WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon monoxide emission

  1. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6 x 1013 g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8 x 1014 g CO may be released annually from biomass burning. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

  2. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop to...

  3. A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

  4. Reduction of carbon monoxide emissions in burning processes of gaseous fuel mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon monoxide produced in the combustion of gaseous fuel mixtures of low hydrocarbon-air content represents a transition component of high risk for living organisms. The limit of admissible concentration of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is 50 ppm. The paper presents a method of reduction of monoxide carbon present in the combustion emissions which can be can achieved by means of the chemical reaction CO+OH -> H + CO2. The hydroxyl radical can be obtained either by thermic decomposition or by hydrogen injection. (author). 3 figs., 4 refs

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon monoxide, or “CO,” is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. Carbon monoxide detector Where is CO found? CO is ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) » Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  7. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  8. Luminescence of carbon monoxide hemocyanins.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiper, H.A.; Agrò, A F; Antonini, E; Brunori, M

    1980-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide on the luminescence properties of Helix pomatia alpha-hemocyanin and Panulirus interruptus hemocyanin has been studied. These proteins, when saturated with carbon monoxide, show, besides the intrinsic fluorescence arising from the aromatic amino acid residues, emission in the visible region with a maximum between 540 and 560 nm. Results of carbon monoxide titration experiments and data from absorption and excitation-emission spectra provide convincing evidence th...

  9. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from sand and living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide, CO, is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential of UV-induced CO emission by terrestrial surfaces. Real-time measurements of [CO] were made with a cavity enhanced laser connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a leaf scale...

  10. Unsuccessful Suicide by Carbon Monoxide: A Secondary Benefit of Emissions Control

    OpenAIRE

    Landers, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus,...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community ... KB | Spanish PDF 645 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  14. Air humidity incidence on the carbon monoxide emissions a gas atmospheric burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to determine the variation of the carbon monoxide emission was carried out when the humidity of the premix air was modified in an atmospheric burner working with petroleum liquid gas and natural gas. When the total humidity from the primary air was modified from 0,01223 to 0,03493 water kg/dry air kg in the case of PLG, it was found that the level of co emissions varied in volume from 0,1819 % to 0,2540 %, representing an increase of 38 %. With natural gas the humidity was modified from 0,01397 to 0,03228 water kg/dry air kg, obtaining emissions of CO in volume from 0,0942 % to 0,1020 %, for a total increase of 8,5 %. The study showed that the effect on the air humidity was more pronounced when the combustion with PLG was made, over passing the maximum levels allowed of carbon monoxide

  15. Particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from small scale firewood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the serious adverse effects of residential firewood use is the deterioration in air quality caused by wood-smoke. Low combustion zone temperatures, flame quenching, poor gas mixing, and lack of oxygen all contribute to relatively high emissions of particulates and CO. Average emission rates for particulates of 11 g/h for modern woodheaters can certainly be improved upon. More research effort is needed to reduce emissions from cooking stoves used in developing countries and more public information on correct heater use is needed in the developed countries. (author)

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  17. Study of the emissions of carbon monoxide in gas domestic devices installed in the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of carbon monoxide emission in stoves and water heaters of the most used trademarks in the city of Medellin, were evaluated by using natural gas and petroleum liquid gas to determine the factors of mayor incidence upon the production of the contaminant and the undesirable phenomena in the flash (flashback, lift, yellow tips). It was found that primary air rate, mixer type for the air and the fuel gas and the ventilation area where the device was placed are fundamental. In equipment that doesn't stipulated the convergent-divergent mixer (venturi type), the emissions overcame the limit set up by the standard

  18. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  19. Carbon monoxide production and emission by some Scottish soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, J. M.; Smith, K. A.

    1998-04-01

    When mineral soils from woodland, grassland and arable environments in Central Scotland were air-dried, they became net sources of CO; production rates were greatly increased by oven-drying at 104°C. The soils also produced CO after sterilisation by autoclaving and gamma irradiation. It was concluded that the CO production process involved non-biological decomposition of humic materials; addition of such materials to soils enhanced production. When moist, the soils were normally net sinks for CO, but in the presence of 1000 ppmv of acetylene (an inhibitor of microbial oxidation of CO), they became net sources. Net CO emission was observed in a peatland, in the field, during the wetter months of the year. Here, the CO production was apparently due to a different process from that responsible for production in the dried soils, probably involving anaerobic microbial activity. A possible upper limit of 0.2 Tg y1, for emissions of CO from northern hemisphere wetlands, was calculated on the basis of this part of the study.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another ...

  1. The Weak Carbon Monoxide Emission In An Extremely Metal Poor Galaxy, Sextans A

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Gu, Qiusheng; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the primary coolants of gas and an easily accessible tracer of molecular gas in spiral galaxies but it is unclear if CO plays a similar role in metal poor dwarfs. We carried out a deep observation with IRAM 30 m to search for CO emission by targeting the brightest far-IR peak in a nearby extremely metal poor galaxy, Sextans A, with 7% Solar metallicity. A weak CO J=1-0 emission is seen, which is already faint enough to place a strong constraint on the conversion factor (a_CO) from the CO luminosity to the molecular gas mass that is derived from the spatially resolved dust mass map. The a_CO is at least seven hundred times the Milky Way value. This indicates that CO emission is exceedingly weak in extremely metal poor galaxies, challenging its role as a coolant in these galaxies.

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  3. The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the carbon monoxide emissions of an idling gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C. W.; Subramaniam, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature and humidity affect the exhaust emissions of a gas turbine engine. The results of a test program employing a JT8D combustor are presented which quantize the effect of these changes on carbon monoxide emissions at simulated idle operating conditions. Analytical results generated by a kinetic model of the combustion process and reflecting changing ambient conditions are given. It is shown that for a complete range of possible ambient variations, significant changes do occur in the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a gas turbine engine.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  5. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Network Community Outreach Resource Center CO Poster Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / ... VIDEO CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest View the blog SAFETY GUIDE Clues You Can ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics March 09, 2016 Supplemental Memos Regarding Some of the Hazards Associated with Engine-Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other CO Topics Safety Tips Recalls and News Questions and Answers Charcoal Portable Heaters & Camping Equipment Home Heating Equipment On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Inside CPSC: Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources International Newsroom ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates October 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  14. Emission factors of carbon monoxide and size-resolved aerosols from biofuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, C; Rao, G U

    2001-05-15

    This study reports emission factors of carbon monoxide and size-resolved aerosols from combustion of wood, dung cake, and biofuel briquette in traditional and improved stoves in India. Wood was the cleanest burning fuel, with higher emissions of CO from dung cake and particulate matter from both dung cake and briquette fuels. Combustion of dung cake, especially in an improved metal stove, resulted in extremely high pollutant emissions. Instead, biogas from anaerobic dung digestion should be promoted as a cooking fuel for public health protection. Pollutant emissions increased with increasing stove thermal efficiency, implying that thermal efficiency enhancement in the improved stoves was mainly from design features leading to increased heat transfer but not combustion efficiency. Compared to the traditional stove, the improved stoves resulted in the lower pollutant emissions on a kW h-1 basis from wood combustion but in similar emissions from briquette and dung cake. Stove designs are needed with good emissions performance across multiple fuels. Unimodal aerosol size distributions were measured from biofuel combustion with mass median aerodynamic diameters of 0.5-0.8 micron, about a factor of 10 larger than those from fossil fuel combustion (e.g. diesel), with potential implications for lung deposition and health risk. PMID:11393993

  15. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  16. Prediction of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Emissions in Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using Multi-Zone Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Dibble, R

    2002-05-02

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignitions (HCCI) engines show promise as an alternative to Diesel engines, yet research remains: development of practical HCCI engines will be aided greatly by accurate modeling tools. A novel detailed chemical kinetic model that incorporates information from a computational fluid mechanics code has been developed to simulate HCCI combustion. This model very accurately predicts many aspects of the HCCI combustion process. High-resolution computational grids can be used for the fluid mechanics portion of the simulation, but the chemical kinetics portion of the simulation can be reduced to a handful of computational zones (for all previous work 10 zones have been used). While overall this model has demonstrated a very good predictive capability for HCCI combustion, previous simulations using this model have tended to underpredict carbon monoxide emissions by an order of magnitude. A factor in the underprediction of carbon monoxide may be that all previous simulations have been conducted with 10 chemical kinetic zones. The chemistry that results in carbon monoxide emissions is very sensitive to small changes in temperature within the engine. The resolution in temperature is determined directly by the number of zones. This paper investigates how the number of zones (i.e. temperature resolution) affects the model's prediction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions in an HCCI engine. Simulations with 10, 20, and 40 chemical kinetic zones have been conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism (859 species, 3606 reactions) to simulate an isooctane fueled HCCI engine. The results show that 10-zones are adequate to resolve the hydrocarbon emissions, but a greater numbers of zones are required to resolve carbon monoxide emissions. Results are also presented that explore spatial sources of the exhaust emissions within the HCCI engine combustion chamber.

  17. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and its tropospheric variability over Pakistan using satellite-sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Rana, Asim Daud; Ali, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid; Tariq, Salman; Qayyum, Zarmina

    2015-08-01

    This study presents major anthropogenic sources of carbon monoxide (CO) in Pakistan and discusses the spatio-temporal variability of tropospheric CO over Pakistan and neighboring regions of Afghanistan, India and Iran for a period from 2003 to 2012 using satellite-sensed (AIRS/AMSU) data. The results show a large spatio-temporal variability of CO over the study region mostly associated with anthropogenic activities such as crop residue burning, vehicular transport, and electricity and energy generation, and local meteorology. The annual mean value of tropospheric CO is observed to be 115 ± 2 ppbv that remains almost steady during the study period with decadal increase of only 2%. Due to more anthropogenic emissions of CO and its transport, the eastern zone shows a higher average value of 122 ± 2 ppbv with 2.7% decadal increase than the western zone (111 ± 3 ppbv with 1.4% decadal increase). Elevated concentrations of CO have been observed over the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Lahore, Karachi, and Delhi. During the study period large fluctuations in CO mean monthly values are found ranging from 99 ppbv to 131 ppbv. The fact that, in spite of a large increase in the CO emissions from 2003 to 2012, its average concentration remains almost stable indicates that a large scale regional transport contributes substantially to the tropospheric CO. Carbon monoxide concentrations exhibit a strong seasonal pattern with maximum amplitude in spring and minimum in autumn. July is found to have the highest decadal increasing trend of 13% followed by August at 8%, whereas May has the highest decreasing trend of -8% followed by November at -4.4%.

  18. The effect of ambient conditions on carbon monoxide emissions from an idling gas turbine combustor. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    A test program employing a gas turbine combustor is outlined; the results of which quantize the effects of changes in ambient temperature and humidity on carbon monoxide emissions at simulated idle operating conditions. A comparison of the experimental results with analytical results generated by a kinetic model of the combustion process, and reflecting changing ambient conditions, is given. It is demonstrated that for a complete range of possible ambient variations, significant changes do occur in the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a gas turbine at idle, and that the analytical model is reasonably successful in predicting changes.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Businesses Contact CPSC Website Design Feedback Consumers: Español Businesses: Español , 中文 , Tiếng Việt Connect with Us : Twitter YouTube ... Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon ...

  20. Ozone and carbon monoxide over India during the summer monsoon: regional emissions and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Narendra; Pozzer, Andrea; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Baker, Angela K.; Yoon, Jongmin; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-03-01

    We compare in situ measurements of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) profiles from the CARIBIC program with the results from the regional chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to investigate the role of local and regional emissions and long-range transport over southern India during the summer monsoon of 2008. WRF-Chem successfully reproduces the general features of O3 and CO distributions over the South Asian region. However, absolute CO concentrations in the lower troposphere are typically underestimated. Here we investigate the influence of local relative to remote emissions through sensitivity simulations. The influence of 50 % increased CO emissions over South Asia leads to a significant enhancement (upto 20 % in July) in upper tropospheric CO in the northern and central Indian regions. Over Chennai in southern India, this causes a 33 % increase in surface CO during June. However, the influence of enhanced local and regional emissions is found to be smaller (5 %) in the free troposphere over Chennai, except during September. Local to regional emissions are therefore suggested to play a minor role in the underestimation of CO by WRF-Chem during June-August. In the lower troposphere, a high pollution (O3: 146.4 ± 12.8, CO: 136.4 ± 12.2 nmol mol-1) event (15 July 2008), not reproduced by the model, is shown to be due to transport of photochemically processed air masses from the boundary layer in southern India. A sensitivity simulation combined with backward trajectories indicates that long-range transport of CO to southern India is significantly underestimated, particularly in air masses from the west, i.e., from Central Africa. This study highlights the need for more aircraft-based measurements over India and adjacent regions and the improvement of global emission inventories.

  1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  2. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J.; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

    2000-01-01

    The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute carbon monoxide poisoning with 1-year computed tomographic follow-up is presented. The typical initial bilateral symmetrical low-density areas in the basal ganglia were found to have decreased markedly in size in the latter scan. These appearances coincided with the initial early oedematous phase of infarction ending in the late permanent necrotic stage

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students). Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high in...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Memos Regarding Some of the Hazards Associated with Engine-Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non- ... Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and Other Engine-Driven Tools, 2004– ...

  6. Double Auger Emission of fixed-in-space Carbon Monoxide following Core-Excitation and Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double Auger decay after core-level photo excitation and after ionization through synchrotron radiation in gas phase carbon monoxide has been studied. We report the first experiment where both Auger electrons in double Auger decay have been measured in coincidence with the ionic fragments.

  7. Effect of Combustion Air Pre-Heating In Carbon Monoxide Emission in Diesel Fired Heat Treatment Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E B Muhammed Shafi,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of combustion air pre- heating in Diesel fired heat Treatment Furnace. The main heat treatment processes are Normalizing, Tempering, Hardening, Annealing, Solution Annealing and Stress Relieving. The emission of carbon monoxide is measured with combustion air pre-heating and without preheating. The results are then compared and it is found that the emission of CO is reduced by 29.12%. With the Combustion air pre-heating a considerable reduction in Specific Furnace Fuel Consumption (SFFC is obtained. The test was caaried out at Peekay Steels Casting (P ltd, Nallalam, Calicut.

  8. Top-down estimation of carbon monoxide emissions from the Mexico Megacity based on FTIR measurements from ground and space

    OpenAIRE

    Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.; Rivera, C.; A. Bezanilla; GARCIA A. R.; I. Ortega; George, M.; Clerbaux, C; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Hannigan, J. W.; Coffey, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous carbon monoxide (CO) total column densities above the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) campus in Mexico City have been derived from solar absorption infrared spectroscopic measurements since October 2007. Its diurnal evolution is used in the present study in conjunction with other ground-based and satellite data to develop a top-down emission estimate of the annual CO emission of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The growth-rate of the total column around noon...

  9. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Hossein Davari; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Mohammad Reza Vahidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Maryam Bahaloo; Pedram Shokouh

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months...

  10. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  11. Carbon monoxide: The 21st century poison that goes unnoticed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial article describes the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on human beings and the mechanisms involving carbon monoxide saturation of haemoglobin that are responsible for it. The initial research done in the mid-1800s by Claude Bernard is presented. Methods of treatment for persons poisoned by carbon monoxide are discussed and the experiments made by J.B.S. Haldane on himself by breathing in carbon monoxide are described. Acclimatisation effects observed by Haldane and his co-workers and concerning persons occupationally exposed to carbon monoxide emissions are described

  12. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Guidance for primary�care�on how to deal with�patients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  13. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    Guidance for primarycareon how to deal withpatients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  14. The global balance of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstock, Bernhard; Yup Chang, Tai

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive carbon-14 monoxide produced by cosmic ray neutrons provides a useful tracer to deduce the residence time of carbon monoxide in the troposphere. From the steady-state equations for stable carbon monoxide and radioactive carbon monoxide, the production rate of stable carbon monoxide can also be derived. This rate is an order of magnitude greater than that estimated for CO sources such as the oceans, combustion, and chlorophyll decay. The oxidation of tropospheric methane initiated b...

  15. Emissions to air in Sweden: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and sulphur dioxide 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gases - Carbon dioxide from combustion and motor fuels, Methane and Laughing gas from agriculture Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Sweden amounted to 56 million tonnes in 2000, which is minor decrease since 1990. Combustion of fossil fuels and the use of fuels in vehicles are the major sources of CO2 emissions. Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas, and it is emitted when bacteria degrade organic matter. In Sweden the main source is enteric fermentation from cattle. The emissions of methane were 324 000 tonnes 1990. In 2000 the emissions amounted to 280 000 tonnes, or a 14 per cent decrease. The third greenhouse gas, N2O is mostly emitted from agriculture. N2O emissions have fallen somewhat. Total emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, counted as NO2) in Sweden were 58,000 and 247,000 tonnes respectively in 2000. International air and maritime traffic is not included. The major source of SO2 emissions is combustion of fossil fuels. Road traffic is the major source of NOX emissions. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are also presented in this report. The main source of CO is road traffic, while NMVOCs come from household combustion and road traffic. Emission trends for fluoride carbon greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 are also presented. These gases mainly emit from refrigerators, freezing and air conditioning equipment (e.g. in cars and buildings) and from heat pumps

  16. Source attribution using FLEXPART and carbon monoxide emission inventories for the IAGOS In-situ Observation database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Alain; Sauvage, Bastien; Pétetin, Hervé; Auby, Antoine; Boulanger, Damien; Thouret, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Since 1994, the IAGOS program (In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System http://www.iagos.org) and its predecessor MOZAIC has produced in-situ measurements of the atmospheric composition during more than 46000 commercial aircraft flights. In order to help analyzing these observations and further understanding the processes driving their evolution, we developed a modelling tool SOFT-IO quantifying their source/receptor link. We improved the methodology used by Stohl et al. (2003), based on the FLEXPART plume dispersion model, to simulate the contributions of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the ECCAD database (http://eccad.aeris-data.fr) to the measured carbon monoxide mixing ratio along each IAGOS flight. Thanks to automated processes, contributions are simulated for the last 20 days before observation, separating individual contributions from the different source regions. The main goal is to supply add-value products to the IAGOS database showing pollutants geographical origin and emission type. Using this information, it may be possible to link trends in the atmospheric composition to changes in the transport pathways and to the evolution of emissions. This tool could be used for statistical validation as well as for inter-comparisons of emission inventories using large amounts of data, as Lagrangian models are able to bring the global scale emissions down to a smaller scale, where they can be directly compared to the in-situ observations from the IAGOS database.

  17. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  18. Emissions to air in Sweden: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for calculating emissions to air has been revised, which has led to adjustments. Because of this, emissions in 1999 cannot yet be compared with previous years. Emissions in 1990 - 1998 are being recalculated now using the new method and are expected to be ready during 2001. Emissions to air of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Sweden was 56.58 million tonnes in 1999, not including emissions from biofuels and international bunkers. The major sources of CO2 emissions are the combustion of fossil fuels and the use of fuels for mobile sources. Total emissions to air of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, counted as NO2) in Sweden was 66 000 and 263 000 tonnes respectively in 1999. International bunkers are not included. The major source of SO2 emissions is combustion of fossil fuels. Road traffic is the major source of NOx emissions. Emissions to air of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in 1999 were 253 000, 26 000, 924 000 and 430 000 tonnes respectively, not including international bunkers. Agriculture is the major source of CH4 and N2O emissions. CO mainly derives from road traffic and NMVOC mainly derives from household combustion and road traffic

  19. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The carbon... employees shall be removed from the enclosed space if the carbon monoxide concentration exceeds a ceiling...

  20. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  1. Tips on Protecting Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, invisible gas produced when ... room and tell the physician you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning. If carbon monoxide poisoning has occurred, it often can be ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  3. Digital Carbon Monoxide Detector /11/

    OpenAIRE

    Grognia, M. T.; Hecq, A.; Dauchot, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The switch off concentration phenomena in carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum and the parallel steep variation of resistance or surface potential of thin platinum films are used to develop a carbon detector. Coating the platinum film with an increasing thickness of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) makes this switch off point move to increasing CO concentrations. Therefore a series of electrical elements, platinum thin film resistances, platinum M.O.S. diodes or platinum gate M.O.S. transistors...

  4. Top-down estimation of carbon monoxide emissions from the Mexico Megacity based on FTIR measurements from ground and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.; Rivera, C.; Bezanilla, A.; Garcia, A. R.; Ortega, I.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Hannigan, J. W.; Coffey, M. T.

    2013-02-01

    Continuous carbon monoxide (CO) total column densities above the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) campus in Mexico City have been derived from solar absorption infrared spectroscopic measurements since October 2007. Its diurnal evolution is used in the present study in conjunction with other ground-based and satellite data to develop a top-down emission estimate of the annual CO emission of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The growth-rate of the total column around noon under low ventilation conditions is calculated and allows us to derive the average surface emission-flux at UNAM, while similar measurements taken at the edge of the MCMA in Tecámac provide information on background CO levels in the Mexico basin. Based on 3 yr of measurements, CO column measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite instrument are used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of this anthropogenic pollutant over the MCMA. The agreement between the measured columns of the satellite and ground-based measurements is excellent, particularly when a comparison strategy based on time-displaced air masses is used. The annual emission of the Mexico Megacity is estimated to be (2.15 ± 0.5) Tg yr-1 for the year 2008, while the official inventory for that year reported 1.6 Tg yr-1. The difference is slightly higher than the conservative uncertainty estimated in this work suggesting that the emission might be underestimated by the conventional bottom-up method. A larger discrepancy is found in the spatial distribution of the emissions, when comparing the emission flux over UNAM (derived from the ground-based measurement) with that of the inventory integrated over a representative area. The methodology presented here represents a new and useful strategy to evaluate the contribution of megacities to the global anthropogenic gas emissions. Additionally, three different strategies to compare ground and space-based measurements above an

  5. Top-down estimation of carbon monoxide emissions from the Mexico Megacity based on FTIR measurements from ground and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stremme

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous carbon monoxide (CO total column densities above the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM campus in Mexico City have been derived from solar absorption infrared spectroscopic measurements since October 2007. Its diurnal evolution is used in the present study in conjunction with other ground-based and satellite data to develop a top-down emission estimate of the annual CO emission of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The growth-rate of the total column around noon under low ventilation conditions is calculated and allows us to derive the average surface emission-flux at UNAM, while similar measurements taken at the edge of the MCMA in Tecámac provide information on background CO levels in the Mexico basin. Based on 3 yr of measurements, CO column measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI satellite instrument are used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of this anthropogenic pollutant over the MCMA. The agreement between the measured columns of the satellite and ground-based measurements is excellent, particularly when a comparison strategy based on time-displaced air masses is used. The annual emission of the Mexico Megacity is estimated to be (2.15 ± 0.5 Tg yr−1 for the year 2008, while the official inventory for that year reported 1.6 Tg yr−1. The difference is slightly higher than the conservative uncertainty estimated in this work suggesting that the emission might be underestimated by the conventional bottom-up method. A larger discrepancy is found in the spatial distribution of the emissions, when comparing the emission flux over UNAM (derived from the ground-based measurement with that of the inventory integrated over a representative area. The methodology presented here represents a new and useful strategy to evaluate the contribution of megacities to the global anthropogenic gas emissions. Additionally, three different strategies to compare ground

  6. Top-down estimation of carbon monoxide emissions from the Mexico Megacity based on FTIR measurements from ground and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stremme

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous carbon monoxide (CO total column densities above the UNAM campus in Mexico City have been derived from solar absorption infrared spectroscopic measurements since October 2007. Its diurnal evolution is used in the present study in conjunction with other ground-based and satellite data to develop a top-down emission estimate of the annual CO emission of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The growth-rate of the total column around noon under low ventilation conditions is calculated and allows us to derive the average surface emission-flux at UNAM, while similar measurements taken at the edge of the MCMA in Tecámac provides information on background CO levels in the Mexico basin. Based on 3 yr of measurements, CO column measurements from the IASI satellite instrument are used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of this anthropogenic pollutant over the MCMA. The agreement between the measured columns of the satellite and ground-based measurements is excellent, particularly when a comparison strategy based on time-displaced air masses is used. The annual emission of the Mexico Megacity is estimated to be (2.15 ± 0.5 Tg yr−1 for the year 2008, while the official inventory for that year reported 1.6 Tg yr−1. The difference is slightly higher than the conservative uncertainty estimated in this work suggesting that the emission might be underestimated by the conventional bottom-up method. A larger discrepancy is found in the spatial distribution of the emissions, when comparing the emission flux over UNAM (derived from the ground-based measurement with that of the inventory integrated over a representative area. The methodology presented here represents a new and useful strategy to evaluate the contribution of megacities to the global anthropogenic gas emissions. Additionally, three different strategies to compare ground and space-based measurements above an inhomogeneous and strongly contaminated area like

  7. Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Jalkanen, J.-P.; L. Johansson; J. Kukkonen; Brink, A; J. Kalli; Stipa, T.

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres). The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx a...

  8. Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Knauert; Sandeep Vangala; Maria Haslip; Patty Lee

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laborat...

  9. Intersection carbon monoxide modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note the author discusses the need for better air quality mobile source models near roadways and intersections. To develop the improved models, a better understanding of emissions and their relation to ambient concentrations is necessary. The database for the modal model indicates that vehicles do have different emission levels for different engine operating modes. If the modal approach is used information is needed on traffic signal phasing, queue lengths, delay times, acceleration rates, deceleration rates, capacity, etc. Dispersion estimates using current air quality models may be inaccurate because the models do not take into account intersecting traffic streams, multiple buildings of varying setbacks, height, and spacing

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Flickr SlideShare All Pages & Documents Recalls & News Releases Home Recalls CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits Recalls by ... CO Poster Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon ...

  11. Analysis of the carbon monoxide emission by internal combustion engines using LPG as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a description of the toxic emission reduction as well as a reduction of the toxic components presence in exhaust gases is presented. The analysis of the alternative gaseous fuels application as one of the possibilities for a toxic emission reduction is given. In addition, the results of the CO concentration measurements for two cases: first using gasoline, than liquefied petrol gas (LPG) as a fuel are presented. (Author)

  12. Emissions of Monoxide of Carbon and Methane in an atmospheric burner of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Colombia, the development of gas equipment industry has been characterized by a copy of foreign systems, without going further on the basic principles of operation and design of gas appliances. In order to guarantee an efficient and safe use of this energetic during the present plan of massive use of gas in the country, is necessary to know and dominate all the main phenomena influencing the design and operation of gas appliances, among them is the rate of primary aeration. In this study we analyze the production of CO and CH4 emissions in a premixed atmospheric burner when we modify pressure supply, tip size, injector size, mixer length and diameter of the throat. Results show that mixer geometry has a great influence on CO and CH4 emissions. When aeration rate was less or equal than 0.5 for power greater than 2.3 kw, CO emissions were beyond critic boundary. In the other hand, when we increased gas pressure supply, we observed those CH4 emissions decreased

  13. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  14. Satellite detection of carbon monoxide emission prior to the Gujarat earthquake of 26 January 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOAA AVHRR images have clearly shown anomalous changes in land surface temperature associated with earthquakes in the past two decades. Soon after the Gujarat earthquake of January 26, 2001, an anomalous increase in land surface temperature was inferred from MODIS satellite data a few days prior to the main earthquake event. The cause of such an anomalous change in surface temperature prior to the earthquake is attributed to many probable phenomena, but no definite cause has been identified. In the present study, changes of a complementary nature were found of land surface temperature associated with the emission of CO from the epicentral region. The observed changes on land and atmosphere associated with the Gujarat earthquake of 26 January, 2001, show the existence of strong coupling between land, atmosphere and ionosphere.

  15. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  16. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite validations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, M. W.; McLinden, C. A.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Luo, M.; Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Akingunola, A.; Makar, P.; Lehr, P.; Zhang, J.; Henze, D. K.; Millet, D. B.; Bash, J. O.; Zhu, L.; Wells, K. C.; Capps, S. L.; Chaliyakunnel, S.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Brook, J. R.; Wolde, M.; Li, S.-M.

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These applications include air quality monitoring, trend analysis, emissions, and model evaluation. This study provides one of the first direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite retrieved profiles of NH3, CH3OH, and HCOOH through comparisons with coincident aircraft profiles. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during the intensive field campaign (August-September~2013) in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). The satellite/aircraft comparisons over this region during this period produced errors of: (i) + 0.08 ± 0.25 ppbv for NH3, (ii) + 7.5 ± 23 ppbv for CO, (iii) + 0.19 ± 0.46 ppbv for HCOOH, and (iv) -1.1 ± 0.39 ppbv for CH3OH. These values mostly agree with previously estimated retrieval errors; however, the relatively large negative bias in CH3OH and the significantly greater positive bias for larger HCOOH and CO values observed during this study warrant further investigation. Satellite and aircraft ammonia observations during the field campaign are also used in an initial effort to perform preliminary evaluations of Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) air quality modelling system at high-resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km). These initial results indicate model under-prediction of ~ 0.6 ppbv (~ 60 %) for NH3, during the field campaign period. The TES-model CO comparison differences are ~ +20 ppbv (~ +20 %), but given that under these conditions the TES/aircraft comparisons also show a small positive TES CO bias indicates that the overall model under-prediction of CO is closer to ~ 10 % at 681 hPa (~ 3 km) during this

  17. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES satellite validations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Shephard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3, carbon monoxide (CO, formic acid (HCOOH, and methanol (CH3OH is currently being explored and used for number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These applications include air quality monitoring, trend analysis, emissions, and model evaluation. This study provides one of the first direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES satellite retrieved profiles of NH3, CH3OH, and HCOOH through comparisons with coincident aircraft profiles. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during the intensive field campaign (August–September~2013 in support of the Joint Canada–Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM. The satellite/aircraft comparisons over this region during this period produced errors of: (i + 0.08 ± 0.25 ppbv for NH3, (ii + 7.5 ± 23 ppbv for CO, (iii + 0.19 ± 0.46 ppbv for HCOOH, and (iv -1.1 ± 0.39 ppbv for CH3OH. These values mostly agree with previously estimated retrieval errors; however, the relatively large negative bias in CH3OH and the significantly greater positive bias for larger HCOOH and CO values observed during this study warrant further investigation. Satellite and aircraft ammonia observations during the field campaign are also used in an initial effort to perform preliminary evaluations of Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale – Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH air quality modelling system at high-resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km. These initial results indicate model under-prediction of ~ 0.6 ppbv (~ 60 % for NH3, during the field campaign period. The TES-model CO comparison differences are ~ +20 ppbv (~ +20 %, but given that under these conditions the TES/aircraft comparisons also show a small positive TES CO bias indicates that the overall model under-prediction of CO is closer to ~ 10 % at 681 hPa (~ 3 km

  18. Real-time prediction of extreme ambient carbon monoxide concentrations due to vehicular exhaust emissions using univariate linear stochastic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical data of the time-series of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was analysed using Box-Jenkins modelling approach. Univariate Linear Stochastic Models (ULSMs) were developed to examine the degree of prediction possible for situations where only a limited data set, restricted only to the past record of pollutant data are available. The developed models can be used to provide short-term, real-time forecast of extreme CO concentrations for an Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), comprising a major traffic intersection in a Central Business District of Delhi City, India. (author)

  19. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  20. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Aydın; Mürüvet Akın; Emel Boyraz; Murat Çolakkaya

    2011-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  1. Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Davous, P; Rondot, P; Marion, M H; Gueguen, B

    1986-01-01

    Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

  2. Intestinal infarction following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M.; Cacciottolo, J. M.; Casha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 65 year old patient admitted with carbon monoxide poisoning developed acute pulmonary oedema during treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. After initial recovery he developed extensive intestinal ischaemia which rapidly led to death. It is suggested that intestinal vasoconstriction due to left ventricular failure made the gut much more vulnerable to the hypoxic effects of carbon monoxide than the brain and heart.

  3. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  4. Carbon monoxide modeling studies : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobile exhaust has been identified as a major source of carbon monoxide (CO), a pollutant gas known to have physiological effects on people. This study emphasized the importance of CO modelling, given the increased use of automobiles and the resulting increase in ambient air pollution. Computational models plays an important role in the environmental regulatory process because modeling processes can clarify the complex relationship between environmental emissions, the quality of the environment, and human and ecological impacts. Carbon monoxide (CO) is given the least attention for imperative modeling, despite the fact that frequent exceedance of CO emissions can be harmful to human health and the environment. An accurate emissions estimate and an efficient model for forecasting the future status of CO is needed in order to effectively manage CO. Most CO forecast models describe the temporal and spatial distribution of CO on roadways. The main categories of CO models are deterministic, statistical, hybrid, and neural network in nature. This paper reviewed recent studies that attempted CO dispersion modeling. The Gaussian model was generally accepted for prediction of long-term average concentrations, but it is best suited to explain routine behaviour of dispersion. The scope and restraint associated with various modeling attempts was also discussed. 345 refs., 1 tab.

  5. An analytical study of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in hydrocarbon combustion with added nitrogen - Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of ground-based gas turbine combustor operating conditions and fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) found in coal-derived liquid fuels on the formation of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide is investigated. Analytical predictions of NOx and CO concentrations are obtained for a two-stage, adiabatic, perfectly-stirred reactor operating on a propane-air mixture, with primary equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.7, secondary equivalence ratios of 0.5 or 0.7, primary stage residence times from 12 to 20 msec, secondary stage residence times of 1, 2 and 3 msec and fuel nitrogen contents of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt %. Minimum nitrogen oxide but maximum carbon monoxide formation is obtained at primary zone equivalence ratios between 1.4 and 1.5, with percentage conversion of FBN to NOx decreasing with increased fuel nitrogen content. Additional secondary dilution is observed to reduce final pollutant concentrations, with NOx concentration independent of secondary residence time and CO decreasing with secondary residence time; primary zone residence time is not observed to affect final NOx and CO concentrations significantly. Finally, comparison of computed results with experimental values shows a good semiquantitative agreement.

  6. Polymer-Based Carbon Monoxide Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Kisor, A. K.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Ryan, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based sensors have been used primarily to detect volatile organics and inorganics; they are not usually used for smaller, gas phase molecules. We report the development and use of two types of polymer-based sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide. Further understanding of the experimental results is also obtained by performing molecular modeling studies to investigate the polymer-carbon monoxide interactions. The first type is a carbon-black-polymer composite that is comprised of a non-conducting polymer base that has been impregnated with carbon black to make it conducting. These chemiresistor sensors show good response to carbon monoxide but do not have a long lifetime. The second type of sensor has a non-conducting polymer base but includes both a porphyrin-functionalized polypyrrole and carbon black. These sensors show good, repeatable and reversible response to carbon monoxide at room temperature.

  7. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus of this project is on developing new approaches for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. The strategies to accomplish CO reduction are based on favorable thermodynamics manifested by rhodium macrocycles for producing a series of intermediates implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Metalloformyl complexes from reactions of H2 and CO, and CO reductive coupling to form metallo α-diketone species provide alternate routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics are promising candidates for future development

  8. An analytical study of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in hydrocarbon combustion with added nitrogen, preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of combustor operating conditions on the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) to nitrogen oxides NO sub x was analytically determined. The effect of FBN and of operating conditions on carbon monoxide (CO) formation was also studied. For these computations, the combustor was assumed to be a two stage, adiabatic, perfectly-stirred reactor. Propane-air was used as the combustible mixture and fuel-bound nitrogen was simulated by adding nitrogen atoms to the mixture. The oxidation of propane and formation of NO sub x and CO were modeled by a fifty-seven reaction chemical mechanism. The results for NO sub x and CO formation are given as functions of primary and secondary stage equivalence ratios and residence times.

  9. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  10. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  12. Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J H; Cunningham, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

  13. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, H

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen.

  16. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  17. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute alguns aspectos importantes relacionados à reação de eletrooxidação do monóxido de carbono sobre monocristais de platina, em meio ácido. Aspectos mecanísticos são discutidos em termos da formação das estruturas compactas que o CO forma quando este é adsorvido. As principais idéias aqui apresentadas, levam em consideração as existências dessas estruturas. Os clássicos mecanismos Lagmuir-Hinshelwood e Eley-Rideal são aqui discutidos, especialmente o primeiro considerando a mobilidade do CO e também a nucleação e crescimento de ilhas formadas por espécies adsorvidas contendo oxigênio.////////// This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  18. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Isotopes: On the Trail of Galactic Chemical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.

    1995-01-01

    From the early days of the discovery of radio emission from carbon monoxide it was realized that it offered unusual potential for under- standing the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and external galaxies through measurements of molecular isotopes. These results bear on stellar nucleosynthesis, star formation, and gases in the interstellar medium. Progress in isotopic radio measurements will be reviewed.

  20. Estimation of the molecular hydrogen soil uptake and traffic emissions at a suburban site near Paris through hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and radon-222 semicontinuous measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since June 2006, simultaneous semicontinuous measurements of tropospheric molecular hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), and radon-222 (222Rn) have been performed at Gif-sur-Yvette (Paris region), a suburban atmospheric measurement site in France. Molecular hydrogen mixing ratios range from 500 to 1000 ppb, CO mixing ratios vary from 100 to 1400 ppb, and 222Rn concentrations fluctuate from 0 to 20 Bq m-3. The H2 seasonal cycle shows the expected pattern for the Northern Hemisphere with a maximum in spring and a minimum in autumn. We inferred a mean baseline value of 533 ppb with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 30 ppb. Carbon monoxide exhibits a seasonal cycle with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The mean baseline value reaches 132 ppb with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 40 ppb. Radon-222 presents weak seasonal variations with a maximum in autumn/winter and a minimum in spring/summer. The diurnal cycles of H2 and CO are dominated by emissions from nearby traffic with two peaks during morning and evening rush hours. The typical H2/CO emission ratio from traffic is found to be 0.47 ± 0.08 on a molar basis (ppb/ppb). The radon tracer method is applied to nighttime H2 observations to estimate the H2 soil uptake of the nocturnal catchment area of our sampling site. The influences from nocturnal local anthropogenic combustion sources are estimated by parallel measurements of CO at 0.14 * 10-5 g(H2) m-2 h-1. The mean inferred dry deposition velocity is 0.024 ± 0.013 cm s-1 with a seasonal amplitude of 40% at Gif-sur-Yvette.

  1. Daily and 3-hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003.2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ]derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top ]down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from

  2. Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  3. A 1990 global emission inventory of anthropogenic sources of carbon monoxide on 1o x 1o developed in the framework of EDGAR/GEIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global emission inventory of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions with 1o x 1o latitude-longitude resolution was compiled for 1990 on a sectoral basis. The sectoral sources considered include large-scale biomass burning (29%, of which savanna burning, 18%, and deforestation, 11%), fossil fuel combustion (27%, predominantly in road transport), biofuel combustion (19%, predominantly fuelwood combustion), agricultural waste burning (21%) and industrial process sources (4%). The inventory was compiled using mostly national statistics as activity data, emission factors at global or country level, and specific grid maps to convert, by sector, country total emissions to the 1o x 1o grid. A special effort was made to compile a global inventory of biofuel use, since this was considered to be a significant source on a global level, and a major source in some regions such as India and China. The global anthropogenic source of CO in 1990 is estimated at about 974 Tg CO yr-1. The inventory is available on a sectoral basis on a 1o x 1o grid for input to global atmospheric models and on a regional/country basis for policy analysis. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  5. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon... introduction into service and annually thereafter, the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked...

  6. 78 FR 48611 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by... II, Section III.C): Air Quality Emissions Data (Section III.C.3), Carbon Monoxide Network Monitoring... demonstrates that the Fairbanks Area will maintain the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  7. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  8. Occupational medicine effects of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, W.M. [South African Society of Occupational Medicine (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon monoxide can affect the body if it is inhaled or if liquid carbon monoxide comes in contact with the eyes or skin. The effects of overexposure are discussed and a brief explanation of the toxicological effects of CO given. Methods of control of CO from common operations (exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines, the chemical industry and foundries, welding, mines or tunnels, fire damp explosions, industrial heating) are by local exhaust ventilation or use of a respiratory protective device. The South African hazardous chemical substance regulation NO. R. 1179 of 25 August 1995 stipulates maximum safe levels of CO concentration. 4 refs., 1 photo.

  9. Constraints on emissions of carbon monoxide, methane, and a suite of hydrocarbons in the Colorado Front Range using observations of 14CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Tans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric radiocarbon (14CO represents an important observational constraint on emissions of fossil-fuel derived carbon into the atmosphere due to the absence of 14CO in fossil fuel reservoirs. The high sensitivity and precision that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS affords in atmospheric 14CO analysis has greatly increased the potential for using such measurements to evaluate bottom-up emissions inventories of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, as well as those for other co-emitted species. Here we use observations of 14CO2 and a series of hydrocarbons and combustion tracers from discrete air samples collected between June 2009 and September 2010 at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO; Lat: 40.050° N, Lon: 105.004° W to derive emission ratios of each species to CO2ff. From these emission ratios, we estimate emissions of these species by using the Vulcan CO2ff high resolution data product as a reference. The species considered in this analysis are carbon monoxide (CO, methane (CH4, acetylene (C2H2, benzene (C6H6, and C3–C5 alkanes. Comparisons of top-down emissions estimates are made to existing inventories of these species for Denver and adjacent counties, as well as to previous efforts to estimate emissions from atmospheric observations over the same area. We find that CO is overestimated in the 2008 National Emissions Inventory (NEI, 2008 by a factor of ~2. A close evaluation of the inventory suggests that the ratio of CO emitted per unit fuel burned from on-road gasoline vehicles is likely over-estimated by a factor of 2.5. The results also suggest that while the oil and gas sector is the largest contributor to the CH4 signal in air arriving from the north and east, it is very likely that other sources, including agricultural sources, contribute to this signal and must be accounted for when attributing these signals to oil and gas industry activity from a top-down perspective. Our results are

  10. Breath analysis to detect recent exposure to carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnington, A; Hormbrey, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the normal range for carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaled breath of subjects in the emergency department and to develop a protocol for the use of a breath analyser to detect abnormal carbon monoxide exposure.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  12. Carbon monoxide in supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of carbon monoxide (CO) in the infrared spectra of SN 1987A and of CO+ represents the first ever detection of a molecule in a supernova. In IR spectra obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), first overtone emission from CO was observed near 2.3 μm as early as day 112 after the explosion, and was clearly detectable in all subsequent spectra. Spectra of the CO fundamental at 4.6 μm support this identification. We argue that the CO forms part of the supernova ejecta, and present a preliminary analysis of the first overtone band using Boltzmann population statistics. The model reproduces well the spectra obtained on days 192 and 255 and implies the presence of about 5X10-5 solar mass of CO by day 255. By day 284 the fit is less good, due to increasingly prominent emission from other species, possibly in combination with the breakdown of the Boltzmann distribution

  13. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan. The submittal pertained to a plan...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental... Island has committed to year round carbon monoxide monitoring at the East Providence...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  18. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  19. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  1. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

    1996-08-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

  3. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These ap...

  4. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2σ significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  5. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an exceedance of the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in any of the... monoxide ambient air quality standard were to occur, the State would be required to reimplement the program...)(3) and 187(a)(7) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, as revisions to the carbon monoxide...

  6. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pillion, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  7. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Shruti; Gupta Rahul; Paul Barinder; Puri Sandeep; Garg Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign...

  8. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  9. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  10. Smernice zdravljenja zastrupitev z ogljikovim monoksidom: Carbon monoxide treatment guidelines:

    OpenAIRE

    Brvar, Miran; Jamšek, Marija; Šarc, Lucija; Grenc, Damjan; Finderle, Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon...

  11. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gonullu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  12. Effect of emissions uncertainty and variability on high-resolution concentrations of carbon monoxide, fine particle black carbon, and nitrogen oxides in Fort Collins, Colorado: development of a Bayesian uncertainty modeling and evaluation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Stuart, A. L.; Dagne, G.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainties in emissions estimates are known to be one of the primary sources of uncertainty in calculating concentrations and subsequent exposure estimates. Despite continued improvement in the accuracy of emissions downscaling, the quantification of uncertainties is necessary in order to generate a representative emissions product. Bayesian data assimilation is a promising approach to uncertainty estimation when used to calibrate model results with measurement data. This study discusses an emissions inventory and concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle (PM2.5) black carbon, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the city of Fort Collins, Colorado. The development of a Bayesian framework for updating estimates of emissions and concentrations in multiple stages, using measurement data, is also presented. The emissions inventory was constructed using the 2008 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual and county-level resolution for point, nonpoint, and nonroad sources. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach (using emission factors and activities) for large roadway links within Fort Collins with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were obtained from local 2009 travel demand model results and automatic traffic recorder (ATR) data. The CALPUFF Gaussian puff dispersion model was used to estimate air pollutant concentrations. Hourly, 1.33 km x 1.33 km MM5 meteorological data was used to capture temporal variability in transport. Distributions of concentrations are obtained for spatial locations and time spans using a Monte Carlo sampling approach. Data for ensemble members are sampled from distributions defined from the emissions inventory and meteorological data. Modeled concentrations of CO, PM2

  13. Carbon monoxide: A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    OpenAIRE

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf; Meijer, Harro; Schroeder, Hartwig; LEVIN Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The observations were compared with model estimates simulated with the regional transport model REMO at 0.5°x0.5° resolution in Europe for 2002. These estimates are based on two available emissions inventories...

  14. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 1065, in lieu of the procedures set forth in subpart E of this part. CO emissions may be measured using the procedures set forth either in 40 CFR part 1065 or in subpart E of this part... measured using the procedures from 40 CFR part 1065 and still be considered comparable. (g)...

  15. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  16. Cardiovascular deaths related to Carbon monoxide Exposure in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Goudarzi; Sahar Geravandi; Mehdi Vosoughi; Mohammad javad Mohammadi; Abdolkazem neisi; Sepideh sadat Taghavirad

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas that emitted from combustion. Carbon monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body's organs (like the heart and brain), tissues, fibrinolysis effects, abortion and death at extremely high levels. The aim of this study was to assess health- effects of carbon monoxide exposure in Ahvaz city. Data were collected through Ahvaz Meteorological Organization and Department of Environment. Raw data processing b...

  17. Case of carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking shisha

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Beng Leong; Lim, Ghee Hian; Seow, Eillyne

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning has been reported as a result of exposure to various sources of smoke, such as car exhaust fumes, home water heaters and tobacco smoke. We describe a case of symptomatic, moderately severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a young Mediterranean man after smoking a waterpipe, or shisha. This case highlights the importance of considering carbon monoxide exposure in patients presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms to the emergency department (ED).

  18. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation of TLCO either a known inspired oxygen concentration should b...

  19. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  20. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  1. Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Stephen R.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Han, Shih-Tsung; Clark, James M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet–neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neurologic sequelae.

  2. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  3. Application of Statistical Methods to Assess Carbon Monoxide Pollution Variations within an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Capilla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there have been considerable new legislation and efforts by vehicle manufactures aimed at reducing pollutant emission to improve air quality in urban areas. Carbon monoxide is a major pollutant in urban areas, and in this study we analyze monthly carbon monoxide (CO) data from Valencia City, a representative Mediterranean city in terms of its structure and climatology. Temporal and spatial trends in pollution were recorded from a monitoring net- work that consisted of five mon...

  4. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS, heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  5. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  6. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  7. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms. PMID:27120897

  8. Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow

  9. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “serious” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December..., revised Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Denver, as adopted by the Colorado Air Quality Control... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions...

  10. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy:...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system....

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Improved Method of its Spot Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Rajwar

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews some investigations on carbon monoxide poisoning and describes a detailed method for detection of carbon monoxide. A comparative study indicating the scope, limitation and range of the various other methods of spot detection has also been given.

  15. Variability in Carbon Monoxide Concentration in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Ariko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Carbon Monoxide concentrations in Urban core and Control station in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. USB-CO data loggers were used for data acquisition for a period of one month. 1hour mean of Carbon Monoxide concentrations for Urban core and Control station were subjected to student “t” test to determine any significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentration between the two sampled sites. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test was employed to test the temporal variability in Carbon Monoxide concentrations in the Urban core. The “t” test results showed a significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentrations, between the Urban core and the Control station. The ANOVA results showed that there is a significant difference in Carbon Monoxide concentrations level between different times of the day. The 1 h mean WHO recommendation for Carbon Monoxide concentration was occasionally exceeded, while the 8 h mean was daily exceeded in the evening periods in Urban core. In the Control station, there was no time both 1 h and 8 h means WHO recommendation were exceeded. These imply that the Rural environment is relatively more livable than the Urban environment in Kaduna metropolis in terms of Carbon Monoxide concentration levels.

  16. A Myoclonus Case Related to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Özışık, Handan Işın; Kızkın, Sibel; Cemal ÖZCAN; Bölük, Ayhan; Çalışkan, Özden

    2005-01-01

    Delayed neurological findings due to carbon monoxide poisoning are changes in cognition and personality, psychotic behavior and parkinsonism. Rarely, these patients have movement disorders such dystonia, chorea and myoclonus. In this case study, we reported a case in which myoclonus appeared in the late stage of CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide poisoning, Movement disorders, Myoclonus.

  17. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  18. Role of Carbon Monoxide in Kidney Function: Is a little Carbon Monoxide Good for the Kidney?

    OpenAIRE

    Csongrádi Éva (1969-) (szakorvos); Juncos, Luis A.; Drummond, Heather A.; Vera, Trinity; Stec, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies us...

  19. Isotopic composition of carbon monoxide in St. Louis, Missouri area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and isotropic composition of carbon monoxide were determined for air samples taken in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, to provide information as to the movement of the pollutant plume from the city. Urban air was detected as far as 48 miles downwind of St. Louis; however, movement of the pollutant plume was not detected. The effect of engine carbon monoxide produced along a highway in a rural area was found to be minimal three miles downwind of the highway. Diurnal studies demonstrated an inverse relationship between carbon monoxide concentration and oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios during the night. A parallel relation prevailed during the day

  20. Infrared Spectra of High Pressure Carbon Monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, W J; Lipp, M J; Lorenzana, H E

    2001-09-21

    We report infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) at high pressures. Although CO is one of the simplest heteronuclear diatomic molecules, it displays surprisingly complex behavior at high pressures and has been the subject of several studies [1-5]. IR spectroscopic studies of high pressures phases of CO provide data complementing results from previous studies and elucidating the nature of these phases. Though a well-known and widely utilized diagnostic of molecular systems, IR spectroscopy presents several experimental challenges to high pressure diamond anvil cell research. We present measurements of the IR absorption bands of CO at high pressures and experimentally illustrate the crucial importance of accurate normalization of IR spectra specially within regions of strong absorptions in diamond.

  1. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  2. Electron energy deposition in carbon monoxide gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihong; Victor, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive set of electron impact cross sections for carbon monoxide molecules is presented on the basis of the most recent experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. The processes by which energetic electrons lose energy in CO gas are analyzed with these input cross sections. The efficiencies are computed of vibrational and electronic excitation, dissociation, ionization, and heating for CO gas with fractional ionization ranging from 0% to 10%. The calculated mean energy per ion pair for neutral CO gas is 32.3 eV, which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 32.2 eV. It increases to 35.6 eV at a fractional ionization of 1%, typical of supernovae ejecta.

  3. Cardiovascular deaths related to Carbon monoxide Exposure in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and toxic gas that emitted from combustion. Carbon monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body's organs (like the heart and brain, tissues, fibrinolysis effects, abortion and death at extremely high levels. The aim of this study was to assess health- effects of carbon monoxide exposure in Ahvaz city. Data were collected through Ahvaz Meteorological Organization and Department of Environment. Raw data processing by Excel software includes (instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering and after the impact of meteorological parameters was converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, health-effects of carbon monoxide exposure were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of carbon monoxide was 7.41 mg/m3 in Ahvaz as annual average. Sum of total numbers of deaths attributed to carbon monoxide was 16 cases within a year. Approximately 4.3% of total Cardiovascular deaths happened when the carbon monoxide concentrations was more than 20 mg/m3. This could be due to higher fuel consumption gasoline in vehicles, Oil industry, steel and Heavy industries in Ahwaz. Mortality and Morbidity risks were detected at current ambient concentrations of air pollutants.

  4. 75 FR 3668 - Conditional Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; Ohio; Carbon Monoxide and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... (OAC) 3745-21 (Carbon Monoxide, Photochemically Reactive Materials, Hydrocarbons, and related Materials... compound containing carbon, excluding: Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide; carbonic acid; metallic carbides... economic feasibility. On March 23, 1995, (60 FR 15235), EPA inadvertently approved a version of...

  5. Rhabdomyolysis after Intentional Acetaminophen and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Iago Rodríguez–Lago; Delia D’Avola; Mercedes Iñarrairaegui; José Ignacio Herrero; Bruno Sangro; Jorge Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen is one of the most frequent causes of acute liverfailure. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare adverse reaction reported withthis drug. Carbon monoxide (CO) can also lead to muscle injury butonly after severe intoxication. We present a case of rhabdomyolysisassociated to Acetaminophen over dosage and mild carbon monoxideexposure. A 38-year-old man was admitted because of acute hepaticinjury due to voluntary acetaminophen overdose. He also reporteda mild carbon monoxide exposure. He showed a...

  6. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monoxide national ambient air quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Lake and Marion Counties for an additional ten years. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  7. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  8. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    OpenAIRE

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP,

  9. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon concentrations at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristofanelli, P; Fierli, F.; Marinoni, A.; Duchi, R.; Burkhart, J.; A. Stohl; M. Maione; Arduini, J.; Bonasoni, P.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and equivalent black carbon (BC) concentrations at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV), part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy). For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analysed and correlated with the output of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass...

  10. Constraints on emissions of carbon monoxide, methane, and a suite of hydrocarbons in the Colorado Front Range using observations of 14CO2

    OpenAIRE

    LaFranchi, B. W; Pétron, G.; Miller, J. B.; S. J. Lehman; Andrews, A. E; E. J. Dlugokencky; Hall, B.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; W. Neff; P. C. Novelli; C. Sweeney; J. C. Turnbull; D. E. Wolfe; P. P. Tans

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) represents an important observational constraint on emissions of fossil-fuel derived carbon into the atmosphere due to the absence of 14C in fossil fuel reservoirs. The high sensitivity and precision that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) affords in atmospheric 14C analysis has greatly increased the potential for using such measurements to evaluate bottom-up emissions inventories of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff), as well as those for other co-emitte...

  11. An Organocobalt–Carbon Nanotube Chemiresistive Carbon Monoxide Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Sophie F.; Lin, Sibo; Swager, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    A chemiresistive detector for carbon monoxide was created from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by noncovalent modification with diiodo(η5: η1-1-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)-cobalt(III) ([Cp^CoI2]), an organocobalt complex with an intramolecular amino ligand coordinated to the metal center that is displaced upon CO binding. The unbound amino group can subsequently be transduced chemiresistively by the SWCNT network. The resulting device was shown to...

  12. Carbon monoxide toxicity in Dammam, KSA: Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aldossary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO toxicity is one of the common types of poisoning, and the aim of this study is to evaluate CO poisoning during 2004–2013. The study was based on autopsy samples sent to the forensic chemistry laboratory in Dammam during the study period. The findings showed that 68 out of 894 autopsy cases were diagnosed as acute CO toxicity; 91% of the cases were classified as accidental; 83% of cases were male while only 11% were female. The highest rate was in the winter months (50%, and highest age group was between 40 and 50 years, followed by 31–40. The average carbon monoxide percentage was 49%. Carbon monoxide toxicity in Dammam is not a very common occurrence; however, this study may help control and prevent carbon monoxide toxicity for protection of the society.

  13. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  15. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  16. CT and clinical patterns in suicidal carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial CT is important to exclude the presence of a mass in the cavum cranii in case of an unclear suicide attempt, particularly a traumatic mass. It can be helpful also in cases of carbon monoxide intoxications. (orig.)

  17. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbon Monoxide Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbonmonoxidepoisoning.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Li; Xinghua Li; Jingkun Jiang; Lei Duan; Su Ge; Qi Zhang; Jianguo Deng; Shuxiao Wang; Jiming Hao

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residenti...

  19. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Ozkan; Tayfun Ozturk; Yavuz Ozmen; Polat Durukan

    2013-01-01

    Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. ...

  20. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I.

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. Therefore the diffusion capacity of the lung for nitric oxide (DLNO) should reflect the alveolocapillary membrane diffusing capacity only, and should not be influenced by the vascular component. In this...

  1. Carbon Monoxide Concentration in Different Districts of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    K A'azam; Mojgan Baniardalani; F. Changani

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem in Tehran. Most important agents responsible for the high pollution include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons and suspended particles. Determination of quality and quantity of polluting agents is of great importance for sustaining the inhabitants health level. We studied carbon monoxide, one of the most hazardous air-polluting agents, in 22 urban districts of Tehran. The results showed that in average 4.39% of the air in Tehran ha...

  2. Carbon monoxide and exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Calverley, P. M.; Leggett, R J; Flenley, D C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide on exercise tolerance as assessed by the distance walked in 12 minutes were studied in 15 patients with severe chronic bronchitis and emphysema (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 0.56 1, mean forced vital capacity 1.54 1). Each subject walked breathing air and oxygen before and after exposure to sufficient carbon monoxide to raise their venous carboxyhaemoglobin concentration by 9%. There was a significant reduction in the walking distance when the pat...

  3. Neuroprotective, neurotherapeutic, and neurometabolic effects of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, Vicki L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies in animal models show that the primary mechanism by which heme-oxygenases impart beneficial effects is due to the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO). Produced in humans mainly by the catabolism of heme by heme-oxygenase, CO is a neurotransmitter important for multiple neurologic functions and affects several intracellular pathways as a regulatory molecule. Exogenous administration of inhaled CO or carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORM’s) impart similar neurophysiological respon...

  4. Epidemiological bases for the current ambient carbon monoxide standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, L H; Radford, E P

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is widely distributed in the environment, and acute or chronic toxic effects may be of considerable public health significance. A review of the basis for current ambient standards is given. Mortality and morbidity studies have been negative or equivocal in relating carbon monoxide levels to health effects, but studies in human subjects with compromised coronary or peripheral circulation support an effect of acute exposure to CO at blood levels equivalent to about 20 ppm over s...

  5. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  6. Oxidation of carbon monoxide by perferrylmyoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libardi, Silvia H; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Perferrylmyoglobin is found to oxidize CO in aerobic aqueous solution to CO2. Tryptophan hydroperoxide in the presence of tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrinate-iron(III) or simple iron(II)/(III) salts shows similar reactivity against CO. The oxidation of CO is for tryptophan hydroperoxide concluded...... to depend on the formation of alkoxyl radicals by reductive cleavage by iron(II) or on the formation of peroxyl radicals by oxidative cleavage by iron(III). During oxidation of CO, the tryptophan peroxyl radical was depleted with a rate constant of 0.26 ± 0.01 s(-1) for CO-saturated aqueous solution of pH 7.......4 at 25 °C without concomitant reduction of the iron(IV) center. Carbon monoxide is as a natural metabolite accordingly capable of scavenging tryptophan radicals in myoglobin activated by peroxides with a second-order rate constant of (3.3 ± 0.6) × 10(2) L mol(-1) s(-1), a reaction that might...

  7. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  8. Demonstration of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Propellants for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, proposed planetary exploration missions must be small, with low costs and a short development time. Relatively high-risk technologies are being accepted for such missions if they meet these guidelines. For a Mars sample-return mission, one of the higher risk technologies is the use of return propellants produced from indigenous materials such as the Martian atmosphere. This consists of 96 percent carbon dioxide, which can be processed into oxygen and carbon monoxide. This year, the NASA Lewis Research Center completed the experimental evaluation and subscale technology development of an oxygen/carbon monoxide propellant combination. Previous research included ignition characterization, combustion performance, and heat transfer characterization with gaseous propellants at room temperature. In this year s tests, we studied the ignition characteristics and combustion of oxygen and carbon monoxide at near liquid temperatures. The mixture ratio boundaries for oxygen and carbon monoxide were determined as a function of propellant temperature in a spark torch igniter. With both propellants at room temperature, the ignition range was between 0.50 and 1.44; and with both propellants chilled to near-liquid temperatures, it was between 2.4 and 3.1. Statistical analysis of the mean value of the ignition boundaries provided models that describe the combination of oxygen temperature, carbon monoxide temperature, and mixture ratio that resulted in ignition. This range is the larger boxed area shown in the figure. The smaller boxed area indicates the range at which there is a 90-percent confidence that ignition will occur. The relatively small range at only 90-percent confidence indicates that using the oxygen/carbon monoxide combination as its own ignition source may not be the best design for a remote engine operating on Mars. Tests also were performed in a simulated small rocket engine that used oxygen/hydrogen combustion gases as the ignition source for oxygen/carbon

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a patient with carbon dioxide retention: a therapeutic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Tristan RA; Williamson, Wilby J; Brostoff, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 70 year-old man with carbon monoxide poisoning following a house fire. A significant smoking history and likely underlying chronic lung pathology complicated treatment, as due to symptomatic retention of carbon dioxide we were unable to use high-flow oxygen to facilitate the elimination of carbon monoxide. We suggest that patients with risk factors for obstructive lung disease be monitored extremely carefully during treatment for carbon monoxide toxicity.

  10. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  11. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  12. Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 μmol min−1 mg of wet cells−1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 (35°C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was “ping-pong,” indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  14. Cross-correlations as a carbon monoxide detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pullen, Anthony; Dore, Olivier; Lidz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of the large-scale structure (LSS) itself, the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other tracers of LSS offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the formalism and model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. As an illustration, we propose a novel use of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) dataset. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 6 and 7 respectively. We are not able ...

  15. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristofanelli, P; Fierli, F.; Marinoni, A.; Calzolari, F; Duchi, R.; Burkhart, J.; A. Stohl; M. Maione; Arduini, J.; Bonasoni, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and equivalent black carbon (BC) at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV), part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy). For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analyzed and correlated with the outputs of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB) and ant...

  16. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  17. Hydrogen reactivity toward carbon monoxide under mechanochemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delogu, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, I-09123 Cagliari (Italy); Garroni, Sebastiano; Mulas, Gabriele [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The study focuses on the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over Co-Fe-based catalysts. The catalytic reactions were performed under both isothermal and mechanical activation conditions and their rates estimated by monitoring the gradual consumption of carbon monoxide. Aimed at carrying out a sound comparison, the rate of mechanically activated processes was referred to individual collisions by normalizing its value to the amount of powder involved in individual collisions and to the time interval of ongoing deformation. This allowed to point out that the amount of carbon monoxide converted per unit of catalyst mass and unit of time under mechanical activation conditions is at least four orders of magnitude larger than the one reacted under thermal activation conditions. This result is tentatively connected with the generation of local excited states at the catalyst surface. (author)

  18. Development of an enzymatic sensor for carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and the pursuit of gases that contribute in the increase of the atmospheric contamination are a necessity, for what the electrochemical sensors have potential industrial applications for the control of the quality of the air. The development of amperometric sensor based on enzymes offers advantages, since the use of the biological component provides him high selectivity due to the great specificity of the substrate of the enzyme. The monoxide of carbon (CO) it is a polluting, poisonous gas, taken place during the incomplete combustion of organic materials (natural gas, petroleum, gasoline, coal and vegetable material). The determination of monoxide of carbon (CO) it can be reached by electrochemical mediums using the methylene blue like the electronic mediator for the enzyme monoxide of carbon oxidase (COx)

  19. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon concentrations at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cristofanelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and equivalent black carbon (BC concentrations at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV, part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy. For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analysed and correlated with the output of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC concentrations at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppbv, 122 ± 7 ppbv and 213 ± 34 ng m−3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p<95%, with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO.

    According to FLEXPART output, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracer concentrations only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five major events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local, source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from −0.22 to 0.71 and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m−3 ppbv−1 were observed.

    CO related with anthropogenic emissions (COant contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May–September for CO, 19% (in May–September for O3 and 32% (in January–April for BC. During May–September, the analysis of

  20. Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cristofanelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the variability of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO and equivalent black carbon (BC at the Italian Climate Observatory "O. Vittori" (ICO-OV, part of the Mt. Cimone global GAW-WMO station (Italy. For this purpose, ICO-OV observations carried out in the period January 2007–June 2009, have been analyzed and correlated with the outputs of the FLEXPART Lagrangian dispersion model to specifically evaluate the influence of biomass burning (BB and anthropogenic emissions younger than 20 days. During the investigation period, the average O3, CO and BC at ICO-OV were 54 ± 3 ppb, 122 ± 7 ppb and 213 ± 34 ng m−3 (mean ± expanded uncertainty with p < 95%, with clear seasonal cycles characterized by summer maxima and winter minima for O3 and BC and spring maximum and summer minimum for CO.

    According to FLEXPART outputs, BB impact is maximized during the warm months from July to September but appeared to have a significant contribution to the observed tracers only during specific transport events. We characterised in detail five "representative" events with respect to transport scales (i.e. global, regional and local, source regions and O3, CO and BC variations. For these events, very large variability of enhancement ratios O3/CO (from −0.22 to 0.71 and BC/CO (from 2.69 to 29.83 ng m−3 ppb−1 were observed.

    CO contributions related with anthropogenic emissions (COant contributed to 17.4% of the mean CO value observed at ICO-OV, with the warm months appearing particularly affected by transport events of air-masses rich in anthropogenic pollution. The proportion of tracer variability that is described by FLEXPART COant peaked to 37% (in May–September for CO, 19% (in May–September for O3 and 32% (in January–April for BC. During May–September, the analysis of the correlation

  1. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  2. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26078257

  3. Variation characteristics of carbon monoxide and ozone over the course of the 2014 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bokun; BIAN Lingen; ZHENG Xiangdong; DING Minghu; XIE Zhouqing

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon monoxide and ozone in the marine boundary layer were measured during the 6th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (from July to September, 2014). Carbon monoxide concentration ranged between 47.00 and 528.52 ppbv with an average of 103.59 ± 40.37 ppbv. A slight decrease with increasing latitude was observed, except for the extremely high values over the East China Sea which may be attributed to anthropogenic emissions. Ozone concentration ranged between 3.27 and 77.82 ppbv with an average of 29.46±10.48 ppbv. Ozone concentration decreased sharply with increasing latitude outside the Arctic Ocean (during both the northward and the southward course), while no significant variation was observed over the Arctic Ocean. The positive correlation between carbon monoxide and ozone in most sections suggests that the ozone in the marine boundary layer mainly originated from photochemical reactions involving carbon monoxide.

  4. Carbon monoxide in the environs of the star WR 16

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Bronfman, L

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the carbon monoxide emission around the star WR 16 aiming to chieve a better understanding of the interaction between massive stars with their surroundings. We study the molecular gas in a region of 86.'4 x 86.'4 in size using CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0) line data obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope. Radio continuum archival data at 4.85 GHz, obtained from the Parkes-MIT-NRAO Southern Radio Survey, are also analyzed to account for the ionized gas. Available IRAS (HIRES) 60 and 100 microns images are used to study the characteristics of the dust around the star. Our new CO and 13CO data allow the low/intermediate density molecular gas surrounding the WR nebula to be completely mapped. We report two molecular features at -5 km/s and -8.5 km/s (component 1 and component 2, respectively) having a good morphological resemblance with the Halpha emission of the ring nebula. Component 2 seems to be associated with the external ring, whilst component 1 is placed at the interface between component 2 and t...

  5. Circulatory effects and kinetics following acute administration of carbon monoxide in a porcine model.

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Anna-Maja; Hultin, Magnus; ABRAHAMSSON, Pernilla; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in the endothelial cells and has possible vasodilator activity through three different pathways. The aim of this study was to demonstrate circulatory effects after administration of saturated carbon monoxide blood and to describe the pharmacokinetics of carbon monoxide. Six pigs were anesthetized and 150 ml blood was removed. This blood was bubbled with carbon monoxide until the carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels were 90-99%. A specific amount of this blood was then i...

  6. The solubility of very low concentratiions of carbon monoxide in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, R. W.; Spedding, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    The solubility of carbon monoxide in natural waters has been determined when the partial pressure of carbon monoxide in the gas phase approaches atmospheric concentrations. For both pure water and seawater the solubilities were found to be more than eight times the values which have previously been observed with an atmosphere of pure carbon monoxide present. Carbon monoxide therefore does not obey Henry's law over the pressure range from approximately 10?5 atmospheres to greater than one atmo...

  7. Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hatami, Mehrangiz; Naftolin, Frederick; Khatamee, Masood A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive he...

  8. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared. ► Catalytic removal of CO over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. ► Effects of Pd %, CO conc., humidity, GHSV and reaction environment were studied. - Abstract: Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO2 through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO + 1/2O2 → CO2. Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO.

  9. CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Lyα-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.

  10. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  11. A Case of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Thrombus in Right Atrium

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyoin; Kim, Dae-Hee; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Joon-Seok; Yang, Jeeeun; Kim, Sun-Mok; Park, So Young; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a nonirritant, odorless, colorless gas. Its effects are prominent in organs most sensitive to oxygen deprivation, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Although less frequently, an association between thromboembolic events and carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown in the literatures. In this case, we report a case of atrial thrombus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the Commonwealth... implemented strategies will not create carbon monoxide violations elsewhere in the vicinity after the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the plan does not...) and carbon monoxide in the San Francisco Bay Area, San Diego, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin...

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Bilateral lesions in the thalamus on MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging of the brain in a child with carbon monoxide poisoning revealed bilateral diffuse high signal in the centrum semiovale and the previously unreported finding of bilateral high intensity lesions the anterior thalami. This case illustrates a previously unrecognized effect of carbon monoxide poisoning and demonstrates the superiority of MR imaging over computed tomography in cases of carbon monoxide poisoning. (orig.)

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Kurdish (کوردی) Laotian (Lao) Portuguese (português) Somali (af Soomaali) ... Khmer) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kurdish (کوردی) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  16. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  17. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013

  19. Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, B.; Crawford, R

    1996-01-01

    Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

  20. Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  2. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

  3. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  4. Analysis of Alternative National Ambient Carbon Monoxide Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph L. Keeney; Rakesh K. Sarin; Winkler, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A risk assessment model is developed to relate adverse health effects to alternative carbon monoxide standards. The analysis requires information in the form of available data and expert judgments concerning factors such as ambient CO level, human exposure to CO, physiological responses, and dose-response relationships. Quantitative estimates, including probabilities, are obtained for selected summary measures of adverse health effects.

  5. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  6. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  7. Geostatistical modelling of carbon monoxide levels in Khartoum State (Sudan) - GIS pilot based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop a digital GIS model; that can evaluate, predict and visualize carbon monoxide (CO) levels in Khartoum state. To achieve this aim, sample data had been collected, processed and managed to generate a dynamic GIS model of carbon monoxide levels in the study area. Parametric data collected from the field and analysis carried throughout this study show that (CO) emissions were lower than the allowable ambient air quality standards released by National Environment Protection Council (NEPC-USA) for 1998. However, this pilot study has found emissions of (CO) in Omdurman city were the highest. This pilot study shows that GIS and geostatistical modeling can be used as a powerful tool to produce maps of exposure. (authors)

  8. An assessment on in-vehicle concentration of carbon monoxide for taxis in central business district of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi ollah Mansouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Carbon monoxide is colorless and odorless gas. In high concentrations, CO is deadly poisonous and in low concentrations can cause fatigue, headache, dizziness and seizures. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity to combines hemoglobin which can decrease oxygen capacity in blood. To address this problem, human body begins to produce red blood cells, this can increases blood viscosity and thus increase diseases such as stroke and heart attack. About 60 percent of total emissions of carbon monoxide are associated automobile exhaust. In this study, concentration of carbon monoxide has been measured in the cabin space of taxis in high-traffic areas of Tehran.Materials and Methods: This study is carried out in spring and summer 2011. Concentrations of carbon monoxide in different types of taxi cabin space (Peugeot, Samand, Pride and Peykan were measured by carbon monoxide meter Q RAE 2 models in different conditions of motion: high speed (over 45 kilometers per hour, low speed (15-30 kilometers per hour and stop (0 kilometers per hour. Results: Results showed that concentration of carbon monoxide in old vehicles (above 10 years is more than three times compared to new vehicles and outdoor. In addition, according to the measured values, at low speeds, values of CO rapidly increased, so that in speeds of less than 15 km, values of CO go beyond standard values (9 ppm.Conclusion: Results show that the mean value of the measured concentration of carbon monoxide is higher than amounts recommended by WHO and EPA and local authorities such as Air Quality Control Organization of Tehran. Concentrations observed in this study are up to 40 more than results of a study by German researchers in summer 1995 and winter 1996.

  9. Air Pollution by Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisonous Gas in Lagos Area Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode S. John; Kamson Feyisayo

    2013-01-01

    We examined exposure to air pollution caused by households’ wood burning of cooking, generating sets and vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonous gas in the most populated urban city of Lagos Southwestern part of Nigeria. It is a known fact that many families including children and pregnant women; infant babies and individuals lost their lives due to poor quality air control policies, and inefficient control of air pollution caused by this deadly gas. Many ar...

  10. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; S. Sadeghian; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur...

  11. 78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... demonstrates that the Fairbanks Area will maintain the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards... Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to approve a carbon monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan for the Fairbanks...

  12. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  13. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  14. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis oxidation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irreversible kinetic surface-reaction model, based upon the reaction of carbon monoxide nd oxygen on a catalyst surface is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The adsorbed molecules/atoms on the surface undergo both first and second order kinetic phase transitions. The first order transition is found to occur at x/sub/co=x/sub/2=0.5255 with an error bar of 0.0003, where x/sub/co is the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gas phase. The time evolution of this catalytic reaction is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. Slightly above x/sub/2, the oxygen coverage relaxation time for the oxygen is found to diverage as the inverse of 3.54 times the absolute of the difference of x/sub/2 and x/sub/co. (orig./A.B.)

  15. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  16. Exergy parametric study of carbon monoxide oxidation in moist air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Ferhat; Benmalek, Toufik; Yesaad, Billel; Baik, Mouloud

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide in moist air from the second thermodynamic law aspect. A mathematical model of laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow has been achieved by numerical solution of the boundary layer equation using a self-made code. The chemical kinetic mechanism for flameless combustion of fuel, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water vapor, is modeled by 34 elementary reactions that incorporate (09) nine chemical species: CO, O, CO2, O2, H2O, H, H2, HO2, and OH. The salient point is that for all the parameters we considered, the exergy of the process is completely destroyed by irreversibilities. From the chemical viewpoint, the OH radical plays an essential role in CO oxidation. This latter point has already been mentioned by previous investigators.

  17. Emission of Sulphur Oxides, Nitrogen Oxides and Carbon Monoxide in the Selected European Union Countries in the Years 1995-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAN WÓJCIK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversity and changes in the emission of typical pollutant gases: CO, SOx and NOx in the selected European Union countries in the years 1995-2010. This process was determined to be diverse both in time and space. There was an evident decrease in the total emission of the above-mentioned pollutants also in some countries with a dynamics higher in the years 1995-2000 than in the first decade of the 21st century. The highest actual emission of the analyzed pollutants took place in Poland, Bulgaria and Romania, with the lowest values in Slovenia, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. In the years 1995-2010, the disproportions between the countries in the spatial diversification of air pollution emission considerably diminished. One of the consequences of the decline in the air pollution emission is an improvement of air quality in numerous urbanized and industrialized areas in the research countries.

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  19. Nitric oxide increases carbon monoxide production by piglet cerebral microvessels

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, Charles W.; Balabanova, Liliya; Fedinec, Alexander L.; Parfenova, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) can be involved in regulation of cerebral circulation. Inhibition of production of either one of these gaseous intercellular messengers inhibits newborn pig cerebral arteriolar dilation to the excitatory amino acid glutamate. Glutamate can increase NO production. Therefore, the present study tests the hypothesis that NO, which is increased by glutamate, stimulates the production of CO by cerebral microvessels. Experiments used freshly isolated cerebr...

  20. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Suppresses Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhihong; Song, Ruiping; Fattman, Cheryl L.; Greenhill, Sara; Alber, Sean; Oury, Tim D.; Augustine M K Choi; Morse, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an incurable fibrosing disorder that progresses relentlessly to respiratory failure. We hypothesized that a product of heme oxygenase activity, carbon monoxide (CO), may have anti-fibrotic effects. To test this hypothesis, mice treated with intratracheal bleomycin were exposed to low-concentration inhaled CO or ambient air. Lungs of mice treated with CO had significantly lower hydroxyproline accumulation than controls. Fibroblast proliferation, thought to play...

  2. Modeling carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires

    OpenAIRE

    YUAN, LIMING; Zhou, Lihong; Smith, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of mine fire fatalities in underground mines. To reduce the hazard of CO poisoning in underground mines, it is important to accurately predict the spread of CO in underground mine entries when a fire occurs. This paper presents a study on modeling CO spread in underground mine fires using both the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the MFIRE programs. The FDS model simulating part of the mine ventilation network was calibrated...

  3. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied ...

  4. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R. A.; F. Kozma; E. Colombari

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and...

  5. Inhibition of trichloroethylene oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, S M; Grbić-Galić, D

    1991-01-01

    Inhibition of trichloroethylene (TCE) oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide (CO) was evaluated with the aquifer methanotroph Methylomonas sp. strain MM2. CO was a TCE transformation intermediate. During TCE oxidation, approximately 9 mol% of the TCE was transformed to CO. CO was oxidized by Methylomonas sp. strain MM2, and when formate was provided as an electron donor, the CO oxidation rate doubled. The rate of CO oxidation without formate was 4.6 liter mg (dry weight)...

  6. MR Imaging of brain changes from carbon-monoxide intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of carbon-monoxide intoxication were studied with MR imaging. The main MR findings were discussed and compared with CT results. MR imaging demonstrated SNC lesion sooner and better than CT-its images corresponding to the anatomic-pathological patterns described in literature.However, sever MR limitations-i.e. the very long execution time and the difficult monitoring of the patients-prevent this methodology from being more extensively employed in this kind of pathology

  7. Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in polycythaemia rubra vera.

    OpenAIRE

    Greening, A P; Patel, K.; Goolden, A W; Munro, A J; Hughes, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The diffusing capacity of the lung, or transfer factor, for carbon monoxide (TLCO) was measured in 12 patients with polycythaemia rubra vera. This was significantly raised (mean 152% predicted, SEM +/- 14%) and remained so even after correction to a standard haemoglobin concentration of 14 . 6 g/dl (mean 139% predicted, SEM +/- 13%). Serial measurements of TLCO on two patients after treatment of polycythaemia rubra vera showed a greater fall in relation to haemoglobin concentration than would...

  8. Rates of carbon monoxide elimination in males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Zavorsky, Gerald S.; Tesler, Janet; Rucker, Joshua; Fedorko, Ludwik; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to verify the previously reported shorter half‐time of elimination (t ½) of carbon monoxide (CO) in females compared to males. Seventeen healthy subjects (nine men) completed three sessions each, on separate days. For each session, subjects were exposed to CO to raise the carboxyhemoglobin percentage (COHb) to ~10%; then breathed in random order, either (a) 100% O2 at poikilocapnia (no CO2 added), or (b) hyperoxia while maintaining normocapnia using sequ...

  9. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra-Beigom seyd-Aghamiri; Mohsen Vijeh; Fereshte Farzianpoor; Zahra kazemi-Asfe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  10. Carbon monoxide: present and future indications for a medical gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., \\(H_2S\\), nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme ...

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M. V.; Agius, G.; Galea Debono, A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the patient, and other members of the household who could subsequently become intoxicated. Guidance on the correct ...

  12. Quoth the Raven: carbon monoxide and nothing more

    OpenAIRE

    Otterbein, Leo E.

    2013-01-01

    The articles contained in this review series exemplify the diverse applications and succinct biological relevance of this simple gas. Articles summarizing the important effects of carbon monoxide in preventing the rejection of an organ, in its neuroprotective properties in piglets, regulation of mycobacterial growth, in its anti-inflammatory effects in the gut and in its use in new and innovative modalities and avenues by which to harness adjuvant therapies are eloquently and precisely descri...

  13. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Amano Mariane; Camara Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO) had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The p...

  14. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Çiftçi; Murat Günday; Mustafa Çaliskan; Hakan Güllü; Rafi Dogan; Aytekin Güven; Haldun Müderrisoglu

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Ec...

  15. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Mao; Sun Yun; Bai Jianling; Yu Rongbin; Yao Xin; Zhang Jingying; Adcock Ian M; Barnes Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language ar...

  16. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon Kyung Choi; Por, Elaine D.; Young-Guen Kwon; Young-Myeong Kim

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angio...

  17. Inhaled Carbon Monoxide Provides Cerebral Cytoprotection in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, Vicki L.; Zurakowski, David; Otterbein, Leo E.; Pigula, Frank Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) at low concentrations imparts protective effects in numerous preclinical small animal models of brain injury. Evidence of protection in large animal models of cerebral injury, however, has not been tested. Neurologic deficits following open heart surgery are likely related in part to ischemia reperfusion injury that occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Using a model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in piglets, we evaluated the effects of CO to reduce...

  18. The Social Network of Carbon Monoxide in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Wegiel, Barbara; Hanto, Douglas W.; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2012-01-01

    Networking between cells is critical for proper functioning of the cellular milieu and is mediated by cascades of highly regulated and overlapping signaling molecules. The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) generates three separate signaling molecules through the catalysis of heme – carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron – each of which acts via distinct molecular targets to influence cell function, both proximally and distally. This review focuses on state-of-the art developments and insight...

  19. Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schiller, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on ...

  20. Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Porokhnya Maria V; Haertdinov Nail N; Abramochkin Denis V; Zefirov Andrew L; Sitdikova Gusel F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and vent...

  1. Carbon monoxide as a signaling molecule in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Meng eWang; Weibiao eLiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its role in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enha...

  2. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meng; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can en...

  3. Tropospheric carbon monoxide: satellite observations and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    MacCallum, Stuart Neil

    2008-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the troposphere as a product of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons. It is the principal sink of the hydroxyl radical (OH), thereby affecting the concentrations of greenhouse gases such as CH4 and O3. Consequently, CO has an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months, making it a good tracer for studying the long range transport of pollution. Satellite observations present a valuable tool to investigate tropospheric CO....

  4. Exposure to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and volatile organic compounds while commuting by bicycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being 10.5 ppm. Respirable suspended particulates, averaged over each journey period, were found at higher concentrations (mean 130 μg m-3) than would be expected in indoor situations. Mean exposure to benzene (at 56 μg m-3) and other aromatic volatile organic compounds was also relatively high. The influence of wind conditions on exposure was found to be significant. Commuting exposures to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and aromatic VOCs were found to be higher than exposures in a busy high street and on common parkland

  5. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  6. [Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed. PMID:24860052

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  8. The carbon monoxide saturates the capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air contamination is one of the main environmental problems confronted in the last decades by the cities with greater urban and industrial development of Latin America, depending the magnitude of the problem and the character of the contaminants of the urban model of development of each city and of the ways of production. The city of San Jose is characterized by unplanened growth , in the last two decades, of their urban, industrial activities of transportation and commerce, which has brought prepared an increment of emissions of contaminants to the air that cause vary of the components of the atmosphere, variations that many times are translated in a negative impact that alters the ecosystems, health and economy of the city

  9. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  10. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play an...... important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...... of cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathways. Here, we review the literature about carbon monoxide-induced headache and its possible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: We suggest, for the first time, that carbon monoxide may play an important role in the mechanisms of migraine and other headaches....

  11. Carbon Monoxide bands in M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlenko, Ya V; Pavlenko, Yakiv V.; Jones, Hugh R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We compare the observational and theoretical spectra of the $\\Delta v$ = 2 CO bands in a range of M dwarfs. We investigate the dependence of theoretical spectra on effective temperatures as well as carbon abundance. In general we find that the synthetic CO bands fit the observed data extremely well and are excellent diagnostics. In particular the synthetic spectra reasonably match observations and the best fit temperatures are similar to those found by empirical methods. We also examine the \\CDC isotopic ratio. We find that fundamental $^{13}$CO bands around 2.345 and 2.375 $\\mu$m are good discriminators for the \\CDC ratio in M dwarfs. The 2.375 $\\mu$m is more useful because it doesn't suffer such serious contamination by water vapour transitions. Our current dataset does not quite have the wavelength coverage to perform a reliable determination of the \\CDC ratio in M dwarfs. For this we recommend observing the region 2.31--2.40 $\\mu$m at a resolution of better than 1000. Alternatively the observational probl...

  12. Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, L.; Ho, KF; Wang, T.; Qiu, H.; Pun, VC; Chan, CS; Louie, PKK; Yu, ITS

    2014-01-01

    Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of sh...

  13. [Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers. PMID:25261170

  14. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity: The difficulty in diagnosing this leading cause of poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. Th...

  15. Changes in Arterial Oxygen Tension Correlate with Changes in End-expiratory Carbon Monoxide Level

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Patrick; Kalmanowicz, Melanie; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Weimann, Joerg; Loer, Stephan A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen compete for haemoglobin binding sites. While the effects of increased inspiratory oxygen fractions on exhaled carbon monoxide concentrations have been studied previously, the relationships between intravascular oxygen tension, blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels and expiratory CO concentrations remain unclear. We therefore studied the effects of increases in arterial oxygen tension as crucial determinant for the displacement of carbon monoxide from its ha...

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. Materials and methods A male patient was broug...

  17. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ13C, δ18O and Δ17O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13CO/12CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH4) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The inaccurate surface

  18. XPS study on the surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The carbon monoxide adsorption on the surface oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy and the content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased. O/U radio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The investigation indicated the surface layer of uranium metal was further reduced in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide at high temperature. (3 refs., 5 figs.)

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India, carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness. PMID:26873733

  20. Chlorination of niobium oxide in the presence of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination kinetics of niobium pentoxide in the presence of carbon monoxide between 500-8000C of temperature is studied. The following variable that influences on the reaction rate are analysed: gas flow, geometry and volume of the Nb2O5 samples, reaction temperature and composition of the chlorinated mixture. At the same time, two other materials were studied: the CaO.Nb2O5 (synthetized in laboratory) and pyrochlorine concentrates. The three materials are compared for the chlorination method used. (M.A.C.)

  1. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, J.S.; Helling, Ch.; Friberg, P.

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan ...

  2. Real time carbon monoxide measurements from 270 UK homes

    OpenAIRE

    Croxford, B. J. F.; Hutchinson, E.; Leonardi, G. S.; McKenna, L.; L. Nicholson; Volans, G; Wilkinson, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study carried out in Winter 2004/2005 where a large number of homes were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the main living room for a period of at least one week. The homes were all owner-occupied; all had at least one of the following gas appliances, cooker, water heater, or gas fire; all home owners were in the low income group, considered vulnerable with the occupants generally over 60 and receiving state benefits of some kind. Dwel...

  3. Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

  4. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  5. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured b...

  6. Membrane topography of anaerobic carbon monoxide oxidation in Rhodocyclus gelatinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodocyclus gelatinosus 1 grows anaerobically in the dark at the expense of carbon monoxide. Topographical studies with methyl viologen as the membrane probe indicated that CO oxidation and H2 production sites were on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Membrane-associated hydrogen gas production appeared to be a unidirectional reaction. In the dark, strain 1 whole cells oxidized CO and incorporated about 306 pmol of 32P/sub i/ into ATP per min per mg of protein. With CO as the sole energy-yielding substrate, cells grew with a low growth yield coefficient of 3.7 g (dry weight) of cells per mg of CO oxidized

  7. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  8. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in African savannah air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Chatfield, R. B.

    Recent measurements of tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and carbon monoxide (CO) from the Kenyan savannah are reported. NMHC mixing ratios are among the lowest reported for the continental boundary layer. CO mixing ratios are higher than marine measurements at these latitudes. Biomass burning may contribute significantly to mixing ratios of CO and NMHC’s. Calculations based on the reactivity of the OH radical with NMHC’s and CO indicate that NMHC’s often initially consume more OH than CO.

  9. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-10-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  10. On the interactions between carbon monoxide and transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sticking of carbon monoxide on surface atoms of transition metals is a collective phenomenon: according to the adsorption process period which is considered, this phenomenon may be formally described either by the Elovich equation or essentially from a steric point of view. The process rate depends upon the nature of the metal, the carbon monoxide pressure the temperature and the population densities of the induced and fundamental energy levels of the gas-solid bond. At least one of these induced levels tends to disappear with increasing time. For a localised adsorption and taking into account the surface Rayleigh waves, the analysis of the surface entropy yields the so-called iso-kinetic temperature for thermal desorption. This temperature is correlated with the cohesive energy of the metal surface atoms. Finally, it is shown that the interactions of a low energy electron bean with adsorbed molecules - reflection and energy exchange, desorption, ionization or dissociative ionization are strongly dependent on the energy levels of the gas-solid bond and the relative populations of these levels. (author)

  11. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  12. Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porokhnya Maria V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and ventricular myocardium. Contractions of atrial myocardial stripes were registered via force transducer. Results CO (10-4 - 10-3 M caused prominent decrease of action potential duration (APD in working atrial myocardium as well as significant acceleration of sinus rhythm. In addition CO reduced force of contractions and other parameters of contractile activity. Inhibitor of heme oxygenase zinc protoporphyrin IX exerts opposite effects: prolongation of action potential, reduction of sinus rhythm rate and enhancement of contractile function. Therefore, endogenous CO, which may be generated in the heart due to the presence of active heme oxygenase, is likely to exert the same effects as exogenous CO applied to the perfusing medium. In ventricular myocardium preparations exogenous CO also induced shortening of action potential, while zinc protoporphyrin IX produced the opposite effect. Conclusions Thus, endogenous or exogenous carbon monoxide may act as an important regulator of electrical and contractile cardiac activity.

  13. Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 μM KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O2. The enzyme was nearly homogenous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in 63Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent K/sub m/ of 5 mM for CO and a V/sub max/ of 1300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed

  14. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  15. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... existing violations, or delay timely attainment of the national ambient air quality standards. The minimum... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation... budget (MVEB) in the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State...

  16. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by...

  17. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by: (1) A reference method based on appendix C and... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air......

  18. The transport coefficients of electron swarms in hydrogen and carbon monoxide at moderate E/N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drift velocity in hydrogen and carbon monoxide and the ratio of the lateral diffusion coefficient to mobility in carbon monoxide were measured at ambient temperature and over the ranges of the reduced electric field E/N. The results are 250 < E/N <= 350 Td and 5 <= E/N <= 350 Td, and 75<= E/N <= 500 Td, respectively. (author)

  19. Evidence for a nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammel, K E; Cornwell, K L; Diekert, G B; Thauer, R K

    1984-01-01

    In growing cultures of Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus (Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus), the synthesis of active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase required nickel. The 21-fold-purified enzyme from 63Ni-labeled cells of M. arboriphilicus comigrated with 63Ni during gel filtration. These results provide evidence that the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase of methanogens is a nickel protein.

  20. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  1. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

  2. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases

  3. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  4. Carbon monoxide distributions from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere inferred from 4.7 μm non-local thermal equilibrium emissions measured by MIPAS on Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present global distributions of carbon monoxide (CO from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat. Vertically resolved volume mixing ratio profiles have been retrieved from 4.7 μm limb emission spectra under consideration of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium. The precision of individual CO profiles is typically 5–30 ppbv (15–40% for altitudes greater than 40 km and lower than 15 km and 30–90% within 15–40 km. Estimated systematic errors are in the order of 8–15%. Below 60 km, the vertical resolution is 4–7 km. The data set which covers 54 days from September 2003 to March 2004 has been derived with an improved retrieval version including (i the retrieval of log(vmr, (ii the consideration of illumination-dependent vibrational population gradients along the instrument's line of sight, and (iii joint-fitted vmr horizontal gradients in latitudinal and longitudinal directions. A detailed analysis of spatially resolved CO distributions during the 2003/2004 Northern Hemisphere major warming event demonstrate the potential of MIPAS CO observations to obtain new information on transport processes during dynamical active episodes, particularly on those acting in the vertical. From the temporal evolution of zonally averaged CO abundances, we derived extraordinary polar winter descent velocities of 1200 m per day inside the recovered polar vortex in January 2004. Middle stratospheric CO abundances show a well established correlation with the chemical source CH4, particularly in the tropics. In the upper troposphere, a moderate CO decrease from September 2003 to March 2004 was observed. Upper tropospheric CO observations provide a detailed picture of long-range transport of polluted air masses and uplift events. MIPAS observations taken on 9–11 September 2003 confirm the trapping of convective outflow of polluted CO-rich air from

  5. Black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide in European regionally polluted air masses at Mace Head, Ireland during 1995-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous measurements of black carbon aerosol (BCA) at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ireland show the occurrence of dramatically elevated concentrations when regionally polluted air masses are advected to the station. These occurrences correlate well with similar elevations in carbon monoxide and a wide range of other trace gases monitored near-simultaneously with the BCA. Using daily sector allocation and a sophisticated Lagrangian dispersion model, two independent estimates of the European emission source strength of BCA that are required to explain the Mace Head observations have been made. The best estimates of the UK and European emission source strengths of BCA are 46 ± 14 and [(482-511) ± 140] X 103tonnes yr-1, respectively, and these estimates compare favourably with published inventories, at least to within ± 25%, though they are considerably smaller than the emissions employed in some early global climate model studies. (author)

  6. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Children: Diagnosis And Management In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnow, Theodore E; Waltzman, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 5000 children present to the emergency department annually with unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Children may be more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of their increased metabolic demand and their inability to vocalize symptoms or recognize a dangerous exposure, and newborn infants are more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of the persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning may present as viral symptoms in the absence of fever. While headache, nausea, and vomiting are the most common presenting symptoms in children, the most common symptom in infants is consciousness disturbance. This review discusses the limitations of routine pulse oximetry and carboxyhemoglobin measurement in determining carbon monoxide exposure, and notes effects of co-ingestions and comorbidities. Although the mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen, the current evidence and controversies in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in pediatric patients is reviewed, along with its possible benefit in preventing delayed neurologic sequelae. PMID:27547917

  7. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  8. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been o...

  9. Guideline for local public health authorities. Carbon monoxide; GGD-richtlijn medische milieukunde. Koolmonoxide in woon- en verblijfsruimten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoff, R.L.H.; Boels, E.L.; Van Knapen, L.; Poelman, B.; Zwart-Voorspuij, W.A.; Van Brederode, N.E.

    2008-07-01

    This guideline provides local public health authorities active in the field of environmental medicine with a tool for tackling problems concerning carbon monoxide emissions in all types of living accommodations. The guideline discusses both the formulation of policy aimed at reducing the risk of carbon monoxide emission and the handling of reports of carbon monoxide emissions in living accommodations. The ultimate objective of the guideline is to reduce the risk of carbon monoxide intoxication to a minimum using available resources. In terms of formulating policy, the guideline provides an overview of key points that can be used by the local public health authority to determine the most feasible and the effective strategy to follow. In the case of an indoor air quality report in which carbon monoxide emissions are mentioned the local public health authority has the responsibility to carry out a risk assessment, to conduct measurements, to present recommendations for preventative measures as well as additional investigations and to provide easily accessible information on the health risks of carbon monoxide emissions. [Dutch] Het RIVM heeft een richtlijn ontwikkeld, die GGD'en handvatten biedt om de koolmonoxideproblematiek in woon- en verblijfsruimten binnen hun regio aan te pakken. Doel is om met de beschikbare middelen het risico op een koolmonoxidevergiftiging tot een minimum te beperken. De oorzaak van koolmonoxidevergiftiging is vrijwel altijd een verhoogde concentratie koolmonoxide in een woon- of verblijfsruimte. De richtlijn gaat in op zowel de beleidsmatige kant van het probleem, gericht op het voorkomen van koolmonoxideproblematiek, alsmede de behandeling van een melding waarbij koolmonoxide een rol speelt. Een belangrijk uitgangspunt van de richtlijn is dat maatregelen aan de bron (het tegengaan van koolmonoxide-emissie) de voorkeur hebben boven het enkel toepassen van effectgerichte risicobeheersende maatregelen, zoals het plaatsen van

  10. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N2/CH4 to a variety of energy sources. However, many N2/CH4 atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  11. Chromo-fluorogenic probes for carbon monoxide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Hernández, Cristina; Toscani, Anita; Sancenón, Félix; Wilton-Ely, James D E T; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2016-05-21

    The sensing of carbon monoxide (CO) using electrochemical cells or semiconducting metal oxides has led to inexpensive alarms for the home and workplace. It is now recognised that chronic exposure to low levels of CO also poses a significant health risk. It is perhaps surprising therefore that the CO is used in cell-signalling pathways and plays a growing role in therapy. However, the selective monitoring of low levels of CO remains challenging, and it is this area that has benefited from the development of probes which give a colour or fluorescence response. This feature article covers the design of chromo-fluorogenic probes and their application to CO sensing in air, solution and in cells. PMID:27029422

  12. Symmetrical Femoral Neuropathy and Rhabdomyolysis Complicating Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hua Kuo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Although carbon monoxide (CO is a common cause of morbidity due to poisoning,peripheral neuropathy following CO poisoning has rarely been reported. Furthermore, rhabdomyolysiscaused of CO poisoning is also uncommon. The report focuses on a patient withsymmetrical femoral neuropathy and rhabdomyolysis associated with CO poisoning.A 32-year-old male was admitted to hospital in a deep coma following CO poisoning.On admission, rhabdomylosis was also identified (total creatinine phosphokinase, 19662IU/L; CK-MB, 272 IU/L. After receiving hyperbaric oxygen, the patient regained consciousness;however, bilateral hip flexors and knee extensors were still weak in accordanceto the manual muscle test. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performedand did not reveal any abnormal lesions. Nerve conduction examination and electromyographyresults indicated symmetrical femoral neuropathy. After taking the rehabilitation programfor peripheral and central nervous system lesions, the patient achieved functionalimprovement in ambulation, endurance and balance.

  13. Modelling Of Carbon Monoxide Generation In A Compartment During Fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary cause of death in building fires is smoke inhalation with the majority of deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning. A new methodology for predicting species levels at the exit plane of an enclosure was developed. The proposed methodology correlated the species yields based on the combustion within the compartment as a function of the global equivalence ratio. The present study introduce a combustion model of propane and determine each parameter used in the model as a function of equivalence ratio. The species assumed to be generated in the model were CO2 , CO, O2 , H2O, H2 and unburned fuel. The model agrees with the previous experimental results for other studies (Gottuk et al., 1992 and Beyler, 1986).

  14. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability. PMID:25536918

  15. Acute Lung Injury Due To Carbon Monoxide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzkeser M et al.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old woman, who was found unconscious in the bed by the morning, was brought to emergency department. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 20.2%. The portable chest X-ray showed bilaterally alveolar and interstitial infiltration. Initial pO 2 /FIO 2 ratio was calculated as 119 mmHg. Acute lung injury due to carbon monoxide intoxication was considered. She was intubated and mechanical ventilation was applied. In the second day of hospitalization, a clear improvement was observed on the chest X-ray. She was discharged without any complication on the seventh day of hospitalization. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent progression of ARDS and progression of permanent damage, and may lead to complete recovery.

  16. Multiple targets of carbon monoxide gas in the intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract. It is important to investigate the precise pathogenesis of IBD, to evaluate new anti-inflammatory agents, and to develop novel drugs. Carbon monoxide (CO) has emerged as an important regulator of acute and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory effects is only partially understood. Recent reports have demonstrated that CO could play a role in the functional modulation of epithelial and immunological cells in the intestine. In this short review, we have highlighted the recent findings that CO stimulates the epithelial cell restitution and FGF production from myofibroblasts. CO was also shown to regulate T cell activation and differentiation, and to activate macrophages. Finally, we have discussed the direction of translational research with respect to launching a novel agent for releasing CO in the intestine. PMID:27095232

  17. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  18. Carbon monoxide as a signaling molecule in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its role in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defence system. Moreover, CO shows cross talk with other signaling molecules including NO, phytohormone (IAA, ABA and GA and other gas signaling molecules (H2S, H2, CH4.

  19. Carbon Monoxide as a Signaling Molecule in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants, due to its ability to trigger a series of physiological reactions. This article provides a brief update on the synthesis of CO, its physiological functions in plant growth and development, as well as its roles in abiotic stress tolerance such as drought, salt, ultraviolet radiation, and heavy metal stress. CO has positive effects on seed germination, root development, and stomatal closure. Also, CO can enhance plant abiotic stress resistance commonly through the enhancement of antioxidant defense system. Moreover, CO shows cross talk with other signaling molecules including NO, phytohormones (IAA, ABA, and GA) and other gas signaling molecules (H2S, H2, CH4). PMID:27200045

  20. Design of biomaterials for intracellular delivery of carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroshi; Fujita, Kenta; Ueno, Takafumi

    2015-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is recognized as one of the most important gas signaling molecules involved in governing various therapeutic responses. Intracellular generation of CO is spatiotemporally controlled by catalytic reactions of heme oxygenases (HOs). Thus, the ability to control intracellular CO delivery with modulation of the CO-release rate in specific amounts and locations is expected to improve our fundamental understanding of the functions of CO and the development of clinical applications. For this purpose, CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been developed and investigated in vitro and in vivo. Most CORMs are based on transition metal carbonyl complexes. Recently, various biomaterials consisting of metal carbonyls with biomacromolecular scaffolds have been reported to improve the properties of bare metal carbonyls. In this mini-review, current progress in CO delivery, recent strategies for the development of CORMs, and future directions in this field are discussed. PMID:26252321

  1. Broad carbon monoxide line wings near T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report observations of carbon monoxide (CO) toward 26 T Tauri stars and related objects. In 19 of these objects, broad CO line wings of intensity > or approx. =0.1 K were detected, implying mass outflow is a common phenomenon in T Tauri stars. The velocity width (full width) of the wings ranges from 10 to 80 km s-1 and clusters around 25 km s-1. In general, the line wings are asymmetric with respect to the line core and the sense of asymmetry varies among sources. In the case of T Tauri, which has the broadest wing detected in these sources, the sense of wing asymmetry varies with position and may be due to source geometry

  2. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  3. Carbon nanotube prepared from carbon monoxide by CVD method and its application as electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yuliang; YUAN Xia; CHENG Shinan; GEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with larger inner diameter were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon monoxide (CO) on iron catalyst using H2S as promoting agent.It is found that the structure and morphology of carbon nanotubes can be tailored, to some degree, by varying the experimental conditions such as precursor components and process parameters.The results show that the presence of H2S may play key role for growing Y-branched carbon nanotubes.The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively.Furthermore, the obtained carbon nanotubes were explored as electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  4. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  5. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  6. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 6. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Jessiman, Barry J.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IS AN ENIGMATIC ILLNESS. The symptoms are often nonspecific or masked by an exacerbation of an underlying illness, such as congestive heart failure, that has been triggered by carbon monoxide inhalation. The effects can range from mild, annoying symptoms relieved by removal of the source to severe morbidity with profound central nervous system dysfunction, acute complications and delayed sequelae. Estimates suggest that about one-third of nonfatal cases of carbon mon...

  7. Perfil audiométrico e de emissões otoacústicas evocadas por produto de distorção em gestores de trânsito expostos a monóxido de carbono e ruído Audiometric profile and evoked otoacoustic emissions per product of distortion in transit managers, exposed to carbon monoxide and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya de Carvalho Rocha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o perfil audiométrico e de emissões otoacústicas evocadas por produto de distorção em gestores de trânsito, expostos a monóxido de carbono e ruído, bem como constatar a presença de ambos agentes nos postos de trabalho. MÉTODO:estudo transversal, descritivo, com 37 gestores do trânsito, submetidos a anamnese, meatoscopia, audiometria tonal e emissões otoacústicas, distribuídos em: G1, composto por 18 indivíduos sem histórico de exposição concomitante a monóxido de carbono e ruído; e, G2, formado por 19 trabalhadores expostos simultaneamente aos dois agentes. Para pesquisa da presença dos agentes no ambiente foram utilizadas audiodosímetrias e avaliações de curta duração com medidor instantâneo. As variáveis de anamnese foram analisadas segundo o teste t Student e Mann-Whitney. Para as medidas de otoemissões acústicas e de limiares tonais utilizou-se testes de qui-quadrado (χ2 ou exato de Fisher e dos postos sinalizados de Wilcoxon com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: foi constatada presença de monóxido de carbono e ruído durante a atividade dos trabalhadores. Não foi observada diferença significante na idade e tempo de função. O G2 obteve média de limiares tonais maior que G1, para orelha direita, em 1KHz (p=0,050 e para orelha esquerda em 3KHz (p=0,016 e 4KHz (p=0,028; e, comparados os limiares tonais alterados G2 apresentou diferença maior em 3KHz na orelha esquerda (p=0,003. Nas emissões otoacústicas, G2 apresentou maior ausência de respostas que G1 em 2.730Hz e 3.218Hz (p=0.016 para orelha direita. CONCLUSÃO: trabalhadores expostos a monóxido de carbono e ruído apresentaram piores resultados audiométricos e nas emissões otoacústicas quando comparado ao grupo de não expostos.PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing profile and otoacoustic emission evoked by distortion product in Traffic Managers exposed to noise and carbon monoxide, as well as to establish the presence of both agents

  8. Modeling Potential Carbon Monoxide Exposure Due to Operation of a Major Rocket Engine Altitude Test Facility Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotzer, Michael J.; Woods, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews computational fluid dynamics as a tool for modelling the dispersion of carbon monoxide at the Stennis Space Center's A3 Test Stand. The contents include: 1) Constellation Program; 2) Constellation Launch Vehicles; 3) J2X Engine; 4) A-3 Test Stand; 5) Chemical Steam Generators; 6) Emission Estimates; 7) Located in Existing Test Complex; 8) Computational Fluid Dynamics; 9) Computational Tools; 10) CO Modeling; 11) CO Model results; and 12) Next steps.

  9. The oxidation of moderator graphites irradiated in carbon dioxide containing carbon monoxide, methane and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) was introduced for the second generation of British nuclear power stations. It was recognised that problems of compatibility between the carbon dioxide coolant and the moderator graphite would arise because of the increased power rating of the reactor compared with the first generation MAGNOX system. This led to the realisation that it would be necessary to reduce the rate of oxidation of the moderator to acceptable levels by the addition of inhibitors to the coolant and to this end carbon monoxide and methane were chosen. This paper describes experiments which have been made in a materials testing reactor at AERE Harwell in which moderator graphite reaction rates have been measured in carbon dioxide containing carbon monoxide at concentrations between 0.03% and 2% and methane concentrations up to 600 vpm. The effect of impressing a flow of coolant through the graphite structure, the so-called ventilation effect, and the role of coolant temperature and pressure have also been assessed. The results confirm the inhibiting power of methane and carbon monoxide on the graphite/CO2 reaction and demonstrate that the application of ventilation in the presence of these inhibitors enhances their effect. A minimum or 'terminal' oxidation rate may be achieved by the CAGR Gilso carbon graphites when irradiated in the presence of 200 vpm methane, or more, under appropriate conditions. (author)

  10. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U3O8) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U3O8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  11. CARBON MONOXIDE: ITS ROLE IN MITOCHONDRIAL PATHWAY OF APOPTOSIS INDUCTION IN JURKAT CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Starikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract. This study demonstrates ability of carbon monoxide to trigger mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis induction of Jurcat cells. We have shown that proapoptotic action of carbon monoxide is coupled to permeabilization of cellular mitochondrial membranes. Imbalance in Bcl-2 family of regulatory proteins may be considered among possible reasons of the membrane pore formation. We have shown downregulated cl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNA expression and decreased levels of antiapoptotic proteins, along wih decreased mRNA expression and increase of Bad proapototic protein level in Jurkat cells following incubation with 50 μm of CORM-2, a carbon monoxide donor.

  12. The Carbon Emission Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Chinese President Hu Jintao attended the UN climate summit on September22,he made a solemn commitment that China will cut its per GDP unit carbon emission to a significant amount in 2020 compared with that of 2005.

  13. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  14. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Tetrachloride to 1-Octene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群健; 孙均华; 江焕峰; 欧阳小月; 程金生

    2003-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride to 1-octene gave coadduct [alkyl 2-( 2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl)octanoate] as the major product in supercritical carbon dioxide by using pyridine as the base. It was found that the selectivity and the yield of coadduct were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the amounts of alcohol and base used.

  17. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning: correlation of neurological findings between accident and emergency departments and a hyperbaric unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, R.; Laden, G; Grout, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate and quantify the differences in neurological examination findings in patients acutely poisoned with carbon monoxide, between initial assessment at accident and emergency (A&E) departments and subsequently at a hyperbaric unit.

  20. A case of first degree AV block in carbon monoxide poisoning patient

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Salih Bin; Alenezi, Helal; Alghamdi, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is one of the most common types of poisoning. Cardiac manifestations of CO poisoning are limited to case reports of Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, myocardial dysfunction and myocardial ischemia.

  1. Isotope brain scanning with Tc-HMPAO: a predictor of outcome in carbon monoxide poisoning?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner., M; Kemp, P M

    1997-01-01

    Tc-HMPAO isotope brain scans were performed in three patients who received hyperbaric oxygen treatment following carbon monoxide poisoning. Cerebral perfusion imaging provides an index of severity of the initial cerebral damage which correlated with outcome.

  2. sup 1 H NMR studies of hydrogen and carbon monoxide chemisorption on the EUROPt-1 catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Bouyssy, P X

    2001-01-01

    possible carbon monoxide-induced reorganisation of the surface sites available for hydrogen, following a carbon monoxide precoverage above a critical level. It also shows that carbon monoxide blocks hydrogen adsorption but not in the manner expected. No desorption of carbon monoxide was observed with gas phase infrared experiments even at hydrogen coverages approaching saturation. Secondly, to further the understanding of the dynamics of adsorbed hydrogen exchanging between the strongly bound and the weakly bound sites, proton relaxation NMR experiments were undertaken. T sub 1 and T sub 1 subrho measurements were carried out as a function of hydrogen coverage at room temperature and as a function of temperature at fixed hydrogen coverage. These experiments proved to be experimentally challenging and the data obtained do not show a clear enough trend to reach a significant conclusion as was firstly expected. A specially designed sup 1 H NMR probe, capable of holding a large quantity of catalyst sample for in ...

  3. Atmospheric pollution due to carbon monoxide from vehicular exhaust in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide is a major air pollutant and its main source being vehicular exhaust. Peshawar, like other major cities in Pakistan is facing a serious problem of air pollution due to rapidly increasing traffic. Carbon monoxide level during 600 hours to 1800 hours was studied at sixteen different location were found to have an average carbon monoxide concentration above the threshold limits of nine ppm for eight hours exposure whereas, at one location average carbon monoxide concentration reached the mulimit of 35 ppm for one hour average exposure. Results suggest that at these twelve location, the calculated carboxy haemoglobin level that could be present in the blood of people exposed for eight hours are in the range 2.04-4.85% which can adversely affect the central nervous system and can bring changes in psycho motor functions. (author)

  4. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Farris, Thomas Stephen

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  5. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Autumn Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Chunyan; YANG Guipeng; LU Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dis-solved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that:1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction;2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98μmol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35%of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

  8. A 60-yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO was already higher in 1950 than it is today. CO mole fractions rose gradually until the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radical (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories chronically underestimate NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  9. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN) for Ambient Air Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn; Mingming Lu; Keener, Tim C.; Soon-Jai Khang

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The syst...

  10. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in...... nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  11. The range of 1-3 keV electrons in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror-substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements on solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen. (orig.)

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Clinical Manifestations, Consequences, Monitoring, Diagnosis and Treatment of Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feruze Turan Sönmez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a multisystem condition that may present with a wide range of symptoms and can cause a confusing constellation of clinical features. Diagnosis may be easily missed if physician is not alert about. Carbon monoxide intoxication is more frequent than it is reported. It has a simple treatment if diagnosed, and has many long-term sequela if under-treated.

  13. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, ...

  14. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen;

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in...... nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen in the subacute phase

    OpenAIRE

    Coric, V.; Oren, D.; Wolkenberg, F.; Kravitz, R.

    1998-01-01

    The use of normobaric versus hyperbaric (>2 atm) oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide intoxication continues to be a matter of debate despite reports of increased efficacy with hyperbaric oxygen. When hyperbaric oxygen is used, immediate treatment is preferred for best results. The therapeutic window of time, however, is unknown. A patient presented with acute confusion and partial retrograde and total anterograde memory loss due to carbon monoxide poisoning. He was ...

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Uysalol, Metin; Uysalol, Ezgi Paslı; SARAÇOĞLU, GAMZE VAROL; Kayaoğlu, Semra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female) who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis. Results...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Modeling from Vehicular Sources in Puebla City, México

    OpenAIRE

    Sthephany Sedeño-Cisneros; María Auxilio Osorio-Lama; Miguel Ángel Valera-Pérez; René Bernardo Elías Cabrera-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    The results of dispersion modeling of carbon monoxide are reported in this paper. The results of applying the technique of Rapid Assessment of Sources of Environmental Pollution (RASEP) database and the Air Monitoring State System in the City of Puebla, México, were employed. Concentrations of carbon monoxide emitted by cars inferred by RASAP technique with those reported by the environmental monitoring station “Nymphs”, were compared. The date of 21 June 2005-2010 was se...

  18. Relative intakes of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide from cigarettes of different yields.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N. J.; Boreham, J; Bailey, A.

    1984-01-01

    The relative intakes of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were estimated in 2455 cigarette smokers, who freely smoked their usual brands of cigarette. The estimates were derived by using an objective index of inhaling based on the measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin divided by the carbon monoxide yield of the cigarettes smoked, after background and carry over carboxyhaemoglobin effects had been allowed for. Separate analyses were performed according to the yield and type (plain, filter, etc) o...

  19. Isotope chromato-spectral determination of carbon monoxide in pure inorganic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of isotope-chromato-spectral method for determination of carbon monoxide impurities in pure He, Ne, Ar, N2 and H2 is considered. Isotopic dilution of a sample of the gas under analysis is performed using carbon monoxide enriched by 13C with source relative isotope concentration 12C/13C=0.39. Limits of determining CO in gases by the method indicated make up nx(10-7-10-6) %

  20. Displacement of iodine adatoms by carbon monoxide at a platinized platinum electrode: a tracer technique study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentiality of actually complete replacement of iodine adatoms with carbon monoxide on a platinized electrode, which has been previously established on the basis of electrochemical measurements, was confirmed by the tracer technique study using 125I radioisotope. It has been revealed for the first time that in case of iodide-anions adsorption in the presence of silver adatom monolayer no replacement of iodine adatoms with carbon monoxide takes place. Possible reasons for the effect are discussed

  1. Preservation of the kidney by carbon monoxide: a black swan phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Karl A.

    2008-01-01

    Nakao and colleagues demonstrate that carbon monoxide added to organ preservation solution reduces donor-kidney injury that occurs after cold storage and transplantation and improves the survival of the recipient. These findings are important because they highlight the role of the cytochrome P450 system in the pathogenesis of donor-kidney injury and they suggest a strategy for preserving the donor kidney, namely, the addition of carbon monoxide to organ preservation solution.

  2. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the principal reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for prevention of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. Nowadays the diagnosis may be performed through determination of COHb in a fast and non-invasive way, both outside and inside hospitals, thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxymetrers. After confirmation the patient has to be classified with a grading score for severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for the choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  3. Modeling carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Zhou, Lihong; Smith, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of mine fire fatalities in underground mines. To reduce the hazard of CO poisoning in underground mines, it is important to accurately predict the spread of CO in underground mine entries when a fire occurs. This paper presents a study on modeling CO spread in underground mine fires using both the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the MFIRE programs. The FDS model simulating part of the mine ventilation network was calibrated using CO concentration data from full-scale mine fire tests. The model was then used to investigate the effect of airflow leakage on CO concentration reduction in the mine entries. The inflow of fresh air at the leakage location was found to cause significant CO reduction. MFIRE simulation was conducted to predict the CO spread in the entire mine ventilation network using both a constant heat release rate and a dynamic fire source created from FDS. The results from both FDS and MFIRE simulations are compared and the implications of the improved MFIRE capability are discussed. PMID:27069400

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of carbon monoxide poisoning in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in three patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in chronic stage by comparison with serial X-ray computed tomography (CT). In Case 1 and 3, no pallidal lesions believed to be the most common lesion of the gray matter in CO poisoning were found in the serial X-ray CT scans. In the other case (Case 2), the typical initial bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the globus pallidus were found to have decreased markedly in size and finally disappeared in the latter X-ray CT scan. But MRI using inversion recovery (IR) or spin echo (SE) pulse sequence clearly showed bilateral symmetrical decreased or increased signal intensity areas in the globus pallidus in all three cases. In Case 3, chronic CO poisoning was confirmed by the bilateral symmetrical pallidal lesions on MRI, although differential diagnosis was difficult. Furthermore, in Case 2, with pure alexia, MRI using IR or SE pulse sequence demonstrated a patchy decreased or increased signal intensity area in the subcortical white matter at the left angular gyrus, although X-ray CT scan showed no abnormal findings. MRI is useful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning, especially chronic CO poisoning, because necrosis, cavitation, demyelination, gliosis and so on due to hypoxia of CO poisoning were sensitively detected from changes in the proton density and the T1 or T2 relaxation time value on MRI. (J.P.N.)

  5. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çiftçi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

  6. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  7. Frequency of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Turkey in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In Turkey, studies about frequency of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning are rare. In this study, it is aimed to determine the frequency of the CO poisoning cases occurring all around the country. METHOD: This study was planned as a descriptive study covering Turkey in general as stage. In this study, the CO poisoning case records of Ministry of Health Treat Services General Directorate in 2010 have been examined. The distribution of cases among regions-provinces, mortality rates, types of CO sources, seasonal and monthly dispersions have been examined. RESULTS: According to the records, totally 10.154 cases of CO poisoning were detected in Turkey in 2010 and only 39 of them were ended with death. It is determined that the frequency of cases is 0,0137% (approximately 14 in every 100.000 and mortality rate is about 5 in every 10 million. Poisoning cases have been occurred mostly in Marmara Region (3.426 cases, 33,7%. When it is evaluated in regard to the population, cases are mostly seen in Kilis (0,1998%. As of mortality rates, Bursa has the most number of cases ending with death (18 cases. CONCLUSION: Compared to studies in other countries, according to our data, Turkey was faced with more frequent cases of CO poisoning. The number of cases has increased, especially during the winter months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 587-592

  8. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly ( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  9. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  10. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  11. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  12. The neurotoxicology of carbon monoxide - Historical perspective and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Oliver T; Walker, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recognized as a poison for centuries, and remains one of the most common causes of both accidental and deliberate poisoning worldwide. Despite this, there are widespread misconceptions with regards to the mechanisms, diagnosis and outcomes of CO induced poisoning such as the idea that CO poisoning is rare; that carboxyhaemoglobin levels above 20% and loss of consciousness are required before nervous system damage ensues; and that the binding of CO to haemoglobin is the only mechanism of toxicity. Prevention and diagnosis of CO poisoning is hampered by the lack of awareness of CO as a cause of illness, among both the general public and healthcare professionals. To complicate matters further there is no standardized definition of CO poisoning. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels are often used as a marker of CO poisoning, yet plasma levels rapidly reduce upon removal of the source and are therefore an unreliable biomarker of exposure and tissue damage. Adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes after CO poisoning are difficult to define, especially as they fluctuate, mimic other non-specific complaints, and are not present in all survivors. This paper challenges a number of misconceptions about CO poisoning which can result in misdiagnosis, and consequently in mismanagement. We illustrate how recent developments in the understanding of CO toxicology explain the particular susceptibility of the central nervous system to the effects of CO exposure. PMID:26341269

  13. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  14. Carbon monoxide observed in Venus' atmosphere with SOIR/VEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Mahieux, A.; Chamberlain, S.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Thomas, I. R.; Trompet, L.; Wilquet, V.; Bertaux, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    The SOIR instrument on board the ESA Venus Express mission has been operational during the complete duration of the mission, from April 2006 up to December 2014. Spectra were recorded in the IR spectral region (2.2-4.3 μm) using the solar occultation geometry, giving access to a vast number of ro-vibrational lines and bands of several key species of the atmosphere of Venus. Here we present the complete set of vertical profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) densities and volume mixing ratios (vmr) obtained during the mission. These profiles are spanning the 65-150 km altitude range. We discuss the variability which is observed on the short term, but also the long term trend as well as variation of CO with solar local time and latitude. Short term variations can reach one order of magnitude on less than one month periods. SOIR does not observe a marked long term trend, except perhaps at the beginning of the mission where an increase of CO density and vmr has been observed. Evening abundances are systematically higher than morning values at altitudes above 105 km, but the reverse is observed at lower altitudes. Higher abundances are observed at the equator than at the poles for altitude higher than 105 km, but again the reverse is seen at altitudes lower than 90 km. This illustrates the complexity of the 90-100 km region of the Venus' atmosphere where different wind regimes are at play.

  15. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

  16. Carbon monoxide effects on calcium levels in vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously the authors showed that carbon monoxide (CO) relaxes vascular smooth muscle in the working heart and thoracic aorta preparation perfused with hemoglobin-free, Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution. The CO-induced relaxation was not caused by hypoxia, nor was it mediated by adrenergic influences, adenosine, or prostaglandins. In these studies the effect of CO on calcium (Ca++) concentrations in vascular smooth muscle was determined using 45Ca as a tracer. Isolated rat thoracic aorta segments were incubated with 45Ca and gassed with O2, N2, or CO for 60 min. Verapamil was used to verify the effectiveness of the test system. Ca++ concentrations were 488 /+ -/ 35 and 515 /+ -/ 26 mM/g tissue (X /+ -/ SE) in aortic rings gassed with O2 and N2, respectively. CO reduced Ca++ concentrations significantly (P++ concentrations by 40% to 314 /+ -/ 23 mM/g tissue. These results suggest that CO relaxes vascular smooth muscle and dilates blood vessels by decreasing Ca++ concentrations in vascular smooth muscle

  17. Carbon monoxide stability in stored postmortem blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsman, G W; Presses, C L; Rodriguez, P

    2000-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of both suicidal and accidental deaths in the United States. As a consequence, determination of the percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb) level in postmortem blood is a common analysis performed in toxicology laboratories. The blood specimens analyzed are generally preserved with either EDTA or sodium fluoride. Potentially problematic scenarios that may arise in conjunction with CO analysis are a first analysis or a reanalysis requested months or years after the initial toxicology testing is completed; both raise the issue of the stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored postmortem blood specimens. A study was conducted at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office to evaluate the stability of CO in blood samples collected in red-, gray-, and purple-top tubes by comparing results obtained at the time of the autopsy and after two years of storage at 3 degrees C using either an IL 282 or 682 CO-Oximeter. The results from this study suggest that carboxyhemoglobin is stable in blood specimens collected in vacutainer tubes, with or without preservative, and stored refrigerated for up to two years. PMID:11043662

  18. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  19. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured systems: A mechanochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Gabriele; Campesi, Renato; Garroni, Sebastiano; Delogu, Francesco; Milanese, Chiara

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated the mechanochemical hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over nanostructured FeCo- and Mg 2Ni-based catalysts. To this aim powdered materials, prepared by mechanical alloying, were subjected to mechanical treatment under CO + H 2 atmosphere. A methodology to evaluate the activity of the solid catalysts on an absolute basis was developed. Conversion data were, indeed, expressed as turnover frequency, TOF, and related to the occurrence of ball to powder collision events through the mechanochemical turnover frequency parameter, MTOF. Differences in the catalytic activity and selectivity were observed for the two FeCo-based studied systems, the solid solution Fe 50Co 50 and its dispersion on TiO 2 support. As for the Mg 2Ni system, we explored the possibility to estimate the specific role of hydrogen pre-activation step. The catalytic properties of the mechanically alloyed Mg 2Ni system were compared with the conversion data shown by the same system pre-hydrogenated and subsequently milled under CO atmosphere.

  20. Epidemiology of carbon monoxide gas poisoning deaths in Ardabil city, 2008-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Farzaneh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide gas is odorless, colorless and toxic which are the most abundant pollutants in the lower atmosphere. Carbon monoxide poisoning is considered as one of the most common causes of mortality in Iran and Ardabil province. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of carbon monoxide gas poisoning died patients during 2008 to 2013. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, with referral to the Ardabil coroner center and poisoning ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, the statistics related to carbon monoxide poisoning died patients have been extracted and entered into the Checklists then analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.19. Results: The number of deceased in this study was 35 people with a mean age of 33.66 +/- 21.38. Of them, 19 (54.3% were male and 16 (45.7% were female. 85.7 percent of the deceased had been poisoned at home which from them 71.4% died before transaction to hospital. The season winter with 48.6% include the most of cases and the most common vehicle of intoxication was water heater with 48.6%. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide gas poisoning is one of the cases that causes to death of people in Ardabil every year and so promoting public awareness about risks due to Carbon monoxide could have a considerable role in the prevention of poisoning. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 929-932

  1. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mark A.; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pt-, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 Nanospheres and Carbon Monoxide Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and M-doped (M = Pt, Fe, and Zn SnO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and facile hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Chemical gas sensors were fabricated based on the as-synthesized nanostructures, and carbon monoxide sensing properties were systematically measured. Compared to pure, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 nanospheres, the Pt-doped SnO2 nanospheres sensor exhibits higher sensitivity, lower operating temperature, more rapid response and recovery, better stability, and excellent selectivity. In addition, a theoretical study based on the first principles calculation was conducted. All results demonstrate the potential of Pt dopant for improving the gas sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors to carbon monoxide.

  3. Far-ultraviolet fluorescence of carbon monoxide in the red giant Arcturus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present evidence that many of the weak features observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the far-ultraviolet (1150--2000 A) spectrum of the archetype red giant Arcturus (K2 III) are A--X fourth positive bands of carbon monoxide excited by chromospheric emissions of O I, C I, and H I. The appearance of fluorescent CO bands near the wavelengths of commonly used indicators of high-temperature (T>2 x 104 K) plasma, such as C II lambda1335 and C IV lambda1548, introduces a serious ambiguity in diagnosing the presence of hot material in the outer atmospheres of the cool giants by means of low-dispersion IUE spectra

  4. Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU-Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.; Sridhar, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolyzers, such as electrolysis cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconia, can produce oxygen from Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide and reject carbon monoxide and unreacted carbon dioxide in a separate stream. The oxygen-production process has been shown to be far more efficient if the high-pressure, unreacted carbon dioxide can be separated and recycled back into the feed stream. Additionally, the mass of the adsorption compressor can be reduced. Also, the carbon monoxide by-product is a valuable fuel for space exploration and habitation, with applications from fuel cells to production of hydrocarbons and plastics. In our research, we will design, construct, and test an innovative, robust, low mass, low power separation device that can recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU. Such fundamental process technology, involving gas-solid phase separation in a reduced gravitational environment, will help to enable Human Exploration and Development of Space. The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, respectively. In our research, we will design, construct, and test an innovative, robust, low mass, low power separation device that can recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU, Such fundamental process technology, involving gas-solid phase separation in a reduced gravitational environment, will help to enable Human Exploration and Development of Space. The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, Research needs for the design shown are as follows: (1) The best adsorbent

  5. Revised Evaluation of Health Effects Associated with Carbon Monoxide Exposure: An Addendum to the 1979 U.S. EPA Air Quality Criteria Document for Carbon Monoxide (1984)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addendum re-evaluates the scientific data base concerning health effects associated with exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) at ambient or near ambient levels by providing: (1) a concise summary of key health effects information pertaining to relatively low-level CO exposure; an...

  6. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55°C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55°C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population an

  7. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20–2.54), and those aged <=49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38–4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96–3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisonings from Forklift Use During Produce Packing Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Anne E; Langley, Ricky L; McDaniel, Jesse S

    2016-01-01

    In August 2013, the North Carolina Division of Public Health investigated a carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on a farm. Two employees were overcome by CO and lost consciousness while using a propane-powered forklift to load produce into a refrigerated trailer backed up to a warehouse. One employee died, and the second employee was admitted to the hospital for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Eighteen people, ranging in age from 18 to 69 years, were potentially exposed to CO, including the two employees, a family member who discovered the employees, two bystanders who stopped to offer assistance, and 13 first responders. Thirteen people who assisted in the emergency response experienced symptoms such as headache and dizziness, and all 16 who assisted were evaluated in a local hospital emergency department and released after receiving 100% oxygen. Blood tests showed five people (the two employees, family member, and two bystanders) had elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, but all first responders had levels within normal range. Firefighters measured a peak CO concentration of 2214 parts per million in the warehouse. The North Carolina Division of Occupational Safety and Health investigated and determined that the forklift, operated inside the trailer with no ventilation, was the source of the CO. Public health investigation activities included interviewing responders, obtaining ambient CO concentration measurements from the fire department, advising the local health director, reviewing medical records, and developing a line listing of exposed persons. To prevent CO poisoning, employers should consider replacing gas-powered equipment with electric equipment, which does not produce CO. PMID:26788681

  9. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  10. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  11. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future. PMID:25772154

  12. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice

  13. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  14. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage;

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...

  15. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  16. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell reversible performance loss induced by carbon monoxide produced during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoopman, B.; Vincent, R.; Rosini, S.; Paganelli, G.; Thivel, P.-X.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry measurements at the anode have been carried out and reveal the presence of carbon monoxide in steady-state operation, with pure hydrogen. Experiments have been performed both in single cell and in stack to find out its origin. The contamination of the anode catalyst is partly due the reverse-water gas shift (RWGS) with carbon dioxide from the cathode. However, this study shows a temperature-activated and time-related corrosion mechanism which appears under humidified hydrogen. Due to this degradation mechanism, a reversible 25 mV-loss of performances is observed and can be recovered by oxidizing carbon monoxide on the anode.

  17. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  18. Indoor air quality: Carbon monoxide, molds and beyond. Current issue paper number 198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of several of the major indoor air pollutants and some of the ways in which indoor air quality is addressed by governments in the United States and Canada. The emphasis is on non-industrial settings. Pollutants discussed include carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke, radon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, wood smoke and particles, volatile organic compounds, and molds

  19. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  20. Near Infrared studies of the carbon-monoxide and dust forming nova V5668 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, D P K; Ashok, N M; Venkataraman, V

    2015-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) observations of Nova V5668 Sgr, discovered in outburst on 2015 March 15.634 UT, between 2d to 107d after outburst. NIR spectral features are used to classify it as a FeII class of nova. The spectra follow the evolution of the spectral lines from a P Cygni stage to a pure emission phase where the shape of the profiles suggests the presence of a bipolar flow. A notable feature is the presence of carbon monoxide first overtone bands which are seen in emission. The CO emission is modeled to make estimates of the mass, temperature and column density to be (0.5--2.0)$\\times$ 10$^{-8}$ M$_\\odot$, 4000 $\\pm$ 300K and (0.36--1.94)$\\times$ 10$^{19}$ cm$^{-2}$ respectively. The $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C ratio is estimated to be $\\sim$ 1.5. V5668 Sgr was a strong dust producer exhibiting the classical deep dip in its optical light curve during dust formation. Analysis of the dust SED yields a dust mass of 2.7 $\\times$ 10${^{\\rm -7}}$ $M_\\odot $, a blackbody angular diameter of the dust shell of 42 ...

  1. Near-infrared studies of the carbon monoxide and dust-forming Nova V5668 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D. P. K.; Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ashok, N. M.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) observations of Nova V5668 Sgr, discovered in outburst on 2015 March 15.634 UT, between 2 and 107 d after outburst. NIR spectral features are used to classify it as a Fe II class of nova. The spectra follow the evolution of the spectral lines from a P Cygni stage to a pure emission phase where the shape of the profiles suggests the presence of a bipolar flow. A notable feature is the presence of carbon monoxide first overtone bands which are seen in emission. The CO emission is modelled to make estimates of the mass, temperature and column density to be (0.5-2.0) × 10-8 M⊙, 4000 ± 300 K and (0.36-1.94) × 1019 cm-2, respectively. The 12C/13C ratio is estimated to be ˜1.5. V5668 Sgr was a strong dust producer exhibiting the classical deep dip in its optical light curve during dust formation. Analysis of the dust SED yields a dust mass of 2.7 × 10-7 M⊙, a blackbody angular diameter of the dust shell of 42 mas and a distance estimate to the nova of 1.54 kpc which agrees with estimates made from MMRD relations.

  2. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values – also on a year-to-year basis – as well as seasonal variations. Several locations show large biases that are attributed to local effects like orography and proximity of large emission sources. Differences were detected for individual years: 2003, 2004 and 2006 have larger biases than 2005, 2007 and 2008, which appear to be related to SCIAMACHY instrumental issues but require more research. Results from this study are consistent with, and complementary to, findings from a previous validation study using ground-based measurements (de Laat et al., 2010b. According to this study, the SCIAMACHY data, if individual measurements are of sufficient quality – good signal-to-noise, can be used to determine the spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of CO total columns over clean areas. Biases found over areas with strong emissions (Africa, China could be explained by low sensitivity of the instrument in the boundary layer and users are recommended to avoid using the SCIAMACHY data while trying to quantify CO burden and/or retrieve CO emissions in such areas.

  3. A 60 yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO in 1950 was 140–150 nmol mol−1, which is higher than today's values. CO mole fractions rose by 10–15 nmol mol−1 from 1950 to the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a ≈ 30 nmol mol−1 decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radicals (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless unrealistically large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories strongly underestimate historical NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  4. Detection of carbon monoxide poisoning that occurred before a house fire in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Toru; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Sasao, Ako; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-09-01

    In our institutes, we perform a quantitative evaluation of volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood in all fatal fire-related cases using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We previously reported that benzene concentrations in the blood were positively correlated with carbon monoxide-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentrations in fire-related deaths. Here, we present 3 cases in which benzene concentrations in the blood were not correlated with CO-Hb concentrations. A high CO-Hb concentration without a hydrocarbon component, such as benzene, indicates that the deceased inhaled carbon monoxide that was not related to the smoke from the fire. Comparing volatile hydrocarbons with CO-Hb concentrations can provide more information about the circumstances surrounding fire-related deaths. We are currently convinced that this is the best method to detect if carbon monoxide poisoning occurred before a house fire started. PMID:26004303

  5. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu].

  6. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu]. PMID:26744146

  7. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurements techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 12-year record (1996–2007 of continuous carbon monoxide (CO measurements of the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, was investigated with a focus on trend analysis. To date this is one of the longest time series of continuous CO measurements in the free troposphere over Central Europe. A significant negative trend was observed at JFJ with a decrease of 21.4±0.3% in the investigated period, or an average annual decrease of 2.65±0.04 ppb/yr (1.78%/yr. These results were compared with emission inventory data reported to the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention. It could be shown that long range transport significantly influences the CO levels observed at JFJ, with air masses of non-European origin contributing to at least a third to observed mixing ratios.

    Such trend analysis and inter-comparison with emission inventories are only possible with data of known quality. To this end, the Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR technique used for CO measurements at JFJ was inter-compared over two months using three additional analytical techniques, namely Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF, gas chromatographic separation with a mercuric oxide reduction detector (GC/HgO, and gas chromatographic separation followed by reduction on a nickel catalyst and analysis by a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The agreement among all techniques was better than 2% for one-hourly averages which confirmed the suitability of the NDIR method for CO measurements even at remote sites.

  8. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  10. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched-chain ethane-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Brabbs, T. A.; Snyder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants have been measured for ethane carbon monoxide oxygen mixtures by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 1700 K. The data were analyzed using an ethane oxidation mechanism involving seven elementary reaction steps. Calculated growth constants were close to experimental values at lower temperatures, up to about 1400 K, but at higher temperatures computed growth constants were considerably smaller than experiment. In attempts to explain these results additional branching reactions were added to the mechanism. However, these additional reactions did not appreciably change calculated growth constants.

  11. The Contributions To The Study Of Carbon Monoxide Pollution Due To Car Traffic In A Densely Populated Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Borza

    2015-07-01

    Air quality monitoring is the most important environmental factor to be considered because it is the fastest way that helps pollutant transport into the environment. The development of human society has led to a negative anthropogenic and technogenic impact on air quality, resulting into a significant series of adverse effects on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems in general. In this paper it is presentd the research work performed to monitor carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles in traffic, in a densely populated area in Sibiu. Also, in the paper it is described, the research findings conducted in accordance with national and European legislation. In our research we used GIS software, Geomedia Professional.

  12. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronic excited state configuration.

  13. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.;

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result...

  15. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues. PMID:26869408

  16. Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to 125I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine

  17. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper particles

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, K P; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    2006-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide (20°C; 0.1– 100 Torr) on copper-on-silica catalysts differently prepared and pretreated. As determined by electron microscopy and X-ray line broadening, the catalysts contain copper particles having sizes of 60 to 5000 Å depending on the preparation procedure and the thermal treatment. Adsorbed carbon monoxide displays broad infrared absorption bands exhibiting a maximum at 2099 to 2146 cm-1. The position of the maximum ...

  18. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurement techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, C.; C. Hüglin; Klausen, J.; M. Steinbacher; Vollmer, M.; Buchmann, B

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of carbon monoxide (CO) for the overall oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, there is still considerable uncertainty in ambient measurements of CO. To address this issue, an inter-comparison between four different measurement techniques was made over a period of two months at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ), Switzerland. The measurement techniques were Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR), Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF), gas chromatographic separa...

  19. Measurement of uniform flame movement in carbon monoxide - air mixtures containing either added D2O or H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1950-01-01

    Relative velocities of the flame in a carbon monoxide - air mixture containing either added heavy water or light water were measured in a glass tube. Throughout the range of carbon monoxide - air composition, the flame containing added light water had a faster speed than the flame containing heavy water.

  20. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The criteria by which we determine whether a SIP... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  1. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  2. Isolation and characterization of two novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria from syngas - and carbon monoxide - degrading cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, J.I.; Alves, M.M.; Stams, A. J. M.; Plugge, C.M.; Sousa, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Syn(thesis)gas is a mixture containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, in variable ratios. Syngas is commonly produced from fossil fuels, but it can be generated from a vast array of feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass and carbon-based wastes, including recalcitrant wastes. Production of biofuels and bulk chemicals from syngas, both by thermochemical or microbial processes, is a field of promising technological developments. In this work, thermophilic (55ºC...

  3. On the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide in global model studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Stein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties in the global budget of carbon monoxide (CO are assessed to explain causes for the long-standing issue of Northern Hemispheric wintertime underestimation of CO concentrations in global models. With a series of MOZART sensitivity simulations for the year 2008, the impacts from changing a variety of surface sources and sinks were analyzed. The model results were evaluated with monthly averages of surface station observations from the global CO monitoring network as well as with total columns observed from satellites and with vertical profiles from measurements on passenger aircraft. Our basic simulation using MACCity anthropogenic emissions underestimated Northern Hemispheric near-surface CO concentrations on average by more than 20 ppb from December to April with the largest bias over Europe of up to 75 ppb in January. An increase in global biomass burning or biogenic emissions of CO or volatile organic compounds (VOC is not able to reduce the annual course of the model bias and yields too high concentrations over the Southern Hemisphere. Raising global annual anthropogenic emissions results in overestimations of surface concentrations in most regions all-year-round. Instead, our results indicate that anthropogenic emissions in the MACCity inventory are too low for the industrialized countries during winter and spring. Thus we found it necessary to adjust emissions seasonally with regionally varying scaling factors. Moreover, exchanging the original resistance-type dry deposition scheme with a parameterization for CO uptake by oxidation from soil bacteria and microbes reduced the boreal winter dry deposition fluxes and could partly correct for the model bias. When combining the modified dry deposition scheme with increased wintertime road traffic emissions over Europe and North America (factors up to 4.5 and 2, respectively we were able to optimize the match to surface observations and to reduce the model bias significantly with

  4. Portable 4.6 Micrometers Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Carbon Monoxide Monitoring and Fire Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The air quality aboard manned spacecraft must be continuously monitored to ensure crew safety and identify equipment malfunctions. In particular, accurate real-time monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) levels helps to prevent chronic exposure and can also provide early detection of combustion-related hazards. For long-duration missions, environmental monitoring grows in importance, but the mass and volume of monitoring instruments must be minimized. Furthermore, environmental analysis beyond low-Earth orbit must be performed in-situ, as sample return becomes impractical. Due to their small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor-laser-based absorption spectrometers are viable candidates for this purpose. To reduce instrument form factor and complexity, the emission wavelength of the laser source should coincide with strong fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which occur in the 3 to 5 micrometers wavelength range for most combustion products of interest, thereby reducing the absorption path length required for low-level concentration measurements. To address the needs of current and future NASA missions, we have developed a prototype absorption spectrometer using a semiconductor quantum cascade laser source operating near 4.6 micrometers that can be used to detect low concentrations of CO with a compact single-pass absorption cell. In this study, we present the design of the prototype instrument and report on measurements of CO emissions from the combustion of a variety of aerospace plastics.

  5. Thermal property correlation package of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermophysical property correlation package of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane has been constructed from a critical evaluation of theoretical or empirical correlations available in the literature. The properties include density, isobaric specific heat, viscosity and thermal conductivity. Selected package correlations are summarized below: (1) For density, Peng-Robinson-Redlich-Kwong equation of state, (2) for specific heat, an expression from thermodynamic theory with the van der Waals equation of state and (3) for viscosity and thermal conductivity, generalized relationships by the use of dimensional analysis that were developed by G. Thodos group. From a comparative evaluation of the package correlations with measurements and selected values available, it has been concluded that except for specific heat these correlations are predictable with an acceptable accuracy. (author)

  6. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  7. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  8. Deep Conversion of Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen and Formation of Acetate by the Anaerobic Thermophile Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henstra, A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium that catalyses the water gas shift reaction, the conversion of carbon monoxide with water to molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The thermodynamically favorable growth temperature, compared to existing industrial cat

  9. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurement techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of carbon monoxide (CO for the overall oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, there is still considerable uncertainty in ambient measurements of CO. To address this issue, an inter-comparison between four different measurement techniques was made over a period of two months at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland. The measurement techniques were Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR, Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF, gas chromatographic separation with a mercuric oxide reduction detector (GC/HgO, and gas chromatographic separation followed by reduction on a nickel catalyst and analysis by a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The agreement among all techniques was better than 2% for one-hourly averages, which confirmed the suitability of the NDIR method for CO measurements even at remote sites. The inter-comparison added to the validation of the 12-year record (1996–2007 of continuous CO measurements at JFJ. To date this is one of the longest time series of continuous CO measurements in the free troposphere over Central Europe. This data record was further investigated with a focus on trend analysis. A significant negative trend was observed at JFJ showing a decrease of 21.4±0.3% over the investigated period, or an average annual decrease of 1.78%/yr (2.65±0.04 ppb/yr. These results were compared with emission inventory data reported to the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention. It could be shown that long range transport significantly influences the CO levels observed at JFJ, with air masses of non-European origin contributing at least one third of the observed mole fractions.

  10. Delayed Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning by HbO2

    OpenAIRE

    LeDez, Kenneth M.; Davies, Andrew O.; Koch, G. Helge

    1989-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the importance of hyperbaric treatment in managing cases of known or suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. Even when prolonged delays in initiating this treatment are unavoidable, it can be beneficial. Prolonged administration of normobaric oxygen is inadequate treatment.

  11. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (1999) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This revised criteria document consolidates and updates the current scientific basis for another reevaluation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide (CO), currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) for 1 h. Although emphasis is plac...

  12. 75 FR 54805 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota;...

  13. Kinetics of nanocrystallization in regular alternating terpolymers of ethene and propene with carbon monoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Privalko, V. P.; Dolgoshey, V. B.; Privalko, E. G.; Sikora, Antonín

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2003), s. 953-962. ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : alternating terpolymers of ethene and propene with carbon monoxide * nanocrystallinity * kinetics of nanocrystallization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2003

  14. Catalytic Reduction of Nitrous Oxide with Carbon Monoxide over Calcined Co–Mn–Al Hydrotalcite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacultová, K.; Obalová, L.; Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 137, 2-4 (2008), s. 358-389. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * carbon monoxide * mixed oxide catalysts Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2008

  15. Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

    2012-01-01

    Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

  16. Transient splenial lesion in a case with carbon monoxide poisoning: A clue supporting the excitotoxicity hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Rahşan; Ünal, Emre

    2015-11-01

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum are uncommon radiologic findings seen in a number of clinical conditions. Awareness of these lesions is crucial to prevent further invasive investigation and intervention. We report a unique case of transient splenial lesion in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26277728

  17. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  18. CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING ON AN URBAN ARTERIAL HIGHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. n each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the...

  19. Review: monoclinic zirconia, its surface sites and their interaction with carbon monoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouva, S.; Honkala, K.; Lefferts, L.; Kanervo, J.

    2015-01-01

    This review concerns monoclinic zirconia, its surface sites and their probing with carbon monoxide. The modifications of the surface sites using thermal treatments with vacuum or reactive gases are also included. In this work, we present information on the nature and manipulation of hydroxyl species

  20. Characteristics of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Detection for Carbon Monoxide Gas Based on DFB Diode Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weigen; PENG Xiaojuan; LIU Bingjie; SUN Caixin

    2012-01-01

    The dissolved gas analysis is one of the most effective and convenient methods to diagnose the early discharge faults of transformers. When the fault involves the solid insulation, oil-paper insulation cracks and releases carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Therefore, the detection of CO can forecast the potential inner faults of oil-filled transformers.

  1. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation...

  2. Carbon monoxide concentrations evaluated by traffic noise data in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that variations in carbon monoxide concentrations can be evaluated by measuring environmental noise, wind velocity and vertical thermal stability. The results can be justified on the basis of the theory of the street canyon effect. The methodology proposed was verified in two Italian cities with different characteristics: Milan and Ravenna (Italy)

  3. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...

  4. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  5. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions, in sev...

  6. Operations and maintenance manual, atmospheric contaminant sensor. Addendum 1: Carbon monoxide monitor model 204

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring the carbon monoxide content of the ambient atmosphere is described. The subjects discussed are: (1) theory of operation, (2) system features, (3) controls and monitors, (4) operational procedures, and (5) maintenance and troubleshooting. Block drawings and circuit diagrams are included to clarify the text.

  7. Adsorption of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and ethylene on the Pt(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and temperature programmed thermal desorption spectroscopy (TPDS) were applied in studying adsorption of oxygen, carbon monoxide and ethylene and reaction processes of ethylene and ethylene co-adsorbed with atomic oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, on Pt(111). (orig./FT)

  8. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  9. Carbon monoxide production in ventilated premature infants weighing less than 1500 g.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, A F; Ochikubo, C G; Vreman, H. J.; Stevenson, D. K.

    1987-01-01

    Mean pulmonary excretion rate of carbon monoxide in 13 premature babies on ventilators was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than that of 19 healthy infants born at full term. This correlated with carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in blood, indicating that the premature infants on ventilators produced abnormally large amounts of bilirubin.

  10. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent

  11. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  12. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water in Hot, Hydrogen-dominated Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kevin; Lyons, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres in hot, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. We construct novel analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the m...

  13. Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides From a 25 kW Boiler Supplied Periodically and Continuously with Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juszczak Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the fuel feeding mode (continuous or periodic with different stand-by/operation time ratios on carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NOx concentration values in the flue gas was analysed for coniferous wood pellet firing. Experiments were performed in a 25 kW water boiler equipped with an over-fed wood pellet furnace located in a full scale heat station simulating real-life conditions. Influence of oxygen concentration and temperature in the combustion chamber on carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations was presented in diagrams. Dust and hydrocarbon concentrations were also monitored. It was concluded that the commonly used periodic fuel supply does not necessarily cause a significant increase of carbon monoxide concentration, as compared to the continuous fuel feeding mode. Continuous fuel supply can even induce higher carbon monoxide concentrations when fuel mass stream is not chosen properly. Each time new fuel type is used in a specific furnace, one should perform experiments to determine the adequate settings (stand-by/operation time ratio, fuel mass streams, air stream to obtain the optimal, lowest possible emission for a certain boiler heat output

  14. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Simon P.; Loreta M. Rodrigues; Griffiths, John R.; Marion Stubbs

    1999-01-01

    The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing) were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MR images. This was ...

  15. Isotopic chromatographic-spectral determination of carbon monoxide in helium, neon and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic-chromatographic-spectral method is proposed for determination of carbon monoxide in helium, neon and nitrogen using carbon 12, 13 isotope dilution technique as well as cryogenic-adsorption accumulation and chromatographic separation of impurities. The limits for determination of CO in helium, neon and nitrogen are 1 x 10-6, 6 x 10-7 and 7 x 10-7 mol% respectively. Reference samples are not required

  16. A Light-Emitting Diode- (LED-) Based Absorption Sensor for Simultaneous Detection of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Kyle; Loparo, Zachary; Partridge, William; Vasu, Subith S

    2016-06-01

    A sensor was developed for simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluctuations in internal combustion engine exhaust gases. This sensor utilizes low-cost and compact light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that emit in the 3-5 µm wavelength range. An affordable, fast response sensor that can measure these gases has a broad application that can lead to more efficient, fuel-flexible engines and regulation of harmful emissions. Light emission from LEDs is spectrally broader and more spatially divergent when compared to that of lasers, which presented many design challenges. Optical design studies addressed some of the non-ideal characteristics of the LED emissions. Measurements of CO and CO2 were conducted using their fundamental absorption bands centered at 4.7 µm and 4.3 µm, respectively, while a 3.6 µm reference LED was used to account for scattering losses (due to soot, window deposits, etc.) common to the three measurement LEDs. Instrument validation and calibration was performed using a laboratory flow cell and bottled-gas mixtures. The sensor was able to detect CO2 and CO concentration changes as small as 30 ppm and 400 ppm, respectively. Because of the many control and monitor species with infra-red absorption features, which can be measured using the strategy described, this work demonstrates proof of concept for a wider range of fast (250 Hz) and low-cost sensors for gas measurement and process monitoring. PMID:27091903

  17. On the relationship between acetone and carbon monoxide in different air masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Reus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide and acetone measurements are presented for five aircraft measurement campaigns at mid-latitudes, polar and tropical regions in the northern hemisphere. Throughout all campaigns, free tropospheric air masses, which were influenced by anthropogenic emissions, showed a similar linear relation between acetone and CO, with a slope of 21-25 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. Measurements in the anthropogenically influenced marine boundary layer revealed a slope of 13-16 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. The different slopes observed in the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere indicate that acetone is emitted by the ocean in relatively clean air masses and taken up by the ocean in polluted air masses. In the lowermost stratosphere, a good correlation between acetone and CO was observed as well, however, with a much smaller slope (~5 pptv acetone/ppbv CO compared to the troposphere. This is caused by the longer photochemical lifetime of CO compared to acetone in the lower stratosphere, due to the increasing photolytic loss of acetone and the decreasing OH concentration with altitude. No significant correlation between acetone and CO was observed over the tropical rain forest due to the large direct and indirect biogenic emissions of acetone. The common slopes of the linear acetone-CO relation in various layers of the atmosphere, during five field experiments, makes them useful for model calculations. Often a single observation of the acetone-CO correlation, determined from stratospheric measurements, has been used in box model applications. This study shows that different slopes have to be considered for marine boundary layer, free tropospheric and stratospheric air masses, and that the acetone-CO relation cannot be used for air masses which are strongly influenced by biogenic emissions.

  18. A report of dangerously high carbon monoxide levels within the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smithline Howard A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to determine how quickly carbon monoxide would accumulate in the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle. Methods A 1992 sedan was buried in snow to the level of the undercarriage, the ignition was then engaged and carbon monoxide levels recorded at 2.5-minute intervals. The primary outcome was the time at which a lethal carbon monoxide level was detected. Six trials were conducted: windows closed; windows open one inch; windows open 6 inches; windows closed and tailpipe swept clear of snow; windows closed and one cubic foot of snow removed around tailpipe; windows closed and tailpipe completely cleared of snow to ground level in a path 12 inches wide. Results Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within 2.5 minutes in the vehicle when the windows were closed, within 5 minutes when the widows were opened one inch, and within 7.5 minutes when the widows were opened six inches. Dangerously high levels of carbon monoxide were detected within the vehicle when the tailpipe had been swept clear of snow and when a one cubic foot area had been cleared around the tailpipe. When the tailpipe was completely unobstructed the carbon monoxide level was zero. Conclusions Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within minutes in this snow-obstructed vehicle.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Clouds at Low-Metallicity in the WLM Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Hunter, Deidre A; Verdugo, Celia; Brinks, Elias; Schruba, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the primary tracer for interstellar clouds where stars form, yet CO has never been detected in galaxies with an Oxygen abundance relative to Hydrogen less than 20% of solar, even though such low metallicity galaxies often form stars. This raises the question of whether stars can form in dense gas without the usual molecules, cooling to the required near-zero temperatures by atomic transitions and dust radiation rather than molecular line emission (Krumholz 2012), and it highlights uncertainties about star formation in the early universe, when the metallicity was generally low. Here we report the detection of CO in two regions of a local dwarf irregular galaxy, WLM, where the metallicity is 13% of the solar value (Lee et al. 2005, Asplund et al. 2009). New sub-millimeter observations and archival far-infrared observations are used to estimate the cloud masses, which are both slightly larger than 10^5 Msun. The clouds have produced stars at a rate per molecule equal to 10% of that in the...

  20. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  1. Sources of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde in North America determined from high-resolution atmospheric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Miller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the North American budget for carbon monoxide using data for CO and formaldehyde concentrations from tall towers and aircraft in a model-data assimilation framework. The Stochastic Time-Inverted, Lagrangian Transport model for CO (STILT-CO determines local to regional-scale CO contributions associated with production from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs using an ensemble of Lagrangian particles driven by high resolution assimilated meteorology. In most cases, the model demonstrates high fidelity simulations of hourly surface data from tall towers and point measurements from aircraft, with somewhat less satisfactory performance in coastal regions and when CO from large biomass fires in Alaska and the Yukon Territory influence the continental US.

    Inversions of STILT-CO simulations for CO and formaldehyde show that current inventories of CO emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significantly too high, by almost a factor of three in summer and a factor two in early spring, consistent with recent analyses of data from the INTEX-A aircraft program. Formaldehyde data help to show that sources of CO from oxidation of CH4 and other VOCs represent the dominant sources of CO over North America in summer.

  2. A new carbon monoxide occupational dosimeter: results from a worker exposure assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, M G; Cox, D D; Hammond, S K; Gundel, L A

    1999-01-01

    The LBNL/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy +/- 20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device represents a major improvement over currently available low-cost personal CO monitors. At the MCC, over 1000 workers set up and remove exhibitions. Forty propane-powered forklifts moved materials throughout the 42,000 m2 of exhibit halls. Diesel truck emissions enter the building via three internal underground loading docks. The LOCD was used to measure 154 worker exposures on 3 days. Sampler performance was compared to a standard method at 15 fixed sites. The geometric mean (GM) of all 154 exposures was 7 ppm (geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.6); 10% of the exposures was 10 ppm or more. Dock Walkers and Forklift Operators had the highest exposures (maximum = 34 ppm) with GM (GSD) of 9 (1.7) and 9 (1.6) ppm, respectively. Attendants and Installer/Decorators had the lowest exposures with GMs of 6 (1.6) and 7 (1.4), respectively. The Cal/OSHA personal exposure limit for CO is 25 ppm time-weighted average (TWA). PMID:10638840

  3. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2012-01-03

    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  4. Validation of six years of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide observations using MOZAIC CO profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide (CO total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM algorithm using vertically integrated profile aircraft measurements obtained within the MOZAIC project for the six year time period of 2003–2008.

    Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and airborne measurements for both mean values – also on a year-to-year basis – as well as seasonal variations. Several locations show large biases that are attributed to local effects like orography and proximity of large emission sources. Differences were detected for individual years: 2003, 2004 and 2006 have larger biases than 2005, 2007 and 2008, which appear to be related to SCIAMACHY instrumental issues but require more research. Results from this study are consistent with, and complementary to, findings from a previous validation study using ground-based measurements (de Laat et al., 2010. Despite the presence of some biases, this study provides additional confidence that SCIAMACHY, if individual measurements are of sufficient quality – good signal-to-noise – can be used to determine the spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of CO total columns.

  5. Mechanism(s) Involved in Carbon Monoxide-releasing Molecule-2-mediated Cardioprotection During Ischaemia-reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, H. M.; Jain, M. R.; Anita A. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanism(s) involved in carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2, carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-induced cardioprotection. We used the transition metal carbonyl compound carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 that can act as carbon monoxide donor in cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury model using isolated rat heart preparation. Langendorff′s perfused rat hearts when treated with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (50 μM) for 10 min bef...

  6. Ozone and carbon monoxide at the Ushuaia GAW-WMO global station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, Jose; Cupeiro, Manuel; Yela, Margarita; Cuevas, Emilio; Carbajal, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Ozone and carbon monoxide have been investigated in the GAW-WMO station of Ushuaia (Argentina), using hourly values during five years (2010-2014). This work has been developed in the framework of HELADO (Halogens in the Antarctic atmosphere and its role in the Ozone distribution) project and under the collaboration between INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology - Spain), SMN (National Meteorological Service - Argentina) and AEMET (State Meteorological Agency - Spain). Meteorological features have been analyzed with in-situ observations and meteorological fields from ECMWF 0.5° as spatial resolution model. These fields have been applied to compute back trajectories with HYSPLIT model. Independently of season, mostly atmospheric flows coming from W-SW (South Pacific Ocean), theses westerlies winds are associated with low pressure systems; in addition with lower frequencies are collected winds from South (Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea), polar easterlies. Hourly averages of surface (in-situ) ozone and CO levels were 20±7 and 71±45 ppb respectively, typical values of remote environments. A clear seasonal pattern has been obtained for surface ozone with monthly peaks in winter of 25 ppb and minimum in summer with 12 ppb; a similar behaviour is found for CO, 93 and 48 ppb for maximum and minimum values, respectively. A weak daily cycle has been obtained in both species, amplitude for ozone of 2-4 ppb and 13-20 ppb for CO. The seasonal levels behaviour for surface ozone is also observed in upper levels, approximately from surface up to 5 km. This result has been obtained from 139 ozone profiles launched in the studied period. Since the ozone precursors and carbon monoxide emissions are low in this area, the origin of the values observed could be in the atmospheric transport processes. As hypothesis to explain the behaviour observed, we suggest that in the warm season with solar radiation, the photochemical mechanisms are active, and the elimination

  7. Satellite-Detected Carbon Monoxide Pollution during 2000–2012: Examining Global Trends and also Regional Anthropogenic Periods over China, the EU and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Laken, Benjamin A.; Tariq Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we test if any statistically significant periodicities are detectable in carbon monoxide emissions over China, the European Union, and the United States of America. To do this, we performed a period analysis using 10 years of daily-averaged data, from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument. Besides a seasonal period, we found no clearly detectable periods at any timescale with the exception of a strong signal at 2.28 days. This period was observed ...

  8. Source attribution and interannual variability of Arctic pollution in spring constrained by aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC) and satellite (AIRS) observations of carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Fisher; D. J. Jacob; Purdy, M. T.; Kopacz, M.; Sager, P; C. Carouge; C. D. Holmes; R. M. Yantosca; R. L. Batchelor; Strong, K.; G. S. Diskin; H. E. Fuelberg; Holloway, J. S.; E. J. Hyer; Mcmillan, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003–2008) CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month fo...

  9. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiya N. Parshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB are able to use carbon monoxide (CO as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide as an electron donor.

  10. Formation of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide on rhodium/alumina model catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When tunnel junctions containing carbon monoxide adsorbed on alumina-supported Rh are heated in hydrogen the vibrational peaks due to carbon monoxide decrease and a new set of vibrational peaks grows. Shifts in the positions of some of these new peaks are observed if the normal 12C16O is replaced by 13C16O, but not if it is replaced by 12C18O. This suggests that the new surface species includes the carbon from the CO, but not the oxygen. The set of new peaks grows together and is in one-to-one correspondence with the peaks of ethylidene as extrapolated between published spectra of halogenated derivatives. A different surface species, tentatively identified as formate ions, can be produced by heating without hydrogen. 33 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  11. The influence of traffic and wood combustion on the stable isotopic composition of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saurer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is originating from various combustion and oxidation processes. Recently, the proportion of CO resulting from the combustion of wood for domestic heating may have increased due to political measures promoting this renewable energy source. Here, we used the stable isotope composition of CO (δ13C and δ18O for the characterization of different CO sources in Switzerland, along with other indicators for traffic and wood combustion (NOx-concentration, aerosol light absorption at different wavelengths. We assessed diurnal variations of the isotopic composition of CO at 3 sites during winter: a village site dominated by domestic heating, a site close to a motorway and a rural site. The isotope ratios of wood combustion emissions were studied at a test facility, indicating significantly lower δ18O of CO from wood combustion compared to traffic emissions. At the village and the motorway site, we observed very pronounced diurnal δ18O-variations of CO with an amplitude of up to 8‰. Solving the isotope mass balance equation for three distinct sources (wood combustion, traffic, clean background air resulted in diurnal patterns consistent with other indicators for wood burning and traffic. The average night-time contribution of wood-burning to total CO was 70% at the village site, 47% at the motorway site and 28% at the rural site based on the isotope mass balance. As this analysis showed a strong sensitivity towards the pure source isotope values, we additionally applied a combined CO/NOx-isotope model for verification. Here, we separated the CO emissions into different sources based on different CO/NOx emissions ratios for wood combustion and traffic, and inserted this information in the isotope mass balance equation. Accordingly, a highly significant agreement between measured and calculated δ18O-values of CO was found (r=0

  12. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to continue the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon...

  13. Carbon emissions and income inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find that the distribution of income matters to aggregate carbon dioxide emissions and hence global warming. Higher inequality, both between and within countries is associated with lower carbon emissions at given average incomes. We also confirm that economic growth generally comes with higher emissions. Thus our results suggest that trade-offs exist between climate control (on the one hand) and both social equity and economic growth (on the other). However, economic growth improves the trade off with equity, and lower inequality improves the trade off with growth. By combining growth with equity, more pro-poor growth processes yield better longer-term trajectories of carbon emissions. (Author)

  14. 75 FR 4815 - Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... March 2008, a draft of EPA's ``Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon...'s Office of Research and Development as part of the review of the national ambient air quality... presence of such pollutant in the ambient air * * *.'' Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to...

  15. Temporal dynamics of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the Salt Lake Valley urban ecosystem of northern Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.

    2013-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Existing data obtained from surface based measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are largely limited to static monitoring stations and show a high degree of temporal and spatial variability both within and across urban areas. Finer scale spatial resolution data of surface measurements were collected to obtain a more comprehensive view of trace gas dynamics at the whole-ecosystem scale, to integrate across space among existing stationary measurement locations, and to provide data for the development and validation of modeled emissions estimates. We utilized a mobile laboratory to obtain high precision measurements of CO2 and CO in the highly urbanized and urbanizing areas across the Salt Lake Valley of northern Utah, USA. Continuous measurements of CO2, CO, and geospatial position data were obtained at a 5-second frequency along a transect route representative of major urban land use types. Data collection across the transect route was repeated thrice daily (morning, afternoon and evening) through all seasons of the year. Preliminary results show significant spatial structure in CO2, CO, and the ratio of CO to CO2 across both diurnal and seasonal time scales. In general, we found higher concentrations of both trace gases as well as the ratio of CO to CO2 in the morning and evening periods compared to the afternoon time periods. In addition, we found higher concentrations of both trace gases and the ratio of CO to CO2 in winter than summer time periods. Our results provide a foundation for the information needed to improve our understanding of whole-ecosystem scale temporal dynamics of CO2 and CO in urban regions.

  16. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water in Hot, Hydrogen-dominated Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kevin; Lyons, James R.

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres in hot, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. We construct novel analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios, we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if the metallicity is greatly enhanced, but this property is negated by temperatures above 1000 K. For hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, our generic result has the implication that retrieval studies may wish to set the subdominance of carbon dioxide as a prior of the calculation and not let its abundance completely roam free as a fitting parameter, because it directly affects the inferred value of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio and may produce unphysical conclusions. We discuss the relevance of these implications for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b and suggest that some of the previous results are chemically impossible. The relative abundance of carbon dioxide to acetylene is potentially a sensitive diagnostic of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio.

  17. Data assimilation of satellite retrieved ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with ECMWF's Composition-IFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inness

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Daily global analyses and 5 day forecasts are generated in the context of the European Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC project using an extended version of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. IFS now includes modules for chemistry, deposition and emission of reactive gases, aerosols, and greenhouse gases, and the 4-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme makes use of multiple satellite observations of atmospheric composition in addition to meteorological observations. This paper describes the data assimilation setup of the new Composition-IFS (C-IFS with respect to reactive gases and validates analysis fields of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 for the year 2008 against independent observations and a control run without data assimilation. The largest improvement in CO by assimilation of MOPITT CO columns is seen in the lower troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere (NH Extratropics during winter, and during the South African biomass burning season. The assimilation of several O3 total column and stratospheric profile retrievals greatly improves the total column, stratospheric and upper tropospheric O3 analysis fields relative to the control run. The impact on lower tropospheric ozone, which comes from the residual of the total column and stratospheric profile O3 data, is smaller, but nevertheless there is some improvement particularly in the NH during winter and spring. The impact of the assimilation of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns is small because of the short lifetime of NO2, suggesting that NO2 observations would be better used to adjust emissions instead of initial conditions. The results further indicate that the quality of the tropospheric analyses and of the stratospheric ozone analysis obtained with the C-IFS system has improved compared to the previous "coupled" model system of MACC.

  18. Large injection of carbon monoxide into the upper troposphere due to intense biomass burning in 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Hidekazu; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Ishii, Masao; Tsutsumi, Yukitomo

    1999-11-01

    Air samples at 8-13 km were collected regularly using a commercial airliner to obtain long-term measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio in the upper troposphere over the western Pacific between Australia and Japan during April 1993-December 1997. The measurements in 1997 clearly reveal an anomalous CO increase during September to November in the Southern Hemisphere, with a maximum of 320-380 ppb around 20°S in October. Tropical biomass burning, not urban/industrial emissions, was the main source for the enhanced CO in 1997. A similar southern-spring increase due to biomass burning was observed in previous years. The peaks showed a large interannual variation associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The largest CO spring peak appeared during the strong El Niño event in 1997, while the weak La Niña year of 1996 was marked by a largely suppressed CO spring peak. The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomaly is largest during the El Niño events indicating that the events cause a longer drought in the tropics and significantly influence the enlargement of biomass burning in tropical Southeast Asia. Thus the most likely cause for the ENSO-cycle CO variability is a year-to-year change of biomass-burning emissions mainly from Southeast Asia. The appearance of the CO spring peak in the southern subtropics is discussed on the basis of the possible long-range transport of biomass-burning CO from Southeast Asia to the upper troposphere over the western South Pacific.

  19. Free troposphere ozone and carbon monoxide over the North Atlantic for 2001–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 at the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO located in the Azores, Portugal are analyzed together with results from atmospheric chemical transport modeling (GEOS-Chem and satellite remote sensing (AIRS for CO and TES for O3 to examine the evolution of free-troposphere CO and O3 over the North Atlantic for 2001–2011. GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal cycles for CO and O3 well but significantly underestimated the mixing ratios of CO, particularly in spring. Statistically significant (using a significance level of 0.05 decreasing trends were found for both CO and O3 based on harmonic regression analysis of the measurement data. The best estimates of the trend for CO and O3 measurements are −0.31 ± 0.30 (2-σ ppbv yr−1 and −0.21 ± 0.11 (2-σ ppbv yr−1, respectively. Similar decreasing trends for both species were obtained with GEOS-Chem simulation results. The major factor contributing to the reported decrease in CO and O3 mixing ratios at PMO over the past decade is the decline in anthropogenic CO and O3-precursor emissions in regions such as North America and Europe. The increase in Asian emissions does not seem to outweigh the impact of these declines resulting in overall decreasing trends for both CO and O3. For O3, however, increase in atmospheric water vapor content associated with climate change also appears to be a contributing factor causing enhanced destruction of the O3 during transport from source regions. These hypotheses are supported by results from the GEOS-Chem tagged CO and tagged O3 simulations.

  20. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation. PMID:26583915

  1. Contrasting Marine Carbon Monoxide Budget in the North Pacific and the Amundsen Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Shin; Siek Rhee, Tae

    2016-04-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a trace gas that affects the global climate indirectly by participating in the atmospheric chemistry. Although in many studies it is estimated to be produced fast in the surface ocean from the photolysis of chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOM), also it decreases considerably by the microbial oxidation and the vertical mixing in water column. Therefore, the strength of oceanic source to the atmosphere is not so considerable. To investigate how the CO budget in the mixed layer governs the CO emission from sea to air, we conducted the underway measurements of CO, the dark incubation experiments, and the measurements of CDOM absorbance during two expeditions in the Amundsen Sea and the North Pacific in summer season of 2012. Dark incubation experiments revealed that microbial consumption rate in the North Pacific was 2.7 nM d‑1whilst 1.2 nM d‑1 in the Amundsen Sea, which is ca. 2.3 times smaller. However, CO production rate was as much as about 40 times higher in the North Pacific (1 nM d‑1) due mainly to sea-ice albedo in the Amundsen Sea. It seems that this different CO budget between the two regions causes different amplitude of diurnal variation of dissolved CO. That is, compared to the Amundsen Sea, CO is produced faster in daytime and removed faster all day in the North Pacific where the sinusoidal amplitude of CO is larger. In both regions, ˜97% of CO is estimated to be consumed by microbes, and sea-to-air flux density calculated from the underway measurements was insignificant in terms of the total atmospheric reservoir. Our observations indicate that the source strength of the ocean was evenly weak regardless of the scale of CO budget in the ocean. That is, marine biota can be thought as a main control of CO in the atmosphere, the important trace gas for the global climate change.

  2. Fixation, retention and exhalation of carrier-free 11C-labelled carbon monoxide by man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier-free 11C-labelled carbon monoxide was produced by proton irradiation of a nitrogen gas flow target via the 14N(p,α)11C process followed by on-line reduction of the predominantly formed 11C-carbon dioxide with a yield of 0.4 mCi/μAmin. After appropriate quality control about 2 mCi of carrier-free 11C-carbon monoxide in 500 ml of nitrogen gas were inhaled by test subjects in one breath. The 11C-activity distribution was then followed in vivo by scanning above thorax, head, liver, thigh and os sacrum; simultaneously the 11C-activity of the blood was also followed by batch measurement. The data indicate that part of the 11C-activity migrates from the blood into the intercellular space, while another part is exhaled. The 11C-activity leaves the individual organs with a biological half-life ranging from about 120 to 200 min, a time which is short as compared to the one observed for 51Cr-labelled erythrocytes. A radio gas chromatographic analysis of the exhaled air showed that the 11C-activity leaves the body exclusively in the form of 11C-labelled carbon monoxide. Consequently, metabolism of the 11CO into 11Co2 or other compounds can be excluded. (orig.)

  3. Specific features of the glass transition in C60 fullerite saturated with carbon monoxide molecules: Photoluminescence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoviev, P. V.; Zoryansky, V. N.; Stetsenko, Yu. E.; Danchuk, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Low temperature (20-230 K) spectral-luminescence studies were conducted on C60 fullerite saturated with carbon monoxide in a physisorption regime. Substantial changes in the photoluminescence characteristics of C60-CO solutions with different impurity concentrations were found already for short intercalation times. Strong dependence of the CO solubility on the saturation temperature was revealed by analyzing the contribution of "deep X-traps" to the luminescence. Furthermore, it was found that filling of the octahedral voids by CO molecules occurs with a lower gradient of the impurity distribution into the bulk C60 crystals as compared with N2. The temperature dependences of the integral emission intensity for the samples with different concentrations of carbon monoxide were studied. For the first time, using the spectral-luminescence method, it was revealed that CO molecules, in contrast to H2 and N2, exhibit a significant effect on the formation of the orientational glass and the rotational dynamics of C60 molecules. Within the model of the transfer of electronic excitation in C60 crystals, the effect of polar CO molecules on the reorientation of C60 molecules and the change in the nature of their rotation in concentrated C60-CO solutions, leading to the observed strong shift of the temperatures of orientational Tc and glass Tg transitions to lower temperatures accompanied by "blurring" of the transition boundaries, were explained.

  4. Low pressure solubility and thermodynamics of solvation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in fluorinated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in three fluorinated liquids - perfluorohexylethane, perfluorooctane and bromoperfluorooctane - is presented. Mole fraction solubilities were calculated from new experimental Ostwald coefficient data for CO2 and CO, and from previously published values for O2, associated with original values of density and vapour pressure for the pure solvents. Carbon dioxide is the most soluble gas with mole fraction solubilities of the order of 10-2. Oxygen and carbon monoxide are one order of magnitude less soluble. The measurements were done as a function of temperature between (288 and 313) K and from the variation of the calculated Henry's law constants with temperature, the thermodynamic properties of solvation such as the Gibbs free energy, the enthalpy and the entropy were calculated. The precision of the experimental data, considered as the average absolute deviation of the Henry's law constants from appropriate smoothing equations is of 1% for carbon dioxide and oxygen and of 3% for carbon monoxide. The data obtained here are judged accurate to within ±5%

  5. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  6. Carbon isotope (14C, 12C) measurements to quantify sources of atmospheric carbon monoxide in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric air samples were collected during the Winter of 1989-90 in Albuquerque, NM USA, for carbon isotope (14C, 12C) analysis of carbon monoxide (CO). An experimental sample design was prepared to target periods when the concentration of CO exceeds the 9 μL/L (volume fraction), 8 hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and during periods of attainment. Sampling sites, time of day, sampling duration, and meteorology were carefully considered so that source impacts be optimal. A balanced sampling factorial design was used to yield maximum information from the constraints imposed; the number of samples was limited by the number of sample canisters available, time, and resources. Carbon isotope measurements of urban air, ''clean-air'' background from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, average (wood) logs and oxygenated-gasolines were used in a 3-source model to calculate the contribution of woodburning to the total atmospheric CO burden in Albuquerque. Results show that the estimated fractional contribution of residential wood combustion (Θ' RWC) ranged from 0 to 0.30 of CO concentrations corrected for ''clean-air'' background. For these same samples, the respective CO concentrations attributed to woodburning range from 0 to 0.90 μmol/mol (mole fraction), well below the NAAQS. In all cases, fossil CO is the predominant source of ambient CO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 6.34 μmol/mol. A final comment is made on the potential of fossil CO measurements as an indirect tracer of atmospheric benzene, relevant to exposure risk estimates of motor vehicle emissions and occupational health and safety standards. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Computation of diatomic molecular spectra for selected transitions of aluminum monoxide, cyanide, diatomic carbon, and titanium monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser ablation studies with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) typically emphasize atomic species yet fingerprints from molecular species can occur subsequently or concurrently. In this work, selected molecular transitions of aluminum monixide (AlO), diatomic carbon (C2), cyanide (CN), and titanium monoxide (TiO) are accurately computed. Line strength tables are used to describe the radiative transitions of diatomic molecules primarily in the visible, optical region. Details are elaborated of the computational procedure that allows one to utilize diatomic spectra as a predictive and as a diagnostic tool. In order to create a computed spectrum, the procedure requires information regarding the temperature of the diatomic transitions along with other input such as the spectral resolution. When combined with a fitting algorithm to optimize such parameters, this procedure is used to infer information from an experimentally obtained spectrum. Furthermore, the programs and data files are provided for LIBS investigations that also reveal AlO, C2, CN, and TiO diatomic spectra. - Highlights: • We present a program for fitting of molecular spectra. • This includes data base for AlO, C2, CN, and TiO. • We discuss the details of the program including fitting. • We show computed examples and reference current work

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatef Tahouri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Tahouri A, Lyoussi B, Achour S. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:131-5.

  9. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography carbon monoxide total columns: statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  10. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; Werf, van der G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  11. Determination of single and repeated red cell volumes by the indicator dilution method using carbon monoxide as the indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive isotopes limits clinical applications of blood volume measurement in the ICU. We measured red cell volumes with carbon monoxide-labeled RBC in six dogs and five human volunteers. The measured values obtained on the dogs were compared with the simultaneous measurements with the 51Cr method; the ratio of the carbon monoxide to 51Cr values ranged from 0.86 to 1.17, and the mean ratio was 1.0 +/- 0.1 (SD), r = .93. We infer from these results that the carbon monoxide method has several advantages over the 51Cr method: (a) the short labeling time (about 1 min), (b) rapidly decreasing background levels of carbon monoxide with FIO2 1.0, and (c) repeatability at intervals of several hours

  12. Range measurements of keV hydrogen ions in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranges of 1.3-3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen. The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees with that previously found for solid nitrogen. (orig.)

  13. Temporal Variations in Concentrations of Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide at Osijek, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Kovač-Andrić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide variations and their correlation with meteorological parameters in Osijek (Eastern Croatia during the summer seasons of 2002, 2007, and 2012. The measured data are discussed in relation to the EU guidelines (Directive 2002/3/EC, Directive 2008/50/EC. In order to characterize ambient air with respect to ozone photochemical pollution we calculated three photochemical pollution indicators. These indicators may also be a valid measure for harmful effects on living organisms. The influence of local meteorological parameters on the measured concentrations of ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide was also investigated. We have attempted to establish correlations between measured pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters using the technique of multivariate principal component analysis (PCA.

  14. Research progress in immunological mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai FENG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is a syndrome constituted by acute dementia, psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, which can be developed after the original clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning recovered. Lots of studies have been done to explain the mechanisms of DEACMP, and more and more researches have demonstrated that the immunological mechanism may be involved in or play an important role on the pathogenesis of the process. This article will review the researches of immunological mechanism of DEACMP in recent years and give some prompts to clinical study in the future. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.006

  15. Practice recommendations in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Piantadosi, Claude A; Thom, Stephen R; Weaver, Lindell K

    2012-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in modern society, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in the United States annually. Over the past two decades, sufficient information has been published about carbon monoxide poisoning in the medical literature to draw firm conclusions about many aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of the syndrome, along with evidence-based recommendations for optimal clinical practice. This article provides clinical practice guidance to the pulmonary and critical care community regarding the diagnosis, management, and prevention of acute CO poisoning. The article represents the consensus opinion of four recognized content experts in the field. Supporting data were drawn from the published, peer-reviewed literature on CO poisoning, placing emphasis on selecting studies that most closely mirror clinical practice. PMID:23087025

  16. Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments: A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

  17. Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments - A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

  18. Isotopes of carbon monoxide in the free troposphere and their implications to atmospheric chemistry. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The thesis project was designed to provide information for the following questions: what is the oxidative capacity of the troposphere, and how are the source strengths of carbon monoxide partitioned. Because of its active role in tropospheric chemistry, carbon monoxide is important in determining the fate of a number of species, including hydroxyl radicals. (14)CO serves as a natural tracer for its destruction, as the source function can be well contrained. By determining the tropospheric inventory of (14)CO and calculating its source strength, one may realize the rate of destruction. Similarly, because certain sources have unique stable isotope signatures, an analysis of the stable isotopes provides information on the relative source strengths. A sampling system was built which allowed for the collection of large, whole air samples from an aircraft platform. CO was extracted and the isotopes were determined, and from these data an OH abundance was calculated using a 2-D transport model.

  19. Some effects of argon and helium upon explosions of carbon monoxide and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernst F; Roeder, Carl H

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study the effects of the inert gases, argon and helium, upon flame speed and expansion ratio in exploding mixtures of carbon monoxide, oxygen and water.For the particular gas mixtures investigated the results show that: (1) With the possible exception of helium in small amounts the addition of inert gas always produces decreased flame speed and expansion ratio; (2) like volumes of argon and helium have very different effects upon flame speed but practically the same effect upon expansion ratio; and (3) the difference in the effect of these two gases upon speed is independent of the ratio of carbon monoxide to oxygen. A discussion of some possible modes by which inert gases may produce the observed effects is included.

  20. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.