

  3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students. Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide poisoning. If caught early CO poisoning is reversible with oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Objectives: The learner will assess a patient with altered mental status and weakness, ultimately identifying that the patient has carbon monoxide poisoning. The learner will treat the patient with oxygen and admit/transfer the patient for hyperbaric oxygenation. Method: Oral boards case

  4. Study on radiation degradation of hydroxylamine derivatives. Pt.3: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced by radiation degradation of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Sun Xilian

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced by radiation degradation of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine is performed on a 2 m column packed with 5 Angstrom molecular sieve and equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. The analysis of hydrogen employs argon as a carrier gas, the column temperature is 85 degree C and the detector temperature is 110 degree C; the analysis of carbon monoxide employs hydrogen as a carrier gas, the column temperature is 50 degree C and the detector temperature is 80 degree C. The results show that the volume fraction of hydrogen is increased with the increase of dose, but has little relationship with the concentration of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine. Carbon monoxide is only produced when the absorption dose is very high and the volume fraction is very low

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and Other Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non- ... outside of the Federal Government. CPSC does not control this external site or its privacy policy and ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because it's ... used or incorrectly-vented fuel-burning appliances such as furnaces, stoves, water heaters and fireplaces. Watch This ...

  7. London atmospheric Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide: 12 year record, fluxes, and diurnal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoisellé, M.; Fisher, R. E.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lowry, D.; Fowler, C. M. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been measured at the Royal Holloway site, 30km WSW of London, for 12 years. This site receives air that has passed over London when there are easterly winds and cleaner, background air when the wind comes from the SW. H2 and CO mixing ratios are measured continuously at 30 minute intervals on a Trace Analytical Reduction Gas Detector coupled to a HP5890 GC since September 1996, and on a Peak Performer I (or PP1) since July 2007 at 5 minute intervals. Both instruments use 2 1/8" packed columns in series: a Unibeads 1S and a Molecular Sieve 5A. The PP1 detector (Reduced Compound Photometer) is an updated version of the old RGD2, and both use zero air as the carrier gas. CO is calibrated twice a month against NOAA-CMDL standards (mixing ratios range: 186 to 300 ppb). H2 was uncalibrated until 2006, but is now calibrated monthly against internal standards (range 530 to 750 ppb) measured at MPI-Jena as part of the Eurohydros project. A linearity correction is applied to each instrument, based on the standard measurements. A secondary standard is measured before each sample on the GC-RGD and another one is measured 4 to 6 times in a row twice a day on the PP1. A target gas is measured daily on both instruments since September 2008. The secondary standards and the target gas are dry ambient air in 70L stainless steel tanks filled to a pressure of 8 bars. Comparison of results from the two instruments suggests that for the most part the data are in good agreement, but an interlaboratory round robin comparison exercise for the Eurohydros project showed that the RGD is not linear at low values of CO. This is particularly noticeable for CO levels below 150 ppb. The long-term record of CO at Royal Holloway shows a significant decline since the start of the record: the annual mean CO mixing ratio in 2008 was three times lower than in 1997. Flux calculations, by ratio against 222Rn, CH4 and CO2, suggest CO emissions

  8. Bacterium oxidizing carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, A

    1953-01-01

    Present-day knowledge of the microbiological oxidation of carbon monoxide is based on doubtful observations and imperfect experimental procedures. By making use of shake cultures in contact with gas mixtures containing high concentrations of CO and by employing liquid enrichment media with a low content of organic matter and solid media of the same composition with not more than 1.2% agar, it proved possible to isolate a co-oxidizing bacterium of the genus hydrogenomonas from sewage sludge. For the first time irrefutable proof has been given of the oxidation of carbon monoxide by a pure culture of a bacterium, both in growing cultures and in resting cell suspensions. 12 references.

  9. A comparison of hydrogen-bonded and van der Waals isomers of phenolṡṡnitrogen and phenolṡṡcarbon monoxide: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Darren M.; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus; Peel, J. Barrie

    1999-08-01

    The hydrogen-bonded and van der Waals isomers of phenolṡṡnitrogen and phenolṡṡcarbon monoxide in their neutral electronic (S0) and cation ground state (D0) were studied using ab initio HF/6-31G*, MP2/6-31G*, and B3LYP/6-31G* methods. The hydrogen-bonded isomers have the ligand bound via the hydroxyl group of the phenol ring, while the van der Waals isomers studied have the ligand located above the aromatic ring. For both complexes, the hydrogen-bonded isomer was found to be the most stable form for both the S0 and the D0 states. For phenolṡṡcarbon monoxide, twice as many isomers as compared to phenolṡṡnitrogen were found. The hydrogen-bonded isomer with the carbon end bonded to the hydroxyl group was the most stable structure for both the S0 and the D0 states.

  10. Kinetics, isotope effects, and mechanism for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on supported nickel catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Masuda, H.; Imai, H.; Miyamoto, A.; Baba, S.; Murakami, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Kinetics and hydrogen-deuterium isotope effects in the methanation of adsorbed CO molecules on a Ni/SiO 2 catalyst were precisely measured by using pulse surface reaction rate analysis (PSRA). When a CO pulse was injected into flowing hydrogen, it was immediately adsorbed on the catalyst and gradually hydrogenated to CH 4 and H 2 O. The amounts of CH 4 and H 2 O produced by the hydrogenation of the adsorbed CO were determined up to various times, and it was found that CH 4 and H 2 O were produced at the same rate. When O 2 instead of CO was injected, H 2 O was immediately produced. From these results, the rate-determining step of the reaction was found to be C-O bond dissociation of an adsorbed CO molecule or a partially hydrogenated CO species. By PSRA, the rate constant for the C-O bond dissocition process per adsorbed CO molecule (k/sub H/) was determined at various temperatures, and the Arrhenius parameters of the rate constant were obtained. The rate constant in flowing deuterium (k/sub D/) was also determined. it was found that k/sub D/ is considerably larger than k/sub H/, indicating an inverse isotope effect. The average value of k/sub H//k/sub D/ was 0.75. From these results, it was concluded that adsorbed CO is not directly dissociated to surface carbon and oxygen atoms but it is partially hydrogenated before C-O bond dissociation under the conditions of the PSRA experiment. 8 figures

  11. Development of CuxFe/Al2O3 catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide guided by magnetic methods, Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boellaard, E.; Geus, J.W.; Bruggen, J.M. van; Kraan, A.M. van der

    1993-01-01

    A copper-iron catalyst for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been prepared using a supported stoichiometric cyanide complex. Conversion of the cyanide precursor to a metallic catalyst appeared to be a precious process. Copper and iron in the bimetallic particles easily separate by thermal treatment and upon exposure to carbon monoxide, as revealed from Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy. During Fischer-Tropsch reaction the catalyst exhibits a rapid decline of activity. Magnetisation measurements on spent catalysts indicate that the deactivation is caused by a fast conversion of metallic iron to initially unstable carbides which transform ultimately to more stable carbides. (orig.)

  12. Conditions determining the oxidation of carbon monoxide and of hydrogen by Hydrogenomonas carboxydovorans. [Hydogenomonas carboxydovorans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, A

    1954-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Hydrogenomonas, which are widely distributed in soil, have in common the ability to grow autotrophically by oxidizing hydrogen with simultaneous reduction of carbon dioxide, and heterotrophically on common nutrient media. A survey of the literature shows that this ability is due to a specific hydrogen activating enzyme system, a hydrogenase. Apparently in most species this enzyme has a typically adaptive character to such a degree that cells grown in the absence of hydrogen as a rule do not produce it in measurable quantities. Also the ability to produce the hydrogenase under suitable conditions may be lost. Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the behavior of Hydrogenomonas carboxydovorans in this respect, and in addition, to determine whether or not the ability to oxidize CO should be considered an adaptive property. The stock culture was maintained in a mineral medium with an atmosphere of 80% CO and 20% O/sub 2/. Ways in which the culture conditions influenced the behavior of resting cells of H. carboxydovorans in the presence of H, CO, and lactate were investigated. Also studied was what would happen, if either H or CO were offered to the bacteria simultaneously with lactate.

  13. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on WO/sub 3/-Supported ruthenium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomohiro; Suganuma, Fujio; Sera, Chikara

    1988-01-01

    In this study, a WO/sub 3/-supported catalyst was prepared to conduct hydrogenation of CO for examining the product distribution and composition of hydrocarbons, using a gamma-alumina-supported catalyst for comparison. These catalysts were used under pressure to conduct a distributive reaction and the desorbing behavior of CO or H/sub 2/ at elevated temperature was measured to examine the influence of the type of carrier or the method of preparation on the activity and the distribution of products formed. The WO/sub 3/-supported catalyst gave a carbon chain length distribution that did not comply with the rule of Schulz-Flory, giving a composition richer in the isomers. Carbon number distribution is affected by Ru-dispersion, and the selectivity of isomers depends on the acidity of the carrier. Formed products distribution of the WO/sub 3/-supported reaction is attributable to the secondary reaction, which relates to the acidic point of the carrier, of the primary product formed on the metal. (7 figs, 4 tabs, 18 refs)

  14. Enzymic oxidation of carbon monoxide. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, T

    1959-01-01

    An enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide was obtained in a cell free state from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. The enzyme activity was assayed manometrically by measuring the rate of gas uptake under the atmosphere of carbon monoxide in the presence of benzyl-viologen as an oxidant. The optimum pH range was 7 to 8. The activity was slightly suppressed by illumination. The enzyme was more stable than hydrogenase or formate dehydrogenase against the heat treatment, suggesting that it is a different entity from these enzymes. In the absence of an added oxidant, the enzyme preparation produced hydrogen gas under the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. The phenomenon can be explained assuming the reductive decomposition of water. 17 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Estimation of the molecular hydrogen soil uptake and traffic emissions at a suburban site near Paris through hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and radon-222 semicontinuous measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yver, C.; Schmidt, M.; Bousquet, P.; Ramonet, M.; Bousquet, P.; Zahorowski, W.

    2009-01-01

    Since June 2006, simultaneous semicontinuous measurements of tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and radon-222 ( 222 Rn) have been performed at Gif-sur-Yvette (Paris region), a suburban atmospheric measurement site in France. Molecular hydrogen mixing ratios range from 500 to 1000 ppb, CO mixing ratios vary from 100 to 1400 ppb, and 222 Rn concentrations fluctuate from 0 to 20 Bq m -3 . The H 2 seasonal cycle shows the expected pattern for the Northern Hemisphere with a maximum in spring and a minimum in autumn. We inferred a mean baseline value of 533 ppb with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 30 ppb. Carbon monoxide exhibits a seasonal cycle with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The mean baseline value reaches 132 ppb with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 40 ppb. Radon-222 presents weak seasonal variations with a maximum in autumn/winter and a minimum in spring/summer. The diurnal cycles of H 2 and CO are dominated by emissions from nearby traffic with two peaks during morning and evening rush hours. The typical H 2 /CO emission ratio from traffic is found to be 0.47 ± 0.08 on a molar basis (ppb/ppb). The radon tracer method is applied to nighttime H 2 observations to estimate the H 2 soil uptake of the nocturnal catchment area of our sampling site. The influences from nocturnal local anthropogenic combustion sources are estimated by parallel measurements of CO at 0.14 * 10 -5 g(H 2 ) m -2 h -1 . The mean inferred dry deposition velocity is 0.024 ± 0.013 cm s -1 with a seasonal amplitude of 40% at Gif-sur-Yvette.

  16. Poisoning by carbon monoxide in the hydrogen exchange reaction between deuterium gas and water preadsorbed on a platinum--alumina catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, I.; Tamaru, K.

    1979-01-01

    Poisoning by carbon monoxide in the exchange reaction between deuterium and the water preadsorbed on a platinum--alumina catalyst was studied, by measuring not only the rate of reaction but also its kinetic behavior and the adsorption of reactants on the catalyst surface. The shape of the poisoning curve is closely associated with the kinetic behavior and exhibited an abrupt change on freezing the adsorbed water below 273 0 K. When the rate is proportional to deuterium pressure and independent of the amount of water adsorbed, the exchange rate dropped sharply by carbon monoxide adsorbed of a few percent coverage without any marked changes in the amount and the rate of hydrogen adsorption on the platinum surface. However, at temperatures lower than 273 0 K and at higher deuterium pressures, the rate depends not on the deuterium pressure but on the amount of water adsorbed. The migration of hydrogen in or through the adsorbed water is seemingly sufficiently suppressed by freezing to control the overall reaction rate. In this case, a small amount of adsorption of carbon monoxide did not show any toxicity, but then a steep poisoning started accompanying a change in the kinetic behavior. It was accordingly demonstrated that the mechanism of the reaction may be better understood by studying poisoning and measuring adsorption, overall rate, and kinetic behavior

  17. Dual Gas Treatment With Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Protects From Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, T; Hayashi, T; Inamoto, T; Kato, R; Ibuki, N; Takahara, K; Takai, T; Yoshikawa, Y; Uchimoto, T; Saito, K; Tanda, N; Kouno, J; Minami, K; Uehara, H; Hirano, H; Nomi, H; Okada, Y; Azuma, H

    Hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) gas are both reported to reduce reactive oxygen species and alleviate tissue ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture of H 2 gas and CO gas (dual gas) in comparison with hydrogen gas (H 2 : 2%) alone on I-R renal injury (composition of dual gas; N 2 : 77.8%; O 2 : 20.9%; H 2 : 1.30%; CO: 250 parts per million). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 250-280 g) were divided into 5 groups: (1) sham operation control, (2) dual gas inhalation (dual treatment) without I-R treatment, (3) I-R renal injury, (4) H 2 gas alone inhalation (H 2 treatment) with I-R renal injury, and (5) dual treatment with I-R renal injury. I-R renal injury was induced by clamping the left renal artery and vein for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion, and then contralateral nephrectomy was performed 2 weeks later. Renal function was markedly decreased at 24 hours after reperfusion, and thereafter the effects of dual gas were assessed by histologic examination and determination of the superoxide radical, together with functional and molecular analyses. Pathologic examination of the kidney of I-R rats revealed severe renal damage. Importantly, cytoprotective effects of the dual treatment in comparison with H 2 treatment and I-R renal injury were observed in terms of superoxide radical scavenging activity and histochemical features. Rats given dual treatment and I-R renal injury showed significant decreases in blood urea nitrogen. Increased expression of several inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, nuclear factor-κB, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, and heme oxygenase-1) was attenuated by the dual treatment. Dual gas inhalation decreases oxidative stress and markedly improves I-R-induced renal injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Three Gaseous Neurotransmitters, Nitric oxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Hydrogen Sulfide, Are Involved in the Neurogenic Relaxation Responses of the Porcine Internal Anal Sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folasire, Oladayo; Mills, Kylie A; Sellers, Donna J; Chess-Williams, Russ

    2016-01-31

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in maintaining continence and a number of neurotransmitters are known to regulate IAS tone. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the neurotransmitters involved in the relaxant and contractile responses of the porcine IAS. Responses of isolated strips of IAS to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in the absence and presence of inhibitors of neurotransmitter systems. Contractile responses of the sphincter to EFS were unaffected by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 μM), but were almost completely abolished by the adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine (10 μM). Contractile responses were also reduced (by 45% at 5 Hz, P 40-50% reduction), zinc protoprophyrin IX (10 μM), an inhibitor of carbon monoxide synthesis (20-40% reduction), and also propargylglycine (30 μM) and aminooxyacetic acid (30 μM), inhibitors of hydrogen sulphide synthesis (15-20% reduction). Stimulation of IAS efferent nerves releases excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: noradrenaline is the predominant contractile transmitter with a smaller component from ATP, whilst 3 gases mediate relaxation responses to EFS, with the combined contributions being nitric oxide > carbon monoxide > hydrogen sulfide.

  19. On the nature of gallium species in gallium-modified mordenite and MFI zeolites. A comparative DRIFT study of carbon monoxide adsorption and hydrogen dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Alexander I; Kolesnikov, Stanislav P

    2011-04-21

    The results of a DRIFT study of carbon monoxide molecular adsorption and hydrogen dissociative adsorption on gallium-modified mordenite and MFI (ZSM-5) zeolites are presented. It was found that in the reduced gallium-modified mordenite (Ga-MOR) both Ga(3+) and Ga(+) exchanged cations are present and can be detected by CO adsorption. Ga(3+) cations in Ga-MOR dissociatively adsorb molecular hydrogen at elevated temperatures, resulting in the formation of gallium hydride species and acidic hydroxyl groups. In the reduced Ga-MFI evacuated at 823 K under medium vacuum conditions only Ga(+) exchanged intrazeolite cations were detected. It was found, however, that Ga(3+) intrazeolite exchanged cations which form upon high-temperature disproportionation of Ga(+) cations in the reduced Ga-MFI and Ga-MOR can be stabilized by high-temperature oxidation of these zeolites.

  20. Carbon monoxide, smoking, and atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, P

    1973-10-01

    Studies on the effects of carbon monoxide and smoking on atherosclerosis are reviewed. Nonsmokers do not run the risk of getting significantly elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels from automobile exhaust in the streets, however, they do run the risk of getting elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels from exposure to CO in closed areas such as garages and tunnels. Carboxyhemoglobin levels up to 20 percent may also be found in smokers. The central nervous system seems to be influenced by carboxyhemoglobin concentrations up to 20 percent. The myocardium may also be affected. Experimental work with rabbits exposed to carbon monoxide and cholesterol is described which proved that CO has a damaging effect on arterial walls, leading to increased permeability for various plasma components, to the formation of subendothelial edema, and to increased atheromatosis. The results indicate that the much higher risk of smokers of developing arterial disease in comparison to nonsmokers is mainly due to the inhaled CO in the tobacco smoke and not to nicotine. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  1. Rhodium based clusters for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4, tolerant to methanol and carbon monoxide, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe-Godinez, J.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O.; Borja-Arco, E.; Altamirano-Gutierrez, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Queritaro (Mexico); Castellanos, R.H. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Rhodium (Rh6(CO)16) and novel Rh-based clusters were prepared using thermolysis techniques under different conditions in N2 and H2 reaction media, as well as in n-nonane, o-xylene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide. The clusters were used as novel electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the absence and presence of 1.0 and 2.0 M methanol solutions. The catalysts were also used for hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) with pure hydrogen (H2) and in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO). Rotating disk electrode measurements were used to analyze the materials. The study showed that the electrocatalyst support ratio plays a significant role in the electrochemical behaviour of the materials. Rh6(CO)16 and Rh2(1,2-DCB) presented the best electrocatalytic behaviour for ORR and HOR in the absence and presence of methanol and CO. The study demonstrated that the rhodium-based materials are capable of performing ORR and HOR while being tolerant of both methanol and CO. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  3. Inhibition of photosynthesis by carbon monoxide and suspension of the carbon monoxide inhibition by light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewitz, H S; Voelker, W

    1963-08-01

    The experimental subject was the autotroph Chlorella pyrenoidosa. It was found that growth conditions determine whether the alga is inhibited by carbon monoxide or not. Respiration and photosynthesis are inhibited by carbon monoxide if the cells have grown rapidly under high light intensities. The inhibition of respiration and photosynthesis found in such cells is completely reversible. The inhibition depends not only on carbon monoxide pressure, but also on the oxygen pressure prevailing at the same time. 5 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  4. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

  5. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-07-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem.

  6. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  7. Polyketones as alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Gennady P; Novikova, Elena V

    2004-01-01

    Characteristic features of the catalytic synthesis of alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide with various olefins, dienes, styrene and its derivatives are considered. The diversity of catalyst systems used for the copolymerisation of carbon monoxide is demonstrated and their influence on the structure and the molecular mass of the resulting copolymers is analysed. The data on the structure and physicochemical and mechanical properties of this new generation of functional copolymers are generalised and described systematically for the first time.

  8. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  9. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute alguns aspectos importantes relacionados à reação de eletrooxidação do monóxido de carbono sobre monocristais de platina, em meio ácido. Aspectos mecanísticos são discutidos em termos da formação das estruturas compactas que o CO forma quando este é adsorvido. As principais idéias aqui apresentadas, levam em consideração as existências dessas estruturas. Os clássicos mecanismos Lagmuir-Hinshelwood e Eley-Rideal são aqui discutidos, especialmente o primeiro considerando a mobilidade do CO e também a nucleação e crescimento de ilhas formadas por espécies adsorvidas contendo oxigênio.////////// This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  10. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on blood pressure and plasma levels of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in real-world patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaogui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). EH patients were assigned to the Tai Chi exercise group (HTC, n = 24), and hypertension group (HP, n = 16) by patients' willingness. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were recruited as control (NP, n = 16). HTC group performed Tai Chi (60 min/d, 6 d/week) for 12 weeks. Measurements (blood glucose, cholesterol, NO, CO, H2S and BP) were obtained at week 0, 6, and 12. SBP, MAP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased by week 12 in the HTC group (all p exercise seems to have beneficial effects on BP and gaseous signaling molecules in EH patients. However, further investigation is required to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these observations, and to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

  11. Effects of acetylene and carbon monoxide on long-term hydrogen production by Mastigocladus laminosus, a thermophilic blue-green alga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Y; Yokoyama, H; Takahara, K; Miyamoto, K

    1982-01-01

    Long-term H/sub 2/ production by a thermophilic and heterocystous blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Mastigocladus laminosus was studied under the conditions when acetylene and carbon monoxide were supplemented to the gas phase of the culture vessel. The addition of both gases enhanced H/sub 2/ evolution by nitrogen-starved cells. The concentrations of acetylene and carbon monoxide in the gas phase of argon/CO/sub 2/ (97.5/2.5) were 10% and 0.2 to 1%, respectively, for the maximum H/sub 2/ production. Renewals of the gas phase, in addition to the addition of acetylene and carbon monoxide, were necessary for durable H/sub 2/ production. Since the concentrations of both H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ accumulated in the gas phase were minimized after the renewals, the H/sub 2/ uptake activity, which was not completely inhibited by acetylene and carbon monoxide, was reduced and thereby H/sub 2/ evolution was restored. Under such conditions, H/sub 2/ production for up to 20 days was observed under argon and N/sub 2/ atmospheres with average rats of 3.9 and 3.3..mu..l/mg dry wt/h, respectively. H/sub 2/ evolution for 15 days was observed even under an air atmosphere containing acetylene and carbon monoxide. It was thus shown that prolonged production of H/sub 2/ was possible by the use of a blue-green alga which exhibits a high activity of H/sub 2/ uptake under nitrogen-starved conditions.

  12. Less sensitive electrocatalysts towards carbon monoxide for PEMFC fed by hydrogen produced from reforming gas; Recherche de catalyseurs peu sensibles a la presence de monoxyde de carbone pour piles a combustible PEMFC alimentees en gaz de reformage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, A.C.

    2002-11-15

    The aim of this work was to prepare bimetallic catalysts based on platinum to elaborate anodes for fuel cells fed by hydrogen produced from reforming gas and containing thus some ppm of carbon monoxide. In order to avoid platinum poisoning, another metal, such as tin, was added. This leads to a more tolerant material to CO. A Pt-Sn catalyst supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon was prepared by a chemical route, using a platinum carbonyl complex. This material was characterized by physical and chemical methods which indicate that it is formed by nano-structured Pt{sub 3}Sn particles. These particles have a narrow size distribution with a mean diameter of approximately 2 nm. Its activity towards CO, particularly under fuel cell conditions, was compared with a similar commercial E-TEK catalyst. This study shows that the catalyst prepared from the carbonyl precursor is less sensitive to CO than the commercial one. (author)

  13. Hydrogen-Induced Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on the Gold Dimer Cation: A Joint Experimental and DFT Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojkovic, Marin; Rayane, Driss; Antoine, Rodolphe; Broyer, Michel; Allouche, Abdul-Rahman; Mignon, Pierre; Dugourd, Philippe

    2017-06-15

    It is demonstrated, using tandem mass spectrometry and radio frequency ion trap, that the adsorption of a H atom on the gold dimer cation, Au 2 H + , prevents its dissociation and allows for adsorption of CO. Reaction kinetics are measured by employing a radio frequency ion trap, where Au 2 + and CO interact for a given reaction time. The effect of a hydrogen atom is evaluated by comparing reaction rate constants measured for Au 2 + and Au 2 H + . The theoretical results for the adsorption of CO molecules and their reaction characteristics with Au 2 + and Au 2 H + are found to agree with the experimental findings. The joint investigations provide insights into hydrogen atom adsorption effects and consequent reaction mechanisms.

  14. CARBON MONOXIDE AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and there...

  15. Effect of vegetation in reducing carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, J C

    1977-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion. Because almost all of this gas is produced by motor vehicles, it is considered to have a line rather than a stationary point source. Greatest concentrations of this lethal gas correspond to periods of peak traffic volume and congestion; therefore, there are two daily periods of maxima and minima. Carbon monoxide cannot be detected by sight or smell. For this reason, this gas is especially deadly. During the summer of 1975, a study involving carbon monoxide concentrations at selected sites in Sendai was undertaken in conjunction with an ongoing investigation of urban pollution under the directorship of Professor Toshio Noh of Tohoku University. This study was made possible by a grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. 5 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  16. Hydrogen bonding of formamide, urea, urea monoxide and their thio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ab initio and DFT methods have been employed to study the hydrogen bonding ability of formamide, urea, urea monoxide, thioformamide, thiourea and thiourea monoxide with one water molecule and the homodimers of the selected molecules. The stabilization energies associated with themonohydrated adducts and ...

  17. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  18. Occupational medicine effects of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, W.M. [South African Society of Occupational Medicine (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon monoxide can affect the body if it is inhaled or if liquid carbon monoxide comes in contact with the eyes or skin. The effects of overexposure are discussed and a brief explanation of the toxicological effects of CO given. Methods of control of CO from common operations (exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines, the chemical industry and foundries, welding, mines or tunnels, fire damp explosions, industrial heating) are by local exhaust ventilation or use of a respiratory protective device. The South African hazardous chemical substance regulation NO. R. 1179 of 25 August 1995 stipulates maximum safe levels of CO concentration. 4 refs., 1 photo.

  19. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  20. Tri-reforming and combined reforming of methane for producing syngas with desired hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of a new process concept for direct production of synthesis gas (CO + H2) with desired H 2/CO ratios (1.5--2.0) for methanol synthesis and F-T synthesis, using CO2 together with steam and unconverted O2 in flue gas from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants to react with methane or natural gas. This new process is called tri-reforming, referring to simultaneous CO2-steam-O2 reforming of methane or natural gas. This study included (1) The investigation of carbon formation in the tri-reforming process. For comparison, carbon formation in the combined reforming and CO2 reforming reaction was studied as well. (2) The effect of reaction conditions and feed compositions on equilibrium composition (e.g. H2/CO ratio) and equilibrium conversions in the tri-reforming process. (3) The role of catalysts in the tri-reforming process, especially the effect of catalysts on CO2 conversion in the presence of H 2O and O2. It was clearly evidenced from this study that CO in the product stream is probably the major source of carbon over Ni/Al2O3 in the equimolar CO2-CH4 reforming at 650°C and 1 atm. Addition of either O2 or H2O into the CO 2 reforming reaction system can suppress carbon formation. It was demonstrated that carbon-free operation can be achieved in the tri-reforming process. A thermodynamic comparison of tri-reforming with feed compositions of (H2O+CO2+0.5O2)/CH4 (mol ratio) = 1 showed that O2 improves equilibrium CH4 conversion, yet greatly decreases equilibrium CO2 conversion. H2O in tri-reforming has a significant effect on the H2/CO ratio in the products, while O2 has a minor effect. A kinetic study and catalytic performance tests indicated that the support in a supported catalyst has a significant role in enhancing CO2 conversion to CO in the presence of H2O and O2 in tri-reforming. The Ni/MgO catalyst showed superior performance with close to equilibrium CH4 and CO2 conversions at 850°C, 1 atm, and 32,000 ml

  1. Vertical observation of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide: Implication for non-photochemical H2 production at ocean surface and subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagucci, S.; Narita, T.; Obata, H.; Ogawa, H.; Gamo, T.

    2009-12-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a key metabolism controlling marine N-cycling and also known as a main H2 source. Recently, it was proposed that a monitoring of surface H2 concentration could be used quickly to figure out the spatial extent of biological nitrogen fixation activity without onboard incubation required for currently used methods for detecting the activity. However, H2 behavior in ocean water was still unresolved. This study carried out vertical observation of H2 and CO concentrations in south of Japan, western North Pacific. Because carbon monoxide, CO, in seawater has no relation with nitrogen fixation metabolism and is produced dominantly by the photochemical reaction, which is an altanative H2 source, simultaneous observation and comparison of H2 and CO concentration is helpful to investigate H2 behavior in ocean water. Reductive gases in seawater were observed during the R/V Tansei-maru KT-08-14 cruise by using a wired CTD-CMS (CTD-carousel multiple sampling) system to conduct vertical sampling (at most 200 m depth) and by using a plastic bucket for sampling surface seawater. The sample in the Niskin-X bottle was directed to the bottom of a 120 mL brown-colored glass vial allowed to overflow by 2 volumes before the tube was slowly withdrawn. After the addition of 0.5 mL HgCl2-saturated solution for poisoning, the PTFE-lined butyl-gum septum was used to cap the vials. Molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were analyzed at an onboard laboratory within 6 hours after subsampling. 20 mL of sample water was substituted by 20 mL of H2- and CO-free air using a gas-tight syringe; then the vial was put on an automatic shaker and shaken upside down for 6 minutes to achieve a complete equilibrium between the dissolved and head space gases in the vial. The equilibrated headspace was taken by another gas-tight syringe and then injected into a gas chromatograph equipped with a trace reduced gas detector. Vertical distribution of dissolved H2 and CO

  2. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  3. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ...

  4. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker a...

  5. Carbon monoxide: The 21st century poison that goes unnoticed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This editorial article describes the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on human beings and the mechanisms involving carbon monoxide saturation of haemoglobin that are responsible for it. The initial research done in the mid-1800s by Claude Bernard is presented. Methods of treatment for persons poisoned by carbon monoxide are discussed and the experiments made by J.B.S. Haldane on himself by breathing in carbon monoxide are described. Acclimatisation effects observed by Haldane and his co-workers and concerning persons occupationally exposed to carbon monoxide emissions are described

  6. Carbon monoxide: The 21st century poison that goes unnoticed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, J.A. [Reigate, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This editorial article describes the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on human beings and the mechanisms involving carbon monoxide saturation of haemoglobin that are responsible for it. The initial research done in the mid-1800s by Claude Bernard is presented. Methods of treatment for persons poisoned by carbon monoxide are discussed and the experiments made by J.B.S. Haldane on himself by breathing in carbon monoxide are described. Acclimatisation effects observed by Haldane and his co-workers and concerning persons occupationally exposed to carbon monoxide emissions are described.

  7. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Exposure in Youth Ice Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnow, Theodore; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P

    2017-11-01

    To examine the effect of ice resurfacer type on carboxyhemoglobin levels in youth hockey players. We hypothesized that players in arenas with electric resurfacers would have normal, stable carboxyhemoglobin levels during games, whereas those in arenas with internal combustion engine (IC) resurfacers would have an increase in carboxyhemoglobin levels. Prospective cohort study. Enclosed ice arenas in the northeastern United States. Convenience sample of players aged 8 to 18 years old in 16 games at different arenas. Eight arenas (37 players) used an IC ice resurfacer and 8 arenas (36 players) an electric resurfacer. Carboxyhemoglobin levels (SpCO) were measured using a pulse CO-oximeter before and after the game. Arena air was tested for carbon monoxide (CO) using a metered gas detector. Players completed symptom questionnaires. The change in SpCO from pregame to postgame was compared between players at arenas with electric versus IC resurfacers. Carbon monoxide was present at 6 of 8 arenas using IC resurfacers, levels ranged from 4 to 42 parts per million. Carbon monoxide was not found at arenas with electric resurfacers. Players at arenas with IC resurfacers had higher median pregame SpCO levels compared with those at electric arenas (4.3% vs 1%, P carboxyhemoglobin during games and have elevated baseline carboxyhemoglobin levels compared with players at arenas with electric resurfacers. Electric resurfacers decrease the risk of CO exposure.

  9. New syntheses with carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    In the chapter of hydroformulation, oxosynthesis ans Roelen reaction the effect of reaction conditions on conversion, selectivity and operation of the oxo synthesis, hydroformulation of particular structures, parallel and consecutive reactions under hydroformulation conditions and process variants and economic background of the industrial oxo synthesis are discussed. The chapter of homologation of alcohols describes reaction mechanism and parallel and secondary reactions. The chapter of Reppe reactions deals with carbonylation of various structures. The chapter of hydrogenation of CO treats methanol, glycol, methane, the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon and polymethylene synthesis. The chapter of Koch reactions treats reaction mechanism and carbonlylation at particular compounds. The last chapter presents ring closure reactions with CO. Separate abstracts were prepared for one chapter in this book.

  10. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  11. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  12. Characteristics of exogenous carbon monoxide deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-jun Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO has long been considered an environmental pollutant and a poison. Exogenous exposure to amounts of CO beyond the physiologic level of the body can result in a protective or adaptive response. However, as a gasotransmitter, endogenous CO is important for multiple physiologic functions. To date, at least seven distinct methods of delivering CO have been utilized in animal and clinical studies. In this mini-review, we summarize the exogenous CO delivery methods and compare their advantages and disadvantages.

  13. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in n......The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...

  14. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  15. Cardiological aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Jakub; Gawlik, Iwona; Dębski, Grzegorz; Popiołek, Lech; Marchewka, Wojciech; Hydzik, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiological manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Background/introduction: Carbon monoxide intoxication is one of the most important toxicological causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early clinical manifestation of CO poisoning is cardiotoxicity. We enrolled 75 patients (34 males and 41 females, mean age 37.6 ± 17.7 y/o) hospitalized due to CO poisoning. Laboratory tests including troponin I, blood pressure measurements, HR and electrocardiograms (ECG) were collected. Pach's scale scoring and grading system was used to establish severity of poisoning. Grade of poisoning is positively correlated with troponin I levels and systolic blood pressure. Moreover, troponin levels are significantly correlated with exposition time, lactates and are higher in tachycardiac, hypertensive and positive ECG subpopulations. COHb levels are indicative of exposure but do not correlate with grade of poisoning. The main cause of CO poisoning were bathroom heaters - 83%, only 11% of examined intoxicated population were equipped with CO detectors. Complex cardiological screening covering troponin levels, ECG, blood pressure and heart rate measurements as well as complete blood count with particular attention to platelet parameters should be performed in each case where CO intoxication is suspected. More emphasis on education on CO poisoning is needed.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3... columns is one form of corrective action which may be taken.) (b) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior... calibrated. (1) Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with...

  17. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  18. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide interaction with tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.D.; Ustinov, Yu.K.; Komar, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on tantalum and the dissolution of these gases in the adsorbent at T >= 300 K have been studied. The flash-filament method (FFM) in a monopole mass-spectrometer and a field emission microscopy was used in the same apparatus. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide dissociate on the tantalum surface, carbon monoxide being desorbed in both cases during the flash. The desorption curves of CO reveal three different binding states: two of them (α and β' 1 ) for the adsorbed particles whereas the high temperature desorption state relates to the adsorbate dissolved in the metal. For the β' 1 state of CO the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor and the kinetic order in the kinetic equation of desorption have been estimated. They turned out to be E = 110 kcal/mol, C = 3 X 10 12 sec -1 , and γ = 1. The activation energy of diffusion for CO in tantalum and the energy of outgassing for the metal were found to be 9.4 and 49 kcal/mole, respectively. (Auth.)

  19. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide interaction with tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, V D; USTINOV, YU K; KOMAR, A P [AN SSSR, LENINGRAD. FIZIKO-TEKHNICHESKIJ INST.

    1978-03-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on tantalum and the dissolution of these gases in the adsorbent at T >= 300 K have been studied. The flash-filament method (FFM) in a monopole mass-spectrometer and a field emission microscopy was used in the same apparatus. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide dissociate on the tantalum surface, carbon monoxide being desorbed in both cases during the flash. The desorption curves of CO reveal three different binding states: two of them (..cap alpha.. and ..beta..'/sub 1/) for the adsorbed particles whereas the high temperature desorption state relates to the adsorbate dissolved in the metal. For the ..beta..'/sub 1/ state of CO the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor and the kinetic order in the kinetic equation of desorption have been estimated. They turned out to be E = 110 kcal/mol, C = 3 X 10/sup 12/ sec/sup -1/, and ..gamma.. = 1. The activation energy of diffusion for CO in tantalum and the energy of outgassing for the metal were found to be 9.4 and 49 kcal/mole, respectively.

  20. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Recent changes in atmospheric carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Masarie, K.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)); Tans, P.P.; Lang, P.M. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-03-18

    Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) in air samples collected from 27 locations between 71[degrees]N and 41[degrees]S show that atmospheric levels of this gas have decreased worldwide over the past 2 to 5 years. During this period, CO decreased at nearly a constant rate in the high northern latitudes. In contrast, in the tropics an abrupt decrease occurred beginning at the end of 1991. In the Northern Hemisphere, CO decreased at a spatially and temporally averaged rate of 7.3 ([+-]0.9) parts per billion per year (6.1 percent per year) from June 1990 to June 1993, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere, CO decreased 4.2 ([+-]0.5) parts per billion per year (7.0 percent per year). This recent change is opposite a long-term trend of a 1 to 2 percent per year increase inferred from measurements made in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 30 years.

  2. Carbon monoxide budget in the northern hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakwin, P.S.; Tans, P.P. (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)); Novelli, P.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-03-15

    To improve urban air quality the major industrialized nations of the West took steps during the 1970s and 1980s to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automobiles and other industrial sources. Overall, CO/CO[sub 2] emission ratios from the mix of fossil fuel combustion sources have been reduced by about half during 1976-1990. Also, the tropospheric abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the main sink for CO, is proposed to have increased globally by about 1.0 [+-] 0.8% yr[sup [minus]1]. The authors use a simple two-box model to examine the impact of shrinking emissions and increasing OH on the global abundance of CO. They find that these factors contribute about equally in reducing CO levels in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere by about 1.8 [+-] 0.8 ppb yr[sup [minus]1] on average. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Health effects of carbon monoxide environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Carbon monoxide's (CO) chronic effects on man, its sources, and measuring methods are reviewed, and guidelines to determine health criteria are considered. The European data exchange included CO measuring methods in air and blood and their use in survey and experimental work, atmospheric CO pollution and sampling methods in urban thoroughfares and road tunnels in the European countries, a population survey of carboxyhemoglobin levels from cigarette smoking and atmospheric exposure, and physiological kinetics (uptake, distribution, and elimination) of CO inhalation. Additional topics are CO and the central nervous system, effects of moderate CO exposure on the cardiovascular system and on fetal development, and the current views on existing air quality criteria for CO.

  4. The chemistry of subcritical water reactions of a hardwood derived lignin and lignin model compounds with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Bembenic, Meredith A.

    collected solids from the CO reactions appeared to be the most reacted (i.e., the most changed from the unreacted lignin) according to solid state 13C-NMR analysis, and the widest variety of products (methoxy-substituted phenolic compounds) were obtained when using CO according to GC/MS analysis. Therefore, reactions with CO were completed that varied the initial reaction pressure (300, 500 and 800 psi) in order to elucidate the effects of CO pressure. Similar conversion (≈54--58%) and DCM-soluble liquid product yields (≈53--62%) were obtained for the different pressure reactions, but the reactions with an initial pressure of 500 psi had the greatest change in aromaticity from the unreacted lignin. Additional reactions between Organosolv lignin and H2O with CO (initial pressure of 500 psi) were conducted where the reaction time was varied (15, 30 and 60 min.) to determine the effect of reaction time. Longer reaction time (60 min.) appeared to inhibit conversion to low molecular weight compounds (i.e., conversion and DCM-soluble yields were lower at ≈53% and ≈28%, respectively). Solid state 13C-NMR of collected residues also showed that there are losses in carbons representative of both guaiacyl and syringyl components as reaction time increases, which may indicate that methoxy groups are being cleaved or the products are reacting with each other (i.e., repolymerization) to form high molecular weight compounds as reaction time is increased. The role of H2O and the gases during the baseline reactions and the expanded CO reactions is not intuitive based on the results, so reactions with lignin model compounds (i.e., aromatic aldehydes represented by vanillin and syringaldehyde, aromatic ketones represented by acetovanillone and acetosyringone, and aromatic ethers represented by dibenzyl ether and 2-phenethyl phenyl ether) were completed to study this. From these results, the suggested reaction pathway of Organosolv lignin reactions in subcritical H2O with and without

  5. CT and clinical patterns in suicidal carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobovschek, M.; Geretsegger, C.; Weinberger, R.; Fartacek, R.

    1988-01-01

    Cranial CT is important to exclude the presence of a mass in the cavum cranii in case of an unclear suicide attempt, particularly a traumatic mass. It can be helpful also in cases of carbon monoxide intoxications. (orig.) [de

  6. Atmospheric analyzer, carbon monoxide monitor and toluene diisocyanate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the atmospheric analyzer and the carbon monoxide and toluene diisocyanate monitors is to analyze the atmospheric volatiles and to monitor carbon monoxide and toluene diisocyanate levels in the cabin atmosphere of Skylab. The carbon monoxide monitor was used on Skylab 2, 3, and 4 to detect any carbon monoxide levels above 25 ppm. Air samples were taken once each week. The toluene diisocyanate monitor was used only on Skylab 2. The loss of a micrometeoroid shield following the launch of Skylab 1 resulted in overheating of the interior walls of the Orbital Workshop. A potential hazard existed from outgassing of an isocyanate derivative resulting from heat-decomposition of the rigid polyurethane wall insulation. The toluene diisocyanate monitor was used to detect any polymer decomposition. The atmospheric analyzer was used on Skylab 4 because of a suspected leak in the Skylab cabin. An air sample was taken at the beginning, middle, and the end of the mission.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 96-118 (1996) Describes health effects and current standards and guidelines relating to carbon monoxide, as well as recommendations for workers, employers, and manufacturers regarding small gasoline powered engine ...

  8. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  9. CT and clinical patterns in suicidal carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobovschek, M.; Geretsegger, C.; Weinberger, R.; Fartacek, R.

    1988-12-01

    Cranial CT is important to exclude the presence of a mass in the cavum cranii in case of an unclear suicide attempt, particularly a traumatic mass. It can be helpful also in cases of carbon monoxide intoxications.

  10. Carbon monoxide activation by organoactinides: a comparative synthetic, thermodynamic, kinetic, and mechanistic investigation of migratory CO insertion into actinide-carbon and actinide-hydrogen bonds to yield eta2-acyls and eta2-formyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloy, K.G.; Marks, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Reported are results of the synthesis, characterization, and carbon monoxide chemistry of a series of sterically hindered thorium alkyls and hydrides of the type Cp' 2 Th(R)(X) (Cp' = eta 5 -C 5 Me 5 ) where R = H, D, methyl, eta-butyl, and CH 2 -t-Bu and X = OCH-t-Bu 2 , OC 6 H 3 -2,6-t-Bu 2 , and O-t-Bu. In addition, improved syntheses of the known complexes [Cp' 2 Th(μ-H)(H)] 2 , Cp' 2 Th(O-t-Bu)(Cl) and Cp' 2 Th(CH 2 -t-Bu)(Cl) are presented. The alkyl complexes undergo facile, irreversible carbonylation to yield eta 2 -acyls that were characterized by a variety of methods. Infrared Ir and 13 C NMR spectra of these complexes demonstrate that strong meta-(acyl)oxygen bonding takes place, fostering a pronounced carbene-like character. Thus, these complexes are characterized by low C-O Ir infrared stretching frequencies (nu/sub CO/ = 1450-1480 cm -1 ) and low-field 13 C NMR chemical shifts (delta/sub 13 C/ 355-370). The hydrides undergo a rapid, reversible, migratory CO insertion to yield formyls that have been characterized spectroscopically at low temperature. Infrared Ir and 13 C NMR spectra of these species are similar to the corresponding acyls, suggesting an analogous eta 2 structure. Variable-temperature equilibrium data show that the insertion of CO into thorium-hydrogen bonds is exothermic by ca. 5 kcal/mol, and this value is compared to that for the analogous alkyls. The equilibrium was also found to exhibit a distinct equilibrium isotope effect upon deuterium substitution, K/sub H//K/sub D/ = 0.31 at -78 0 C. The carbonylation of the complex Cp' 2 Th(n-Bu)(OCH-t-Bu 2 ) was found to obey a second-order rate law where rate = kP/sub CO/ [complex]. The insertion of CO into the Th-H bond of Cp' 2 Th(H)(OCH-t-Bu 2 ) was found by NMR methods to be first order in metal hydride. 55 references, 3 figures, 6 tables

  11. Catalytic Copolymerization of Ethene and Carbon Monoxide on Nickel Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domhöver, Bernd; Kläui, Wolfgang; Kremer-Aach, Andreas; Bell, Ralf; Mootz, Dietrich

    1998-11-16

    Can palladium be replaced by nickel? For the industrial copolymerization of carbon monoxide and ethene a palladium catalyst is used which cannot be recovered-a cheaper procedure would be desirable. The presented complex 1 is the first structurally characterized nickel compound which does not polymerize ethene but a mixture from carbon monoxide and ethene unter mild conditions to give a perfectly alternating polyketone. © 1998 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  12. Carbon monoxide and coronary heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidemandel, V

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between increased carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood and coronary heart disease in smokers and city dwellers are reviewed. The evidence of myocardial infarction is significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers which is due, apart from nicotine which promotes coronary arteriosclerosis, to inhaled carbon monoxide which leads to increased carboxyhemoglobin levels and most likely plays a role in the risk of arteriosclerosis and the coronary heart disease. Apart from combining with hemoglobin, CO increases the circulation rate and the coronary blood flow, and reduces the coronary arteriovenous oxygen difference, which is indicative of a reduced rate of oxygen extraction by the myocardium against an increased myocardial oxygen demand. The reduction of the oxygen extraction correlates with the increased COHb level. Inhaled CO lowers the threshold of angina pectoris due to the reduced myocardial oxygen tension. Also, considerable reduction of the oxygen diffusion from the capillaries toward the mitochondria due to the combination of CO with myoglobin is observed. Chronically increased CO levels in the blood and tissues not only accelerate the development of arteriosclerosis, but also induce a process directly injurious to the myocardial metabolism. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  13. Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, D.G.

    1988-04-01

    Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

  14. Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

  15. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  17. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar cycle variations in mesospheric carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Fontenla, Juan

    2018-05-01

    As an extension of Lee et al. (2013), solar cycle variation of carbon monoxide (CO) is analyzed with MLS observation, which covers more than thirteen years (2004-2017) including maximum of solar cycle 24. Being produced primarily by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, the variations of the mesospheric CO concentration are largely driven by the solar cycle modulated ultraviolet (UV) variation. This solar signal extends down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex, showing a time lag that is consistent with the average descent velocity. To characterize a global distribution of the solar impact, MLS CO is correlated with the SORCE measured total solar irradiance (TSI) and UV. As high as 0.8 in most of the polar mesosphere, the linear correlation coefficients between CO and UV/TSI are more robust than those found in the previous work. The photochemical contribution explains most (68%) of the total variance of CO while the dynamical contribution accounts for 21% of the total variance at upper mesosphere. The photochemistry driven CO anomaly signal is extended in the tropics by vertical mixing. The solar cycle signal in CO is further examined with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) 3.5 simulation by implementing two different modeled Spectral Solar Irradiances (SSIs): SRPM 2012 and NRLSSI. The model simulations underestimate the mean CO amount and solar cycle variations of CO, by a factor of 3, compared to those obtained from MLS observation. Different inputs of the solar spectrum have small impacts on CO variation.

  19. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  20. Carbon monoxide and COHb concentration in blood in various circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modic, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2003-07-01

    On the basis of known medical experiments we find out the correlation between the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in inhaling air and the concentration of carboxihemoglobyne (COHb) in human blood. All internal combustion engines produce exhaust gases containing noxious compounds: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon oxides (CxHy) and smoke. In a living room is important the smoke of cigarettes, smoke of furnaces, improper ventilation. In tunnel is most dangerous the carbon monoxide if it exceeds an allowable level. In human blood the carbon monoxide causes increasing the concentration of carboxihemoglobyne and in this case the hypoxia of web. With help of mathematical model the concentrations of some dangerous substances at the end of tunnel were calculated. For this case a differential equation also was developed and it shows the correlation between concentration of carbon monoxide in the air and concentration of carboxihemoglobyne in the blood. The constructed mathematical model shows circumstances in the tunnel (velocity of air moving as effect of induction, concentration of noxious substances and criterial number). Also a corresponding computer program was developed, which makes possible a quick and simple calculation. All the results are proved by experiments. Finally the differential equation was done, which shows a temporal connection between both parameters as a function of tunnel characteristics. (author)

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning from waterpipe smoking: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Lars; Michaelis, Dirk; Kemmerer, Michael; Jüttner, Björn; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Waterpipe smoking may increasingly account for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, a serious health hazard with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed at identifying waterpipe smoking as a cause for carbon monoxide poisoning in a large critical care database of a specialty care referral center. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a history of exposure to waterpipe smoking and carbon monoxide blood gas levels >10% or presence of clinical symptoms compatible with CO poisoning admitted between January 2013 and December 2016. Patients' initial symptoms and carbon monoxide blood levels were retrieved from records and neurologic status was assessed before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Sixty-one subjects with carbon monoxide poisoning were included [41 males, 20 females; mean age 23 (SD ± 6) years; range 13-45] with an initial mean carboxyhemoglobin of 26.93% (SD ± 9.72). Most common symptoms included syncope, dizziness, headache, and nausea; 75% had temporary syncope. Symptoms were not closely associated with blood COHb levels. CO poisoning after waterpipe smoking may present in young adults with a wide variability of symptoms from none to unconsciousness. Therefore diagnosis should be suspected even in the absence of symptoms.

  2. Development of an enzymatic sensor for carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, Clara; Gomez, Diana; Larmat, Fernando; Torres, Walter; Cuervo, Raul; Bravo, Enrique; Benitez, Neyla

    2003-01-01

    The detection and the pursuit of gases that contribute in the increase of the atmospheric contamination are a necessity, for what the electrochemical sensors have potential industrial applications for the control of the quality of the air. The development of amperometric sensor based on enzymes offers advantages, since the use of the biological component provides him high selectivity due to the great specificity of the substrate of the enzyme. The monoxide of carbon (CO) it is a polluting, poisonous gas, taken place during the incomplete combustion of organic materials (natural gas, petroleum, gasoline, coal and vegetable material). The determination of monoxide of carbon (CO) it can be reached by electrochemical mediums using the methylene blue like the electronic mediator for the enzyme monoxide of carbon oxidase (COx)

  3. Reactivity of a reduced metal oxide surface: hydrogen, water and carbon monoxide adsorption on oxygen defective rutile TiO 2( 1 1 0 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetrey, M.; Markovits, A.; Minot, C.

    2003-02-01

    The reactivity at reduced surface differs from that on the stoichiometric perfect surfaces. This does not originate uniquely from the modification of the coordination; electron count also is determining. The general trend is a decrease of the heat of adsorption on the metal cations. The reactivity decreases at sites in the vicinity of the defects due to the reduction induced by the O vacancies. At the defect site the decrease is less pronounced for H, H 2, CO and molecular H 2O. In the case of H 2O dissociative adsorption, the defect site is more reactive than the perfect surface. Thus, a hydration converting the defective-reduced TiO 2 to the hydrogenated non-defective-reduced surface is easy. The resulting structure possesses surface hydroxyl groups. It is probably the easiest way to form the hydrogenated non-defective surface. On TiO 2, the defective surface requires very anhydrous conditions.

  4. Life in Hot Carbon Monoxide: The Complete Genome Sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  5. Life in hot carbon monoxide: the complete genome sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  6. Life in hot carbon monoxide: the complete genome sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Martin; Ren, Qinghu; Durkin, A Scott; Daugherty, Sean C; Brinkac, Lauren M; Dodson, Robert J; Madupu, Ramana; Sullivan, Steven A; Kolonay, James F; Haft, Daniel H; Nelson, William C; Tallon, Luke J; Jones, Kristine M; Ulrich, Luke E; Gonzalez, Juan M; Zhulin, Igor B; Robb, Frank T; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2005-11-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  7. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  8. Modeling chemisorption kinetics of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, R.G.; Modell, M.; Baddour, R.F.

    1978-04-01

    Seven distinct desorption surface states of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline platinum were detected by deconvoluting temperature-programed desorption spectra of 4-100% carbon monoxide monolayer coverage. The adstates had fixed activation energies of desorption (22.5-32.6 kcal/mole) over the entire coverage range. Rates of formation and populations were derived. The chemisorption was modeled by a Hinshelwood-type expression which allowed for site creation and suggested that adsorbed molecules are sufficiently mobile during desorption heating to fill ordered states of minimum energy and that chemisorption into these states is noncompetitive and determined by the surface. Spectra, diagrams, graphs, tables, and 49 references.

  9. Electrocatalytic studies of osmium-ruthenium carbonyl cluster compounds for their application as methanol-tolerant cathodes for oxygen reduction reaction and carbon monoxide-tolerant anodes for hydrogen oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Arco, E.; Uribe-Godinez, J.; Castellanos, R.H. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Escobedo (Mexico); Altamirano-Gutierrez, A.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Querataro (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details of an electrokinetic study of novel electrocatalytic materials capable of performing both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Osmium-ruthenium carbonyl cluster compounds (Os{sub x}Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub n}) were synthesized by chemical condensation in non-polar organic solvents at different boiling points and refluxing temperatures. Three different non-polar organic solvents were used: (1) n-nonane; o-xylene; and 1,2-dichlorobenzene. The electrocatalysts were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A rotating disk electrode technique was used to analyze the materials. Results of the analysis showed that the materials performed ORR in both the presence and absence of carbon monoxide (CO), and that electrocatalysts were not poisoned by the presence of CO. Cyclic voltamperometry for the disk electrodes showed that the electrochemical behaviour of the compounds in the acid electrolyte was similar in the presence or absence of methanol. The Tafel slope, exchange current density and the transfer coefficient were also investigated. The electrokinetic parameters for the ORR indicated that the materials with the highest electrocatalytic activity were synthesized in 1,2-dichlorobenzene. Electrocatalytic activity during HOR were prepared in n-nonane. It was concluded that the new materials are good candidates for use as both a cathode and an anode in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  11. A detailed chemistry model for transient hydrogen and carbon monoxide catalytic recombination on parallel flat Pt surfaces implemented in an integral code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Miguel A.; Martin-Valdepenas, Juan M.; Martin-Fuertes, Francisco; Fernandez, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed chemistry model has been adapted and developed for surface chemistry, heat and mass transfer between H 2 /CO/air/steam/CO 2 mixtures and vertical parallel Pt-coated surfaces. This model is based onto a simplified Deutschmann reaction scheme for methane surface combustion and the analysis by Elenbaas for buoyancy-induced heat transfer between parallel plates. Mass transfer is treated by the heat and mass transfer analogy. The proposed model is able to simulate the H 2 /CO recombination phenomena characteristic of parallel-plate Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners (PARs), which have been proposed and implemented as a promising hydrogen-control strategy in the safety of nuclear power stations or other industries. The transient model is able to approach the warm-up phase of the PAR and its shut-down as well as the dynamic changes within the surrounding atmosphere. The model has been implemented within the MELCOR code and assessed against results of the Battelle Model Containment tests of the Zx series. Results show accurate predictions and a better performance than traditional methods in integral codes, i.e. empirical correlations, which are also much case-specific. Influence of CO present in the mixture on the PAR performance is also addressed in this paper

  12. Selective carbon monoxide oxidation over Ag-based composite oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guldur, C. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Department; Balikci, F. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Institute of Science and Technology, Environmental Science Department

    2002-02-01

    We report our results of the synthesis of 1 : 1 molar ratio of the silver cobalt and silver manganese composite oxide catalysts to remove carbon monoxide from hydrogen-rich fuels by the catalytic oxidation reaction. Catalysts were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. XRD, BET, TGA, catalytic activity and catalyst deactivation studies were used to identify active catalysts. Both CO oxidation and selective CO oxidation were carried out in a microreactor using a reaction gas mixture of 1 vol% CO in air and another gas mixture was prepared by mixing 1 vol% CO, 2 vol% O{sub 2}, 84 vol% H{sub 2}, the balance being He. 15 vol% CO{sub 2} was added to the reactant gas mixture in order to determine the effect of CO{sub 2}, reaction gases were passed through the humidifier to determine the effect of the water vapor on the oxidation reaction. It was demonstrated that metal oxide base was decomposed to the metallic phase and surface areas of the catalysts were decreased when the calcination temperature increased from 200{sup o}C to 500{sup o}C. Ag/Co composite oxide catalyst calcined at 200{sup o}C gave good activity at low temperatures and 90% of CO conversion at 180{sup o}C was obtained for the selective CO oxidation reaction. The addition of the impurities (CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O) decreased the activity of catalyst for selective CO oxidation in order to get highly rich hydrogen fuels. (author)

  13. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  14. Production of Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide by Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Filer; L. R. Brown; S. Brown-Sarobot; S. Martin

    1984-01-01

    Various quantities of ethylene and carbon monoxide were produced on PDA by Fusicladium effusum, Pestilotia nucicola, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium oxysporum subcultured from diseased pecan shucks. Repeated subculturing of these fungi on potato dextrose broth supplemented with iron powder produced ethylene. The production of...

  15. Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide Production by Septoria musiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Brown-Skrobot; L. R. Brown; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    An investigation into the mechanism by which Septoria musiva causes the premature defoliation of cottonwood trees was undertaken. Gas-chromatograpic analysis of the atmosphere overlying the original culture indicated that this fungus produced significant quantities of ethylene and carbon monoxide. Subcultures failed to produce either gas on a variety...

  16. Poisoning by carbon monoxide in Morocco from 1991 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghandous, Rachida; Chaoui, Hanane; Rhalem, Naima; Semllali, Ilham; Badri, Mohamed; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Ouammi, Lahcen; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida

    2012-04-01

    To describe the characteristics relating to the provenance of statements, patients and to evaluate the spatiotemporal evolution of carbon monoxide poisoning reported to Poison Control Center and Pharmacovigilance of Morocco (CAPM). This is a retrospective study over a period of 18 years from 1991 to 2008, for all cases of poisoning by carbon monoxide reported to CAPM. The epidemiological study focused on 12 976 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning reported to CAPM between 1991 and 2008. The average age of patients was 25.5 +/- 15.6 years, sex ratio was 0.5. The poisoning occurred by accident in 98.7% of cases, especially at home (96.7%) and in cold months. The urban population was the most affected (89.0%). The region of Meknes Tafilalt was the most concerned with 16.6% of cases. The symptomatology was characterized by the predominance of gastrointestinal tract diseases (37.1%). Deaths have reached a percentage of 0.9%. These qualitative and quantitative information is useful to highlight warnings and plan a strategy against carbon monoxide poisoning in Morocco.

  17. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the

  18. [Cerebellar Infarction After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Matthias; Schneiker, André; Bele, Sylvia; Pawlik, Michael; Meyringer, Helmut; Graf, Bernhard; Wendl, Christina; Kieninger, Martin

    2017-06-01

    We report on a patient who developed a space-occupying cerebellar infarction with occlusive hydrocephalus after a poisoning with carbon monoxide with the intention to commit suicide. A neurosurgical and intensive care therapy were needed. The patient's survival without severe neurological deficits could be secured due to the early detection of the intracerebral lesions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in a Child: A Case Report | Asani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exact incidence of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Nigeria is unknown. Globally, CO poisoning is frequently unrecognized and under-reported since the clinical presentation is relatively non-specific. The circumstances usually involve an unsuspected increase of CO in an enclosed environment. We present the ...

  20. Revealing the relationship between the photocatalytic property and structure characteristic of reduced TiO2 by hydrogen and carbon monoxide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Yuhang; Yang, Siyuan; Lin, Yuan; Zuo, Jianliang; Liang, Hong; Peng, Feng

    2018-06-04

    The hydrogenation (reduction) has been considered as an effective method to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2, however, the underlying relationship between structure and photocatalytic performance has still not been adequately unveiled so far. Herein, to obtain insight into the effect of structure on photocatalytic activity, two types of reduced TiO2 were prepared by CO (CO-TiO2) and H2 (H-TiO2), respectively. For H-TiO2, Ti-H bonds and oxygen vacancies are formed on the surface of H-TiO2, resulting in a more disorder surface lattice. However, for CO-TiO2, the more Ti-OH bonds are formed on the surface and the more bulk oxygen vacancies are introduced, the disorder layer of CO-TiO2 is relatively thin owing to the most of surface vacancies repaired by Ti-OH bonds. Under the simulated solar irradiation, the photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of CO-TiO2 reaches 7.17 mmol g-1 h-1, which is 4.14 and 1.50 times those of TiO2 and H-TiO2, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation rate constant of methyl orange on CO-TiO2 is 2.45 and 6.39 times those on H-TiO2 and TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of CO-TiO2 is attributed to the effective separation and transfer of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs, due to the synergistic effects of oxygen vacancies and surface Ti-OH bonds. This study reveals the relation between the photocatalytic property and structure, and provides a new method to prepare highly active TiO2 for H2 production and environmental treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on Co/MgAl2O4 and Ce-Co/MgAl2O4 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, S.; Muraki, H.; Fujitani

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that various hydrocarbons are obtained by hydrogenation of CO on Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, the products depending on the catalyst components such as Co, Ni, Fe and Ru: and the reaction conditions, particularly, temperature, pressure, space velocity and H 2 /CO ratio. Further, both reactivity and selectivity of catalysts may be improved by suitable selection of support and an additive. The main program of the present work is to develop a catalyst for producing C 5 + liquid hydrocarbons, as an automobile fuel, by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The authors have studied unique CO catalyst systems consisting of various supports - such as Al 2 O 3 (γ, β, α), MgAl 2 O 4 (alumina magnesia spinel), MgO and additives selected from the lanthanoid elements (LE). The composition of spinel-based supports was altered in a range from 28 mol % excess Al 2 O 3 to 28 mol % excess MgO. Particularly, they found that a MgAl 2 O 4 support with 15-18 mol % excess Al 2 O 3 is the most preferable for our purpose and CeO 2 as the additive for Co/spinel catalyst remarkably improves C 5 + yield. Further, it was confirmed that the catalytic activity of Co-base catalysts agree with the oxidation state of Co-oxides on Co and Co-Ce/spinel catalysts. The performance of Co-based catalysts for the production of higher hydrocarbons from syn-gas were described elsewhere. The items described in this report include (a) selection of supports, (b) selection of optimum reaction conditions for Co-Ce/spinel catalyst, (c) redox characteristics of Co-oxides on a spinel surface, and (d) experimental observation of TPD profiles, adsorption capacities and IR spectra relating to adsorbed CO

  2. Dispersive oxidation of rhodium clusters in Na-Y by the combined action of zeolite protons and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.T.T.; Sachtler, W.M.H.; Stakheev, A.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    This paper uses x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and temperature programmed mass-spectrometric analysis to study the interaction of Na-Y supported rhodium with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and zeolite protons. This report attempts to clarify the mechanism of dispersive oxidation of reduced Rh particles in the presence of CO, leading to the formation of Rh + (CO) 2 cations

  3. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten

    2008-07-11

    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  4. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  5. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis oxidation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Y.; Sadiq, A.

    1987-10-01

    An irreversible kinetic surface-reaction model, based upon the reaction of carbon monoxide nd oxygen on a catalyst surface is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The adsorbed molecules/atoms on the surface undergo both first and second order kinetic phase transitions. The first order transition is found to occur at x/sub/co=x/sub/2=0.5255 with an error bar of 0.0003, where x/sub/co is the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gas phase. The time evolution of this catalytic reaction is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. Slightly above x/sub/2, the oxygen coverage relaxation time for the oxygen is found to diverage as the inverse of 3.54 times the absolute of the difference of x/sub/2 and x/sub/co. (orig./A.B.)

  6. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  7. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  8. Interactions of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, C.R. (Univ. of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles); Goldsmith, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The health risks to U.S. populations who are exposed to ambient carbon monoxide and live at altitudes (such as Denver, Salt Lake City, and Albuquerque) were evaluated using a set of mathematical models. The assumption that a given increase in carboxyhemoglobin would require a more stringent volumetric air quality standard was tested. The results using the model predict that the 8-h or 1-h standards adopted for sea level condition need not be altered to protect individuals against health risks at altitude, if the standards are in volumetric terms. They would need to be reduced if the standards are left in gravimetric terms. If the guideline is to be based on a given decrement of oxygen tension, many other variables must be specified, but expected differences in ambient carbon monoxide have a small impact compared to the effect of altitude itself.

  9. Liquefaction of lignohemicellulosic waste by processing with carbon monoxide and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Saied, H

    1977-09-01

    The liquefaction of lignohemicellulosic waste by processing with carbon monoxide and water for 10 minutes at 250/sup 0/-440/sup 0/C and 40 to 70 atm initial pressure in a rocking autoclave produced benzene-soluble heavy oil in yields up to 80%. High conversion and yields were favored by high thermal stress, short reaction times, and sufficient hydrogen to prevent radical recombination in the critical liquefaction stages. The addition of sodium or calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, iron oxide, etc. in small amounts gave good oil yields under less severe conditions. Lignins from rice straw, bagasse, and other grasses gave higher yields than the woody lignin obtained from cotton stalks. In products obtained by liquefying black liquor lignohemicellulose from an Eyptian rice straw pulping plant, the hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio was 1.0 to 1.3:1.

  10. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martijn eDiender; Alfons J.M. Stams; Alfons J.M. Stams; Diana Z. Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Death on Mount McKinley,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-08

    Additionally, studies by Astrup(5) and Thomas(6) have reported decreased erythrocytic 2, 3- diphosphoglycerate (2, 3-DPG) concentrations with acute...Halebian, et al found no significant difference in measured 02 consumption or extraction between dogs subjected to CO poisoning vs nitrogen anoxia .(9...Astrup P: Intraerythrocytic 2,3- diphosphoglycerate and carbon monoxide exposure. Ann NY Acad Sci 1970;174:252-254. 6. Thomas MF, Penny DG: Hematologic

  12. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teksam, M.; Casey, S.O.; Michel, E.; Liu, H.; Truwit, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  13. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  15. Alternating copolymerization of fluoroalkenes with carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Koji; Yamashita, Makoto; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2006-02-15

    The palladium-catalyzed alternating copolymerization of fluoroalkenes, represented as CH(2)=CH-CH(2)-C(n)F(2n+1), with CO was performed using (R,S)-BINAPHOS (2e) as a ligand. The CH(2)-C(n)F(2n+1) group is the most electronegative substituent ever reported for the copolymerization (Taft's sigma value of 0.90 for CH(2)CF(3)). The copolymer obtained from CH(2)=CH-CH(2)-C(8)F(17) (1a) existed as a mixture of polyspiroketal and polyketone, while that from CH(2)=CH-CH(2)-C(4)F(9) (1b) was a pure polyspiroketal, as was revealed by infrared and (13)C-CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. The terminal structure of the polymer from 1b was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry. Detailed NMR studies suggested that the much higher reactivity with (R,S)-BINAPHOS (2e) than that with the conventional ligand DPPP (2a) can be attributed to the unique 1,2-insertion of the fluoroalkene into acylpalladium species. The existence of an electronegative substituent on the alpha-carbon of the palladium center is successfully avoided in the 1,2-insertion mechanism.

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Uysalol; Ezgi Paslı Uysalol; Gamze Varol Saraçoğlu; Semra Kayaoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female) who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide into...

  17. Microwave interaction with nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, S.; Babaei, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the reflection, absorption, and transmission of microwave from nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes, grown by iron-catalyzed high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionate (HiPco) process. A discussion on the effect of various hydrogen gas parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power is presented. The nonuniform hydrogen gas slab is modeled by a series of subslabs. The overall number density profile across the whole slab follows a parabolic function. The total reflected, absorbed, and transmitted powers are then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, and angle of propagation is studied

  18. XPS study on the surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-12-01

    The surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The carbon monoxide adsorption on the surface oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy and the content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased. O/U radio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The investigation indicated the surface layer of uranium metal was further reduced in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide at high temperature. (3 refs., 5 figs.)

  19. Study on the surface oxidation resistance of uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1999-01-01

    The surface reactions of different layers on uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25, 80 and 200 degree C are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results show that the carbon monoxide is adsorbed on the surface oxide layer of uranium and interacted each other. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide and O/U ratio are decreased with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The effect of reduction on the metal surface is more obviously with a higher temperature and increasing of layer thickness. The investigation indicates the uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  20. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Pathology of carbon monoxide poisoning in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhakumari, Arya; Poppenga, Robert H; Pesavento, J Brad; Uzal, Francisco A

    2018-03-05

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a common cause of poisoning in human beings has also been implicated in the death of animals. Though there are multiple studies on CO poisoning and relevant lethal blood COHb concentrations in humans, there are no reliable reports of diagnostic lethal carboxyhemoglobin percentage of saturation (COHb%) in cats. Additionally, due to shared housing environments, exposures to companion animals can be a surrogate for lethal exposures in human beings and provide valuable information in concurrent forensic investigations. Two adult Singapura brown ticked cats were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory (CAHFS) for necropsy and diagnostic work-up. These animals were found dead along with their two deceased owners. Similar lesions were observed in both cats. At necropsy, gross lesions consisted of multifocal, large, irregular, bright red spots on the skin of the abdomen and the inner surface of ear pinnae, bright red muscles and blood. The carcasses, and tissues fixed in formalin retained the bright red discoloration for up to two weeks. Microscopic lesions included diffuse pulmonary congestion and edema, and multifocal intense basophilia of cardiomyocytes mostly affecting whole fibers or occasionally a portion of the fiber. Based on the clinical history,gross and microscopic changes, cyanide or carbon monoxide poisoning was suspected. Blood samples analyzed for carbon monoxide showed 57 and 41% carboxyhemoglobin COHb%. Muscle samples were negative for cyanide. There are no established reference values for lethal COHb concentration in cats. The COHb % values detected in this case which fell within the lethal range reported for other species, along with the gross lesions and unique histological findings in the heart suggest a helpful criteria for diagnosis of CO intoxication associated death in cats. This case demonstrates that since pets share the same environment as human beings and often are a part of their activities

  2. Chlorination of niobium oxide in the presence of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, L.R. de

    1984-01-01

    The chlorination kinetics of niobium pentoxide in the presence of carbon monoxide between 500-800 0 C of temperature is studied. The following variable that influences on the reaction rate are analysed: gas flow, geometry and volume of the Nb 2 O 5 samples, reaction temperature and composition of the chlorinated mixture. At the same time, two other materials were studied: the CaO.Nb 2 O 5 (synthetized in laboratory) and pyrochlorine concentrates. The three materials are compared for the chlorination method used. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Thermodynamic properties of liquid mixtures of carbon monoxide and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, J.C.G.; Guedes, H.J.R.; Nunes da Ponte, M.; Streett, W.B.

    1984-04-01

    Researchers conducted pressure-volume-temperature measurements of liquid methane at -230/sup 0/F and of six liquid mixtures of carbon monoxide and methane at -250/sup 0/, -240/sup 0/, and -230/sup 0/F from just above the saturation vapor pressure to the freezing pressure of methane. The excess volume proved to be large and negative at low pressures but less negative as the pressure increased, being almost zero at the highest pressure. Of the thermodynamic functions, excess enthalpy and excess entropy were much more sensitive to pressure than excess Gibbs energy. Conformal solution theory in the van der Waals one-fluid form reproduced the experimental results very successfully.

  4. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  5. The Future of Carbon Monoxide Measurements from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    It is now over 20 years since the Measurements of Air Pollution from Space MAPS instrument made the first measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide from the shuttle Since that time a number of instruments have flown including the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere MOPITT Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer TES and SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY SCIAMCHY to name only three of many Each of these instruments has a unique observing method and unique mission characteristics It is accepted that measurements of carbon monoxide provide a useful proxy of the pollution of the troposphere and contribute significantly to studies of various phenomena in the atmosphere and atmosphere-surface interactions These measurements should therefore be continued -- but in what form Technology has progresses significantly since the current generation of instruments was designed and our ability to interpret the data from such instrumentation has likewise expanded It is therefore fruitful to consider what is the best set of measurements that can be made which parameters should be emphasized and which compromised on the way to the next generation of sensors The Measurements of Air Pollution Levels in the Environment MAPLE instrument is a study financed by the Canadian Space Agency to design a next-generation instrument and since instrument spacecraft and mission are now intimately linked a consideration of the whole mission is appropriate This talk will outline some potential developments in the hardware

  6. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  7. Cumulative exposure to carbon monoxide during the day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joumard, R. (INRETS, 69 - Bron (FR))

    The carbon monoxide, CO, has the advantage of being very easily and accurately measured under various conditions. In addition, it allows the translation of CO concentrations into their biological effects. The cumulative CO exposure should be considered according to current environment conditions during a given period of life, e.g. the day. In addition, the translation of concentrations and exposure times of CO fixed on blood haemoglobine (carboxyhaemoglobine) depends on physiological factors such as age, size, sex, or physical activity. This paper gives some examples of CO exposure translated into curves of carboxyhaemoglobine: case of 92 persons whose schedule was studied in details, of customs officers whose exposure was measured during one week, or other theoretical cases. In all the cases studied, smoking is by far the first factor of pollution by carbon monoxide. If not considering this case, the CO contents observed are preoccupying for sensitive subjects (in particular children) only in very rare cases. Furthermore, this approach allows the assessment of maximal allowable concentrations during specific exposures (work, e.g. in a tunnel) by integrating them into normal life conditions and population current exposure.

  8. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood....

  9. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  10. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  11. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...

  12. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanostruc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Quintel, A.; Skakalova, V.; Choi, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.; Leonhardt, A.; Fink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives a critical review of the literature on hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures. Furthermore, the hydrogen storage of graphite, graphite nanofibers (GNFs), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The samples were ball milled

  13. Measurements on high temperature fuel cells with carbon monoxide-containing fuel gases; Messungen an Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit kohlenmonoxidhaltigen Brenngasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, Holger

    2012-10-10

    In the present work the different power density of anode-supported high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) were examined for carbon monoxide-containing fuels. In addition to wet hydrogen / carbon monoxide mixtures the cells were run with synthetic gas mixtures resembling the products of an autothermal reformer, and actual reformate generated by a 2 kW autothermal reformer. It was found that the power-voltage characteristics of an ASC depends primarily on the open circuit voltages of different gas mixtures, but is nearly independent of the hydrogen concentration of the fuel, although the reaction rates of other potential fuels within the gas mixture, namely carbon monoxide and methane, are much lower that the hydrogen reaction rate. The probable reason is that the main fuel for the electrochemical oxidation within the cell is hydrogen, while the nickel in the base layer of the anode acts as a reformer which replenishes the hydrogen by water reduction via carbon monoxide and methane oxidation.

  14. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  15. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been o...

  16. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide...

  17. Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide Produced via a Chemical Reaction Between Carbon Vapor and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Elijah R.; Eckert, Zakari; Frederickson, Kraig; Rich, Bill; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2017-06-01

    Measurements of the vibrational distribution function of carbon monoxide produced via a reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen has shown a total population inversion on vibrational levels 4-7. Carbon vapor, produced using an arc discharge to sublimate graphite, is mixed with an argon oxygen flow. The excited carbon monoxide is vibrationally populated up to level v=14, at low temperatures, T=400-450 K, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr, with total population inversions between v=4-7. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of the reaction enthalpy. Kinetic modeling of the flow reactor, including state specific vibrational processes, was performed to infer the vibrational distribution of the products of the reaction. The results show viability of developing of a new chemical CO laser from the reaction of carbon vapor and oxygen.

  18. Lethal carbon monoxide toxicity in a concrete shower unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Karen; Byard, Roger W

    2018-05-23

    A 47-year-old previously-well woman was found dead on the floor of a shower cubicle on a property in rural South Australia. The impression of the attending doctor and police was of collapse due to natural disease. Although there was significant stenosing coronary artery atherosclerosis found at autopsy, cherry pink discoloration of tissues prompted measurement of the blood carboxyhemoglobin level which was found to be 55%. The source of the gas was a poorly-maintained hot water heater that was mounted on the inside wall of the shower. Construction of the shower using an impermeable concrete rain water tank had caused gas accumulation when the water heater malfunctioned. Had lethal carbon monoxide exposure not been identified others using the same shower unit would also have been at risk.

  19. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  20. Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication: Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Gomez, S.; Aguilera Navarro, J.M.; Gonzalez Garcia, A.; Gonzalez Marcos, J.R.; Fernandez Cruz, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present a case of acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in a previously healthy 13-year-old girl, who was found in the bathroom, unconscious and with the gas-burning hot water thank operating. The neuroradiological study showed bilateral, symmetrical cortical and subcortical parietooccipital and temporal lesions as well as damage to the basal lymph nodes. These lesions were related to the anoxic situation induced by this type of intoxication. Clinicoradiological follow-up included CT and MR sequences over a period of 10 months. In this cases, we stress the greater sensitivity of MR in the early detection of the characteristic lesions in this situation and we analyze the evolution of the process. (Author)

  1. Investigation of Carbon Monoxide Adsorption on Cationic Gold- Palladium Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Mei; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Sheng, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Huai-Qian; Shao, Peng; Zhong, Min-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Density functional calculations have been performed for the carbon monoxide molecule adsorption on AunPd+m(n+m ≤ 6) clusters. In the process of CO adsorption, small Au clusters and Pd clusters tend to be an Au atom and three Pd atoms adsorption, respectively. For the mixed Au-Pd clusters, an Au atom, a Pd atom, two atoms consisted of an Au atom and a Pd atom, two Pd atoms, and three Pd atoms adsorption structures are displayed. The highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gaps and natural bond orbital charge population are calculated. Moreover, CO adsorption energy, CO stretching frequency, and CO bond length (upon adsorption) are also analysed in detail. The results predict that the adsorption strength of Au clusters with CO and the C-O vibration strength is enhanced and reduced after doping of Pd in the AunPdmCO+ complexes, respectively

  2. Reactivity of niobium cluster anions with nitrogen and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakapumba, Joseph; Ervin, Kent M.

    1997-02-01

    Reactions of small niobium cluster anions, Nbn-(n = 2-7), with CO and N2 are investigated using a flow tube reactor (flowing afterglow) apparatus. Carbon monoxide chemisorption on niobium cluster anions occurs with faster reaction rates than nitrogen chemisorption on corresponding cluster sizes. N2 addition to niobium cluster anions is much more size-selective than is CO addition. These general trends follow those reported in the literature for reactions of neutral and cationic niobium clusters with CO and N2. Extensive fragmentation of the clusters is observed upon chemisorption. A small fraction of the larger clusters survive and sequentially add multiple CO or N2 units without fragmentation. However, chemisorption saturation is not reached at the experimentally accessible pressure and reagent concentration ranges. The thermochemistry of the adsorption processes and the nature of the adsorbed species, molecular or dissociated, are discussed.

  3. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...... to either an ecosystem chamber or a plant-leaf scale chamber. Leaves of all examined plant species exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV-radiation as well as the UV-component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a rather low dependence on temperature......, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO in response to the UV-component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the ecosystem scale....

  4. Four deaths due to carbon monoxide poisoning in car washes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, H J; Stephens, P J

    1999-09-01

    In a period of 13 months, three separate incidents of lethal carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in closed car wash bays resulted in the deaths of 4 white men aged 20 to 36 years. Each man appears to have been intoxicated with mind-altering substances, which may impair judgment, perception of outside conditions, and self-awareness. All four died in winter months. For three men, the deaths were ruled accidental, and for the remaining man, the previous deaths appear to have provided a model for suicide. Warning signs may not be effective to prevent future CO deaths in car washes because of the possible role of intoxication. Mechanical or electronic methods to prevent a bay door from closing completely may be preferable.

  5. [Etiology of combined inhalational hydrocyanic acid and carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, T; Dirnhofer, R

    1979-01-01

    A young man was found dead in a kitchen, that was partly burnt. Autopsy revealed, as cause of death, a combined intoxication following inhalation of carbon monoxide and hydrocyanic acid. Own investigations on the pyrolysis of pieces of furniture found in the kitchen (plastic plates containing melamine and plates containing formaldehyde) showed, that hydrocyanic acid was liberated through combustion of such substances and inhaled by the victim. The poisoning picture is discussed, and discussion includes especially considerations on the peculiar sensitivity of the brain toward the action of hydrocyanic acid and the relative insensitivity of the heart muscle. It is thought that the cause of such sensitivity difference lies in the physiological differences of the intracellular energy production. Finally the dangers of combustion gases developing from burning plastic materials are reemphasized.

  6. Study on the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Duan Rongliang; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Zuo Changming; Zhao Chunpei; Chen Hong

    1997-01-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography (GC). Carbon monoxide adsorption on the oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased and the atomic ratio (O/U) is decreased by 7.2%. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere after the surface reaction is increased by 11.0%. The investigation indicates that the surface layer can prevent the further oxidation uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  7. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J.; Lacoursiere, D.

    2009-01-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  8. Content of carbon monoxide in the tissues of rats intoxicated with carbon monoxide in various conditions of acute exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, J.A.; Majka, J.; Palus, J.

    1984-12-01

    Tissue carbon monoxide (CO) content was investigated in rats severely intoxicated with CO under various exposure conditions: 1% CO for 4 min, 0.4% CO for 40 min and 0.12% CO for 12 h. Extravascular CO was determined in the heart and skeletal muscles immediately after termination of exposure, and carboxymyoglobin (MbCO) percent saturation was calculated. Total brain CO was estimated immediately after termination of exposure and after the time periods of restitution. After the same exposure conditions, MbCO percent saturation was higher in the heart than in skeletal muscle. In both types of muscle, saturation on myoglobin (Mb) with CO depended on blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level and not on the duration of exposure. The time course of CO elimination was the same for blood and brain, irrespective of CO exposure conditions. The results obtained showed that acute CO intoxication induced by long duration exposures did not involve CO accumulation in the tissues.

  9. Influence of cation size and surface coverage upon the infrared spectrum of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jimin

    1991-01-01

    Adsorbed carbon monoxide is utilized as a double layer probe molecule because of its strong absorption in infrared region and because of the high sensitivity of the carbon-oxygen bond to changes in the environment local to the electrode surface. Potential Difference Infrared Spectroscopy was used to investigate the structural behavior of CO adsorbed on a platinum electrode. Carbon monoxide was found to be exclusively linear-bonded on platinum electrode in the presence of tetran...

  10. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-09-01

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U 3 O 8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  11. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Jan Schut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally-relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.

  12. Study of electrocatalytic properties of iridium carbonyl cluster and rhodium carbonyl cluster compounds for the oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation reactions in 0.5 MH{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in presence and absence of methanol and carbon monoxide, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe-Godinez, J.; Borja-Arco, E.; Castellanos, R.H. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Escobedo (Mexico); Jimenez-Sandoval, O. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Querataro (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The suitability of carbonyl cluster compounds as a substitute to platinum (Pt) in fuel cell catalysts was investigated. Iridium (Ir{sub 4}(CO){sub 12} and rhodium (Rh{sub 6}(CO){sub 116}) cluster compounds were investigated as potential new electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the presence and absence of methanol at different concentrations, as well as for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) with pure hydrogen and a hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture. The materials were studied using room temperature rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements and cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry techniques (LSV). Tafel slope and exchange current density were calculated using the LSV polarization curves. Cyclic voltamperometry results suggested that the electrocatalysts were tolerant to methanol. However, electrochemical behaviour of the materials altered in the presence of CO, and peaks corresponding to CO oxidation were observed in both cases. The rhodium carbonyl showed a higher current density for the ORR than the iridium carbonyl. The current potential curves in the presence of methanol were similar to those obtained without methanol. Results confirmed the tolerance properties of the materials to perform the ORR. Decreased current density values were observed during HOR, and were attributed to changes in the hydrogen solubility and diffusion coefficient due to the presence of CO. The Tafel slopes indicated that the mechanics of the HOR were Heyrovsky-Volmer. Results showed that the materials are capable of performing both ORR and HOR in an acid medium. It was noted that the iridium carbonyl cluster followed a 4-electron transfer mechanism towards the formation of water. It was concluded that the compounds are suitable for use as both cathodes and anodes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and as cathodes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  14. Autumn photoproduction of carbon monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunyan; Yang, Guipeng; Lu, Xiaolan

    2014-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dissolved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that: 1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction; 2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98 μmol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35% of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

  15. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  20. Contributions of distinct gold species to catalytic reactivity for carbon monoxide oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Wen; Du, Pei-Pei; Fu, Xin-Pu; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie; Si, Rui; Huang, Yu-Ying; Jia, Chun-Jiang; Zhang, Ya-Wen; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Small-size (carbon monoxide at room temperature, by the aid of in situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. We find that the metallic gold component in clusters or particles plays a much more critical role as the active site than the cationic single-atom gold species for the room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation reaction.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Epidemic Among Immigrant Populations: King County, Washington, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan-Gett, Tao; Hampson, Neil B.; Baer, Atar; Shusterman, Dennis; Shandro, Jamie R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a power outage to determine its extent, identify risk factors, and develop prevention measures. Methods. We reviewed medical records and medical examiner reports of patients with CO poisoning or related symptoms during December 15 to 24, 2006. We grouped patients into households exposed concurrently to a single source of CO. Results. Among 259 patients with CO poisoning, 204 cases were laboratory confirmed, 37 were probable, 10 were suspected, and 8 were fatal. Of 86 households studied, 58% (n = 50) were immigrant households from Africa (n = 21), Asia (n = 15), Latin America (n = 10), and the Middle East (n = 4); 34% (n = 29) were US-born households. One percent of households was European (n = 1), and the origin for 7% (n = 6) was unknown. Charcoal was the most common fuel source used among immigrant households (82%), whereas liquid fuel was predominant among US-born households (34%). Conclusions. Educational campaigns to prevent CO poisoning should consider immigrants’ cultural practices and languages and specifically warn against burning charcoal indoors and incorrect ventilation of gasoline- or propane-powered electric generators. PMID:19608962

  2. The neurotoxicology of carbon monoxide - Historical perspective and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Oliver T; Walker, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recognized as a poison for centuries, and remains one of the most common causes of both accidental and deliberate poisoning worldwide. Despite this, there are widespread misconceptions with regards to the mechanisms, diagnosis and outcomes of CO induced poisoning such as the idea that CO poisoning is rare; that carboxyhaemoglobin levels above 20% and loss of consciousness are required before nervous system damage ensues; and that the binding of CO to haemoglobin is the only mechanism of toxicity. Prevention and diagnosis of CO poisoning is hampered by the lack of awareness of CO as a cause of illness, among both the general public and healthcare professionals. To complicate matters further there is no standardized definition of CO poisoning. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels are often used as a marker of CO poisoning, yet plasma levels rapidly reduce upon removal of the source and are therefore an unreliable biomarker of exposure and tissue damage. Adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes after CO poisoning are difficult to define, especially as they fluctuate, mimic other non-specific complaints, and are not present in all survivors. This paper challenges a number of misconceptions about CO poisoning which can result in misdiagnosis, and consequently in mismanagement. We illustrate how recent developments in the understanding of CO toxicology explain the particular susceptibility of the central nervous system to the effects of CO exposure. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Composition of amino acid using carbon monoxide. Amide carbonylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, Kunisuke (Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-02-01

    Amide carbonylation reaction is a method to compose N-acyl-{alpha}-amino acid from aldehyde, carboxylic acid amide, and carbon monoxide in a phase and with high yield. Unlike the conventional Strecker reaction, this method does not use HCN which is in question on public pollution and does not require hydrolysis. This amide carbonylation reaction was discovered by Wakamatsu and others of Ajinomoto Co.,Ltd. Present application examples of this method are the composition of N-acetyl amino acid from the aldehyde class, the composition of N-Acyl amino acid from olefin, the composition of N-acyl or acetyl amino acid from the raw material of alcohol and the halide class, the composition of N-acyl or acetyl amino acid via the isomerization of epoxide and allyl alcohol, the composition of amino dicarboxylic acid, applying deoxidation of ring acid anhydride, the composition of N-acyl amino acid from the raw material of the amine class, the stereoselective composition of -substitution ring-{alpha}-amino acid, and the composition of amino aldehyde. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  5. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  6. Risk and protective behaviours for residential carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Damon, Scott A; Williams, Peyton N

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional, non-fire-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning death and injury in the USA. Residential poisonings caused by faulty furnaces are the most common type of CO exposure. However, these poisonings are largely preventable with annual furnace inspections and CO alarm installation. This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that might lead consumers to adopt these protective behaviours. In August 2009, four focus groups (n=29) were conducted with homeowners in Chicago, Illinois, USA, to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviours. Discussions were transcribed and the findings were analysed using an ordered meta-matrix. Focus group participants were aware of CO poisoning and supported the idea of regular furnace inspections. However, few participants consistently scheduled professional inspections for fear of costly repairs and unscrupulous contractors. Participants often owned CO alarms, but many did not locate them properly, nor maintain them. Some participants confused CO and natural gas and were unsure how to react if a CO alarm sounds. Participants stated that incentives, such as discounts and inspector selection tips, would make them more likely to schedule furnace inspections. Participants also identified trustworthy sources for CO education, including realtors, fire departments, home insurance agents and local media outlets. Participants' residential CO risk behaviours are not random but driven by underlying knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Correcting misperceptions, providing incentives and partnering with trustworthy sources might encourage greater consumer adoption of protective behaviours.

  7. Variability in hyperbaric oxygen treatment for acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Brendan T; Lu, Jenny J; Valento, Matthew; Bryant, Sean M

    2012-01-01

    In patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, we have noted wide clinical variability in both criteria for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment as well as HBO2 treatment regimens. Our aim was to survey Midwest hyperbaric centers for insight into specific criteria and protocols for treating acute CO toxicity with HBO2. Hyperbaric centers were identified from the published list of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. Ninety-three centers from nine Midwestern states were contacted via telephone. A standard script was used to minimize surveyor bias. Thirty centers that treat CO poisonings were identified. One did not participate in the study. Nineteen reported a specific level of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) that served as an independent indication for initiation of HBO2 treatment. Four centers used the COHb level as the exclusive indication for HBO2 treatment. Ten centers relied solely on reported symptoms, while the remaining centers used a combination of symptoms plus COHb levels. There were 19 separate treatment protocols. No uniform practice for either the initiation or implementation of HBO2 therapy for CO poisoning exists among U.S. Midwest hyperbaric centers responding to a survey. We see opportunity for specific targeted educational programs as well as further study.

  8. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  9. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Cases Autopsied in South Marmara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Eren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonmonoxide (CO related deaths, which are generally preventable accidents that include accidents due to the coal stoves and water heaters in bath at home, the mining accidents, and other accidents. CO accept as the most common cause of poisoning cases in many countries and its prominent feature is being a colorless, odorless and nonirritant gas. In the period from 2007 until the end of 2011, the autopsy records of the ........ of Turkey were reviewed. Over a period of 5 years a total of 5782 autopsies were done of which 218 involved CO poisoning, constituting 3,8 % of total cases. Information regarding age, sex, month, year, and as well as various aspects were examined. Study data were encoded with computer and Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for windows program. Of the cases 76 were (34,9% female, 142 were (65,1% male and male/female ratio was 1,9. Of the cases average age was 46.8, range between 1 and 90 years. 57,8% of deaths were in winter markedly. The highest carboxyhemoglobin saturation was 92% in the blood. Poisoning due to CO leaks from coal heaters is an important problem in our country and surrounding regions. The mining accidents should be reduced by increasing safety in the workplace. We must more expend efforts to educate the public and prevent CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide, poisoning, autopsy.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning at motels, hotels, and resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2007-07-01

    Each year, more than 200 people in the United States die from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Poisoning has occurred at motels, hotels, and resorts. Congressional mandate requires smoke alarms in all guest rooms; however, smoke alarms do not detect CO. Data on patients poisoned at hotels, motels, and resorts were evaluated at a hyperbaric medicine service. In 2005, legal databases and online news databanks were searched to discover additional incidents. Only victims evaluated in hospitals or declared dead at the scene were included. Cases of intentional poisoning and poisoning from fires were excluded. Between 1989 and 2004, 68 incidents of CO poisoning occurring at hotels, motels, and resorts were identified, resulting in 772 accidentally poisoned: 711 guests, 41 employees or owners, and 20 rescue personnel. Of those poisoned, 27 died, 66 had confirmed sequelae, and 6 had sequelae resulting in a jury verdict. Lodging-operated, faulty room heating caused 45 incidents, pool/spa boilers 16, CO entrained from outdoors 5, and unreported sources caused 2 incidents. Public verdicts have averaged $4.8 million per incident (range, $1 million to $17.5 million). Poisoning occurred at hotels of all classes. Despite these incidents, most properties did not install CO alarms, and requirements for CO alarms at hotels, motels, and resorts are rare. Guests of motels, hotels, and resorts remain at risk for injury or death from CO poisoning. Measures to prevent CO poisoning of guests and employees of the lodging industry should be evaluated.

  12. Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liwen; Gille, John C.; Edwards, David P.; Bailey, Paul L.; Rodgers, Clive D.

    1998-12-01

    A retrieval method for deriving the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) profile and column amount under clear sky conditions has been developed for the Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, scheduled for launch in 1998 onboard the EOS-AM1 satellite. This paper presents a description of the method along with analyses of retrieval information content. These analyses characterize the forward measurement sensitivity, the contribution of a priori information, and the retrieval vertical resolution. Ensembles of tropospheric CO profiles were compiled both from aircraft in situ measurements and from chemical model results and were used in retrieval experiments to characterize the method and to study the sensitivity to different parameters. Linear error analyses were carried out in parallel with the ensemble experiments. Results of these experiments and analyses indicate that MOPITT CO column measurements will have better than 10% precision, and CO profile measurement will have approximately three pieces of independent information that will resolve 3-5 tropospheric layers to approximately 10% precision. These analyses are important for understanding MOPITT data, both for application of data in tropospheric chemistry studies and for comparison with in situ measurements.

  13. General circulation model study of atmospheric carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.P.; Yung, Y.L.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.L.; Lerner, J.A.; Hansen, J.E.; Hameed, S.

    1983-01-01

    The carbon monoxide cycle is studied by incorporating the known and hypothetical sources and sinks in a tracer model that uses the winds generated by a general circulation model. Photochemical production and loss terms, which depend on OH radical concentrations, are calculated in an interactive fashion. The computed global distribution and seasonal variations of CO are compared with observations to obtain constraints on the distribution and magnitude of the sources and sinks of CO, and on the tropospheric abundance of OH. The simplest model that accounts for available observations requires a low latitude plant source of about 1.3 x 10 15 g yr -1 , in addition to sources from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and oxidation of methane. The globally averaged OH concentration calculated in the model is 7 x 10 5 cm -3 . Models that calculate globally averaged OH concentrations much lower than our nominal value are not consistent with the observed variability of CO. Such models are also inconsistent with measurements of CO isotopic abundances, which imply the existence of plant sources

  14. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masato; Uchino, Akira; Hayashi, Kazuji; Nakata, Hajime.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  15. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We, En-Huei

    1986-01-01

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  16. Heme oxygenase and carbon monoxide protect from muscle dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mun Chun; Ziegler, Olivia; Liu, Laura; Rowe, Glenn C; Das, Saumya; Otterbein, Leo E; Arany, Zoltan

    2016-11-28

    Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases of children worldwide and is 100% fatal. Steroids, the only therapy currently available, are marred by poor efficacy and a high side-effect profile. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Here, we leverage PGC-1α, a powerful transcriptional coactivator known to protect against dystrophy in the mdx murine model of DMD, to search for novel mechanisms of protection against dystrophy. We identify heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a potential novel target for the treatment of DMD. Expression of HO-1 is blunted in the muscles from the mdx murine model of DMD, and further reduction of HO-1 by genetic haploinsufficiency worsens muscle damage in mdx mice. Conversely, induction of HO-1 pharmacologically protects against muscle damage. Mechanistically, HO-1 degrades heme into biliverdin, releasing in the process ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO). We show that exposure to a safe low dose of CO protects against muscle damage in mdx mice, as does pharmacological treatment with CO-releasing molecules. These data identify HO-1 and CO as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of DMD. Safety profiles and clinical testing of inhaled CO already exist, underscoring the translational potential of these observations.

  17. Experimental and clinical study of chronic poisoning by carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, H.; Gohlke, R.; Rothe, R.

    1973-01-01

    Animal and clinical tests on carbon monoxide-exposed subjects are described in an attempt to demonstrate the specific chronic action of CO. Rabbits exposed to 802 ppM and 284 ppM CO for 103 and 112 days, respectively, for 5 days a week showed carboxyhemoglobin values in the respective ranges of 2.5 to 11.9% and 2.5 to 8.3%. The macroscopic findings and gain in weight were normal, except for an increase by 20% and 14% in the weight of the liver. Dose-dependent increases in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, significant increases in the pyruvate level of the first group, and significant reductions of the cholinesterase, inorganic phosphate levels, hepatic lipase, phosphate, phosphatase, and cytochrome-C oxidase were observed. An increased cholinesterase level was found in brain homogenates. Inhibition of the glucose-6-phosphatase was observed. There is a specific damage due to CO in addition to merely the hypoxic effect. Clinical tests in humans with and without acute, subacute, or chronic exposure to CO revealed that acute and subacute poisoning have no additional pathogenic effect in chronic exposure, i.e., indicate the existence of primary chronic poisoning with CO.

  18. Subclinical carbon monoxide poisoning in our health area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, I.G.; Testa, A.F.; Sangrador, C.O.; Garcia, M.T.A.; Berrocal, J.L.S.; Pastor, N.R.; Martin, J.M.; Garcia, L.S.; Garcia, M.C.F.; Maire-Richard, E.G. [Hospital of Virgen Concha, Zamora (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    We present an observation study on the relationship between high levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) and subclinical poisoning by carbon monoxide (CO) in our health area. The study was carried out in February and March 2000 in 228 over 18-year-old patients of both sexes who went to the Emergency Room for various reasons. After an informed consent was conceded, a venous blood sample was obtained in order to determine the level of COHB; later, we collected the anthropometric data, the data relative to the tobacco use, and the data of the type of heating at home. The values limit of the COHB obtained were the following: in non smokers, 1.9%; in 1-10 cigarettes/day smokers, 5.2%; in 11-20 cigarettes/day smokers, 6.9%; in {gt}20 cigarettes/day smokers, 9.6%. A COHB high level was observed in 25% of the patients regardless of the smoking habits, being the coal-dust slack brazier the source of most frequent exposure to CO.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of carbon monoxide poisoning in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Shibata, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Nobuyoshi; Hirayama, Keizo

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in three patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in chronic stage by comparison with serial X-ray computed tomography (CT). In Case 1 and 3, no pallidal lesions believed to be the most common lesion of the gray matter in CO poisoning were found in the serial X-ray CT scans. In the other case (Case 2), the typical initial bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the globus pallidus were found to have decreased markedly in size and finally disappeared in the latter X-ray CT scan. But MRI using inversion recovery (IR) or spin echo (SE) pulse sequence clearly showed bilateral symmetrical decreased or increased signal intensity areas in the globus pallidus in all three cases. In Case 3, chronic CO poisoning was confirmed by the bilateral symmetrical pallidal lesions on MRI, although differential diagnosis was difficult. Furthermore, in Case 2, with pure alexia, MRI using IR or SE pulse sequence demonstrated a patchy decreased or increased signal intensity area in the subcortical white matter at the left angular gyrus, although X-ray CT scan showed no abnormal findings. MRI is useful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning, especially chronic CO poisoning, because necrosis, cavitation, demyelination, gliosis and so on due to hypoxia of CO poisoning were sensitively detected from changes in the proton density and the T1 or T2 relaxation time value on MRI. (J.P.N.)

  20. Optimization of mass flow rate in RGTT200K coolant purification for Carbon Monoxide conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumijanto; Sriyono

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a species that is difficult to be separated from the reactor coolant helium because it has a relatively small molecular size. So it needs a process of conversion from carbon monoxide to carbondioxide. The rate of conversion of carbon monoxide in the purification system is influenced by several parameters including concentration, temperature and mass flow rate. In this research, optimization of the mass flow rate in coolant purification of RGTT200K for carbon monoxide conversion process was done. Optimization is carried out by using software Super Pro Designer. The rate of reduction of reactant species, the growth rate between the species and the species products in the conversion reactions equilibrium were analyzed to derive the mass flow rate optimization of purification for carbon monoxide conversion process. The purpose of this study is to find the mass flow rate of purification for the preparation of the basic design of the RGTT200K coolant helium purification system. The analysis showed that the helium mass flow rate of 0.6 kg/second resulted in an un optimal conversion process. The optimal conversion process was reached at a mass flow rate of 1.2 kg/second. A flow rate of 3.6 kg/second – 12 kg/second resulted in an ineffective process. For supporting the basic design of the RGTT200K helium purification system, the mass flow rate for carbon monoxide conversion process is suggested to be 1.2 kg/second. (author)

  1. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  2. Carbon monoxide and methane adsorption of crude oil refinery using activated carbon from palm shells as biosorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Afdhol, M. K.; Sanal, Alristo

    2018-03-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane gas are widely present in oil refineries. Off-potential gas is used as raw material for the petrochemical industry. In order for this off-gas to be utilized, carbon monoxide and methane must be removed from off-gas. This study aims to adsorb carbon monoxide and methane using activated carbon of palm shells and commercial activated carbon simultaneously. This research was conducted in 2 stages: 1) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon, 2) Carbon monoxide and methane adsorption test. The activation experiments using carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 150 ml/min yielded a surface area of 978.29 m2/g, Nitrogen at flow rate 150 ml/min yielded surface area 1241.48 m2/g, and carbon dioxide and nitrogen at a flow rate 200 ml/min yielded a surface area 300.37 m2/g. Adsorption of carbon monoxide and methane on activated carbon of palm shell systems yielded results in the amount of 0.5485 mg/g and 0.0649 mg/g and using commercial activated carbon yielded results in the amount of 0.5480 mg/g and 0.0650 mg/g

  3. Hydrogen adsorption in carbon nanostructures compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, H.G.; Nijkamp, M.G.; Kearley, G.J.; Rivera, A.; de Jong, K.P.; Mulder, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports continue to suggest high hydrogen storage capacities for some carbon nanostructures due to a stronger interaction between hydrogen and carbon. Here the interaction of hydrogen with activated charcoal, carbon nanofibers, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and electron beam ‘opened’

  4. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  5. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  7. Erythropoietin in the treatment of carbon monoxide neurotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Mohamadpour, Amir Hooshang; Abnous, Khalil; Sankian, Mojtaba; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2015-12-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) plays a critical role in the development of the nervous system. In this study, the effects of EPO in carbon monoxide (CO) neurotoxicity were examined. Rats were exposed to 3000 ppm CO for 1 h and then different doses of EPO were administrated intraperitoneally. After 24 h, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the serum were determined and water content of brain and the extravasation of a tracer (Evans blue) were measured. Brain lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity Myelin basic protein (MBP) and BAX/BcL2 protein relative expressions were determined. Cation exchange chromatography was used to evaluate MBP alterations. Seven days after exposure, pathological assessment was performed after Klüver-Barrera staining. EPO reduced malondialdehyde levels at all doses (2500, 5000 and 10,000 u/kg). Lower doses of EPO (625, 1250, 2500 u/kg) significantly decreased the elevated serum levels of GFAP. EPO could not reduce the water content of the edematous poisoned brains. However, at 5000 and 10,000 u/kg it protected the blood brain barrier against integrity loss as a result of CO. EPO could significantly decrease the MPO activity. CO-mediated oxidative stress caused chemical alterations in MBP and EPO could partially prevent these biochemical changes. Fewer vacuoles and demyelinated fibers were found in the EPO-treated animals. EPO (5000 u/kg) could restore the MBP density. CO increased brain BAX/Bcl-2 ratio 38.78%. EPO reduced it 38.86%. These results reveal that EPO could relatively prevent different pathways of neurotoxicity by CO poisoning and thus has the potential to be used as a novel approach to manage this poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalés, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO). The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges. PMID:29360803

  9. Unusual way of suicide by carbon monoxide. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelený, Michal; Pivnička, Jan; Šindler, Martin; Kukleta, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Authors discuss the case of a suicide of a 29-year-old man caused by carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication. What the authors found interesting was the unusual way of committing suicide that required good technical skills and expert knowledge. The level of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood of the deceased man was routinely determined by the modified method by Blackmoore (1970), using gas chromatography/thermal conductivity detection. The level of saturation of the hemoglobin by CO in the collected blood sample is determined relatively to the same sample saturated to 100%. In the blood sample of the deceased man the lethal concentration of COHb of 76.5% was determined. Within the following examinations the blood alcohol concentration of 0.05 g.kg(-1) was determined. Further analysis revealed traces of sertraline, its metabolite N-desmethylsertraline, omeprazole and caffeine in the liver tissue, traces of N-desmethylsertraline, ibuprofen and caffeine in urine sample, and only traces of caffeine in the stomach content and blood samples were proved. To commit suicide the man used a sophisticated double container-system equipped with a timer for controlled generation of CO based on the chemical reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid and formic acid. The used timer was set by an electromechanical timer switch that triggered the fatal reaction of the acids while the man was sleeping. The authors discuss an unusual case of suicide by CO intoxication rarely seen in the area of forensic medicine and toxicology that is specific due to its sophisticated way of execution.

  10. CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, Anthony R.; Doré, Olivier; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Lidz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Lyα-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.

  11. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  12. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  13. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO. The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges.

  14. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, W.-K.; Oh, J.-W.; Dong, J.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  15. Computed Tomographic Findings of Acute Carbon Monoxide Posioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Keun; Won, Hee Sun; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a kind of frequent toxic gas around our living lives, for common use of briquets as fuel, and its pathologic effect has been known due to mainly hypoxia and direct cytotoxicity in some part to almost all organs, especially to the brain and heart. Some authors have reported pathologic and anatomic changes of the acute of poisoning, although in a few cases, that bilaterally symmetrical lesions of the globs pallidus or cerebral white matter regarded as typical. After using computed tomography (CT), those findings have been discovered more easily and accurately. Authors analysed CT findings of 32 cases, who had a history of acute CO poisoning and performed CT at Hanyang University Hospital from May 1970 to June 1983. The results were as follows: 1. Of all 32 cases with CT scan, low density lesions were demonstrated in 28 cases (88%) and others were hemorrhage and calcified in 2(6%), respectively. 2. All lesions were seen as bilaterally symmetrical, except 2 cases of hemorrhage and 1 of low density. 3. Of all 28 cases of the low densities, 15 cases(53.6%) were located in the globs pallidus, 10(35.7%) in the cerebral white matter and 3(10.7%) in both of them. 4. Of all 113 cases of the low density lesions in the cerebral white matter, common locations were in the frontal and parietal lobes (65.6%), and more in frontal (40.6%). 5. Of all 113 cases of low density lesions in the cerebral white matter, cases of involving all of the lobes were found in only 4. 6. All of 2 cases of the calcified lesions were seen at both sides of the globs pallidus, symmetrically. 7. All of 2 cases of the hemorrhage were seen at thalamus, ventricles and head of caudate nucleus, and these locations were different from those of the low densities or calcifications.

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. A male patient was brought to the emergency department to syncope and complained of left chest pain. Cardiac angiography and electrocardiography were performed to rule out acute ischemic heart disease, and cardiac markers were checked. After relief of the symptoms and stabilization of the cardiac markers, the patient was discharged without any complications. Electrocardiography was normal, but cardiac angiography showed up to a 40% midsegmental stenosis of the right coronary artery with thrombotic plaque. The level of cardiac markers was elevated at least 5 to 10 times higher than the normal value, and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration was 35% measured at one hour after syncope. Following the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy, the patient's medical history and work exposure history were examined. He was found to have been exposed to burning charcoal constantly during his work hours. Severe exposure to carbon monoxide was evident in the patient because of high carboxyhemoglobin concentration and highly elevated cardiac enzymes. We concluded that this exposure led to subsequent cardiac injury. He was diagnosed with acute carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy due to an unsafe working environment. According to the results, the risk of exposure to noxious chemicals such as carbon monoxide by workers in the food service industry is potentially high, and workers in this sector should be educated and monitored by the occupational health service to prevent adverse effects.

  17. Atomic hydrogen and diatomic titanium-monoxide molecular spectroscopy in laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.

    2017-03-01

    This article gives a brief review of experimental studies of hydrogen Balmer series emission spectra. Ongoing research aims to evaluate early plasma evolution following optical breakdown in laboratory air. Of interest is as well laser ablation of metallic titanium and characterization of plasma evolution. Emission of titanium monoxide is discussed together with modeling of diatomic spectra to infer temperature. The behavior of titanium particles in plasma draws research interests ranging from the modeling of stellar atmospheres to the enhancement of thin film production via pulsed laser deposition.

  18. Carbon monoxide in clouds at low metallicity in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Rubio, Monica; Hunter, Deidre A; Verdugo, Celia; Brinks, Elias; Schruba, Andreas

    2013-03-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the primary tracer for interstellar clouds where stars form, but it has never been detected in galaxies in which the oxygen abundance relative to hydrogen is less than 20 per cent of that of the Sun, even though such 'low-metallicity' galaxies often form stars. This raises the question of whether stars can form in dense gas without molecules, cooling to the required near-zero temperatures by atomic transitions and dust radiation rather than by molecular line emission; and it highlights uncertainties about star formation in the early Universe, when the metallicity was generally low. Here we report the detection of CO in two regions of a local dwarf irregular galaxy, WLM, where the metallicity is 13 per cent of the solar value. We use new submillimetre observations and archival far-infrared observations to estimate the cloud masses, which are both slightly greater than 100,000 solar masses. The clouds have produced stars at a rate per molecule equal to 10 per cent of that in the local Orion nebula cloud. The CO fraction of the molecular gas is also low, about 3 per cent of the Milky Way value. These results suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and CO molecules become increasingly rare in molecular hydrogen clouds as the metallicity decreases.

  19. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10°C to 30°C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking waiters: measurement of expired carbon monoxide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a health risk that is of concern to patrons and of particular concern to employees of restaurants and bars. OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure (using expired carbon monoxide levels in non-smoking waiters before and after a normal day's shift and to compare pre-exposure levels with non-smoking medical students. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Restaurants with more than 50 tables or 100 places in São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 100 non-smoking restaurant waiters and 100 non-smoking medical students in São Paulo, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Levels of expired carbon monoxide, measured with a Smokerlyser (Bedfont EC 50 Scientific, before and after a normal day's work. RESULTS: Waiters' pre-exposure expired carbon monoxide levels were similar to those of medical students, but after a mean of 9 hours exposure in the workplace, median levels more than doubled (2.0 ppm vs. 5.0 ppm, P <0.001. Post-exposure carbon monoxide levels were correlated with the number of tables available for smokers (Kendall's tau = 0.2, P <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is the most likely explanation for the increase in carbon monoxide levels among these non-smoking waiters. These findings can be used to inform the ongoing public health debate on passive smoking.

  1. [Protective effects of endogenous carbon monoxide against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Ma, Shuang; Liu, Jie; Ji, Qiao-Rong; Cao, Cheng-Zhu; Li, Xiao-Na; Tang, Feng; Zhang, Wei

    2018-04-25

    The present study is aimed to explore the effects of endogenous carbon monoxide on the ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with protoporphyrin cobalt chloride (CoPP, an endogenous carbon monoxide agonist, 5 mg/kg), zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, an endogenous carbon monoxide inhibitor, 5 mg/kg) or saline. Twenty-four hours after injection, the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model was made by Langendorff isolated cardiac perfusion system, and cardiac function parameters were collected. Myocardial cGMP content was measured by ELISA, and the endogenous carbon monoxide in plasma and myocardial enzymes in perfusate at 10 min after reperfusion were measured by colorimetry. The results showed that before ischemia the cardiac functions of CoPP, ZnPP and control groups were stable, and there were no significant differences. After reperfusion, cardiac functions had significant differences among the three groups (P endogenous carbon monoxide can maintain cardiac function, shorten the time of cardiac function recovery, and play a protective role in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion.

  2. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on Platelet Volume in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halise Akça

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence supporting the important role of mean platelet volume (MPV as a marker of hypoxia and inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine changes in MPV values in pediatric patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated children who were diagnosed with carbon monoxide poisoning in our hospital between January 2005 and 2014. Results: We included 228 children with carbon monoxide poisoning (49% male in this retrospective, controlled study. The mean age of the patients was 88±56 months. Control group consisted of 200 age-matched healthy children. There was no statistically significant difference in MPV levels between the study and control groups (8.43±1.1 fL and 8.26±0.7 fL, respectively. No correlation of MPV and platelet count with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb was found. Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that MPV value was not a helpful parameter for predicting the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in childhood. The difference between the MPV values and the lack of significance and the absence of correlation between MPV value and COHb level led to the fact that MPV was not a guide indicating the clinical severity of the condition.

  3. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Namik; Ozcam, Giray; Kosar, Pinar; Ozcan, Ayse; Basar, Hulya; Kaymak, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Solubility of carbon monoxide in bio-oil compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Le Nedelec, Tom; Guerrero-Amaya, Hernando; Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Richon, Dominique; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO solubility was measured in four bio-oil compounds using static-analytic VLE equipment. • A comparison on the performance of different EoS (PC-SAFT, SRK and PR) was made. • Modelling of polar compounds with Polar PC-SAFT was tested. • Polar PC-SAFT is not needed for weakly polar compounds (μ < 1.0 D). - Abstract: The solubility of carbon monoxide is measured in four different bio-oil compounds (furan, diacetyl, 2-methylfuran, and trans-crotonaldehyde) at temperatures (273.15, 283.15, 298.15, and 323.15 K) and pressures up to 8 MPa using a static-analytical VLE measurement method. The equipment was validated by measuring the solubility of CO 2 in methanol at 298.15 K and pressures (P = 2.9–5.7 MPa). The results were compared with the abundantly available literature values. PC-SAFT, Polar PC-SAFT (PPC-SAFT), and Cubic (SRK, PR) EoS, part of commercial process simulator Aspen Plus V. 8.6, are used here for modelling purpose. The pure component parameters needed for PC-SAFT and PPC-SAFT EoS models, are regressed using the experimental liquid density and vapour pressure data of the pure components. It was observed that furan, 2-methylfuran and diacetyl, having weak dipole moments (μ < 1.0 D), could be modelled reasonably well without the addition of polar contribution using conventional PC-SAFT, while it is recommended to use PPC-SAFT for the description of a polar compound like trans-crotonaldehyde (μ ∼ 3.67 D). It was observed that SRK and PR EoS have similar predictive ability in comparison to PC-SAFT for a mixture of CO with weakly polar compounds in this study. A comparison between the performances of EoS models was made in two ways: first by setting the binary interaction parameter k ij to zero, and second by adjusting a temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter (k ij ). All the models perform with comparable accuracy with adjusted binary interaction parameters. However, due to the large differences between the chemical and

  5. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  6. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ 13 C, δ 18 O and Δ 17 O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13 CO/ 12 CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13 C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH 4 ) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH 4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13 C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The

  7. Recent changes in carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane and the implications for global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Conway, T.J.; Dlugokencky, E.J.; Tans, P.P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab.

    1995-01-01

    The article reviews figures for published data on recent changes of atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane in terms of their sources and sinks. The largest source of CO{sub 2} is the combustion of fossil fuels, followed by emissions from deforestation and the oxidation of CO to CO{sub 2}. Carbon monoxide has an indirect influence on the earth`s radiative balance, as if levels of CO increase, levels of OH radicals decline which affects removal of other gases oxidised by this radical, notably CH{sub 4}. Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, emissions from biomass, and oxidation of atmospheric CH{sub 4} and other non-methane hydrocarbons. The latest measurements suggest the depressed growth rates of CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} have began to recover. Reasons for this are suggested. Future monitoring of atmospheric species in laboratories around the world, coupled with information on the isotopic signature of the trace gases, will improve our understanding of possible causes for trends in these gases. This will be invaluable in making policy decisions regarding future climate change. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Absorption of nicotine and carbon monoxide from passive smoking under natural conditions of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C

    1983-01-01

    Seven non-smokers were exposed to tobacco smoke under natural conditions for two hours in a public house. Measures of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva, and urine and expired air carbon monoxide all showed reliable increases. The concentrations of carbon monoxide and nicotine after exposure averaged 15.7% and 7.5% respectively of the values found in heavy smokers. Although the increase in expired air carbon monoxide of 5.9 ppm was similar to increases in smokers after a single cigarette, the amount of nicotine absorbed was between a tenth and a third of the amount taken in from one cigarette. Since this represented a relatively extreme acute natural exposure, any health risks of passive smoking probably depend less on quantitative factors than on qualitative differences between sidestream and mainstream smoke. PMID:6648864

  9. [Carboxyhemoglobin concentration in carbon monoxide poisoning. Critical appraisal of the predictive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köthe, L; Radke, J

    2010-06-01

    In cases of unclear depression of conciousness, arrhythmia and symptoms of cardiac insufficiency inadvertent carbon monoxide intoxication should always be taken into consideration. Rapid diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide intoxication with mostly unspecific symptoms requires an immediate supply of high dose oxygen which enables a distinct reduction of mortality and long-term morbidity. Levels of carboxyhemoglobin, however, should not be used as a parameter to decide whether to supply normobaric or the more efficient hyperbaric oxygen. There is no sufficient coherence between carboxyhemoglobin blood levels and clinical symptoms. Increased carboxyhemoglobin concentrations help to diagnose acute carbon monoxide intoxication but do not allow conclusions to be drawn about possible long-term neuropsychiatric or cardiac consequences.

  10. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-04-01

    Carbon monoxide poisonings continue to be significant and preventable for a number of work operations. This study assesses occupational carbon monoxide morbidity and mortality for the state of Washington based on a review of workers' compensation records for the years 1994-1999. The study characterizes sources, industries, and causative factors, and further attempts to identify work operations most at risk. Records were identified by both injury source and diagnostic codes. The study limits itself to non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisonings and primarily those from acute exposure. A decline in the number of claims was not evident, but the number of incidents per year showed a slight decline. Carbon monoxide poisonings were found to occur throughout all types of industries. The greatest number of claims was found in agriculture, followed by construction and wholesale trade, with these three accounting for more than half the claims and nearly half of the incidents. The more severe poisonings did not necessarily occur in industries with the greatest number of incidents. The major source for carbon monoxide poisoning was forklift trucks, followed by auto/truck/bus, portable saws, and more than 20 other sources. Fruit packing and storage had the highest number of incidents mostly due to fuel-powered forklift activity, with nearly half of the incidents occurring in cold rooms. Adverse health effects as measured by carboxyhemoglobin, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, unconsciousness, and number and cost of claims were indexed by source. Though several specific work operations were identified, the episodic nature of carbon monoxide poisonings, as well as the diverse industries and sources, and the opportunity for a severe poisoning in any number of operations, poses challenges for effective intervention.

  11. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  12. Occupational carbon monoxide violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-07-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims data from a companion study to determine if the agency was visiting the most at risk work operations. Inspections were identified by searching computerized violation texts for "carbon monoxide" or "CO." The study found 142 inspections with one or more carbon monoxide violations. Inspections were spread over 84 different 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. Most inspections were initiated as a result of a complaint or other informant. Inspections were predominantly in construction and manufacturing, whereas carbon monoxide claims were mores evenly distributed between the major industries. Inspections also may have failed to find violations for some types of equipment responsible for carbon monoxide claims. Forklifts were the source of carbon monoxide most often associated with a violation, followed by compressors for respirators, auto/truck/bus, and temporary heating devices. Inspections in response to poisonings found common factors associated with lack of recognition and failure to use or maintain equipment and ventilation. Some work sites with one or more poisonings were not being inspected. Only 10 of the 51 incidents with industrial insurance claim reports of carboxyhemoglobin at or above 20 percent were inspected. Further, it was found more preventive efforts should be targeted at cold storage operations and certain warehouse and construction activities. It is proposed that more specific standards, both consensus and regulatory, would provide additional risk reduction. Reliance upon safe work practices as a primary method of control in the

  13. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning during yagya for faith healing--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, C; Millo, T M; Jaiswal, A; Dogra, T D

    2013-03-01

    A 20-year-old female and a 45-year-old male were found lying dead on the floor with frothand vomitus stain present over mouth, nose and face in a closed room. An earthen bowl with incomplete burnt woods, flowers, food materials, agarbati, etc, was also found lying near the body of the two deceased. The cause of death, established by autopsy and toxicological examination was carbon monoxide poisoning in both victims. The source of carbon monoxide was incomplete burnt woods used for yagya during puja (a faith healing practice) for bearing children.

  14. Selected constituents in the smokes of U. S. commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    One hundred twenty-one brands of United States commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. The sample included both filter and nonfilter cigarettes. Comparisons of carbon monoxide deliveries over the range of observed tar deliveries indicated a very high correlation between CO and tar for filter cigarettes, but nonfilter cigarettes tended to produce much less CO than would have been predicted from their tar deliveries. Comparison of ORNL nicotine values for specific brands with those determined by the Federal Trade Commission yield no statistically significant differences between laboratories. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... of Part 62—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New... Pt. 60, Subpt. AAAA, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for.... Compliance is determined by continuous emission monitoring systems. b Block averages, arithmetic mean. See...

  17. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  18. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  19. Carbon monoxide measurement by gas chromatography; Mesure du monoxyde de carbone par chromatographie en phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, V.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Bonsang, B.; Ramonet, M.

    1998-09-01

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) is present in trace quantities in the atmosphere (0.1 ppm -or parts per million in volume- on average), the study of this gas is important. Indeed, its impact on human can be dangerous at high level of concentration on the hand and it constitutes one of the main precursor of ozone in presence of concentration on the one hand and it constitutes one of the main precursor of ozone in presence of other pollutants on the other hand. Finally, CO affects the levels of several important greenhouse gases, through its reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). CO is measured in the atmosphere since the mid 60's by various methods. Among them, gas chromatography has the advantage to combine a low detection limit with a high precision. This report details the improvements made on the measurement analyser which allowed to perform automatic CO measurements in remote areas with low mixing ratios of carbon monoxide. This report describes some quality tests and the results of various applications. (authors)

  20. Selective and efficient reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide on oxide-derived nanostructured silver electrocatalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming; Trześniewski, Bartek J.; Xie, Jie; Smith, Wilson A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the selective electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide on oxide-derived silver electrocatalysts is presented. By a simple synthesis technique, the overall high faradaic efficiency for CO production on the oxide-derived Ag was shifted by more than 400 mV towards a

  1. Conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by pulse dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taobo; Liu, Hongxia; Xiong, Xiang; Feng, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, and the effects of different process conditions on the CO2 conversion were investigated. The results showed that the increase of input power could optimize the conversion of CO2 to CO. The CO2 conversion and CO yield were negatively correlated with the gas flow rate, but there was an optimum gas flow rate, that made the CO selectivity best. The carrier gas (N2, Ar) was conducive to the conversion of CO2, and the effect of N2 as carrier gas was better than Ar. The conversion of CO2 to CO was enhanced by addition of the catalyst (5A molecular sieve).

  2. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  3. Hydrogen adsorption in new carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta, L.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen physi-sorption on porous carbon materials is one among the different technologies which could be used for hydrogen storage. In addition hydrogen spillover on a carbon supports can enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacities obtained by physi-sorption. In this study two different carbon supports were synthesised: carbon gels and carbon microspheres. Carbon microspheres were doped with Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} to study the hydrogen spillover on carbon support. The texture of the materials was characterised by CO{sub 2} adsorption at 0 C and their hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at -196 and 10 C with a Micromeritics Tristar 3000, and at room temperature with a high pressure gravimetric analyser. (authors)

  4. Hydrogen adsorption in new carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, L.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen physi-sorption on porous carbon materials is one among the different technologies which could be used for hydrogen storage. In addition hydrogen spillover on a carbon supports can enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacities obtained by physi-sorption. In this study two different carbon supports were synthesised: carbon gels and carbon microspheres. Carbon microspheres were doped with Ni(NO 3 ) 2 to study the hydrogen spillover on carbon support. The texture of the materials was characterised by CO 2 adsorption at 0 C and their hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at -196 and 10 C with a Micromeritics Tristar 3000, and at room temperature with a high pressure gravimetric analyser. (authors)

  5. A 60-yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V. V.; Martinerie, P.; Novelli, P.; Etheridge, D. M.; Levin, I.; Wang, Z.; Blunier, T.; Chappellaz, J.; Kaiser, J.; Lang, P.; Steele, L. P.; Hammer, S.; Mak, J.; Langenfelds, R. L.; Schwander, J.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Witrant, E.; Petron, G.; Battle, M. O.; Forster, G.; Sturges, W. T.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Steffen, K.; White, J. W. C.

    2012-08-01

    We present a reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008). CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO was already higher in 1950 than it is today. CO mole fractions rose gradually until the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radical (OH), as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories chronically underestimate NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  6. CO2 Reduction Catalyzed by Nitrogenase: Pathways to Formate, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Nimesh; Dean, Dennis R; Smith, Dayle; Hoffman, Brian M; Raugei, Simone; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2016-09-06

    The reduction of N2 to NH3 by Mo-dependent nitrogenase at its active-site metal cluster FeMo-cofactor utilizes reductive elimination of Fe-bound hydrides with obligatory loss of H2 to activate the enzyme for binding/reduction of N2. Earlier work showed that wild-type nitrogenase and a nitrogenase with amino acid substitutions in the MoFe protein near FeMo-cofactor can catalytically reduce CO2 by two or eight electrons/protons to carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) at low rates. Here, it is demonstrated that nitrogenase preferentially reduces CO2 by two electrons/protons to formate (HCOO(-)) at rates >10 times higher than rates of CO2 reduction to CO and CH4. Quantum mechanical calculations on the doubly reduced FeMo-cofactor with a Fe-bound hydride and S-bound proton (E2(2H) state) favor a direct reaction of CO2 with the hydride ("direct hydride transfer" reaction pathway), with facile hydride transfer to CO2 yielding formate. In contrast, a significant barrier is observed for reaction of Fe-bound CO2 with the hydride ("associative" reaction pathway), which leads to CO and CH4. Remarkably, in the direct hydride transfer pathway, the Fe-H behaves as a hydridic hydrogen, whereas in the associative pathway it acts as a protic hydrogen. MoFe proteins with amino acid substitutions near FeMo-cofactor (α-70(Val→Ala), α-195(His→Gln)) are found to significantly alter the distribution of products between formate and CO/CH4.

  7. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft, Sep 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of t...

  8. Catalytic Reduction of Nitrous Oxide with Carbon Monoxide over Calcined Co–Mn–Al Hydrotalcite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacultová, K.; Obalová, L.; Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 137, 2-4 (2008), s. 358-389 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * carbon monoxide * mixed oxide catalysts Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2008

  9. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Faluvegi, G.; Stevenson, D.S.; Krol, M.C.; Emmons, L.K.; Lamarque, J.F.; Petron, G.; Dentener, F.J.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.S.; Bergmann, D.J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W.J.; Derwent, R.G.; Doherty, R.M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Fiore, A.M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.A.; Horowitz, L.W.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Lawrence, M.G.; Montanaro, V.; Muller, J.F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M.J.; Pyle, J.A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Sanderson, M.G.; Savage, N.H.; Strahan, S.E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Unger, N.; Noije, van T.P.C.; Zeng, G.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  10. SEASONAL SOIL FLUXES OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BURNED AND UNBURNED BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured from September 1999 through November 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) under different fire regimes using transparent and opaque static chambers. Studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto...

  11. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  12. Intra-pulse Cavity Enhanced Measurements of Carbon Monoxide in a Rapid Compression Machine

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Farooq, Aamir

    2018-01-01

    A laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide concentration was developed for combustion studies in a rapid compression machine using a pulsed quantum cascade laser near 4.89 μm. Cavity enhancement reduced minimum detection limit down to 2.4 ppm

  13. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning ...

  14. Room-temperature cold-welding of gold nanoparticles for enhancing the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai; Li, Yong-Jun; Sun, Shi-Gang; Yeung, Edward S

    2011-04-21

    A cold-welding strategy is proposed to rapidly join together Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) into two-dimensional continuous structures for enhancing the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide by injecting a mixture of ethanol and tolulene into the bottom of a AuNP solution. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  15. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths c...

  16. Evidence for long-range transport of carbon monoxide in the Southern Hemisphere from SCIAMACHY observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; de Laat, A.T.J.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.; van den Broek, M.M.P.; Aben, I.

    2006-01-01

    The SCIAMACHY satellite instrument shows enhanced carbon monoxide (CO) columns in the Southern Hemisphere during the local Spring. Chemistry-transport model simulations using the new GFEDv2 biomass-burning emission database show a similar temporal and spatial CO distribution, indicating that the

  17. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    Infrared spectroscopy is used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide (20°C; 0.1– 100 Torr) on copper-on-silica catalysts differently prepared and pretreated. As determined by electron microscopy and X-ray line broadening, the catalysts contain copper particles having sizes of 60 to 5000 Å

  18. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... a SIP means that transportation activities will not produce new air quality violations, worsen... Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY... Transportation & Public Facilities, and the U.S. Department of Transportation will be required to use [[Page 8253...

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Nigeria - it is time to pay attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless gas and a cause of thousands of deaths across the world annually but its lethal consequences often go unrecognized, especially in developing countries. Aim: To discuss the subject of CO poisoning using local examples. Methods: Information was drawn from ...

  1. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Krol, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-ofthe- art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  2. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Eyler; Michel Junker; Emanuelle Breysse Carraboeuf; Laurent Allidieres; David Guichardot; Fabien Roy; Isabelle Verdier; Edward Mc Rae; Moulay Rachid Babaa; Gilles Flamant; David Luxembourg; Daniel Laplaze; Patrick Achard; Sandrine Berthon-Fabry; David Langohr; Laurent Fulcheri

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a French project related to hydrogen storage in carbon nano-materials. This 3 years project, co-funded by the ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and the Energy Management), aimed to assess the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nano-materials. Four different carbon materials were synthesized and characterized in the frame of present project: - Carbon Nano-tubes; - Carbon Nano-fibres; - Carbon Aerogel; - Carbon Black. All materials tested in the frame of this project present a hydrogen uptake of less than 1 wt% (-20 C to 20 C). A state of the art of hydrogen storage systems has been done in order to determine the research trends and the maturity of the different technologies. The choice and design of hydrogen storage systems regarding fuel cell specifications has also been studied. (authors)

  3. Unique case of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning in the absence of a combustible fossil fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D R; Poon, P; Titley, J; Jagger, S F; Rutty, G N

    2001-09-01

    A 37-year-old man died as a result of exposure to carbon monoxide within an apartment. An investigation of the apartment showed no gas appliances or gas supply to the apartment and no evidence of any combustion event to any part of the apartment or roof space. Inhalation of dichloromethane was excluded. Heating to the apartment was found to be via an electrical storage heater, the examination of which revealed that the cast-iron core and insulating material showed evidence of heat damage with significant areas devoid of carbon. This electric storage heater is hypothesized to be the source of carbon for the fatal production of carbon monoxide within the apartment.

  4. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  5. Storage of hydrogen in nanostructured carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda; Taralp, Alpay; Veziroğlu, T. Nejat; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments focusing on novel hydrogen storage media have helped to benchmark nanostructured carbon materials as one of the ongoing strategic research areas in science and technology. In particular, certain microporous carbon powders, carbon nanomaterials, and specifically carbon nanotubes stand to deliver unparalleled performance as the next generation of base materials for storing hydrogen. Accordingly, the main goal of this report is to overview the challenges, distinguishing trait...

  6. New Class of Hybrid Materials for Detection, Capture, and "On-Demand" Release of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Lupan, Alexandru; Ellingford, Christopher; Attia, Amr A A; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2018-04-25

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N 2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts. It is therefore of the utmost economic importance to discover new materials that enable effective CO capture and release under mild conditions. However, methods to specifically absorb and easily release CO in the presence of contaminants, such as water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, at ambient temperature are not available. Here, we report the simple and versatile fabrication of a new class of hybrid materials that allows capture and release of carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We found that carborane-containing metal complexes encapsulated in networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) react with CO, even when immersed in water, leading to dramatic color and infrared signature changes. Furthermore, we found that the CO can be easily released from the materials by simply dipping the networks into an organic solvent for less than 1 min, at ambient temperature and pressure, which not only offers a straightforward recycling method, but also a new method for the "on-demand" release of carbon monoxide. We illustrated the utilization of the on-demand release of CO from the networks by carrying out a carbonylation reaction on an electron-deficient metal complex that led to the formation of the CO-adduct, with concomitant recycling of the gel. We anticipate that our sponge-like materials and scalable methodology will open up new avenues for the storage, transport, and controlled release of CO, the silent killer and a major industrial poison.

  7. A 60 yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V. V.; Martinerie, P.; Novelli, P.; Etheridge, D. M.; Levin, I.; Wang, Z.; Blunier, T.; Chappellaz, J.; Kaiser, J.; Lang, P.; Steele, L. P.; Hammer, S.; Mak, J.; Langenfelds, R. L.; Schwander, J.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Witrant, E.; Petron, G.; Battle, M. O.; Forster, G.; Sturges, W. T.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Steffen, K.; White, J. W. C.

    2013-08-01

    We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008). CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO in 1950 was 140-150 nmol mol-1, which is higher than today's values. CO mole fractions rose by 10-15 nmol mol-1 from 1950 to the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a ≈ 30 nmol mol-1 decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radicals (OH), as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless unrealistically large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories strongly underestimate historical NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  8. A 60 yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO in 1950 was 140–150 nmol mol−1, which is higher than today's values. CO mole fractions rose by 10–15 nmol mol−1 from 1950 to the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a ≈ 30 nmol mol−1 decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radicals (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless unrealistically large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories strongly underestimate historical NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  9. Factors determining the activity of catalysts of various chemical types in the oxidation of hydrogen. I. Oxidation and isotope exchange of hydrogen on cobalt monoxide-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polgikh, L.Y.; Golodets, G.I.; Il'chenko, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of data on the kinetics of the reaction 2H 2 + O 2 = 2H 2 O isotope exchange H 2 + D 2 = 2HD under the conditions of oxidative catalysis, and the kinetic isotope effect, a mechanism is proposed for the oxidation of hydrogen on cobalt monoxide-oxide. At low temperatures the reaction proceeds according to a mechanism of alternating reduction-reoxidation of the surface with the participation of hydrogen adsorbed in molecular form; at increased temperature and low P 02 /P /SUB H2/ ratios, a significant contribution to the observed rate is made by a mechanism including dissociative chemisorption of hydrogen

  10. Computation of diatomic molecular spectra for selected transitions of aluminum monoxide, cyanide, diatomic carbon, and titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parigger, Christian G., E-mail: cparigge@tennessee.edu [The University of Tennessee/University of Tennessee Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications, 411 B.H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700 (United States); Woods, Alexander C.; Surmick, David M.; Gautam, Ghaneshwar; Witte, Michael J. [The University of Tennessee/University of Tennessee Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications, 411 B.H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700 (United States); Hornkohl, James O. [Hornkohl Consulting, Tullahoma, TN 37388 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Laser ablation studies with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) typically emphasize atomic species yet fingerprints from molecular species can occur subsequently or concurrently. In this work, selected molecular transitions of aluminum monixide (AlO), diatomic carbon (C{sub 2}), cyanide (CN), and titanium monoxide (TiO) are accurately computed. Line strength tables are used to describe the radiative transitions of diatomic molecules primarily in the visible, optical region. Details are elaborated of the computational procedure that allows one to utilize diatomic spectra as a predictive and as a diagnostic tool. In order to create a computed spectrum, the procedure requires information regarding the temperature of the diatomic transitions along with other input such as the spectral resolution. When combined with a fitting algorithm to optimize such parameters, this procedure is used to infer information from an experimentally obtained spectrum. Furthermore, the programs and data files are provided for LIBS investigations that also reveal AlO, C{sub 2}, CN, and TiO diatomic spectra. - Highlights: • We present a program for fitting of molecular spectra. • This includes data base for AlO, C{sub 2}, CN, and TiO. • We discuss the details of the program including fitting. • We show computed examples and reference current work.

  11. Sintering uranium oxide in the reaction product of hydrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hollander, W.R.; Nivas, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide alone or containing one or more additives such as plutonium dioxide, gadolinium oxide, titanium dioxide, silica, and alumina are heated to 900 to 1599 0 C in the presence of a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, either alone or with an inert carrier gas and held at the desired temperature in this atmosphere to sinter the pellets. The sintered pellets are then cooled in an atmosphere having an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -4 to 10 -18 atm of oxygen such as dry hydrogen, wet hydrogen, dry carbon monoxide, wet carbon monoxide, inert gases such as nitrogen, argon, helium, and neon and mixtures of ayny of the foregoing including a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon dioxide in the gas mixture fed to the furnace is controlled to give a ratio of oxygen to uranium atoms in the sintered particles within the range of 1.98:1 to about 2.10:1. The water vapor present in the reaction products in the furnace atmosphere acts as a hydrolysis agent to aid removal of fluoride should such impurity be present in the uranium oxide. (U.S.)

  12. Numerical simulations of carbon monoxide poisoning in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells with various flow channel designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Kui; Zhou, Yibo; Du, Qing; Yin, Yan; Yu, Shuhai; Li, Xianguo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simulations of CO poisoning in HT-PEMFC with different flow channels are conducted. ► Parallel and serpentine designs result in least and most CO effects, respectively. ► General CO distributions in CLs are similar with different flow channel designs. - Abstract: The performance of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) is significantly affected by the carbon monoxide (CO) in hydrogen fuel, and the flow channel design may influence the CO poisoning characteristics by changing the reactant flow. In this study, three-dimensional non-isothermal simulations are carried out to investigate the comprehensive flow channel design and CO poisoning effects on the performance of HT-PEMFCs. The numerical results show that when pure hydrogen is supplied, the interdigitated design produces the highest power output, the power output with serpentine design is higher than the two parallel designs, and the parallel-Z and parallel-U designs have similar power outputs. The performance degradation caused by CO poisoning is the least significant with parallel flow channel design, but the most significant with serpentine and interdigitated designs because the cross flow through the electrode is stronger. At low cell voltages (high current densities), the highest power outputs are with interdigitated and parallel flow channel designs at low and high CO fractions in the supplied hydrogen, respectively. The general distributions of absorbed hydrogen and CO coverage fractions in anode catalyst layer (CL) are similar for the different flow channel designs. The hydrogen coverage fraction is higher under the channel than under the land, and is also higher on the gas diffusion layer (GDL) side than on the membrane side; and the CO coverage distribution is opposite to the hydrogen coverage distribution

  13. Acute Compartment Syndrome Which Causes Rhabdomyolysis by Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Sciatic Nerve Injury Associated with It: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is most frequently caused by soft tissue injury with trauma to the extremities. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis may be caused by alcohol or drug abuse, infection, collagen disease, or intensive exercise, but incidence is low. In particular, rhabdomyolysis resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning is especially rare. If caught before death, carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown to cause severe muscle necrosis and severe muscle damage leading to acute renal failure. In cases of carbon-monoxide-induced rhabdomyolsis leading to acute compartment syndrome in the buttocks and sciatic nerve injury are rare. We have experience treating patients with acute compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis following carbon monoxide poisoning. We report the characteristic features of muscle necrosis observed during a decompression operation and magnetic resonance imaging findings with a one-year follow-up in addition to a review of the literature.

  14. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 1 (SRL1) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  15. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 2 (SRL2) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  16. Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, M D; Myers, R E

    1974-01-01

    Techniques of fetal monitoring, including fetal blood sampling in utero, were employed to study the physiological effects of acute maternal carbon monoxide intoxication on nine term-pregnant female rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.1 to 0.3% inspired carbon monoxide over 1 to 3 hr. The mothers tolerated carboxyhemoglobin levels exceeding 60% without clinical sequelae, whereas the fetuses promptly developed profound hypoxia upon exposure of the mothers to CO. The fetal COHb levels rose only gradually over 1 to 3 hr, and thus contributed only slightly to the development of early fetal hypoxia. The fetal hypoxia was associated with bradycardia, hypotension, and metabolic and respiratory acidosis. Severity of intrauterine hypoxia was closely correlated with the appearance of brain damage. Brain swelling associated with hemorrhagic necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres (severe brain damage) appeared only in fetuses whose arterial oxygen content was reduced below 1.0 ml/100 ml for at least 45 min during the maternal CO intoxication.

  17. Exposure to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and volatile organic compounds while commuting by bicycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, M.A.J.; Proctor, C.J.; Baker-Rogers, J.; Warren, N.D.

    1991-01-01

    A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being 10.5 ppm. Respirable suspended particulates, averaged over each journey period, were found at higher concentrations (mean 130 μg m -3 ) than would be expected in indoor situations. Mean exposure to benzene (at 56 μg m -3 ) and other aromatic volatile organic compounds was also relatively high. The influence of wind conditions on exposure was found to be significant. Commuting exposures to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and aromatic VOCs were found to be higher than exposures in a busy high street and on common parkland

  18. Supply Ventilation and Prevention of Carbon Monoxide (II) Ingress into Building Premises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article contains the relationships of carbon monoxide (II) concentration versus height-above-ground near buildings derived based on results of studies. The results of studies are crucial in preventing external pollutants ingress into a ventilation system. Being generated by external emission sources, such as motor vehicles and city heating plants, carbon monoxide (II) enters the premises during operation of a supply ventilation system. Fresh air nomographic charts were drawn to select the height of a fresh air intake into the ventilation system. Nomographic charts take into account external sources. The selected emission sources are located at various levels above ground relative to the building. The recommendations allow designing supply ventilation taking into account the quality of ambient air through the whole building height.

  19. Theoretical studies on the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on nickel clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Kojima, I.; Miyazaki, E.

    1986-01-01

    Complete neglect of differential overlap (CNDO) molecular orbital calculations using the method of Anno and Sakai for the evaluation of the valence orbital ionization potential (VOIP) were performed with the aim of studying the oxidation of carbon monoxide on nickel clusters. A cluster surface was assumed to be preadsorbed with oxygen and the variation of various bond energies with the approach of a carbon monoxide molecule was studied for different models. Various possibilities for the reaction path are discussed in the light of the theoretical findings and it is suggested that at a low coverage of oxygen the reaction may follow a Langmuir-Hinshelwood path, whereas at a high coverage, an Eley-Rideal path might be more probable. 55 references, 13 figures.

  20. Geostatistical modelling of carbon monoxide levels in Khartoum State (Sudan) - GIS pilot based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhuseen, A [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Dept. of Landscape Ecology, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Madani, M [Ministry of Environment and Physical Development, 1111 Khartoum (Sudan)

    2012-04-25

    The objective of this study is to develop a digital GIS model; that can evaluate, predict and visualize carbon monoxide (CO) levels in Khartoum state. To achieve this aim, sample data had been collected, processed and managed to generate a dynamic GIS model of carbon monoxide levels in the study area. Parametric data collected from the field and analysis carried throughout this study show that (CO) emissions were lower than the allowable ambient air quality standards released by National Environment Protection Council (NEPC-USA) for 1998. However, this pilot study has found emissions of (CO) in Omdurman city were the highest. This pilot study shows that GIS and geostatistical modeling can be used as a powerful tool to produce maps of exposure. (authors)

  1. Mechanistic studies related to the metal catalyzed reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons. Final report, April 1, 1977-June 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, C.P.

    1985-02-01

    Studies of compounds related to proposed intermediates in the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts have been carried out. The synthesis, structure, and reactions of metal formyl compounds have been investigated. The synthesis and desproportionation reactions of hydroxymethyl metal compounds have been explored. Reactions involving interconversion of n 5 - and n'-C 5 H 5 organometallic compounds have been discovered. New synthetic routes to bimetallic compounds with bridging hydrocarbon ligands have been developed. The first bimetallic compound with a budging CH ligand has been prepared. The hydrocarbation reaction in which the CH bond of a bridging methylidyne complex adds across a carbon-carbon double bond has been discovered. New heterobimetallic compounds linked by a heterodifunctional ligand and heterobimetallic compounds with directly bonded early and late transition metals have been synthesized in a search for new CO hydrogenation catalysts. 36 refs

  2. Hydrogen storage property of nanoporous carbon aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Liu Nianping; Ouyang Ling; Zhou Bin; Wu Guangming; Ni Xingyuan; Zhang Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Carbon aerogels were prepared from resorcinol and formaldehyde via sol-gel process, high temperature carbonization and atmospheric pressure drying technology with solvent replacement. By changing the resorcinol-sodium carbonate molar ratio and the mass fraction of the reactants,resorcinol and formaldehyde, the pore structure of carbon aerogels can be controlled and the palladium-doped carbon aerogels were prepared.By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, it is confirmed that the Pd exists in the skeleton structure of carbon aerogels as a form of nano simple substance pellet. The specific surface area is successfully raised by 2 times, and palladium-doped carbon aerogels with a specific surface area of 1 273 m 2 /g have been obtained by carrying out the activation process as the post-processing to the doped carbon aerogels. The hydrogen adsorption results show that the saturated hydrogen storage mass fraction of the carbon aerogels with the specific surface area of 3 212 m 2 /g is 3% in the condition of 92 K, 3.5 MPa, and 0.84% in the condition of 303 K, 3.2 MPa. In addition, the hydrogen adsorption test of palladium-doped carbon aerogels at room temperature (303 K) shows that the total hydrogen storage capacity of doped carbon aerogels is declined due to the relative small specific surface, but the hydrogen storage of unit specific surface area is enhanced. (authors)

  3. Influence of solvent on the infared spectrum of carbon monoxide adsorbed on platinum electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Feltovich, Susanne D.

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of adsorbed carbon monoxide on platinum was studied using potential difference infrared spectroscopy. Three solvents and three electrolytes were chosen, and data gathered at both high and low adsorbate coverages. The rate of change of IR peak position with applied potential, the Stark tuning rate, was used as an indicator of the local electric field strength at the interface. It was determined that neither solvated cation size nor bulk dielectric constant accoun...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, N B; Norkool, D M

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. DESIGN - Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. SETTING - A private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. PATIENTS - Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age. INTERVENTION - All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Characteristics of the poisoning incident and clinical patient outcome. RESULTS - Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% +/- 2.4% (mean +/- SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. CONCLUSIONS - Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided.

  5. Intra-pulse Cavity Enhanced Measurements of Carbon Monoxide in a Rapid Compression Machine

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad

    2018-05-07

    A laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide concentration was developed for combustion studies in a rapid compression machine using a pulsed quantum cascade laser near 4.89 μm. Cavity enhancement reduced minimum detection limit down to 2.4 ppm at combustion relevant conditions. Off-axis alignment and rapid intra-pulse down-chirp resulted in effective suppression of cavity noise.

  6. Multiple Victims of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Aftermath of a Wildfire: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Ramos dos Santos

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Use of hyperbaric oxygen appears to have reduced the incidence of the syndrome. This seems to be the first Portuguese series reporting use of hyperbaric oxygen in carbon monoxide poisoning due to wildfires. The authors intend to alert to the importance of referral of these patients because the indications and benefits of this treatment are well documented. This is especially important given the ever-growing issue of wildfires in Portugal.

  7. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. Influence of carbon monoxide poisoning on the fetal heart monitor tracing: a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Craig V; Corcoran, Vincent A

    2009-03-01

    The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning in the third trimester of pregnancy requires an index of suspicion, and the appearance of the fetal heart monitor tracing may help in this regard. Three cases of third-trimester acute carbon monoxide poisoning occurred. In each pregnancy, the fetal heart monitor tracing on admission was correlated with the maternal carboxyhemoglobin level, and how the pattern changed following the institution of therapy was analyzed. In all 3 cases, the initial fetal heart rate pattern demonstrated decreased variability with an elevated baseline and an absence of accelerations and decelerations. Within 45-90 minutes of treatment onset, the baseline fetal heart rate dropped by 20-40 beats per minute, the variability became moderate, and accelerations occurred. Absent accelerations with minimal variability, if caused by uteroplacental insufficiency, are usually preceded by recurrent decelerations. Absent accelerations with minimal variability in the absence of recurrent decelerations may suggest another cause, of which carbon monoxide intoxication can be added to the differential, especially since this disorder often has nonspecific clinical symptoms.

  9. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  10. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. The indigenous Sea Gypsy divers of Thailand's west coast: measurement of carbon monoxide in the breathing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, D; Geater, A; Aiyarak, S; Juengpraert, W

    1999-07-01

    Approximately 400 indigenous divers live and work on Thailand's west coast. They dive with surface supplied air from primitive compressor units mounted on open boats which measure from seven to 11 meters in length. It was suspected that carbon monoxide was present in the breathing air of at least the gasoline-driven compressor units. To determine the presence of carbon monoxide gas in the breathing air, compressed air from the compressor was pumped through the diver air supply hose through a plenum (monitoring) chamber established on the boat. After a compressor warm-up of 15 minutes, the diving air was measured with the boat at eight different bearings to the wind, each 45 degrees apart at intervals of five minutes. Three of the four gasoline-driven compressor units tested showed presence of carbon monoxide in the breathing air. One diesel-driven unit showed a very low concentration of carbon monoxide (3-4 ppm) and six diesel-driven units showed no detectable carbon monoxide. Although not tested, diesel exhaust emissions could also enter the breathing air by the same route. A locally made modification to the compressor air intake was designed and successfully tested on one gasoline-driven compressor unit. An information sheet on the hazards of carbon monoxide as well as on the modification has been developed for distribution among the villages.

  12. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008; Campagne de prevention des intoxications au monoxyde de carbone : automne-hiver 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J. [Direction de sante publique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lacoursiere, D. [Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services sociaux du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  13. Electrocardiographic findings of carbon monoxide intoxication; two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ü. Kaldirim

    2013-12-01

    Discussion and Conclusion: Although there is no classic ”carbon monoxide” ECG pattern, sinus tachycardia and ST-T depressions are the most common ECG findings. Even a small amount of exposure to CO can cause myocardial infarction, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Patients admitting to ED with chest pain and ECG changes may be considered as a possible CO poisoning and patients with CO poisoning must be carefully evaluated for cardiovascular disease.

  14. The effects of carbon monoxide on respiratory chemoreflexes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, A.E.; Somogyi, R.B.; Sasano, Hiroshi; Sasano, Nobuko; Fisher, J.A.; Duffin, James

    2004-01-01

    As protection against low-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide environments, the respiratory chemoreceptors reflexly increase breathing. Since CO is also frequently present in such environments, it is important to know whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflexes responsiveness. Although the peripheral chemoreceptors fail to detect hypoxia produced by CO poisoning, whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide is unknown. The responsiveness of 10 healthy male volunteers were assessed before and after inhalation of ∼1200 ppm CO in air using two iso-oxic rebreathing tests; hypoxic, to emphasize the peripheral chemoreflex, and hyperoxic, to emphasize the central chemoreflex. Although mean (SEM) COHb values of 10.2 (0.2)% were achieved, no statistically significant effects of CO were observed. The average differences between pre- and post-CO values for ventilation response threshold and sensitivity were -0.5 (0.9) mmHg and 0.8 (0.3) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hyperoxia, and 0.7 (1.1) mmHg and 1.2 (0.8) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hypoxia. The 95% confidence intervals for the effect of CO were small. We conclude that environments with low levels of CO do not have a clinically significant effect acutely on either the central or the peripheral chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide

  15. Carbon deposition and hydrogen retention in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The results of measurements on co-deposition of hydrogen isotopes and wall materials, hydrogen retention, redeposition of carbon and deposition of hydrogen on PMI of JT-60U are described. From above results, selection of plasma facing material and ability of carbon wall is discussed. Selection of plasma facing materials in fusion reactor, characteristics of carbon materials as the plasma facing materials, erosion, transport and deposition of carbon impurity, deposition of tritium in JET, results of PMI in JT-60, application of carbon materials to PFM of ITER, and future problems are stated. Tritium co-deposition in ITER, erosion and transport of carbon in tokamak, distribution of tritium deposition on graphite tile used as bumper limiter of TFTR, and measurement results of deposition of tritium on the Mark-IIA divertor tile and comparison between them are described. (S.Y.)

  16. Carbon compound used in hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work it is studied the activated carbon of mineral origin for the sorption of hydrogen. The carbon decreased of particle size by means of the one alloyed mechanical. The time of mill was of 10 hours. The characterization one carries out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydrogen sipped in the carbon material it was determined using the Thermal gravimetric method (TGA). The conditions of hydrogenation went at 10 atm of pressure and ambient temperature during 18 hours. They were also carried out absorption/desorption cycles of hydrogen in the same one system of thermal gravimetric analysis. The results showed percentages of sorption of 2% approximately in the cycles carried out in the system TGA and of 4.5% in weight of hydrogen at pressure of 10 atmospheres and ambient temperature during 18 hours. (Author)

  17. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  18. Nanoengineered Carbon Scaffolds for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A. D.; Hudson, J. L.; Fan, H.; Booker, R.; Simpson, L. J.; O' Neill, K. J.; Parilla, P. A.; Heben, M. J.; Pasquali, M.; Kittrell, C.; Tour, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fibers were engineered to become a scaffold for the storage of hydrogen. Carbon nanotube fibers were swollen in oleum (fuming sulfuric acid), and organic spacer groups were covalently linked between the nanotubes using diazonium functionalization chemistry to provide 3-dimensional (3-D) frameworks for the adsorption of hydrogen molecules. These 3-D nanoengineered fibers physisorb twice as much hydrogen per unit surface area as do typical macroporous carbon materials. These fiber-based systems can have high density, and combined with the outstanding thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes, this points a way toward solving the volumetric and heat-transfer constraints that limit some other hydrogen-storage supports.

  19. Hydrogen adsorption in carbon nanostructures compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmel, H.G.; Nijkamp, G.; Kearley, G.J.; Rivera, A.; Jong, K.P. de; Mulder, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports continue to suggest high hydrogen storage capacities for some carbon nanostructures due to a stronger interaction between hydrogen and carbon. Here the interaction of hydrogen with activated charcoal, carbon nanofibers, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and electron beam 'opened' SWNT are compared and shown to be similar. The storage capacity below 77 K of these materials correlates with the surface area of the material with the activated charcoal having the largest. SWNT and 'opened' SWNT have a relatively low accessible surface area due to bundling of the tubes. Pressure-temperature curves give the interaction potential, which was found to be ∼580 K or 50 meV in all samples, leading to significant adsorption below ∼50 K. Using the inelastic neutron scattering signal associated with rotation of the hydrogen molecule as a sensitive probe for the surroundings of the molecule, no difference was found between the hydrogen molecules adsorbed in the investigated materials. These combined spectroscopic and macroscopic results show that SWNT, nanofibers and activated carbons store molecular hydrogen due to their graphitic nature and not because they possess special morphologies. Results from a density functional theory computer calculation suggest molecular hydrogen bonding to an aromatic C-C bond of graphite, irrespective of the surface morphology farther away

  20. Carbon monoxide uptake and the resulting carboxyhemoglobin in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, H.; Neuberger, M.

    1984-01-01

    In order to calculate the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in human blood under various circumstances and for particular groups or individuals, the model proposed originally by Coburn and coworkers in a slightly revised form was tested. The relevant breathing parameters were measured as minute averages and used for computation of COHb time course. At the same time blood samples were taken and analyzed for carboxyhemoglobin. For four different subjects, various breathing conditions and work rates the average deviation of experimental data from theoretical predictions is 7.4%. Some data are presented graphically. Excellent conformity of all the results indicate that the model is suitable to show the influence of most physiological and breathing parameters on the dynamics of carbon monxide uptake.

  1. High Resolution Spectra of Carbon Monoxide, Propane and Ammonia for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher Andrew

    Spectroscopy is a critical tool for analyzing atmospheric data. Identification of atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure and the existence and concentrations of constituent gases via remote sensing techniques are only possible with spectroscopic data. These form the basis of model atmospheres which may be compared to observations to determine such parameters. To this end, this dissertation explores the spectroscopy of three molecules: ammonia, propane and carbon monoxide. Infrared spectra have been recorded for ammonia in the region 2400-9000 cm-1. These spectra were recorded at elevated temperatures (from 293-973 K) using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). Comparison between the spectra recorded at different temperatures yielded experimental lower state energies. These spectra resulted in the measurement of roughly 30000 lines and about 3000 quantum assignments. In addition spectra of propane were recorded at elevated temperatures (296-700 K) using an FTS. Atmospheres with high temperatures require molecular data at appropriate conditions. This dissertation describes collection of such data and the potential application to atmospheres in our solar system, such as auroral regions in Jupiter, to those of planets orbiting around other stars and cool sub-stellar objects known as brown dwarfs. The spectra of propane and ammonia provide the highest resolution and most complete experimental study of these gases in their respective spectral regions at elevated temperatures. Detection of ammonia in an exoplanet or detection of propane in the atmosphere of Jupiter will most likely rely on the work presented here. The best laboratory that we have to study atmospheres is our own planet. The same techniques that are applied to these alien atmospheres originated on Earth. As such it is appropriate to discuss remote sensing of our own atmosphere. This idea is explored through analysis of spectroscopic data recorded by an FTS on the Atmospheric Chemistry

  2. Reductive coupling of carbon monoxide to C sub 2 products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, J.L.

    1991-08-01

    We first prepared Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}W{equivalent to}CH from a conversion of the cationic phosphonium carbyne Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}W{equivalent to}CPMe{sub 3}+ to a neutral carbene by hydride addition at carbon. Removal of PMe{sub 3} with a Lewis acid trap yielded milligram quantities of the desired terminal carbyne. More recently we have prepared a silylcarbyne precursor which reacts with Bu{sub 4}NF in wet THF to form substantial amounts of the CH carbyne. Dimerization to form an unusual vinylidene bridged complex is a facile decomposition route which consumes the Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}M{equivalent to}CH monometer for both M=MO and M=W,. Preparation of other carbyne complexes has been achieved using Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}W{equivalent to}C-Cl as a reagent. Another carbyne derivative was synthesized from Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}M{equivalent to}C-Cl by adding K(CpFe(Co){sub 2}) to displace the chloride. Organometallic products formed from the reaction of an electrophilic iron carbene complex with nitrosoarenes or azobenzene reflect net insertion of the ArN-X moiety into the Fe=CHAr bond. Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-O-N(Ar{prime})=CHAr+ and Cp(CO){sub 2}FeN(Ph)-N(Pha)=CHAr+ have been isolated and spectroscopically characterized. More promising results for long term progress in building electrophilic nitrene complexes have been achieved with Group VI reagents. Simple methods for generating Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}W=NHR for R= Ar and Bu{sup t} are encouraging. Furthermore, removal of H{sup minus} from the amido ligand with either I{sub 2} or (Ph{sub 3}C)(BF{sub 4}) provides access to cationic nitrene complexes.

  3. Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Other Related Tracers at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to quantify the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide on the urban scale is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. In the 'top-down' approach, overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to "bottoms-up" predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. This approach, which has been proven to be effective at continental scales, becomes challenging to implement at the urban scale, due to poorly understood micrometeorological atmospheric transport models and high variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, residences) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, residential energy usage variability during the day and over the year). New measurement and analysis techniques are required to make sense of the carbon dioxide signal in cities. Here we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal-resolution greenhouse gas measurements in Silicon Valley in California. The synthesis of two experimental campaigns is presented: real-time measurements from two ten-meter urban 'towers,' and ground-based mobile mapping measurements. Real-time carbon dioxide data from a nine-month period are combined with real-time carbon monoxide, methane, acetylene, and carbon 13 measurements to partition the observed CO2 concentrations between different anthropogenic sectors (e.g., transport, residential) and biogenic sources. The carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide ratio is shown to vary over more than a factor of two from season to season or even from day to night, indicating rapid and frequent shifts in the balance between different carbon dioxide sources. Clear differences are seen between the two urban sites, which are separated by 7 km. Further information is given by the carbon 13 signature

  4. Hydrogen adsorption on partially oxidised microporous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J B Parra; C O Ania; C J Duran Valle; M L Sanchez; C Otero Arean

    2005-01-01

    The search for cost effective adsorbents for large scale gas separation, storage and transport constitutes a present day strategic issue in the energy sector, propelled mainly by the potential use of hydrogen as an energy vector in a sustainable (and cleaner) energy scenario. Both, activated carbons and carbon based nano-structured materials have been proposed as potential candidates for reversible hydrogen storage in cryogenically cooled vessels. For that purpose, surface modification so as to enhance the gas solid interaction energy is desirable. We report on hydrogen adsorption on microporous (active) carbons which have been partially oxidised with nitric acid and ammonium persulfate. From the corresponding hydrogen adsorption isotherms (Fig. 1) an isosteric heat of about 3 kJ mol -1 was derived. This value is in agreement with that of about 3 to 4 kJ mol -1 obtained by quantum chemical calculations on the interaction between the hydrogen molecule and simple model systems (Fig. 2) of both, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Further research is in progress with a view to further increases the gas solid interaction energy. However, the values so far obtained are significantly larger than the liquefaction enthalpy of hydrogen: 0.90 kJ mol -1 ; and this is relevant to both, hydrogen separation from gas mixtures and cryogenic hydrogen storage. (authors)

  5. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  6. A Rare Cause of Chronic Headache that May Be Misdiagnosed as Migraine: Chronic Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kenan KANBUROGLU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Differential diagnosis of primary headache disorders can be challenging for physicians. Although the association of headache with acute carbon monoxide intoxication is very well-defined, in refractory nonspecific headaches associated with chronic low dose exposure to carbon monoxide, CO intoxication is usually overlooked, mostly due to vague symptoms. Herein we present a 15-year-old female patient with chronic carbon monoxide poisoning who was undergoing two years of follow-up care for migraines. Chronic carbon monoxide intoxication may mimic the episodic nature and familial predisposition of migraine attacks. Normal carboxyhemoglobin levels do not exclude the diagnosis, and smoking is a confounding factor. In emergency rooms, patients presenting with headaches had higher levels of carboxyhemoglobin, but, as far as we know, there have been no studies investigating carboxyhemoglobin levels in migraine patients. Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning should be suspected in migraine patients, especially if the attacks occur during winter months. ÖZET: Primer baş ağrısında ayırıcı tanının yapılması bazen doktorlar açısından zor olabilmektedir. Literatürde karbon monoksit ile baş ağrısı arasındaki ilişki çok iyi ortaya konulmuş olmasına karşın, dirençli ve nonspesifik başağrısı nedenlerinden biri olan kronik düşük doz karbon monoksit maruziyeti kendine özgü bulgusu olmadığından sıklıkla atlanmaktadır. Bu yazıda, iki yıl migren tanısı ile takip ve tedavi edilen kronik karbon monoksit zehirlenmesi olan bir olgu sunuldu. Kronik karbon monoksit zehirlenmesi epizodik paterni ve aile fertlerinde benzer şikayetlerin olması nedeniyle migren ataklarını andırabilmektedir. Karboksihemoglobin konsantrasyonlarının normal saptanması tanıyı ekarte ettirmemekte, ayrıca sigara kullanımı da karıştırıcı bir faktör olabilmektedir. Acil servislerine baş ağrısı ile başvuran hastalar

  7. Ambient carbon monoxide and cardiovascular mortality: a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yin, Peng; Chen, Renjie; Meng, Xia; Wang, Lijun; Niu, Yue; Lin, Zhijing; Liu, Yunning; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; You, Jinling; Kan, Haidong; Zhou, Maigeng

    2018-01-01

    Evidence of the acute health effects of ambient carbon monoxide air pollution in developing countries is scarce and mixed. We aimed to evaluate short-term associations between carbon monoxide and daily cardiovascular disease mortality in China. We did a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 major cities in China from January, 2013, to December, 2015. We extracted daily cardiovascular disease mortality data from China's Disease Surveillance Points system. Data on daily carbon monoxide concentrations for each city were obtained from the National Urban Air Quality Real-time Publishing Platform. City-specific associations between carbon monoxide concentrations and daily mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were estimated with over-dispersed generalised linear models. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to obtain national and regional average associations. Exposure-response association curves and potential effect modifiers were evaluated. Two-pollutant models were fit to evaluate the robustness of the effects of carbon monoxide on cardiovascular mortality. The average annual mean carbon monoxide concentration in these cities from 2013 to 2015 was 1·20 mg/m 3 , ranging from 0·43 mg/m 3 to 2·45 mg/m 3 . For a 1 mg/m 3 increase in average carbon monoxide concentrations on the present day and previous day (lag 0-1), we observed significant increments in mortality of 1·12% (95% posterior interval [PI] 0·42-1·83) from cardiovascular disease, 1·75% (0·85-2·66) from coronary heart disease, and 0·88% (0·07-1·69) from stroke. These associations did not vary substantially by city, region, and demographic characteristics (age, sex, and level of education), and the associations for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease were robust to the adjustment of criteria co-pollutants. We did not find a threshold below which carbon monoxide exposure had no effect on cardiovascular disease mortality. This analysis is, to our

  8. Analysis of patients presenting to the emergency department with carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Yurtseven

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Carbon monoxide is a potentially fatal form of poisoning. The exact incidence is unclear, due to cases being undiagnosed or reported as fewer than the real number. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is of proven efficacy in the treatment of CO intoxication.The purpose of this study was to describe the general characteristics of carbon monoxide (CO intoxications presenting to the emergency department and to investigate troponin I values and the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT in these patients. Material and methods: Patients presenting to the emergency department with CO intoxication over one year and patients with such intoxications receiving HBOT were examined retrospectively. Results: One hundred seventy-one patients were included; 140 (81.9% were poisoned by stoves, 18 (10.5% by hot water boilers and 10 in (5.8% by fires. COHb levels were normal in 49 of the 163 patients whose values were investigated, and were elevated in 114 patients. Mean COHb value was 16.6. Troponin I values were investigated in 112 patients. These were normal in 86 patients and elevated in 26. Mean troponin I value was 0.38 ng/ml. One hundred twenty-three of the 171 patients in the study were discharged in a healthy condition after receiving normobaric oxygen therapy, while 48 patients received HBOT. Forty-two (87.5% of the patients receiving HBOT were discharged in a healthy condition while sequelae persisted in five (10.4%. One patient died after 15 session of HBOT. Conclusion: Although elevated carboxyhemoglobin confirms diagnosis of CO intoxication, normal levels do not exclude it. Troponin I levels may rise in CO intoxication. No significant relation was observed between carboxyhemoglobin and receipt of HBOT. A significant correlation was seen, however, between troponin I levels and receipt of HBOT. Keywords: Carbon monoxide intoxication, Hyperbaric oxygen, Troponin I, Echocardiography

  9. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  10. Determining the diagnostic value of endogenous carbon monoxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, N. O.; Corbacioglu, S. K.; Bildik, F.; Kilicaslan, I.; Hakoglu, O.; Gunaydin, G. P.; Cevik, Y.; Ulker, V.; Gokcen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether endogenous carbon monoxide levels in exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were higher compared to healthy individuals and to investigate alteration of carbon monoxide levels across the three different severity stages of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from January to March 2011 at two medical institutions in Ankara, Turkey, and comprised patients of acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. The severity of the exacerbations was based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Patients with active tobacco smoking, suspicious carbon monoxide poisoning and uncertain diagnosis were excluded. healthy control subjects who did not have any comorbid diseases and smoking habitus were also enrolled to compare the differences between carboxyhaemoglobin levels A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was done following a Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical purposes. Results: There were 90 patients and 81 controls in the study. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were higher in the patients than the controls (p<0.001). As for the three severity stages, Group 1 had a median carboxyhaemoglobin of 1.6 (0.95-2.00). The corresponding levels in Group 2 (1.8 (1.38-2.20)) and Group 3 (1.9 (1.5-3.0)) were higher than the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.005 respectively). No statistically significant difference between Group 1 and the controls (1.30 (1.10-1.55)) was observed (p<0.434). Conclusion: Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly higher in exacerbations compared with the normal population. Also, in more serious exacerbations, carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly increased compared with healthy individuals and mild exacerbations. (author)

  11. Systemic Administration of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-3 Protects the Skeletal Muscle in Porcine Model of Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Aurelia; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Sanders, David; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Acute limb compartment syndrome, a complication of musculoskeletal trauma, results in muscle necrosis and cell death. Carbon monoxide, liberated from the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3, has been shown protective in a rat model of compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 in a preclinical large animal model of compartment syndrome, with the ultimate goal of developing a pharmacologic adjunct treatment for compartment syndrome. Animal research study. Basic research laboratory in a hospital setting. Male Yorkshire-Landrace pigs (50-60 kg). Pigs underwent 6 hours of intracompartmental pressure elevation by infusing fluid into the anterior compartment of the right hind limb. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 was administered systemically (2 mg/kg, IV) at fasciotomy, followed by 3-hour reperfusion. Muscle perfusion, inflammation, injury, and apoptosis were assessed in the skeletal muscle. Systemic leukocyte activation was assessed during compartment syndrome and reperfusion. Elevation of hind limb intracompartmental pressure resulted in significant microvascular perfusion deficits (44% ± 1% continuously perfused capillaries in compartment syndrome vs 76% ± 4% in sham; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy increased the number of continuously perfused capillaries (68% ± 3%; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy offered protection against compartment syndrome-induced microvascular perfusion deficit, tissue injury, and systemic leukocyte activation. The data suggest the potential therapeutic application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 to patients at risk of developing compartment syndrome.

  12. An operando FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic study of carbon monoxide pressure influence on rhodium-catalyzed olefin hydroformylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Christoph; Sawall, Mathias; Block, Axel; Neymeyr, Klaus; Ludwig, Ralf; Börner, Armin; Selent, Detlef

    2014-09-08

    The influence of carbon monoxide concentration on the kinetics of the hydroformylation of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene with a phosphite-modified rhodium catalyst has been studied for the pressure range p(CO)=0.20-3.83 MPa. Highly resolved time-dependent concentration profiles of the organometallic intermediates were derived from IR spectroscopic data collected in situ for the entire olefin-conversion range. The dynamics of the catalyst and organic components are described by enzyme-type kinetics with competitive and uncompetitive inhibition reactions involving carbon monoxide taken into account. Saturation of the alkyl-rhodium intermediates with carbon monoxide as a cosubstrate occurs between 1.5 and 2 MPa of carbon monoxide pressure, which brings about a convergence of aldehyde regioselectivity. Hydrogenolysis of the acyl intermediate is fast at 30 °C and low pressure of p(CO)=0.2 MPa, but is of minus first order with respect to the solution concentration of carbon monoxide. Resting 18-electron hydrido and acyl complexes that correspond to early and late rate-determining states, respectively, coexist as long as the conversion of the substrate is not complete. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Treatment in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with headache: a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Tarik; Tekin, Erdal; Basturk, Mustafa; Duran, Arif; Serinken, Mustafa; Emet, Mucahit

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of specificity of the analgesic agents used to treat headache and underlying acute carbon monoxide poisoning. To compare effectiveness of "oxygen alone" vs "metoclopramide plus oxygen" vs "metamizole plus oxygen" therapy in treating carbon monoxide-induced headache. A prospective, multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial. Three emergency departments in Turkey. Adult carbon monoxide poisoning patients with headache. A total of 117 carbon monoxide-intoxicated patients with headache were randomized into 3 groups and assessed at baseline, 30 minutes, 90 minutes, and 4 hours. The primary outcome was patient-reported improvement rates for headache. Secondary end points included nausea, need for rescue medication during treatment, and reduction in carboxyhemoglobin levels. During observation, there was no statistical difference between drug type and visual analog scale score change at 30 minutes, 90 minutes, or 4 hours, for either headache or nausea. No rescue medication was needed during the study period. The reduction in carboxyhemoglobin levels did not differ among the 3 groups. The use of "oxygen alone" is as efficacious as "oxygen plus metoclopramide" or "oxygen plus metamizole sodium" in the treatment of carbon monoxide-induced headache. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of N-Acetylcysteine in Protecting from Simultaneous Noise and Carbon Monoxide Induced Hair Cell Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pourbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor and reactive oxygen species scavenger, is reported to be effective in reducing noise-induced hearing loss. Many workers in industry are exposed simultaneously to noise and chemical pollutants such as carbon monoxide. We investigated effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting the cochlea from simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide damages.Methods: Twelve rabbits were exposed simeltaneously to 100 dB sound pressure level of broad band noise and carbon monoxide 8 hours a day for 5 days. One hour before exposure, experimental group received 325 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine while normal saline was administered for the control group. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine was evaluated 3 weeks after exposure by histological assessment of the hair cells.Results: Simultaneous exposure to noise and carbon monoxide resulted in a considerable damage to the outer hair cells; however, the inner hair cells and the pillar cells remained intact. Use of N-acetylcysteine in the experimental group significantly reduced the extent of outer hair cell loss.Conclusion: N-acetylcysteine attenuates simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide induced hair cell damage in rabbits.

  15. Intermittent, low dose carbon monoxide exposure enhances survival and dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer-Andersen, Nanna; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Jensen, Pia

    2018-01-01

    Exploratory studies using human fetal tissue have suggested that intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons may become a future treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the use of human fetal tissue is compromised by ethical, regulatory and practical concerns. Human stem...... cells constitute an alternative source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but efficient protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation need to be developed. Short-term, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been shown to affect signaling in several tissues, resulting...... in Parkinson's disease....

  16. Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube

    OpenAIRE

    Shaoying Zhang; Qin Li; Yulan Mao

    2014-01-01

    To prolong the shelf life postharvest jujube, the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on senescence of postharvest jujube in relation to active oxygen metabolism was investigated. Jujubes were fumigated with CO gas at 5, 10, 20 or 40μmol/L for 1 h, and then stored for 30 days at room temperature. Changes in membrane permeability, malonaldehyde (MDA), H2O2, O2•− content, and activities of active oxygen metabolism associated enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase...

  17. The relation between carbon monoxide emission and visual extinction in cloud L134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, K.D.; Dickman, R.L.; Encrenaz, P.J.; Kutner, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Emission from the J=1→0 transition of carbon monoxide has been mapped over an area of 40' x 55' in cloud L134, and visual extinctions over the entire cloud have been obtained by means of star counts. Line intensities of > or =2 K are observable down to an extinction level of about one magnitude. From observations of the J=1→0 transition of the 13 CO isotopic species at 18 locations in the cloud, we have found a linear correlation between the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) column densities of 13 CO and magnitudes of visual extinction

  18. Copolymerization of carbon monoxide and styrene catalyzed by resin-supported palladium polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyketone was prepared by the copolymerization of carbon monoxide (CO and styrene (ST catalyzed by o-phenylenediamine resin-supported palladium acetate. Effects of each catalytic system component such as 2,2’-bipyridine, 1,4-quinone and p-toluene-sulphonate on the copolymerization were investigated. The resin-supported catalyst and the copolymerization product were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry (TG, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Results indicated that the resin-supported catalyst has excellent catalytic property. Furthermore, partial catalytic activity was maintained after the catalyst was used for five times.

  19. Clinical and neuropathological findings of acute carbon monoxide toxicity in chihuahuas following smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Creevy, Kate E; Delahunta, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Three adult Chihuahuas were presented for evaluation after smoke inhalation during a house fire. All three dogs received supportive care and supplemental oxygen. After initial improvement, the dogs developed seizures. Despite anticonvulsant therapy and supportive care, the dogs died. The brains of two dogs were examined. Lesions were identified that were compatible with acute carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity. Lesions were confined to the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra bilaterally, as well as the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and dorsal thalamus. This case report describes the clinicopathological sequelae in acute CO toxicity.

  20. FTIR study of carbon monoxide adsorption on ion-exchanged X, Y and mordenite type zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HERCIGONJA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work Fourier transform infrared (FTIR study has been applied to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide on transition metal (Mn+, Co2+, Ni2+ ion-exchanged zeolites type Y, X and mordenites. The adsorption of CO at room temperature produces overlapping IR absorption bands in the 2120–2200 cm-1 region. The frequency of the band around 2200 cm-1 is found to be dependent not only on the charge-balancing transition metal cation, but also on the framework composition. The frequencies of the band near 1600 cm-1 was found to be dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the investigated zeolites.

  1. Gas-phase studies of AunOm+ interacting with carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, M. L.; Castleman, A. W.

    2004-04-01

    The results of reactions between preformed cationic gold oxide clusters and carbon monoxide have been investigated utilizing a fast-flow reactor mass spectrometer. From these studies, it was found that all AunOm+ produced in the cluster source disappeared with CO addition at the reactant gas inlet. Furthermore, with CO addition, intermediate peaks of the form AunOm(CO)x+ (n=1-2, m=0-3, x=0-2) were produced, with some of the species continuing to react at higher CO flows.

  2. Metal cluster cation reactions: Carbon monoxide association to Cu + n ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtner, R. E.; Harms, A. C.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1990-06-01

    Copper cluster cations (Cu+n,n=1-14) were produced in a laser vaporization/flow tube apparatus and equilibrated to room temperature. The association rate constants of carbon monoxide onto these ions were measured; low-pressure, termolecular behavior was observed for the smaller species while for clusters greater than Cu+7, the longer lifetimes due to the increased number of degrees of freedom leads to pressure independence (>0.3 Torr) of the effective bimolecular rates. Unimolecular decay theory (RRKM) is used to explain the overall trend and when intrinsic surface site reactivity is taken into account, excellent agreement with measured reactivity is obtained.

  3. Carbon monoxide migratory insertion - A comparison of cationic and neutral palladium(II) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankcombe, K.; Cavell, K.J.; Yates, B.F.; Knott, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    With the use of ANSTO's resources and expertise and with support from AINSE, we have carried out extensive computer modelling on the mechanism of the palladium catalysed carbonylation reaction, a process which is used industrially in the conversion of carbon monoxide into biodegradable polymers. In this project, experimental and theoretical work has focussed on using Pd(II) complexes containing pyridine carboxylate ligands (NC 5 H 4 COO ) to explore the fundamental mechanistic steps. The results for subsequent steps in the catalytic cycle are presented and their implication for the design of more efficient catalysts are discussed

  4. CO2 Reduction Catalyzed by Nitrogenase: Pathways to Formate, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Khadka, Nimesh; Dean, Dennis R.; Smith, Dayle; Hoffman, Brian M.; Raugei, Simone; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of N2 to NH3 by Mo-dependent nitrogenase at its active-site metal cluster FeMo-cofactor utilizes reductive elimination (re) of Fe-bound hydrides with obligatory loss of H2 to activate the enzyme for binding/reduction of N2. Earlier work showed that wild type nitrogenase and a nitrogenase having amino acid substitutions in the MoFe protein near FeMo-cofactor can catalytically reduce CO2 by 2 or 8 electrons/protons to carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) at low rates. Here, it i...

  5. 1H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, D.; Danielsen, E.R.; Hansen, K.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication leads to acute and chronic neurological deficits, but little is known about the specific noxious mechanisms. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may allow insight into the pathophysiology of CO poisoning by monitoring neurochemical disturbances, yet only......, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Five patients suffered from acute high-dose CO intoxication and were in coma for 1-6 days. In these patients, MRI revealed hyperintensities of the white matter and globus pallidus and also showed increased choline (Cho) and decreased N...

  6. Microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for toxic carbon monoxide monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Yi

    2018-01-01

    This study presents an innovative microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. The hypothesis for the function of the biosensor is that CO inhibits bacterial activity in the anode and thereby reduces electricity production. A mature electrochemically active biofilm...... increasing CO concentration over 70%. Besides, the response time of the biosensor was 1 h. The compact design and simple operation of the biosensor makes it easy to be integrated in existing CO-based industrial facilities either as a forewarning sensor for CO toxicity or even as an individual on...

  7. Analysis of carbon monoxide production in multihundred-watt heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Mulford, R.N.R.

    1976-05-01

    The production of carbon monoxide observed within Multihundred Watt heat sources placed under storage conditions was analyzed. Results of compositional and isotopic analyses of gas taps performed on eight heat sources are summarized and interpreted. Several proposed CO generation mechanisms are examined theoretically and assessed by applying thermodynamic principles. Outgassing of the heat source graphite followed by oxygen isotopic exchange through the vent assemblies appears to explain the CO production at storage temperatures. Reduction of the plutonia fuel sphere by the CO is examined as a function of temperature and stoichiometry. Experiments that could be performed to investigate possible CO generation mechanisms are discussed

  8. Non-intentional motor vehicle-related carbon monoxide deaths-revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study of non-intentional, motor vehicle-related, carbon monoxide-related deaths was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade Country in Miami, FL (USA) during the years 1980-1984. A total of 15 cases were collected during that time period. These are presented in some detail. A discussion ensues that compares the similar circumstances of these cases, notably running the engine of an automobile in an enclosed space, with older reports in the literature which emphasized defective vehicle exhaust systems as the leading etiology for these deaths.

  9. Detection of the J = 6→5 transition of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, P.F.; Erickson, N.R.; Fetterman, H.R.; Clifton, B.J.; Peck, D.D.; Tannenwald, P.E.; Koepf, G.A.; Buhl, D.; McAvoy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The J = 6→5 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected in emission from the KL ''plateau source'' in the Orion molecular cloud. The corrected peak antenna temperature is 100 K, and the FWHM line width is 26 km s -1 . These observations were carried out using the 3 m telescope of the NASA IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and constitute the first astronomical data obtained at submillimeter wavelengths with a heterodyne system using a laser local oscillator. Our data support the idea that the high-velocity dispersion CO in Orion is optically thin and set a lower limit to its temperature of approx.180 K

  10. The effect of modified atmosphere packaging with carbon monoxide on the storage quality of master-packaged fresh pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, B.H.P.; Janz, J.A.M.; Morel, P.C.H.; Purchas, R.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging with carbon dioxide is effective for prolonging shelf-life of fresh meat. Addition of carbon monoxide to the system provides the advantage of enhancing meat colour. The study objective was to determine the effect of CO2-MAP + 0.4% CO, vs. 100% CO2-MAP, on the

  11. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  12. Carbon monoxide production from five volatile anesthetics in dry sodalime in a patient model: halothane and sevoflurane do produce carbon monoxide; temperature is a poor predictor of carbon monoxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desflurane and enflurane have been reported to produce substantial amounts of carbon monoxide (CO in desiccated sodalime. Isoflurane is said to produce less CO and sevoflurane and halothane should produce no CO at all. The purpose of this study is to measure the maximum amounts of CO production for all modern volatile anesthetics, with completely dry sodalime. We also tried to establish a relationship between CO production and temperature increase inside the sodalime. Methods A patient model was simulated using a circle anesthesia system connected to an artificial lung. Completely desiccated sodalime (950 grams was used in this system. A low flow anesthesia (500 ml/min was maintained using nitrous oxide with desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane or sevoflurane. For immediate quantification of CO production a portable gas chromatograph was used. Temperature was measured within the sodalime container. Results Peak concentrations of CO were very high with desflurane and enflurane (14262 and 10654 ppm respectively. It was lower with isoflurane (2512 ppm. We also measured small concentrations of CO for sevoflurane and halothane. No significant temperature increases were detected with high CO productions. Conclusion All modern volatile anesthetics produce CO in desiccated sodalime. Sodalime temperature increase is a poor predictor of CO production.

  13. Convective Influence and Transport Pathways Controlling the Tropical Distribution of Carbon Monoxide at 100 Hpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Bergman, John; Pfister, Leonard; Ueyama, Rei; Kinnison, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Trajectory calculations with convective influence diagnosed from geostationary-satellite cloud measurements are used to evaluate the relative importance of different Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) transport pathways for establishing the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) at 100 hPa as observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Aura satellite. Carbon monoxide is a useful tracer for investigating TTL transport and convective influence because the CO lifetime is comparable to the time require for slow ascent through the TTL (a couple of months). Offline calculations of TTL radiative heating are used to determine the vertical motion field. The simple trajectory model does a reasonable job of reproducing the MLS CO distributions during Boreal wintertime and summertime. The broad maximum in CO concentration over the Pacific is primarily a result of the strong radiative heating (indicating upward vertical motion) associated with the abundant TTL cirrus in this region. Sensitivity tests indicate that the distinct CO maximum in the Asian monsoon anticyclone is strongly impacted by extreme convective systems with detrainment of polluted air above 360 K potential temperature. The relative importance of different CO source regions will also be discussed.

  14. Comparison of measurement capability with 100 μmol/mol of carbon monoxide in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongsoon; Lee, JinBok; Lim, Jeongsik; Tarhan, Tanıl; Liu, Hsin-Wang; Aggarwal, Shankar G.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen was one of the first types of gas mixtures used in an international key comparison. The comparison dates back to 1998 (CCQMK1a) [1]. Since then, many National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) have developed calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. Recently, NMIs in the APMP region have actively participated in international comparisons to provide domestic services. At the 2013 APMP meeting, several NMIs requested a CO comparison to establish CO/N2 certification for industrial applications, which was to be coordinated by KRISS. Consequently, this comparison provides an opportunity for APMP regional NMIs to develop CO/N2 CMC claims. The goal of this supplementary comparison is to support CMC claim for carbon monoxide in the N2 range of 50–2000 μmol/mol. An extended range may be supported as described in the GAWG strategy for comparisons and CMC claims. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Ambient carbon monoxide associated with alleviated respiratory inflammation in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhuohui; Chen, Renjie; Lin, Zhijing; Cai, Jing; Yang, Yingying; Yang, Dandan; Norback, Dan; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing controversy on whether acute exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is hazardous on respiratory health. We therefore performed a longitudinal panel study to evaluate the acute effects of ambient CO on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of airway inflammation. We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults during April to June in 2013 in Shanghai, China. We applied the linear mixed-effect model to investigate the short-term associations between CO and FeNO. CO exposure during 2–72 h preceding health tests was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. For example, an interquartile range increase (0.3 mg/m"3) of 2-h CO exposure corresponded to 10.6% decrease in FeNO. This association remained when controlling for the concomitant exposure to co-pollutants. This study provided support that short-term exposure to ambient CO might be related with reduced levels of FeNO, a biomarker of lower airway inflammation. - Highlights: • We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults. • Short-term CO exposure was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. • The inverse association between CO and FeNO was robust controlling for co-pollutants. - Short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide may alleviate the respiratory inflammation.

  16. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

  17. Extension of the code COCOSYS to a dispersion code for smoke and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert; Mayrhofer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The code COCOSYS (Containment Code SYStem) was developed by GRS in Germany to simulate processes and nuclear plant states during severe accidents in the containments of light water reactors. It contains several physical models, especially a module for aerosol behaviour. The goal of this work was to extend COCOSYS for applications in more general geometries mainly for complex public buildings. For the application in public buildings models for air condition systems and different boundary conditions according to different environments were developed. The principal application of the extended code COCOSYS is in the area of emergency situations especially in the simulation for carbon monoxide and smoke dispersion. After developing and implementing the new models several test calculations were performed to evaluate the functionality of the extended code. The comparison of the results with those of the original COCOSYS code showed no discrepancies. For the first realistic application several fire emergency scenarios in the Vienna General Hospital (AKH) were selected in agreement with the fire department of the hospital. One of the scenarios addresses the danger of carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke leaking into a fire protection section through a damaged fire protection flap. As a result of the dispersion simulation the CO-concentration in all of the rooms is obtained. Together with additional results as deposition and smoke dispersion the outcome of the simulation can be used for training. Among the next steps are the validation of the new models and the selection of critical scenarios. (author)

  18. The chest X-ray in pulmonary capillary haemorrhage: correlation with carbon monoxide uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, N.B.; Hughes, J.M.B.; Steiner, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Serial changes in carbon monoxide uptake (Ksub(CO) or Dsub(L)CO/VA) were used to monitor episodes of pulmonary capillary haemorrhage in Goodpasture's syndrome (13 cases), immune complex nephritis (three cases) and idiopathic haemosiderosis (one case). Air-space shadowing on the chest X-ray (on a scoring system 0 to 12) was assessed in the light of the changes of Ksub(CO). In 14 out of 27 episodes of bleeding, the rise and fall of Ksub(CO) was matched in time by the appearance and disappearance of air-space shadowing on the chest X-ray. In six episodes the chest X-ray remained normal despite a rise of Ksub(CO). In two cases air-space shadowing appeared up to 48 h after the rise of Ksub(CO). On five occasions chest X-ray abnormalities preceded the rise of Ksub(CO) but chest infection or fluid overload accounted for three of these. In cases with suspected pulmonary capillary haemorrhage, measurements of carbon monoxide uptake will provide additional information and will assist in the interpretation of the chest X-ray. (author)

  19. Retinal venous blood carbon monoxide response to bright light in male pigs: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Dan A; Duda, Magdalena; Kozioł, Katarzyna; Romerowicz-Misielak, Maria; Koziorowska, Anna; Sołek, Przemysław; Nowak, Sławomir; Kulpa, Magdalena; Koziorowski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    The physical mechanism by which light is absorbed in the eye and has antidepressant and energizing effects in Seasonal Affective Disorder and other forms of psychiatric major depression is of scientific interest. This study was designed to explore one specific aspect of a proposed humoral phototransduction mechanism, namely that carbon monoxide (CO) levels increase in retinal venous blood in response to bright light. Eleven mature male pigs approximately six months of age were kept for 7days in darkness and fasted for 12h prior to surgery. Following mild sedation, anesthesia was induced. Silastic catheters were inserted into the dorsal nasal vein through the angular vein of the eye to reach the ophthalmic sinus, from which venous blood outflowing from the eye area was collected. The animals were exposed to 5000lx of fluorescent-generated white light. CO levels in the blood were analyzed by gas chromatography before and after 80min of light exposure. At baseline, mean CO levels in the retinal venous blood were 0.43±0.05(SE)nmol/ml. After bright light, mean CO levels increased to 0.54±0.06nmol/ml (two-tailed t-test plight exposure raises carbon monoxide levels in ophthalmic venous blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Computed tomography of delayed encephalopathy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning - correlation with clinical findings -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Chung, Sung Hoon; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomography (CT) findings were described in twenty-six cases with the late sequelae of acute carbon monoxide poisoning and were computed with the neurological symptoms and signs. The CT findings include symmetrical periventricular white matter low density in five cases, globes pallidus low density in six cases, ventricular dilatation in seven cases, ventricular dilatation and sulci widening in three cases, and normal findings in ten cases. Only one case showed low densities in both periventricular white matter and globes pallidus. Late sequelae of the interval from of carbon monoxide poisoning were clinically categorized as cortical dysfunction, parkinsonian feature, and cerebella dysfunction. The severity of the clinical symptoms and signs of neurological sequelae is generally correlated with presence and multiplicity of abnormal brain CT findings. But of fourteen cases showing the parkinsonian feature, only five cases had low density of globes pallidus in brain CT. Another case showing small unilateral low density of globes pallidus had no parkinsonian feature but showed mild cortical dysfunction.

  1. Paramagnetic defects in hydrogenated amorphous carbon powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeble, D J; Robb, K M; Smith, G M; Mkami, H El; Rodil, S E; Robertson, J

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon materials typically contain high concentrations of paramagnetic defects, the density of which can be quantified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In this work EPR measurements near 9.5, 94, and 189 GHz have been performed on polymeric and diamond-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) powder samples. A similar single resonance line was observed at all frequencies for the two forms of a-C:H studied. No contributions to the spectrum from centres with resolved anisotropic g-values as reported earlier were detected. An increase in linewidth with microwave frequency was observed. Possible contributions to this frequency dependence are discussed

  2. GASP: A computer code for calculating the thermodynamic and transport properties for ten fluids: Parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. [enthalpy, entropy, thermal conductivity, and specific heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Baron, A. K.; Peller, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV subprogram called GASP is discussed which calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties for 10 pure fluids: parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. The pressure range is generally from 0.1 to 400 atmospheres (to 100 atm for helium and to 1000 atm for hydrogen). The temperature ranges are from the triple point to 300 K for neon; to 500 K for carbon monoxide, oxygen, and fluorine; to 600 K for methane and nitrogen; to 1000 K for argon and carbon dioxide; to 2000 K for hydrogen; and from 6 to 500 K for helium. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature and density as input conditions along with pressure, and either entropy or enthalpy. The properties available in any combination as output include temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. The subprogram design is modular so that the user can choose only those subroutines necessary to the calculations.

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission... BBBB of Part 60—Model Rule—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste...

  4. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤ 2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95

  5. Hydrogen storage in sonicated carbon materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Quintel, A.; Duesberg, G.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Downes, P.; Hulman, M.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen storage in purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphite and diamond powder was investigated at room temperature and ambient pressure. The samples were sonicated in 5 M HNO3 for various periods of time using an ultrasonic probe of the alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The goal of this

  6. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczek, B.; Wolak, E.

    2005-01-01

    higher temperatures than liquefaction [3]. Last years have brought the interest in hydrogen storage in porous carbon materials, caused by the design and accessibility of new materials, such as fullerenes, carbon nano-tubes and nano-fibers. In particular the tubular carbon structures are perspective highly adsorbing materials, for their surface adsorption (on the internal and external surface of the nano-tubes), and for the effect of capillary condensation [4]. Data presented in Table 1 show that the amount of hydrogen adsorbed on these new materials depends of their modification and on the type of carbon precursor [5]. In this work the concept of hydrogen storage by adsorption was analyzed. The discussion is based on measurements of hydrogen adsorption on commercial active carbon in the temperature range 77 - 298 K at pressures up to 4 MPa. The amount of gas that can be stored in an adsorption system depends on the adsorbent characteristics and the operating conditions. Adsorption method was compared with another one taking into account both technical and economical aspects. The results show that the adsorption technique could provide a viable method for hydrogen storage. [1]G. D. Berry, A. D. Pastemak, G. D. Rambach, J. R. Smith, N. Schock, Energy. 21, 289, 1996; [2]L. Czepirski, Przem. Chem. 70, 129, 1991 (in Polish); [3]B. Buczek, L. Czepirski, Inz. Chem. Proc., 24, 545, 2003; [4]U. Huczko, Przem. Chem. 81, 19, 2002 (in Polish); [5]U. Buenger, W. Zittel, Appl. Phys. A 72, 147, 2001. (authors)

  7. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Buczek; E Wolak

    2005-01-01

    temperatures than liquefaction. Last years have brought the interest in hydrogen storage in porous carbon materials, caused by the design and accessibility of new materials, such as fullerenes, carbon nano-tubes and nano-fibers. In particular the tubular carbon structures are perspective highly adsorbing materials, for their surface adsorption (on the internal and external surface of the nano-tubes), and for the effect of capillary condensation. Data presented in Table 1 show that the amount of hydrogen adsorbed on these new materials depends of their modification and on the type of carbon precursor. In this work the concept of hydrogen storage by adsorption was analyzed. The discussion is based on measurements of hydrogen adsorption on commercial active carbon in the temperature range 77 - 298 K at pressures up to 4 MPa. The amount of gas that can be stored in an adsorption system depends on the adsorbent characteristics and the operating conditions. Adsorption method was compared with another one taking into account both technical and economical aspects. The results show that the adsorption technique could provide a viable method for hydrogen storage

  8. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  9. Synthesis of hydrogen-carbon clathrate material and hydrogen evolution therefrom at moderate temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela [State College, PA; Narayanan, Deepa [Redmond, WA

    2011-03-08

    A process for making a hydrogenated carbon material is provided which includes forming a mixture of a carbon source, particularly a carbonaceous material, and a hydrogen source. The mixture is reacted under reaction conditions such that hydrogen is generated and/or released from the hydrogen source, an amorphous diamond-like carbon is formed, and at least a portion of the generated and/or released hydrogen associates with the amorphous diamond-like carbon, thereby forming a hydrogenated carbon material. A hydrogenated carbon material including a hydrogen carbon clathrate is characterized by evolution of molecular hydrogen at room temperature at atmospheric pressure in particular embodiments of methods and compositions according to the present invention.

  10. Acute carbon monoxide intoxication : the relation between MR findings and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jin Bae; Jeong, Hae Woong; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Chang Soo

    1999-01-01

    To analyse MR findings of various involving sites and the relation between such findings and clinical outcome, the authors retrospectively reviewed MR images of acute carbon monoxide intoxication. In 12 patients, MR images obtained from several hours to 12 days after acute carbon monoxide intoxication were reviewed. The images were analysed with regard to involved sites, symmetricity, signal intensity, and the presence or absence of hemorrhage, and the relationship between MR findings and clinical outcome; the presence of delayed encephalopathy was then determined. The globus pallidus(n=9), white matter(n=3), [centrum semiovale(n=2), periventricular white matter(n=1)] and gyrus(n=6) [inferior temporal gyrus(n=2), cingulate gyrus(n=1), precentral gyrus(n=1), hippocampal gyrus(n=1), parahippocampal gyrus(n=1)] were typically involved, and there was also involvenent of the corpus callosum(n=3), thalamus(n=2) and midbrain(n=2). All lesions of the globus pallidus, thalamus, midbrain and temporal lobe were bilaterally symmetric. In all these cases, subtle or prominent low signal intensity was seen on spin-echo T1WI, and high signal intensity on PDWI and T2WI. Some lesions of the globus pallidus(n=1), thalamus(n=1) and midbrain(n=1) were associated with hemorrhage, which occurred during the early subacute stage and was seen on high/low signal intensity T1/T2WI images. Acute cerebral(n=1) and cerebellar(n=1) infarctions were also seen. Cerebral white matter involvement correlated with poor clinical outcome, and in two cases, delayed encephalopathy developed. In these cases of acute carbon monoxide intoxication, the globus pallidus, white matter, cortex and hippocampus were frequently involved, and there was also involvement of various sites such as the corpus callosum, thalamus and midbrain. Lesions of the temporal lobe, thalamus and midbrain were bilaterally symmetric. The involvement of cerebral white matter and the presence of delayed encephalopathy can influence

  11. Monitoring of carbon monoxide in residences with bulk wood pellet storage in the Northeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Alan; Jordan, Carolyn E; Wake, Cameron; Soto-Garcia, Lydia

    2017-10-01

    The interest in biomass fuel is continuing to expand globally and in the northeastern United States as wood pellets are becoming a primary source of fuel for residential and small commercial systems. Wood pellets for boilers are often stored in basement storage rooms or large bag-type containers. Due to the enclosed nature of these storage areas, the atmosphere may exhibit increased levels of carbon monoxide. Serious accidents in Europe have been reported over the last decade in which high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) have been found in or near bulk pellet storage containers. The aim of this study was to characterize the CO concentrations in areas with indoor storage of bulk wood pellets. Data was obtained over approximately 7 months (December 2013 to June 2014) at 25 sites in New Hampshire and Massachusetts: 16 homes using wood pellet boilers with indoor pellet storage containers greater than or equal to 3 ton capacity; 4 homes with wood pellet heating systems with outdoor pellet storage; 4 homes using other heating fuels; and a university laboratory site. CO monitors were set up in homes to collect concentrations of CO in the immediate vicinity of wood pellet storage containers, and data were then compared to those of homes using fossil fuel systems. The homes monitored in this study provided a diverse set of housing stock spanning two and a half centuries of construction, with homes built from 1774 to 2013, representing a range of air exchange rates. The CO concentration data from each home was averaged hourly and then compared to a threshold of 9 ppm. While concentrations of CO were generally low for the homes studied, the need to properly design storage locations for pellets is and will remain a necessary component of wood pellet heating systems to minimize the risk of CO exposure. This paper is an assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from bulk wood pellet storage in homes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Understanding the CO concentrations

  12. Transient analysis of carbon monoxide transport phenomena and adsorption kinetics in HT-PEMFC during dynamic current extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Kamal Abdul Rasheedj; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing the fuel cell temperature reduces outlet CO concentration. • Increasing the CO inlet (initial) concentration increases outlet CO concentration. • Increasing current density step and dwell time increases outlet CO concentration. • Increasing in the CL and GDL porosities reduces outlet CO concentration. - Abstract: This paper investigates the transport phenomena of carbon monoxide (CO) and adsorption kinetics, in a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) during step-wise current extraction (step-change in current extraction). Step-wise current extraction is a common process done to accommodate a sudden power surge during an operation. Since HT-PEMFCs are capable of handling high impurity of CO, hydrogen fuel that is contaminated with trace amount of CO is usually considered for commercial benefits. Thus, a transient three-dimensional isothermal anodic electro-kinetic numerical model is developed to determine the effect of operating parameters such as fuel cell temperature, CO inlet (initial) concentration, step-change of current density and dwell time on the transport phenomena of CO and adsorption kinetics. In addition, geometrical factors such as the catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) porosity are also varied as well. The results show that the above-mentioned operating parameters can affect the maximum CO concentration at the CL, especially at the outlet of the channel. Specifically, a reduction of fuel cell temperature can significantly increase the CO concentration near the outlet, while increasing CO inlet (initial) concentration, step-change amplitude of current density and current density dwell time can cause an increase in CO concentration at the outlet, albeit to different extent. In addition, the increase in the porosity of CL and GDL, results in the reduction of the maximum CO concentration at the outlet, albeit to different extent. In addition, the CO and hydrogen surface coverage

  13. Characteristic and Prediction of Carbon Monoxide Concentration using Time Series Analysis in Selected Urban Area in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Hazrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a poisonous, colorless, odourless and tasteless gas. The main source of carbon monoxide is from motor vehicles and carbon monoxide levels in residential areas closely reflect the traffic density. Prediction of carbon monoxide is important to give an early warning to sufferer of respiratory problems and also can help the related authorities to be more prepared to prevent and take suitable action to overcome the problem. This research was carried out using secondary data from Department of Environment Malaysia from 2013 to 2014. The main objectives of this research is to understand the characteristic of CO concentration and also to find the most suitable time series model to predict the CO concentration in Bachang, Melaka and Kuala Terengganu. Based on the lowest AIC value and several error measure, the results show that ARMA (1,1 is the most appropriate model to predict CO concentration level in Bachang, Melaka while ARMA (1,2 is the most suitable model with smallest error to predict the CO concentration level for residential area in Kuala Terengganu.

  14. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Liping; Yu, K.N.; Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy

  15. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity after a 1-h oxygen dive to 9 m of sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, P. J. A. M.; van Hulst, R. A.; Houtkooper, A.; Sterk, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    To prevent extensive pulmonary lesions in submerged oxygen divers lung function like the forced vital capacity (FVC) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL,co) are used to monitor pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). As the diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DL,no) measures more accurately

  16. Oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3 limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, B.A.; van Hassel, B.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3-δ (y = 0.1, 0.2) in a large oxygen partial pressure gradient (air/CO, CO2 mixture) was found to be limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate at the low oxygen partial pressure side of the membrane. The oxygen permeation flux through the membrane

  17. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  18. Spectroscopic investigations of high-power laser-induced dielectric breakdown in gas mixtures containing carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civis, Svatopluk; Babánková, Dagmar; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Sazama, Petr; Juha, Libor

    2008-08-07

    Large-scale plasma was created in gas mixtures containing carbon monoxide by high-power laser-induced dielectric breakdown (LIDB). The composition of the mixtures used corresponded to a cometary and/or meteoritic impact into the Earth's early atmosphere. A multiple-centimeter-sized fireball was created by focusing a single 85 J, 450 ps near-infrared laser pulse into the center of a 15 L gas cell. The excited reaction intermediates that formed in various stages of the LIDB plasma chemical evolution were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with temporal resolution. Special attention was paid to any OES signs of molecular ions. However, carbon monoxide cations were registered only if their production was enhanced by Penning ionization, i.e., excess He was added to the CO. The chemical consequences of laser-produced plasma generation in a CO-N 2-H 2O mixture were investigated using high resolution Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC). Several simple inorganic and organic compounds were identified in the reaction mixture exposed to ten laser sparks. H 2 (18)O was used to avoid possible contamination. The large laser spark triggered more complex reactivity originating in carbon monoxide than expected, when taking into account the strong triple bond of carbon monoxide causing typically inefficient dissociation of this molecule in electrical discharges.

  19. Regional and hemispheric influences on temporal variability in baseline carbon monoxide and ozone over the Northeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interannual variability in baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), defined as mixing ratios under minimal influence of recent and local emissions, was studied for seven rural sites in the Northeast US over 2001–2010. Annual baseline CO exhibited statistically signific...

  20. Investigation of four carbon monoxide isotopomers in natural abundance by laser-induced fluorescence in a supersonic jet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The four carbon monoxide (CO) isotopomers 12C16O, 13C16O, 12C18O and 12C17O have been detected simultaneously in a CO gas sample of natural isotopic abundance by measuring rovibronic excitation spectra of six vibronic bands in the Fourth Positive...

  1. Satellite observations of tropospheric ammonia and carbon monoxide: Global distributions, regional correlations and comparisons to model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO) are primary pollutants emitted to the Earth's atmosphere from common as well as distinct sources associated with anthropogenic and natural activities. The seasonal and global distributions and correlations of NH3 and CO from the Tropospheric...

  2. Variations of time-to-incapacitation and carboxyhemoglobin values in rats exposed to two carbon monoxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    It has been suggested that passenger protective breathing equipment protect aircraft passengers from smoke for 5 min during an evacuation phase and for 35 min during an in-flight-plus-evacuation phase. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most abundant...

  3. Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (RbCO) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in normal and ischemic heart patients. At high RbCO levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired. These are fin...

  4. Methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Marko; Busch, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The biologic methanation of exclusively gases like hydrogen and carbon dioxide is feasible. • Electrical energy can be stored in the established gas grid by conversion to methane. • The quality of produced biogas is very high (c CH4 = 98 vol%). • The conversion rate is depending on H 2 -flow rate. - Abstract: A new method for the methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide is presented. In a novel anaerobic trickle-bed reactor, biochemical catalyzed methanation at mesophilic temperatures and ambient pressure can be realized. The conversion of gaseous substrates by immobilized hydrogenotrophic methanogens is a unique feature of this reactor type. The already patented reactor produces biogas which has a very high quality (c CH4 = 97.9 vol%). Therefore, the storage of biogas in the existing natural gas grid is possible without extensive purification. The specific methane production was measured with P = 1.17 Nm CH4 3 /(m R 3 d). It is conceivable to realize the process at sites that generate solar or wind energy and sites subject to the conditions for hydrogen electrolysis (or other methods of hydrogen production). The combination with conventional biogas plants under hydrogen addition to methane enrichment is possible as well. The process enables the coupling of various renewable energy sources

  5. Foucault, surveillance, and carbon monoxide testing within stop-smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aimee; Ashton, Kathryn; Phillips, Rhiannon

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals have adopted proactive testing for early evidence of disease. Researchers have identified that this leads to enumerated understandings and shapes behavior in productive ways. Smoking-cessation advisors regularly test clients for carbon monoxide (CO), but client views of this had not previously been explored. We interviewed 23 clients of a United Kingdom-based stop-smoking service regarding their experiences of CO testing. The majority of participants were successful quitters. We used ATLAS.ti 7 as a data-management tool during structured qualitative analysis. Our findings reveal that clients believed the results of their CO tests. Many became enumerated in their understanding, and thus placed themselves in a hierarchy with other members of their group. Almost all clients found that knowing their CO test score was motivating. We conclude that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of CO testing among clients who do not quit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Role of carboxydobacteria in consumption of atmospheric carbon monoxide by soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, R. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz, Germany); Meyer, O.; Seiler, W.

    1981-08-01

    The carbon monoxide consumption rates of the carboxydobacteria Pseudomonas (Seliberia) carboxydohydrogena, P. carboxydovorans, and P. carboxydoflava were measured at high (50%) and low (0.5 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/) mixing ratios of CO in air. CO was only consumed when the bacteria had been grown under CO-autotrophic conditions. At low cell densities the CO comsumption rates measured at low CO mixing ratios were similar in cell suspensions and in mixtures of bacteria in soil. CO consumption observed in natural soil (loess, eolian sand, chernozem) as well as in suspensions or soil mixtures of carboxydobacteria showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Considering the difference of the K/sub m/, values and the observed V/sub max/ values, carboxydobacteria cannot contribute significantly to the consumption of atmospheric CO.

  7. Mixed quantum-classical simulations of the vibrational relaxation of photolyzed carbon monoxide in a hemoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Alexander, E-mail: schubert@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Meier, Christoph [Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats et Réactivité, IRSAMC, UMR CNRS 5589, Université Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Falvo, Cyril [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-08-07

    We present mixed quantum-classical simulations on relaxation and dephasing of vibrationally excited carbon monoxide within a protein environment. The methodology is based on a vibrational surface hopping approach treating the vibrational states of CO quantum mechanically, while all remaining degrees of freedom are described by means of classical molecular dynamics. The CO vibrational states form the “surfaces” for the classical trajectories of protein and solvent atoms. In return, environmentally induced non-adiabatic couplings between these states cause transitions describing the vibrational relaxation from first principles. The molecular dynamics simulation yields a detailed atomistic picture of the energy relaxation pathways, taking the molecular structure and dynamics of the protein and its solvent fully into account. Using the ultrafast photolysis of CO in the hemoprotein FixL as an example, we study the relaxation of vibrationally excited CO and evaluate the role of each of the FixL residues forming the heme pocket.

  8. Far-ultraviolet fluorescence of carbon monoxide in the red giant Arcturus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.; Moos, H.W.; Linsky, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    We present evidence that many of the weak features observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the far-ultraviolet (1150--2000 A) spectrum of the archetype red giant Arcturus (K2 III) are A--X fourth positive bands of carbon monoxide excited by chromospheric emissions of O I, C I, and H I. The appearance of fluorescent CO bands near the wavelengths of commonly used indicators of high-temperature (T>2 x 10 4 K) plasma, such as C II lambda1335 and C IV lambda1548, introduces a serious ambiguity in diagnosing the presence of hot material in the outer atmospheres of the cool giants by means of low-dispersion IUE spectra

  9. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, V.W.Y.; Wong, M.Y.P.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. - Highlights: ► RIBE between zebrafish embryos in vivo was assessed by the level of apoptosis. ► CO from 10 and 20 μM CORM-3 entirely suppressed the RIBE. ► CO from 5 μM CORM-3 significantly attenuated the level of apoptosis. ► Inactive CORM-3 did not lead to suppression of RIBE. ► Suppression of RIBE by CO depended on the concentration of CORM-3.

  10. Intermittent, low dose carbon monoxide exposure enhances survival and dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer-Andersen, Nanna; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Jensen, Pia

    2018-01-01

    cells constitute an alternative source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but efficient protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation need to be developed. Short-term, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been shown to affect signaling in several tissues, resulting...... in both protection and generation of reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the effect of CO produced by a novel CO-releasing molecule on dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells. Short-term exposure to 25 ppm CO at days 0 and 4 significantly increased the relative content...... of β-tubulin III-immunoreactive immature neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase expressing catecholaminergic neurons, as assessed 6 days after differentiation. Also the number of microtubule associated protein 2-positive mature neurons had increased significantly. Moreover, the content of apoptotic cells...

  11. Quantitative Romberg's test in acute carbon monoxide poisoning treated by hyperbaric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Daniel; Jansen, Erik Christian; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2017-01-01

    LMM, sway prior to HBO₂ therapy was set as the fixed effect and change in sway after HBO₂ therapy was set as the response variable. Patient, treatment number, weight and age were set as random effects for all LMMs. RESULTS: From the LMMs we found that larger values of sway prior to HBO₂ produced......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether monitoring of acute carbon monoxide-poisoned (COP) patients by means of quantitative Romberg's test (QR-test) during a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy regimen could be a useful supplement in the evaluation of neurological status. METHODS: We...... conducted a retrospective study (2000-2014) in which we evaluated data containing quantitative sway measurements of acute COP patients (n = 58) treated in an HBO₂ regimen. Each patient was tested using QR-test before and after each HBO₂ treatment. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models (LMM). In each...

  12. Photoinduced transport in an H64Q neuroglobin antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewski, J.; Nowak, W.

    2018-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a leading cause of poisoning deaths worldwide, without available antidotal therapy. Recently, a potential treatment for CO poisoning was introduced, based on binding of CO by neuroglobin (Ngb) with a mutated distal histidine (H64Q). Here, we present an atomistic mechanism of CO trapping by H64Q Ngb revealed by nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. We focused on CO photodissociation and recombination of CO to wild type (WT) and H64Q Ngb. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of CO within the proteins differs substantially due to rearrangement of amino acids surrounding the distal heme pocket. This leads to the decrease of the distal pocket volume in H64Q Ngb in comparison to WT Ngb, trapping migrating CO molecules in the distal pocket. We show that the mutation implicates the shortening of the time scale of CO geminate recombination, making H64Q Ngb 2.7 times more frequent binder than WT Ngb.

  13. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication

  14. Experimental Spectroscopic Studies of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Fluorescence at High Temperatures and Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivain, Olivier; Orain, Mikael; Dorval, Nelly; Morin, Celine; Legros, Guillaume

    2017-10-01

    Two-photon excitation laser-induced fluorescence of carbon monoxide (CO-LIF) is investigated experimentally in order to determine the applicability of this technique for imaging CO concentration in aeronautical combustors. Experiments are carried out in a high temperature, high-pressure test cell, and in a laminar premixed CH 4 /air flame. Influence of temperature and pressure on CO-LIF spectra intensity and shape is reported. The experimental results show that as pressure increases, the CO-LIF excitation spectrum becomes asymmetric. Additionally, the spectrum strongly shifts to the red with a quadratic dependence of the collisional shift upon pressure, which is different from the classical behavior where the collisional shift is proportional to pressure. Moreover, pressure line broadening cannot be reproduced by a Lorenztian profile in the temperature range investigated here (300-1750 K) and, therefore, an alternative line shape is suggested.

  15. Density function theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of carbon monoxide on tungsten nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meng-Hsiung; Ju, Shin-Pon; Chen, Hsin-Tsung; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lu, Jian-Ming; Lin, Ken-Huang; Lin, Jenn-Sen; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2013-02-01

    The adsorption and dissociation properties of carbon monoxide (CO) molecule on tungsten W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles have been investigated by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The lowest-energy structures for W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles are found by the basin-hopping method and big-bang method with the modified tight-binding many-body potential. We calculated the corresponding adsorption energies, C-O bond lengths and dissociation barriers for adsorption of CO on nanoparticles. The electronic properties of CO on nanoparticles are studied by the analysis of density of state and charge density. The characteristic of CO on W(n) nanoparticles are also compared with that of W bulk.

  16. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from sand and living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide, CO, is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential of UV-induced CO emission by terrestrial surfaces. Real-time measurements of [CO] were made with a cavity enhanced laser connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a leaf scale...... chamber. Sand and leaves of all examined plant species exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV-radiation and the UV-component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a rather low dependence on temperature, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO...... in response to the UV-component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the ecosystem scale. When scaled to the global level, the UV-induced emission of CO by the major types of terrestrial surfaces, living leaves and soil (here represented by sand), amounts up to 28 Tg yr−1. This source has...

  17. PFS/Mars Express first results: water vapour and carbon monoxide global distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, N. I.; Titov, D. V.; Formisano, V.; Moroz, V. I.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.; Fouchet, T.; Grassi, D.; Giuranna, M.; Atreya, S.; Pfs Team

    Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express, with its wide spectral range (1.2--45 um) and high spectral resolution (1.4 cm-1), makes it possible to study in a self-consistent manner the Martian atmosphere by means of simultaneous analysis of spectral features in several spectral regions. As concerned small species, we observe 30--50, 6.3, 2.56, 1.87 and 1.38 μ m H2O bands, and 4.7 and 2.35 μ m CO bands. The most favourable, with respect to the instrument performance, 2.56 μ m H2O and 4.7 μ m CO bands, are used to study the variations of column abundance of water vapour and carbon monoxide on a global scale from pole to pole. All necessary atmospheric parameters, namely temperature profiles, surface pressure, and dust density are obtained from the same spectra, whenever possible.

  18. Carbon monoxide exposure and information processing during perceptual-motor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihevic, P.M.; Gliner, J.A.; Horvath, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the influence of exposure to ambient carbon monoxide resulting in final carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of approximately 5.0% on the ability to process information during motor performance. Subjects (n . 16) performed a primary reciprocal tapping task and a secondary digit manipulation task singly and/or concurrently during 2.5 h exposure to room air (0 ppm CO) or 100 ppm CO. Five levels of tapping difficulty and two levels of digit manipulation were employed. Tapping performance was unaffected when COHb levels were as high as 5%. However, at this level of COHb it was noted that CO exposure interacted with task difficulty of both tasks to influence reaction time on the digit manipulation task. It was concluded that motor performance was not influenced by exposure to CO leading to COHb concentrations of 5%. Task difficulty was a significant factor mediating behavioral effects of CO exposure.

  19. Carbon monoxide exposure and information processing during perceptual-motor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihevic, P.M.; Gliner, J.A.; Horvath, S.M.

    1983-04-01

    This study examined the influence of exposure to ambient carbon monoxide resulting in final carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of approximately 5.0% on the ability to process information during motor performance. Subjects (n = 16) performed a primary reciprocal tapping task and a secondary digit manipulation task singly and/or concurrently during 2.5 h exposure to room air (0 ppm CO) or 100 ppm CO. Five levels of tapping difficulty and two levels of digit manipulation were employed. Tapping performance was unaffected when COHb levels were as high as 5%. However, at this level of COHb it was noted that CO exposure interacted with task difficulty of both tasks to influence reaction time on the digit manipulation task. It was concluded that motor performance was not influenced by exposure to CO leading to COHb concentrations of 5%. Task difficulty was a significant factor mediating behavioral effects of CO exposure.

  20. Action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanuxem, D.; Weiller, P.J.; Guillot, C.; Grimaud, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen by measuring P50 in whole blood and in stripped hemoglobin before and after exposition of blood samples from heavy smokers and polycythemic patients with high levels of HbCO to hyperbaric oxygen (2.2 ata). The concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate was normal although P50 was significantly lowered, not only in whole blood but also in stripped hemoglobin. Hyperbaric oxygen normalized P50 by removing CO radicals from stripped hemoglobin. This may indicate that CO radicals exert a direct action on the hemoglobin molecule, at least at the HbCO levels studied in this work.

  1. Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Resulting in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chao Hsu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute carbon monoxide (CO poisoning with cardiac complications is well documented in the literature. However, ST segment elevation is a rare presentation, and most of these cases with ST elevation have revealed non-occlusive or normal coronary arteries. We report a case of CO poisoning complicated with ST elevation myocardial infarction. Emergency coronary angiography revealed total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. This report of a rare case should remind physicians that cardiovascular investigations, including electrocardiography, must be performed in cases with CO poisoning because mortality might increase if reperfusion therapy or appropriate medical treatments are not performed in patients with acute coronary artery occlusion.

  2. Effects of continuous exposure to carbon monoxide on auditory vigilance in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.M.; Jolly, E.J.; Pethybridge, R.J.; Colquhoun, W.P.

    1981-02-01

    Six different groups of non-smoking young male subjcts were stutied separately for 18 consecutive days each in a closed controlled-environment human exposure chamber. Each group was subjected to a 5-day control period in fresh air followed successively by an 8-day period of continuous exposure to 50 ppm, 15 ppm or 0 ppm (controll) by volume of carbon monoxide (CO) in air, and a 5-day recovery period in fresh air. The subjects performed a 1-h auditory vigilance task every day at the same time of day in a fixed qualitative, quantitative, and temporal relationship with food intake, consumption of stimulating beverages, physical activity, and sleep. It was concluded that such CO exposure, involving the continuous carriage of carboxyhaemoglobin loads up to 70%, was without significant effect on auditory vigilance.

  3. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Distribution over Peninsular Malaysia from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Jaso M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It daily coverage of ˜70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite traces gas remote sensing. AIRS, the part of a large international investment to upgrade the operational meteorological satellite systems, is first of the new generation of meteorological advanced sounders for operational and research use, Providing New Insights into Weather and Climate for the 21st Century. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous, an indoor and outdoor air pollutant, is not a significant greenhouse gas as it absorbs little infrared radiation from the Earth. However, it does have an influence on oxidization in the atmosphere through interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), which also react with methane, halocarbons and tropospheric ozone. It produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning, and that it has a role as a smog. The aim of this investigation is to study the (CO) carbon monoxide distribution over Peninsular Malaysia. The land use map of the Peninsular Malaysia was conducted by using CO total column amount, obtained from AIRS data, the map & data was processed and analyzed by using Photoshop & SigmaPlot 11.0 programs and compared for timing of various (day time) (28 August 2005 & 29 August 2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile, the CO concentrations in 28/8/2005 higher. The CO maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. This interpolation technique produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root mean square error, RMS for CO. This study provided useful information for influence change of CO concentration on varies temperature.

  5. Thermal degradation kinetics of polyketone based on styrene and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Jiali; Fan, Wenjun; Shan, Shaoyun; Su, Hongying; Wu, Shuisheng; Jia, Qingming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PK were synthesized from carbon monoxide and styrene in the presence of PANI-PdCl 2 catalyst and PdCl 2 catalyst. • The structures and thermal behaviors of PK prepared by homogenous and the supported catalyst were investigated. • The microstructures of PK were changed in the supported catalyst system. • The alternating PK copolymer (PANI-PdCl 2 catalyst) was more thermally stable than PK (PdCl 2 catalyst). • The degradation activation energy values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method. - Abstract: Copolymerization of styrene with carbon monoxide to give polyketones (PK) was carried out under homogeneous palladium catalyst and polyaniline (PANI) supported palladium(II) catalyst, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and GPC. The results indicated that the PK catalyzed by the supported catalyst has narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI = 1.18). For comparison purpose of thermal behaviors of PK prepared by the homogeneous and the supported catalyst, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) were conducted at different heating rates. The peak temperatures (396–402 °C) for PK prepared by the supported catalyst are higher than those (387–395 °C) of PK prepared by the homogeneous catalyst. The degradation activation energy (E k ) values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method, respectively. The E k values, as determined by two methods, were found to be in the range 270.72 ± 0.03–297.55 ± 0.10 kJ mol −1 . Structures analysis and thermal degradation analysis revealed that the supported catalyst changed the microstructures of PK, resulting in improving thermal stability of PK

  6. Thermal degradation kinetics of polyketone based on styrene and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jiali, E-mail: jiaqm411@163.com; Fan, Wenjun; Shan, Shaoyun; Su, Hongying; Wu, Shuisheng; Jia, Qingming

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • The PK were synthesized from carbon monoxide and styrene in the presence of PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst and PdCl{sub 2} catalyst. • The structures and thermal behaviors of PK prepared by homogenous and the supported catalyst were investigated. • The microstructures of PK were changed in the supported catalyst system. • The alternating PK copolymer (PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst) was more thermally stable than PK (PdCl{sub 2} catalyst). • The degradation activation energy values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method. - Abstract: Copolymerization of styrene with carbon monoxide to give polyketones (PK) was carried out under homogeneous palladium catalyst and polyaniline (PANI) supported palladium(II) catalyst, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and GPC. The results indicated that the PK catalyzed by the supported catalyst has narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI = 1.18). For comparison purpose of thermal behaviors of PK prepared by the homogeneous and the supported catalyst, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) were conducted at different heating rates. The peak temperatures (396–402 °C) for PK prepared by the supported catalyst are higher than those (387–395 °C) of PK prepared by the homogeneous catalyst. The degradation activation energy (E{sub k}) values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method, respectively. The E{sub k} values, as determined by two methods, were found to be in the range 270.72 ± 0.03–297.55 ± 0.10 kJ mol{sup −1}. Structures analysis and thermal degradation analysis revealed that the supported catalyst changed the microstructures of PK, resulting in improving thermal stability of PK.

  7. The free radical scavenger, edaravone, ameliorates delayed neuropsychological sequelae after acute carbon monoxide poisoning in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingsong, Wang; Yeming, Guan; Xuechun, Liu; Hongjuan, Liu; Jing, Wang

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism underlying delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is unclear. There are no effective treatments for DNS. As part of a new generation of antioxidants, edaravone has been reported to improve clinical outcomes in patients exhibiting ischemic strokes. There has been little data about edaravone in relationship to DNS prevention and treatment. We hypothesized that edaravone could ameliorate DNS: Here we test that hypothesis in rabbits Rabbits were randomly divided into sham control,DNS group, saline group and edaravone group. DNS model was made by intraperitoneal injection of CO. Normal saline or edaravone (1 mg/kg, twice daily, a total of one course for 14 days) was infused through the ear vein from Day 15 since the DNS model was established. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in each group. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to examine regions of the brain for various compounds. The apoptotic index and neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 area were also investigated. SOD activity decreased significantly and MDA content increased substantially in the DNS group and saline group when compared with the sham control (p edaravone group, serum SOD activity significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased when compared with DNS and saline group (p edaravone group (p edaravone group was significantly lower than that of the DNS and saline groups (p edaravone group was significantly higher than that of the DNS and saline group in the hippocampal CA1 area (p edaravone could ameliorate DNS after acute carbon monoxide poisoning in rabbits. These results suggest free radicals could be involved in the underlying mechanisms of DNS. Furthermore, brain MRS shows promise as a tool for early diagnosis for DNS.

  8. Carbon monoxide gas sensing using zinc oxide deposited by successive ionic layer adhesion and reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florido, E. A.; Dagaas, N. A. C.

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed to determine the carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing capability of zinc oxide (ZnO) film fabricated by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) on glass substrate. Films consisting of a mixture of flower-like clusters of ZnO nanorods and nanowires were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Current-voltage characterization of the samples showed an average resistivity of 13.0 Ω-m. Carbon monoxide gas was synthesized by mixing the required amount of formic acid and excess sulfuric acid to produce CO gas concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 parts per million (ppm) v/v with five trials for each concentration. Two sets of data were obtained. One set consisted of the voltage response of the single film sensor while the other set were obtained from the double film sensor. The voltage response for the single film sensor and the double film sensor showed an average sensitivity of 0.0038 volts per ppm and 0.0024 volts per ppm, respectively. The concentration the single film can detect with a 2V output is 526 ppm while the double film sensor can detect up to 833 ppm with a 2V output. This shows that using the double film sensor is advantageous compared to single film sensor, because of its higher concentration range due to the larger surface area for the gas to interact. Moreover, the measured average resistance for the single film sensor was 10 MΩ while for the double film sensor the average resistance was 5 MΩ.

  9. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dianrong Gong,1 Haiyan Yu,1 Weihua Wang,2 Haixin Yang,1 Fabin Han1,21Department of Neurology, 2Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential treatments for neurological disorders. Since human umbilical cord stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection and promote neural regeneration, we have attempted to transplant the human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs to treat patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication (DEACOI. The hUCB-MNCs were isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood and were given to patients subarachnoidally. Physical examinations, mini-mental state examination scores, and computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the improvement of symptoms, signs, and pathological changes of the patient's brain before and after hUCB-MNC transplantation. A total of 12 patients with DEACOI were treated with hUCB-MNCs in this study. We found that most of the patients have shown significant improvements in movement, behavior, and cognitive function, and improved brain images in 1–4 months from the first transplantation of hUCB-MNCs. None of these patients have been observed to have any severe adverse effects. Our study suggests that the hUCB-MNC transplantation may be a safe and effective treatment for DEACOI. Further studies and clinical trials with more cases, using more systematic scoring methods, are needed to evaluate brain structural and functional improvements in patients with DEACOI after hUCB-MNC therapy.Keywords: human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, transplantation, delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication, MMSE

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning: a five year review at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, P K; Tai, D Y H

    2005-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) is one of the leading causes of death from poisoning worldwide. There is no published study of COP in Singapore so far. All patients admitted with the diagnosis of COP to Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) over 5 years from 1999 to 2003 were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis was based on a history of potential exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb). The causes, demographic data, clinical presentations, management and complications were analysed. There were 12 patients with COP. Their average age was 38.9 (+/-11.8) years, with a male-to-female ratio of 3:1. Accidental COP (58.3%) was more common than intentional COP (41.7%). The most common cause of accidental COP was smoke inhalation from a faulty vehicle. Gas stove was the most preferred source for intentional poisoning. Presenting features were headache (83.3%), confusion (83.3%), coma (12.7%) and agitation (8.3%). The mean COHb level on admission was 35.9% (+/-13.6). All were treated with 100% oxygen. All the patients achieved normal levels of COHb within 24 hours of admission. Two (16.7%) required intubation for airway protection as they were comatose on arrival, of which 1 presented with very high level of COHb (48.1%) and was the only patient to be treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Acute complications were globus pallidus infarction (16.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (8.3%) and myocardial ischaemia (8.3%). Most of the patients (91.7%) were discharged well from the hospital. One patient developed parkinsonism after a follow-up of 2 years. There were no deaths. COP is relatively uncommon in Singapore. It has a low rate of short- and long-term complications.

  11. Electrocardiographic Findings and Serum Troponin I in Carbon Monoxide Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, though with different sources, is one of the most deadly emergencies in all countries. CO can threaten men's life by several paths especially cardiac complications, which can mimic other cardiac problems such as myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to determine ECG findings and serum troponin I levels in CO poisoned patients. In this analytical cross-sectional study, 63 CO poisoning patients were consecutively included from hospital's emergency departments. CO content was measured by a CO-oximeter and an electrocardiography was taken first thing on admission. Arterial blood gas (ABG, troponin I and other data was collected afterwards. Data were divided by age groups (adults and children and gender. CO content was significantly higher only in subjects with normal T wave compared to patients with inverted T wave in their initial ECG (P=0.016. No other significant difference was noticed. None of the ABG findings correlated significantly with CO content. Also no significant correlation was found with CO content after stratification by gender and age groups, but pH in children (r=-0.484, P=0.026. CO content was significantly higher in adults (P=0.023, but other ABG data were not significantly different. Only 3 patients had elevated troponin I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis showed no significant cutoff points in CO content for ECG changes. No significant specific change in electrocardiograms (ECG could contribute carboxyhemoglobin content in carbon monoxide poisoned patients. In addition, no specific difference was found between adults and pediatric subjects' ECGs. All other findings seemed to be accidental.

  12. Hydrogen adsorption in doped porous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L Balan; L Duclaux; S Los

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Hydrogen is a clean fuel that will be used in automotive transport when the problem of storage will be solved. The difficulties of H 2 storage (available space, security and performance, etc...) require a material that can store 5 weight % of hydrogen. Research is focused on new materials that can assume the constraints imposed by the automotive applications. Among these materials, the nano-structured carbons (nano-fibers and single walled carbon nano-tubes) were claimed to be promising by numerous authors [1-3]. The more promising carbon materials for hydrogen adsorption are those having micropores (i. e. single walled carbon nano-tubes and activated carbon), for which the energy of sorption of hydrogen molecules is theoretically higher [7-8]. Presently, the best performance of hydrogen adsorption was found in super-activated microporous carbons sorbing 5 weight % at 77 K, and almost 0.5 % at room temperature and 6 MPa [9]. Up to now, the performance of these materials can still be improved as the known mechanism of sorption in these carbon materials: physi-sorption controlled by Van der Waals attractive forces through London interaction is efficient at cryogenic temperatures (77 K) where the interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate becomes stronger. One way to improve the attractive interaction between adsorbent and molecule is to increase the forces due to the interaction of electrical field and induced dipole of the molecule. This can be theoretically tailored in carbon materials through the electron charge transfer by electron donors who can provide an increase in the electrical field at the surface of the adsorbent. Then, the doping of carbon substrates, appearing to be a promising method to increase the energy of adsorption has been proposed in recent papers as a solution to obtain good hydrogen adsorption properties at appropriate temperatures close to room temperatures [10-12]. Thus, we have studied the adsorption

  13. Hydrogen adsorption in doped porous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, L.; Duchaux, L.; Los, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Hydrogen is a clean fuel that will be used in automotive transport when the problem of storage will be solved. The difficulties of H 2 storage (available space, security and performance, etc...) require a material that can store 5 weight % of hydrogen. Research is focused on new materials that can assume the constraints imposed by the automotive applications. Among these materials, the nano-structured carbons (nano-fibers and single walled carbon nano-tubes) were claimed to be promising by numerous authors [1-3]. The more promising carbon materials for hydrogen adsorption are those having micropores (i. e. single walled carbon nano-tubes and activated carbon), for which the energy of sorption of hydrogen molecules is theoretically higher [7- 8]. Presently, the best performance of hydrogen adsorption was found in super-activated micro-porous carbons sorbing 5 weight % at 77 K, and almost 0.5 % at room temperature and 6 MPa [9]. Up to now, the performance of these materials can still be improved as the known mechanism of sorption in these carbon materials: physisorption controlled by Van der Waals attractive forces through London interaction is efficient at cryogenic temperatures (77 K) where the interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate becomes stronger. One way to improve the attractive interaction between adsorbent and molecule is to increase the forces due to the interaction of electrical field and induced dipole of the molecule. This can be theoretically tailored in carbon materials through the electron charge transfer by electron donors who can provide an increase in the electrical field al the surface of the adsorbent. Then, the doping of carbon substrates, appearing to be a promising method to increase the energy of adsorption has been proposed in recent papers as a solution to obtain good hydrogen adsorption properties at appropriate temperatures close to room temperatures [10-12]. Thus, we have studied the adsorption

  14. Multi-objective optimisation in carbon monoxide gas management at TRONOX KXN Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a by-product of the ilmenite smelting process from which titania slag and pig iron are produced. Prior to this project, the CO at Tronox KZN Sands in South Africa was burnt to get rid of it, producing carbon dioxide (CO2. At this plant, unprocessed materials are pre-heated using methane gas from an external supplier. The price of methane gas has increased significantly; and so this research considers the possibility of recycling CO gas and using it as an energy source to reduce methane gas demand. It is not possible to eliminate the methane gas consumption completely due to the energy demand fluctuation, and sub-plants have been assigned either CO gas or methane gas over time. Switching the gas supply between CO and methane gas involves production downtime to purge supply lines. Minimising the loss of production time while maximising the use of CO arose as a multi-objective optimisation problem (MOP with seven decision variables, and computer simulation was used to evaluate scenarios. We applied computer simulation and the multi-objective optimisation cross-entropy method (MOO CEM to find good solutions while evaluating the minimum number of scenarios. The proposals in this paper, which are in the process of being implemented, could save the company operational expenditure while reducing the carbon footprint of the smelter.

  15. SISGR - Hydrogen Caged in Carbon-Exploration of Novel Carbon-Hydrogen Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Badding, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Crespi, Vinent [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen trapped in a carbon cage, captured through repulsive interactions, is a novel concept in hydrogen storage. Trapping hydrogen via repulsive interactions borrows an idea from macroscale hydrogen storage (i.e. compressed gas storage tanks) and reapplies these concepts on the nanoscale in specially designed molecular containers. Under extreme conditions of pressure, hydrogen solubility in carbon materials is expected to increase and carbon is expected to restructure to minimize volume via a mixed sp2/sp3 hydrogenated state. Thermodynamics dictate that pre-formed C-H structures will rearrange with increased pressure, yet the final carbon-hydrogen interactions may be dependent upon the mechanism by which hydrogen is introduced. Gas “trapping” is meant to denote gas present in a solid in a high density, adsorbed-like state, when the external pressure is much less than that necessary to provide a comparable fluid density. Trapping thus denotes a kinetically metastable state rather than thermodynamic equilibrium. This project probed mechanochemical means to polymerize select hydrocarbons in the presence of gases, in an attempt to form localized carbon cages that trap gases via repulsive interactions. Aromatic, polyaromatic, and hydroaromatic molecules expected to undergo cyclo-addition reactions were polymerized at high (~GPa) pressures to form extended hydrogenated amorphous carbon networks. Notably, aromatics with a pre-existing internal free volume (such as Triptycene) appeared to retain an internal porosity upon application of pressure. However, a high photoluminescence background after polymerization precluded in situ identification of trapped gases. No spectroscopic evidence was found after depressurization that would be indicative of pockets of trapped gases in a localized high-pressure environment. Control studies suggested this measurement may be insensitive to gases at low pressure. Similarly, no spectral fingerprint was found for gas-imbued spherical

  16. Hydrogen storage in engineered carbon nanospaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Kraus, Michael; Beckner, Matt; Cepel, Raina; Suppes, Galen; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2009-05-20

    It is shown how appropriately engineered nanoporous carbons provide materials for reversible hydrogen storage, based on physisorption, with exceptional storage capacities (approximately 80 g H2/kg carbon, approximately 50 g H2/liter carbon, at 50 bar and 77 K). Nanopores generate high storage capacities (a) by having high surface area to volume ratios, and (b) by hosting deep potential wells through overlapping substrate potentials from opposite pore walls, giving rise to a binding energy nearly twice the binding energy in wide pores. Experimental case studies are presented with surface areas as high as 3100 m(2) g(-1), in which 40% of all surface sites reside in pores of width approximately 0.7 nm and binding energy approximately 9 kJ mol(-1), and 60% of sites in pores of width>1.0 nm and binding energy approximately 5 kJ mol(-1). The findings, including the prevalence of just two distinct binding energies, are in excellent agreement with results from molecular dynamics simulations. It is also shown, from statistical mechanical models, that one can experimentally distinguish between the situation in which molecules do (mobile adsorption) and do not (localized adsorption) move parallel to the surface, how such lateral dynamics affects the hydrogen storage capacity, and how the two situations are controlled by the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed hydrogen molecules parallel and perpendicular to the surface: in the samples presented, adsorption is mobile at 293 K, and localized at 77 K. These findings make a strong case for it being possible to significantly increase hydrogen storage capacities in nanoporous carbons by suitable engineering of the nanopore space.

  17. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.; Kortlever, R.; Kas, Recep; Mul, Guido; Koper, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low

  18. Diiridium Bimetallic Complexes Function as a Redox Switch To Directly Split Carbonate into Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsun-Ren; Wu, Fang-Siou; Lee, Hsiu-Pen; Chen, Kelvin H-C

    2016-03-23

    A pair of diiridium bimetallic complexes exhibit a special type of oxidation-reduction reaction that could directly split carbonate into carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen via a low-energy pathway needing no sacrificial reagent. One of the bimetallic complexes, Ir(III)(μ-Cl)2Ir(III), can catch carbonato group from carbonate and reduce it to CO. The second complex, the rare bimetallic complex Ir(IV)(μ-oxo)2Ir(IV), can react with chlorine to release O2 by the oxidation of oxygen ions with synergistic oxidative effect of iridium ions and chlorine atoms. The activation energy needed for the key reaction is quite low (∼20 kJ/mol), which is far less than the dissociation energy of the C═O bond in CO2 (∼750 kJ/mol). These diiridium bimetallic complexes could be applied as a redox switch to split carbonate or combined with well-known processes in the chemical industry to build up a catalytic system to directly split CO2 into CO and O2.

  19. Carbon monoxide from neighbouring restaurants: the need for an integrated multi-agency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, C; Sandle, H; Meltzer, M; Young, Y; Ward, R; Balasegaram, S

    2012-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless toxic gas produced during incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. Most CO incidents reported to the UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) are due to faulty gas appliances, and legislation exists to ensure gas appliances are properly installed. We present three CO poisoning incidents of unusual origin reported to the HPA. In each, residents living above restaurants were poisoned after workers left charcoal smouldering overnight in specialist or traditional ovens whilst ventilation systems were turned off. This led to production of CO, which travelled through floorboards and built up to dangerous concentrations in the flats. Working with local authorities, these incidents were investigated and resolved, and work was conducted to prevent further occurrences. The novel nature of these CO incidents led to delays in recognition and subsequent remedial action. Although previously undescribed, it is likely that due to the number of residences built above restaurants and the rising popularity of traditional cooking methods, similar incidents may be occurring and could increase in frequency. Multi-agency response and reporting mechanisms could be strengthened. Awareness raising in professional groups and the public on the importance of correct ventilation of such appliances is vital.

  20. Cobalt Oxide Nanosheet and CNT Micro Carbon Monoxide Sensor Integrated with Readout Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Liang Dai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively.

  1. Bio-Inspired Carbon Monoxide Sensors with Voltage-Activated Sensitivity

    KAUST Repository

    Savagatrup, Suchol

    2017-09-27

    Carbon monoxide (CO) outcompetes oxygen when binding to the iron center of hemeproteins, leading to a reduction in blood oxygen level and acute poisoning. Harvesting the strong specific interaction between CO and the iron porphyrin provides a highly selective and customizable sensor. We report the development of chemiresistive sensors with voltage-activated sensitivity for the detection of CO comprising iron porphyrin and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (F-SWCNTs). Modulation of the gate voltage offers a predicted extra dimension for sensing. Specifically, the sensors show a significant increase in sensitivity toward CO when negative gate voltage is applied. The dosimetric sensors are selective to ppm levels of CO and functional in air. UV/Vis spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry, and density functional theory reveal that the in situ reduction of FeIII to FeII enhances the interaction between the F-SWCNTs and CO. Our results illustrate a new mode of sensors wherein redox active recognition units are voltage-activated to give enhanced and highly specific responses.

  2. Rapid decline in carbon monoxide emissions and export from East Asia between years 2005 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Chevallier, Frederic; Ciais, Philippe; Yin, Yi; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2018-04-01

    Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite and ground-based carbon monoxide (CO) measurements both suggest a widespread downward trend in CO concentrations over East Asia during the period 2005–2016. This negative trend is inconsistent with global bottom-up inventories of CO emissions, which show a small increase or stable emissions in this region. We try to reconcile the observed CO trend with emission inventories using an atmospheric inversion of the MOPITT CO data that estimates emissions from primary sources, secondary production, and chemical sinks of CO. The atmospheric inversion indicates a ~ ‑2% yr‑1 decrease in emissions from primary sources in East Asia from 2005–2016. The decreasing emissions are mainly caused by source reductions in China. The regional MEIC inventory for China is the only bottom up estimate consistent with the inversion-diagnosed decrease of CO emissions. According to the MEIC data, decreasing CO emissions from four main sectors (iron and steel industries, residential sources, gasoline-powered vehicles, and construction materials industries) in China explain 76% of the inversion-based trend of East Asian CO emissions. This result suggests that global inventories underestimate the recent decrease of CO emission factors in China which occurred despite increasing consumption of carbon-based fuels, and is driven by rapid technological changes with improved combustion efficiency and emission control measures.

  3. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  4. Carbon strategy and management in the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, C.

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (carbon) emission reduction related to the beneficial use of hydrogen is an important aspect in the development and public acceptance of a greater role for hydrogen in the economy. This presentation is an overview of potential effects of the evolving regulatory framework for carbon emissions management in Canada on hydrogen infrastructure development and compare it with activities in other jurisdictions

  5. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  6. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  7. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in delayed encephalopathy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning - comparison with CT -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Suh, Chang Hae; Choo, In Wook

    1986-01-01

    Eleven magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging were performed in nine patients with mild to moderate degree of delayed neuropsychiatric symptoms following acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, to evaluate the capability of MR in demonstrating any additional finding to CT. The MR images were obtained using 0.15 Tesla resistive system with various combination of three pulse sequences, including partial saturation recovery, T2-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery. Bilateral white matter abnormalities suggesting demyelination were demonstrated in 4 patients with MR and in only 2 patients with CT. The contrast discrimination between normal and abnormal white matter proved to be better with T2-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery than with partial saturation recovery and CT. But necrosis of the globus pallidus (1 patient) and diffuse atrophy (3 patients) were equally demonstrated on both MR and CT. It is suggested that MR be used as a initial imaging method in the evaluation of the delayed encephalopathy following acute CO poisoning, especially for the detection of the possible white matter lesions. Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning produces hypoxia by displacing oxygen from hemoglobin and preventing its release from hemoglobin in tissues, often resulting in fetal event. Victims who survive acute CO poisoning may have various delayed symptoms and signs. Occasionally, an apparent recovery is followed within two days to three weeks by a sudden neurological deterioration. The degree of neuropsychiatric symptoms depends upon the extent and severity of the pathologic changes in the brain. The pathologic effects of CO poisoning are present in almost all organs of patients. However, the most important changes occur in the brain, which consist of necrosis of the globus pallidus and reticular zone of the substantia nigra, and the degeneration of the cerebral white matter. The diagnostic superiority of magnetic resonance (MR) over CT has already

  8. Carbon monoxide improves neuronal differentiation and yield by increasing the functioning and number of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-01

    The process of cell differentiation goes hand-in-hand with metabolic adaptations, which are needed to provide energy and new metabolites. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and improve mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal differentiation processes were studied using the NT2 cell line, which is derived from human testicular embryonic teratocarcinoma and differentiates into post-mitotic neurons upon retinoic acid treatment. CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1) was used do deliver CO into cell culture. CO treatment improved NT2 neuronal differentiation and yield, since there were more neurons and the total cell number increased following the differentiation process. CO supplementation enhanced the mitochondrial population in post-mitotic neurons derived from NT2 cells, as indicated by an increase in mitochondrial DNA. CO treatment during neuronal differentiation increased the extent of the classical metabolic change that occurs during neuronal differentiation, from glycolytic to more oxidative metabolism, by decreasing the ratio of lactate production and glucose consumption. The expression of pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenases was higher, indicating an augmented oxidative metabolism. Moreover, these findings were corroborated by an increased percentage of (13) C incorporation from [U-(13) C]glucose into the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites malate and citrate, and also glutamate and aspartate in CO-treated cells. Finally, under low levels of oxygen (5%), which enhances glycolytic metabolism, some of the enhancing effects of CO on mitochondria were not observed. In conclusion, our data show that CO improves neuronal and mitochondrial yield by stimulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and thus oxidative metabolism of NT2 cells during the process of neuronal differentiation. The process of cell differentiation is coupled with metabolic adaptations. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective

  9. Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Jalkanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS, which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres. The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO. The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2 allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. We have also compared the annually averaged emission values with those of the corresponding EMEP inventory, As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions of the Baltic Sea surrounding the Danish Straits.

  10. Polarity and Nonpolarity of Ionic Liquids Viewed from the Rotational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Y; Kimura, Y

    2015-12-17

    The rotational dynamics of carbon monoxide (CO) in a molten salt, ionic liquids (ILs), and alkanes were investigated by (17)O NMR T1 measurements using labeled C(17)O. The molten salt and the studied ILs have the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion ([NTf2](-)) in common. In hexane near room temperature, the rotational relaxation times are close to the values predicted from the slip boundary condition in the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) theory. However, in contradiction to the theoretical prediction, the rotational relaxation times decrease as the value of η/T increases, where η and T are the viscosity and absolute temperature, respectively. In other alkanes and ILs used in this study, the rotational relaxation times are much faster than those predicted by SED, and show a unique dependence on the number of alkyl carbons. For the same value of η/T, the CO rotational relaxation times in ILs composed of short-alkyl-chain-length imidazolium cations (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) are close to those for a molten salt (Cs[NTf2]). On the other hand, the rotational relaxation times in ILs composed of long-chain-length imidazolium (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium) and phosphonium (tributylmethylphosphonium and tetraoctylphosphonium) cations are much shorter than the SED predictions. This deviation from theory increases as the alkyl chain length increases. We also found that the rotational relaxation times in dodecane and squalane are similar to those in ILs with a similar number of alkyl carbons. These results are discussed in terms of heterogeneous solvation and in comparison with the translational diffusion of CO in ILs.

  11. Carbon monoxide is not responsible for the cigarette smokeinduced changes in the pulmonary metabolism of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maennistoe, J.; Puustinen, T.; Uotila, P.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is known to interfere with the pulmonary metabolism of arachidomic acid and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). We investigated the possible role of carbon monoxide in these cigarette smoke-infuced alterations. 4 C-Arachidonic acid (50 nmol) was indused into the pulmonary circulation of isolated perfused hamster lungs and the radioactive metabolites in the perfusion effluent, as well as the distribution of incorporated radioactive arachidonic acid within the lung lipids, were analysed. Carbon monoxide, added into the ventilatory air, had no effect on the oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid or on the distribution of radioactive arachidonic acid within the lung. In addition, carbon monoxide had no effect on the metabolism of PGE 2 following infusion of 100 nmol of 14 C-PGE 2 into the rat pulmonary circulation. The present study suggests that carbon monoxide is not responsible for the cigarette smoke-induced changes in the pulmonary metabolism of arachidonic acid and PGE 2 . (author)

  12. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 2 (SRL2) Carbon Monoxide 5 degree by 5 degree data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS OverviewThe MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights on...

  13. Carbon monoxide toxicity. April 1978-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1978-November 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include carbon monoxide binding affinity studies with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels as related to tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 237 citations, 16 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Carbon monoxide toxicity. January 1978-March 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include carbon monoxide binding affinity studies with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels as related to tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 221 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pt-, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 Nanospheres and Carbon Monoxide Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and M-doped (M = Pt, Fe, and Zn SnO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and facile hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Chemical gas sensors were fabricated based on the as-synthesized nanostructures, and carbon monoxide sensing properties were systematically measured. Compared to pure, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 nanospheres, the Pt-doped SnO2 nanospheres sensor exhibits higher sensitivity, lower operating temperature, more rapid response and recovery, better stability, and excellent selectivity. In addition, a theoretical study based on the first principles calculation was conducted. All results demonstrate the potential of Pt dopant for improving the gas sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors to carbon monoxide.

  16. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouba Zeidan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 6.06 and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08 were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40, living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49 or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54 appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81, living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52 and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01. Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46 and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14. Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.

  17. Use of pulse co-oximetry as a screening and monitoring tool in mass carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Bryan E; Nowicki, Kevin; Creel, James H; Carrison, Dale; Severance, Harry W

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of poisoning in the United States. We describe a case where responding fire department personnel encountered a sick employee with a headache at an automotive brake manufacturing plant. Using both atmospheric CO monitoring and pulse CO-oximetry technology, fire department personnel were able to diagnose the cause of the patient's illness and later identify the source of CO in the plant.

  18. Serum bilirubin value predicts hospital admission in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients. Active player or simple bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although carbon monoxide poisoning is a major medical emergency, the armamentarium of recognized prognostic biomarkers displays unsatisfactory diagnostic performance for predicting cumulative endpoints. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and observational study to identify all patients admitted for carbon monoxide poisoning during a 2-year period. Complete demographical and clinical information, along with the laboratory data regarding arterial carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, was retrieved. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 38 poisoned patients (23 females and 15 males; mean age 39±21 years. Compared with discharged subjects, hospitalized patients displayed significantly higher values for blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, whereas arterial carboxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin did not differ. In a univariate analysis, hospitalization was significantly associated with blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, but not with age, sex, hemoglobin or carboxyhemoglobin. The diagnostic performance obtained after combining the blood lactate and total serum bilirubin results (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p<0.001 was better than that obtained for either parameter alone. CONCLUSION: Although it remains unclear whether total serum bilirubin acts as an active player or a bystander, we conclude that the systematic assessment of bilirubin may, alongside lactate levels, provide useful information for clinical decision making regarding carbon monoxide poisoning.

  19. Garage carbon monoxide levels from sources commonly used in intentional poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Holm, James R; Courtney, Todd G

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of intentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is believed to have declined due to strict federal CO emissions standards for motor vehicles and the uniform application of catalytic converters (CC). We sought to compare ambient CO levels produced by automobiles with and without catalytic converters in a residential garage, as well as from other CO sources commonly used for intentional poisoning. CO levels were measured inside a freestanding 73 m3 one-car garage. CO sources included a 1971 automobile without CC, 2003 automobile with CC, charcoal grill, electrical generator, lawn mower and leaf blower. After 20 minutes of operation, the CO level in the garage was 253 PPM for the car without a catalytic converter and 30 PPM for the car equipped withone. CO levels after operating or burning the other sources were: charcoal 200 PPM; generator >999 PPM; lawn mower 198 PPM; and leaf blower 580 PPM. While emissions controls on automobiles have reduced intentional CO poisonings, alternate sources may produce CO at levels of the same magnitude as vehicles manufactured prior to the use of catalytic converters. Those involved in the care of potentially suicidal individuals should be aware of this.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Pei, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong) were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO) at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L) might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L) demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future. PMID:26904651

  1. The phylogenetic distribution and ecological role of carbon monoxide oxidation in the genus Burkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia is a physiologically and ecologically diverse genus that occurs commonly in assemblages of soil and rhizosphere bacteria. Although Burkholderia is known for its heterotrophic versatility, we demonstrate that 14 distinct environmental isolates oxidized carbon monoxide (CO) and possessed the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of form I CO dehydrogenase (coxL). DNA from a Burkholderia isolate obtained from a passalid beetle also contained coxL as do the genomic sequences of species H160 and Ch1-1. Isolates were able to consume CO at concentrations ranging from 100 ppm (vol/vol) to sub-ambient ( 2.5 mM), but mixotrophic consumption of CO and pyruvate occurred when initial pyruvate concentrations were lower (c. 400 lM). With the exception of an isolate most closely related to Burkholderia cepacia, all CO-oxidizing isolates examined were members of a nonpathogenic clade and were most closely related to Burkholderia species, B. caledonica, B. fungorum, B. oxiphila, B. mimosarum, B. nodosa, B. sacchari, B. bryophila, B. ferrariae, B. ginsengesoli, and B. unamae. However, none of these type strains oxidized CO or contained coxL based on results from PCR analyses. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the presence of CO oxidation within members of the Burkholderia genus is variable but it is most commonly found among rhizosphere inhabitants that are not closely related to B. cepacia.

  2. Performance of a carbon monoxide sensor based on zirconia-doped ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Izu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistive-type carbon monoxide sensors were fabricated using zirconia-doped ceria, and their sensing properties were evaluated and compared with equivalent devices based on non-doped ceria. The response of both sensor types was found to increase with decreasing temperature, while the response at 450 °C of a sensor fired at 950 °C was greater than that of a sensor fired at 1100 °C. When fired at 950 °C, however, the response at 450 °C of a sensor created using zirconia-doped ceria was slightly less than that of a sensor constructed from non-doped ceria. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the response of both sensor types is proportional to the resistance raised to the power of about 0.5, and inversely proportional to the particle size raised to a power of about 0.8. The sensor response time can be considered almost the same regardless of whether zirconia doping is used or not.

  3. Characterization of Carbon Monoxide Exposure During Hurricane Sandy and Subsequent Nor'easter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Amy; Law, Royal; Heinzerling, Amy; Sircar, Kanta; Damon, Scott; Yip, Fuyuen; Schier, Josh; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures. This report combined data from 3 separate sources (health departments, poison centers via the National Poison Data System, and state and local public information officers). Results indicated that the number of CO exposures in the wake of Hurricane Sandy was significantly greater than in previous years. The persons affected were mostly females and those in younger age categories and, despite messaging, most CO exposures occurred from improper generator use. Our findings emphasize the continued importance of CO-related communication and ongoing surveillance of CO exposures to support public health response and prevention during and after disasters. Additionally, regional poison centers can be a critical resource for potential on-site management, public health promotion, and disaster-related CO exposure surveillance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:562-567).

  4. Using ANN and EPR models to predict carbon monoxide concentrations in urban area of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting of air pollutants has become a popular topic of environmental research today. For this purpose, the artificial neural network (AAN technique is widely used as a reliable method for forecasting air pollutants in urban areas. On the other hand, the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model has recently been used as a forecasting tool in some environmental issues. In this research, we compared the ability of these models to forecast carbon monoxide (CO concentrations in the urban area of Tabriz city. Methods: The dataset of CO concentrations measured at the fixed stations operated by the East Azerbaijan Environmental Office along with meteorological data obtained from the East Azerbaijan Meteorological Bureau from March 2007 to March 2013, were used as input for the ANN and EPR models. Results: Based on the results, the performance of ANN is more reliable in comparison with EPR. Using the ANN model, the correlation coefficient values at all monitoring stations were calculated above 0.85. Conversely, the R2 values for these stations were obtained <0.41 using the EPR model. Conclusion: The EPR model could not overcome the nonlinearities of input data. However, the ANN model displayed more accurate results compared to the EPR. Hence, the ANN models are robust tools for predicting air pollutant concentrations.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Stable Isotopes: Extraction Technique Development and Urban Atmospheric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Isaac Josef

    We have developed an extraction system to analyze isotopes of carbon monoxide (CO). We then analyzed CO isotopes for two years at Indianapolis, IN, USA. These measurements were done at three towers, one of which measured incoming, background air into the city. We quantitatively removed the background signal and determined the urban CO mole fraction and isotopic enhancements. During the winter months, we constrained the isotopic signature and concluded that the majority of CO produced during the winter was produced by fossil fuel combustion. We found that the Indianapolis fossil fuel signature differed from that of studies done in Europe. Further, we performed a limited traffic study to look at CO isotopes from traffic. While this was not conclusive, it did support our hypothesis that a larger fraction of the Indianapolis vehicle fleet may have malfunctioning catalytic systems, which biases the isotopic results, particularly for delta18O. We used the wintertime fossil fuel isotopic signature to help constrain the summertime budget. It was hypothesized that a second source of CO was significant during the summer months. Oxidation of biogenically produced volatile organic compounds (BVOC's) was one possible source. Oxidized BVOC's were consistent with the changes between our winter and summer isotopic source signatures. We then used the isotopic signatures to determine that between zero and sixty percent of the summertime CO budget was produced from oxidized VOC's. This provided the first direct evidence of a larger percentage of urban CO being produced by oxidized VOC's.

  6. Carbon monoxide exposure enhances arrhythmia after cardiac stress: involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Lucas; Gouzi, Fares; Thireau, Jérôme; Meyer, Gregory; Boissiere, Julien; Delage, Martine; Abdellaoui, Aldja; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacampagne, Alain; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Fauconnier, Jérémy; Hayot, Maurice; Richard, Sylvain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Arrhythmias following cardiac stress are a key predictor of death in healthy population. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous pollutant promoting oxidative stress and associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease and cardiac mortality. We investigated the effect of chronic CO exposure on the occurrence of arrhythmic events after a cardiac stress test and the possible involvement of related oxidative stress. Wistar rats exposed chronically (4 weeks) to sustained urban CO pollution presented more arrhythmic events than controls during recovery after cardiac challenge with isoprenaline in vivo. Sudden death occurred in 22% of CO-exposed rats versus 0% for controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an end-product of lipid peroxidation, was increased in left ventricular tissue of CO-exposed rats. Cardiomyocytes isolated from CO-exposed rats showed higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (measured with MitoSox Red dye), higher diastolic Ca(2+) resulting from SR calcium leak and an higher occurrence of irregular Ca(2+) transients (measured with Indo-1) in comparison to control cells after a high pacing sequence. Acute treatment with a ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine, 20 mmol/L, 1 h) prevented this sequence of alterations and decreased the number of arrhythmic cells following high pacing. Chronic CO exposure promotes oxidative stress that alters Ca(2+) homeostasis (through RYR2 and SERCA defects) and thereby mediates the triggering of ventricular arrhythmia after cardiac stress that can lead to sudden death.

  7. Carbon monoxide photoproduction: implications for photoreactivity of Arctic permafrost-derived soil dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Xie, Huixiang; Guo, Laodong; Song, Guisheng

    2014-08-19

    Apparent quantum yields of carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction (AQY(CO)) for permafrost-derived soil dissolved organic matter (SDOM) from the Yukon River Basin and Alaska coast were determined to examine the dependences of AQY(CO) on temperature, ionic strength, pH, and SDOM concentration. SDOM from different locations and soil depths all exhibited similar AQY(CO) spectra irrespective of soil age. AQY(CO) increased by 68% for a 20 °C warming, decreased by 25% from ionic strength 0 to 0.7 mol L(-1), and dropped by 25-38% from pH 4 to 8. These effects combined together could reduce AQY(CO) by up to 72% when SDOM transits from terrestrial environemnts to open-ocean conditions during summer in the Arctic. A Michaelis-Menten kinetics characterized the influence of SDOM dilution on AQY(CO) with a very low substrate half-saturation concentration. Generalized global-scale relationships between AQY(CO) and salinity and absorbance demostrate that the CO-based photoreactivity of ancient permaforst SDOM is comparable to that of modern riverine DOM and that the effects of the physicochemical variables revealed here alone could account for the seaward decline of AQY(CO) observed in diverse estuarine and coastal water bodies.

  8. Nanometer-scale discernment of field emission from tungsten surface with single carbon monoxide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Soichiro; Suwa, Yuji; Katagiri, Souichi

    2017-12-01

    Unusual quantized beam fluctuations were found in the emission current from a cold-field emitter (CFE) operating in an extremely high vacuum of 10-10 Pa. To clarify the microscopic mechanism behind these fluctuations, we developed a new calculation method to evaluate the field emission from a heterogeneous surface under a strong electric field of 4 × 109 V/m by using the local potential distribution obtained by a first-principles calculation, instead of by using the work function. As a result of the first-principles calculations of a single molecule adsorbed on a tungsten surface, we found that dissociative adsorption of a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule enhances the emission current by changing the potential barrier in the area surrounding the C and O adatoms when these two atoms are placed at their most stable positions. It is also found that the migration of the O atom from the most stable position reduces the emission current. These types of enhancement and reduction of the emission current quantitatively explain the observed quantized fluctuations of the CFE emission current.

  9. Cysteine 295 indirectly affects Ni coordination of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase-II C-cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Takao, Kyosuke; Yoshida, Takashi [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Wada, Kei [Organization for Promotion of Tenure Track, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Daifuku, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuko [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fukuyama, Keiichi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sako, Yoshihiko, E-mail: sako@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •CODH-II harbors a unique [Ni-Fe-S] cluster. •We substituted the ligand residues of Cys{sup 295} and His{sup 261}. •Dramatic decreases in Ni content upon substitutions were observed. •All substitutions did not affect Fe-S clusters assembly. •CO oxidation activity was decreased by the substitutions. -- Abstract: A unique [Ni–Fe–S] cluster (C-cluster) constitutes the active center of Ni-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs). His{sup 261}, which coordinates one of the Fe atoms with Cys{sup 295}, is suggested to be the only residue required for Ni coordination in the C-cluster. To evaluate the role of Cys{sup 295}, we constructed CODH-II variants. Ala substitution for the Cys{sup 295} substitution resulted in the decrease of Ni content and didn’t result in major change of Fe content. In addition, the substitution had no effect on the ability to assemble a full complement of [Fe–S] clusters. This strongly suggests Cys{sup 295} indirectly and His{sup 261} together affect Ni-coordination in the C-cluster.

  10. Improving Outreach and Surveillance Efforts Following a Large-Scale Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Vogt, Christy M; Wozniak, Ryan J; Camponeschi, Jenny; Werner, Mark A; Meiman, Jonathan G

    In December 2014, the largest carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Wisconsin's history occurred at an ice arena. Following this event, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program sought to improve outreach and surveillance efforts. WI EPHT designed and distributed educational materials on CO poisoning prevention and surveyed stakeholders to gauge the effectiveness of outreach efforts. To enhance surveillance, WI EPHT utilized data from the Wisconsin Poison Center (WPC) to generate real-time alerts of anomalous numbers of CO-related calls. WI EPHT found that 42% of stakeholders reviewed the outreach materials, and 1 ice arena had installed a CO detector as a result. CO alerts were developed using WPC data and are now routinely used in statewide public health surveillance. WI EPHT staff improved CO poisoning prevention outreach and saw a positive response among stakeholders. This work demonstrates ways that health agencies can improve outreach and surveillance for CO poisoning. Improvements in these areas can bolster public health response and may prevent CO-related illness and injury.

  11. Colonic insufflation with carbon monoxide gas inhibits the development of intestinal inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takagi Tomohisa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is complex, and an effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be established. Recently, carbon monoxide (CO has been reported to be capable of reducing inflammation by multiple mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated the role of colonic CO insufflation in acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in rats. Methods Acute colitis was induced with TNBS in male Wistar rats. Following TNBS administration, the animals were treated daily with 200 ppm of intrarectal CO gas. The distal colon was removed to evaluate various parameters of inflammation, including thiobarbituric acid (TBA-reactive substances, tissue-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 in colonic mucosa 7 days after TNBS administration. Results The administration of TNBS induced ulceration with surrounding edematous swelling in the colon. In rats treated with CO gas, the colonic ulcer area was smaller than that of air-treated rats 7 days after TNBS administration. The wet colon weight was significantly increased in the TNBS-induced colitis group, which was markedly abrogated by colonic insufflation with CO gas. The increase of MPO activity, TBA-reactive substances, and CINC-1 expression in colonic mucosa were also significantly inhibited by colonic insufflation with CO gas. Conclusions Colonic insufflation with CO gas significantly ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Clinical application of CO gas to improve colonic inflammatory conditions such as IBD might be useful.

  12. Influence of surface vacancy defects on the carburisation of Fe 110 surface by carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Aurab, E-mail: aurab.chakrabarty@qatar.tamu.edu; Bouhali, Othmane [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mousseau, Normand [Département de Physique and RQMP, Université de Montréal, Case Postale 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal (QC) H3C 3J7 (Canada); Becquart, Charlotte S. [UMET, UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Université Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq cédex (France); El-Mellouhi, Fedwa, E-mail: felmellouhi@qf.org.qa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha (Qatar)

    2016-07-28

    Adsorption and dissociation of gaseous carbon monoxide (CO) on metal surfaces is one of the most frequently occurring processes of carburisation, known as primary initiator of metal dusting corrosion. Among the various factors that can significantly influence the carburisation process are the intrinsic surface defects such as single surface vacancies occurring at high concentrations due to their low formation energy. Intuitively, adsorption and dissociation barriers of CO are expected to be lowered in the vicinity of a surface vacancy, due to the strong attractive interaction between the vacancy and the C atom. Here the adsorption energies and dissociation pathways of CO on clean and defective Fe 110 surface are explored by means of density functional theory. Interestingly, we find that the O adatom, resulting from the CO dissociation, is unstable in the electron-deficit neighbourhood of the vacancy due to its large electron affinity, and raises the barrier of the carburisation pathway. Still, a full comparative study between the clean surface and the vacancy-defected surface reveals that the complete process of carburisation, starting from adsorption to subsurface diffusion of C, is more favourable in the vicinity of a vacancy defect.

  13. Profile of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the west province of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Ahmadi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To document the epidemiology and risk factors of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the west of Iran and specify potentially presentable characteristics. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Imam Khomeini Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from July 2006 to March 2008. Methodology: This study was conducted using the records of 143 cases of CO poisoning referred to the only centre for the reference of poisoning cases. Intent, age groups, source of poisoning and clinical presentation were noted and described as frequency. Results: One-hundred forty two cases (99.3%), were accidental and only one case (0.7%) was suicidal. Mortality was (21.7%, n=31). The highest mortality was found in the age groups of 20-30 years and below 10 years. The greatest frequency happened in autumn and winter. The clinical symptoms and manifestations of CO poisoning included headache (35.3%), nausea (25.4%), vomiting (21%), dyspnea (10.3%), and decrease in level of consciousness (8%). Gas water heaters (35%), room heaters (32%), stoves (24%) and other items (9%) were the principal sources of the individuals' exposure to CO. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious public health problem in west of Iran (Kermanshah). The number of CO poisoning cases was highest in the colder seasons of the year, whereas the majority of the poisoning cases could be prevented. (author)

  14. Protective Effect of Edaravone against Carbon Monoxide Induced Apoptosis in Rat Primary Cultured Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To observe the protective effect of edaravone (Eda on astrocytes after prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide (CO and further to investigate the potential mechanisms of Eda against CO-induced apoptosis. Methods. The rat primary cultured astrocytes were cultured in vitro and exposed to 1% CO for 24 h after being cultured with different concentrations of Eda. MTT assay was used to detect the cytotoxicity of CO. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate, membrane potential of mitochondria, and ROS level. The mRNA and protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Results. Eda can significantly suppress cytotoxicity of CO, and it can significantly increase membrane potential of mitochondria and Bcl-2 expressions and significantly suppress the apoptosis rate, ROS level, Bax, and caspase-3 expressions. Conclusion. Eda protects against CO-induced apoptosis in rat primary cultured astrocytes through decreasing ROS production and subsequently inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  15. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, V.W.Y.; Wong, M.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIBE between zebrafish embryos in vivo was assessed by the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 10 and 20 {mu}M CORM-3 entirely suppressed the RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 5 {mu}M CORM-3 significantly attenuated the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactive CORM-3 did not lead to suppression of RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of RIBE by CO depended on the concentration of CORM-3.

  16. The relationship between alveolar oxygen tension and the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, R E; Crapo, R O

    1986-04-01

    The effects of alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2) on the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) were quantified and a factor was derived to accommodate for differences in PAO2 over commonly encountered altitudes and/or varying concentrations of oxygen in the test gas mixture (FIO2) We performed duplicate measurements of DLCO in 7 normal subjects with 6 different oxygen fractions (0.176, 0.196, 0.211, 0.22, 0.25, and 0.27). The PAO2 for each test was measured as the PO2 in the alveolar gas sample bag. DLCO varied inversely with PAO2 and changed by 0.35% for each mmHg change in PAO2 (r = -0.62, p less than 0.001). At an FIO2 of 0.25, PAO2 varied between subjects and was highly correlated with each subject's residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (r = -0.84, p less than 0.001). We suggest that laboratories can adjust the measured DLCO when PAO2 is not congruent to 120 mmHg by the following formula: DLCO (corrected = DLCO (measured) x [1.0 + 0.0035 (PAO2 - 120)].

  17. Time series analysis of Carbon Monoxide from MOPITT over the Asian Continent from 2000-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Roy, P.

    2005-12-01

    The human population continues to grow and large parts of the world industrialize rapidly, causing changes in the global atmospheric chemistry. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas in the troposphere when highly concentrated, and is produced by fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and through natural emissions from plants. It is also an important trace gas in the atmosphere and plays a major role in the atmospheric chemistry. We present a study of CO from the measurement of MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere-Level 3 gridded data) instrument on NASA Terra satellite over India and Eastern Asia for the period of 2000-2004. Day- and night-time total column CO measurements are considered over the selected regions in India, China, Thailand and Japan. The selected regions comprise of industrial cities in the Asian continent which form the source of high CO in the atmosphere. The time series data do not show an overall increasing or decreasing trend, but CO is affected by seasonal variations, wind, and precipitation patterns. East Asian regions have higher and wider seasonal fluctuations than the Indian region. CO total column values over the Bay of Bengal are also high and can be explained through wind patterns from the land towards the ocean. Although the sources of CO are mostly confined to the land, it is transported globally through the atmosphere, and has high concentrations over the ocean.

  18. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values – also on a year-to-year basis – as well as seasonal variations. Several locations show large biases that are attributed to local effects like orography and proximity of large emission sources. Differences were detected for individual years: 2003, 2004 and 2006 have larger biases than 2005, 2007 and 2008, which appear to be related to SCIAMACHY instrumental issues but require more research. Results from this study are consistent with, and complementary to, findings from a previous validation study using ground-based measurements (de Laat et al., 2010b. According to this study, the SCIAMACHY data, if individual measurements are of sufficient quality – good signal-to-noise, can be used to determine the spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of CO total columns over clean areas. Biases found over areas with strong emissions (Africa, China could be explained by low sensitivity of the instrument in the boundary layer and users are recommended to avoid using the SCIAMACHY data while trying to quantify CO burden and/or retrieve CO emissions in such areas.

  19. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: relation to cigarette smoking and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Anna-Maja; Sojka, Birgitta Nilsson; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umeå, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 micromol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 micromol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 micromol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.

  20. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Pt single crystal electrodes: understanding the catalysis for low temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gonzalo; Koper, Marc T M

    2011-08-01

    Herein the general concepts of fuel cells are discussed, with special attention to low temperature fuel cells working in alkaline media. Alkaline low temperature fuel cells could well be one of the energy sources in the next future. This technology has the potential to provide power to portable devices, transportation and stationary sectors. With the aim to solve the principal catalytic problems at the anode of low temperature fuel cells, a fundamental study of the mechanism and kinetics of carbon monoxide as well as water dissociation on stepped platinum surfaces in alkaline medium is discussed and compared with those in acidic media. Furthermore, cations involved as promoters for catalytic surface reactions are also considered. Therefore, the aim of the present work is not only to provide the new fundamental advances in the electrocatalysis field, but also to understand the reactions occurring at fuel cell catalysts, which may help to improve the fabrication of novel electrodes in order to enhance the performance and to decrease the cost of low temperature fuel cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Emission and Concentration Models for Chiang Mai Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An emission inventory containing emissions from traffic and other sources was complied. Based on the analysis, Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions from traffic play a very important role in CO levels in Chiang Mai area. Analysis showed that CO emissions from traffic during rush hours contributed approximately 90% of total CO emissions. Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was applied to simulate wind fields and temperatures in the Chiang Mai area, and eight cases were selected to study annual variations in wind fields and temperatures. Model results can reflect major features of wind fields and diurnal variations in temperatures. For evaluating the model performance, model results were compared with observed wind speed, wind direction and temperature, which were monitored at a meteorological tower. Comparison showed that model results are in good agreement with observations, and the model captured many of the observed features. HYbrid Particle And Concentration Transport model (HYPACT) was used to simulate CO concentration in the Chiang Mai area. Model results generally agree well with observed CO concentrations at the air quality monitoring stations, and can explain observed CO diurnal variations.

  2. Urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide levels among bar and restaurant employees in ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caman, Ozge Karadag; Erguder, Berrin I; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi

    2013-08-01

    Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.

  3. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Donato Michele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2 concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation, 40 (normoventilation, and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation. As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation was 11.5 (0.8 ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8 ppm during hyperventilation (p 2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase. Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice

  4. Selection criteria utilized for hyperbaric oxygen treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, N B; Dunford, R G; Kramer, C C; Norkool, D M

    1995-01-01

    Medical directors of North American hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) facilities were surveyed to assess selection criteria applied for treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning within the hyperbaric medicine community. Responses were received from 85% of the 208 facilities in the United States and Canada. Among responders, 89 monoplace and 58 multiplace chamber facilities treat acute CO poisoning, managing a total of 2,636 patients in 1992. A significant majority of facilities treat CO-exposed patients with coma (98%), transient loss of consciousness (LOC) (77%), ischemic changes on electrocardiogram (91%), focal neurologic deficits (94%), or abnormal psychometric testing (91%), regardless of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level. Although 92% would use HBO for a patient presenting with headache, nausea, and COHb 40%, only 62% of facilities utilize a specified minimum COHb level as the sole criterion for HBO therapy of an asymptomatic patient. When COHb is used as an independent criterion to determine HBO treatment, the level utilized varies widely between institutions. Half of responding facilities place limits on the delay to treatment for patients with only transient LOC. Time limits are applied less often in cases with persistent neurologic deficits. While variability exists, majority opinions can be derived for many patient selection criteria regarding the use of HBO in acute CO poisoning.

  5. Requests for emergency hyperbaric oxygen treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgök-Kangal, Münïre Kübra; Karatop-Cesur, Iclal; Akcali, Gökhan; Yildiz, Senol; Uzun, Günalp

    2016-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in Turkey. Our department is the main provider of emergency hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in Ankara and neighboring cities. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CO-poisoned patients who were referred by phone to our department for emergency HBOT. We retrospectively reviewed the records of phone consultations with emergency departments regarding the need for treatment of CO-poisoned patients with HBOT between 14 January 2014 and 14 January 2015. The following information was extracted from medical records: age, gender, CO source, exposure duration, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level, symptoms, electrocardiography (ECG) findings, cardiac enzymes, pregnancy, the distance of referring hospital to our centre, time between admission and consultation and HBOT decision. Over the one-year period, 562 patients with CO poisoning were referred for HBOT. We recommended HBOT for 289 (51%) patients. HBOT was recommended for 58% (n = 194) of the patients with COHb ≥ 25%, 72% (n = 163) of the patients with a history of syncope, 67% (n = 35) of the patients with ECG abnormality, and 67% (n = 14) of pregnant patients. Patients for whom HBOT was not recommended despite having positive signs of severe poisoning were referred significantly later compared to patients for whom HBOT was recommended. We found that the duration from admission to an emergency department to HBOT consultation affected our decision-making.

  6. Successful Treatment of Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Refractory Shock Using Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerapuncharoen, Krittika; Sharma, Nirmal S; Barker, Andrew B; Wille, Keith M; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most common cause of poisoning and poisoning-related death in the United States. It is a tasteless and odorless poisonous gas produced from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, such as those produced by cars and heating systems. CO rapidly binds to hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, leading to tissue hypoxia, multiple-organ failure, and cardiovascular collapse. CO also binds to myocardial myoglobin, preventing oxidative phosphorylation in cardiac mitochondria and resulting in cardiac ischemia or stunning and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Treatment of CO poisoning is mainly supportive, and supplemental oxygen remains the cornerstone of therapy, whereas hyperbaric oxygen therapy is considered for patients with evidence of neurological and myocardial injury. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been utilized effectively in patients with respiratory failure and hemodynamic instability, but its use has rarely been reported in patients with CO poisoning. We report the successful use of venoarterial ECMO in a patient with severe CO poisoning and multiple-organ failure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Storm-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: An Investigation of Target Audience Knowledge and Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Scott A; Poehlman, Jon A; Rupert, Douglas J; Williams, Peyton N

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the United States consistently occur when residents improperly use portable gasoline-powered generators and other tools following severe storms and power outages. However, protective behaviors-such as installing CO alarms and placing generators more than 20 feet away from indoor structures-can prevent these poisonings. This study identified knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviors for storm-related CO poisoning and post-storm generator use. Four focus groups (32 participants in total) were conducted with generator owners in winter and summer storm-prone areas to explore home safety, portable generator use, CO poisoning knowledge, and generator safety messages. Discussions were transcribed, and findings analyzed using an ordered meta-matrix approach. Although most generator owners were aware of CO poisoning, many were unsure what constitutes a safe location for generator operation and incorrectly stated that enclosed areas outside the home-such as attached garages, sheds, and covered porches-were safe. Convenience and access to appliances often dictated generator placement. Participants were receptive to installing CO alarms in their homes but were unsure where to place them. These findings suggest a deficit in understanding how to operate portable generators safely and a need to correct misconceptions around safe placement. In terms of behavioral price, the simple installation and maintenance of inexpensive CO alarms may be the most important strategy for ultimately protecting homes from both storm-related and other CO exposures.

  8. Cysteine 295 indirectly affects Ni coordination of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase-II C-cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Takao, Kyosuke; Yoshida, Takashi; Wada, Kei; Daifuku, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuko; Fukuyama, Keiichi; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CODH-II harbors a unique [Ni-Fe-S] cluster. •We substituted the ligand residues of Cys 295 and His 261 . •Dramatic decreases in Ni content upon substitutions were observed. •All substitutions did not affect Fe-S clusters assembly. •CO oxidation activity was decreased by the substitutions. -- Abstract: A unique [Ni–Fe–S] cluster (C-cluster) constitutes the active center of Ni-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs). His 261 , which coordinates one of the Fe atoms with Cys 295 , is suggested to be the only residue required for Ni coordination in the C-cluster. To evaluate the role of Cys 295 , we constructed CODH-II variants. Ala substitution for the Cys 295 substitution resulted in the decrease of Ni content and didn’t result in major change of Fe content. In addition, the substitution had no effect on the ability to assemble a full complement of [Fe–S] clusters. This strongly suggests Cys 295 indirectly and His 261 together affect Ni-coordination in the C-cluster

  9. Brief exposure to carbon monoxide preconditions cardiomyogenic cells against apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo-Nakamura, Mihoko; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether and how pretreatment with carbon monoxide (CO) prevents apoptosis of cardioblastic H9c2 cells in ischemia-reperfusion. Reperfusion (6 h) following brief ischemia (10 min) induced cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and apoptotic nuclear condensation. Brief CO pretreatment (10 min) or a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) attenuated these apoptotic changes. Ischemia-reperfusion increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser472/473/474, and this was enhanced by CO pretreatment. A specific Akt inhibitor (API-2) blunted the anti-apoptotic effects of CO in reperfusion. In normoxic cells, CO enhanced O 2 - generation, which was inhibited by a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A) but not by a NADH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin). The CO-enhanced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed by an O 2 - scavenger (Tiron), catalase or a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor (DETC). These results suggest that CO pretreatment induces mitochondrial generation of O 2 - , which is then converted by SOD to H 2 O 2 , and subsequent Akt activation by H 2 O 2 attenuates apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion.

  10. Brief exposure to carbon monoxide preconditions cardiomyogenic cells against apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo-Nakamura, Mihoko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shintani-Ishida, Kaori, E-mail: kaori@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    We examined whether and how pretreatment with carbon monoxide (CO) prevents apoptosis of cardioblastic H9c2 cells in ischemia-reperfusion. Reperfusion (6 h) following brief ischemia (10 min) induced cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and apoptotic nuclear condensation. Brief CO pretreatment (10 min) or a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) attenuated these apoptotic changes. Ischemia-reperfusion increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser472/473/474, and this was enhanced by CO pretreatment. A specific Akt inhibitor (API-2) blunted the anti-apoptotic effects of CO in reperfusion. In normoxic cells, CO enhanced O{sub 2}{sup -} generation, which was inhibited by a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A) but not by a NADH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin). The CO-enhanced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed by an O{sub 2}{sup -} scavenger (Tiron), catalase or a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor (DETC). These results suggest that CO pretreatment induces mitochondrial generation of O{sub 2}{sup -}, which is then converted by SOD to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and subsequent Akt activation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} attenuates apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion.

  11. Molecular orbital study of the chemisorption of carbon monoxide on a tungsten (100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Rabalais, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption energies of carbon monoxide chemisorbed at various sites on a tungsten (100) surface have been calculated by extended Hueckel molecular orbital theory (EHMO). The concept of a 'surface molecule' in which CO is bonded to an array of tungsten atoms Wsub(n) has been employed. Dissociative adsorption in which C occupies a four-fold, five-coordination site and O occupies either a four- or two-fold site has been found to be the most stable form for CO on a W surface. Stable one-fold and two-fold sites of molecularly adsorbed CO have also been found in which the CO group is normal to the surface plane and the C atom is nearest the surface. Adsorption energies and molecular orbitals for the stable molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed CO sites are compared with the experimental data on various types of adsorbed CO, i.e. virgin-, α-, and β-CO. Models are suggested for each of these adsorption types. The strongest bonding interactions occur between the CO 5sigma orbital and the totally symmetric 5d and 6s orbitals of the Wsub(n) cluster. Possible mechanisms for conversion of molecularly adsorbed CO to dissociatively adsorbed CO are proposed and the corresponding activation energies are estimated. (Auth.)

  12. Carbon Monoxide Photoproduction from Particles and Solutes in the Delaware Estuary under Contrasting Hydrological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guisheng; Richardson, John D; Werner, James P; Xie, Huixiang; Kieber, David J

    2015-12-15

    Full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV), and visible broadband apparent quantum yields (AQYs) for carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in the Delaware Estuary in two hydrologically contrasting seasons in 2012: an unusually low flow in August and a storm-driven high flow in November. Average AQYs for CDOM and POM in November were 10 and 16 times the corresponding AQYs in August. Maximum AQYs in November occurred in a midestuary particle absorption maximum zone. Although POM AQYs were generally smaller than CDOM AQYs, the ratio of the former to the latter increased substantially from the UV to the visible. In both seasons, UV solar radiation was the primary driver for CO photoproduction from CDOM whereas visible light was the principal contributor to POM-based CO photoproduction. CDOM dominated CO photoproduction in the uppermost water layer while POM prevailed at deeper depths. On a depth-integrated basis, the Delaware Estuary shifted from a CDOM-dominated system in August to a POM-dominated system in November with respect to CO photoproduction. This study reveals that flood events may enhance photochemical cycling of terrigenous organic matter and switch the primary photochemical driver from CDOM to POM.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning and death in a large enclosed ventilated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Butch; Froloff, Victor; Mills, Kelly; McGee, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A 55-year-old man with a medical history of tobacco use suddenly collapsed while power washing an empty indoor pool in a hotel. The decedent was transported to the local hospital where he was pronounced. A postmortem examination revealed atherosclerotic heart disease and bilateral pulmonary edema and congestion. A postmortem blood carbon monoxide (CO) level was 27% saturation, and a CO performed on hospital admission blood was 49% saturation. CO poisoning is a common cause of toxicological morbidity and mortality in the United States. The circumstances most often occur in an enclosed environment and may be intentional or unintentional. CO poisoning has been reported in open, well-ventilated spaces, but rarely results in death. A warning label was present on the engine clearly stating the dangers of CO emission. However, there was a false sense of security due to the large size of the pool room and the presence of industrial blowers that were being used for ventilation. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Otoneurological symptoms in Brazilian fishermen exposed over a long period to carbon monoxide and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Santos da Carvalho, Hugo Amilton; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Albizu, Evelyn Joice; Marques, Jair Mendes; Fuck, Bruna Carla; Cardoso, Rafaella

    2015-01-01

    Fishing, one of the oldest productive activities, is an important sector of the Brazilian economy as well as the world economy. To evaluate the vestibular behavior in population of fishermen. It was realized as a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Thirty fishermen [mean age 49.5 (± 8.5) years] whose age ranged from 33 years to 67 years were submitted to anamnesis, otorhinolaryngological evaluation, and vestibular examination through the electronystagmography (ENG). The most evident otoneurological symptoms were: Tinnitus (66.7%), dizziness (63.3%), and hearing loss (53.3%). The most evident clinical symptoms were: Fatigue (36.7%), anxiety (23.3%), and depression (16.7%). There were alterations in the vestibular examination of 13 (43.3%) fishermen in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alteration in the peripheral vestibular system and there was a major frequency of the peripheral vestibular irritative syndrome (30.0%). The otoneurological complaints were frequent in the population studied that verifies the importance of allowing labyrinth examinations and the need for adopting preventive measures related to noise exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), since they can cause and/enhance various manifestations of labyrinthine vestibular impairment that can affect the quality of life of these workers.

  15. Otoneurological symptoms in Brazilian fishermen exposed over a long period to carbon monoxide and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Simone Zeigelboim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing, one of the oldest productive activities, is an important sector of the Brazilian economy as well as the world economy. To evaluate the vestibular behavior in population of fishermen. It was realized as a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Thirty fishermen [mean age 49.5 (±8.5 years] whose age ranged from 33 years to 67 years were submitted to anamnesis, otorhinolaryngological evaluation, and vestibular examination through the electronystagmography (ENG. The most evident otoneurological symptoms were: Tinnitus (66.7%, dizziness (63.3%, and hearing loss (53.3%. The most evident clinical symptoms were: Fatigue (36.7%, anxiety (23.3%, and depression (16.7%. There were alterations in the vestibular examination of 13 (43.3% fishermen in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alteration in the peripheral vestibular system and there was a major frequency of the peripheral vestibular irritative syndrome (30.0%. Conclusion: The otoneurological complaints were frequent in the population studied that verifies the importance of allowing labyrinth examinations and the need for adopting preventive measures related to noise exposure to carbon monoxide (CO, since they can cause and/enhance various manifestations of labyrinthine vestibular impairment that can affect the quality of life of these workers.

  16. Nonfatal, unintentional, non--fire-related carbon monoxide exposures--United States, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating gas that is produced through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Sources of CO include combustion devices (e.g., boilers and furnaces), motor-vehicle exhaust, generators and other gasoline or diesel-powered engines, gas space heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and various occupational sources. CO poisoning is a leading cause of unintentional poisoning deaths in the United States; it was responsible for approximately 450 deaths each year during 1999-2004 and an estimated 15,200 emergency department (ED) visits each year during 2001-2003. Health effects of CO exposure can range from viral-like symptoms (e.g., fatigue, dizziness, headache, confusion, and nausea) to more severe conditions (e.g., disorientation, unconsciousness, long-term neurologic disabilities, coma, cardiorespiratory failure, and death). CO poisoning often is misdiagnosed and underdetected because of the nonspecific nature of symptoms. To update a previously published report and provide national estimates of CO-related ED visits during 2004-2006, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database. During 2004-2006, an estimated average of 20,636 ED visits for nonfatal, unintentional, non-fire-related CO exposures occurred each year. Approximately 73% of these exposures occurred in homes, and 41% occurred during winter months (December-February). Prevention efforts targeting residential and seasonal CO exposures can substantially reduce CO-related morbidity.

  17. Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisonings in Adana, Turkey: A 14-year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Darçın

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carbon monoxide (CO is often referred to as the “silent killer” because its victims cannot see it, smell it or taste it. CO is responsible for a large percentage of the accidental poisonings and deaths reported throughout the world. CO poisoning therefore is considered a serious global health threat. The aim of the present study was to describe the cases of CO poisoning in a rural areas of Adana, Turkey between 2002 and 2015 based on data collected from incident reports. Methods: The cases of accidental CO poisoning were statistically analyzed. During that period, 74 incidents occurred and 154 people were poisoned by accidental CO poisoning. Results: The results of this analysis indicate that men and adults aged ≥65 years were more likely to die from CO poisoning than others. The number of CO poisoning cases was highest during the heating season. The majority (72% of poisoning resulting in hospitalization with a life-threatening condition or death occurred within the home. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious danger. People must be informed about this hazard. By educating risk groups about the dangers of CO poisoning, it is possible to save many lives as well as reduce the health risks.

  18. Progress in the reduction of carbon monoxide levels in major urban areas in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sul, Kyung-Hwa; Szulejko, Jan E.; Chambers, Scott D.; Feng, Xinbin; Lee, Min-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Long-term trends in observed carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were analyzed in seven major South Korean cities from 1989 to 2013. Temporal trends were evident on seasonal and annual timescales, as were spatial gradients between the cities. As CO levels in the most polluted cities decreased significantly until the early 2000s, the data were arbitrarily divided into two time periods (I: 1989–2000 and II: 2001–2013) for analysis. The mean CO concentration of period II was about 50% lower than that of period I. Long-term trends of annual mean CO concentrations, examined using the Mann–Kendall (MK) method, confirm a consistent reduction in CO levels from 1989 to 2000 (period I). The abrupt reduction in CO levels was attributed to a combination of technological improvements and government administrative/regulatory initiatives (e.g., emission mitigation strategies and a gradual shift in the fuel/energy consumption mix away from coal and oil to natural gas and nuclear power). - Highlights: • As one of the criteria pollutants, CO has been extensively studied worldwide. • The concentration of CO in ambient air should be reduced to a more manageable level. • The spatiotemporal characteristics of CO in Korea are analyzed for 1989–2013. • Our efforts will help develop systematic strategies to reduce CO emissions. - The efficacy of CO mitigation strategies adopted throughout Korea is highlighted along with the limitations faced to improving air quality due to cross-boundary pollution transport.

  19. Composition and color stability of carbon monoxide treated dried porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, P R; Gomide, L A M; Fontes, E A F; Ramos, E M; Ramos, A L S

    2010-07-01

    Color stability of swine blood was studied over 12 weeks of storage in plastic bags, after pH (7.40, 6.70, or 6.00) adjustment, saturation with carbon monoxide (CO) and spray-drying. CO-treated dried blood presented a redder color and higher reflectance between 610 and 700 nm, compared to a brownish-red color and lower reflectance of untreated samples. As indicated by reflectance spectra, blood pH adjustment did not influence (P>0.05) the initial color of dried blood but influenced (Pvalues, which was more pronounced in polyethylene (OTR=4130 cm(3)/m(2)/day/atm) packaged samples. After 12 weeks of storage, CO-treated samples packaged in high OTR bags presented color indexes similar to those of the untreated dried samples. CO-treated samples packaged in nylon-polyethylene (OTR=30-60 cm(3)/m(2)/day/atm) bags showed a smaller rate of discoloration and color difference (DeltaE(*)) between the CO-treated and untreated samples. Even with some darkening, packaging CO-treated dry blood in low OTR bags still gives an acceptable reddish color after 12 weeks of storage while untreated dry blood has a brownish color just after drying. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon monoxide mediates heme oxygenase 1 induction via Nrf2 activation in hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bok-Soo; Heo, JungHee; Kim, Yong-Man; Shim, Sang Moo; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Kim, Young-Myeong; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) are two gas molecules which have cytoprotective functions against oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in many cell types. Currently, it is known that NO produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) induces heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) expression and CO produced by the HO1 inhibits inducible NOS expression. Here, we first show CO-mediated HO1 induction and its possible mechanism in human hepatocytes. Exposure of HepG2 cells or primary hepatocytes to CO resulted in dramatic induction of HO1 in dose- and time-dependent manner. The CO-mediated HO1 induction was abolished by MAP kinase inhibitors (MAPKs) but not affected by inhibitors of PI3 kinase or NF-κB. In addition, CO induced the nuclear translocation and accumulation of Nrf2, which suppressed by MAPKs inhibitors. Taken together, we suggest that CO induces Nrf2 activation via MAPKs signaling pathways, thereby resulting in HO1 expression in HepG2 cells

  1. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernigan, Glenn Geoffrey [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu2O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu2O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu2O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N2 and CO2. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu2O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  2. Simulation and optimization of stable isotope 13C separation by carbon monoxide cryogenic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hulin; Ju Yonglin; Li Liangjun; Xu Dagang

    2009-01-01

    A stable isotope 13 C separation column was set up by carbon monoxide (CO) cryogenic distillation. Diameter of the column is 45 mm, packing height is 17.5 m, of which enriching section is 15 m and stripping section is 2.5 m. Firstly, computer simulation results were validated by test results. Secondly, tests were replaced by computer simulations in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions in the experimental setup. Comprehensive factors of column pressure, feeding velocity, reflux ratio, withdrawing velocity, and boiling power impacts on the products were studied. Then optimization design of the experimental device was achieved through computer simulations combined with uniform experimental design. The final results show that the optimal operation conditions in the built column are as followings: boiling power, 250 W; column pressure, 54 kPa; reflux ratio, 84. The conclusion is that the method of combination of computer simulation and experimental design could be applied to 13 C industrial design and could be popularized in traditional distillation process to realize optimization design. (authors)

  3. The clinical and imaging characteristics of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chuming; Yin Zhao; Fang Yannan; Hong Weimin; Zeng Xianjie; Wang Tianwen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods: The clinical data of 14 patients with DEACMP were respectively analyzed. Results: Initial symptom included mentally falling (MMSE rate < 20 points) in 14 patients (100%), incontinence of urine in 11 patients (78%). Relatively significant increase of hematoma (HCT) (average level 0.503±0.027) was found in 6 patients. Three kinds of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance including diffuse white matter lesion, cortical lesion and basal nuclei lesion often existed in association. Therapy for improving circulation was given in 14 patients, and therapy with hormone was given in 9 patients; with 85% improvement rate. 5 patients without hormone therapy but with improving circulation therapy also received improvement. Conclusion: High level of HCT might be one of the causes of DECACMP due to acute disturbance of brain micro-circulation.. Close monitoring the change of HCT levels should be adopted for at least 3-6 months during therapy. Therapy for improving circulation and for anti-agglutination of platelets should be performed besides the routine high-tension oxygen therapy. Low FA value on DTI indicates the occurrence of a demyelization change in the brain long tract fibers, which indicated therapeutic effect of hormone treatment. And, therefore it would be better to perform DTI scan before therapy for individualized therapy. (authors)

  4. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning do not correlate with the initial carboxyhemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Dunn, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    Symptoms in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoned patients have traditionally been described as being related to corresponding carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels without substantive support for the relationship. This study sought to determine whether prospectively collected symptoms correlate with specific COHB level ranges in a large population of CO-poisoned patients. Data from patients reported in the initial two years of operation of the joint UHMS/CDC CO Poisoning Surveillance System were used to compare presenting COHb levels with symptoms collected with a standardized questionnaire. Data from 1,323 CO-poisoned patients referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy from August 2008 to July 2010 were analyzed with regard to initial COHb level and symptoms. Of approximately 50 categories of symptoms reported, none was associated with a specific range of COHb levels. While symptoms are common in acute CO poisoning, none can be directly correlated to COHb levels, even in a population of more than 1,000 patients. The concept of a table relating specific symptoms to specific COHb levels is invalid. One such table that has often been published comes from a 1923 U.S. government publication and appears to be based at least in part upon the symptoms experienced by three men in a total of 10 low-level laboratory CO exposures.

  5. Relation of whole blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration to ambient carbon monoxide exposure estimated using regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Carole B; Williams, Michelle A; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q; Schiff, Melissa A; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Dills, Russell

    2010-04-15

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and other ambient air pollutants is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While there are several methods of estimating CO exposure, few have been evaluated against exposure biomarkers. The authors examined the relation between estimated CO exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 708 pregnant western Washington State women (1996-2004). Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in whole blood drawn around 13 weeks' gestation. CO exposure during the month of blood draw was estimated using a regression model containing predictor terms for year, month, street and population densities, and distance to the nearest major road. Year and month were the strongest predictors. Carboxyhemoglobin level was correlated with estimated CO exposure (rho = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.29). After adjustment for covariates, each 10% increase in estimated exposure was associated with a 1.12% increase in median carboxyhemoglobin level (95% CI: 0.54, 1.69). This association remained after exclusion of 286 women who reported smoking or being exposed to secondhand smoke (rho = 0.24). In this subgroup, the median carboxyhemoglobin concentration increased 1.29% (95% CI: 0.67, 1.91) for each 10% increase in CO exposure. Monthly estimated CO exposure was moderately correlated with an exposure biomarker. These results support the validity of this regression model for estimating ambient CO exposures in this population and geographic setting.

  6. Initial blood lactate correlates with carboxyhemoglobin and clinical severity in carbon monoxide poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Comelli, Ivan; Rastelli, Gianni; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of blood lactate levels at admission in carbon monoxide (CO)-poisoned patients for establishing severity of poisoning and short term prognosis. All cases of CO poisoning visited in the emergency department during the years 2012 and 2013 were retrieved from the hospital database. The concentration of COHb and lactate was assessed in arterial blood in all patients with suspected CO poisoning, along with the plasma concentration of troponin I (TnI). The control population for TnI results consisted in 125 blood donors. Twenty three (61%) out of 38 CO-poisoned patients underwent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment, and 10 (26%) were admitted to a hospital ward. A significant correlation was found between lactate and COHb (r=0.54; p99th percentile compared to 2% controls (p=0.003). The odds ratio for detectable TnI and TnI >99th percentile in CO-poisoned patients were 13.1 (p<0.001) and 7.6 (p=0.006), respectively. Initial blood lactate level may be useful for risk stratification of CO-poisoned patients, especially for predicting hospitalization. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of chronic carbon monoxide exposure on fetal growth and development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venditti Carolina C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO is produced endogenously, and can also be acquired from many exogenous sources: ie. cigarette smoking, automobile exhaust. Although toxic at high levels, low level production or exposure lends to normal physiologic functions: smooth muscle cell relaxation, control of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, anti- inflammatory and anti-apoptotic events. In pregnancy, it is unclear at what level maternal CO exposure becomes toxic to the fetus. In this study, we hypothesized that CO would be embryotoxic, and we sought to determine at what level of chronic CO exposure in pregnancy embryo/fetotoxic effects are observed. Methods Pregnant CD1 mice were exposed to continuous levels of CO (0 to 400 ppm from conception to gestation day 17. The effect on fetal/placental growth and development, and fetal/maternal CO concentrations were determined. Results Maternal and fetal CO blood concentrations ranged from 1.12- 15.6 percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb and 1.0- 28.6%COHb, respectively. No significant difference was observed in placental histological morphology or in placental mass with any CO exposure. At 400 ppm CO vs. control, decreased litter size and fetal mass (p Conclusions Exposure to levels at or below 300 ppm CO throughout pregnancy has little demonstrable effect on fetal growth and development in the mouse.

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide breathing on hypoxia and radiation response in the SCCVII tumor in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, C.; Marianne, M.D.; Nordsmark, M.; Khalil, A.A.; Horsman, M.R.; Overgaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the influence of a clinically relevant concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) on tumor oxygenation and responses to irradiation. The murine tumor model was the SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma transplanted to the feet of C3H/Km mice. Sixty minutes of breathing CO at 200 ppm resulted in a carboxyhemoglobin level of 15%. This resulted in a reduction in p50 (the oxygen partial pressure at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) to 78% of the control value, and a decrease in tumor blood perfusion to 73% of the control value. The combined effect of a decrease in effective hemoglobin and blood perfusion resulted in a reduction in tumor oxygen supply to 62% of the control value. In agreement with this, intratumoral pO 2 measurements showed a significant increase in tumor hypoxia, such that the percentage of measurements with low pO 2 (≤ 5 mmHg) increased from 33% to 62%. The fraction of clonogenic hypoxic cells, measured radiobiologically by paired cell survival curves, similarly increased from 0.2% to 3.8%. Radiation sensitivity, evaluated from in vivo-in vitro excision assay, was significantly decreased by CO in 1, 4, 8, and 12 fractions were 0.71, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.71, respectively. The present SCCVII tumor data confirm the general experimental observation that CO breathing significantly increases tumor hypoxia and reduces the effectiveness of ionizing irradiation. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Personal carbon monoxide exposures of preschool children in Helsinki, Finland - comparison to ambient air concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Mukala, K.; Tittanen, P.; Jantunen, M.J. [KTL National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2001-07-01

    The associations of personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposures with ambient air CO concentrations measured at fixed monitoring sites, were studied among 194 children aged 3-6yr in four downtown and four suburban day-care centers in Helsinki, Finland. Each child carried a personal CO exposure monitor between 1 and 4 times for a time period of between 20 and 24h. CO concentrations at two fixed monitoring sites were measured simultaneously. The CO concentrations measured at the fixed monitoring sites were usually lower (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 0.9 and 2.6mgm{sup -3}) than the personal CO exposure concentrations (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 3.3mgm{sup -3}).The fixed site CO concentrations were poor predictors of the personal CO exposure concentrations. However, the correlations between the personal CO exposure and the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations increased (-0.03 -- -0.12 to 0.13-0.16) with increasing averaging times from 1 to 8h. Also, the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations explained the mean daily or weekly personal CO exposures of a group of simultaneously measured children better than individual exposure CO concentrations. This study suggests that the short-term CO personal exposure of children cannot be meaningfully assessed using fixed monitoring sites. (author)

  10. Process integration for biological sulfate reduction in a carbon monoxide fed packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Sinharoy, Arindam; Pakshirajan, Kannan

    2018-05-09

    This study examined immobilized anaerobic biomass for sulfate reduction using carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole carbon source under batch and continuous fed conditions. The immobilized bacteria with beads made of 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showed best results in terms of sulfate reduction (84 ± 3.52%) and CO utilization (98 ± 1.67%). The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT), sulfate loading rate and CO loading rate on sulfate and CO removal was investigated employing a 1L packed bed bioreactor containing the immobilized biomass. At 48, 24 and 12 h HRT, the sulfate removal was 94.42 ± 0.15%, 89.75 ± 0.47% and 61.08 ± 0.34%, respectively, along with a CO utilization of more than 90%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results obtained showed that only the initial CO concentration significantly affected the sulfate reduction process. The reactor effluent sulfate concentrations were 27.41 ± 0.44, 59.16 ± 1.08, 315.83 ± 7.33 mg/L for 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L of influent sulfate concentrations respectively, under the optimum operating conditions. The sulfate reduction rates matched well with low inlet sulfate loading rates, indicating stable performance of the bioreactor system. Overall, this study yielded very high sulfate reduction efficiency by the immobilized anaerobic biomass under high CO loading condition using the packed bed reactor system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cobalt doped CuMnOx catalysts for the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhashish; Dhal, Ganesh Chandra; Mohan, Devendra; Prasad, Ram; Gupta, Rajeev Nayan

    2018-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas, recognized as a silent killer for the 21st century. It is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon containing compounds. The catalytic oxidation of CO receives a huge attention due to its applications in different fields. In the present work, hopcalite (CuMnOx) catalysts were synthesized using a co-precipitation method for CO oxidation purposes. Also, it was doped with the cobalt by varying concentration from 1 to 5wt%. It was observed that the addition of cobalt into the CuMnOx catalyst (by the deposition-precipitation method) improved the catalytic performance for the low-temperature CO oxidation. CuMnOx catalyst doped with 3wt% of cobalt exhibited most active performance and showed the highest activity than other cobalt concentrations. Different analytical tools (i.e. XRD, FTIR, BET, XPS and SEM-EDX) were used to characterize the as-synthesized catalysts. It was expected that the introduction of cobalt will introduce new active sites into the CuMnOx catalyst that are associated with the cobalt nano-particles. The order of calcination strategies based on the activity for cobalt doped CuMnOx catalysts was observed as: Reactive calcinations (RC) > flowing air > stagnant air. Therefore, RC (4.5% CO in air) route can be recommended for the synthesis of highly active catalysts. The catalytic activity of doped CuMnOx catalysts toward CO oxidation shows a correlation among average oxidation number of Mn and the position and the nature of the doped cobalt cation.

  12. Kinetics of carbon monoxide oxidation over modified supported CuO catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loc, Luu Cam; Tri, Nguyen; Cuong, Hoang Tien; Thoang, Ho Si [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    The following supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts: 10(wt.)%CuO (CuAl), 10%CuO+10%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CuCrAl) and 10%CuO+20%CeO{sub 2} (CuCeAl) were under the investigation. Physico-chemical characteristics of the catalysts were determined by the methods of BET, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR). A strong interaction of copper with support in CuAl resulted in the formation of low active copper aluminates. The bi-oxide CuCrAl was more active than CuAl owing to the formation of high catalytically active spinel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The fact of very high activity of the sample CuCeAl can be explained by the presence of the catalytically active form of CuO-CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The kinetics of CO total oxidation was studied in a gradientless flow-circulating system at the temperature range between 200 C and 270 C. The values of initial partial pressures of carbon monoxide (P{sup o}{sub CO}), oxygen (P{sup o}{sub O2}), and specially added carbon dioxide (P{sup o}{sub CO{sub 2}}) were varied in ranges (hPa): 10 / 45; 33 / 100, and 0 / 30, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Study of the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur by carbon monoxide on a La/sub 0/ /sub 5/ Sr/sub 0/ /sub 5/ CoO/sub 3/ catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, D B; Tseung, A C.C.

    1979-12-01

    A study of the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur by carbon monoxide on a La/sub 0/ /sub 5/ Sr/sub 0/ /sub 5/ CoO/sub 3/ catalyst a perovskite oxide, to determine the effects of oxygen and water on SO2 reduction showed that in the presence of 5 to 16% oxygen, the reaction between sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide still occurred if there was sufficient carbon monoxide in the gas to react with all the oxygen. At 600C, all the sulfur dioxide was removed at 5 to 16% oxygen levels. Water vapor at 2% did not adversely affect the reaction. The unwanted by-products, hydrogen disulfide and carbonyl sulfide, were reduced at contact times below 0.25 sec. During the reaction, the catalyst itself reacted with sulfur to give metal sulfides. When reagent grade CO/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was substituted for perovskite oxide, the maximum conversion of 98% of sulfur dioxide was attained at 550C, but an unacceptably high concentration of carbonyl sulfide was formed; within 1 hr, the sulfur dioxide conversion fell to 60%. The perovskite oxide reaction may be useful in removing sulfur dioxide from fosill fuel stack gases.

  14. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  15. Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to take inventory of critical greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane and quantify their sources and sinks is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. "Top down" inversion measurements and models are used to quantify net carbon fluxes into the atmosphere. The overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to "bottoms-up" predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. At smaller distance scales, such as that of a city or even smaller, the basic framework underpinning the inversion modeling technique begins to break down: atmospheric transport models, which are well understood at a length scale of 100 km, work poorly or not at all at a 100m distance scale. Furthermore, the variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, residences) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, residential energy usage variability during the day and over the year) complicate the interpretation of the measured signals. In this paper we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal-resolution greenhouse gas measurements in Silicon Valley, CA. The results of two experimental campaigns are presented: a 10m urban 'tower' and ground-based mobile mapping measurements. In both campaigns, real-time carbon dioxide data are combined with real-time carbon monoxide measurements to partition the observed CO2 concentrations between anthropogenic and biogenic sources . The urban tower measurements are made continuously over a period of many weeks. The mobile maps of the vicinity of the urban tower are taken repeatedly over a period of several days, and at different times of the day and under different atmospheric conditions, to assess the robustness and repeatability of the maps. Initial

  16. Conversion of no-carrier-added [11C]carbon dioxide to [11C]carbon monoxide on molybdenum for the synthesis of 11C-labelled aromatic ketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, S.K.; Nader, M.; Theobald, A.; Oberdorfer, F.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for the efficient conversion of no-carrier-added [ 11 C]carbon dioxide into [ 11 C]carbon monoxide is described. [ 11 C]Carbon dioxide produced by proton bombardment of ultra high purity nitrogen is pre-concentrated in a cryo trap and then passed through a quartz tube filled with a mesh of thin molybdenum wire heated to 850 o C. [ 11 C]Carbon dioxide readily reacts with molybdenum to form [ 11 C]carbon monoxide and molybdenum(IV) oxide. The latter also reduces carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and helps improve the performance of the converter. [ 11 C]Carbon monoxide is purified from remaining [ 11 C]carbon dioxide and collected in a small silica trap from which it is eluted into a reaction mixture for the palladium-mediated synthesis of a 11 C-labelled aromatic ketone. Radiochemical yields of up to 81% (decay-corrected) for [ 11 C]carbon monoxide were obtained. Radiochemical purity and specific radioactivity of both [ 11 C]carbon monoxide and the 11 C-labelled ketone are sufficient for nuclear medical studies with PET. (Author)

  17. Solar production of catalytic filamentous carbon by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V A; Kuvshinov, G G; Mogilnykh, Yu I [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Reller, A [University of Hamburg (Germany); Steinfeld, A; Weidenkaff, A; Meier, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Concentrated solar radiation was used as the clean source of process heat for the production of Catalytic Filamentous Carbon (CFC) by thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons and by CO disproportionation in the presence of small metal catalyst particles. Depending on the catalyst, two different types of CFC, namely nano tubes and nano fibers, were obtained in solar experiments at the PSI solar furnace. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  18. Carbon monoxide apparent quantum yields and photoproduction in the Tyne estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stubbins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO apparent quantum yields (AQYs are reported for a suite of riverine, estuarine and sea water samples, spanning a range of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM sources, diagenetic histories, and concentrations (absorption coefficients. CO AQYs were highest for high CDOM riverine samples and almost an order of magnitude lower for low CDOM coastal seawater samples. CO AQYs were between 47 and 80% lower at the mouth of the estuary than at its head. Whereas, a conservative mixing model predicted only 8 to 14% decreases in CO AQYs between the head and mouth of the estuary, indicating that a highly photoreactive pool of terrestrial CDOM is lost during estuarine transit. The CDOM absorption coefficient (a at 412 nm was identified as a good proxy for CO AQYs (linear regression r2 > 0.8; n = 12 at all CO AQY wavelengths studied (285, 295, 305, 325, 345, 365, and 423 nm and across environments (high CDOM river, low CDOM river, estuary and coastal sea. These regressions are presented as empirical proxies suitable for the remote sensing of CO AQYs in natural waters, including open ocean water, and were used to estimate CO AQY spectra and CO photoproduction in the Tyne estuary based upon annually averaged estuarine CDOM absorption data. A minimum estimate of annual CO production was determined assuming that only light absorbed by CDOM leads to the formation of CO and a maximum limit was estimated assuming that all light entering the water column is absorbed by CO producing photoreactants (i.e. that particles are also photoreactive. In this way, annual CO photoproduction in the Tyne was estimated to be between 0.99 and 3.57 metric tons of carbon per year, or 0.004 to 0.014% of riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC inputs to the estuary. Extrapolation of CO photoproduction rates to estimate total DOC photomineralisation indicate that less than 1% of DOC inputs are removed via photochemical processes during

  19. Minimizing the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide in global model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Olaf; Schultz, Martin G.; Bouarar, Idir; Clark, Hannah; Huijnen, Vincent; Gaudel, Audrey; George, Maya; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2015-04-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion and is also produced from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. It is of interest as an indirect greenhouse gas and an air pollutant causing health effects and is thus subject to emission restrictions. CO acts as a major sink for the OH radical and as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and affects the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere as well as regional air quality. Despite the developments in the global modelling of chemistry and of the parameterization of the physical processes, CO concentrations remain underestimated during NH winter by most state-of-the-art chemical transport models. The resulting model bias can in principle originate from either an underestimation of CO sources or an overestimation of its sinks. We address both the role of sources and sinks with a series of MOZART chemistry transport model sensitivity simulations for the year 2008 and compare our results to observational data from ground-based stations, satellite observations, and from MOZAIC tropospheric profile measurements on passenger aircraft. Our base case simulation using the MACCity emission inventory (Granier et al. 2011) underestimates the near-surface Northern Hemispheric CO mixing ratios by more than 20 ppb from December to April with a maximal bias of 40 ppb in January. The bias is strongest for the European region (up to 75 ppb in January). From our sensitivity studies the mismatch between observed and modelled atmospheric CO concentrations can be explained by a combination of the following emission inventory shortcuts: (i) missing anthropogenic wintertime CO emissions from traffic or other combustion processes, (ii) missing anthropogenic VOC emissions, (iii) an exaggerated downward trend in the RCP8.5 scenario underlying the MACCity inventory, (iv) a lack of knowledge about the seasonality of emissions. Deficiencies in the parameterization of the dry deposition velocities can also lead to

  20. Adlayer structure dependent ultrafast desorption dynamics in carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pd (111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung-Young; Camillone, Nina R.; Camillone, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas@bnl.gov [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Xu, Pan [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); White, Michael G. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    We report our ultrafast photoinduced desorption investigation of the coverage dependence of substrate–adsorbate energy transfer in carbon monoxide adlayers on the (111) surface of palladium. As the CO coverage is increased, the adsorption site population shifts from all threefold hollows (up to 0.33 ML), to bridge and near bridge (>0.5 to 0.6 ML) and finally to mixed threefold hollow plus top site (at saturation at 0.75 ML). We show that between 0.24 and 0.75 ML this progression of binding site motifs is accompanied by two remarkable features in the ultrafast photoinduced desorption of the adsorbates: (i) the desorption probability increases roughly two orders magnitude, and (ii) the adsorbate–substrate energy transfer rate observed in two-pulse correlation experiments varies nonmonotonically, having a minimum at intermediate coverages. Simulations using a phenomenological model to describe the adsorbate–substrate energy transfer in terms of frictional coupling indicate that these features are consistent with an adsorption-site dependent electron-mediated energy coupling strength, η{sub el}, that decreases with binding site in the order: three-fold hollow > bridge and near bridge > top site. This weakening of η{sub el} largely counterbalances the decrease in the desorption activation energy that accompanies this progression of adsorption site motifs, moderating what would otherwise be a rise of several orders of magnitude in the desorption probability. Within this framework, the observed energy transfer rate enhancement at saturation coverage is due to interadsorbate energy transfer from the copopulation of molecules bound in three-fold hollows to their top-site neighbors.