WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon market nationally

  1. First Nations carbon collaborative - indigenous peoples and carbon markets: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, Rosemary; Voora, Vivek [International Institute for Sustainable Development (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    According to the United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous people, First Nations must be involved in the development of carbon markets which could affect their traditional and current land in Canada. The aim of this document is to provide First Nations with unbiased information on carbon markets so they can decide whether or not they want to take advantage of the economic opportunities that these markets offer. This annotated bibliography has been built using peer reviewed materials, working papers, government publications, technical reports, newspapers and online news websites. This paper provides the reader with information on the impacts that carbon markets could have on First Nations and is accessible to all with academic as well as popular resources. This bibliography highlighted that little information is available on First Nations in Canada and carbon markets and that this needs to be addressed so that indigenous people can participate actively in carbon markets.

  2. NAMAs and the carbon market. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.; Hinostroza, M.

    2009-07-01

    The role of carbon markets in scaling up mitigation actions in developing countries in the post-2012 climate regime is the topic of Perspectives 2009: NAMAs and the Carbon Market - Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions of Developing Countries. The eight papers presented explore how mitigation actions in developing countries, in the context of sustainable development, may be supported by technology, finance and capacity development in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner. Key issues discussed are the pros and cons of market and non-market mechanisms in raising private and public finance, and the appropriate governance structures at the international and national levels. The aim of this publication is to present possible answers to these questions, with a specific focus on the role of existing and emerging carbon markets to finance NAMAs. (LN)

  3. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  4. Swindling. The carbon market hackers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author briefly describes how hackers robbed millions of carbon credits by breaking data system security and entering national registers which contain all operations related to carbon credits. Few companies acknowledge that they have been victims of these robberies. These robbed credits are tracked by Europol and Interpol. These attacks are suspected to come from mafia networks in Israel, Pakistan, Italy and Romania, who took advantage of the credit market fragilities

  5. Market efficiency in the European carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the relationship between futures and spot prices in the European carbon markets from the cost-of-carry hypothesis. The aim is to investigate the extent of efficiency market. The three main European markets (BlueNext, EEX and ECX) are analyzed during Phase II, covering the period from March 13, 2009 to January, 17, 2012. Futures contracts are found to be cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates for several maturities in the three CO2 markets. Results are similar when structural breaks are taken into account. According to individual and joint tests, the cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and CO2 markets, implying that neither contract is priced according to the cost-of-carry model. The absence of the cost-of-carry relationship can be interpreted as an indicator of market inefficiency and may bring arbitrage opportunities in the CO2 market. - Highlights: • We study the cost-of-carry hypothesis in the European carbon markets during Phase 2. • We apply cointegration tests with and without structural breaks on several maturities. • We find that futures contracts are cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates. • The cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and carbon markets

  6. Progressing towards post-2012 carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeren Luetken, S.; Holm Olsen, K.

    2011-11-15

    Confronting the end of the first Kyoto Commitment period in 2012 with no agreed outcome for global cooperation on future emission reductions, there is an urgent need to look for new opportunities for public and private cooperation to drive broad-based progress in living standards and keep projected future warming below the politically agreed 2 degrees Celsius. Responding jointly to these global challenges the United Nations environmental Program (UNEP) and its UNEP Risoe Centre (URC) have in cooperation with the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) prepared the Perspectives 2011. The publication focuses on the role of carbon markets in contributing to low carbon development and new mechanisms for green growth, as one core area of action to address the challenges noted above. The publication explores in ten articles, how carbon markets at national, regional and global levels can be developed and up-scaled to sustain the involvement of the private sector in leveraging finance and innovative solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The titles of the ten articles are: 1) Fragmentation of international climate policy - doom or boom for carbon markets?; 2) Perspectives on the EU carbon market; 3) China carbon market; 4) The national context of U.S. state policies for a global commons problem; 5) Mind the gap - the state-of-play of Canadian greenhouse gas mitigation; 6) Role of the UN and multilateral policies in integrating an increasingly fragmented global carbon market; 7) Making CDM work for poor and rich Africa beyond 2012 - a series of dos and don'ts; 8) Voluntary market - future perspectives; 9) Sectoral approaches as a way forward for the carbon market?; 10) The Durban outcome - a post 2012 framework approach for green house gas markets. (LN)

  7. What you should know about carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has been in continuous expansion. In this paper, we review the origins of carbon trading in order to understand how carbon trading works in Europe and, specifically, the functioning of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and the workings of several spot, futures and options markets where European Union Allowances are traded. As well, the linking of the EU ETS with the other United Nations carbon markets is also studied. (author)

  8. What You Should Know About Carbon Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mansanet-Bataller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has been in continuous expansion. In this paper, we review the origins of carbon trading in order to understand how carbon trading works in Europe and, specifically, the functioning of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS and the workings of several spot, futures and options markets where European Union Allowances are traded. As well, the linking of the EU ETS with the other United Nations carbon markets is also studied.

  9. Designing carbon markets. Part I: Carbon markets in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in time (i.e., intertemporally). It is part of a twin set of papers that ask, starting from first principles, what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of temporal design that would help to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including banking and borrowing and other mechanisms to provide greater carbon price predictability and credibility over time.

  10. National Farmers Market Summit Proceedings Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tropp, Debra; Barham, James

    2008-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), in partnership with the Farmers Market Consortium, hosted the National Farmers Market Summit November 7–9, 2007, in Baltimore, MD. The Summit assembled key stakeholders from the farmers market community to convene a national conversation on issues and challenges facing today’s farmers markets. The National Farmers Market Summit had three broad objectives: (1) Identify farmers market needs and existing gaps in assistance, (2) Prioritize future res...

  11. An explanation of carbon emission markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined the necessity to drastically reduce anthropic carbon emissions, and discussed how to associate standards, taxes and quota markets, the authors describe how carbon emission markets have emerged: the Kyoto protocol, the emission trade scheme (ETS) of the European Union, other carbon markets (existing or in preparation). They introduce and present four pillars of carbon emission markets: the allocation process, the reliability of emission measurement and control, market records and transparency, and introduction of flexibility. They examine the possibility of success in the development of a greenhouse gas emission market. The authors discuss the problems raised by a design of carbon markets by government and their use by private actors, how to connect existing or future regional carbon markets, the integration of forest and agriculture through new compensatory mechanisms, how to face carbon leaks by widening carbon markets

  12. Carbon emission trading system of China: a linked market vs. separated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Feng, Shenghao; Cai, Songfeng; Zhang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Yanbin; Chen, Zhanming

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese government intends to upgrade its current provincial carbon emission trading pilots to a nationwide scheme by 2015. This study investigates two of scenarios: separated provincial markets and a linked inter-provincial market. The carbon abatement effects of separated and linked markets are compared using two pilot provinces of Hubei and Guangdong based on a computable general equilibrium model termed Sino-TERMCo2. Simulation results show that the linked market can improve social welfare and reduce carbon emission intensity for the nation as well as for the Hubei-Guangdong bloc compared to the separated market. However, the combined system also distributes welfare more unevenly and thus increases social inequity. On the policy ground, the current results suggest that a well-constructed, nationwide carbon market complemented with adequate welfare transfer policies can be employed to replace the current top-down abatement target disaggregation practice.

  13. The Intercultural Model of National Lebanese Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleana L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the importance of intercultural marketing approaches on the internationally globalized market. The ethnical structure of population determines the fractionation of consumers’ characteristics on the national market. The paper presents the elements of the intercultural Lebanese model which generate the national specificity of Lebanese market. The Lebanese cultural model is validated with the dimensions of Hofstede’s model and based on the results of a quantitative market research. The paper formulates marketing strategies for the intercultural marketing approach on Lebanese market.

  14. Carbon market as the instrument of realization of the sustainable low-carbonic development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Shkola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main international documents on the climate change for establishment of the control over greenhouses gases undershoots are analysed. The conceptual model of the Ukraines national carbon market is suggested.

  15. Navigating the global carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a slow start, the clean development mechanism (CDM) market has recently experienced enormous growth. However, the CDM market has been increasingly criticised, resulting in a lively debate about how to reform, complement, or replace it. In order to increase transparency and assist policy-makers in better understanding the current market, we depart from the traditional project-level perspective on CDM and analyse commercial activities by utilising data from UNEP Risoe's CDM Bazaar. To this end, we first establish a seven-step value chain by conducting a factor analysis on the commercial activities indicated in the Bazaar and, second, identify nine prevalent business models with a cluster analysis of all 495 participating organisations. Based on these analyses, we discuss potential impacts on the value chain of different policy scenarios that rely on carbon credits as incentive. We find that the importance of specific regulatory CDM know-how and general business activities such as finance varies strongly with the different policy scenarios. Our analysis serves to sensitise policy-makers and business about implications of different regulatory designs.

  16. World cheating on the carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to several non-governmental organizations, some industrial producers take advantage of a flaw in one of the carbon market mechanisms set up by the Kyoto protocol. These industrialists, mainly from China and India, are involved in the production of HCFC22 refrigerants, and make a substantial profit by artificially generating more greenhouse gases (HFC23) than necessary, then destroying them in order to collect carbon credits which they sell on the carbon market. Explanations about the cheat, details about companies and banks involved in the system, review of past trickeries in carbon quotas, and ways to improve the carbon market are presented

  17. The wheels of carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the issue of greenhouse gas effect emissions and the need to limit them to protect the atmosphere, the author identifies three possible solutions: a regulatory approach, which would need a whole set of costly provisions to control all aspects of the social and economic life, the introduction of a fee, which would include an assessment of the social cost of the destruction of environmental assets, and the creation of a market, from which would emerge a price of the common wealth to be protected. This last approach was chosen to struggle against climate change. The author recalls the different attempts of the international community to introduce carbon pricing (in Europe in 1992, with the Kyoto protocol in 1997, and with the European Union Emission Trading System). He describes the introduction of CO2 emission permits and credits at the international scale, and comments the results of this procedure, its evolution, and its perspectives

  18. The Intercultural Model of National Lebanese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Duguleana L.; Popovici S.C.

    2014-01-01

    The paper emphasizes the importance of intercultural marketing approaches on the internationally globalized market. The ethnical structure of population determines the fractionation of consumers’ characteristics on the national market. The paper presents the elements of the intercultural Lebanese model which generate the national specificity of Lebanese market. The Lebanese cultural model is validated with the dimensions of Hofstede’s model and based on the results of a quantitative mar...

  19. Role of China in Global Carbon Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiyang Zhuang

    2006-01-01

    The use of market-based mechanisms is a cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions.The present paper reviews the global carbon market, focusing mainly on its structure and price features, and analyzes the role of China in the global carbon market. China is playing a leading role in thepursuit of sustainable development, which can account for its lagging behind in the Clean Development Mechanism. The paper discusses the opportunities and challenges for China undertaking the Clean Development Mechanism project in the future.

  20. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  1. Conceptualizations of sustainability in carbon markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karavai, Maryna; Hinostroza, Miriam L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on market responses to climate change, specifically a particular example of voluntary carbon market development, in sub-Saharan Africa, and seeks to identify the principles of sustainability that carbon markets draw upon. We explore how key discourses and their application in the...... context of the carbon market construct a vision of sustainability. We argue that the prevalence of neoliberal and technocratic ideas and values preferring weak ecological modernization, coupled with the contemporary climate regime, marginalize alternative perspectives on climate-constrained development......, thus weakening prospects of averting the dangerous impacts of a changing climate. The analysis is based on the evaluation of 78 projects in the voluntary market across supply chains in 23 countries in the region....

  2. Carbon markets proliferating despite difficulties, report notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Although some existing carbon markets are facing structural issues and economic difficulties in Europe have put a damper on the European Union emissions trading system, new carbon pricing initiatives are developing rapidly, and these initiatives could help slow down greenhouse gas emissions, according to a 29 May report from the World Bank.

  3. Marketing communication of the National theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Hallerová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on current marketing communication of The National Theatre in Prague. The aim of the work is the introduction and evaluation of the current communication mix. The theoretical part mainly introduces the communication mix and its specifics in the cultural environment of the theater. The practical part focuses on the current communication mix of The National Theatre, communication to support season tickets and patronal club. It also provides suggestions and market...

  4. Panorama 2014 - Overview of new carbon markets at international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although carbon prices on the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) are at their lowest since 2008 and international negotiations in relation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have been stagnating since the 2009 Copenhagen Agreement, nearly seventeen emissions trading markets have been identified at international level. Without counting the European ETS which has existed since 2005, eleven new markets have emerged since 2008 and a further five are set to commence trading in 2014. Of these eleven active markets, five are in Asia, three are in North America, one is in Oceania, one is in Central Asia and one is in Europe. It should be pointed out that to date, no markets are scheduled to begin trading in Africa. Although four markets have announced their intention to work together between now and 2020, the creation of an international emissions trading scheme is not on the immediate horizon. (author)

  5. Tourism Marketing in Masai Mara National Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Mungai, George

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to describe the channels in tourism marketing of Masai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) in Kenya to attract tourists to the destination and the developments of interactive activities with the communities around the area. The thesis was aimed at establishing marketing methods to enable MMNR to achieve the status of an all season destination. The theoretical framework of the thesis focused on the communication process, an overview of the tourism industry in Keny...

  6. China Green Marketing Under the Low Carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Green marketing is the important marketing trend under the background of low carbon economy. The external environment of enterprises will become more conducive to the implementation of green marketing. The introduction of low carbon index into the green marketing management can let the green marketing in the enterprises more operable, and also will make the certain differences in the theoretical circles on the green marketing theory further reduced, which will contribute to the further develo...

  7. Carbon market feasibility assessment: Potential for ESP to enter the carbon markets

    OpenAIRE

    Development Alternatives, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    "The purpose of the Carbon Market Assessment was to determine the feasibility of developing a strategy for one or more Pilot Payment for Environmental Service schemes using carbon credits as the commodity of trade. The consultancy focused on the opportunities to design projects that link to ongoing Environmental Services Program (ESP) activities and leverage the strengths of ESPs community mobilization activities throughout Indonesia.

  8. Price Discrimination with Asymmetric Firms: The Case of the U.S. Carbonated Soft Drinks Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Shen, Shu

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between price discrimination and vertical product differentiation, using National Brands and Private Labels in the Carbonated Soft Drink market as a case study. We decompose prices difference into quantity dis- count and cost difference across packagings and recover marginal cost by a structural demand model of consumer preference and firm behavior. Our results suggest that in the carbonated soft drinks market, both national brands and private labels o...

  9. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12, boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  10. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  11. Carbon Market Regulation Mechanism Research Based on Carbon Accumulation Model with Jump Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dongmei Guo; Yi Hu; Bingjie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore carbon market regulation mechanism more effectively, based on carbon accumulation model with jump diffusion, this paper studies the carbon price from two perspectives of quantity instrument and price instrument and quantitatively simulates carbon price regulation mechanisms in the light of actual operation of EU carbon market. The results show that quantity instrument and price instrument both have certain effects on carbon market; according to the comparison of the elasti...

  12. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Carroll, G.

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  13. Marketing graduate student wins national research award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2009-01-01

    Bige Saatcioglu, a doctoral candidate in marketing in the Pamplin College of Business, has won the American Marketing Association's (AMA) marketing and public policy dissertation competition this year.

  14. Asymmetric-Structure Analysis of Carbon and Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Guangxi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the asymmetric structure between the carbon and energy markets from two aspects of different trends (up or down) and volatility-transmission direction using asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficient test, multifractal asymmetric DCCA (MF-ADCCA) method, asymmetric volatility-constrained correlation metric and time rate of information-flow approach. We sampled 1283 observations from January 2008 to December 2012 among pairs of carbon and energy markets for analysis. Empirical results show that the (1) asymmetric characteristic from the cross-correlation between carbon and returns in the energy markets is significant, (2) asymmetric cross-correlation between carbon and energy market price returns is persistent and multifractral and (3) volatility of the base assets of energy market returns is more influential to the base asset of the carbon market than that of the energy market.

  15. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merger Eduard

    2011-08-01

    no harm as a minimum requirement and build a strong track record of successful projects. Project developers require clear, easily and practically applicable standards at lowest possible costs with a high potential in order to achieve good carbon prices, while buyers require that standards are legitimate, credible and that no public criticism arises when carbon credits are purchased from projects certified by a certain standard. Conclusions Despite the fragmented and immature state of the OTC market, standards act as 'market-making' intermediaries and contribute to the quality and transparency of the OTC market. However, the variety of different standards imposes new hurdles for their efficiency and often creates confusion instead of confidence among potential buyers. Despite the lacking legitimacy of the standards, pressures from the institutional environment on standards ensure a minimum quality of carbon credits (including positive social and environmental impacts of carbon credits that serves as an insurance mechanism for the integrity of standards. Its unregulated nature and the pressure from an increasingly competitive environment provides innovative space to deliver efficient certification procedures without imposing unreasonably high transaction costs on market actors. Furthermore, voluntary standards imply a more innovative certification approach, as one legal authority could do, because standards have to compete for adopters backed by civil society organisations. Thereby, the forest sector in OTC voluntary market bears great opportunities to provide the forest sector with crucial lessons for international climate policy and governmental institutions when designing regulation for forest regulation such as international and national REDDplus schemes.

  16. The Architecture of Carbon Markets: Institutional Analysis of the Organizations and Relationships that Build the Market.

    OpenAIRE

    Knox-Hayes, Janelle

    2009-01-01

    Countries around the world are developing carbon emissions markets as a governance mechanism to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. These markets are social institutions, designed to solve the transnational collective action problem of climate change. This article explores the development of carbon markets from an institutional perspective to understand how market networks specifically and social institutions in general are constructed. Drawing on semina...

  17. Subsidising carbon capture. Effects on energy prices and market shares in the power market

    OpenAIRE

    Aune, Finn Roar; Liu, Gang; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Sagen, Eirik Lund

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how ambitious climate policies and subsidies to carbon capture may affect international energy prices and market shares in the power market. A detailed numerical model of the international energy markets is used. We first conclude that an ambitious climate policy alone will have substantial effects in the power market, with considerable growth in renewable power production and eventually use of carbon capture. Gas power production will also benefit from such a policy. Subs...

  18. Carbon auctions, energy markets and market power: An experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an experimental analysis of a simultaneous energy-emissions market under conditions of market power. The experimental design employs real-world institutional features; including stochastic demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. The results suggest that dominant firms can utilize energy-emissions market linkages to simultaneously inflate the price of energy and suppress the price of emissions allowances. Whereas under prior market designs, regulators were concerned with dominant firms exercising their market power over the emissions market to exclude rivals and manipulate the permit market by hoarding permits; the results of this paper suggest that this strategy is less profitable to dominant firms in contemporary auction-based markets than strategic capacity withholding in the energy market and associated demand reduction in the emissions market. - Highlights: • Laboratory simulation of joint energy-emissions market. • Evaluates market power under collusion and real-world institutional features. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to inflate energy prices. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to suppress emissions prices. • Supply withholding is an implicit demand reduction in the emissions market

  19. Energy Industry in China: Marketization and National Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DanShi

    2005-01-01

    Opening up the market, breaking the monopoly, and allowing the market to decide prices these are the major items on the agenda for the marketization of China's energy industry, and have a direct bearing on national energy security. Research into China's energy security has so far focused on such fields as strategic energy reserves, stability of energy imports, and diversification of import channels. Little has been done in the study of national energy security from the perspective of marketization of the energy industry. However, opening up the energy market and marketizing the energy industry are not only major commitments to China's accession to WTO, they serve the nation's energy security needs as well. This paper takes a look at the actual results of opening up the energy market, the structure of that market, and the nation's energy pricing mechanisms, and on the basis of the findings, raises suggestions on how to tackle the energy security issue.

  20. Pathways for implementing REDD+. Experiences from carbon markets and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Lopez, T. De; Romero, M.Z.

    2011-07-01

    This issue of Carbon Market Perspectives on 'Pathways for implementing REDD+: Experience from carbon markets and communities' discusses the role of carbon markets in scaling up investments for REDD+ in developing countries. Nine articles authored by experienced negotiators on REDD+, carbon market actors, project developers and other leading experts share experiences and make suggestions on the key elements of a future international REDD+ regime: Architecture and underlying principles, measuring, reporting and verification (MRV), private-sector involvement, the rights of indigenous people and local communities, biodiversity conservation and environmental integrity. The articles are grouped under three main topics: the lessons of existing REDD+ projects; the future REDD+ regime and the role of carbon markets; and experiences and ideas about the involvement of indigenous people and local communities. (LN)

  1. Price determinants of the European carbon market and interactions with energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Cludius, Johanna; Matthes, Felix [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen; Zaklan, Aleksandar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    This report explores the determinants of short run price movements in the carbon market and their interaction with energy markets, in particular with the electricity market. Focusing on Phase 2 of the EU ETS we conduct econometric time series analysis based on continental EU and UK market data. Our findings suggest that market fundamentals have a dominant effect on the EUA price, but that non-fundamental factors may also play a role. We further found that the electricity price has a significant positive impact on the carbon price in the short run.

  2. A study of contract legal issues in Chinese carbon market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Qing; Jiang Dongmei; Zhang Mengheng

    2009-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has given birth to an international carbon trading market prosperity, which provides developing countries with valuable opportunities to address climate change issues together with economic development and environmental improvement to achieve the sustainable goal. China, as the biggest carbon market, has caught worldwide attention. However, most studies of CDM focus on economics and environmental science, few on its legal problems. Transaction activities are the essence of market mechanism. To protect the benefits of market participators and regulate the market orders, the Contract Law takes this important role along with development of market mechanism. Therefore, this paper only focuses on the carbon market in China, with the assessment of the risks in the CDM development first. The involved contracts will be identified and analyzed to point out the major contract legal issues in Chinese carbon market. In the meantime, this paper further discussses that measurements at both private level and governmental level should be taken to protect and realize the utility and equality of contract in the carbon market.

  3. Carbon markets and low-carbon investment in emerging economies: A synthesis of parallel workshops in Brazil and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While policy experiments targeted at energy and innovation transitions have not been deployed consistently across all countries, market mechanisms such as carbon pricing have been tested over the past decade in disparate development contexts, and therefore provide some opportunities for analysis. This brief communication reports on two parallel workshops recently held in Sao Paulo, Brazil and New Delhi, India to address questions of how well these carbon pricing policies have worked in affecting corporate decisions to invest in low-carbon technology. Convening practitioners and scholars from multiple countries, the workshops elicited participants' perspectives on business investment decisions under international carbon markets in emerging economies across multiple energy-intensive sectors. We review the resulting perspectives on low-carbon policies and present guidance on a research agenda that could clarify how international and national policies could help encourage both energy transitions and energy innovations in emerging economies.

  4. Complexity of carbon market from multi-scale entropy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Complexity of carbon market is the consequence of economic dynamics and extreme social political events in global carbon markets. The multi-scale entropy can measure the long-term structures in the daily price return time series. By using multi-scale entropy analysis, we explore the complexity of carbon market and mean reversion trend of daily price return. The logarithmic difference of data Dec16 from August 6, 2010 to May 22, 2015 is selected as the sample. The entropy is higher in small time scale, while lower in large. The dependence of the entropy on the time scale reveals the mean reversion of carbon prices return in the long run. A relatively great fluctuation over some short time period indicates that the complexity of carbon market evolves consistently with economic development track and the events of international climate conferences.

  5. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lei; Wei Bin; Ma Li; Cheng Wen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the development of UHV grid will provide a strong material support for the united national power market by expanding market coverage, lowering load fluctuation and promoting diversification of power resources.

  6. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  7. World cheating on the carbon market; Tricherie mondiale sur le marche carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, O.

    2010-09-15

    According to several non-governmental organizations, some industrial producers take advantage of a flaw in one of the carbon market mechanisms set up by the Kyoto protocol. These industrialists, mainly from China and India, are involved in the production of HCFC22 refrigerants, and make a substantial profit by artificially generating more greenhouse gases (HFC23) than necessary, then destroying them in order to collect carbon credits which they sell on the carbon market. Explanations about the cheat, details about companies and banks involved in the system, review of past trickeries in carbon quotas, and ways to improve the carbon market are presented

  8. State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Capoor, Karan; Ambrosi, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This report points out that there is a tendency to believe that the carbon market is somehow a magic bullet that will alone save the world from global warming. While the authors recognize the enormous strength and potential of the market to achieve results, it would be wise not to assume the market will provide a painless, magical way to mitigate climate change. First, the market does not set the level of a cap, policy-makers do. The market can only be a tool to help achieve that target. It c...

  9. Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalized electricity markets with either CO2 trading or carbon taxes. It uses daily price data for electricity, gas, coal and carbon from 2005 to 2010, which encompasses the first years of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the world's foremost carbon trading framework. The study shows that even with modest carbon pricing, competition for new investment in electricity markets will take place between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power struggling to be profitable. The data and analyses contained in this study provide a robust framework for assessing cost and investment issues in liberalized electricity markets with carbon pricing. (authors)

  10. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation: What contribution from carbon markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellassen, Valentin; Crassous, R.; Dietzsch, L.; Schwartzman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is responsible for 15-20% of total man-made emissions of greenhouse gases. In December 2007, at the international conference of Bali, the United Nations acknowledged that a viable solution to climate change must include a mechanism to limit deforestation and forest degradation. Today, the most widely used economic tool to reduce emissions is carbon markets: caps on emitters, and trade allowed between emitters and reducers, drive a price signal on carbon and provide ince...

  11. Transfer of low-carbon technology under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: the case of the Global Environment Facility and its market transformation approach in India

    OpenAIRE

    Haum, Rüdiger H

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of low-carbon technology to developing countries is one of the key means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and therefore a key aspect of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of international low-carbon technology transfer and how it might do justice to the interest of developed and developing countries. The empirical example is the technology transfer approach and its imple...

  12. Potential and bottlenecks of the carbon market: The case of a developing country, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of clean development mechanism (CDM) projects are confined to a few countries. For many developing nations, entry into the carbon market, either through CDM or others, has been difficult. Thus, rationalizing CDM projects and the carbon market as a tool for sustainable development is often questioned. Many developing countries, such as Nepal, lack a quantification of CO2 reduction potential and an assessment of bottlenecks necessary for the carbon market. In this context, this paper assesses the potential emission reductions from major sectors of Nepal and the accompanying bottlenecks of the carbon market. The analyses provide indications of the type and scale of the carbon mitigation opportunities in key sectors such as waste management, biogas utilization, promotion of electric vehicles, rice cultivation, bio-energy utilization, brick making, hydropower development and a few others. These might be helpful to decision-makers in Nepal as well as to the process of re-orienting CDM and other carbon markets to better understand the bottlenecks of developing countries.

  13. Policy interactions, risk and price formation in carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon pricing is an important mechanism for providing companies with incentives to invest in carbon abatement. Price formation in carbon markets involves a complex interplay between policy targets, dynamic technology costs, and market rules. Carbon pricing may under-deliver investment due to R and D externalities, requiring additional policies which themselves affect market prices. Also, abatement costs depend on the extent of technology deployment due to learning-by-doing. This paper introduces an analytical framework based on marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves with the aim of providing an intuitive understanding of the key dynamics and risk factors in carbon markets. The framework extends the usual static MAC representation of the market to incorporate policy interactions and some technology cost dynamics. The analysis indicates that supporting large-scale deployment of mature abatement technologies suppresses the marginal cost of abatement, sometimes to zero, whilst increasing total abatement costs. However, support for early stage R and D may reduce both total abatement cost and carbon price risk. An important aspect of the analysis is in elevating risk management considerations into energy policy formation, as the results of the stochastic modelling indicate wide distributions for the emergence of carbon prices and public costs around the policy expectations.

  14. Statistical evidence of tax fraud on the carbon allowances market

    OpenAIRE

    Frunza, Marius-Cristian; Guegan, Dominique; Lassoudière, Antonin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show evidence and to quantify with forensic econometric methods the impact of the Value Added Tax fraud on European carbon allowances markets. This fraud mainly occurred at the beginning of between the end of 2008 and the beginning of 2009. In this paper, we explore the financial mechanisms of the fraud and the impact on the market behavior as well as the reflexion on its econometric features. In a previous work, we showed that the European carbon market is strongl...

  15. The international market in TECNATOM and its national market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international markets have now turned into a standard activities within the current actions of Tecnatom, as it is shown by the fact that through the last decade Tecnatom has been executed several projects in the 80% of the countries with NPP in operation, using methods which have been validated by different international customers and regulatory bodies. The international market trajectory during the last decade is characterised by a continuous increment of the international activities in 1992-2001 period, reaching its maximum production in 1998, with more than 45% of the Tecnatom's sales volume, During the last three years, this trajectory has been stabilised in the 35% of the total. Facing the next years, Tecnatom has the firm intention to carry on developing an intense commercial activity based on the increasing and updating of its technological capabilities in order to boost its current leadership within the foreign market. This purpose is not only aimed to the nuclear sector but it is extended to other industrial synergic sectors, mainly the aeronautical sector. (Author)

  16. Market cloudiness, a German national polemics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While theoretically liberalized, the German electricity market remains the most opaque of all European electricity markets. Strong price increases (up to 25%) are announced for 2005, while Brussels and Berlin want to put an end to the lack of regulation authority and transparency. Since the implementation of market deregulation, Germany has come back to its former situation: the 4 main producers are equivalent to an oligopoly which controls more than 80% of the market and respects the boundaries of their respective ex-monopolies. Other factors influence the electricity price: the eco-taxes, the subsidies for renewable energies development, the abandonment of nuclear energy and the excessive tariffs of the power transportation network. (J.S.)

  17. The clean development mechanism in a globalized carbon market

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Bréchet; Yann Ménière; Picard, Pierre M

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of the Clean DevelopmentMechanisms (CDM) on the market for carbon quotas and countries' commitments to reduce their carbon emission levels. We show that the CDM contributes to an efficient funding of clean technology investments in least developed countries. How- ever, the CDM is not neutral on the global level of carbon emissions as it entices countries to raise their emission caps. The CDM may also make inap- propriate the inclusion of any country that makes no...

  18. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the developmen...

  19. Carbon trading thickness and market efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note tests for the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) in the market for CO2 emission allowances in Phase I and Phase II of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). As usually is the case in emerging and non-competitive markets such as the EU ETS, trading often not occurs on a frequent basis. This has adverse implications for both the gains from permit trade as well as biases the EMH tests. Variance ratio tests are employed to adjust for the thin trading effect. The results indicate that Phase I - the trial and learning period - was inefficient, whereas the first period under Phase II shows signs of restoring market efficiency. (author)

  20. Algal-based CO2 Sequestration Technology and Global Scenario of Carbon Credit Market: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the global and national scenario of Carbon credit. This paper will also discuss the advantages of the algae-based carbon capture technology in growing carbon credit market. Carbon Dioxide (CO2, the most important greenhouse gas produced by combustion of fuels, has become a cause of global panic as its concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere has been rising alarmingly. However, it is now turning into a product that helps people, countries, consultants, traders, corporations and even farmers earn billion of rupees. A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tone of CO2 or CO2 equivalent (CO2-e. Businesses can exchange, buy or sell carbon credits in the international markets at the prevailing market price. India and China are likely to emerge as biggest seller and Europe is going to be biggest buyers of carbon credits. Using algae for reduction the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is known as algae-based carbon capture technology. This new technology has attracted companies that need inexpensive CO2 sequestration solutions. Algae farming emerge as the best CO2 sequestration technique in comparison with other methods.

  1. Carbon taxation and market structure: A CGE analysis for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia is one of the world's major sources of carbon based energy as well as one its most intensive users. Introducing carbon taxes can lead to a reduction in emissions and encourage investment in energy efficiency. We investigate the economic effects of carbon taxes on the Russian economy under perfect competition and a Cournot oligopoly in output markets. The main findings are: (i) substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can yield a strong double dividend in Russia; however, welfare gains strongly depend on the labour supply elasticity and elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, and energy. (ii) Under the assumption of a Cournot oligopoly with homogenous products and symmetric firms in the markets for natural gas, petroleum and chemical products, metals, and minerals, welfare costs of the environmental tax reform can be higher than under perfect competition. This is because introducing carbon taxes leads to a reduction in already sub-optimal output, thereby exacerbating pre-existing distortions arising from imperfect competition. (iii) Furthermore, increases in energy costs can result in higher mark-ups in some markets because of less competition resulting from firms' exit. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes in Russia can yield a double dividend. ► The labour supply elasticity and substitution possibilities between factors are crucial. ► Introducing carbon taxes can exacerbate distortions from imperfect competition. Increases in energy costs result in higher mark-ups because of less competition.

  2. Marketing in Greek National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tseroni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The international financial situation in combination with an aging population and the appropriation of health services imposes the management of hospital services as a necessity for the survival of hospitals.Aim: To examine the perceptions of 450 upper administrative hospital executives (Nursing, Medicine and Administrative services in the wider region of Attica, on marketing, communication, and public relations in health-care.Population study: Four hundred and fifty (450 higher health executives from the three basic fields of services in health institutions (medical, nursing, administration constituted the total sample of the research. These people are employed at 9 of the 36 hospitals in the 3 Health Regions of Attica (H.Re.Materials and method:The type of design that was chosen (to gather data for the study of attitudes and perceptions of the health personnel of the health institutions of G.S.H (Greek System of Health is a cross- sectional survey.Results: The participating subjects, even though expressed some reservations at first, formed a favorable attitude towards marketing and its application in the field of health-care. Statistically important correlations emerged between the perceptions of executives and their socio-demographic background including age, sex, education, and profession, work experience in health-care and specifically in their current position in the services as well as statistically important differences between doctors, nurses and administrators as to their perceptions of some issues in marketing.Conclusions: From the comments in the survey it appears there is a need to apply marketing correctly when providing quality care, respecting the patients’ rights and using human and not financial criteria as a guide. Based on the results of the research, important proposals are being submitted in the areas of health-care research, education and clinical practice.

  3. The Turning Point Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative: integrating social marketing into routine public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Sylvia; Reizes, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing can be an effective tool for achieving public health goals. Social marketing uses concepts from commercial marketing to plan and implement programs designed to bring about behavior change that will benefit individuals and society. Although social marketing principles have been used to address public health problems, efforts have been dominated by message-based, promotion-only strategies, and effective implementation has been hampered by both lack of understanding of and use of all of the components of a social marketing approach and lack of training. The Turning Point initiative's Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative (SMNEC) was established to promote social marketing principles and practices to improve public health across the nation. After 4 years, the Collaborative's work has resulted in improved understanding of social marketing among participating members and the development of new tools to strengthen the social marketing skills among public health practitioners. The Collaborative has also made advances in incorporating and institutionalizing the practice of social marketing within public health in participating states. PMID:15711443

  4. Respondent uncertainty in a contingent market for carbon offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to provide additional empirical evidence of what explains respondent uncertainty in contingent valuation (CV) and how this in turn affects stated willingness to pay (WTP). Air travelers asked to pay a carbon travel tax to offset carbon emissions from flying were asked how likely it is that they will actually pay if the tax is voluntary. When changing the market compliance imperative from a mandatory carbon tax to a voluntary contribution, a third of all air travelers consider it unlikely they will actually pay their stated WTP amount. An ordered probit estimation approach is applied to identify the sources of respondent uncertainty. Besides the bid price, respondent sense of responsibility and belief in the effectiveness of the voluntary carbon market are among the main reasons for the experienced uncertainty. (author)

  5. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  6. National destination marketing organisations and Web 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Hamill; Daniela Attard; Alan Stevenson

    2009-01-01

    National destination marketing organisations and Web 2.0 - Based on a detailed review of 25 web sites, supported by in-depth personal interviews, this paper evaluates the strategic response of European DMOs to the global marketing opportunities and threats presented by the rapid growth of Web 2.0. The main conclusion is that national DMOs, from the leading tourist destinations in Europe, have made only limited progress in this area. Much still needs to be done before they are fully utilising ...

  7. REDD+, RFM, Development, and Carbon Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Chacón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining responsible forest management (RFM experiences with literature reviews and stakeholder discussions allows an assessment of the potential role of RFM in reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+. RFM contributes to greater carbon storage and biodiversity in forest biomass in comparison to conventional logging and deforestation. Using an adjusted von Thünen model to explain land user behavior in relation to different variables, considering a general forest transition curve and looking at a potential relation between governance and deforestation rates, the authors conclude that reduction of deforestation and forest degradation can only be achieved by a combined approach of increasing forest rent relative to other land uses and reducing transaction costs for forest management and conservation. More than providing an additional income for a privileged few, REDD+ will need to address the barriers that have been identified in RFM over the past 30 years of investment in forest management and conservation. Most of these are of an institutional nature, but also culture and social organization as well as locally specific development trends play a significant role in increasing the potential for application of RFM and REDD+.

  8. National environmental protection in the Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In consideration of the awful ecological situation, the further development of environmental protection is the task of the Community institutions and the individual member states. The environmentalists advance this improvement by increasingly setting further protectionist measures within their power, such as those already existing in other member states or those community established. The legally motivated environment protection measures of individual member states could create a non-tariff trade barrier between member states; business and industry situated there must adapted to the environmental conditions of the particular member state, if they wish to launch their product in that state. These safeguard clauses, concerning environmental law are of different nature, are thoroughly analysed and systematized by the author. The thesis gives priority to Article 100A, paragraph 4 and 5, and to Article 130T or 130R, paragraph 2, subparagraph 2, which has recently been introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht for the European Union. These articles are represented concerning their substantive and adjective requirements and are critically reviewed. Problems that have arisen in the course of the review are dealt with dogmatically and are discussed at length. The problems of national discrimination and the consideration of fundamental rights in the Community law are treated as well as the mixture of competences in the environmental law of the Community or the options on legal protection against national environmental acts, which can be made use of by Community institutions and by member states. (orig./HP)

  9. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  10. Discrimination in the labour market: nationality, ethnicity and the recession

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Kingston; Frances McGinnity; Philip J O’Connell

    2015-01-01

    Previous research shows that immigrants, in common with other groups that suffer disadvantage in the labour market, are more vulnerable during recession. However, little research has focused on the impact of the Great Recession on work-related discrimination. We examine the extent to which discrimination varies across different national-ethnic groups in Ireland, and whether discrimination increased between 2004, during an economic boom, and 2010, in the midst of a severe recession. Our analys...

  11. Merger and Acquisition Market: from World Experience to National Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrechana Svitlana I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of tendencies and prospects of development of the merger and acquisition market of Ukraine in the context of influence of the world M and A experience upon this process under conditions of globalisation. In the result of the study the article analyses the most significant merger and acquisition operations that took place in the world practice and in Ukraine in recent years. The article reveals and deeply assesses the variety of motives and mechanisms of their realisation from the position of practice of developed countries and trans-national corporations and also domestic associations of enterprises. It shows that transactions of tough or forced character of acquisition prevail in Ukraine, specific features of which are not only the reduced cost but also direct belonging of buyers to oligarchic-political structures. It explains negative influence of these specific features upon volume and activity of the national M and A market. It formulates and offers a system of state and economic subjects measures, immediate application of which would allow creation of favourable conditions for development of the national merger and acquisition market.

  12. Cookstoves illustrate the need for a comprehensive carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing carbon offset protocols for improved cookstoves do not require emissions testing. They are based only on estimated reductions in the use of non-renewable biomass generated by a given stove, and use simplistic calculations to convert those fuel savings to imputed emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Yet recent research has shown that different cookstoves vary tremendously in their combustion quality, and thus in their emissions profiles of both CO2 and other products of incomplete combustion. Given the high global warming potential of some of these non-CO2 emissions, offset protocols that do not account for combustion quality may thus not be assigning either appropriate absolute or relative climate values to different technologies. We use statistical resampling of recent emissions studies to estimate the actual radiative forcing impacts of traditional and improved cookstoves. We compare the carbon offsets generated by protocols in the four carbon markets that currently accept cookstove offsets (Clean Development Mechanism, American Carbon Registry, Verified Carbon Standard, and Gold Standard) to a theoretical protocol that also accounts for emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and carbon monoxide, using appropriate statistical techniques to estimate emissions factor distributions from the literature. We show that current protocols underestimate the climate value of many improved cookstoves and fail to distinguish between (i.e., assign equal offset values to) technologies with very different climate impacts. We find that a comprehensive carbon accounting standard would generate significantly higher offsets for some improved cookstove classes than those generated by current protocols, and would create much larger separation between different cookstove classes. Finally, we provide compelling evidence for the inclusion of renewable biomass into current protocols, and propose guidelines for the statistics needed in future emissions tests in order to accurately

  13. Forestry and the carbon market response to stabilize climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the potential contribution of forestry management in meeting a CO2 stabilization policy of 550 ppmv by 2100. In order to assess the optimal response of the carbon market to forest sequestration, we couple two global models. An energy-economy-climate model for the study of climate policies is linked with a detailed forestry model through an iterative procedure to provide the optimal abatement strategy. Results show that forestry is a determinant abatement option and could lead to significantly lower policy costs if included. Linking forestry management to the carbon market has the potential to alleviate the policy burden of 50 ppmv or equivalently of 1/4 deg. C, and to significantly decrease the price of carbon. Biological sequestration will mostly come from avoided deforestation in tropical-forest-rich countries. The inclusion of this mitigation option is demonstrated to crowd out some of the traditional abatement in the energy sector and to lessen induced technological change in clean technologies

  14. Energy market opening and the national energy programme in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia is now moving fast toward market opening, at least in the electricity sector, due to the new Energy Law adopted in 1999. The Energy Law defines the main energy policy directions, including the sustainable development criterion. It also calls for the preparation of a National Energy Programme (NEP) to be adopted by the Parliament. According to the Law, local governments are expected to prepare local energy concepts, in line with the NEP and space planning decisions. Two most difficult challenges for national energy policies are: opening of the electricity market and meeting the Kyoto Protocol targets in the reduction of greenhouse gasses. The success of the energy sector reform depends on the fine-tuning of various instruments: market structuring and state interventions. The immediate concern for the sector in the secondary legislation, the fifty regulations that the Energy Law calls for. These regulations have to be prepared well before the date of internal electricity market opening on April 15th, 2001. The institutional structure to be established should be adapted for international competition that will start in electricity and gas no later than January 1st, 2003. It is expected that the NEP, to be prepared by spring of the year 2001, will propose complementary development strategies to cope with partially conflicting targets. Four groups of criteria shall be applied to compare the alternatives: security of supply, competitiveness of the society, preserving the space and environment quality and social cohesion. It is expected that energy market opening, not a final goal by itself, can be instrumental for the improvement of the energy sector performance on all accounts. (author)

  15. A blue carbon soil database: Tidal wetland stocks for the US National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, R. A.; Eriksson, M.; Hinson, A.; Najjar, R. G.; Kroeger, K. D.; Herrmann, M.; Holmquist, J. R.; Windham-Myers, L.; MacDonald, G. M.; Brown, L. N.; Bianchi, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal wetlands contain large reservoirs of carbon, and in 2015 the US National Greenhouse Gas Inventory began the work of placing blue carbon within the national regulatory context. The potential value of a wetland carbon stock, in relation to its location, soon could be influential in determining governmental policy and management activities, or in stimulating market-based CO2 sequestration projects. To meet the national need for high-resolution maps, a blue carbon stock database was developed linking National Wetlands Inventory datasets with the USDA Soil Survey Geographic Database. Users of the database can identify the economic potential for carbon conservation or restoration projects within specific estuarine basins, states, wetland types, physical parameters, and land management activities. The database is geared towards both national-level assessments and local-level inquiries. Spatial analysis of the stocks show high variance within individual estuarine basins, largely dependent on geomorphic position on the landscape, though there are continental scale trends to the carbon distribution as well. Future plans including linking this database with a sedimentary accretion database to predict carbon flux in US tidal wetlands.

  16. Beyond pure offsetting: Assessing options to generate Net-Mitigation-Effects in carbon market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current project-based carbon market mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI) do not have a direct impact on global greenhouse gas emission levels, because they only replace or offset emissions. Nor do they contribute to host country's national greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Contributions to net emission reductions in host countries is likely to become mandatory in new mechanisms under development such as in the framework for various approaches, a new market-based mechanism and even in a reformed JI. This research analysed the question if approaches for carbon market-based mechanisms exist that allow the generation of net emission reductions in host countries while keeping project initiation attractive. We present a criteria-based assessment method and apply it for four generic options in existing mechanisms and derive implications for future mechanism frameworks. We identified the application of “discounts” on the amount of avoided emissions for the issuance of carbon credits and “standardisation below business as usual” as most promising options over “limiting the crediting period” and “over-conservativeness”. We propose to apply these options differentiated over project types based on internal rate of return to ensure cost-efficiency and attractiveness. - Highlights: • Options for net emission reductions of market-based mechanisms are assessed. • Research combines past and current views for project and sector-based mechanisms. • Implementation ensures initiation of mitigation activities is not discouraged. • Important insights for methodological design of new market-based mechanisms. • Profitability-based approach for project-based mechanisms suggested

  17. Deriving Multiple Benefits from Carbon Market-Based Savanna Fire Management: An Australian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Yates, Cameron P.; Edwards, Andrew C.; Whitehead, Peter J.; Murphy, Brett P.; Lawes, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon markets afford potentially useful opportunities for supporting socially and environmentally sustainable land management programs but, to date, have been little applied in globally significant fire-prone savanna settings. While fire is intrinsic to regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of savanna systems, in north Australian savannas frequent and extensive late dry season wildfires incur significant environmental, production and social impacts. Here we assess the potential of market-based savanna burning greenhouse gas emissions abatement and allied carbon biosequestration projects to deliver compatible environmental and broader socio-economic benefits in a highly biodiverse north Australian setting. Drawing on extensive regional ecological knowledge of fire regime effects on fire-vulnerable taxa and communities, we compare three fire regime metrics (seasonal fire frequency, proportion of long-unburnt vegetation, fire patch-size distribution) over a 15-year period for three national parks with an indigenously (Aboriginal) owned and managed market-based emissions abatement enterprise. Our assessment indicates improved fire management outcomes under the emissions abatement program, and mostly little change or declining outcomes on the parks. We attribute improved outcomes and putative biodiversity benefits under the abatement program to enhanced strategic management made possible by the market-based mitigation arrangement. For these same sites we estimate quanta of carbon credits that could be delivered under realistic enhanced fire management practice, using currently available and developing accredited Australian savanna burning accounting methods. We conclude that, in appropriate situations, market-based savanna burning activities can provide transformative climate change mitigation, ecosystem health, and community benefits in northern Australia, and, despite significant challenges, potentially in other fire-prone savanna settings. PMID:26630453

  18. Carbon market: to which emission quota to devote?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is entering its third phase, an article discusses uncertainties and problems regarding this system: CO2 price is falling down, French industrials do not know which quantity they'll have to buy for their installations, and even some frauds and swindles occurred. Besides the fact that the low level of carbon price is not a motivation for investors, the market is criticised for its imbalance between supply and demand. As some industrials find the costs too high, some sectors may consider off-shoring their activities. Some actors suggest the creation of a central bank of carbon. Countries are using the product of emission bidding in different sectors: housing rehabilitation in France, industry support in Germany, reduction of budget deficit in Italy and Great Britain, construction of passive dwellings in Czech Republic

  19. Carbon Markets and Beyond: The Limited Role of Prices and Taxes in Climate and Development Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Ackerman

    2008-01-01

    The climate policy debate has advanced from science to economics, with a growing focus on creating carbon markets and getting the prices right. This is necessary but far from sufficient for an effective and equitable response to the climate challenge. While market-oriented forces such as the IMF and the World Bank have focused almost exclusively on carbon markets, others, such as the Human Development Report and the Stern Review, have emphasized the need for complementary, non-market climate ...

  20. Speculative and hedging activities in the European carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the dynamics of the speculative and hedging activities in European futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. A comparison of the three phases in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) reveals that (i) Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date and (ii) the highest degree of speculative activity for every single phase occurs at the moment of listing the contracts for the first time. A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year, related to the schedule of deadlines of the EU ETS. In addition, a time series analysis confirms that most of the speculative activity each year occurs in the front contract, whereas the hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract. -- Highlights: •This study explores the evolution of speculative and hedging activities in futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. •Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date. •A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year. •Most of the speculative activity occurs in the front contract. •The hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract

  1. Kyoto and the Carbon Footprint of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Aichele, Rahel; Felbermayr, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    A country’s carbon footprint refers to the CO2 emissions caused by domestic absorptionactivities. Trade in goods drives a wedge between the footprint and local emissions. Weprovide a panel database on carbon footprints and carbon net trade. Using a differencesin-differences IV estimation strategy, we evaluate the Kyoto Protocol’s effects on carbonfootprints and emissions. Instrumenting countries’ Kyoto commitment by their participationin the International Criminal Court, we show that Kyoto re...

  2. Tourists behavior and nationality - criteria for tourists classification and market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Cristian Coita; Alexandru Nedelea

    2006-01-01

    Tourism marketeres usually use categories to better know their markets and their clients. Most of definitions of segmentation consider dividing the market using different criteria. We explained why segmentation should be considered building of the firm's market, gathering clients with the same characteristics. This work is about two criteria of segmenting the tourism market: tourism behavior and nationality. We use the criteria nationality describing the main categories of foreign tourists vi...

  3. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of carbon and crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyang; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Bangzheng

    2014-04-01

    The complex dynamics between carbon and crude oil markets have been an increasingly interesting area of research. In this paper, we try to take a fresh look at the cross-correlations between carbon and crude oil markets as well as their dynamic behavior employing multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis. First, we find that the return series of carbon and crude oil markets are significantly cross-correlated. Second, we confirm the existence of multifractality for the return series of carbon and crude oil markets by the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Third, based on the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, we find the existence of power-law cross-correlations between carbon and crude oil markets. The cross-correlated behavior of small fluctuations is found to be more persistent than that of large fluctuations. At last, some relevant discussions and implications of the empirical results are presented.

  4. The Research of the Relationship between Low Carbon-Based Marketing Innovation and Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Baoqian Wang; Xianyan Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Based on relevant literature, this study attempts to provide a conceptual model for how green complex orientation influences organizational performance by using low carbon-based incremental marketing innovation and low carbonbased radical marketing innovation as mediator, 213 firms from Jiangsu province were investigated as empirical samples. The results show that low carbon-based marketing innovation plays a complete role in mediating the relationship between green complex orientation and or...

  5. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  6. Combining international cap-and-trade with national carbon taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Heindl, Peter; Wood, Peter J.; Jotzo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of combining an international cap-and-trade scheme with national carbon taxes. We consider a two-country stochastic partial equilibrium model with log-normally distributed uncertainty. The situation is analogous to the situation where European countries impose national carbon taxes in addition to the EU emissions trading. The allowance price in the joint cap-and-trade scheme depends on the tax rate, the relative size of countries and abatement options, the magn...

  7. Combining International Cap-and-Trade with National Carbon Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Heindl, Peter; Wood, Peter J.; Jotzo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of combining an international cap-and-trade scheme with national carbon taxes. We consider a two-country stochastic partial equilibrium model with log-normally distributed uncertainty. The situation is analogous to the situation where European countries impose national carbon taxes in addition to the EU emissions trading. The allowance price in the joint cap-and-trade scheme depends on the tax rate, the relative size of countries and abatement op...

  8. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  9. 77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... the three material research and development projects will depend on the market for the materials... the potential market impact of the quantities associated with the three material research and... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for...

  10. 77 FR 42271 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... information on the potential market impact of the quantities associated with the two material research and... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Supplement to the Fiscal Year 2013 Annual...

  11. 78 FR 68028 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... research and development projects. Public comments are an important element of the Committee's market... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of the Proposed Fiscal Year 2015 Annual Materials Plan...

  12. Marketing Education National Research Conference Report (Fort Worth, Texas, April 5-7, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harold, Ed.

    These proceedings contain eight presentations: "A Review of the Hotel/Motel Lodging Competencies To Update the Marketing Education Curriculum in Tennessee" (Carroll Coakley, Janice Cole); "Impact of the National Research Conference for Marketing Education on Marketing Education Theory and Practice" (Michael Littman); "The Status of Licensing…

  13. Nonlinear structure analysis of carbon and energy markets with MFDCCA based on maximum overlap wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangxi; Xu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear structure between carbon and energy markets by employing the maximum overlap wavelet transform (MODWT) as well as the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis based on maximum overlap wavelet transform (MFDCCA-MODWT). Based on the MODWT multiresolution analysis and the statistic Qcc(m) significance, relatively significant cross-correlations are obtained between carbon and energy future markets either on different time scales or on the whole. The result of the Granger causality test indicates bidirectional Granger causality between carbon and electricity future markets, although the Granger causality relationship between the carbon and oil price is not evident. The existence of multifractality for the returns between carbon and energy markets is proven with the MFDCCA-MODWT algorithm. In addition, results of investigating the origin of multifractality demonstrate that both long-range correlations and fat-tailed distributions play important roles in the contributions of multifractality.

  14. CARBON ACCOUNTING INITIATIVES: CASE STUDY OF A PETROLEUM REFINERY IN MALAYSIA TO PREPARE FOR FUTURE CARBON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA H.L. CHEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum refining process produces a large amount of atmospheric pollutants including greenhouse gases which are attributed to global warming. The international community inevitably addressed the global warming issue by introducing a market-based mechanism known as Emission Trading Systems (ETS under the Kyoto Protocol which imposes binding limits to developed nations using three flexibility mechanisms, including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. This case study was carried out in a petroleum refinery in Malaysia to explore the possibility for the refinery to participate in CDM. Information was collected through observatory field survey at the refinery and documentation review. Results show that the current monitoring tool using indirect calculation of fuel consumption provides a comprehensive coverage of emission sources but the reporting frequency should be increased for data accuracy. An accounting system was then created to predict the emissions gap of the refinery with reference to the baseline-year set by the Kyoto Protocol. It was concluded that the refinery showed promising potential to participate in CDM to benefit from technology transfer by selling their ‘credits’ to Annex I countries despite the uncertainty on the impact of the carbon market in a Non-Annex I country.

  15. THE CO-MOVEMENTS OF NATIONAL STOCK MARKETS AND GLOBAL PORTFOLIO DIVERSIFICATION: 2001-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Meric , Ilhan; Benjamin H. EICHHORN; Charles W. McCCALL; Gulser MERIC

    2011-01-01

    Global portfolio diversification is recommended because of low correlation between national equity markets. However, recent empirical studies find that correlation between national stock markets has been increasing and the benefit of global portfolio diversification has been decreasing. In this paper we test this hypothesis by using the principal components analysis methodology with data from 38 global stock markets for the 2001-2010 period. We divide this 10-year period into two consecutive ...

  16. Scoping study on SADC energy sector carbon market potential; SADC = Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-22

    programmes. Biomass and bio fuels: Some of the biomass cogeneration and biofuels projects are large enough scale to be implemented at national level. However, the scale of biomass potential is so large in the region that developing several 'demonstration projects' with high replicability and visibility could catalyze rapid growth of CDM projects in this sub-sector. Household scale biomass use is covered by the SADC Programme for Biomass Energy Conservation (ProBEC), but commercial and industrial use projects in the region would have high value for promoting CDM in SADC. Institutional strengthening through regional cooperation: rather than only working at national level to build capacity in DNAs and the local consulting industry for CDM projects, sharing knowledge and experience across the region would facilitate more rapid CDM market development. Providing the opportunity for key energy sector decision makers to become more active in the negotiations around the CDM and the future of the carbon market would also strengthen SADC's 'regional voice' in the climate change debate. (Author)

  17. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2). PMID:25898604

  18. Examining mean-volatility spillovers across national stock markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodh Kesavaraj Natarajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the stock market in a country and the understanding of the influence of stock market crashes within and across the markets has been the subject matter of many researches, academicians and analysts during recent times. In this study we investigate the mean-volatility spillover effects that happen across international stock markets. The study, by taking into consideration the stock market returns based on various indices, investigates the mean-volatility spillover effects using the GARCH in Mean model for the period January 2002 to December 2011. The GARCH-M model seeks to provide useful insights into how information is transmitted and disseminated across stock markets. In particular, the model examines the precise and separate measures of return spillovers and volatility spillovers. The analysis provides the evidence of strong mean and volatility spillover across some stock exchanges.

  19. The usability of voluntary carbon markets as a financial instrument in Turkish forestry sector

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, Ufuk; Öztürk, Atakan; Aydın, İnci Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    There have been many international studies and cooperations to avoid global warming and climate change as being global disasters. As a result of these studies, to avoid these problems, bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperations, legal instruments, incentive mechanisms and international funds are developed. One of these instruments is global carbon market as a cost-effective method to combat climate change. Thanks to carbon markets, projects in renewable energy, energy efficiency, waste...

  20. Integration of multiple national markets for electricity: The case of Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the second part of the 1990s the Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) countries have created a unique multinational market for electricity. This paper aims to analyse the degree of integration of the different national markets that constitute the Nordic electricity market. In particular the Norwegian and Swedish wholesale and retail electricity markets are analysed. The results suggest that the wholesale markets are well integrated. Thus prices differ significantly only during periods with unusually high or low supply of hydropower. However, the retail markets are not integrated to the same degree. Thus retail prices and trade margins differ significantly. Differences in the national electricity market legislation seem to be a key factor behind these differences. (author)

  1. Integration of multiple national markets for electricity: The case of Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the second part of the 1990s the Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) countries have created a unique multinational market for electricity. This paper aims to analyse the degree of integration of the different national markets that constitute the Nordic electricity market. In particular the Norwegian and Swedish wholesale and retail electricity markets are analysed. The results suggest that the wholesale markets are well integrated. Thus prices differ significantly only during periods with unusually high or low supply of hydropower. However, the retail markets are not integrated to the same degree. Thus retail prices and trade margins differ significantly. Differences in the national electricity market legislation seem to be a key factor behind these differences

  2. Weak-form Efficiency of Carbon Trading Markets: Evidence from Bluenext Spot Market

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Reducing the greenhouse gases is urgent need in this century, to see this target several cap and trade markets are working around the world trading emission allowances. Bluenext market is the largest and most liquide one. The aim of this study is to investigate the weak-form efficiency of this market. The EUAs ( European Union Allowances) have been traded in two phases since 2005 in Bluenext market. Related to several structural breaks in the time series 4 parametric tests employed ...

  3. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  4. Least cost 100% renewable electricity scenarios in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Least cost options are presented for supplying the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) with 100% renewable electricity using wind, photovoltaics, concentrating solar thermal (CST) with storage, hydroelectricity and biofuelled gas turbines. We use a genetic algorithm and an existing simulation tool to identify the lowest cost (investment and operating) scenarios of renewable technologies and locations for NEM regional hourly demand and observed weather in 2010 using projected technology costs for 2030. These scenarios maintain the NEM reliability standard, limit hydroelectricity generation to available rainfall, and limit bioenergy consumption. The lowest cost scenarios are dominated by wind power, with smaller contributions from photovoltaics and dispatchable generation: CST, hydro and gas turbines. The annual cost of a simplified transmission network to balance supply and demand across NEM regions is a small proportion of the annual cost of the generating system. Annual costs are compared with a scenario where fossil fuelled power stations in the NEM today are replaced with modern fossil substitutes at projected 2030 costs, and a carbon price is paid on all emissions. At moderate carbon prices, which appear required to address climate change, 100% renewable electricity would be cheaper on an annual basis than the replacement scenario

  5. Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes

  6. Assessing the costs and market impacts of carbon sequestration, climate change, and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis provides fourteen journal articles and papers. Thirteen of these papers were published in referred journals, covering environmental economics, policy modelling, policy analysis, and the physical sciences. One paper was published as a USDA Forest Service research report. The papers in the thesis are divided into three topical areas: 1) Section 2: The Economics of Carbon Sequestration. Eight papers plus Appendix A of the thesis cover the development and application of models to estimate the economic costs and management consequences of policies to sequester carbon emissions by planting trees on agricultural land in the US or through more intensive forest management. 2) Section 3: The Economics of Climate Change Damages. Two papers of the thesis cover the development of models that can be used to estimate the market and nonmarket damages associated with the impacts of climate change on water resources in the US. 3) Section 4: The Economics of Acid Rain Damages. Three papers in the thesis examine the methods that were developed to estimate the damages due to acid rain in the US by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) and discuss more generally the role of economic policy analysis in this assessment. (EHS)

  7. Influencing attitudes toward carbon capture and sequestration: a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Dowlatabadi, Hadi; McDaniels, Tim; Ray, Isha

    2011-08-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), while controversial, is seen as promising because it will allow the United States to continue using its vast fossil fuel resources in a carbon-constrained world. The public is an important stakeholder in the national debate about whether or not the U.S. should include CCS as a significant part of its climate change strategy. Understanding how to effectively engage with the public about CCS has become important in recent years, as interest in the technology has intensified. We argue that engagement efforts should be focused on places where CCS will first be deployed, i.e., places with many "energy veteran" (EV) citizens. We also argue that, in addition to information on CCS, messages with emotional appeal may be necessary in order to engage the public. In this paper we take a citizen-guided social marketing approach toward understanding how to (positively or negatively) influence EV citizens' attitudes toward CCS. We develop open-ended interview protocols, and a "CCS campaign activity", for Wyoming residents from Gillette and Rock Springs. We conclude that our participants believed expert-informed CCS messages, embedded within an emotionally self-referent (ESR) framework that was relevant to Wyoming, to be more persuasive than the expert messages alone. The appeal to core values of Wyomingites played a significant role in the citizen-guided CCS messages. PMID:21728279

  8. NATIONAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES LTD. - A CASE STUDY ISSUES, ASPECTS AND STEPS INVOLVED IN MARKETING BEARINGS INTERNATIONALLY

    OpenAIRE

    Taparia, Sunayna

    2008-01-01

    With the globalization of the world economies, International Marketing is gaining more and more prominence. India being a developing economy has recently entered into the global market. It will be very interesting and challenging to take up International Marketing of bearings, of an Indian company. I choose National Engineering Industries Ltd. To conduct my research, as it is a leading bearing company in India and also because it is in the process of making a strong hold internationally which...

  9. Cross-National Differences in the Skills-Earnings Relationship: The Role of Labor Market Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, William

    2006-01-01

    This study examines cross-national differences in returns to literacy skills and explores possible explanations for such differences. Data from the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) are analyzed using multilevel models. Returns to literacy skills are higher in liberal market economies (LMEs) than in social market economies (SMEs).…

  10. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; Dana-Adkins-Heljeson; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  11. A critical evaluation of market segmentation at national arts festivals in South Africa / M. Kruger

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Martinette

    2010-01-01

    The Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK) and the Aardklop National Arts Festival (Aardklop) are two of the largest and most popular arts festivals in South Africa. From a sustainability point of view, the primary aim of these festivals is to increase show ticket sales. However, show ticket sales have declined in recent years which, if this trend continues, will result in the discontinuation of these festivals. Market segmentation can assist the festivals' marketers/organisers to address ...

  12. The role of the Carbon Market in proposals for addressing climate change post-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this study is to analyse the now wide array of proposals included in reports of post-2012 initiatives and literature through the lens of two key questions: How would these ideas work with the carbon market? How could the carbon market work for these ideas? Section 2 starts with a general discussion about emission trading and how this relates to the carbon market. It then explores why carbon market mechanisms are favoured by a range of 'actors'. Finally it describes the carbon market and its prospects to 2012. An understanding of these issues and 'base' settings helps to assess and consider issues for the post-2012 period. Section 3 summarizes the proposals for a post-2012 international climate change regime that are assessed. Section 4 outlines a number of key assessment criteria that have been chosen to elucidate the issues that arise in responding to the study's two key questions. Section 5 provides a discussion on a number of key themes, issues and insights that emerged from the assessments that are detailed in Appendix A. Appendix B provides a list of key references that have informed this work

  13. National customer satisfaction indices: The impact of market structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    a total of 14540 customers have evaluated their preferred supplier with respect to banking, property insurance, supermarkets and mobile telecom. The analysis shows that market structure has a profound effect on customer satisfaction measurements and that this effect differs from industry to industry......The popularity of customer satisfaction measurements has grown considerably over the last few years but we know very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to the transparency of products and services as well as consumer preferences affects customer satisfaction. Here....... The paper concludes with an evaluation of the implications of the findings in relation to the use of results from customer satisfaction studies....

  14. Forest carbon accounting methods and the consequences of forest bioenergy for national greenhouse gas emissions inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Forest carbon accounting influences the national GHG inventory impacts of bioenergy. • Current accounting rules may overlook forest carbon trade-offs of bioenergy. • Wood pellet trade risks creating an emissions burden for exporting countries. - Abstract: While bioenergy plays a key role in strategies for increasing renewable energy deployment, studies assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest bioenergy systems have identified a potential trade-off of the system with forest carbon stocks. Of particular importance to national GHG inventories is how trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and bioenergy production are accounted for within the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector under current and future international climate change mitigation agreements. Through a case study of electricity produced using wood pellets from harvested forest stands in Ontario, Canada, this study assesses the implications of forest carbon accounting approaches on net emissions attributable to pellets produced for domestic use or export. Particular emphasis is placed on the forest management reference level (FMRL) method, as it will be employed by most Annex I nations in the next Kyoto Protocol Commitment Period. While bioenergy production is found to reduce forest carbon sequestration, under the FMRL approach this trade-off may not be accounted for and thus not incur an accountable AFOLU-related emission, provided that total forest harvest remains at or below that defined under the FMRL baseline. In contrast, accounting for forest carbon trade-offs associated with harvest for bioenergy results in an increase in net GHG emissions (AFOLU and life cycle emissions) lasting 37 or 90 years (if displacing coal or natural gas combined cycle generation, respectively). AFOLU emissions calculated using the Gross-Net approach are dominated by legacy effects of past management and natural disturbance, indicating near-term net forest carbon increase but

  15. Electricity market design for facilitating the integration of wind energy. Experience and prospects with the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental regulation. The Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) was established in 1999 and Australia also implemented one of the world's first renewable energy target schemes in 2001. With significant recent growth in wind generation, Australia provides an interesting case for assessing different approaches to facilitating wind integration into the electricity industry. Wind project developers in Australia must assess both potential energy market and Tradeable Green Certificate income streams when making investments. Wind-farm energy income depends on the match of its uncertain time varying output with the regional half hourly market price; a price that exhibits daily, weekly and seasonal patterns and considerable uncertainty. Such price signals assist in driving investments that maximize project value to the electricity industry as a whole, including integration costs and benefits for other participants. Recent NEM rule changes will formally integrate wind generation in the market's scheduling processes while a centralized wind forecasting system has also been introduced. This paper outlines experience to date with wind integration in the NEM, describes the evolution of market rules in response and assesses their possible implications for facilitating high future wind penetrations. (author)

  16. Electricity market design for facilitating the integration of wind energy: Experience and prospects with the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental regulation. The Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) was established in 1999 and Australia also implemented one of the world's first renewable energy target schemes in 2001. With significant recent growth in wind generation, Australia provides an interesting case for assessing different approaches to facilitating wind integration into the electricity industry. Wind project developers in Australia must assess both potential energy market and Tradeable Green Certificate income streams when making investments. Wind-farm energy income depends on the match of its uncertain time varying output with the regional half hourly market price; a price that exhibits daily, weekly and seasonal patterns and considerable uncertainty. Such price signals assist in driving investments that maximize project value to the electricity industry as a whole, including integration costs and benefits for other participants. Recent NEM rule changes will formally integrate wind generation in the market's scheduling processes while a centralized wind forecasting system has also been introduced. This paper outlines experience to date with wind integration in the NEM, describes the evolution of market rules in response and assesses their possible implications for facilitating high future wind penetrations.

  17. The carbon fibre market and uses for composite wind blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.R. [Tenax Fibers Gmbh and Co. KG, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Due to its excellent fatigue properties, low weight and high stiffness, carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) is the ideal material to use for the manufacture of wind blades. The present use of CFRP in the wind energy sector however is very low in comparison to glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) materials. The main reason for this low use of CFRP is cost since at present times carbon fibre is valued ten times as much as glass fibre. This paper introduces carbon fibre as an alternative material to glass and examines the use of CFRP components in other high fatigue applications. (au)

  18. The timeline of trading frictions in the European carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During its trial phase (Phase I), the EU Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) collapsed because of an over-allocation of emission allowances. We evaluate the progress of this market from the trial phase to the next commitment period (Phase II) from a microstructure angle. We show that trading frictions, as measured by the relative spread, information-asymmetry risk, and market-making profits decreased from Phase I to Phase II. Although volatility decreased, its noise-related component gained in importance at the expense of its information-related component, resulting in lower quality of the price changes. - Highlights: • We compare Phases I and II of the EU-ETS from a microstructure angle. • Phase II shows lower spreads, information-asymmetry risk and market making profits. • The contribution of noise to the volatility of prices increased during Phase II

  19. Vulnerability of exporting nations to the development of a carbon label in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon labels inform consumers about the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) released during the production and consumption of goods, including food. In the future consumer and legislative responses to carbon labels may favour goods with lower emissions, and thereby change established supply chains. This may have unintended consequences. We present the carbon footprint of three horticultural goods of different origins supplied to the United Kingdom market: lettuce, broccoli and green beans. Analysis of these footprints enables the characterisation of three different classes of vulnerability which are related to: transport, national economy and supply chain specifics. There is no simple relationship between the characteristics of an exporting country and its vulnerability to the introduction of a carbon label. Geographically distant developing countries with a high level of substitutable exports to the UK are most vulnerable. However, many developing countries have low vulnerability as their main exports are tropical crops which would be hard to substitute with local produce. In the short term it is unlikely that consumers will respond to carbon labels in such a way that will have major impacts in the horticultural sector. Labels which require contractual reductions in GHG emissions may have greater impacts in the short term.

  20. Quantifying historical carbon and climate debts among nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. Damon

    2016-01-01

    Contributions to historical climate change have varied substantially among nations. These differences reflect underlying inequalities in wealth and development, and pose a fundamental challenge to the implementation of a globally equitable climate mitigation strategy. This Letter presents a new way to quantify historical inequalities among nations using carbon and climate debts, defined as the amount by which national climate contributions have exceeded a hypothetical equal per-capita share over time. Considering only national CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, accumulated carbon debts across all nations from 1990 to 2013 total 250 billion tonnes of CO2, representing 40% of cumulative world emissions since 1990. Expanding this to reflect the temperature response to a range of emissions, historical climate debts accrued between 1990 and 2010 total 0.11 °C, close to a third of observed warming over that period. Large fractions of this debt are carried by industrialized countries, but also by countries with high levels of deforestation and agriculture. These calculations could contribute to discussions of climate responsibility by providing a tangible way to quantify historical inequalities, which could then inform the funding of mitigation, adaptation and the costs of loss and damages in those countries that have contributed less to historical warming.

  1. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  2. Merger and Acquisition Market: from World Experience to National Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hrechana Svitlana I.; Hrinchuk Kateryna S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in identification of tendencies and prospects of development of the merger and acquisition market of Ukraine in the context of influence of the world M and A experience upon this process under conditions of globalisation. In the result of the study the article analyses the most significant merger and acquisition operations that took place in the world practice and in Ukraine in recent years. The article reveals and deeply assesses the variety of motives and mechan...

  3. MARKETING IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NATIONAL CONSUMER BEEF STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Branson, Robert E.; Cross, H. Russell; Savell, Jeff W.; Smith, Gary C.; Edwards, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Increased consumer health concerns over ingestion of animal fats have spawned consumer research regarding effects of different degrees of leanness (marbling levels) on consumer demand. Previous research is reviewed and a recent multi-city consumer panel test is reported. Implications of the multi-city results are discussed from the viewpoint of applicability of normative consumer behavior demand theory, and implications of the findings for beef marketing structure and strategies. Suggestions ...

  4. Clean Air Markets - Where You Live (National and State Maps)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Where You Live accesses facility and unit attribute data as well as emissions data using a series of interactive national and state maps. This module allows the...

  5. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  6. Research document no. 24. The integration of european electric markets: from the national markets juxtaposition to the establishment of a regional market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the transcription of the electricity directive in national legislations, the European electricity market appears to be a vast set of juxtaposed markets which are weakly connected at the level of their wholesale contracts compartment. Referring to the technological peculiarities of electricity as a commodity, the paper identifies the direct conditions of regional integration of the electricity markets, those which would favour cross-border trade and allow to be near the normal functioning of a regional commodity market. The infrastructure network dependence and the need of a stringent technical coordination necessitate to unify the operation of the different systems and the rules of access, or at the least to come near this unification by strong coordination. A second major condition, which is not fully debated, is the increasing connexion of short-term markets, via daily physical trade and emergence of a European financial market, which could trade various standardised contracts referring to a single hourly spot price, or to prices in various delivery points. To reach such an integration, two paths are possible: either concentration into one single organised power exchange as the Nordic pool, or rules harmonization of the various power exchanges which would be a minimal requirement to allow arbitrations between them. (author)

  7. Panorama 2012 - Biofuels update: growth in national and international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the only direct substitute for fossil fuels, biofuels continue to grow in importance, despite a significant slowdown in investment. International trade remains active, with dynamic growth from the major exporting countries. However, current production technologies will very soon come up against the limits of resource availability, raising important questions regarding the ability to meet incorporation targets for 2020, especially in Europe and the USA. Current markets are therefore expected to maintain their current levels whilst waiting for the emergence of new biofuel technologies from 2015 onwards. (author)

  8. Feasibility of sustaining the upland conversion program by establishing a domestic carbon market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain the upland conversion program (UCP) in China after the government compensation expires, we suggest an establishment of a domestic carbon market where forest carbon from the UCP can be traded. Taking southwest China's Yunnan Province as an example, we explored the feasibility of switching the UCP to a carbon offset project. The breakeven carbon price which is equivalent to the opportunity cost of agricultural cultivation was estimated and then compared with the carbon price in the  international market. We found that it is feasible to change the UCP to a carbon offset project if the duration is longer than 10 years at a discount rate of 7%, and if the recent bid price (147.2 Yuan-t1) for Chinese carbon offset project prevails. The feasibility is better for converted land with lower productivity when the project duration is given. For a given site index, the feasibility is lower as pro-ject length is reduced. The results of sensitivity analysis show that the feasibility will be enhanced as the discount rate increases;however, the changes in the price of agricultural products and the amount of sequestered carbon have insignificant effects on the choice of sites and project duration.

  9. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Markets for Tree-Based Intercropping Systems in Southern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiara S. Winans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since agriculture directly contributes to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, integrating trees into agricultural landscapes through agroforestry systems is a viable adaptive strategy for climate change mitigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carbon (C sequestration and financial benefits of C sequestration according to Quebec’s Cap-and-Trade System for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowances (C & T System or the Système de plafonnement et d’échange de droits d’émission de gaz à effet de serre du Québec (SPEDE program for two experimental 10-year-old tree-based intercropping (TBI systems in southern Quebec, Canada. We estimated total C stored in the two TBI systems with hybrid poplar and hardwoods and adjacent non-TBI systems under agricultural production, considering soil, crop and crop roots, litterfall, tree and tree roots as C stocks. The C sequestration of the TBI and adjacent non-TBI systems were compared and the market value of the C payment was evaluated using the net present value (NPV approach. The TBI systems had 33% to 36% more C storage than adjacent non-TBI systems. The financial benefits of C sequestration after 10 years of TBI practices amounted to of $2,259–$2,758 CAD ha−1 and $1,568–$1,913 CAD ha−1 for St. Edouard and St. Paulin sites, respectively. We conclude that valorizing the C sequestration of TBI systems could be an incentive to promote the establishment of TBI for the purpose of GHG mitigation in Quebec, Canada.

  10. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule.

  11. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule

  12. 78 FR 55057 - Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign... manufacture carbon fiber under zone procedures for the U.S. market within Subzone 148C at the TTA facility in... comment has been given in the Federal Register (75 FR 61696, 10/6/2010; 75 FR 74002, 11/30/2010; 77...

  13. Analysis of the German market for voluntary carbon offsetting; Analyse des deutschen Marktes zur freiwilligen Kompensation von Treibhausgasemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Christian; Duwe, Sebastian; Taenzler, Dennis; Reuster, Lena [adelphi research gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kleemann, Max; Krebs, Jan-Marten [sustainable AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In the past years the market for voluntary carbon offsetting has developed rapidly. Certificates sold on this market originate partly from the compliance market, i.e. from projects of the Clean Development Mechanism and the Joint Implementation. Mostly, however, certificates stem from projects of the voluntary carbon market. Voluntary carbon offsetting can serve as another mechanism to efficiently prevent emissions, while at the same time achieving co-benefits. Very little is known however of the exact state of the voluntary carbon market, e.g. factors like business volume, market actors, origin of certificates or the efficacy of the voluntary market. Analyses of the market on the global market for voluntary offsetting do exist (ENDS, Hamilton et al. 2007, 2008, 2009); however they do not allow any conclusions for the market situation in Germany. This study aims at closing this gap. From the end of 2009 until the beginning of 2010 adelphi and sustainable interviewed providers of offset services, intermediaries, certifiers and consumers like businesses and public institutions on their activities in the voluntary carbon offset market in Germany. (orig.)

  14. The carbon credit market at the electric sector; O mercado de creditos de carbono no setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huayllas, T.E.C.; Ramos, D.S.; Arnez, R.L.V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: tesoroelena@pea.usp.br; dorel.ramos@poli.usp.br; ricleon@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate the carbon market development regarding important issues such as the sale and purchase negotiations' state of the art in both the international and regional markets. Despite the uncertainties, the carbon market became a reality and is assuming increasing importance as a response to the emissions reduction of the greenhouse gases. At present, the carbon market trading is motivating to international entities, governments and corporations to adopt actions that could contribute to the reduction and commercialization of the greenhouse gases. The contribution of the electric industry to the production of the main greenhouse gases is also an aspect analyzed herein. (author)

  15. National welfare and european capitalism? : the attempt to create a common market for supplementary pension

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    European integration in the economic sphere get increasing influence on the nation states ability to run autonomous welfare policies. The point of departure of this study is the persistent incongruence in the European integration process between the implementation of the internal market and the fact that welfare and social policy still is formally the responsibility of the single member states. I have confronted this with empirical data from the process aiming at creating a single market for...

  16. REDD in the carbon market: a general equilibrium analysis

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bosello; F. Eboli; Parrado, R.; Rosa, R

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation is a major source of CO2 emissions, accounting for around 17% of total annual anthropogenic carbon release. While the cost estimates of reducing deforestation rates vary considerably depending on model assumptions, it is widely accepted that emissions reductions from avoided deforestation consist of a relatively low cost mitigation option. Halting deforestation is therefore not only a major ecological challenge, but also a great opportunity to cost effectively reduce climate cha...

  17. Using marketing in Romanian libraries. Study case: The Romanian National Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, marketing has become a central part of libraries’ interest worldwide. Their motivation is varied: the missions of organizations have lost compatibility with market demand, budgets are low, while their units require more funds, the increase in the competition for funding, the harsh competition between service suppliers, etc. Furthermore, the Western world understood the necessity of library marketing for reasons like: the support offered in library management, the focus on consumers, the capacity of attracting consumers to use libraries, the improvement of the organization’s image. Despite all that, most Romanian libraries do not understand the part played by marketing in the library or in the information service, as well as its usefulness in day-to-day activities. The purpose of this essay is to present the importance of marketing in the National Romanian Library’s activity.

  18. When Can Carbon Abatement Policies Increase Welfare? The Fundamental Role of Distorted Factor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian W. H.; Williams III, Roberton C.; Goulder, Lawrence H

    1997-01-01

    This paper employs analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to assess the efficiency impacts of two policies to reduce U.S. carbon emissions — a revenue-neutral carbon tax and a non-auctioned carbon quota — taking into account the interactions between these policies and pre-existing tax distortions in factor markets. We show that tax interactions significantly raise the costs of both policies relative to what they would be in a first-best setting. In addition, we show that these in...

  19. Estimating Brand Level Demand Elasticities and Measuring Market Power for Regular Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Langan, Glenn E.; Cotterill, Ronald W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports econometric estimation of brand level demand (AIDS) elasticities for regular carbonated soft drinks using Information Resources, Inc. panel data. Own and cross price elasticities are used to measure actual and hypothetical market power that would arise from potential mergers or collusive pricing arrangements.

  20. Carbon and energy saving markets in compressed air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, R.

    2015-08-01

    CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving represent two of the cornerstones of the environmental commitments of all the countries of the world. The first engagement is of a medium to long term type, and unequivocally calls for a new energetic era. The second delays in time the fossil fuel technologies to favour an energetic transition. In order to sustain the two efforts, new immaterial markets have been established in almost all the countries of the world, whose exchanges (purchases and sales) concern CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuels that have not been emitted or burned. This paper goes deep inside two aspects not yet exploited: specific CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuel burned, as a function of compressed air produced. Reference is made to the current compressor technology, carefully analysing CAGI's (Compressed Air Gas Institute) data and integrating it with the PNUEROP (European Association of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps, pneumatic tools and allied equipment) contribution on the compressor European market. On the base of energy saving estimates that could be put in place, this article also estimates the financial value of the CO2 emissions and fossil fuels avoided.

  1. The European carbon market (2005-2007): banking, pricing and risk hedging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis investigates the market rules of the European carbon market (EU ETS) during 2005-2007. We provide theoretical and empirical analyses of banking and borrowing provisions, price drivers and risk hedging strategies attached to tradable quotas, which were introduced to cover the CO2 emissions of around 10,600 installations in Europe. In Chapter 1, we outline the economic and environmental effects of banking and borrowing on tradable permits markets. More specifically, we examine the banking and borrowing provisions adopted in the EU ETS, and the effects of banning banking between Phases I and II on CO2 price changes. We show statistically that the low levels of CO2 prices recorded until the end of Phase I may be explained by the restriction on the inter-period transfer of allowances, besides the main explanations that were identified by market observers. In Chapter 2, we identify the carbon price drivers since the launch of the EU ETS on January 1, 2005. We emphasize the central role played by the 2005 yearly compliance event imposed by the European Commission in revealing the net short/long position at the installation level in terms of allowances allocated with respect to verified emissions. The main result of this study features that price drivers of CO2 allowances linked to energy market prices and unanticipated weather events vary around institutional events. Moreover, we show the influence of the variation of industrial production in three sectors covered by the EU ETS on CO2 price changes by applying a disentangling analysis, that has also been extended at the country-level. In Chapter 3, we focus on the risk hedging strategies linked to holding CO2 allowances. By using a methodology applied on stock markets, we recover the changes in investors' average risk aversion. This study shows that, during the time period considered, risk aversion has been higher on the carbon market than on the stock market, and that the risk is linked to an increasing price

  2. The carbon markets: which place for the french agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even its positive role of carbon sequestration in the biomass by photosynthesis, the agriculture sector is responsible of about 20% of the french greenhouse gases emissions. Actions aim to reduce these emissions. This study allows the exploration of technic of reduction to reveal those which combine voluntarism, actors responsibility and economic profitability. It constitutes necessary work to better understand the greenhouse gases stakes in the agriculture and develop inventive projects. It offers also actions to implement by the public authorities to create success conditions of described mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  3. Critical issues and challenges in the post-2012 perspective for the possible participation of the forestry sector market for carbon credits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisciani F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (KP is in its conclusive phase and with it the chances for forest farms in having an active role in the carbon market too. All carbon credits coming from Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry activities will be used free of charge by the Italian Government in order to meet the national emission reduction target established under the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, the emitting sectors excluded from the European Union Emission Trading Scheme will benefit from forest carbon credits to offset part of their emissions, while for forest owners there is not any recognition for the provided service. In order to avoid the replication of this situation in the post-2012, it is necessary that the institution and the forest stakeholders, create the conditions for forest farms to participate and obtain the benefits introduced with the establishment of the Emission Trading, within the framework of post-2012 agreement. This condition could be achieved through the institution of a national carbon market. In this perspective this paper examines the main critical issues that could affect the participation of forest farms in the market.

  4. A life-cycle carbon footprint of Yosemite National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like cities, many large national parks in the United States often include “urban” visitor and residential areas that mostly demand (rather than produce) energy and key urban materials. The U.S. National Park Service has committed to quantifying and reducing scopes 1 and 2 emissions by 35% and scope 3 emissions by 10% by 2020 for all parks. Current inventories however do not provide the specificity or granularity to evaluate solutions that address fundamental inefficiencies in these inventories. By quantifying and comparing the importance of different inventory sectors as well as upstream and downstream emissions in Yosemite National Park (YNP), this carbon footprint provides a case study and potential template for quantifying future emissions reductions, and for evaluating tradeoffs between them. Results indicate that visitor-related emissions comprise the largest fraction of the Yosemite carbon footprint, and that increases in annual visitation (3.43–3.90 million) coincide with and likely drive interannual increases in the magnitude of Yosemite′s extended inventory (126,000–130,000 t CO2e). Given this, it is recommended that “per visitor” efficiency be used as a metric to track progress. In this respect, YNP has annually decreased kilograms of GHG emissions per visitor from 36.58 (2008) to 32.90 (2011). We discuss opportunities for reducing this measure further. - Highlights: • A potential template for inventorying GHG emissions in national parks is presented. • Given variability in visitation, GHG/visitor is a better metric to measure efficiency. • Yosemite has reduced from 36.58 kg (2008) GHG emissions/visitor to 32.90 (2011)

  5. The impact of carbon taxes or allowances on the electric generation market in the Ohio and ECAR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American electricity grid is separated into 11 regional reliability councils, collectively called the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). The East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR) is the reliability council that covers Ohio and Indiana, along with parts of Kentucky, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Ohio and the rest of the ECAR region rely more heavily on coal-fired generation than any other US region. The purpose of this report is to study the effect of carbon reduction policies on the cost and price of generation in the ECAR region, with an emphasis on Ohio. In order to do that, the author modeled the possible electric generation system for the ECAR and Ohio region for the year 2010 using a model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory called the Oak Ridge Competitive Electric Dispatch model (ORCED). He let the model optimize the system based on various factors and carbon reduction policies to understand their impact. He then used the electricity prices and assumed demand elasticities to change the demands while also requiring all power plants to be profitable. The author discusses the different potential policies for carbon reduction and issues involving a restructured market; describes the model used for this analysis, the ECAR electricity sector, and the establishment of a base case; and describes the results of applying various carbon emission reduction approaches to the region. 14 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Consumer Attention, Engagement, and Market Shares: Evidence from the Carbonated Soft Drinks Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Rui, Huaxia

    2014-01-01

    among consumers and between consumers and brands. Social media users can now interact with brands directly through Facebook and Twitter. These new features make social media a very distinctive class of online WOM. In this paper, we formulate a random coefficient discrete choice model of consumer demand to study whether and how consumer engagement and attention on the Internet affect the consumption of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs). We model consumer attention and engagement on social media as...

  7. Global climate change, energy subsidies and national carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous chapter of the book it is indicated that fossil-fuel burning is one of the main environmental culprits. Nevertheless, many countries continue to subsidize fossil fuels. In this chapter estimates of subsidies to energy and energy complements in OECD and non-OECD countries are provided. The authors conclude that the removal of energy subsidies in OECD countries on the order of US$30 billion annually (primarily in the US and Germany) and subsidies to complements on the order of US$50-90 (United States) are likely to have only little impact on CO-emissions. In contrast, the removal of energy subsidies of US$270-330 billion in non-OECD countries could substantially curb the growth of global CO2 emissions, equivalent to the impact of a carbon tax on the order of US$60-70 per ton in the OECD countries. Nonetheless, even with the removal of energy subsidies, the growth in CO2 emissions in non-OECD countries is projected to increase by 80% from the year 1990 to 2010. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of a revenue-neutral national carbon tax, in addition to energy subsidy removal, can yield significant health benefits from the reduction in local pollution. The authors note that carbon taxes are considerably less regressive relative to lifetime income or annual consumption expenditures than to annual income. 7 tabs., 23 refs

  8. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  9. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from ''seed to wheel'', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its ''Plan Climat'' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (author)

  10. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  11. 76 FR 24291 - Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... FR 56678) in response to industry interest in the establishment of a national marketing program to..., 2009, and published in the September 3, 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 45565); and Notice..., 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 48423). These actions are governed by the provisions...

  12. High penetration wind generation impacts on spot prices in the Australian national electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores wind power integration issues for the South Australian (SA) region of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) by assessing the interaction of regional wind generation, electricity demand and spot prices over 2 recent years of market operation. SA's wind energy penetration has recently surpassed 20% and it has only a limited interconnection with other regions of the NEM. As such, it represents an interesting example of high wind penetration in a gross wholesale pool market electricity industry. Our findings suggest that while electricity demand continues to have the greatest influence on spot prices in SA, wind generation levels have become a significant secondary influence, and there is an inverse relationship between wind generation and price. No clear relationship between wind generation and demand has been identified although some periods of extremely high demand may coincide with lower wind generation. Periods of high wind output are associated with generally lower market prices, and also appear to contribute to extreme negative price events. The results highlight the importance of electricity market and renewable policy design in facilitating economically efficient high wind penetrations. - Highlights: → In South Australia (SA) wind generation is having an influence on market prices. → Little or no correlation is found between wind generation and demand. → Wind farms in SA are receiving a lower average price than in other States. → The results highlight the importance of appropriate electricity market design.

  13. Competitive Strength of Nations: Doing Business in a Global Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is designed to study strength and capability of nations to do business under a competitive system devised and monitored by the World Trade Organization. The main objective in this attempt is to review and evaluate the impact of WTO’s policies on the economic welfare of the developing countries and to see how far the producers on the one side and consumers on the other side have benefitted in general. The study while reviewing historical experiences of countries under laissez-faire policies, examined the effectiveness of the negotiations carried out by the WTO for enhancing international trade. The study found that under the infant industry argument, many of the WTO member countries are still protecting their businesses and violating the laid down principles of free trade. Since the WTO is to promote international trade and watch the interest of the producers, the consumers seem to have been left unattended. As a result of which the corporate sector continues to maintain its hold in protecting their monopolies in various forms. The study strongly recommends consumer protection rather than producer protection as the fundamental goal for the WTO to keep in view in its policy prescriptions.

  14. Environment and economic risk: An analysis of carbon emission market and portfolio management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cuicui; Wu, Desheng

    2016-08-01

    Climate change has been one of the biggest and most controversial environmental issues of our times. It affects the global economy, environment and human health. Many researchers find that carbon dioxide (CO2) has contributed the most to climate change between 1750 and 2005. In this study, the orthogonal GARCH (OGARCH) model is applied to examine the time-varying correlations in European CO2 allowance, crude oil and stock markets in US, Europe and China during the Protocol's first commitment period. The results show that the correlations between EUA carbon spot price and the equity markets are higher and more volatile in US and Europe than in China. Then the optimal portfolios consisting these five time series are selected by Mean-Variance and Mean-CVAR models. It shows that the optimal portfolio selected by MV-OGARCH model has the best performance. PMID:26922261

  15. The Dependence Structure between Carbon Emission Allowances and Financial Markets - A Copula Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gronwald, Marc; Ketterer, Janina; Trück, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies different copulas in order to investigate the complex dependence structure between EU emission allowance (EUA) futures returns and those of other commodities, equity and energy indices. The analysis yields important insights into the relationship between carbon, commodities and financial markets. First of all, we find a significant relationship between EUA returns and those of the other considered variables that is most appropriately modeled by a Gaussian and Student-t copu...

  16. The 2030 Energy-Climate Package: which impact on the European carbon market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While briefly commenting the interactions between CO2 emission objectives, renewable energies and energy efficiency, indicating the evolution of surpluses of CO2 emission quotas, and the origins of emission reductions, this article comments the possible impact of the Climate-Energy Package for 2030 on the European carbon market, identifies and briefly comments the main dysfunctions of the European ETS, and discusses the foreseen reform of this tool

  17. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  18. Curbing Emissions through a Carbon Liabilities Market: A note from a climate skeptic's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Billette De Villemeur, Etienne; Leroux, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We argue for the creation of a carbon liabilities market to address climate change. Each period, countries would be made liable for their share of responsibility in current climate damage. Because liabilities could be traded like financial debt, robustness to strategic manipulations and e¢ ciency ensue. Moreover, this decentralizes the choice of the rate by which countries discount future beneÖts and damage. Rather than being based on an expected discounted sum of future marginal damage (a...

  19. The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Demand: The Case of Carbonated Soft Drink Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2013-01-01

    This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...

  20. Putting carbon markets into practice: a case study of financial accounting in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Jan Bebbington; Carlos Larrinaga; Thereza Raquel Sales de Aguiar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore how carbon markets have entered the world of financial accounting. The advent of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) in 2005 provided the opportunity for global climate change concerns to be translated from policy into something that could, and should, be recognised within financial accounting. That is, the EU ETS provided a mechanism whereby greenhouse gas emission allowances acquired a financial value, simultaneously creating an obligation (or liabi...

  1. A literature review of economic studies on carbon pricing and Australian wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the ongoing development of Australian anthropogenic climate change mitigation policies, there has been a steady increase in modelling studies undertaken to estimate Australian carbon prices and their impact on existing electricity markets. This article summarises some of the more prominent studies completed by many of Australia’s foremost economic modelling firms. We developed a simple approach for testing the consistency of these studies and their findings in relation to carbon pass-through. Unfortunately, we have established that the studies are entirely inconsistent in their estimation of carbon pass-through. Furthermore, we were unable to establish why the estimation of carbon pass-through varies so significantly. This has important implications for policy makers given much of the compensation to be paid to households and businesses under the Clean Energy Future package is predicated on simple assumptions of carbon pass-through. Based upon our analysis of these economic studies, our conclusion is that Australian policy makers are best guided by relying upon the numerous a posteriori estimations of pass-through in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) rather than Australian a priori studies. - Highlights: ► This article summarises prominent studies of Australia's leading economic modelling firms. ► We developed a simple approach for testing estimations of carbon pass-through. ► We found that the average rate of pass-through was similar to the market's average intensity (93.45%). ► We established that the studies vary significantly in their estimation of carbon pass-through. ► We believe that further research is required to explain why the studies vary so significantly.

  2. 75 FR 72816 - Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY:...

  3. Liberalisation of the European Electricity Industry: Internal Market or National Champions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, F.

    2007-07-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector. Considering the complexity of this industry, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration of incumbents in the sector as a result of the liberalisation process. The new trend toward the creation of ''national champions'' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raised serious concerns about abuses of market power and risks of future collusion. Taking account of investment in interconnection as well as other international and regional experiences, the internal market issue is investigated as the solution to the''risks'' from liberalisation. (auth)

  4. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  5. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental-economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Pietro; van der Voet, Ester; Korevaar, Gijsbert

    2014-12-01

    In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75-84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land based climate mitigation mechanism in carbon markets, it would become economically viable at the lower carbon price of 30 EUR/t of carbon. PMID:25204615

  6. Globalization and the effects of national versus international competition on the labour market. Theory and evidence from Belgian firm level data

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbussche, Hylke; Konings, Joep

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we first develop a simple theoretical framework which shows that important differences exist between national and international competition and their effect on national labour markets. National competition refers to a reduction of monopoly power in the product market through improved market contestability and market access, which is the responsibility of competition authorities. International competition refers to a reduction in product market competition as a result of trade li...

  7. Economics of forest and forest carbon projects. Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaballa Romero, M.; Traerup, S.; Wieben, E.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Koch, A.

    2013-01-15

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource needs estimates put forward in connection to REDD+. This report investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through eight case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments. The report is part of efforts to share financial experiences and lessons learned with policymakers, project developers and stakeholders, with the objective to inform forest project and strategy development. It presents experiences and advice on the risks, costs and revenues of forest projects, thereby informing not only the development of future REDD+ initiatives but also the testing of advanced market commitments as a finance option for sustainable forest management. The findings in the report underline the fact that only through sound and transparent financial information will forest projects and national forest initiatives become interesting for private financial institutions and comparable with other investment opportunities. It is therefore important to include robust analysis of the operations business case and its financial attractiveness to commercial investors, early in the design process. As for the economics of forest and forest carbon projects, it appears that REDD+ payments alone, especially at current prices, will not deliver the revenues that cover all expenses of transparent and long-term mitigation of forest carbon emissions. Instead the findings underline the importance of building up forest operations which effectively manages risk and delivers several revenue streams. These findings are aligned with the advocacy efforts of UNEP and the UN-REDD Programme on multiple benefits and the combination of various funding and

  8. National Football League Player Market: Are Professional Players Still Paid Monopsony Wages?

    OpenAIRE

    Miškovský, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to find out whether National football league players are, even 15 years after the birth of unrestricted free agency, still paid monopsonistic salaries or whether competition among NFL teams eliminated them. After a theoretical discussion, which will help to form expectations about the player market, models in line with the standard theory of labor compensation and with Becker's human capital theory are estimated. The part of the research following the standard ...

  9. Segmenting the Performing Arts Markets: The Case of Czech National Theater Attenders’ Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Chytková Zuzana; Černá Jitka; Karlíček Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Strategic marketing instruments such as segmentation and targeting can benefit performing arts institutions and render their offer more competitive. To segment classical performing arts audiences, however, the traditionally used variable is social class. In this paper, it is argued that such often suggested traditional segmentation criteria can prove to be context-insensitive and as such cannot be applied invariably across different settings. Based on an analysis of Czech National Theater aud...

  10. The Non-Market Value of Abel Tasman National Park, New Zealand: A Choice Modelling Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Peter; Cassells, Sue M.; Holland, John

    2013-01-01

    National parks and protected areas form the basis of global conservation initiatives and provide a raft of benefits in the form of various consumptive and non-consumptive uses. However, it is extremely difficult to express these benefits in monetary terms. The lack of economic values for these protected areas often results in sub-optimal conservation outcomes. Non-market valuation techniques can be used to estimate monetary values for these key environmental assets. This research applied the ...

  11. THE ROLE OF SKILLS AND COMPETENCES IN THE NATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION AND IN THE LABOUR MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Herneczky, Andrea; Varga, Erika; Marsalek, Sandor

    2010-01-01

    Due to the rapid technological, technical and economic development in the 21st century, knowledge and learning have become decisive economic factors and the role of human resources has also come in the limelight. The competitiveness of an entire national economy, a region or even a continent is basically determined by human resources with the suitable competencies. The labour market is in need of graduates who possess not only expertise in its strict sense but also master some economic, IT an...

  12. Traditional products – vectors of sustainable development on the regional and national markets

    OpenAIRE

    Georgică Gheorghe; Bogdan Gabriel Nistoreanu; Alina Filip

    2013-01-01

    Traditional products represent an important component of the Romanian culture, of the Romanian identity, of the national heritage. In order to succeed imposing over fakes on the market, this product’s regime must be very well defined and regulated by the acting legislation. While also sanctioning those who produce the so called traditional products, for which they ask a price that is usually greater, offering – not in few cases, products which can affect the consumers’ health t...

  13. Optimal Differentiation of International Environmental Taxes in the Presence of National Labor Market Distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the implication of the 'double dividend' debate for international environmental taxes. In our scenario, small open economies with different labor market distortions follow a common environmental policy and use national environmental tax revenues to finance labor tax cuts. Since the double dividend hypothesis does not hold, a high labor tax implies a low environmental tax relative to other countries. The optimal differentiation of international environmental taxes is proven to be a function of the national labor tax rates and the uncompensated elasticities of labor supply. 20 refs

  14. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... carbon monoxide in the ambient air shall be measured by: (1) A reference method based on appendix C and... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air......

  15. National trajectories of carbon emissions: analysis of proposals to foster the transition to low-carbon economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we develop a framework for analyzing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions trajectories from the energy and industrial sectors of the world's nations under various policy options. A robust conclusion of our analysis is that early action by both developed and developing nations will be required to hold atmospheric CO2 at or below doubled pre-industrial levels and incentives for renewed investments in energy-sector technologies are a required component of early action. We therefore develop and examine an international emissions regime that: (a) in the short-term 'jump starts' the political and project-implementation process by providing incentives to exploit profitable or low-cost carbon reduction opportunities; (b) in the near- and medium-term addresses the inequities resulting from historic imbalances in greenhouse-gas emissions while promoting efficient pathways for carbon reduction; and (c) in the long-term recognizes the equal rights of individuals to exploit the services of the atmosphere and pursue a reasonable standard of living in a low-carbon economy. We present and analyze a proposal to promote near-term activity in carbon reduction and energy innovation through a revitalized program of international joint implementation (JI) projects for carbon emissions reduction or carbon sequestration projects. Under our proposal, JI partner nations both receive full credit for carbon reductions that can be 'banked' and applied at a later date toward national emissions quotas in the climate convention. A finite program lifetime provides further impetus counting' of credits results in only modest additional cumulative carbon emissions relative to a similar scenario without cooperative partnerships. This 'JI banking' plan promotes critically needed scientific and institutional experience and innovation, initiates cost-effective carbon reductions, and provides vital national flexibility in meeting eventual targets. (author)

  16. Historical analysis of U.S. electricity markets: Reassessing carbon lock-in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates whether the U.S. electricity sector is directed away from carbon-intensive technological lock-in, and which factors are contributing, or have potential to contribute, to a possible reorientation of the industry. With the application of a historical analysis of the electricity sector from the late nineteenth century through current day, this analysis finds that, although the industry still relies primarily on carbon-intensive fossil fuel operations, several recent trends indicate that the industry is becoming less carbon intensive, smaller in generation system scale, and more sustainable in operations. Crucial drivers-firm level interactions with technological change, industry leadership and market structure, government intervention and policy momentum, and citizen involvement and behavior patterns-that have traditionally shaped the structure, scale, and environmental footprint of the industry, have also played a prominent role in recent transformations. These results indicate that triggering or extraordinary events may not be necessary to initiate an escape from carbon lock-in in the electricity sector. Complete escape is not yet definitive, however, and it remains to be seen whether the industry is able to transform entirely before any significant climate change disturbances occur. - Research Highlights: → I examine whether the U.S. electricity sector is moving away from carbon-intensive technological lock-in, and which factors are guiding this transition. → Recent trends suggest that the electricity sector is becoming less carbon-intensive, smaller in scale, and more sustainable in operations. → Complete escape from carbon lock-in, however, is not yet definitive.

  17. Carbon information disclosure of enterprises and their value creation through market liquidity and cost of equity capital

    OpenAIRE

    Li Li; Yuanhua Yang; Dengli Tang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on asymmetric information and stakeholder theories, this paper investigates two mechanisms, namely market liquidity and cost of equity capital, by which the carbon information disclosure of enterprises can benefit their value creation. Design/methodology/approach: In this research, web crawler technology is employed to study the link between carbon information disclosure and enterprises value creation?and the carbon information data are provided by all companies listed in Chi...

  18. Electrical markets, energy security and technology diversification: nuclear as cover against gas and carbon price risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent tension in the oil and gas markets has brought back the concept of energy offer diversification. Electrical production technology diversification in a country helps improve the security of supply and make up for the negative effects of hydrocarbons price variations. The portfolio and real options theories help to quantify the optimum diversification level for a country or a power company. The cover value of a nuclear investment for a power company facing cost uncertainties (price of gas and of carbon dioxide emission permit) and proceeds (price of electricity) is assessed. A strong link between the prices of gas and electricity reduces incentives to private producers to diversify, disputing the capacity of a liberalized electrical market to achieve optimum technology diversity from a domestic point of view. (authors)

  19. Carbon information disclosure of enterprises and their value creation through market liquidity and cost of equity capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Drawing on asymmetric information and stakeholder theories, this paper investigates two mechanisms, namely market liquidity and cost of equity capital, by which the carbon information disclosure of enterprises can benefit their value creation. Design/methodology/approach: In this research, web crawler technology is employed to study the link between carbon information disclosure and enterprises value creation?and the carbon information data are provided by all companies listed in Chinese A-share market Findings: The results show that carbon information disclosure have significant positive influence on enterprise value creation, which is embodied in the relationship between carbon information disclosure quantity, depth and enterprise value creation, and market liquidity and cost of equity capital play partially mediating role in it, while the influence of carbon information disclosure quality and concentration on enterprise value creation are not significant in statistics. Research limitations/implications: This paper explains the influence path and mechanism between carbon information disclosure and enterprise value creation deeply, answers the question of whether carbon information disclosure affects enterprise value creation or not in China. Practical implications: This paper finds that carbon information disclosure contributes positively to enterprise value creation suggests that managers can reap more financial benefits by disclosing more carbon information and investing carbon emissions management. So, managers in the enterprises should strengthen the management of carbon information disclosure behavior. Originality/value: The paper gives a different perspective on the influence of carbon information disclosure on enterprise value creation, and suggests a new direction to understand carbon information disclosure behavior.

  20. Carbon market: Systematic risk and expectations of returns-on the comparison analysis of the CDM and EU ETS

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Jun Tang; Cheng Shen

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to analyze the market risk in European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) and Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) and Zipf analysis technology to analyze the carbon price volatility in different expectations of returns in the two markets. The results show that the systematic risk of the EU ETS market is at around 0.07%, but CDM market is clearly divided into two stages, the systematic risk of the futures contracts in the previous stage (DEC...

  1. An Integrated Model of Market-Driven Dynamics of Carbon in Exurban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. G.; Sun, S.; Currie, W.; Nassauer, J. I.; Page, S. E.; Parker, D. C.; Riolo, R. L.; Robinson, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    As coupled human-environment system, exurban land-use systems and their ecological and social outcomes are driven by interactions between the human actors and natural processes at play. Carbon storage in exurban land-use systems is driven by interactions among market forces driving land-use change, developer and resident decisions about land cover and land management, and ecosystem processes affecting ecosystem function. Whether or not vegetation in these landscapes contribute to carbon sinks that mitigate global change, and their future trajectory, depends on dynamics in both human and biophysical processes. Understanding these interactions in a coupled human and natural system might best be advanced by iterating between data collection efforts on various aspects of the system (including the states and changes in the social and natural aspects of the system) and modeling in ways that explicitly represents social and natural processes and their interactions. A challenge is to build models that are both explicable based on existing process knowledge and supportable by existing or newly collected data. We coupled an agent-based model of developer and resident decision making about landscape structure and management with a biogeochemical model of carbon flux and storage to evaluate the drivers of and possible mechanisms to achieve increased carbon storage. Model-based experiments demonstrate the (a) effects of various residential land management strategies on carbon storage, suggesting that removals of litter have a larger effect on overall carbon storage than additions of fertilizer and irrigation; (b) effects of subsidies or payments for increased carbon storage paid to developers can result in choices about development types that result in increased carbon storage, but that the effects are highly sensitive to the price of carbon and the basis for calculating payments. The experiments highlight the need for integrated modeling, but also point to specific needs for

  2. Tendances Carbone no. 81 'The EU ETS as bellwether of a flawed European Internal Energy Market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: - The EU ETS verified emissions: 1,950 MtCO2 in 2012, i.e. a 2% fall compared with 2011 and a 13.5% fall compared with 2008. Phase 2 compliance: an excess amount of 1,425 Mt including the use of 1,059 million international credits. - Back-loading: the European Parliament's ENVI Commission will vote again on 19 June. - Competitiveness: the European Commission is launching a consultation process regarding a review of the list of sectors exposed to carbon leakage for the period between 2015 and 2019

  3. Traditional products – vectors of sustainable development on the regional and national markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgică Gheorghe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional products represent an important component of the Romanian culture, of the Romanian identity, of the national heritage. In order to succeed imposing over fakes on the market, this product’s regime must be very well defined and regulated by the acting legislation. While also sanctioning those who produce the so called traditional products, for which they ask a price that is usually greater, offering – not in few cases, products which can affect the consumers’ health through their contents of additives or other substances that have no connection to the traditional preparation methods. The purpose of this paper was to review the main traditional Romanian products, by geographic area and finding the clients’ interest towards buying such products. The analysis is realised from the point of view of a sustainable development of this sector and by areas of provenience. In order to observe what types of traditional products are demanded on the market a research from secondary sources has been made, by analysing the information provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, in the period of 1 – 20 September, and also a direct marketing research realised in the virtual environment, which followed the investigation of the main dimension/characteristics of the consumers behaviour towards the traditional products that exist on the Romanian market.

  4. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental–economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galgani, Pietro, E-mail: p.galgani@hotmail.com [Department of Industrial Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Van Steenis gebouw, Einsteinweg 2, 2333CC Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der [Department of Industrial Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Van Steenis gebouw, Einsteinweg 2, 2333CC Leiden (Netherlands); Korevaar, Gijsbert [Department of Energy and Industry, Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Economic–environmental assessment of combining composting with biogas and biochar in Ghana. • These technologies can save greenhouse gas emissions for up to 0.57 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of waste treated. • Labor intensive, small-scale organic waste management is not viable without financial support. • Carbon markets would make these technologies viable with carbon prices in the range of 30–84 EUR/t. - Abstract: In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75–84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land

  5. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental–economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Economic–environmental assessment of combining composting with biogas and biochar in Ghana. • These technologies can save greenhouse gas emissions for up to 0.57 t CO2 eq/t of waste treated. • Labor intensive, small-scale organic waste management is not viable without financial support. • Carbon markets would make these technologies viable with carbon prices in the range of 30–84 EUR/t. - Abstract: In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75–84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land based

  6. Historical analysis of U.S. electricity markets. Reassessing carbon lock-in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates whether the U.S. electricity sector is directed away from carbon-intensive technological lock-in, and which factors are contributing, or have potential to contribute, to a possible reorientation of the industry. With the application of a historical analysis of the electricity sector from the late nineteenth century through current day, this analysis finds that, although the industry still relies primarily on carbon-intensive fossil fuel operations, several recent trends indicate that the industry is becoming less carbon intensive, smaller in generation system scale, and more sustainable in operations. Crucial drivers - firm level interactions with technological change, industry leadership and market structure, government intervention and policy momentum, and citizen involvement and behavior patterns - that have traditionally shaped the structure, scale, and environmental footprint of the industry, have also played a prominent role in recent transformations. These results indicate that triggering or extraordinary events may not be necessary to initiate an escape from carbon lock-in in the electricity sector. Complete escape is not yet definitive, however, and it remains to be seen whether the industry is able to transform entirely before any significant climate change disturbances occur. (author)

  7. The National Health Service in the UK: from myths to markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A

    1989-03-01

    This paper traces the introduction of economic principles into the NHS over the past 40 years. During this period the service has changed from one which specifically sought to distance the delivery of health care from homo-economicus to one which is increasingly shaped by economic motivation and market-oriented strategies. Three phases in this development are discussed: the administered phase 1948-74, the planning phase 1974-84, and the present management phase. Each phase required different systems of information to support the organization of the service according to the underlying beliefs and philosophy about the relevance of economics to health care. It is suggested that the impact of market provision of health care will need to be vigilantly monitored to ensure that standards of the nation's health care are effective and equitably distributed. PMID:10303372

  8. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  9. Carbon market risks and rewards: Firm perceptions of CDM investment decisions in Brazil and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon market experiences of Brazil and India represent policy success stories under several criteria. A careful evaluation, however, reveals challenges to market development that should be addressed in order to make the rollout of a post-2012 CDM more effective. We conducted firm-level interviews covering 82 CDM plants in the sugar and cement sectors in Brazil and India, focusing on how individual managers understood the potential benefits and risks of undertaking clean development mechanism (CDM) investments. Our results indicate that the CDM operates in a far more complex way in practice than that of simply adding a marginal increment to a project's internal rate of return. Our results indicate the following: first, although anticipated revenue played a central role in most managers' decisions to pursue CDM investments, there was no standard practice to account for financial benefits of CDM investments; second, some managers identified non-financial reputational factors as their primary motivation for pursuing CDM projects; and third, under fluctuating regulatory regimes with real immediate costs and uncertain CDM revenue, managers favored projects that often did not require carbon revenue to be viable. The post-2012 CDM architecture can benefit from incorporating these insights, and in particular reassess goals for strict additionality and mechanisms for achieving it.

  10. Navigating the global carbon market. An analysis of the CDM's value chain and prevalent business models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a slow start, the clean development mechanism (CDM) market has recently experienced enormous growth. However, the CDM market has been increasingly criticised, resulting in a lively debate about how to reform, complement, or replace it. In order to increase transparency and assist policy-makers in better understanding the current market, we depart from the traditional project-level perspective on CDM and analyse commercial activities by utilising data from UNEP Risoe's CDM Bazaar. To this end, we first establish a seven-step value chain by conducting a factor analysis on the commercial activities indicated in the Bazaar and, second, identify nine prevalent business models with a cluster analysis of all 495 participating organisations. Based on these analyses, we discuss potential impacts on the value chain of different policy scenarios that rely on carbon credits as incentive. We find that the importance of specific regulatory CDM know-how and general business activities such as finance varies strongly with the different policy scenarios. Our analysis serves to sensitise policy-makers and business about implications of different regulatory designs. (author)

  11. Segmenting the Performing Arts Markets: The Case of Czech National Theater Attenders’ Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chytková Zuzana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategic marketing instruments such as segmentation and targeting can benefit performing arts institutions and render their offer more competitive. To segment classical performing arts audiences, however, the traditionally used variable is social class. In this paper, it is argued that such often suggested traditional segmentation criteria can prove to be context-insensitive and as such cannot be applied invariably across different settings. Based on an analysis of Czech National Theater audiences and its motivations, we propose the sought benefit of the theater visit as an alternative segmentation basis that may prove to be more context-sensitive.

  12. The impact of carbon capture and storage on a decarbonized German power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European energy policy is substantially driven by the target to reduce the CO2-emissions significantly and to mitigate climate change. Nevertheless European power generation is still widely based on fossil fuels. The carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) could be part of an approach to achieve ambitious CO2 reduction targets without large scale transformations of the existing energy system. In this context the paper investigates on how far the CCS-technology could play a role in the European and most notably in the German electricity generation sector. To account for all the interdependencies with the European neighboring countries, the embedding of the German electricity system is modeled using a stochastic European electricity market model (E2M2s). After modeling the European side constraints, the German electricity system is considered in detail with the stochastic German Electricity market model (GEM2s). The focus is thereby on the location of CCS plant sites, the structure of the CO2-pipeline network and the regional distribution of storage sites. Results for three different European energy market scenarios are presented up to the year 2050. Additionally, the use of CCS with use of onshore and offshore sites is investigated. - Highlights: • We present a model framework for the evaluation of carbon capture and storage (CCS). • Different scenarios to analyze regional differences within Germany. • Interdependencies between CO2 bound and demand are the main influencing factors. • A comprehensive investment in CCS power plants is not likely in the next decades. • Storage sites are no restricting factor but public acceptance is a crucial point

  13. The Kyoto protocol and payments for tropical forest: An interdisciplinary method for estimating carbon-offset supply and increasing the feasibility of a carbon market under the CDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Kerr, Suzi; Hughes, R. Flint; Liu, Shuguang; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Schimel, David; Tosi, Joseph; Watson, Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Protecting tropical forests under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could reduce the cost of emissions limitations set in Kyoto. However, while society must soon decide whether or not to use tropical forest-based offsets, evidence regarding tropical carbon sinks is sparse. This paper presents a general method for constructing an integrated model (based on detailed historical, remote sensing and field data) that can produce land-use and carbon baselines, predict carbon sequestration supply to a carbon-offsets market and also help to evaluate optimal market rules. Creating such integrated models requires close collaboration between social and natural scientists. Our project combines varied disciplinary expertise (in economics, ecology and geography) with local knowledge in order to create high-quality, empirically grounded, integrated models for Costa Rica.

  14. Cross-national differences in price–role orientation and their impact on retail markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan; Komor, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes differences in price–role orientations between economically developed and emerging markets and how these differences influence store brand and store format preferences. It extends cross-national research on price–role orientations by (1) focusing on culturally similar...... but economically different countries, (2) relating differences to preferences for store brands and low-price store formats, and (3) analyzing these effects for functional versus hedonic and low- versus high-price product groups. Based on theories explaining the effects of income on individual price perception...... and behavior, we hypothesize cross-national differences in price and value consciousness, the price–quality schema, and prestige sensitivity. Furthermore, we present a theoretical link between these price–role orientations and store format preferences based on the ability of store formats to address different...

  15. The Effects of Organizational Culture and Organizational Innovation on Marketing Innovation: A Research on Carbonated Beverage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cevahir Uzkurt; Rukiye Sen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of organizational culture and organizational innovation on marketing innovation. Data for the research were collected from firms in the carbonated beverage industry. Data obtained by totally 223 survey forms were analyzed by factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. Research findings showed that organizational culture and organizational innovation have an important and significant effect on marketing innovation. In the end ...

  16. The role of demography and markets in determining deforestation rates near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Brooks

    Full Text Available The highland forests of Madagascar are home to some of the world's most unique and diverse flora and fauna and to some of its poorest people. This juxtaposition of poverty and biodiversity is continually reinforced by rapid population growth, which results in increasing pressure on the remaining forest habitat in the highland region, and the biodiversity therein. Here we derive a mathematical expression for the subsistence of households to assess the role of markets and household demography on deforestation near Ranomafana National Park. In villages closest to urban rice markets, households were likely to clear less land than our model predicted, presumably because they were purchasing food at market. This effect was offset by the large number of migrant households who cleared significantly more land between 1989-2003 than did residents throughout the region. Deforestation by migrant households typically occurred after a mean time lag of 9 years. Analyses suggest that while local conservation efforts in Madagascar have been successful at reducing the footprint of individual households, large-scale conservation must rely on policies that can reduce the establishment of new households in remaining forested areas.

  17. Energy efficiency and the liberalized market - new approaches in national climate protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper initially explains the rationale of energy policy-based governmental intervention in the liberalized electricity market ('the need for political governance'). It is shown why there is a 'demand for intelligent regulatory policy' in Germany's energy sector, despite, or rather as a consequence of the deregulation of the energy markets, and refers e.g. to a parliamentary paper of the Bundestag, (BTDrs. 14/2656, p. 9). The author continues with selecting and defining, from the stock of conceivable appropriate action and regulatory instruments, the corner stones of action plans and the range of instruments, specifically designed for the sector and the target groups, that will accelerate market penetration of the energy efficiency policies ('governance functions'). The author also shows that, due to the significance of regulatory and structurizing impacts, as well as resulting consequences to the leading paradigms of policy of this Government (opting out of nuclear power, global climate change), the electricity industry is just the right branch of industry to serve as a ''national demonstration project'' on the way towards sustainable development. (orig./CB)

  18. Organizational and market factors associated with leadership development programs in hospitals: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Thompson, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership in hospitals is widely recognized as the key to organizational performance. Clinical, financial, and operational performance is increasingly being linked to the leadership practices of hospital managers. Moreover, effective leadership has been described as a means to achieve competitive advantage. Recent environmental forces, including reimbursement changes and increased competition, have prompted many hospitals to focus on building leadership competencies to successfully address these challenges. Using the resource dependence theory as our conceptual framework, we present results from a national study of hospitals examining the association of organizational and market factors with the provision of leadership development program activities, including the presence of a leadership development program, a diversity plan, a program for succession planning, and career development resources. The data are taken from the American Hospital Association's (AHA) 2008 Survey of Hospitals, the Area Resource File, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. The results of multilevel logistic regressions of each leadership development program activity on organizational and market factors indicate that hospital size, system and network affiliation, and accreditation are significantly and positively associated with all leadership development program activities. The market factors significantly associated with all leadership development activities include a positive odds ratio for metropolitan statistical area location and a negative odds ratio for the percentage of the hospital's service area population that is female and minority. For-profit hospitals are less likely to provide leadership development program activities. Additional findings are presented, and the implications for hospital management are discussed. PMID:22530292

  19. From quasi-market to market in the National Health Service in England: what does this mean for the purchasing of health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard; Smith, Judith; Harrison, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The purchasing function was first developed within the British National Health Service as part of a quasi-market introduced by a Conservative government in 1990 and retained by the Labour government on coming to power in 1997. Since 2002 further reforms in England have begun to transform the quasi-market into a 'real' market with greater diversity of supplier, including from the private sector, a payment regime designed to reward additional hospital activity and new rights for patients to choose their provider. Evidence from the quasi-market era suggests that the purchasing function made little significant impact on services for patients or shifts in the pattern of hospital provision. The new market reforms, in theory, provide an opportunity to overcome prior weaknesses in the purchasing function. As this market develops, we suggest that the purchasers should develop three new sets of skills and activities if they are to be effective: the identification of need and shaping of demand; shaping the structure of supply; and holding the market to account. PMID:19103916

  20. Connecting to the Art Market from Home: An Exploration of First Nations Artists in Alert Bay, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Margaret R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, Northwest Coast First Nations artists have been active participants in local and external economic markets. In Alert Bay, British Columbia, home of the 'Namgis People of the Kwakwaka'wakw Nation, artists have sold their work in urban centers since the 1950s. Now they are more rigorously involved in selling their work to local shops…

  1. Electricity without carbon dioxide: Assessing the role of carbon capture and sequestration in United States electric markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence

    2002-09-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will likely require significant cuts in electric sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The ability to capture and sequester CO2 in a manner compatible with today's fossil-fuel based power generating infrastructure offers a potentially low-cost contribution to a larger climate change mitigation strategy. This thesis fills a niche between economy-wide studies of CO 2 abatement and plant-level control technology assessments by examining the contribution that carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) might make toward reducing US electric sector CO2 emissions. The assessment's thirty year perspective ensures that costs sunk in current infrastructure remain relevant and allows time for technological diffusion, but remains free of assumptions about the emergence of unidentified radical innovations. The extent to which CCS might lower CO2 mitigation costs will vary directly with the dispatch of carbon capture plants in actual power-generating systems, and will depend on both the retirement of vintage capacity and competition from abatement alternatives such as coal-to-gas fuel switching and renewable energy sources. This thesis therefore adopts a capacity planning and dispatch model to examine how the current distribution of generating units, natural gas prices, and other industry trends affect the cost of CO2 control via CCS in an actual US electric market. The analysis finds that plants with CO2 capture consistently provide significant reductions in base-load emissions at carbon prices near 100 $/tC, but do not offer an economical means of meeting peak demand unless CO2 reductions in excess of 80 percent are required. Various scenarios estimate the amount by which turn-over of the existing generating infrastructure and the severity of criteria pollutant constraints reduce mitigation costs. A look at CO2 sequestration in the seabed beneath the US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) complements this model

  2. Deregulation in an energy market and its impact on R and D for low-carbon energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the impact of deregulation in an energy market on R and D activities for new energy technology when climate policy is implemented. A model of growth with vertical innovation is modified by including an oligopolistic energy supply sector for demonstrating to what extent deregulation in the energy supply sector will affect R and D activities for low-carbon energy technology, provided that carbon taxation is implemented. The analysis shows that, when the elasticity of substitution between input factors is less than unity, deregulation will drive energy R and D activities and reduce CO2 accumulation if the energy market is highly concentrated in the beginning. (author)

  3. Carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park predicted from remote sensing data and simulation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Shengli; Crabtree Robert; Klooster Steven; Potter Christopher; Gross Peggy; Genovese Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A simulation model based on remote sensing data for spatial vegetation properties has been used to estimate ecosystem carbon fluxes across Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was applied at a regional scale to estimate seasonal and annual carbon fluxes as net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration components. Predicted net ecosystem production (NEP) flux of CO2 is estimated from the model for carbon sinks and sources ove...

  4. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  5. 建设碳排放权交易市场的探索——中国应对低碳经济之策%Exploration of the Construction of Carbon Emissions Trading Market --China' s Response to a Policy of Low - Carbon Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱峰

    2011-01-01

    众多的减排方法中,碳交易和碳税同为间接降低二氧化碳排放的手段,被世界各国广泛接受和采用。碳交易和碳税各有优缺点,哪一个更适合中国尚无定论。由于我国碳交易市场发展严重滞后,处在全球碳交易产业链的最底层,因此,我国需要进一步探索和发展碳交易市场,走好低碳经济时代的增长之路。%Among the ways to reduce carbon emissions, carbon trading and carbon tax, as indirect means of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide, are widely used and accepted around the world. Carbon trading and carbon tax are of both advantages and disadvantages. It is inconclusive, which is more suitable for China. As China's carbon trading market has seriously lagged behind many nations, it is forced to the bottom of the chain in the global carbon trading industry. Therefore, China needs to further explore and develop its carbon trading market so as to take a healthy growth path of low - carbon economy.

  6. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Across Europe, CO2 emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: → Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. → EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. → Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. → There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. → Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  7. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaina Alves, Margarita, E-mail: mrobaina@ua.p [GOVCOPP and Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rodriguez, Miguel [Department of Applied Economics, University of Vigo, Facultade Empresariais e Turismo, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Roseta-Palma, Catarina, E-mail: catarina.roseta@iscte.p [Department of Economics and UNIDE, ISCTE-Lisbon University Institute, Av. Forcas Armadas, 1629-026 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Across Europe, CO{sub 2} emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. {yields} EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. {yields} Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. {yields} There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. {yields} Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  8. Fair Market Rents (Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on Fair Market Rents (FMRs). FMRs are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice...

  9. A sustainable internal marketing strategy for the National Parks in Botswana / Elmarie de Bruin

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruin, Elmarie

    2007-01-01

    Internal marketing is the key to the success of external marketing and therefore to the success and profitability of the organisation, especially the service organisation. Most organisations emphasise only external marketing, forgetting that a moment of truth contact with the internal market (employees) can destroy the most expensive and creative external marketing campaign. If expectations raised in external marketing are not met when the customer interacts with the employee, everything is l...

  10. Analysis of Alternative National Ambient Carbon Monoxide Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph L. Keeney; Rakesh K. Sarin; Winkler, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A risk assessment model is developed to relate adverse health effects to alternative carbon monoxide standards. The analysis requires information in the form of available data and expert judgments concerning factors such as ambient CO level, human exposure to CO, physiological responses, and dose-response relationships. Quantitative estimates, including probabilities, are obtained for selected summary measures of adverse health effects.

  11. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-07-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha‑1. Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases.

  12. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomer, Robert J.; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha−1. Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases. PMID:27435095

  13. Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomer, Robert J; Neufeldt, Henry; Xu, Jianchu; Ahrends, Antje; Bossio, Deborah; Trabucco, Antonio; van Noordwijk, Meine; Wang, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry systems and tree cover on agricultural land make an important contribution to climate change mitigation, but are not systematically accounted for in either global carbon budgets or national carbon accounting. This paper assesses the role of trees on agricultural land and their significance for carbon sequestration at a global level, along with recent change trends. Remote sensing data show that in 2010, 43% of all agricultural land globally had at least 10% tree cover and that this has increased by 2% over the previous ten years. Combining geographically and bioclimatically stratified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage with this tree cover analysis, we estimated 45.3 PgC on agricultural land globally, with trees contributing >75%. Between 2000 and 2010 tree cover increased by 3.7%, resulting in an increase of >2 PgC (or 4.6%) of biomass carbon. On average, globally, biomass carbon increased from 20.4 to 21.4 tC ha(-1). Regional and country-level variation in stocks and trends were mapped and tabulated globally, and for all countries. Brazil, Indonesia, China and India had the largest increases in biomass carbon stored on agricultural land, while Argentina, Myanmar, and Sierra Leone had the largest decreases. PMID:27435095

  14. Imputing forest carbon stock estimates from inventory plots to a nationally continuous coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Barry Tyler; Woodall Christopher W; Griffith Douglas M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. has been providing national-scale estimates of forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change to meet United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reporting requirements for years. Although these currently are provided as national estimates by pool and year to meet greenhouse gas monitoring requirements, there is growing need to disaggregate these estimates to finer scales to enable strategic forest management and monitoring activities focused on various ecosyst...

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Technology to Market (T2M) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Christopher Todd [Idaho National Laboratory; Bush, Jason William [Idaho National Laboratory; Gentle, Jake Paul [Idaho National Laboratory; Hill, Porter Jack [Idaho National Laboratory; Myers, Kurt Steven [Idaho National Laboratory; Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    RESEARCHER COMMERCIALIZATION TRAINING FOR NATIONAL LABORATORY RESEARCHERS Project Objectives: Establish a tiered Technology to Market (T2M) curriculum for basic researchers to project leads to measure the effect of technology transfer skills on project success and impact. The plan will train five researchers in basic technology transfer principles where success will be measured by assessing improvements in T2M skills and knowledge after the training is complete, likely using before and after surveys. Activity Description: Develop and deliver in-house training for five key researchers involved in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs to include: • Understanding commercialization process and core principles • Identifying industry need/receptiveness for technology adoption • Identifying technology and commercialization networks • Recognizing intellectual property deployment processes • Understanding delivery options for technology such as Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA), Work for Others, licensing, spin-off businesses, and technology-based economic development agreements. Activity Goal: Increase researcher understanding of technology transfer and marketing principles that influence developing research products for commercialization.

  16. Mitigating Product Harm Crises and Making Markets Sustainable: How does National Culture Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganganee C. Samaraweera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Product harm crisis has become a serious issue in the business world today irrespective of the crisis mitigating strategies adopted to remedy the harm. The purpose of the study is to determine whether national culture shapes consumer reactions to crisis response strategies as a result of variation of consumers’ perceptions the affected firm’s moral responsibility. The study considers a comparison of 303 marketing-based Chinese and Sri Lankan students. Findings of independent sample t tests and Analysis of variance (ANOVA suggested that consumers’ moral perceptions vary significantly between China and Sri Lanka in response to crisis response strategies revealing a new insight in the crisis mitigating literature. A wounded company has to launch a super effort response in Sri Lanka whereas the voluntary recall response in China is sufficient in a crisis in order to maintain moral reputation. Moreover, the study reveals that implementation of an inappropriate strategy leads to significant financial and moral reputational loss to a company. Therefore, the study recommends companies choosing culture-specific response strategies in order to protect moral reputational status and to make the market sustainable.

  17. Enhancing the Resilience of the Australian National Electricity Market: Taking a Systems Approach in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As the complexity and interconnectedness of present-day social-ecological systems become steadily more apparent, there is increasing pressure on governments, policy makers, and managers to take a systems approach to the challenges facing humanity. However, how can this be done in the face of system complexity and uncertainties? In this paper we briefly discuss practical ways that policy makers can take up the systems challenge. We focus on resilience thinking, and the use of influence diagrams, causal-loop diagrams, and system archetypes. As a case study, set in the context of the climate-energy-water nexus, we use some of these system concepts and tools to carry out an initial exploration of factors that can affect the resilience of the Australian National Electricity Market. We stress the need for the electricity sector to prepare for the impacts of global change by encouraging innovation and diversity, supporting modularity and redundancy, and embracing the need for a policy making approach that takes account of the dynamics of the wider social-ecological system. Finally, taking a longer term view, we conclude by recommending that policy makers work to reduce reliance on conventional market mechanisms, institute continuing cross-sector dialogue, and promote basic education in system dynamics.

  18. Determining the Effects on Residential Electricity Prices and Carbon Emissions of Electricity Market Restructuring in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Junaid Bin

    electricity prices is developed, estimated for the pre-restructuring period, and used to forecast (counterfactual) prices in the post-restructuring period. However, in forming these forecasts it is necessary to separately account for changes in explanatory variables that could be viewed as occurring due to the restructuring (endogenous) from those changes that would have been likely to have occurred anyway. Information from US jurisdictions is used to account for this endogeneity issue through simulation analyses. Results suggest that for 2001 to 2004, residential electricity prices in Alberta would generally have been lower under continued regulation. Since electricity market restructuring is not necessarily directed only at lowering the electricity price, its impact in Alberta on carbon emissions is also investigated. Specifically, the approach developed in the context of electricity prices is applied to determine counterfactual carbon emissions. While it is found that carbon emissions would have been lower under continued regulation, this result should be viewed cautiously given model estimation issues. However, the approach developed to construct both counterfactual electricity prices and carbon emissions is an improvement to that observed in the literature.

  19. Simulations of scenarios with 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of a program to explore technological options for the transition to a renewable energy future, we present simulations for 100% renewable energy systems to meet actual hourly electricity demand in the five states and one territory spanned by the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) in 2010. The system is based on commercially available technologies: concentrating solar thermal (CST) power with thermal storage, wind, photovoltaic (PV), existing hydro and biofuelled gas turbines. Hourly solar and wind generation data are derived from satellite observations, weather stations, and actual wind farm outputs. Together CST and PV contribute about half of total annual electrical energy supply. A range of 100% renewable energy systems for the NEM are found to be technically feasible and meet the NEM reliability standard. The principal challenge is meeting peak demand on winter evenings following overcast days when CST storage is partially charged and sometimes wind speeds are low. The model handles these circumstances by combinations of an increased number of gas turbines and reductions in winter peak demand. There is no need for conventional base-load power plants. The important parameter is the reliability of the whole supply-demand system, not the reliability of particular types of power plants. - Highlights: ► We simulate 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market. ► The energy system comprises commercially available technologies. ► A range of 100% renewable electricity systems meet the reliability standard. ► Principal challenge is meeting peak demand on winter evenings. ► The concept of ‘base-load’ power plants is found to be redundant.

  20. Carbon savings with transatlantic trade in pellets: accounting for market-driven effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Dwivedi, Puneet; Abt, Robert; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-11-01

    Exports of pellets from the United States (US) are growing significantly to meet the demand for renewable energy in the European Union. This transatlantic trade in pellets has raised questions about the greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of these pellets and their effects on conventional forest product markets in the US. This paper examines the GHG intensity of pellets exported from the US using either forest biomass only or forest and agricultural biomass combined. We develop an integrated dynamic, price-endogenous, partial equilibrium model of the forestry, agricultural, and transportation sectors in the US to investigate not only the direct life-cycle GHG intensity of pellets but also the accompanying indirect market and land use effects induced by changes in prices of forest and agricultural products over the 2007-2032 period. Across different scenarios of high and low pellet demand that can be met with either forest biomass only or with forest and agricultural biomass, we find that the GHG intensity of pellet based electricity is 74% to 85% lower than that of coal-based electricity. We also find that the GHG intensity of pellets produced using agricultural and forest biomass is 28% to 34% lower than that of pellets produced using forest biomass only. GHG effects due to induced direct and indirect changes in forest carbon stock caused by changes in harvest rotations, changes in land use and in conventional wood production account for 11% to 26% of the overall GHG intensity of pellets produced from forest biomass only; these effects are negative with the use of forest and agricultural biomass.

  1. Carbon savings with transatlantic trade in pellets: accounting for market-driven effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exports of pellets from the United States (US) are growing significantly to meet the demand for renewable energy in the European Union. This transatlantic trade in pellets has raised questions about the greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of these pellets and their effects on conventional forest product markets in the US. This paper examines the GHG intensity of pellets exported from the US using either forest biomass only or forest and agricultural biomass combined. We develop an integrated dynamic, price-endogenous, partial equilibrium model of the forestry, agricultural, and transportation sectors in the US to investigate not only the direct life-cycle GHG intensity of pellets but also the accompanying indirect market and land use effects induced by changes in prices of forest and agricultural products over the 2007–2032 period. Across different scenarios of high and low pellet demand that can be met with either forest biomass only or with forest and agricultural biomass, we find that the GHG intensity of pellet based electricity is 74% to 85% lower than that of coal-based electricity. We also find that the GHG intensity of pellets produced using agricultural and forest biomass is 28% to 34% lower than that of pellets produced using forest biomass only. GHG effects due to induced direct and indirect changes in forest carbon stock caused by changes in harvest rotations, changes in land use and in conventional wood production account for 11% to 26% of the overall GHG intensity of pellets produced from forest biomass only; these effects are negative with the use of forest and agricultural biomass. (letter)

  2. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives; Regulacao tributaria do mercado de carbono no Brasil: entraves e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa [Madrona Hong Mazzuco Brandao - Sociedade de Advogados (MHM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: gerusa.magalhaes@mhmlaw.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br; Romeiro, Viviane [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: viviromeiro@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  3. Economic globalization, markets and national development : how sensibly do the poor countries (Nigeria included) stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Obadan, Michael Idi

    2008-01-01

    CONTENTS Preamble 1. Concept and Drivers of Globalization 1.0 A Brief Historical Perspective 1.1 Concept of Globalization 1.2 Economic Globalization 1.3 Drivers of Economic Globalization 2. Globalization and Markets 2.1 The Free Market System 2.2 Markets and the Solution of Economic Problems 2.3 African Markets and “Getting the Prices Right”. 2.4 Implications of the Imperfect Market System 2.5 Government’s Inevitable Role 2.6 The International Environment/Markets 3. Globalization and Trade Li...

  4. National Ecological Observatory Network's (NEON) future role in US carbon cycling and budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a National Science Foundation investment designed to observe the impacts of large-scale environment changes on the nation's ecosystems for 30 years with rigorous consistency. NEON does this through the construction (and operations) of new physical infrastructure and data infrastructure distributed across the North American Continent. This includes 47 terrestrial and 32 aquatic sites. Key to its design is its ability to provide ecosystem-scale carbon measurements of carbon stores, fluxes, processes—and the means to scale them from the local-to regional scales via remote sensed aircraft. NEON design NEON will be collecting these carbon data as a facility and providing openly providing them. NEON will not preform any high-level synthesis, rather the carbon data is an open resource for research, private and public communities, alike. Overall, these data are also harmonized with other international carbon-based infrastructures to facilitate cross-continental understanding and global carbon syntheses. Products, engagement and harmonization of data to facilitate syntheses will be discussed.

  5. Opportunities and Challenges for Terrestrial Carbon Offsetting and Marketing, with Some Implications for Forestry in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nijnik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Climate change and its mitigation have become increasingly high profile issues since the late 1990s, with the potential of forestry in carbon sequestration a particular focus. The purpose of this paper is to outline the importance of socio-economic considerations in this area. Opportunities for forestry to sequester carbon and the role of terrestrial carbon uptake credits in climate change negotiations are addressed, together with the feasibility of bringing terrestrial carbon offsets into the regulatory emission trading scheme. The paper discusses whether or not significant carbon offsetting and trading will occur on a large scale in the UK or internationally. Material and Methods: The paper reviews the literature on the socio-economic aspects of climate change mitigation via forestry (including the authors’ research on this topic to assess the potential for carbon offsetting and trading, and the likely scale of action. Results and Conclusion: We conclude that the development of appropriate socio-economic framework conditions (e.g. policies, tenure rights, including forest carbon ownership, and markets and incentives for creating and trading terrestrial carbon credits are important in mitigating climate change through forestry projects, and we make suggestions for future research that would be required to support such developments.

  6. National Conference on Marketing and Distributive Education; "Directions for the 1980s" (Vail, Colorado, May 19-22, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Harland E.; And Others

    These four papers evolved from discussions at the National Conference on Marketing and Distributive Education in Vail, Colorado, May 19-22, 1980. Harland E. Samson's paper, Identity and Image: Strategies and Implementation, highlights the thinking and recommendations of the conference discussion groups on strategies and means of implementation…

  7. Interleaved Carbon Minibeams: An experimental Method of Radiosurgery Developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite recent major innovations in radiation therapy and radiosurgery, there are limitations in treating certain tumors and neurological targets while assuring acceptable damage to the surrounding tissues. These encompass certain tumors in the brain, spinal cord, spinal column, and head-and-neck. This paper describes an experimental radiosurgery, “Interleaved carbon minibeams”1 being developed at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The method uses arrays of parallel, thin (∼0.3 mm incident beam thickness) planes of carbon ion beams, called carbon minibeams, that “interleave” to produce a solid radiation field at the target . Therefore, the method delivers a solid field of carbon radiation to the target while exposing the surrounding tissues to single arrays of carbon minibeams, which are well tolerated by tissues

  8. The Role of Marketing in a National Institute of Education. Preliminary Report of a Planning Conference, April 2-3, 1972. (Final).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; And Others

    As a discipline, marketing can offer several things of value to the National Institute of Education (NIE), both with respect to its design function and its dissemination. This report identifies those items that marketing can offer NIE and explains how they could be used. The authors maintain that NIE can profit from marketing's (1) emphasis on…

  9. The global warming, public goods and carbon market; Calentamiento global, bienes publicos y mercado de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri de la Torre, Gabriel [EcoSecurities (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The global warming is an issue of the public goods, and demands an outstanding multilateral action, which must to ensure both efficiency and unchanging transition towards an economy of low intensity of carbon. The new system, which is going to replace the Kyoto Protocol, will have compromises for the developing countries and deep implication in the relative competitivity of the nations and companies. [Spanish] El calentamiento global es un problema de bienes publicos que exige una extraordinaria accion multilateral. Esta debe asegurar eficiencia y una transicion fluida hacia una economia de baja intensidad de carbono. El nuevo sistema que sucedera al Protocolo de Kyoto significara compromisos para los paises en vias de desarrollo, y tendra profundas implicaciones en la competitividad relativa de naciones y empresas.

  10. Distinctive Marketing and Information Technology Capabilities and Strategic Types: A Cross-National Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Nason, Robert W.; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between strategic type and development of distinctive marketing, market-linking, technology, and information technology (IT) capabilities to implement innovation strategy. They hypothesize that prospectors must build technical and IT capabilities, whereas defende

  11. Disproportionality in Power Plants' Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-01-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector's facilities often produces the lion's share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world's electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations' greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity. PMID:27363677

  12. Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Brent D.; Olson Beal, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    School choice advocates often assume that market-like competition will create a dynamic K-12 educational environment that will result in improved outcomes. We critically examine this assumption and draw on the literature on market failure and social dilemmas to demonstrate that the market metaphor in a public schooling context has limited utility.…

  13. Proposal for a national inventory adjustment for trade in the presence of border carbon adjustment: Assessing carbon tax policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we pointed out a hidden inequality in accounting for trade-related emissions in the presence of border carbon adjustment. Under a domestic carbon pricing policy, producers pay for the carbon costs in exchange for the right to emit. Under border carbon adjustment, however, the exporting country pays for the carbon costs of their exports to the importing country but not be given any emission credits. As a result, export-related emissions will be remained in the national inventory of the exporting country based on the UNFCCC inventory approach. This hidden inequality is important to climate policy but has not yet been pointed out. To address this issue we propose a method of National Inventory Adjustment for Trade, by which export-related emissions will be deducted from the national inventory of the exporting country and added to the national inventory of the importing country which implements border carbon adjustment. To assess the policy impacts, we simulated a carbon tax policy with border tax adjustment for Japan using a multi-region computable general equilibrium model. The results indicate that with the National Inventory Adjustment for Trade, both Japan′s national inventory and the carbon leakage effects of Japan′s climate policy will be greatly different. - Highlights: • The inequality in GHG accounting caused by border carbon adjustment presented. • National inventory adjustment for trade under border carbon adjustment proposed. • Policy impacts on international competitiveness and carbon leakage assessed. • Practical issues related to the national inventory adjustment for trade discussed

  14. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  15. Slowing the rate of loss of mineral wetlands on human dominated landscapes - Diversification of farmers markets to include carbon (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, I. F.; Badiou, P.; Lobb, D.

    2013-12-01

    Canada is the fourth-largest exporter of agriculture and agri-food products in the world (exports valued at 28B), but instability of agriculture markets can make it difficult for farmers to cope with variability, and new mechanisms are needed for farmers to achieve economic stability. Capitalizing on carbon markets will help farmers achieve environmentally sustainable economic performance. In order to have a viable carbon market, governments and industries need to know what the carbon capital is and what potential there is for growth, and farmers need financial incentives that will not only allow them to conserve existing wetlands but that will also enable them to restore wetlands while making a living. In southern Ontario, farmers' needs to maximize the return on investment on marginal lands have resulted in loss of 70-90% of wetlands, making this region one of the most threatened region in terms of wetland degradation and loss in Canada. Our project establishes the role that mineral wetlands have in the net carbon balance by contributing insight into the potential benefits to carbon management provided by wetland restoration efforts in these highly degraded landscapes. The goal was to establish the magnitude of carbon offsets that could be achieved through wetland conservation (securing existing carbon stocks) and restoration (creating new carbon stocks). The experimental design was to focus on (1) small (0.2-2.0 ha) and (2) isolated (no inflow or outflow) mineral wetlands with the greatest restoration potential that included (3) a range of restoration ages (drained (0 yr), 3 yr, 6 yr, 12 yr, 20 yr, 35 yr, intact marshes) to capture potential changes in rates of carbon sequestration with restoration age of wetland. From each wetland, wetland soil carbon pools samples were collected at four positions: centre of wetland (open-water); emergent vegetation zone; wet meadow zone where flooding often occurs (i.e., high water mark); and upland where flooding rarely

  16. Tracking the emission of carbon dioxide by nation, sector and fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new methodology that can be used to estimate an efficient econometric model of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by nation, sector, and fuel type. Equations for fuel intensity are estimated for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and heat for each of six sectors: agricultural, industrial, commercial, transportation, residential, and other

  17. A State-Based Approach to Building a Liquid National Market for Renewable Energy Certificates: The REC-EX Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RECs are the currency driving the growth of renewable energy markets and the sale of RECs from renewable energy generation projects could promise a predictable return. But the existing REC markets in the U.S. sorely lack the liquidity needed to make good on that promise. The author proposes a Renewable Energy Certificate Exchange program rooted in the construction of a national trading platform for RECs in tandem with the execution of a new agreement among the states with REC-based renewable portfolio standards. (author)

  18. The National Ignition Facility: the path to a carbon-free energy future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J

    2012-08-28

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centres on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality. PMID:22802504

  19. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to a Carbon-Free Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centers on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  20. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to a Carbon-Free Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J

    2011-03-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centers on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  1. 我国碳交易市场机制及碳金融发展前景初探%Brief Discussion on Development Prospect of Carbon Market Mechanism and Carbon Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武琪

    2012-01-01

    通过介绍国内外的碳交易市场与碳金融的发展现状,结合碳交易市场与碳金融的优势与缺陷,明确了发展碳交易市场机制与碳金融的意义,进而得出碳交易市场机制与碳金融的发展前景。%Through analyzing development status of carbon market and carbon finance, combining advantages and disadvantages of carbon market and carbon finance, the author made definite significance of developing carbon market mechanism and carbon finance as well as development prospect.

  2. Green Marketing Strategy Analysis of Real Estate Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The low-carbon economy based on "low energy consumption, low pollution, and low-emissions" has become theworld's emerging economic development model; the select of "low-carbon lifestyle, low-carbon consumption"has become a fashionable topic of the moment, and looking for low-carbon economic opportunities is becomingnew thinking of entrepreneurs, low-carbon property will become the new engine of real estate development. Thisarticle based on "4Ps" theory as the research framework and combined r...

  3. Boreal Forest Carbon Sequestration Strategies : a Case Study of the Little Red River Cree First Nation Land Tenures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krcmar, E.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, creation of carbon offset and emission reduction credits are examined from the perspective of the Little Red River Cree Nation (LRRCN), a forest tenure holder in northern Alberta. Carbon credits are produced under three scenarios: (1) carbon uptake in forest ecosystems, with postharve

  4. Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-07-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity.

  5. Regulation and competition in the Taiwanese pharmaceutical market under national health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Ming; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2012-05-01

    This article investigates the determinants of the prices of pharmaceuticals and their impact on the demand for prescription drugs in the context of Taiwan's pharmaceutical market where medical providers earn profit directly from prescribing and dispensing drugs. Based on product-level data, we find evidence that the profit-seeking behavior of the medical providers in the prescription drug market transfers the force of competition from the unregulated wholesale market to the regulated retail market and hence market competition still plays an important role in the determination of the regulated price. We also find that the profit-seeking behavior plays a similar role to advertising in that it increases the brand loyalty and hence lowers price elasticity. An important implication of our study is that the institutional features in the pharmaceutical market matter in shaping the nature of pharmaceutical competition and the responsiveness of pharmaceutical consumption with respect to changes in price. PMID:22525716

  6. Accounting for soil carbon sequestration in national inventories: a soil scientist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nations debate whether and how best to include the agricultural sector in greenhouse gas pollution reduction schemes, the role of soil organic carbon as a potential large carbon sink has been thrust onto center stage. Results from most agricultural field trials indicate a relative increase in soil carbon stocks with the adoption of various improved management practices. However, the few available studies with time series data suggest that this relative gain is often due to a reduction or cessation of soil carbon losses rather than an actual increase in stocks. On the basis of this observation, we argue here that stock change data from agricultural field trials may have limited predictive power when the state of the soil carbon system is unknown and that current IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) accounting methodologies developed from the trial results may not properly credit these management activities. In particular, the use of response ratios is inconsistent with the current scientific understanding of carbon cycling in soils and response ratios will overestimate the net-net sequestration of soil carbon if the baseline is not at steady state.

  7. Using marketing in Romanian libraries Study case: The Romanian National Library

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, marketing has become a central part of libraries’ interest worldwide. Their motivation is varied: the missions of organizations have lost compatibility with market demand, budgets are low, while their units require more funds, the increase in the competition for funding, the harsh competition between service suppliers, etc. Furthermore, the Western world understood the necessity of library marketing for reasons like: the support offered in library management, the focus on consumers,...

  8. The influence of the market as a determinant for a national electricity strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market characteristics of a mature developed economy and an immature developing economy are compared. It is discussed how these characteristics provide a major influence on the governance, regulation, structure and policy of an Electricity Supply Industry (ESI). This market dualism provides opportunities for many different strategies. A mature market, with most of the social demands satisfied, can adopt a strategy of weak regulation and the accompanying privatisation and competition. With an immature market, where the social demands, such as electrification, have not been met, a typical vertically integrated utility structure, operating under the guidance of the government, is the classic solution. (author)

  9. As climate talks resume, time is running out to bring low-carbon equality to energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    As 2015 draws to a close, climate change is again in the spotlight as a result of the 21{sup st} Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris. This is an issue that has been brought into sharp focus as a result of recent early closures and further announcements in the US. This is not a result of safety assumptions or market incompatibility but of imbalances in the U.S. energy market which dates back to the late 1990s. As the European Union prepares for the introduction of a new electricity market design, policymakers would do well to heed the unfortunate lessons from the US.

  10. As climate talks resume, time is running out to bring low-carbon equality to energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As 2015 draws to a close, climate change is again in the spotlight as a result of the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris. This is an issue that has been brought into sharp focus as a result of recent early closures and further announcements in the US. This is not a result of safety assumptions or market incompatibility but of imbalances in the U.S. energy market which dates back to the late 1990s. As the European Union prepares for the introduction of a new electricity market design, policymakers would do well to heed the unfortunate lessons from the US.

  11. The Problem of Exercise Adherence: Fighting Sloth in Nations with Market Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses physical activity and exercise adherence, describing five conundrums that retard advances in knowledge about causal determinants of physical activity and successful interventions that increase physical activity and exercise adherence: adoption versus maintenance; social marketing versus product marketing; mediators of physical activity;…

  12. 75 FR 6402 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Marketing (BSC, NCHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Center for Health Marketing (BSC, NCHM) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... safety and health program; controlling the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, and providing... communications and marketing at CDC; and a discussion of focus areas and new ideas to implement and expand...

  13. The USDA CSREES Higher Education Program: Doctoral Fellowships in the National Need Area of Management and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to summarize the HEP graduate fellowship program in the national need area of management and marketing. The fellowships are the most prestigious in the agricultural sciences in the United States and the monetary amount of the fellowship is the highest in the agricultural sciences at $22,000 per year. Almost 40 percent of all graduated fellows are currently employed in academic positions in the United States and are represented on the faculty of 27 universities. ...

  14. Renewable energy integration into the Australian National Electricity Market: Characterising the energy value of wind and solar generation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Boerema; Merlinde Kay; Iain MacGill

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how key characteristics of the underlying wind and solar resources may impact on their energy value within the Australian National Electricity Market(NEM). Analysis has been performed for wind generation using half hour NEM data for South Australia over the 2008-9 financial year. The potential integration of large scale solar generation has been modelled using direct normal solar radiant energy measurements from the Bureau of Meteorology for six sites across the NEM. For w...

  15. Enhancing technological progress in a market-socialist context:China's national innovation system at the crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Alberto; Khan, Ali Haider

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the available evidence of China's S&T, R&D, and innovative capabilities, to provide an assessment of the effectiveness and potentialities of its national system of innovation (NSI) ), and to formulate some preliminary policy suggestions aimed at improving China's overall innovation strategy. Our approach focuses particularly on the evolving relationship between China's NSI and the country's overall market socialist social and economic system - both of which are developing ...

  16. Carbon sequestration potential in aboveground biomass of Thong Pha Phum National Forest, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terakunpisut, J. [Kasetsart Univ. Kamphaeng Saen, Nakornpratom (Thailand). Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science; Gajaseni, N.; Ruankawe, N. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Biology Dept.

    2007-07-01

    Increasingly convincing evidence shows that the Earth is getting warmer and in the future warming could have serious effects on humans. Atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the primary and best studied greenhouse gas, has increased by about 30% from the start of the industrial revolution to 1992 due to fossil fuel combustion and changes in land use. The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework, in which Thailand is a member, is to stabilize the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will not cause dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The emission reduction of greenhouse gases from members of industrialized countries is called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Thailand ratified the Kyoto Protocol August 28, 2002, and therefore will voluntarily participate in CO{sub 2} reduction. There are two alternatives to reduce CO{sub 2}: decreasing carbon source and increasing carbon sink. The world's forests are prominent sites to study climate change, not only in terms of total net carbon emissions but also in terms of global storage capacity, important for climatic regulation. This study assessed the potential of carbon sequestration on aboveground biomass in the different forest ecosystems in Thong Pha Phum National Forest, Thailand. The assessment was based on a total inventory for woody stem at {>=}4.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equation and aboveground carbon stock was calculated by multiplying the 0.5 conversion factor to the biomass. As the results, carbon sequestration showed varied in different types of forests. Tropical rain forest (Ton Mai Yak station) higher carbon stock than dry evergreen forest (KP 27 station) and mixed deciduous forest (Pong Phu Ron station) as 137.73 {+-} 48.07, 70.29 {+-} 7.38 and 48.14 {+-} 16.72 tonne C/ha, respectively. Habitat variability caused differences of biomass accumulation, species composition and the

  17. Strategic closed-loop facility location problem with carbon market trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diabat, A.; Abdallah, T.; Al-Refaie, A.; Svetinovic, D.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    multicommodity facility location problem with a trading price of carbon emissions and a cost of procurement. The company might either incur costs if the carbon cap, normally assigned by regulatory agencies, is lower than the total emissions, or gain profit if the carbon cap is higher than the total emissions. A...

  18. Mexico and emerging carbon markets : investment opportunities for small and medium-size companies and the global climate agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information to the financial services sector on major environmental issues in North America in an effort to identify potential financial opportunities in Mexico regarding the climate change agenda and those coming from possible carbon offset projects. As a non-Annex 1 country, Mexico is not obliged to meet domestic GHG emission reduction targets, but given the strong economic links between Mexico, Canada and the United States it is suggested that investment transfer links to climate change should follow existing international investment and trade patterns. This report examined three sectors in Mexico, including electric power generation, steel production and land-use change and forestry, in an effort to evaluate their potential for carbon reduction. The report identifies carbon-related opportunities involving small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in particular because large companies are already better positioned to examine opportunities associated with the international climate agenda. SMEs, however, face many challenges in taking advantage of climate-related projects and associated investment opportunities, including higher entry and transaction costs, difficulty in accessing capital markets, and difficulty in estimating individual baselines and inventories. The report showed that the main carbon-related opportunity in Mexico's electricity sector are closely related to the planned expansion of natural gas use. This study also suggests that the climate agenda can contribute to changing Mexican forests from their current state of being a net source of greenhouse gas emissions, to becoming a significant carbon sink. tabs., figs

  19. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-18

    This report contains the following: Bibliography; Petroleum Market Model abstract; Data quality; Estimation methodologies (includes refinery investment recovery thresholds, gas plant models, chemical industry demand for methanol, estimation of refinery fixed costs, estimation of distribution costs, estimation of taxes gasoline specifications, estimation of gasoline market shares, estimation of low-sulfur diesel market shares, low-sulfur diesel specifications, estimation of regional conversion coefficients, estimation of SO{sub 2} allowance equations, unfinished oil imports methodology, product pipeline capacities and tariffs, cogeneration methodology, natural gas plant fuel consumption, and Alaskan crude oil exports); Matrix generator documentation; Historical data processing; and Biofuels supply submodule.

  20. Carbon cycling in a mangrove-dominated estuary of Everglades National Park, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David; Engel, Victor; Ferrón, Sara; Friederich, Gernot; Barr, Jordan; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2014-05-01

    Carbon source-sink dynamics across a land surface-aquatic continuum are difficult to quantify. Here, we use a combination of water column SF6 deliberate tracer releases, pCO2 mapping, discrete measurements of pH, TAlk, DIC, and DOC, and autonomous measurements of CDOM, pCO2, and pH to determine air-water CO2 exchange and the sources and sinks of DIC and DOC to investigate the carbon balance of Shark River, which originates in the freshwater marshes of Everglades National Park. Shark River is tidal in its lower reaches and passes through the largest continuous mangrove forest in North America before discharging to the Gulf of Mexico. Our measurements provide a means to determine the fate of mangrove-derived carbon in Shark River, and serve as a model for applying similar methods in other aquatic systems.

  1. Caffeine content of prepackaged national-brand and private-label carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K-H; Bell, L N

    2007-08-01

    Caffeine is a well-known stimulant that is added as an ingredient to various carbonated soft drinks. Due to its stimulatory and other physiological effects, individuals desire to know the exact amount of caffeine consumed from these beverages. This study analyzed the caffeine contents of 56 national-brand and 75 private-label store-brand carbonated beverages using high-performance liquid chromatography. Caffeine contents ranged from 4.9 mg/12 oz (IGA Cola) to 74 mg/12 oz (Vault Zero). Some of the more common national-brand carbonated beverages analyzed in this study with their caffeine contents were Coca-Cola (33.9 mg/12 oz), Diet Coke (46.3 mg/12 oz), Pepsi (38.9 mg/12 oz), Diet Pepsi (36.7 mg/12 oz), Dr Pepper (42.6 mg/12 oz), Diet Dr Pepper (44.1 mg/12 oz), Mountain Dew (54.8 mg/12 oz), and Diet Mountain Dew (55.2 mg/12 oz). The Wal-Mart store-brand beverages with their caffeine contents were Sam's Cola (12.7 mg/12 oz), Sam's Diet Cola (13.3 mg/12 oz), Dr Thunder (30.6 mg/12 oz), Diet Dr Thunder (29.9 mg/12 oz), and Mountain Lightning (46.5 mg/12 oz). Beverages from 14 other stores were also analyzed. Most store-brand carbonated beverages were found to contain less caffeine than their national-brand counterparts. The wide range of caffeine contents in carbonated beverages indicates that consumers would benefit from the placement of caffeine values on food labels. PMID:17995675

  2. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  3. 中国碳排放权交易市场运行状况、问题和对策研究%Research on China's Carbon Emissions Trading Market Status, Problems and Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志学; 张肖杰; 董英宇

    2014-01-01

    The present of the emissions trading theory solved the problems that economic development and environmental management cannot be parallelized. The EU carbon emissions trading system, as a symbol of the worldwide carbon emissions trading markets, have been gradually formed. The implementation of carbon emissions trading has slowed the rate of global warming and improved the ecological environment for human. It also promoted the development of local economic in the long term. China, which has the world’s largest supply of carbon under the CDM mechanism, has always been in a position of price takers in the international carbon emissions trading market. And what’s more, its hard emission changes create huge profits for the foreign buyers. The domestic theoretical studies about the carbon emissions trading and running of the pilot markets have already been launched a few years ago and it also made great progress. The seven carbon trading pilots in China reached the peak of the transaction in June 2014, the trading volume reached 285.922 7 million tons, and turnover reached 16 398.232 5 million yuan. According to the National Development and Reform Commission, as of October 2014, seven carbon trading pilots completed the transaction of total 13.75 million tons of carbon dioxide, and the cumulative turnover of over 500 million yuan. However, such turnover is far less for China which has the huge reduction potential. Chinese carbon emissions trading market is not mature enough. And the carbon trading market pilot areas are more dispersed. It has not formed a unified national emissions trading market yet. The lack of enthusiasm that the carbon enterprises to participate the carbon trading market, resulting in low carbon emission quotas mobility, Low market volume and low market activity. It is a big challenge for China to run the national unity carbon emissions trading market in 2016. In this paper, we firstly did analysis and comparison of the mechanism and operation

  4. Risk aversion and institutional information disclosure on the European carbon market: A case-study of the 2006 compliance event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article evaluates the impact of the 2006 compliance event on changes in investors' risk aversion on the European carbon market using the newly available option prices dataset. Thus, we aim at capturing the specific event that occurred on April 2007 as the European Commission disclosed the 2006 verified emissions data. Following the methodology existing for stock indices, we recover empirically risk aversion adjustments on the period 2006-2007 by estimating first the risk-neutral distribution from option prices and second the actual distribution from futures on the European Climate Exchange. Our results show evidence of a dramatic change in the market perception of risk around the 2006 yearly compliance event that has not been assessed yet

  5. Risk aversion and institutional information disclosure on the European carbon market. A case-study of the 2006 compliance event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, Julien [Grantham Institute for Climate Change, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris 10 (France); Ielpo, Florian [Pictet Asset Management, Route des Acacias 60, CH-1211 Geneva 73 and CES-CNRS, University of Paris 1 (France); Mercier, Ludovic [Dexia Credit Local, Paris (France)

    2009-01-15

    This article evaluates the impact of the 2006 compliance event on changes in investors' risk aversion on the European carbon market using the newly available option prices dataset. Thus, we aim at capturing the specific event that occurred on April 2007 as the European Commission disclosed the 2006 verified emissions data. Following the methodology existing for stock indices, we recover empirically risk aversion adjustments on the period 2006-2007 by estimating first the risk-neutral distribution from option prices and second the actual distribution from futures on the European Climate Exchange. Our results show evidence of a dramatic change in the market perception of risk around the 2006 yearly compliance event that has not been assessed yet. (author)

  6. Risk aversion and institutional information disclosure on the European carbon market: A case-study of the 2006 compliance event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, Julien [Grantham Institute for Climate Change, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK and EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris 10 (France)], E-mail: jchevall@u-paris10.fr; Ielpo, Florian [Pictet Asset Management, Route des Acacias 60, CH-1211 Geneva 73 and CES-CNRS, University of Paris 1 (France)], E-mail: ielpo@ces.ens-cachan.fr; Mercier, Ludovic [Dexia Credit Local, Paris (France)], E-mail: ludovic.mercier@clf-dexia.com

    2009-01-15

    This article evaluates the impact of the 2006 compliance event on changes in investors' risk aversion on the European carbon market using the newly available option prices dataset. Thus, we aim at capturing the specific event that occurred on April 2007 as the European Commission disclosed the 2006 verified emissions data. Following the methodology existing for stock indices, we recover empirically risk aversion adjustments on the period 2006-2007 by estimating first the risk-neutral distribution from option prices and second the actual distribution from futures on the European Climate Exchange. Our results show evidence of a dramatic change in the market perception of risk around the 2006 yearly compliance event that has not been assessed yet.

  7. The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Fang; Reinout Heijungs; Zheng Duan; de Snoo, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and application extensions to the national level. By using the latest datasets available, the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions, water use and land ...

  8. Market Share and Price Setting Behavior For Private Labels and National Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald W. Cotterill; William P. Putsis Jr.; Ravi Dhar

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework for estimating market share and price reaction equations in an attempt to understand the nature of competitive interaction in the market for private label and branded grocery products. Specifically, we employ a Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS, Deaton and Muellbauer 1980a), and specify the price reaction equations derived under the LA/AIDS demand specification. This enables us to consistently estimate shareprice relationships, accoun...

  9. University Marketing – Innovative Communication for Effective Inter/national Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae, Mariana; Roxana MARINESCU

    2010-01-01

    Positioning of universities on the different educational markets is critical for academic survival, role definition and status clarification on the present education markets. The latter are defined by the globalization of educational services, an increased number of players and their almost fierce competition to attract students and funding. The ever increasing competitiveness all over the world, the new missions that universities have to assume due to pressures from stakeholders, and also fr...

  10. Drugs Cheaper Than Threepenny: The Market of Extremely Low-Priced Drugs within the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ru Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While most drug policy researches paid attention to the financial impact of expensive drugs, the market situation of low-priced drugs in a country was seldom analyzed. We used the nationally representative claims datasets to explore the status within the National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan. In 2007, a total of 12,443 distinct drug items had been prescribed 853,250,147 times with total expenditure of 105,216,950,198 new Taiwan dollars (NTD. Among them, 7,366 oral drug items accounted for 701,353,383 prescribed items and 68,133,988,960 NTD. Besides, 2,887 items (39.2% of oral drug items belonged to cheap drugs with the unit price ≤1 NTD (about 0.03 of US dollar. While the top one item among all oral drugs had already a market share of 5.0%, 30 items 30.3% and 107 items 50.0%, the cheap drugs with aggregate 332,893,462 prescribed items (47.5% of all prescribed oral drug items only accounted for 2,750,725,433 NTD (4.0% of expenditure for oral drugs and 2.6% of total drug expenditure. The drug market of Taiwan’s NHI was abundant in cheap drugs. The unreasonably low prices of drugs might not guarantee the quality of pharmaceutical care and the sustainability of a healthy pharmaceutical industry in the long run.

  11. Formative Assessment Using Social Marketing Principles to Identify Health and Nutrition Perspectives of Native American Women Living within the Chickasaw Nation Boundaries in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. Methods: The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and…

  12. California market squid habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  13. National inventory of anhyd ric carbonic emissions providing of fuels consumption as energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Convention of the United Nations about Climatic Change, carried out in 1992, and whose ratification this being considerate d at level Parliament in the Republica Oriental del Uruguay, it has as objective to achieve the stabilization of the concentrations of gases of effect hot house in the atmosphere at a level that impedes interferences dangerous antropogenias. The National Direction of environment has carried out and Inventory of the Emissions of gas carbonic anhydride in the execution of the arisen commitments of the mentioned Convention. It being this the first step for the realization of a national inventory, which will not include the rest of the gases of effect hothouse controlled by the Protocols of Montreal. The inventory of the emissions carried out by the Division of Global and Regional Matters, it has been carried out for each one of the years understood in the period from 1987 to 1992 being studied the contribution of each sector of the national activity in the Emissions of carbonic anhydride.The results show that the total emissions estimated for Uruguay reach only the 6655 gigagrames of annual for the year 1992, being a light increase of the emission values among the years 1989 at 1992

  14. The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA. In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and application extensions to the national level. By using the latest datasets available, the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions, water use and land use are allocated to 28 selected countries in comparison to the corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental sustainability ratio (ESR—an internationally comparable indicator representing the sustainability gap between contemporary anthropogenic interference and critical capacity thresholds—allows one to map the reserve or transgression of the nation-specific environmental boundaries. While the geographical distribution of the three ESRs varies across nations, in general, the worldwide unsustainability of carbon emissions is largely driven by economic development, while resource endowments play a more central role in explaining national performance on water and land use. The main value added of this paper is to provide concrete evidence of the usefulness of the proposed framework in allocating overall responsibility for environmental sustainability to sub-global scales and in informing policy makers about the need to prevent the planet’s environment from tipping into an undesirable state.

  15. The Role of Local Community in the Marketing Planning for Sustainable Tourism National Park Skadar Lake (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Lacmanović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between local community and tourism sector is an important issue in the marketing management of tourist destinations in theoretical and practical terms. It is especially important to consider specific issues relating to sustainable tourism marketing process and the participation of local people in the process. The subject of this work is to determine the existence of significant differences in the local community attachment and involment that may affect the marketing plan in offering different types of sustainable tourism in the National Park “Skadar Lake”.The research was conducted using a survey on a sample of 51 households in the stated area, using few statistical method for processing data (The T-test for independent samples; ANOVA.Examined: the perceived importance of the supply of sustainable forms of tourism; attitude towards tourists / visitors and the perception level of tourism marketing trends.Testing the validity of the hypotheses noted the following. Rejection of Hypothesis 1 clearly states that men and women do not have clear differences of opinions regarding the development of sustainable tourism offers. Partially confirmed Hypothesis 2 showed a more significant difference in the positive attitudes of the middle-aged group, which indicates the need for careful marketing communication in relation to other age groups. Confirming the Hypothesis 3 has highlighted the clearer perception of local residents who are employed in the tourism sector about the advantages and disadvantages of tourism development. The Hypothesis 4 regarding significant monitoring of the developments in the tourism market of highly educated residents and resident-employees in the tourism sector, public services, culture and education in relation to other comparable groups has been confirmed. The rejection of the Hypothesis 5 shows that the place of residence does not significantly affect the views of local residents about the development of

  16. National Skills Bulletin 2015 : A Report by the Skills and Labour Market Research Unit (SLMRU) in SOLAS for the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, Jasmina; McNaboe, Joan; Shally, Caroline; Burke, Nina; Hogan, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The National Skills Bulletin 2015 is the latest in an annual series of reports, which has been produced by the Skills and Labour Market Research Unit (SLMRU) in SOLAS on behalf of the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs (EGFSN) since 2005. The Bulletin provides an overview of the Irish labour market at occupational level, drawing on a variety of data sets, which have been systematically gathered in the National Skills Database (NSD) since 2003.

  17. The consequences of product markets globalization for Ukraine’s national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Maryna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of global commodity markets have been considered in the article. The purpose of the article is to identify the sources and consequences of commodity markets globalization observable in the world economy and to develop the recommendations as for the state and corporate governance in the context of global competition. The author’s attention is paid to transnational corporations that make up the most significant competition in the global commodity markets. The influence of transnational business on product markets has been investigated. The last is defined as a product of globalization on the one hand, and becomes a catalyst of globalization processes on the other hand. Also the place of Ukraine in global ratings has been traced. It has been proved that the most effective way of behavior of Ukrainian enterprises on the global commodity markets among all the possible variants is the way of innovation development. Despite the reduction of the government regulatory role in the global economy it has been recommended the adoption of effective management decisions to support of the domestic producers but not at the expense of a healthy global competition.

  18. Estimating national forest carbon stocks and dynamics: combining models and remotely sensed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman, Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a critical component of the global carbon cycle, storing significant amounts of carbon, split between living biomass and dead organic matter. The carbon budget of forests is the most uncertain component of the global carbon cycle - it is currently impossible to quantify accurately the carbon source/sink strength of forest biomes due to their heterogeneity and complex dynamics. It has been a major challenge to generate robust carbon budgets across landscapes due to data scarcity. Models have been used but outputs have lacked an assessment of uncertainty, making a robust assessment of their reliability and accuracy challenging. Here a Metropolis Hastings - Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MH-MCMC) data assimilation framework has been used to combine remotely sensed leaf area index (MODIS), biomass (where available) and deforestation estimates, in addition to forest planting and clear-felling information from the UK's national forest inventory, an estimate of soil carbon from the Harmonized World Database (HWSD) and plant trait information with a process model (DALEC) to produce a constrained analysis with a robust estimate of uncertainty of the UK forestry carbon budget between 2000 and 2010. Our analysis estimates the mean annual UK forest carbon sink at -3.9 MgC ha‑1yr‑1 with a 95 % confidence interval between -4.0 and -3.1 MgC ha‑1 yr‑1. The UK national forest inventory (NFI) estimates the mean UK forest carbon sink to be between -1.4 and -5.5 MgC ha‑1 yr‑1. The analysis estimate for total forest biomass stock in 2010 is estimated at 229 (177/232) TgC, while the NFI an estimated total forest biomass carbon stock of 216 TgC. Leaf carbon area (LCA) is a key plant trait which we are able to estimate using our analysis. Comparison of median estimates for LCA retrieved from the analysis and a UK land cover map show higher and lower values for LCA are estimated areas dominated by needle leaf and broad leaf forests forest respectively, consistent with

  19. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sarah; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002–2003 and 2010–2011. During 2010–2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002–2003 compared to 2010–2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as −10.6 g C m−2 d−1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (−2.9 g C m−2 d−1). CH4 fluxes during 2010–2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m−2 d−1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m−2 d−1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010–2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010–2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m−2 yr−1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  20. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank E.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sara; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002-2003 and 2010-2011. During 2010-2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002-2003 compared to 2010-2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as -10.6 g C m-2 d-1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (-2.9 g C m-2 d-1). CH4 fluxes during 2010-2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m-2 d-1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m-2 d-1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010-2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010-2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m-2 yr-1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  1. A National Disturbance Modeling System to Support Ecological Carbon Sequestration Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, T. J.; Rollins, M. G.; Volegmann, J. E.; Shi, H.; Sohl, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is prototyping a methodology to fulfill requirements of Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. At the core of the EISA requirements is the development of a methodology to complete a two-year assessment of current carbon stocks and other greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes, and potential increases for ecological carbon sequestration under a range of future climate changes, land-use / land-cover configurations, and policy, economic and management scenarios. Disturbances, especially fire, affect vegetation dynamics and ecosystem processes, and can also introduce substantial uncertainty and risk to the efficacy of long-term carbon sequestration strategies. Thus, the potential impacts of disturbances need to be considered under different scenarios. As part of USGS efforts to meet EISA requirements, we developed the National Disturbance Modeling System (NDMS) using a series of statistical and process-based simulation models. NDMS produces spatially-explicit forecasts of future disturbance locations and severity, and the resulting effects on vegetation dynamics. NDMS is embedded within the Forecasting Scenarios of Future Land Cover (FORE-SCE) model and informs the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) for quantifying carbon stocks and GHG fluxes. For fires, NDMS relies on existing disturbance histories, such as the Landsat derived Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) and Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) data being used to update LANDFIRE fuels data. The MTBS and VCT data are used to parameterize models predicting the number and size of fires in relation to climate, land-use/land-cover change, and socioeconomic variables. The locations of individual fire ignitions are determined by an ignition probability surface and then FARSITE is used to simulate fire spread in response to weather, fuels, and topography. Following the fire spread simulations, a burn severity model is used to determine annual

  2. Revitalizing Higher Education through Innovative Labor Market Based Curriculum for Sustainable National Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    The role of higher education in preparing youths for the labour market is becoming more challenging in the modern society. This is visible in the high number of tertiary institutions' graduates that are unemployable for lack of necessary skills, which would make them contribute profitably to any employer of labour. This paper examines the history…

  3. Market Orientation in Universities: A Comparative Study of Two National Higher Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley-Brown, Jane; Oplatka, Izhar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to test: whether there are significant differences between England and Israel, in terms of perceptions of market orientation (MO) in higher education (HE); which MO dimensions (student, competition, intra-functional) indicate more positive attitudes and whether the differences are significant; and the reliability of…

  4. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the Coal Production Submodule (CPS). It provides a description of the CPS for model analysts and the public. The Coal Market Module provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal.

  5. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  6. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the Coal Production Submodule (CPS). It provides a description of the CPS for model analysts and the public. The Coal Market Module provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal

  7. Entrepreneurial developments and small scale industry contribution to Nigerian national development- A marketing interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : In both developed and developing countries, the government is turning to small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving problems. It is a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment. Entrepreneurship is as old as Nigeria and had contributed to the growth of the economy. Presently in Nigeria, SMEs assist in promoting the growth of the country’s economy, hence all the levels of government at different times havepolicies which promote the growth and sustenance of SMEs. This paper identifies the orientation of SME’s and entrepreneurial trends in Nigeria, tackles the operational definition and scopes, and describes the role of the Nigerian government as a participant, regulator and facilitator, both legally and politically in the growth of SMEs and entrepreneurship. It identifies the marketing problems of SMEs and entrepreneurships in Nigeria, the provision and enactment of beneficial and supportive laws, the provision of infrastructural facilities, constant man-power and development, direct financial assistance to SMEs and the establishment of finance institutions to support SMEs. It identifies the roles of SMEs in Nigeria’s development and growth. It discusses the entrepreneurial thoughts, problems and advance practical marketing solution. It concludes by clearly specifying the role of marketing to the survival of SMEsand entrepreneurship in Nigeria, and relevant recommendations. For SMEs to survive marketing practice and principles must be given prominence.

  8. 78 FR 73111 - National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Termination of Proceeding on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... FR 24292). The hearings were held pursuant to the provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement..., and published in the September 3, 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 45565); Notice of..., issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 48423); and Recommended Decision and Opportunity to File...

  9. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module's three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS)

  10. Can the financialized atmosphere be effectively regulated? A critical analysis of the proposed Australian carbon pollution reduction scheme as a complex market solution to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsor, C. [Bond Univ. (Australia); McNicholas, P. [Monash Univ. (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    A large body of scientific evidence indicates that global warming from human induced greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is producing harmful climate change that will lead to global environmental and economic catastrophe within 10 years. The threat of human induced global warming has been on the international and public policy agenda for several years; for example on 11 December 1998, government representatives of 108 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) an international agreement to reduce global warming or the Kyoto Protocol, with the then exception of the Australian and the United States (U.S.) governments. International action on GHG emissions reduction was thwarted by U.S. and Australian goverments. The then Australian government (1996-2007) surreptitiously funding by vested interests such as the coal industry, had no intention to act even though scientific evidence reported that Australia had begun to experience the detrimental effects of global warming. To fulfil an electoral promise, the center left Labor government signed the Kyoto Protocol on 3 December 2007. To deal with the global warming crisis, the Australian government has proposed an emissions trading scheme now officially called the 'Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme' or CPRS. The proposed scheme is a cap and trade market mechanism that purportedly encourages businesses to operate more efficiently, thus reducing GHG emissions through price signalling in a government instigated market. Hence credible, transparent and efficient information underpins such a market in a post-Keynes deregulated world. The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the integrity of using current financial and reporting regulation that will oversee and monitor the veracity of newly commoditized carbon financial products, particularly since the global financial crisis has exposed significant financial regulatory weaknesses. Further we contend that current corporate

  11. Market institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shyamal; Negassa, Asfaw; Torero, Maximo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on rural market development or on urban market development without considering the interdependencies and synergies between the two. However, more than ever before, emerging local and global patterns such as the modern food value-chain led by supermarkets...

  12. National Brand Positioning in the Swedish Meat Market : How to maintain a price premium

    OpenAIRE

    Rigaud,, Maxime,; Shao, Tianlin

    2012-01-01

    A global trend of decreased Willingness to pay(WTP) price premiums for national brands prevails.In this paper, the authors shed light on how national brands(NBs) can best defend their pricepremiums towards Private labels(PLs). This is done through studying what factors drives the WTPprice premiums for national brands and what attributes are important when consumers buy meatproducts.With inputs from the literature and conducted focus groups, a questionnaire testing our constructedhypothesis an...

  13. The impact of national culture on the ethical standards of the German restaurant market

    OpenAIRE

    Crocamo, Filomena Clara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the ethical standards of the restaurant business in Germany. A further objective was to understand the national cultural impact on these ethical standards and how potential distinctions in the ethical decision-making process can be explained by the different national cultural background. The theoretical framework of this thesis was based on the theories of national cultural dimensions by the researcher Hofstede (1980) and the concepts of busi...

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABILITY IN U.S. CONSUMER RESPONSIVENESS TO CARBONATED SOFT-DRINK MARKETING PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Using three years of Nielson Homescan and advertising data from 16 major metropolitan areas across the U.S. to construct a panel data set that follows weekly consumer purchasing behavior, this paper investigates the impact of marketing activities on a representative cross-section of U.S. consumers. Because many consumers do not participate in the market week-in and week-out, I apply Heckman’s econometric selection model to recover the impact of pricing, advertising, and promotion on a wide ra...

  15. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Nelson; Timothy Carr

    2009-03-31

    This annual and final report describes the results of the multi-year project entitled 'NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)' (http://www.natcarb.org). The original project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) in the midcontinent of the United States (MIDCARB) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration. The NatCarb system built on the technology developed in the initial MIDCARB effort. The NatCarb project linked the GIS information of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project includes access to national databases and GIS layers maintained by the NatCarb group (e.g., brine geochemistry) and publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS, and Geography Network) into a single system where data are maintained and enhanced at the local level, but are accessed and assembled through a single Web portal to facilitate query, assembly, analysis and display. This project improves the flow of data across servers and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project worked to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO{sub 2} carbon capture and storage data through a single website portal (http://www.natcarb.org/). While the external

  16. Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

  17. Summary: Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  18. EIA model documentation: Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-30

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, section 57.b.2). The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of products, the production of natural gas liquids and domestic methanol, projects petroleum provides and sources of supplies for meeting demand. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption.

  19. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-18

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  20. Corrosion analysis of decommissioned carbon steel waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corrosion analysis was carried out on available sections of carbon steels taken from two decommissioned radioactive waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One of the 100,000 gallon tanks suffered from a pinhole failure in the wall which was subsequently patched. From the analysis it was shown that this leak, and two adjacent leaks were initiated by a discarded copper heating coil that had been dropped into the tank during service. The failure mechanism is postulated to have been galvanic attack at points of contact between the tank structure and the coil. Other leaks in the two tanks are also described in this report

  1. Corrosion analysis of decommissioned carbon steel waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, P.; Roberts, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    A corrosion analysis was carried out on available sections of carbon steels taken from two decommissioned radioactive waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One of the 100,000 gallon tanks suffered from a pinhole failure in the wall which was subsequently patched. From the analysis it was shown that this leak, and two adjacent leaks were initiated by a discarded copper heating coil that had been dropped into the tank during service. The failure mechanism is postulated to have been galvanic attack at points of contact between the tank structure and the coil. Other leaks in the two tanks are also described in this report.

  2. Comment on Brent Beal's and Heather Olson Beal's "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In their article "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," Brent D. Beal and Heather K. Olson Beal (this issue) promise to update some of the arguments made by Jeffrey R. Henig (1994) and add an interesting twist by proposing the National Football League (NFL) as a possible…

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Technology to Market (T2M) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Christopher Todd [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bush, Jason William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gentle, Jake Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Porter Jack [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, Kurt Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a tiered Technology to Market (T2M) curriculum for basic researchers to project leads to measure the effect of technology transfer skills on project success and impact. The plan will train five researchers in basic technology transfer principles where success will be measured by assessing improvements in T2M skills and knowledge after the training is complete, likely using before and after surveys.

  4. MARKET-STRUCTURE DETERMINANTS OF NATIONAL BRAND-PRIVATE LABEL PRICE DIFFERENCES OF MANUFACTURED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, John M.; Peterson, Everett B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationships between market structure and the Lerner index of monopoly constructed from price data on processed food products sold through grocery stores. A theoretical model of a differentiated oligopoly specifies two determinants of price-cost margins: the Herfindahl-Hirschman index of seller concentration adjusted for the elasticity of demand and the industry advertising-to-sales ratio. The results indicate that the three principal determinants of price-cost margi...

  5. Market orientation in universities: A comparative study of two national higher education systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hemsley-Brown, J; Oplatka, I

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: the reported study tested (1) whether there are significant differences between the two countries, in terms of perceptions of market orientation (MO) in higher education (HE), (2) which MO dimensions (student; competition; intra-functional) indicate more positive attitudes and whether the differences are significant; and (3) the reliability of the instrument for using a larger sample of respondents internationally. Method: A comparative (online) survey of 68 academics in England and ...

  6. Understanding the Complexities of Subnational Incentives in Supporting a National Market for Distributed Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.; Doris, E.; Getman, D.

    2014-09-01

    Subnational policies pertaining to photovoltaic (PV) systems have increased in volume in recent years and federal incentives are set to be phased out over the next few. Understanding how subnational policies function within and across jurisdictions, thereby impacting PV market development, informs policy decision making. This report was developed for subnational policy-makers and researchers in order to aid the analysis on the function of PV system incentives within the emerging PV deployment market. The analysis presented is based on a 'logic engine,' a database tool using existing state, utility, and local incentives allowing users to see the interrelationships between PV system incentives and parameters, such as geographic location, technology specifications, and financial factors. Depending on how it is queried, the database can yield insights into which combinations of incentives are available and most advantageous to the PV system owner or developer under particular circumstances. This is useful both for individual system developers to identify the most advantageous incentive packages that they qualify for as well as for researchers and policymakers to better understand the patch work of incentives nationwide as well as how they drive the market.

  7. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Oct. 10~20 Price of Eu-rich and Yt-medium RE concentrate in domestic market rose to RMB $ 74,000/ton from RMB $72,000/ton. It was still on rising. Price of RE carbonate in Baotou was over RMB$10,000/ton due to the strict volume control of rare earth concentrate.

  8. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Dec. 10-20 Price of Pr-Nd oxide and Pr-Nd mischrnetal kept on rising in domestic market recently due to the tight supply of RE carbonate. Short supply of ion adsorption clay in southern China did not affect the prices of dysprosium and terbium obviously.

  9. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  10. Fire assisted pastoralism vs. sustainable forestry--the implications of missing markets for carbon in determining optimal land use in the wet-dry tropics of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockwell, David; Lovett, Jon C

    2005-04-01

    Using Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia as a case study, this paper combines field sampling of woody vegetation with cost-benefit analysis to compare the social optimality of fire-assisted pastoralism with sustainable forestry. Carbon sequestration is estimated to be significantly higher in the absence of fire. Integration of carbon sequestration benefits for mitigating future costs of climate change into cost-benefit analysis demonstrates that sustainable forestry is a more socially optimal land use than fire-assisted pastoralism. Missing markets for carbon, however, imply that fire-assisted pastoralism will continue to be pursued in the absence of policy intervention. Creation of markets for carbon represents a policy solution that has the potential to drive land use away from fire-assisted pastoralism towards sustainable forestry and environmental conservation. PMID:15748799

  11. 碳酸二甲酯的生产工艺进展及市场前景%Process Development and Market Prospect of Dimethyl Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光辉; 丁兆东; 刘敏

    2001-01-01

    Different production processes of dimethyl carbonate and theirlatest development were reviewed. The application, market and development prospect of dimethyl carbonate were analyzed.%综述了碳酸二甲酯的各种生产工艺及最新研究进展,并分析探讨了该产品的应用、市场及发展前景。

  12. The Power Generation Capacity Investment Model Basing on the Newton KKT Interior-point Method under the Market Environment of Low Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Ming; Ma Shaoyin; Ma Mingjuan; Xue Song; Shi Hui

    2013-01-01

    Under the market environment of low carbon, whether renewable energy can obtain the power for sustainable development, promote the goal of the whole society and make money for investors depends on the rational optimization of power investment capacity and achieving power generation resources coordinated scheduling. This study constructs an expansion model of the generation capacity investment taking oligopoly, policy tools, carbon emissions trading right and green certificate system into acco...

  13. Selective Cutting Impact on Carbon Storage in Fremont-Winema National Forest, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, C.; Cleve, C. T.

    2004-12-01

    Management personnel of the Fremont-Winema National Forest in southern Oregon were interested in investigating how selective cutting or fuel load reduction treatments affect forest carbon sinks and as an ancillary product, fire risk. This study was constructed with the objective of providing this information to the forest administrators, as well as to satisfy a directive to study carbon management, a component of the 2004 NASA's Application Division Program Plan. During the summer of 2004, a request for decision support tools by the forest management was addressed by a NASA sponsored student-led, student-run internship group called DEVELOP. This full-time10-week program was designed to be an introduction to work done by earth scientists, professional business / client relationships and the facilities available at NASA Ames. Four college and graduate students from varying educational backgrounds designed the study and implementation plan. The team collected data for five consecutive days in Oregon throughout the Fremont-Winema forest and the surrounding terrain, consisting of soil sampling for underground carbon dynamics, fire model and vegetation map validation. The goal of the carbon management component of the project was to model current carbon levels, then to gauge the effect of fuel load reduction treatments. To study carbon dynamics, MODIS derived fraction photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) maps, regional climate data, and Landsat 5 generated dominant vegetation species and land cover maps were used in conjunction with the NASA - Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) model. To address fire risk the dominant vegetation species map was used to estimate fuel load based on species biomass in conjunction with a mosaic of digital elevation models (DEMs) as components to the creation of an Anderson-inspired fuel map, a rate of spread in meters/minute map and a flame length map using ArcMap 9 and FlamMap. Fire risk results are to be viewed qualitatively as

  14. Experimental comparison of impact of auction format on carbon allowance market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    auction and English clock auction) with heterogeneous bidders (coal power plants and gas power plants) from four perspectives (carbon price, auction efficiency, demand withholding and fluctuations in power supplies). Possibilities of collusion among bidders and impacts of allowance banking and penalty...

  15. Specification of carbon ion dose at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical dose distributions of therapeutic carbon beams, currently used at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), are based on in-vitro Human Salivary Gland (HSG) cell survival response and clinical experience from fast neutron radiotherapy. Moderate radiosensitivity of HSG cells is expected to be a typical response of tumours to carbon beams. At first, the biological dose distribution is designed so as to cause a flat biological effect on HSG cells in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) region. Then, the entire biological dose distribution is evenly raised in order to attain a RBE (relative biological effectiveness)=3.0 at a depth where dose-averaged LET (linear energy transfer) is 80 keV/μm. At that point, biological experiments have shown that carbon ions can be expected to have a biological effect identical to fast neutrons, which showed a clinical RBE of 3.0 for fast neutron radiotherapy at NIRS. The resulting clinical dose distribution in this approximation is not dependent on dose level, tumour type or fractionation scheme and thus reduces the unknown parameters in the analysis of the clinical results. The width SOBP and the clinical/physical dose at the center of SOBP specify the dose distribution. The clinical results analyzed in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) were found to show good agreement with the expected RBE value at higher TCP levels. The TCP analysis method was applied for the prospective dose estimation of hypofractionation. (author)

  16. The integrated North American electricity market : a bi-national model for securing a reliable supply of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 50 million people who experienced the power blackout on August 14, 2003 in southern Ontario and the U.S. Midwest and Northeast understood how vital electricity is in our day-to-day lives, but they also saw the resiliency of the North American electricity system. More than 65 per cent of the power generation was restored to service within 12 hours and no damage was caused to the generation or transmission facilities. Although the interconnected North American electricity system is among the most reliable in the world, it is threatened by an aging infrastructure, lack of new generation and transmission to meet demand, and growing regulatory pressures. This report suggests that any measures that respond to the threat of ongoing reliability should be bi-national in scope due to the interconnected nature of the system. Currently, the market, regulatory and administrative systems are different in each country. The full engagement and cooperation of both Canada and the United States is important to ensure future cross-border trade and power reliability. The Canadian Electricity Association proposes the following 7 measures: (1) support an open debate on all the supply options available to meet growing power demands, (2) promote bi-national cooperation in the construction of new transmission capacity to ensure a reliable continental electricity system, (3) examine opportunities for bi-national cooperation for investment in advanced transmission technologies and transmission research and development, (4) promote new generation technology and demand-side measures to relieve existing transmission constraints and reduce the need for new transmission facilities, (5) endorse a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards for the electricity industry, (6) coordinate measures to promote critical infrastructure protection, and (7) harmonize U.S. and Canadian efforts to streamline or clarify regulation of electricity

  17. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market Mar.20~30 Affected by slight price falling of didymium oxide and didymium mischmetal,rare earth market was smooth recently.Price of most rare earth products was stable. Price of mixed rare earth carbonate increased from RMB$15,000~15,500/ton to RMB$16,000-16,500/ton in Baotou due to restriction of the product sales in spot market by main producers.Dealings are mostly done among long-term clients.Supply of rare earth carbonate was very tight.

  18. A National, Detailed Map of Forest Aboveground Carbon Stocks in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Cartus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A spatially explicit map of aboveground carbon stored in Mexico’s forests was generated from empirical modeling on forest inventory and spaceborne optical and radar data. Between 2004 and 2007, the Mexican National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR established a network of ~26,000 permanent inventory plots in the frame of their national inventory program, the Inventario Nacional Forestal y de Suelos (INFyS. INFyS data served as model response for spatially extending the field-based estimates of carbon stored in the aboveground live dry biomass to a wall-to-wall map, with 30 × 30 m2 pixel posting using canopy density estimates derived from Landsat, L-Band radar data from ALOS PALSAR, as well as elevation information derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data set. Validation against an independent set of INFyS plots resulted in a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.5 with a root mean square error (RMSE of 14 t∙C/ha in the case of flat terrain. The validation for different forest types showed a consistently low estimation bias (<3 t∙C/ha and R2s in the range of 0.5 except for mangroves (R2 = 0.2. Lower accuracies were achieved for forests located on steep slopes (>15° with an R2 of 0.34. A comparison of the average carbon stocks computed from: (a the map; and (b statistical estimates from INFyS, at the scale of ~650 km2 large hexagons (R2 of 0.78, RMSE of 5 t∙C/ha and Mexican states (R2 of 0.98, RMSE of 1.4 t∙C/ha, showed strong agreement.

  19. Imputing forest carbon stock estimates from inventory plots to a nationally continuous coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barry Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The U.S. has been providing national-scale estimates of forest carbon (C stocks and stock change to meet United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC reporting requirements for years. Although these currently are provided as national estimates by pool and year to meet greenhouse gas monitoring requirements, there is growing need to disaggregate these estimates to finer scales to enable strategic forest management and monitoring activities focused on various ecosystem services such as C storage enhancement. Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, spatially extant estimates of forest C density were developed for the conterminous U.S. using the U.S.’s annual forest inventory. Results suggest that an existing forest inventory plot imputation approach can be readily modified to provide raster maps of C density across a range of pools (e.g., live tree to soil organic carbon and spatial scales (e.g., sub-county to biome. Comparisons among imputed maps indicate strong regional differences across C pools. The C density of pools closely related to detrital input (e.g., dead wood is often highest in forests suffering from recent mortality events such as those in the northern Rocky Mountains (e.g., beetle infestations. In contrast, live tree carbon density is often highest on the highest quality forest sites such as those found in the Pacific Northwest. Validation results suggest strong agreement between the estimates produced from the forest inventory plots and those from the imputed maps, particularly when the C pool is closely associated with the imputation model (e.g., aboveground live biomass and live tree basal area, with weaker agreement for detrital pools (e.g., standing dead trees. Forest inventory imputed plot maps provide an efficient and flexible approach to monitoring diverse C pools at national (e.g., UNFCCC and regional scales (e.g., Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest

  20. Economics of forest and forest carbon projects. Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaballa Romero, Mauricio Ernesto; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Wieben, Emilie;

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource...... needs estimates put forward in connection to REDD+. This report investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through eight case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments. The report is part of efforts to share financial experiences......+ initiatives but also the testing of advanced market commitments as a finance option for sustainable forest management. The findings in the report underline the fact that only through sound and transparent financial information will forest projects and national forest initiatives become interesting for private...

  1. EIA model documentation: Petroleum market model of the national energy modeling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-28

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  2. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  3. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  4. EIA model documentation: Petroleum market model of the national energy modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA's legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level

  5. Emerging markets and climate change: Mexican standoff or low-carbon race?

    OpenAIRE

    Frame, David J.; Hepburn, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Schelling (1995) stressed the importance of correctly disaggregating the impacts of climate change to understand how individual interests differ across space and time. This paper considers equity implications at a level of disaggregation which we consider insightful, but which is non-standard in the literature. We consider a �three-agent� model, comprising the G20 North, the G20 emerging markets (the GEMs), and the rest of the world (ROW), and consider their impact on emissions and temper...

  6. Spillover and Competitive Effects of Advertising in the Carbonated Soft Drink Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rigoberto A. Lopez; Yizao Liu; Chen Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the spillover effects of television advertising on brand-level consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) and the competition consequences for manufacturers’ and private label CSDs. Using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household purchasing and advertising viewing data from five U.S. cities, we find that although brand advertising is important in increasing demand as previous work confirms, company advertising spillovers are nearly as important. Not sur...

  7. The merit of sectoral approaches in transitioning towards a global carbon market

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Noriko; GEORGIEV Anton; ALESSI Monica

    2010-01-01

    The term 'sectoral approaches' means different things to different people. There are at least three main models of sectoral approaches: industry-led transnational initiatives linked to the deployment of sector-specific technologies; bottom-up developing country commitments, possibly combined with 'no-lose' targets; and a sectoral Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or sectoral crediting with implications for carbon finance. There are a number of industry-led transnational initiatives, including...

  8. The Impact Of Carbon Capture And Storage On A Decarbonized German Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    Spiecker, Stephan; Eickholt, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The European energy policy is substantially driven by the target to reduce the CO2-emissions significantly and to mitigate climate change. Nevertheless European power generation is still widely based on fossil fuels. The carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) could be part of an approach to achieve ambitious CO2 reduction targets without large scale transformations of the existing energy system. In this context the paper investigates in how far the CCS-technology could play a role in the...

  9. Let China Submit to "My" Mood: The Morbid Nationalism Marketed by "China Is Unhappy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxiang, Wu

    2011-01-01

    The book "China Is Unhappy" that made the list of best sellers not so long ago is blowing like an icy wind in spring and is poisoning the nation's mental state as though laden with a virus of unhappiness. Those who are most susceptible to it are groups of underage persons with mentalities that are still fragile and young people who have just come…

  10. Youth Violence, Guns, and Illicit Drug Markets. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Alfred

    The perception that violence is on the rise is supported by data showing a sharp increase in violent crime among juveniles since the mid-1980s. Although the overall national homicide rate has not increased, homicides by youth under the age of 24 have grown significantly in recent years. The rate of arrest of nonwhite juveniles for drug offenses…

  11. Biomethanation of vegetable market waste in an anaerobic baffled reactor: Effect of effluent recirculation and carbon mass balance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulhane, Madhuri; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Karia, Sneha; Pandit, Prabhakar; Kanade, Gajanan S; Lokhande, Satish; Vaidya, Atul N; Purohit, Hemant J

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biomethanation of vegetable market waste in a 4-chambered anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated at 30d hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate of 0.5gVS/L/d for one year. Indicators of process stability viz., butyrate/acetate and propionate/acetate ratios were consistent with phase separation in the different chambers, which remained unaltered even during recirculation of effluent. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) removal efficiencies were observed to be consistently high (above 90%). Corresponding biogas and methane yields of 0.7-0.8L/g VS added/d and 0.42-52L/g VS added/d respectively were among the highest reported in case of AD of vegetable waste in an ABR. Process efficiency of the ABR for vegetable waste methanation, which is indicated by carbon recovery factor showed that, nearly 96.7% of the input carbon considered for mass balance was accounted for in the product. PMID:27133362

  12. Labor market institutions and the effect of immigration on national employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Almosova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ntegration processes in Europe resulted in intensification of migration flows. Immigrants account now for a large share of population in many European countries. A point of view that immigrants take jobs form natives is quite widespread. The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia published a special analysis of the attitudes towards minorities in EU countries Eurobarometer 2000. They found that one in two EU citizens worry about competing with immigrants for the same vacancies and afraid of losing their jobs because of presence of foreign workers. Different measures and institutions which protect native workers have nevertheless an ambiguous effect. On the one hand labor protective institutions such as minimal wage, replacement rate or firing restrictions will protect existing workers and reduce a firing rate. On the other hand, firms will take into consideration these additional costs of firing and will be less likely to employ new workers. At the same time, it is argued that immigrants are probably less likely to be covered by these institutions. These facts imply that protective institutions cover mostly natives and therefore make immigration labor force comparatively less costly. Labor market protection may therefore amplify a negative effect of immigrants on native employment if it exists. This paper attempts to evaluate the effect of immigration in flow on employment level of natives and reveal whether this effect changes in different institutional environments using EU-countries data. In addition to static specification it uses a dynamic specification to draw conclusions about long-term and short-term effects separately. The results show no long-run effect of immigration inflow. Short-term effect of is found to be positive. Protective labor market institutions fulfill their function of protecting existing workers. The results are also different for men and women.

  13. University Marketing – Innovative Communication for Effective Inter/national Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana NICOLAE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning of universities on the different educational markets is critical for academic survival, role definition and status clarification on the present education markets. The latter are defined by the globalization of educational services, an increased number of players and their almost fierce competition to attract students and funding. The ever increasing competitiveness all over the world, the new missions that universities have to assume due to pressures from stakeholders, and also from global processes (among which demographics and technology are ever more uncomfortable are important issues that call for a clear organisational communication, as well as for an effective interorganisations information exchange. The present paper explores the importance of identity building for a coherent communication process meant to ensure the adaptability of a Romanian university to the needs of both its Romanian public, and also to those of an international audience. The case study under discussion is The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (BAES, its identity, vision and mission and strategies development. The analysis of the identity building process in the BAES starts from the definition of the university as a “research and teaching university which organises higher and scientific preparation in the area of economic and administrative studies”, as approved by the Senate in 2007 (www.ase.ro. As an important dimension of the identity building process refers to its reception by the public involved, a questionnaire was given to a number of staff and students. The findings of this questionnaire, as well as several opinions verbalised during formal and informal meetings and personal conversations are included in this study.

  14. Certificação florestal e o mercado moveleiro nacional Forest certification and furniture national market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inserção da certificação florestal no mercado moveleiro nacional. Para a realização deste estudo, utilizaram-se dados do Conselho de Manejo Florestal (FSC Brasil e dados obtidos por meio de questionários aplicados às empresas moveleiras que possuíam produtos certificados. A certificação mostrou-se presente nas empresas do Estado de São Paulo e da Região Sul, principalmente entre aquelas ligadas à exportação. As empresas da indústria moveleira voltadas para o mercado interno não demonstraram maior interesse na certificação florestal em função da baixa exigência dos clientes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the insertion of forest certification in the national furniture market. The data used for the accomplishment of the present study came from the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC Brazil and the questionnaires applied to the furniture companies with certified products. Companies in the State of São Paulo and in the South Region presented certification, mainly the exporting companies. The furniture companies intended to provide the domestic market did not demonstrate great interest in forest certification because customers did not demand it.

  15. National Scale Prediction of Soil Carbon Sequestration under Scenarios of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaurralde, R. C.; Thomson, A. M.; Potter, S. R.; Atwood, J. D.; Williams, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is gaining momentum as a tool to mitigate the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Texas A&M University, and USDA-NRCS used the EPIC model to develop national-scale predictions of soil carbon sequestration with adoption of no till (NT) under scenarios of climate change. In its current form, the EPIC model simulates soil C changes resulting from heterotrophic respiration and wind / water erosion. Representative modeling units were created to capture the climate, soil, and management variability at the 8-digit hydrologic unit (USGS classification) watershed scale. The soils selected represented at least 70% of the variability within each watershed. This resulted in 7,540 representative modeling units for 1,412 watersheds. Each watershed was assigned a major crop system: corn, soybean, spring wheat, winter wheat, cotton, hay, alfalfa, corn-soybean rotation or wheat-fallow rotation based on information from the National Resource Inventory. Each representative farm was simulated with conventional tillage and no tillage, and with and without irrigation. Climate change scenarios for two future periods (2015-2045 and 2045-2075) were selected from GCM model runs using the IPCC SRES scenarios of A2 and B2 from the UK Hadley Center (HadCM3) and US DOE PCM (PCM) models. Changes in mean and standard deviation of monthly temperature and precipitation were extracted from gridded files and applied to baseline climate (1960-1990) for each of the 1,412 modeled watersheds. Modeled crop yields were validated against historical USDA NASS county yields (1960-1990). The HadCM3 model predicted the most severe changes in climate parameters. Overall, there would be little difference between the A2 and B2 scenarios. Carbon offsets were calculated as the difference in soil C change between conventional and no till. Overall, C offsets during the first 30-y period (513 Tg C) are predicted to

  16. Living in Singapore: Housing Policies between Nation Building Processes, Social Control and the Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    International audience Housing policies have been at the very core of the national ideology of Singapore since the time of independence in 1965. The task of providing a flat to citizens and permanent residents thanks to the efforts of a public institution has not only been one of pragmatic realism, or an aspect of the application of economic theories pertaining to the sphere of developmentalism, it also constituted a central feature in the collective project of a City-State in which social...

  17. Quantifying Carbon Financial Risk in the International Greenhouse Gas Market: An Application Using Remotely-Sensed Data to Align Scientific Uncertainty with Financial Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, N. E.

    2002-12-01

    A common complaint about environmental policy is that regulations inadequately reflect scientific uncertainty and scientific consensus. While the causes of this phenomenon are complex and hard to discern, we know that corporations are the primary implementers of environmental regulations; therefore, focusing on how policy relates scientific knowledge to corporate decisions can provide valuable insights. Within the context of the developing international market for greenhouse gas emissions, I examine how corporations would apply finance theory into their investment decisions for carbon abatement projects. Using remotely-sensed ecosystem scale carbon flux measurements, I show how to determine much financial risk of carbon is diversifiable. I also discuss alternative, scientifically sound methods for hedging the non-diversifiable risks in carbon abatement projects. In providing a quantitative common language for scientific and corporate uncertainties, the concept of carbon financial risk provides an opportunity for expanding communication between these elements essential to successful climate policy.

  18. National capacity mechanisms in the European internal energy market: Opening the doors to neighbours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After decades of strong opposition, several European countries are now in the process of implementing some kind of Capacity Remuneration Mechanism (CRM). Unfortunately, these national initiatives seem to aim at energy autarky rather than seeking a wider regional coordination. This situation can significantly affect the potential benefits of an integrated long-term expansion of the European power system. In this paper the regulatory basis for the effective participation of foreign agents in national CRMs is discussed. The authors support that two pillars are required: (1) stronger coordination among TSOs and respect for the Security of Supply Directive and (2) introduce a particular type of firm cross-border nominations associated to the CRMs commitments. These proposed nominations are to be considered only in situations of system stress. As discussed here, this allows not requiring any type of ex-ante cross-border capacity reservation, thus avoiding many of the inefficiencies associated to traditional physical bilateral contracts. -- Highlights: •We discuss the regulatory basis for the effective participation of foreign agents in national CRMs. •Stronger coordination among TSOs and respect for the Security of Supply Directive is required. •A new type of firm cross-border nominations linked to the CRMs commitments should be introduced. •These proposed nominations are to be considered only in situations of system stress. •No ex-ante cross-border capacity reservation would be needed

  19. Possible restructuring of the worldwide oil market caused by the incidence of carbon tax; Possivel reestruturacao do mercado mundial de petroleo diante da incidencia da taxacao de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Anna Cecilia J. de; Szklo, Alexandre; Cohen, Claude; Schaeffer, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    In the context of global climate change, carbon taxes, which vary positively with the carbon content of fuels, are seen as one of the main mitigative alternatives.. The incidence of this taxation will impact the relative prices of the different oil products and, possibly, change the demand curves for these products. Also, it will impact oil companies, which will have to adapt themselves to this new policy, so as to avoid, or to minimize, market share losses. However, only in the long term more complex changes in the market structures will be observed. As such, this paper aims at analyzing the relationships between the consumption of oil products in the short and long terms, and their corresponding consumers' income and price elasticities of demand due to carbon taxation, so as to assess their impacts on the World Petroleum Industry (WPI). (author)

  20. Biogas and carbon credit market; Biogas e o mercado de creditos de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecora, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Natalie J.V.; Coelho, Suani T.; Velazquez, Silvia M.S.G. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biogas is formed from degradation of the organic matter and it is typically composed by carbon dioxide and methane gas, this last one being a greenhouse effect gas (GHG) with global warming potential approximately 20 times bigger when compared to carbon dioxide. Brazil has a great potential of energetic use of biogas, in sewer treatment, rural residues such as pig breeding and, mainly, in the treatment of urban solid residues. Its energetic conversion can be presented as a viable and efficient solution to the great volume of produced residues, since it reduces the methane emissions, at the same time that it produces electric energy. In this context, the good use of solid residues explores a resource of renewable energy and, therefore, it is susceptible of receiving the Certified Emissions Reduction (RCE) regarding the CDM, since it contributes to the environment preservation. The perspective of sale of RCE's improves the attractiveness of the business, due to the opportunities of diversification of the Brazilian energetic matrix, besides representing a decentralized way of energy generation, diminishing the dependence of local concessionaires. (author)

  1. High-density carbon capsule experiments on the national ignition facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J S; Ho, D; Milovich, J; Döppner, T; McNaney, J; MacPhee, A G; Hamza, A; Biener, J; Robey, H F; Dewald, E L; Tommasini, R; Divol, L; Le Pape, S; Berzak Hopkins, L; Celliers, P M; Landen, O; Meezan, N B; Mackinnon, A J

    2015-02-01

    Indirect-drive implosions with a high-density carbon (HDC) capsule were conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to test HDC properties as an ablator material for inertial confinement fusion. A series of five experiments were completed with 76-μm-thick HDC capsules using a four-shock laser pulse optimized for HDC. The pulse delivered a total energy of 1.3 MJ with a peak power of 360 TW. The experiment demonstrated good laser to target coupling (∼90%) and excellent nuclear performance. A deuterium and tritium gas-filled HDC capsule implosion produced a neutron yield of 1.6×10^{15}±3×10(13), a yield over simulated in one dimension of 70%. PMID:25768451

  2. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Williston Basin, Central Montana Basins, and Montana Thrust Belt study areas: Chapter J in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Craddock, William H.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales.

  3. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Chapter A in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Jacob A.; Buursink, Mark L.; Craddock, William H.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales.

  4. Trends in market share of leading cigarette brands in the USA: national survey on drug use and health 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anushree; Fix, Brian V; Delnevo, Cristine; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study is to examine trends in market share for leading cigarette brands, both before (2002–2008) and after (2009–2013) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products. Design Data come from the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 through 2013. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations, and logistic regression were employed. Data were weighted to the US population and adjusted for cigarette consumption. Our analysis is restricted to 164 343 current cigarette smokers who were at least 12 years of age or older, had smoked at least one cigarette in the 30 days prior to the survey, and reported a usual cigarette brand at the time of the survey. Results Over 12 years, 14 brands comprised over 77% of the cigarette market. Marlboro consistently held over 38% of the market. Newport held the second highest market share, and increased from 7.2% in 2002 to 10.9% by 2013. Market share of Pall Mall grew by over 400% (1.7% in 2002 vs 8.9% in 2013), likely aided by the 2009 Federal excise tax increase. No clear associations of changes in market share with the implementation of FDA's regulatory authority over tobacco in 2009 were noted. Conclusions Tracking market share trends offers clues about brand marketing changing preferences of consumers. Rapidly growing cigarette brands should be monitored to determine if specific marketing practices or design changes are drivers, as these could represent public health concerns. Monitoring trends in cigarette market share could inform regulatory decision-making efforts related to marketing and advertising. PMID:26826144

  5. Climate mission: the end of carbon free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1992, the international community is implemented a device of greenhouse gases reduction. This device began in 2005. To evaluate the situation this document discusses the National Plan of Quotas Allocation (PNAQ) the european market of the CO2, the projects mechanisms actions to favor the emission reduction engagement, the information systems of the CO2 market the prices and the investments in the carbon market. (A.L.B.)

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION IN PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ON THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to analyses of existing photovoltaic cells, its parameters, considering lifetime, efficiency and price. It was established, that efficiency of PV cells is situated in range of 5-30 percents. The PV cells with high efficiency (more than 20% have a cost in 5-10 times more than PV cells with efficiency up to 15%. On the market of Republic Moldova are commercialized PV cells with efficiency up to 15% only. The lifetime of PV cells are situated between 20 and 30 years and after 15 years of life service its efficiency decreasing on about 10%. Additional, efficiency of PV cells depends also from temperature of environment and decreasing on 0,3% on each degree. It technical parameters a given at temperature of 25oC of environment. At the same time, it can be underlined, that in near future the development of PV cells will be aimed to using of organic cells which now have efficiency about 5-7%. In order to develop a new generation of PV cells more usefully it can be considered design, where nanocristal silicon layer is infed between thin layers of amorphous silicon. It offer a very high efficiency of PV battery, and more, it is possible to exclude bulkiness intermediate layers from silicon monocrystal and as a result the material cost decreasing.

  7. Transformation of the rural PV market through the National Rural Water Service Delivery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the project is to reduce the country's energy-related Co2 emissions by substituting solar Pv to fossil fuels to provide basic water pumping services to the non-electrified rural communities in the Middle-South region. A secondary objective is to institutionalize the use of solar Pv for low-head irrigation and basic domestic (lighting, Tv) and community (health clinics, telecom, schools) uses in rural areas as a substitute for fossil fuel-based energy sources (paraffin, diesel and LPG). The activities proposed in the project are designed to: (I) remove barriers to the wide-scale utilization of solar Pv for solar pumping; (II) meet the basic energy needs of community based organizations; and (III) reinforce public-private partnerships in promoting solar Pv technology. This project will assist with the introduction of solar Pv in the Government rural water program - which is a unique opportunity to tap a sizable Pv market within the country - and will ensure sustain ability through the involvement of the private sector in the provision of water services

  8. E-COMMERCE NATIONAL MARKET - STUDY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MANIFESTED DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce market in Romania recorded the lowest level of development compared to other EU countries, in terms of the intensity of online purchase habit of the population of Romania. Thus, in 2014, only 16.7% of those who used the computer in the range of 16-74 years and 10% of the total population of the same age had made online purchases, compared with 63.3% and 50% respectively - the same indicators at EU level. Still, in Romania there was a rapid increase in the share of those who make online purchases, so in 8 years (2007-2014 this indicator increased by 3 times. Regarding the categories of the population by various characteristics, greater orientation towards online purchases is recorded among individuals with high formal education, youth (under 35, with above-average incomes. In terms of product categories purchased online, the most favorite categories are: clothes, sports goods. This analysis is based mostly on official statistics provided by Eurostat.

  9. How the national prices impact the international activity? The case of oilive oil market in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Magali; Demaria, Federica; Gutiérrez-Salcedo, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil plays an important role in the European Union countries where Spain, Italy and Greece are the main actors. Spain industry knew a flourished period by confirming its own leadership in this sector. Spain is the main olive oil producer and exporter in the world. Starting from this evidence, the main objective of this work is that of analysing the price transmission at the national level to understand in which way this activity has some impact on the international ones. At first we look...

  10. How do national markets and price policies affect land use at the forest margin? Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Coxhead, Ian; Rola, Agnes C.; K. Kim

    2001-01-01

    Deforestation, land degradation, and watershed degradation commonly result from expansion of upland agriculture in the developing countries of the tropics. This paper examines the influence of market factors on farmers' decisions by evaluating market integration and the linkages between policy and markets. The authors suggest that if market factors do significantly influence agricultural management choices, market policy instruments may be very effective for addressing upland sustainability i...

  11. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  12. Energy efficieny policy and carbon pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Lisa; Moarif, Sara; Levina, Ellina; Baron, Richard

    2011-08-15

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  13. THE ROLE OF NORTHERN OLTENIA REGION INTO THE NATIONAL ENERGY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts from the reality that "energy" is the engine of growth and economic development of the country in general and especially North Oltenia region, bringing a constant real value that can be likened to the "flywheel" for storage and energy conservation. The region that we consider a model of the subject of research and I called it generic, "Northern Oltenia" has the best possible conditions in order to become a real and major regional power pole, providing most of energy in the national energy system in conditions of maximum security, which can be at the same time achieved an export surplus value generator. In these circumstances, local communities with a tradition of energetic in Romania, in Northern Oltenia Basin will receive the attention it deserves by promoting regional development projects of scale, and a retraining and professional reorientation of skilled human resource. Romanian energy industry has significant resource potential of all categories of expertise supported by the best specialists in the field, Romanian and foreign, as well as significant opportunities for the recovery of the national economy, making a significant contribution to strengthening Romania's position as a major regional pole among EU states.

  14. Framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national carbon Emissions reduction target: Focused on educational facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the increase in greenhouse gas emissions has increased the global warming potential, an international agreement on carbon emissions reduction target (CERT) has been formulated in Kyoto Protocol (1997). This study aimed to develop a framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT. To verify the feasibility of the proposed framework, educational facilities were used for a case study. This study was conducted in six steps: (i) selection of the target school; (ii) establishment of the reference model for the target school; (iii) energy consumption pattern analysis by target school; (iv) establishment of the energy retrofit model for the target school; (v) economic and environmental assessment through the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analysis; and (vi) establishment of the low-carbon scenario in 2020 to achieve the national CERT. This study can help facility managers or policymakers establish the optimal retrofit strategy within the limited budget from a short-term perspective and the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT from the long-term perspective. The proposed framework could be also applied to any other building type or country in the global environment

  15. A developing opportunity for wind : international and domestic carbon credit markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An emissions trading system is now being considered as a means of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The system is expected to allow for the most efficient use of resources in reducing carbon emissions, and has been developed as a result of international initiatives including the Kyoto Protocol. Federal initiatives will require specific and identifiable actions resulting in the net reduction of GHGs. An intensity-based cap and trade regime has been designed to allow for offset credit trading. It is expected that offset credits will have a duration of 8 years. Quantification processes will be used to measure offset effectiveness using a mandated measurement protocol. Alberta's offset requirements will include the establishment of ownership and compliance with regulations. The province will require that facilities with 100,000 tonnes of GHG emissions be required to reduce emissions intensities by 12 per cent. Offsets must also be Alberta-based. A verification process will ensure that planned projects have emission reductions that are eligible for credits in a particular credit regime. Verification must be completed by third parties registered with regulatory agencies. A certification process will be required to ensure that regulators conform to requirements and that credits can be traded within the regime. External assistance for developers may come from quantification protocol developers; verifiers; and aggregators. While aggregators may require offset providers with less than 10,000 tonnes per year of CO2 equivalent, they may also allow for higher prices for larger quantities based on lower transaction costs. It was concluded that the implementation of a carbon credit system is unlikely to ensure the creation of more wind farms in Canada. tabs., figs

  16. Integrating social marketing into sustainable resource management at Padre Island National Seashore: an attitude-based segmentation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Po-Hsin; Sorice, Michael G; Nepal, Sanjay K; Cheng, Chia-Kuen

    2009-06-01

    High demand for outdoor recreation and increasing diversity in outdoor recreation participants have imposed a great challenge on the National Park Service (NPS), which is tasked with the mission to provide open access for quality outdoor recreation and maintain the ecological integrity of the park system. In addition to management practices of education and restrictions, building a sense of natural resource stewardship among visitors may also facilitate the NPS ability to react to this challenge. The purpose of our study is to suggest a segmentation approach that is built on the social marketing framework and aimed at influencing visitor behaviors to support conservation. Attitude toward natural resource management, an indicator of natural resource stewardship, is used as the basis for segmenting park visitors. This segmentation approach is examined based on a survey of 987 visitors to the Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) in Texas in 2003. Results of the K-means cluster analysis identify three visitor segments: Conservation-Oriented, Development-Oriented, and Status Quo visitors. This segmentation solution is verified using respondents' socio-demographic backgrounds, use patterns, experience preferences, and attitudes toward a proposed regulation. Suggestions are provided to better target the three visitor segments and facilitate a sense of natural resource stewardship among them. PMID:19381715

  17. Integrating Social Marketing into Sustainable Resource Management at Padre Island National Seashore: An Attitude-Based Segmentation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Po-Hsin; Sorice, Michael G.; Nepal, Sanjay K.; Cheng, Chia-Kuen

    2009-06-01

    High demand for outdoor recreation and increasing diversity in outdoor recreation participants have imposed a great challenge on the National Park Service (NPS), which is tasked with the mission to provide open access for quality outdoor recreation and maintain the ecological integrity of the park system. In addition to management practices of education and restrictions, building a sense of natural resource stewardship among visitors may also facilitate the NPS ability to react to this challenge. The purpose of our study is to suggest a segmentation approach that is built on the social marketing framework and aimed at influencing visitor behaviors to support conservation. Attitude toward natural resource management, an indicator of natural resource stewardship, is used as the basis for segmenting park visitors. This segmentation approach is examined based on a survey of 987 visitors to the Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) in Texas in 2003. Results of the K-means cluster analysis identify three visitor segments: Conservation-Oriented, Development-Oriented, and Status Quo visitors. This segmentation solution is verified using respondents’ socio-demographic backgrounds, use patterns, experience preferences, and attitudes toward a proposed regulation. Suggestions are provided to better target the three visitor segments and facilitate a sense of natural resource stewardship among them.

  18. Internalizing carbon costs in electricity markets: Using certificates in a load-based emissions trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several western states have considered developing a regulatory approach to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electric power industry, referred to as a load-based (LB) cap-and-trade scheme. A LB approach differs from the traditional source-based (SB) cap-and-trade approach in that the emission reduction obligation is placed upon Load Serving Entities (LSEs), rather than electric generators. The LB approach can potentially reduce the problem of emissions leakage, relative to a SB system. For any of these proposed LB schemes to be effective, they must be compatible with modern, and increasingly competitive, wholesale electricity markets. LSE's are unlikely to know the emissions associated with their power purchases. Therefore, a key challenge for a LB scheme is how to assign emissions to each LSE. This paper discusses the problems with one model for assigning emissions under a LB scheme and proposes an alternative, using unbundled Generation Emission Attribute Certificates. By providing a mechanism to internalize an emissions price signal at the generator dispatch level, the tradable certificate model addresses both these problems and provides incentives identical to a SB scheme

  19. Thirty Years Dutch Energy Policy. From Bosses, Polders and Markets to Brussels without Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next to an overview of energy policy since 1973 in the Netherlands this book also provides insights into the successes and failures of that energy policy as well as into the processes behind it. Furthermore, the study holds a mirror to everyone involved in energy policy-making in the past thirty years: regarding one's own role in the process, the differences between policy intentions and policy implementation, regarding the vision on European developments and especially regarding the important role of natural gas in the Netherlands. Looking at the past to learn from it for the present and future is useful. Not only in order to remember the turning points and drivers in the energy markets, but also to understand the sensitivities between stakeholders that can be in the way of a common view on the future and an effective energy policy. New generations of policy-makers, politicians and managers can draw a comparison to their predecessors and try to avoid mistakes made in the past and to surpass the successes

  20. Characterizing forest carbon stocks at tropical biome and landscape level in Mount Apo National Park, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubas, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Forest resources sequester and store carbon, and serve as a natural brake on climate change. In the tropics, the largest source of greenhouse emission is from deforestation and forest degradation (Gibbs et al 2007). This paper attempts to compile sixty (60) existing studies on using remote sensing to measure key environmental forest indicators at two levels of scales: biome and landscape level. At the tropical forest biome level, there is not as much remote sensing studies that have been done as compared to other forest biomes. Also, existing studies on tropical Asia is still sparse compared to other tropical regions in Latin America and Africa. Biomass map is also produced for the tropical biome using keyhole macro language (KML) which is projected on Google Earth. The compiled studies showed there are four indicators being measured using remote sensors in tropical forest. These are biomass, landcover classification, deforestation and cloud cover. The landscape level will focus on Mount Apo National Park in the Philippines which is encompassing a total area of 54,974.87 hectares. It is one of the ten priority sites targeted in the World Bank-assisted Biodiversity Conservation Program. This park serves as the major watershed for the three provinces with 19 major rivers emanating from the montane formations. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different policies that aim to reduce logging recent commercial deforestation, illegal logging and agricultural expansion pose an important threat to the remaining forest areas. In some locations in the country, these hotspots of deforestation overlap with the protected areas (Verburg et al 2006). The study site was clipped using ArcGIS from the forest biomass carbon density map produced by Gibbs and Brown (2007). Characterization on this national park using vegetation density, elevation, slope, land cover and precipitation will be conducted to determine factors that

  1. The future of the Europe of energy: towards the domestic energy market; network codes: where are we; the gas infrastructure European grid, which ambitions for 2030?; Action to boost the carbon market; LPG in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of articles first discusses the perspective of creation of a European domestic energy market which appears in the elaboration of the French energy policy, whereas industrial actors are still reluctant. The second article briefly comments the progress in the elaboration of common rules by the European Union for the creation of this European energy domestic market, i.e. the network codes. The third article addresses the common projects of energy infrastructures presented by the European Commission in 2013: about half of these projects are concerning gas infrastructures, and could be quickly achieved. The next article discusses the proposals and reactions about the strategic framework presented in January 2014 by the European Commission for 2030. An article briefly presents measures taken to boost the carbon emission trading scheme. The last article addresses the evolution of the LPG market in Europe, and outlines that its development potential is still under-exploited

  2. An increased understanding of soil organic carbon stocks and changes in non-temperate areas : National and global implications

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, E; K. Paustian; Easter, M; Sessay, M.; Al Adamat, R.; Batjes, N.H.; Bernoux, Martial; Bhattacharyya, T; Cerri, C. C.,; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Coleman, K.; Falloon, P.; Feller, Christian; Gicheru, P.; Kamoni, P.

    2007-01-01

    National and sub-national scale estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and changes can provide information land degradation risk, C sequestration possibilities and the potential sustainability of proposed land management plans. Under a GEF co-financed project, 'The GEFSOC Modelling System' was used to determine SOC stocks and projected stock change rates for four case study areas; The Brazilian Amazon, The Indo-Gangetic Plains of India, Kenya and Jordan. Each case study represented soi...

  3. Sensitivity of Decomposition Rates and Long-term Carbon Sequestration to Modeled Disturbance Scenarios: Implications for National Monitoring Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, K. P.; Harden, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Soil systems are central to carbon, water, and nutrient cycles and play a key role in regulating CO{2} exchange in terrestrial systems. While recent advances have been made for measuring plant production, the mechanisms that control the loss of carbon from land are masked by difficulties in detecting and scaling belowground processes. National and international reporting requirements have placed increased emphasis on the development of spatially explicit soil carbon inventories based on monitoring changes in major soil reservoirs. Although this inventory approach provides critical baseline information, the ecological significance of this soil carbon ultimately depends upon the level of chemical and physical protection, the response of the soil system to disturbance, and the temporal and spatial scales of interest. In this paper, we model the sensitivity of carbon storage estimates to differing assumptions of decomposition and disturbance response using data from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program. The FIA soil indicator program represents the only nationally consistent source of forest soil monitoring data in the United States and forms the basis for national reporting on the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Management. A mass-balance model of long term soil carbon dynamics is used to address the following questions: (1) how sensitive are soil carbon inventories to current assumptions of inputs, turnover, and disturbance response; (2) which soil processes have the greatest influence on C storage over the time scales relevant to land use policies and how can we best monitor these processes; (3) what are the critical data gaps limiting the use of inventory data in regional and global carbon models.

  4. Uncertainties of mapping aboveground forest carbon due to plot locations using national forest inventory plot and remotely sensed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing; Oyana, Tonny (Dept. of Geography and Environmental Resources, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale (United States)), e-mail: gxwang@siu.edu; Zhang, Maozhen; Ge, Hongli (Dept. of Forest and Environmental Resources, Zhejiang AandF Univ., Zhejiang (China)); Gertner, George Z. (Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)); McRoberts, Ronald E. (Northern Research Station, U.S. Forest Service, St. Paul (United States))

    2011-06-15

    Forest carbon sinks significantly contribute to mitigation of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Thus, estimating forest carbon is becoming important to develop policies for mitigating climate change and trading carbon credits. However, a great challenge is how to quantify uncertainties in estimation of forest carbon. This study investigated uncertainties of mapping aboveground forest carbon due to location errors of sample plots for Lin-An County of China. National forest inventory plot data and Landsat TM images were combined using co-simulation algorithm. The findings show that randomly perturbing plot locations within 10 distance intervals statistically did not result in biased population mean predictions of aboveground forest carbon at a significant level of 0.05, but increased root mean square errors of the maps. The perturbations weakened spatial autocorrelation of aboveground forest carbon and its correlation with spectral variables. The perturbed distances of 800 m or less did not obviously change the spatial distribution of predicted values. However, when the perturbed distances were 1600 m or larger, the correlation coefficients of the predicted values from the perturbed locations with those from the true plot locations statistically did not significantly differ from zero at a level of 0.05 and the spatial distributions became random

  5. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. PMID:26842398

  6. Connecting Marketing and Implementation Research and Library Program Development: A Case Study of the Implementation of [U.S.] National Guidelines and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, Ken; Cavill, Pat

    This case study examined: (1) what market research is required for planning for the implementation of "Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning," the 1998 national guidelines for effective school library media programs; (2) what issues need to be addressed and what target audiences are required to effect change, as well as how these…

  7. Gazlı İçecek Sektörü ve Gazoz Pazarındaki KOBİ’ler İçin Niş Pazarlamasına Bir Örnek(A Sample of The Applıcatıon of Niche Marketing by SMEs In The Soda and Carbonated Beverages Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan AY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME rarely find themselves in distress like the ones do in carbonated beverages market. The reasons for that may be the market dominance of a few gigantic firms in terms of control and market share, and the disability of resource-limited SMEs in responding to market needs due to the competitive structure of the industry. In this paper we try to show how a local soda pop company can better deal with the challenges in its market through niche marketing.

  8. 欧洲碳交易中间商参与碳交易市场的经验分析%Experience Analysis of European Carbon Intermediate Traders to Participate in Carbon Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志芳; 张斌亮; 李敏

    2012-01-01

      中国的碳交易市场刚刚起步,正处于城市试点、逐步推广的阶段,总结和借鉴发达国家的碳交易市场参与方的运作模式和经验,对于中国碳交易市场的成功运行和在国际碳交易市场中话语权的建立具有非常重要的现实意义。本文通过调查四家欧洲碳交易中间商在碳交易市场中的表现和运作规律,分析了它们的商业模式、规模特点、融资模式、风险管理方式等,总结得出:作为碳交易市场中重要的参与方,无论是从传统能源、电力行业衍生出的碳交易中间商还是专业的碳交易公司都需要融资与风险管理,这就使得信贷、保险等金融中介机构的介入成为必然。金融机构与碳交易中间商的参与大大促进了碳交易市场的流动性,同时,期货的引入盘活了欧洲碳交易市场。国内的碳交易市场可以借鉴欧洲碳交易市场的建设经验,采用适当的形式把购买自愿减排量的方式转变为对高排放企业的强制减排要求,从而创造国内碳交易市场的需求,并应允许大量的中间商和金融机构进入碳交易市场,保证市场的流动性。%  China’ s carbon trading market has just started, and is still in the pilot stage, gradually extending. So, summing up and referring to the mode of operation and experience of carbon market participators in developed countries have practical significance for the successful operation of China’s carbon trading market and the estab-lishment of discourse power in the international carbon market. This paper analyzed their business models, work scopes, financing modes and risk management methods by researching the behaviors and operation rules of four European carbon intermediate traders in the carbon market. It was concluded that: as the important carbon market participants, both carbon trading intermediaries derived from traditional energy industry or professional carbon

  9. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market February 20-29 RE market became active recently.Price of most RE products began to rise promoted by tight supply of mixed RE carbonates and insufficient stockpile of spot merchandise in southern China.It was thought NdFeB producers would continue to replenish their stock in the following few weeks,which would consequently drive continuous price rise of partial RE products in March.

  10. Climate mission: the end of carbon free; Mission climat: la fin de la gratuite du carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch. de

    2005-01-15

    Since 1992, the international community is implemented a device of greenhouse gases reduction. This device began in 2005. To evaluate the situation this document discusses the National Plan of Quotas Allocation (PNAQ) the european market of the CO{sub 2}, the projects mechanisms actions to favor the emission reduction engagement, the information systems of the CO{sub 2} market the prices and the investments in the carbon market. (A.L.B.)

  11. Risk and markets for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendor, Todd K; Riggsbee, J Adam; Doyle, Martin

    2011-12-15

    Market-based environmental regulations (e.g., cap and trade, "payments for ecosystem services") are increasingly common. However, few detailed studies of operating ecosystem markets have lent understanding to how such policies affect incentive structures for improving environmental quality. The largest U.S. market stems from the Clean Water Act provisions requiring ecosystem restoration to offset aquatic ecosystems damaged during development. We describe and test how variations in the rules governing this ecosystem market shift risk between regulators and entrepreneurs to promote ecological restoration. We analyze extensive national scale data to assess how two critical aspects of market structure - (a) the geographic scale of markets and (b) policies dictating the release of credits - affect the willingness of entrepreneurs to enter specific markets and produce credits. We find no discernible relationship between policies attempting to ease market entry and either the number of individual producers or total credits produced. Rather, market entry is primarily related to regional geography (the prevalence of aquatic ecosystems) and regional economic growth. Any improvements to policies governing ecosystem markets require explicit evaluation of the interplay between policy and risk elements affecting both regulators and entrepreneurial credit providers. Our findings extend to emerging, regulated ecosystem markets, including proposed carbon offset mechanisms, biodiversity banking, and water quality trading programs. PMID:22044319

  12. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-12-30

    The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) at the Power Systems Development Facility supports the Department of Energy (DOE) goal of promoting the United States’ energy security through reliable, clean, and affordable energy produced from coal. Work at the NCCC supports the development of new power technologies and the continued operation of conventional power plants under CO2 emission constraints. The NCCC includes adaptable slipstreams that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity and accelerate their development path to commercialization. During its first contract period, from October 1, 2008, through December 30, 2014, the NCCC designed, constructed, and began operation of the Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Center (PC4). Testing of CO2 capture technologies commenced in 2011, and through the end of the contract period, more than 25,000 hours of testing had been achieved, supporting a variety of technology developers. Technologies tested included advanced solvents, enzymes, membranes, sorbents, and associated systems. The NCCC continued operation of the existing gasification facilities, which have been in operation since 1996, to support the advancement of technologies for next-generation gasification processes and pre-combustion CO2 capture. The gasification process operated for 13 test runs, supporting over 30,000 hours combined of both gasification and pre-combustion technology developer testing. Throughout the contract period, the NCCC incorporated numerous modifications to the facilities to accommodate technology developers and increase test capabilities. Preparations for further testing were ongoing to continue advancement of the most promising technologies for

  13. Variation characteristics of carbon monoxide and ozone over the course of the 2014 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bokun; BIAN Lingen; ZHENG Xiangdong; DING Minghu; XIE Zhouqing

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon monoxide and ozone in the marine boundary layer were measured during the 6th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (from July to September, 2014). Carbon monoxide concentration ranged between 47.00 and 528.52 ppbv with an average of 103.59 ± 40.37 ppbv. A slight decrease with increasing latitude was observed, except for the extremely high values over the East China Sea which may be attributed to anthropogenic emissions. Ozone concentration ranged between 3.27 and 77.82 ppbv with an average of 29.46±10.48 ppbv. Ozone concentration decreased sharply with increasing latitude outside the Arctic Ocean (during both the northward and the southward course), while no significant variation was observed over the Arctic Ocean. The positive correlation between carbon monoxide and ozone in most sections suggests that the ozone in the marine boundary layer mainly originated from photochemical reactions involving carbon monoxide.

  14. Carbon taxes: Their benefits, liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon tax holds much promise for helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, but administration will be a problem. Non-compliance, tilting the economic scales in favor of one energy source at the expense of another, and questions of equity between and within nations all must be addressed if the market-based efficiencies of a carbon tax are to become a concrete global reality. This article discusses carbon taxes in the following topic areas: how to set the rates for carbon taxes; administering the tax; international cooperation; type or form of tax; tax adjustments in existing taxes

  15. The valuation of forest carbon services by Mexican citizens: the case of Guadalajara city and La Primavera biosphere reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, A.; MacMillan, D.C.; Skutsch, M.; Lovett, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate demand for, and recognition of, forest carbon services is critical to success of market mechanisms for forestry-based conservation and climate change mitigation. National and voluntary carbon-offsetting schemes are emerging as alternatives to international compliance markets. We developed a

  16. THE HUMAN RIGHTS APPROACH TO MARKETS IN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, UNITED NATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Fisseha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the shadow of World War II’s end, unprecedented discourse regarding international human rights was birthed from knowledge regarding the gross abuses that took place and subsequent shock that the civilized world had no international legislation in place to counter similar, future atrocities. In 1948, the International Labour Organization (ILO adopted the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention while, in the same year, the United Nations (UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [Swepston 1998, p.169]. The comparatively younger World Trade Organization (WTO has been both condemned and heralded for its handling, and lack thereof, of human rights violations. In the formidable wake of globalisation, all three organizations have had to bind their human rights policies to economics, thereby enhancing the interconnectivity of the entities and, by extension, international policy. The following, critical comment explores the history and current state of UN, ILO, and WTO human rights’ approaches to market policy, affording particular attention to recommendations for amending the policies in order to foster greater cohesion and address one of the most pressing human rights issues of the twenty-first century.

  17. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility: Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-03-01

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of advanced coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to study CO2 capture from coal-derived syngas and flue gas. The newly established NCCC will include multiple, adaptable test skids that will allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity. During the Budget Period One reporting period, efforts at the PSDF/NCCC focused on developing a screening process for testing consideration of new technologies; designing and constructing pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture facilities; developing sampling and analytical methods; expanding fuel flexibility of the Transport Gasification process; and operating the gasification process for technology research and for syngas generation to test syngas conditioning technologies.

  18. THE NATIONAL CARBON CAPTURE CENTER AT THE POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-05-11

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of advanced coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to study CO2 capture from coal-derived syngas and flue gas. The NCCC includes multiple, adaptable test skids that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity. During the Budget Period Two reporting period, efforts at the PSDF/NCCC focused on new technology assessment and test planning; designing and constructing post-combustion CO2 capture facilities; testing of pre-combustion CO2 capture and related processes; and operating the gasification process to develop gasification related technologies and for syngas generation to test syngas conditioning technologies.

  19. The national carbon capture center at the power systems development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-09-01

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of advanced coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to study CO2 capture from coal-derived syngas and flue gas. The NCCC includes multiple, adaptable test skids that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity. During the Budget Period Three reporting period, efforts at the NCCC/PSDF focused on testing of pre-combustion CO2 capture and related processes; commissioning and initial testing at the post-combustion CO2 capture facilities; and operating the gasification process to develop gasification related technologies and for syngas generation to test syngas conditioning technologies.

  20. The European market and Climate-Energy policies, two unreconcilable objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European States are finding it difficult to construct ambitious Climate-Energy policies in the context of liberalised markets. De-carbonation choices are all effectively highly capitalistic, while open market conditions amplify risks. How then can increasing tensions between European competition policy and energy transition policy be reduced at national level? (authors)

  1. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  2. Estimation of soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes in Croatia (1980–2006) – use of national soil database and the Corine Land Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Pilaš, Ivan; Kušan, Vladimir; Medved, Ivan; MEDAK, JASNICA; Bakšić, Nikolina; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In this study, estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks for the LULUCF categories is provided together with assessment of spatial and temporal trend of soil carbon density (SCD) for the 1980–2006 period in Croatia. Materials andMethods: Calculations of soil carbon stockswas based on data of soil organic carbon from the national (pedon) database of Croatian soils that consisted of 2351 soil profiles and Corine Land Cover inventories in 1980, 1990, 2000 a...

  3. Embodied carbon dioxide emission at supra-national scale: A coalition analysis for G7, BRIC, and the rest of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this study is an empirical analysis of embodied carbon dioxide emissions induced by fossil fuel combustion for the world divided into three supra-national coalitions, i.e., G7, BRIC, and the rest of the world (ROW), via the application of a multi-region input-output modeling for 2004. Embodied emission intensities for the three coalitions are calculated and compared, with market exchange rate and purchase power parity separately used to investigate the difference between nominal and real production efficiencies. Emissions embodied in different economic activities such as production, consumption, import, and export are calculated and analyzed accordingly, and remarkable carbon trade imbalances associated with G7 (surplus of 1.53 billion tons, or 36% its traded emissions) and BRIC (deficit of 1.37 billion tons, or 51% its traded emissions) and approximate balance with ROW (deficit of 0.16 billion tons, or 3% its traded emissions) are concretely revealed. Carbon leakages associated with industry transfer and international trades are illustrated in terms of impacts on global climate policies. The last but not least, per capita consumption based emissions for G7, BRIC, and ROW are determined as 12.95, 1.53, and 2.22 tons, respectively, and flexible abatement policies as well as equity on per capita entitlement are discussed. - Research highlights: → We compare the embodied CO2 emissions in 2004 for G7, BRIC, and ROW. → Emissions embodied in production, consumption, import, and export are investigated. → Considerable CO2 trade surplus and deficit are obtained by G7 and BRIC, respectively. → Per head embodied emissions are 13, 1.5, and 2.2 tons for G7, BRIC, and ROW, respectively.

  4. Explaining health marginalisation of the lower educated: the role of cross-national variations in health expenditure and labour market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesthuizen, Maurice; Huijts, Tim; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2012-05-01

    Several studies have shown ample cross-national variation in the risk that lower educated people run to be in poor health. However, explanations for this cross-national variation are still scarce. In this article we aim at filling this lacuna by investigating to what extent cross-national variation in the health gap between the lower and higher educated in Europe is explained by governmental health expenditure, namely, how much governments contribute to a country's total healthcare costs, and labour market conditions, that is, unemployment rates and modernisation of the labour market. We used information from the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2008 on more than 90,000 individuals in 32 European nations, and estimated hierarchical models with cross-level interactions to test our expectations. Our results show that the relative risk of being in poor health of lower educated individuals is smaller in countries where the government spends much on healthcare and with a highly modernised labour market. PMID:21834939

  5. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ RE market was not active recently due to the sluggish demand for Nd metal and PrNd mischmetal. Price of mixed RE carbonate rose slightly to RMB$ 15,500-16,000/ton. Price of Dy oxide and Tb oxide kept rising.

  6. 企业内部碳交易市场探析%Research on Company' s Internal Carbon Emission Trading Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璟珉

    2011-01-01

    Along with the intensification of global climate change, companies begin to realize the importance of climate change as a strategic issue. Effective reduction of green house gases emission during their operation is critical to companies ' sustainable development. However, most companies lack reduction motives, which require motivation not only from external environment, but also from the internal one. The self-enforcing mechanism can only be constructed with the reform of companies' current operating system, while the internal carbon emission trading market is a wise choice. It is based on the internal marketalization theory and " cap-and-trade" concept to distribute and trade emission rights among the internal departments or units. It includes three inter-related submarkets , which are carbon trust market, carbon project market and actual carbon trade market. A good operation of the internal market also requires a triple-support system, which are composed of a reasonable organized carbon fund, emission rights' clarification, and the perfect supervision system. It is indicated that the intemalte carbon emission trading market could significantly improve carbon reduction performances and encourage companies to meet the opportunities and challenges that climate change brings soas to survive future competitive environment and realize their sustainable development.%随着气候变化问题的加剧,企业逐渐认识到将气候变化问题上升到企业战略高度的重要性.在企业的生产运营过程中有效减少温室气体排放量,关系到企业的可持续发展.但目前企业自主减排的动力不足,这不仅需要外部激励,更需要企业具有内生性动力.而只有依靠企业运行机制的修整和改良才能在根本上激励企业减排的自发性.企业内部碳交易市场的构建就能起到这个作用——它将市场机制引入企业,基于“总量管制和排放交易”理念,建立企业内部碳交易市场,在企业内

  7. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and to consult with other Federal and State agencies to locate the pertinent geological data needed for the assessment. The geologic sequestration of CO2 is one possible way to mitigate its effects on climate change. The methodology used for the national CO2 assessment (Open-File Report 2010-1127; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) is based on previous USGS probabilistic oil and gas assessment methodologies. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. The operational unit of the assessment is a storage assessment unit (SAU), composed of a porous storage formation with fluid flow and an overlying sealing unit with low permeability. Assessments are conducted at the SAU level and are aggregated to basinal and regional results. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of SAUs in separate packages of sedimentary rocks within the assessed basin and focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included here will be employed, as specified in the methodology, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage

  8. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-07-14

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of high efficiency coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to promote new technologies for CO2 capture from coal-derived flue gas and syngas. The NCCC includes multiple, adaptable test skids that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived flue gas and syngas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity and accelerate their development paths to commercialization. During the calendar year 2013 portion of the Budget Period Four reporting period, efforts at the NCCC focused on post-combustion CO2 capture, gasification, and pre-combustion CO2 capture technology testing. Preparations for future testing were on-going as well, and involved facility upgrades and collaboration with numerous technology developers. In the area of post-combustion, testing was conducted on an enzyme-based technology, advanced solvents from two major developers, and a gas separation membrane. During the year, the gasification process was operated for three test runs, supporting development of water-gas shift and COS hydrolysis catalysts, a mercury sorbent, and several gasification support technologies. Syngas produced during gasification operation was also used for pre-combustion capture technologies, including gas separation membranes from three different technology developers, a CO2 sorbent, and CO2 solvents.

  9. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-31

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of high efficiency coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to promote new technologies for CO{sub 2} capture from coal-derived syngas and flue gas. The NCCC includes multiple, adaptable test skids that allow technology development of CO{sub 2} capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity and accelerate their development path to commercialization. During the calendar year 2012 portion of the Budget Period Four reporting period, efforts at the NCCC focused on testing of pre- and post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture processes and gasification support technologies. Preparations for future testing were on-going as well, and involved facility upgrades and collaboration with numerous technology developers. In the area of pre-combustion, testing was conducted on a new water-gas shift catalyst, a CO{sub 2} solvent, and gas separation membranes from four different technology developers, including two membrane systems incorporating major scale-ups. Post-combustion tests involved advanced solvents from three major developers, a gas separation membrane, and two different enzyme technologies. An advanced sensor for gasification operation was evaluated, operation with biomass co-feeding with coal under oxygen-blown conditions was achieved, and progress continued on refining several gasification support technologies.

  10. National-scale estimation of gross forest aboveground carbon loss: a case study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in remote sensing enable the mapping and monitoring of carbon stocks without relying on extensive in situ measurements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries where national forest inventories (NFI) are either non-existent or out of date. Here we demonstrate a method for estimating national-scale gross forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss and associated uncertainties using remotely sensed-derived forest cover loss and biomass carbon density data. Lidar data were used as a surrogate for NFI plot measurements to estimate carbon stocks and AGC loss based on forest type and activity data derived using time-series multispectral imagery. Specifically, DRC forest type and loss from the FACET (Forêts d’Afrique Centrale Evaluées par Télédétection) product, created using Landsat data, were related to carbon data derived from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Validation data for FACET forest area loss were created at a 30-m spatial resolution and compared to the 60-m spatial resolution FACET map. We produced two gross AGC loss estimates for the DRC for the last decade (2000–2010): a map-scale estimate (53.3 ± 9.8 Tg C yr−1) accounting for whole-pixel classification errors in the 60-m resolution FACET forest cover change product, and a sub-grid estimate (72.1 ± 12.7 Tg C yr−1) that took into account 60-m cells that experienced partial forest loss. Our sub-grid forest cover and AGC loss estimates, which included smaller-scale forest disturbances, exceed published assessments. Results raise the issue of scale in forest cover change mapping and validation, and subsequent impacts on remotely sensed carbon stock change estimation, particularly for smallholder dominated systems such as the DRC. (letter)

  11. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels.

  12. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels. (letter)

  13. 76 FR 31647 - Joint Industry Plan; Notice of Filing of a National Market System Plan to Address Extraordinary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... PowerShares DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund. DDG ProShares Short Oil & Gas. DEM WisdomTree Emerging Markets... Belgium Investable Market Index Fund. EWL iShares MSCI Switzerland Index Fund. EWM iShares MSCI Malaysia... Bond Fund. IEO iShares Dow Jones US Oil & Gas Exploration & Production Index Fund. IEV iShares...

  14. The Impact of The Stock Market Game on Financial Literacy and Mathematics Achievement: Results from a National Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Trisha; Miller, Shazia; Swanlund, Andrew; Hallberg, Kelly; Brown, Megan; O'Brien, Brenna

    2010-01-01

    The Stock Market Game[TM] is an educational program supported by the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) Foundation for Investor Education. The program is designed to teach students the importance of saving and investing by building their financial literacy skills. The primary focus of the study was to measure the impact…

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Beijing has set a new mission to become an inter- nationally recognized financial center.The mainland stock market rally slowed down and met with heavy selling pressure from those who gained a big profit from the previous market slump.In accordance with market performance,listed companies readjusted their refinanc- ing schemes and cut refinancing prices.Agricultural Bank of China marched toward listing,though problems still exist.China Eastern Airlines denied rumors of recent negotiations with Singapore Airlines and vowed to concentrate on securing sound travel conditions before the Beijing Olympic Games.China Customs strengthened efforts to block illegal grain exports.

  16. You Can Beat the Market: Estimating the Return on Investment for National Hockey League (NHL) Team Scouting using a Draft Value Pick Chart for the NHL

    OpenAIRE

    Schuckers, Michael; Argeris, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Scouting is a major part of talent acquisition for any professional sports team. In the National Hockey League (NHL), the market for scouting is set by the NHLs Central Scouting Service which develops a ranking of draft eligible players. In addition to the Central Scouting rankings, NHL teams use their own internal scouting to augment their knowledge of eligible players and develop their own rankings. Using a novel statistical approach we show in this paper that the additional information pos...

  17. ACCESS TO THE EU LABOUR MARKET FOR THE THIRD COUNTRY NATIONALS: THE CASE OF FREE MOVEMENT OF THE WORKERS BETWEEN TURKEY AND THE EU

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej CESARZ

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The decreasing demography and visible deficit of labour force raise a question of the future steps taken by the EU and its Member States to solve these problems affecting the economy of the whole Europe. Although much attention is paid to recently established instruments of the EU immigration policy with the aim to attract workers from Third States, the attempts to facilitate an access to internal market by Turkish nationals should be particularly considered. The constantly increas...

  18. Market News Price Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  19. The Strategy of Low-carbon Marketing in Pharmaceutical Companies Based on the Background of Economy%基于经济背景下医药企业实施低碳营销的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师东菊; 安祥林; 吴艳红

    2011-01-01

    在低碳经济背景下,面对全球性的低碳浪潮,医药企业如何改革传统医药营销模式实施低碳营销,是医药企业急需解决的重大课题.分析了低碳营销产生的背景及医药企业实施低碳营销的必要性、可行性,探讨了医药企业实施低碳营销的策略.%Under the background of low-carbon economy, facing the global low-carbon wave, how to reform the traditional mode of implementation of low carbon marketing pharmaceutical marketing is a major issue of the pharmaceutical companies, which need to be resolved. It has practical significance to analyze the development background of carbon marketing and the necessity of the implement of low carbon marketing of pharmaceutical companies, and to discuss the strategy of low-carbon marketing for the pharmaceutical enterprises.

  20. The Impact of Selective Logging on the Regional Carbon Budget at the Tapajos National Forest: a Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Asner, G. P.; Keller, M.; Knapp, D.

    2005-12-01

    Selective logging has been identified as an important form of land use in the Brazilian Amazon region based on studies in Large-scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment (LBA) Phase II (Nepstad et al., 1999; Asner et al., 2004). The ground and canopy damage caused by selective logging could have significant ecological, biogeochemical and micrometeorological consequences. Logging creates canopy gaps that affect photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception, latent and sensible heat fluxes, water stress and plant productivity. Also, it creates an increased amount of coarse woody debris (CWD), dead leaves and roots, which enlarge the carbon pools for respiration and fire. Furthermore, the biogeochemical processes in the tropical forest including the nutrient cycles and wildlife would also be altered. Unfortunately, previous studies on impacts of selective logging in that region are generally limited in space and/or time. In this study, a high-resolution (30 m by 30 m) version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model is applied to quantify the impact of selective logging on the regional carbon budget at the Tapajos National Forest. A unique aspect of this study is to take advantage of recent progress in characterizing explicitly the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest canopy gaps and CWD generation based upon field and remote sensing measurements (Asner et al., 2005; Keller et al., 2004). An undisturbed forest scenario and a logging scenario will be considered. The undisturbed forest scenario corresponds to the condition prior to logging and will serve as a baseline simulation for comparison. By assimilating satellite-derived vegetation indices, gap fractions, and CWD estimates before and after logging, we expect to simulate the spatial changes of carbon storage and carbon release caused by logging over time. Measurements from the km 83 flux tower located at the Tapajos National Forest will be used to constrain the model. This study constitutes our

  1. The Labour Market and Economic Performance of Canada’s First Nations Reserves: The Effect of Educational Attainment and Remoteness

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sharpe; Simon Lapointe

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this report is to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, remoteness, and labour market and economic performance at the reserve level for Aboriginal Canadians. The report uses reserve-level data on average earnings, GDP per capita, labour market indicators and distance to a service centre for 312 reserves. Using descriptive statistics, simple correlation and multiple regression analysis, the report draws conclusion on four important questions. First, the repor...

  2. Culture, branding and national identity in the era of globalization : a study of beer brands in the Finnish market

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, William

    2013-01-01

    Branding and marketing encompass some of the core elements of intercultural communication. Brands are derived from the existing cultural capital and the interaction that brands have with consumers in the marketing and consumption process involves an exchange of meaning and messages and therefore constitutes a form of communication in itself. Due to the economic imperative behind brand development, it is necessary that the brand react to changes in fashion, but also to changes in culture, in o...

  3. FINANCIAL MARKETING CHALLENGES FOR THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Oana PREDA

    2013-01-01

    The reason I choose to analyze this issue is the fact that the proper functioning of the market economy is based on a solid and profitable banking financial system. The experience of the last 20 years in corroboration with the global financial crisis shows that banks in our country must face the challenges coming from both the international market and especially the national market. In this context, it becomes increasingly clear that to obtain a good market positioning (which will automatical...

  4. Market Strategies in Branded Dairy Product Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Haller, Lawrence E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents the extent of cooperative penetration into branded dairy product markets and presents case study evidence on competitive strategies in the skim/low fat milk, whole milk, cottage cheese, butter, margarine, and ice cream markets. We employ data for 51 local market areas from the Information Resources, Inc. "Supermarket Review" data base for 1988 and 1989. Using national data, we identify the twenty top brands (by volume sales) and all cooperatives that market one or more br...

  5. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  6. Opportunities and challenges for terrestrial carbon offsetting and marketing, with some implications for forestry in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nijnik; Bill Slee; Guillaume Pajot

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Climate change and its mitigation have become increasingly high profile issues since the late 1990s, with the potential of forestry in carbon sequestration a particular focus. The purpose of this paper is to outline the importance of socio-economic considerations in this area. Opportunities for forestry to sequester carbon and the role of terrestrial carbon uptake credits in climate change negotiations are addressed, together with the feasibility of bringing terrestria...

  7. The Power Generation Capacity Investment Model Basing on the Newton KKT Interior-point Method under the Market Environment of Low Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the market environment of low carbon, whether renewable energy can obtain the power for sustainable development, promote the goal of the whole society and make money for investors depends on the rational optimization of power investment capacity and achieving power generation resources coordinated scheduling. This study constructs an expansion model of the generation capacity investment taking oligopoly, policy tools, carbon emissions trading right and green certificate system into account and uses the case analysis of the impact of ETS mechanism and the Tradable Green Certificate mechanism on power generation enterprises investment capacity with Newton KKT interior-point method. This study can also provide a strong decision basis for policy making.

  8. Building resilience to overheating into UK 1960s hospital buildings within the constraint of the national carbon reduction target: adaptive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Short, C. Alan; Lomas, Kevin; Giridharan, Renganathan; Fair, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Estate in England includes 18.83 Mm2 of acute hospital accommodation, distributed across 330 sites. Vulnerability to overheating is clear with 15,000 excess deaths occurring nationally during the July 2003 heatwave. The installation of mechanical cooling in existing hospitals appears to be the inevitable recommendation from NHS patient safety risk assessments but the carbon implications would undermine the NHS Carbon Reduction Strategy. NHS CO2 emissions cons...

  9. Using neural networks and extreme value distributions to model electricity pool prices: Evidence from the Australian National Electricity Market 1998–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Neural nets are unable to properly capture spiky price behavior found in the electricity market. • We modeled electricity price data from the Australian National Electricity Market over 15 years. • Neural nets need to be augmented with other modeling techniques to capture price spikes. • We fit a Generalized Pareto Distribution to price spikes using a peaks-over-thresholds approach. - Abstract: Competitors in the electricity supply industry desire accurate predictions of electricity spot prices to hedge against financial risks. Neural networks are commonly used for forecasting such prices, but certain features of spot price series, such as extreme price spikes, present critical challenges for such modeling. We investigate the predictive capacity of neural networks for electricity spot prices using Australian National Electricity Market data. Following neural net modeling of the data, we explore extreme price spikes through extreme value modeling, fitting a Generalized Pareto Distribution to price peaks over an estimated threshold. While neural nets capture the smoother aspects of spot price data, they are unable to capture local, volatile features that characterize electricity spot price data. Price spikes can be modeled successfully through extreme value modeling

  10. Modelling of marketing strategies for the single markets vs marketing strategy for the global market: Case study mobiExplore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mate Perisic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A successful treating of a single, national, market through new challenges of marketing management is notably different than treating of the global market. The paper provides the case study of Gideon Multimedia, IT firm from Croatia. The company’s main product is mobiExplore, touristic guide platform for mobile phones. The application could be adapted to different marketplaces - global and national, for different countries. Because of different dynamic of the growth of national mobile markets even the global marketing strategy for the mobiExplore applications needs to be adapted to each national case. Establishing of the national strategy needs to be adapted through market research of the local market. The paper argues that customized for UK market mobiExplore solutions has proved correct and intdicate on advantages of the company’s marketing strategies for singl market.

  11. Developing organizational structures for international marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2002-01-01

    International marketing represents marketing activities performed across national boundaries. The level of involvement in international marketing can range from casual exporting to globalization of markets. Although most firms adjust their marketing mixes for differences in target markets, some firms are able to standardize their marketing efforts worldwide

  12. Long-term energy security in a national scale using LEAP. Application to de-carbonization scenarios in Andorra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses the long-term energy security in a national scale using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) modelling tool. It builds the LEAP Andorra model, which forecasts energy demand and supply for the Principality of Andorra by 2050. It has a general bottom-up structure, where energy demand is driven by the technological composition of the sectors of the economy. The technological model is combined with a top-down econometric model to take into account macroeconomic trends. The model presented in this paper provides an initial estimate of energy demand in Andorra segregated into all sectors (residential, transport, secondary, tertiary and public administration) and charts a baseline scenario based on historical trends. Additional scenarios representing different policy strategies are built to explore the country's potential energy savings and the feasibility to achieve the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in April 2015 to UN. In this climatic agreement Andorra intends to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 37% as compared to a business-as-usual scenario by 2030. In addition, current and future energy security is analysed in this paper under baseline and de-carbonization scenarios. Energy security issues are assessed in LEAP with an integrated vision, going beyond the classic perspective of security of supply, and being closer to the sustainability's integrative vision. Results of scenarios show the benefits of climate policies in terms of national energy security and the difficulties for Andorra to achieving the de-carbonization target by 2030.

  13. A ton is not always a ton: A road-test of landfill, manure, and afforestation/reforestation offset protocols in the U.S. carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Protocols are the foundation of an offset program. • Using sample projects, we “road test” landfill, manure and afforestation protocols from 5 programs. • For a given project, we find large variation in the volume of offsets generated. • Harmonization of protocols can increase the likelihood that “a ton is a ton”. • Harmonization can enhance prospects for linking emission trading systems. -- Abstract: The outcome of recent international climate negotiations suggests we are headed toward a more fragmented carbon market, with multiple emission trading and offset programs operating in parallel. To effectively harmonize and link across programs, it will be important to ensure that across offset programs and protocols that a “ton is a ton”. In this article, we consider how sample offsets projects in the U.S. carbon market are treated across protocols from five programs: the Clean Development Mechanism, Climate Action Reserve, Chicago Climate Exchange, Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, and the U.S. EPA's former program, Climate Leaders. We find that differences among protocols for landfill methane, manure management, and afforestation/reforestation project types in accounting boundary definitions, baseline setting methods, measurement rules, emission factors, and discounts lead to differences in offsets credited that are often significant (e.g. greater than 50%). We suggest opportunities for modification and harmonization of protocols that can improve offset quality and credibility and enhance prospects for future linking of trading units and systems

  14. Research document no. 24. The integration of european electric markets: from the national markets juxtaposition to the establishment of a regional market; Cahier de recherche no. 24. L'integration des marches electriques europeens: de la juxtaposition de marches nationaux a l'etablissement d'un marche regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2000-11-01

    After the transcription of the electricity directive in national legislations, the European electricity market appears to be a vast set of juxtaposed markets which are weakly connected at the level of their wholesale contracts compartment. Referring to the technological peculiarities of electricity as a commodity, the paper identifies the direct conditions of regional integration of the electricity markets, those which would favour cross-border trade and allow to be near the normal functioning of a regional commodity market. The infrastructure network dependence and the need of a stringent technical coordination necessitate to unify the operation of the different systems and the rules of access, or at the least to come near this unification by strong coordination. A second major condition, which is not fully debated, is the increasing connexion of short-term markets, via daily physical trade and emergence of a European financial market, which could trade various standardised contracts referring to a single hourly spot price, or to prices in various delivery points. To reach such an integration, two paths are possible: either concentration into one single organised power exchange as the Nordic pool, or rules harmonization of the various power exchanges which would be a minimal requirement to allow arbitrations between them. (author)

  15. Retrospective modeling of the merit-order effect on wholesale electricity prices from distributed photovoltaic generation in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electricity markets that use a merit order dispatch system, generation capacity is ranked by the price that it is bid into the market. Demand is then met by dispatching electricity according to this rank, from the lowest to the highest bid. The last capacity dispatched sets the price received by all generation, ensuring the lowest cost provision of electricity. A consequence of this system is that significant deployments of low marginal cost electricity generators, including renewables, can reduce the spot price of electricity. In Australia, this prospect has been recognized in concern expressed by some coal-fired generators that delivering too much renewable generation would reduce wholesale electricity prices. In this analysis we calculate the likely reduction of wholesale prices through this merit order effect on the Australian National Electricity Market. We calculate that for 5 GW of capacity, comparable to the present per capita installation of photovoltaics in Germany, the reduction in wholesale prices would have been worth in excess of A$1.8 billion over 2009 and 2010, all other factors being equal. We explore the implications of our findings for feed-in tariff policies, and find that they could deliver savings to consumers, contrary to prevailing criticisms that they are a regressive form of taxation. - Highlights: ► We model the impact of photovoltaic generation on the Australian electricity market. ► Photovoltaic generation depresses electricity prices, particularly in summer peaks. ► Over the course of a year, the depression in wholesale prices has significant value. ► 5 GW of solar generation would have saved $1.8 billion in the market over two years. ► The depression of wholesale prices offsets the cost of support mechanisms

  16. Food-Carbon Trade-offs between Agriculture and Reforestation Land Uses under Alternate Market-based Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Anthony. Bryan; Stacey Paterson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of payments on the adoption of reforestation in agricultural areas and the associated food-carbon trade-offs is necessary to inform climate change policy. Economic viability of reforestation under payment per hectare and payment per tonne schemes for carbon sequestration was assessed in a region in southern Australia supporting 6.1 Mha of rain-fed agriculture. The results show that under the median scenario, a carbon price of 27 A$/tCO2-e could make one-third of the ...

  17. Research issues and supporting research of the National Program on Carbon Dioxide, Environment and Society, fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This report outlines and summarizes the research conducted in the United States under the auspices of the CO/sub 2/ program. The Program encompasses six primary categories which, in turn, are divided into 18 research subcategories and 51 research issues. The research program was designed to describe the research which should be conducted regardless of institutional or even national sponsorship. Project descriptions have been collected and classified according to the research issue to which they most directly apply and have been inserted immediately following the applicable issue description. This provides, for the first time, a detailed view of the nation's effort in addressing the carbon dioxide question in FY 1980.

  18. Workshop on assessments of National Carbon Budgets within the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Koyama, Aki; Lansø, Anne Sofie;

    The three-day workshop organized by the three Nordic research projects; ECOCLIM, LAGGE and SnowCarbo brought together scientists and other actors from Nordic countries to communicate and discuss research on carbon budget estimations in the Nordic region. Through presentations of most recent...... research in the field and following scientific discussions, the workshop contributed to strengthen the scientific basis of the identification and quantification of major natural carbon sinks in the Nordic region on which integrated climate change abatement and management strategies and policy decisions is...

  19. The Analysis of Theoretical National Account Problems of the Measurement of Non-market Service Output%非市场服务产出核算理论问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金钰

    2003-01-01

    With the development of economy, services of every country have made rapid progress. However, despite the increasing importance of services, statistical theories of services, especially of non-market services, have developed very slowly. According to the edition of System of National Accounts issued in 1993 (SNA(1993) ), because of the unavailability of the market price, the output of non-market services is still obtained through input method, though the method is blamed widely. In this paper, the author has a further discussion on the issues concerning with the measurement of the output of non-market servicels.

  20. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  1. Annual Transitions between Labour Market States for Young Australians. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddelmeyer, Hielke; Marks, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Much analysis of youth transitions focuses on the first year after education, or outcomes at a specific age. Such work looks, for example, at the effect of education on the likelihood of being employed or unemployed. This study takes a different angle by considering the effect of education on the persistence of labour market outcomes. For example,…

  2. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  3. Emerging energy security issues: Natural gas in the Gulf Nations, An overview of Middle East resources, export potentials, and markets. Report Series No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proceeds with a presentation of the natural gas resource base of the Gulf nations of the Middle East. The resource base is put in the context of the world natural gas resource and trade flows. This is followed by a discussion of the existing and planned project to move Gulf natural gas to consuming regions. Then a discussion of the source of demand in the likely target markets for the Gulf resource follows. Next, the nature of LNG pricing is discussed. A brief summary concludes the paper

  4. The Progress of International and National Carbon Emission Management Standardization%国内外碳排放管理标准化进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈健华; 鲍威; 孙亮; 郭慧婷

    2014-01-01

    Standardization, as a very effective tool, plays a more and more important supporting role in promoting China's policy implementation in addressing climate change and other issues. This paper summarizes the international situation and progress, and analyzes the international development tendency of carbon emission management standardization. Correspondingly, the national situation and progress of carbon emission management standardization is reviewed including involvement of international standardization, establishment of national standardization committee, development of national standards and so on. And the policy suggestions are raised to strengthen the standardization work in the fields of addressing climate change during the 12th Five-Year Plan period.

  5. Interannual variability in seagrass carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J. W.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Anderson, W. T.; Anderson, W. T.

    2001-12-01

    The shallow marine waters surrounding the southern tip of Florida provide an ideal environment for seagrasses, which are the most common benthic community in the region. Yet, these communities are susceptible to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances, especially changes in water quality caused by an increase the nutrient flux to the near shore environment. In order to better understand the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratio in marine plants, an extensive times series analysis was constructed from quarterly sampling of Thalassia testudinum (the dominate species in the study area) from 1996 through 1998. Sites for study where selected from permanent stations within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), from both sides of the Florida Keys - two stations on the bay side and two stations on the reef side. These data will also help to constrain elements of the carbon and nitrogen cycles affecting this region. The data analyzed over the three year study period show unique cyclic trends associated with seasonal changes in primary productivity and potentially changes in the nitrogen and carbon pools. Additionally, the analysis of our time series indicates that isotope food web studies need to take into account spatial and temporal changes when evaluating trophic levels. The mean carbon and nitrogen isotope values of T. testudinum from all 4 stations vary respectively from -7.2 per mil to -10.41 and 1.1 per mil to 2.2 per mil (n = 48). However, certain stations displayed anonymously depleted nitrogen isotope values, values as low as -1.2 per mil. These values potentially indicated that biogeochmical processes like N fixation, ammonification and denitrification cause regional pattern in the isotopic composition of the source DIN. Both carbon and nitrogen isotopes displayed seasonal enrichment-depletion trends, with maximum enrichment occurring during the summer. The overall seasonal variation for carbon 13 from the different stations ranged from 1 per mil to

  6. Workshop on assessments of National Carbon Budgets within the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Hansen, Kristina;

    2013-01-01

    The three-day workshop organized by the three Nordic research projects; ECOCLIM, LAGGE and SnowCarbo brought together scientists and other actors from Nordic countries to communicate and discuss research on carbon budget estimations in the Nordic region. Through presentations of most recent resea...

  7. Stochastic carbon sinks for combating carbon dioxide emissions in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper carries out numerical calculations on the potential of carbon sinks in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) and national commitments under conditions of stochastic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and carbon sequestration by forests. Chance constraint programming is used to analyze the role of stochastic carbon sinks for national and EU-wide compliance costs. The analytical results show that the inclusion of the carbon sink option can reduce costs for low enough marginal cost and risk discount, but also that costless carbon sinks as by-products from forestry are not part of a cost-effective solution under a high reliability concern. Cost savings are reduced due to risk discounting under a reliability concern, in particular when assigning Chebyshev's inequality as compared with a normal probability distribution. It is also shown that the supply of forest sinks on the market depends on the differences in marginal abatement cost between the trading and the non-trading sectors, and in risk discounting between achievements of the ETS cap and the national commitment. Relatively low marginal abatement cost in the non-trading sector and high risk discounting of national commitment achievements increase the supply of sinks in the market and, hence, reduces the equilibrium price. The empirical application illustrates the importance of risk discounting for the magnitude of cost savings obtained from introducing forest carbon sinks in the EU ETS and national commitments.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the global economic downturn, the Chinese Government has loosened its monetary policy to boost national economic growth, after detecting falling inflationary pressure. It plans to initiate a value-added tax reform program on January 1 to reduce companies’ tax burdens. China’s property mar-ket cooled after a thriving year and grew only 1.6 percent in October year on year. The energy market also faced tremendous setbacks due to shrinking demand for power. China’s trade surplus, on the other hand, reported a record-high gain in October.

  9. The Success Story of Voluntary Retirement Scheme in National Carbon Company: A Unit of Eveready Industries India Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Basu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The success story of VRS in National Carbon Company-a unit of Eveready Industries India Ltd., Kolkata, which was the first dry cell manufacturing plant in India, is an eye opener for research scholars, practicing managers, trade union leaders and for the management students. Over the years, technology was not upgraded and so the labor cost of this unit was quite high compared to the other modernized units. The management, in order to make the plant viable took drastic measures of downsizing its workforce through VRS. Approach: The study on the success of VRS in National Carbon Company was to find out the modalities adopted by management to make the VR scheme successful. Results: Downsizing alone cannot reduce labor cost for an industry. Technology upgradation along with downsizing can reduce labor cost. Revision of VR scheme time and again helped the organization to reduce the workforce from 3500-414. Conclusion: VRS cannot be made successful if introduced unilaterally. Positive response in downsizing through VRS can be obtained provided the Trade Union extends wholehearted support for the same.

  10. Measurement of contemporary and fossil carbon contents of PM 2.5 aerosols: results from Turtleback Dome, Yosemite National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of aerosol particulate matter of mean mass aerodynamic diameter (le) 2.5 ∝m (PM 2.5 aerosols), on health, visibility, and compliance with EPA's regional haze regulations is a growing concern. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of PM 2.5 aerosols. Measurement of the 14C/C ratio of the PM 2.5 aerosols, the absence of 14C in fossil carbon materials and the known 14C/C levels in contemporary carbon materials allows use of a two-component model to derive contemporary and fossil carbon contents of the particulate matter. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading. Here, the methodology for performing such an assessment using total suspended particulate Hi-vol aerosol samplers to collect PM 2.5 aerosols on quartz fiber filters and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to measure 14C/C ratios is presented and illustrated using PM 2.5 aerosols collected at Yosemite National Park

  11. The National Network forTechnology Entrepreneurship and Commercialization (N2TEC): Bringing New Technologies to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathleen

    2003-03-01

    N2TEC, the National Network for Technology Entrepreneurship and Commercialization, is a National Science Foundation "Partnerships for Innovation" initiative designed to raise the level of innovation and technology commercialization in colleges, universities, and communities across the nation. N2TEC is creating a network of people and institutions, and a set of technology tools that will facilitate the pooling of resources and knowledge and enable faculty and students to share those resources and collaborate without regard to geographic boundaries. N2TEC will become the backbone by which educational institutions across the nation can move their technologies into new venture startups. The ultimate goal is to create new wealth and strengthen local, regional and national economies.

  12. NATIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION DATABASE AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (NATCARB) FORMER TITLE-MIDCONTINENT INTERACTIVE DIGITAL CARBON ATLAS AND RELATIONAL DATABASE (MIDCARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy R. Carr

    2004-07-16

    This annual report describes progress in the third year of the three-year project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. The project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project has been extended and expanded as a ''NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB)'' to provide national coverage across the Regional CO{sub 2} Partnerships, which currently cover 40 states (http://www.natcarb.org). Advanced distributed computing solutions link database servers across the five states and other publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS) into a single system where data is maintained and enhanced at the local level but is accessed and assembled through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. This project has improved the flow of data across servers and increased the amount and quality of available digital data. The online tools used in the project have improved in stability and speed in order to provide real-time display and analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The move away from direct database access to web access through eXtensible Markup Language (XML) has increased stability and security while decreasing management overhead. The MIDCARB viewer has been simplified to provide improved display and organization of the more than 125 layers and data tables that have been generated as part of the project. The MIDCARB project is a functional demonstration of distributed management of

  13. Country of origin effect and the impact of brand nationality on the perception of quality in the luxury goods market

    OpenAIRE

    Dittertová, Silvie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Master's Thesis is to investigate the attitudes of high net worth individuals toward country of origin information within the luxury goods market with respect to the quality of the products. The primary method used for the research is qualitative research based on in-depth interviews. Based on these in-depth interviews, the thesis demonstrates the synergy between the literature on country of origin and luxury goods and the consumers' quality perception on luxury based on c...

  14. The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto De Vogli; Anne Kouvonen; David Gimeno

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of fast food consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and BMI. Methods The within-country association between fast food consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1999 and 2008 was explored through multivariate panel regression models, after adjustment for per capita gross domestic...

  15. The impact of national cultures on international marketing strategy and subsidiary performance of portuguese SME’s

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Isabel Cristina Martins; Barandas-Karl, Hortênsia; Martins, Francisco Vitorino

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic of the international business and its multidimensional nature requires the understanding of the complexities of different contexts dictated by cultural differences between countries. The purpose of this paper is to study, in depth howsmall and medium-sized companies develop their international marketing mix strategy in their overseas subsidiaries. We use the theoretical construct of Hofstede (1980, 1991) in the dimensions of Power Distance (PD), Uncertain...

  16. National-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William R; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2008-05-15

    We update a previously presented Linear Programming (LP) methodology for estimating state level costs for reducing CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants by cofiring switchgrass, a biomass energy crop, and coal. This paper presents national level results of applying the methodology to the entire portion of the United States in which switchgrass could be grown without irrigation. We present incremental switchgrass and coal cofiring carbon cost of mitigation curves along with a presentation of regionally specific cofiring economics and policy issues. The results show that cofiring 189 million dry short tons of switchgrass with coal in the existing U.S. coal-fired electricity generation fleet can mitigate approximately 256 million short tons of carbon-dioxide (CO2) per year, representing a 9% reduction of 2005 electricity sector CO2 emissions. Total marginal costs, including capital, labor, feedstock, and transportation, range from $20 to $86/ton CO2 mitigated,with average costs ranging from $20 to $45/ton. If some existing power plants upgrade to boilers designed for combusting switchgrass, an additional 54 million tons of switchgrass can be cofired. In this case, total marginal costs range from $26 to $100/ton CO2 mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $60/ton. Costs for states east of the Mississippi River are largely unaffected by boiler replacement; Atlantic seaboard states represent the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation. The central plains states west of the Mississippi River are most affected by the boiler replacement option and, in general, go from one of the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation regions to the highest. We explain the variation in transportation expenses and highlight regional cost of mitigation variations as transportation overwhelms other cofiring costs. PMID:18546680

  17. 我国区域碳均衡评价及碳汇市场交易额度评估%Regional Carbon Equilibrium Evaluation and Trading Volume Assessment of the Carbon Sequestration Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓青; 邢晓静; 廖立维; 黄安琦; 徐永成

    2015-01-01

    本文根据我国森林资源的总量和建立在光合系数上的二氧化碳参数,对我国分省的森林碳汇和碳排放量进行了年度总量和年变化的数量评估。根据碳均衡和碳中和原则,将我国的省份分成碳汇省份、碳源省份和基本碳均衡省份。在产权明晰、初始产权分配合理、排污权交易机制不断完善的基础上,研究、分析、评估了我国低碳经济转型中碳汇交易市场的建立、交易额度、定价机制和均衡过程,为我国在节能减排、新能源替代和碳均衡三大机制中实现新经济、新分配、新效果提供了帮助,也为我国在国际碳交易的博弈中取得了经验,并为应对世界性的气候变化和低碳转型作出了理论的和实际的贡献。%According to the total amount of forest resources and the carbon dioxide parameters from the pho-tosynthetic coefficient,this paper evaluates the annual total amount and annual variation of the forest carbon se-questration and carbon emissions in different provinces of China. Based on the carbon balance principle and car-bon neutral principle, China’s provinces are divided into carbon sequestration provinces, carbon sources provinces and carbon equilibrium provinces. Considering clearly established ownership, the reasonable distribution of initial property rights, and the gradually perfected mechanism of emission rights trading, this paper also examines and analyzes the establishment of carbon sequestration trading market, the transaction amount, the pricing mechanism and the equilibrium process in China’s low-carbon economy transformation.Our study is helpful to the realization of new economy, new distribution and new effects in the three mechanisms of energy saving, new energy substitu-tion and carbon balance, and makes a theoretical and practical contribution for China to getting experience in the world carbon trading competition and for the world to coping with climate

  18. Modelling of marketing strategies for the single markets vs marketing strategy for the global market: Case study mobiExplore

    OpenAIRE

    Mate Perisic; Maljic Vinko; Neven Seric

    2010-01-01

    A successful treating of a single, national, market through new challenges of marketing management is notably different than treating of the global market. The paper provides the case study of Gideon Multimedia, IT firm from Croatia. The company’s main product is mobiExplore, touristic guide platform for mobile phones. The application could be adapted to different marketplaces - global and national, for different countries. Because of different dynamic of the growth of national mobile markets...

  19. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  20. Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C)2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  1. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s pledge to further reform the renminbi(yuan)exchange rate regime recently delivered a boost to Asian currencies and global stock markets.The central bank expanded its pilot program involving yuan settlement in foreign trade to include trade centers the world over.The National Audit Office revealed details about local government debts,raising concerns over a financial black hole.By setting up a stringent entrance threshold,China aims to clear up the crowded third-party payment industry.Financial pressure mounts on real estate developers,due to the recent housing market gloom. China will overtake Japan as the world’s second largest advertising market within five years.

  2. Suppressed Demand and the Carbon Markets: Does development have to become dirty before it qualifies to become clean?

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaldão, Marina; Battye, William; Grapeloup, Mathieu; François, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Suppressed Demand refers to a situation where Minimum Services Levels (MSL) necessary for human development are unavailable to people or only available to an inadequate level. Numerous barriers, such as low income levels or lack of infrastructure and skills prevent access to MSLs, such as potable water, cooking energy, lighting and electrification. We investigate the concept of suppressed demand as it applies to Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and market based incentives for GHG emission re...

  3. Development of an institutional model for emission trading system:An approach to the carbon market of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Başsüllü, Çağlar; Tolunay, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Climate change negotiations focus on developing a new climate agreement with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties for the post-2020 climate regime. With this new agreement many developed Parties including Turkey would take quantified economy–wide emissions reduction targets. In that case, Turkey would benefit from flexibility and market mechanisms. Therefore, an emission trading system should be developed until 2020 in Turkey. This paper has been prepared for the purpose...

  4. Benefits of an integrated European electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Böckers, Veit; Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the benefits of further market integration of European wholesale electricity markets. Major gains from trade are sill left unrealized due to (1) uncomplete market coupling of national wholesale markets, (2) isolated national regulation of capacity and reserve mechanisms (CRM) and (3) a lack of harmonization of national support schemes for renewable energies.

  5. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  6. Effects of Liberalising the Portuguese Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the successful restructuring and privatisation of the national power system, and after opening of a third of the national electricity market, no major changes have occurred as yet. However, a smaller part of eligible customers have switched suppliers, a significant increase in cogeneration-type power generation has been recorded - although from a relatively minor base, and consolidation of energy sector has happened through ownership binding of national oil and gas and power industries. Through both vertical and horizontal integration of oil, gas and electricity, Portugal has opted for the national champion strategy, and left the position of competition to foreign companies. By entering into strategic partnerships with Spanish Iberdrola and Italian ENI, as well as through the specific character of its geographic position, the actual competition on electricity market has been reduced to Endesa. Still, all this can be marked as a certain repositioning/reorganisation in face of the ensuing real market battle, when the influence of European internal energy market will no doubt prevail, and the current stress is being put on increasing the efficiency of the energy sector. Rapid development of natural gas system in Portugal has based on the better efficiency of natural gas resulted in carbon dioxide emission avoidance of some 6 million tons, representing around a tenth of total emissions. Finally, a comparison has been made between the process of restructuring the Portuguese energy sector and the currently ongoing process in Croatia.(author)

  7. Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Zieman, Joseph C.; O'Halloran, Thomas L.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Anderson, Gordon H.

    2010-01-01

    We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from -20 to -25 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1 between March and May. Respiration (Rd) was highly variable (2.81 ± 2.41 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1), reaching peak values during the summer wet season. During the winter dry season, forest CO2 assimilation increased with the proportion of diffuse solar irradiance in response to greater radiative transfer in the forest canopy. Surface water salinity and tidal activity were also important controls on NEE. Daily light use efficiency was reduced at high (>34 parts per thousand (ppt)) compared to low (d by ~0.9 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1 and nighttime Rd by ~0.5 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1. The forest was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an annual NEP of 1170 ± 127 g C m-2 during 2004. This unusually high NEP was attributed to year-round productivity and low ecosystem respiration which reached a maximum of only 3 g C m-2 d-1. Tidal export of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from belowground respiration likely lowered the estimates of mangrove forest respiration. These results suggest that carbon balance in mangrove coastal systems will change in response to variable salinity and inundation patterns, possibly resulting from secular sea level rise and climate change.

  8. Market Design in Chinese Market Places

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Barbara; Hendrischke, Hans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe market design (MD) approach to institutional analysis provides the analytical tools to evaluate endogenous institution building in local market places irrespective of the institutional setting of the national economy. Implicit in this analysis of endogenous institution building at the market place level is the recognition of institutional diversity, which none of the conventional forms of institutional analysis can provide. We extend the MD approach from its original game theo...

  9. Analysis of socio-economic aspects of local and national organic farming markets; final report for Defra

    OpenAIRE

    Lobley, Matt; Butler, Allan J.; Courtney, Paul; Ilbery, Brian; Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian; Potter, Clive; WINTER, MICHAEL

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to take a fresh look at the nature of organic production, consumption and marketing in England and Wales in order to better assess its current and likely contribution to rural development and its ability to meet consumer expectations. Based on a mixed methodological approach the study consulted with 2,300 individuals to reveal a complex and multi-dimensional sector with a highly committed consumer base. The research aimed to describe and account for: (1)The socio...

  10. A Brief Talk about Low-Carbon Marketing Road of RJVs Project Innovation in the Information Age%浅谈信息时代研究联合体项目创新的低碳营销之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪靓

    2013-01-01

      在电子信息时代,企业作为经济的最基本决策主体之一,实施低碳营销是实现低碳经济发展的基本保障。文章揭示了低碳营销这种新兴的营销模式对研究联合体发展的重要性和必要性,指出低碳营销是营销的必然发展趋势。通过分析低碳营销在研究联合体实施过程中存在的问题和困难,研究从需求分析、设计生产低碳产品等方面提出了研究联合体项目创新的低碳营销过程。%In precent electronic information age, as one of the most basci economic decision-makers, enterprises who implement low-carbon marketing are the basic guarantee to realize low-carbon economy development.This article reveals the necessity of RJVs to develop low-carbon marketing model and points out low-carbon marketing is the inevitable trend of marketing development.By analyzing the problems and difficulties existing in the implementation process,this research puts forward the low-carbon marketing road of RJVs project innovation from requirements analysis,design and manufacture of low-carbon products and other aspects.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The National Bureau of Statistics has released economic data for the first half of 2011. Crisis-stricken foreign trade continues to recover.Investment in fixed assets and retail sales are holding up, becoming the main growth engines of the economy. Mean while, yuan-denominated new loans are decreasing as the country aims to calm inflationary jitters. The once-booming auto markets are slackening off with sales dramatically slowing in the first half of this year.

  12. Market Design in Chinese Market Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara); H. Hendrischke (Hans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Market Design (MD) approach to institutional analysis provides the analytical tools to evaluate endogenous institution building in local market places irrespective of the institutional setting of the national economy. Implicit in this analysis of endogenous institution building at th

  13. Market design in Chinese market places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara); H. Hendrischke (Hans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe market design (MD) approach to institutional analysis provides the analytical tools to evaluate endogenous institution building in local market places irrespective of the institutional setting of the national economy. Implicit in this analysis of endogenous institution building at th

  14. National Scale Analysis of Soil Organic Carbon Storage in China Based on Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong-Sheng; SHI Xue-Zheng; WANG Hong-Jie; SUN Wei-Xia; E. D. WARNER; LIU Qing-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and density in various soil types or locations are the foundation for examining the role of soil in the global carbon cycle. An assessment of SOC storage and density patterns in China based on soil types as defined by Chinese Soil Taxonomy (CST) and the recently compiled digital 1:1000 000 Soil Database of China was conducted to generate a rigorous database for the future study of SOC storage. First, SOC densities of 7292soil profiles were calculated and linked by soil type to polygons of a digital soil map using geographic information system resulting in a 1:1000 000 SOC density distribution map of China. Further results showed that soils in China covered 9 281 ×103 km2 with a total SOC storage of 89.14 Gt and a mean SOC density 96.0 t ha-1. Among the 14 CST orders, Cambosols and Argosols constituted high percentage of China's total SOC storage, while Andosols, Vertosols, and Spodsols had a low percentage. As for SOC density, Histosols were the highest, while Primosols were the lowest. Specific patterns of SOC storage of various soil types at the CST suborder, group, and subgroup levels were also described. Results obtained from the study of SOC storage and density of all CST soil types would be not only useful for international comparative research, but also for more accurately estimating and monitoring of changes of SOC storage in China.

  15. The carbon markets: which place for the french agriculture; Les marches du carbone: quelle place pour l'agriculture francaise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    Even its positive role of carbon sequestration in the biomass by photosynthesis, the agriculture sector is responsible of about 20% of the french greenhouse gases emissions. Actions aim to reduce these emissions. This study allows the exploration of technic of reduction to reveal those which combine voluntarism, actors responsibility and economic profitability. It constitutes necessary work to better understand the greenhouse gases stakes in the agriculture and develop inventive projects. It offers also actions to implement by the public authorities to create success conditions of described mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  16. CARBO-CONTROLE. Quantification of the carbon flux and stocks at the european and national scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CARBO-CONTROLE project aims to evaluate the different methodologies to estimate the CO2 flux at the european, national and regional scale. The strategy is to combine a crumbling, down scaling, of the flux at a big scale, by inverting the atmospheric CO2 measures with a aggregation, up scaling, of the national stocks and flux from the climatic parameters of a model of ecosystems.They show that with the monthly data of the global network of CO2 monitoring stations, it is possible to obtain an estimation of the european flux. Meanwhile the errors bond to the leak of continental stations are of the order of the flux average. (A.L.B.)

  17. Does supranational coordination erode its national basis? The case of European labour market policy and German industrial relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Niechoj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades improved supply chain management, innovation in information technology, new financial instruments, etc. have changed the economic environment for production in the EU significantly. This led to and was accompanied by increased coordination of economic policy and the use of a new mode of governance, the Open Method of Co-ordination. Simultaneously, at the national level tendencies of fragmentation in industrial relations appeared. Is this mere congruence, or is it possible to establish causal relationships? For the case of Germany the impact of coordinated European policies on industrial relations at national level is assessed. Potential consequences for supranational economic governability are discussed.

  18. New Demands, New Supplies: A National Look at the Water Balance of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, J. D.; Kobos, P.; Klise, G. T.; Krumhansl, J. L.; McNemar, A.

    2010-12-01

    Concerns over rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in serious consideration of policies aimed at reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. If large scale abatement efforts are undertaken, one critical tool will be geologic sequestration of CO2 captured from large point sources, specifically coal and natural gas fired power plants. Current CO2 capture technologies exact a substantial energy penalty on the source power plant, which must be offset with make-up power. Water demands increase at the source plant due to added cooling loads. In addition, new water demand is created by water requirements associated with generation of the make-up power. At the sequestration site however, saline water may be extracted to manage CO2 plum migration and pressure build up in the geologic formation. Thus, while CO2 capture creates new water demands, CO2 sequestration has the potential to create new supplies. Some or all of the added demand may be offset by treatment and use of the saline waters extracted from geologic formations during CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories, with guidance and support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is creating a model to evaluate the potential for a combined approach to saline formations, as a sink for CO2 and a source for saline waters that can be treated and beneficially reused to serve power plant water demands. This presentation will focus on the magnitude of added U.S. power plant water demand under different CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, and the portion of added demand that might be offset by saline waters extracted during the CO2 sequestration process. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Energy policy for Europe. Ensuring secure and low-carbon energy in the EU's internal market. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early March 2006, the European Commission re-launched the discussion on an Energy Policy for Europe with the 2006 publication of its Green Paper 'Secure, Competitive and Sustainable Energy for Europe'. This manifests the EU's will to broaden its reflection on its future energy systems, taking into account increasing market liberalisation and globalisation, environmental pressures, technological challenges and the growing import dependency from politically unstable regions. Other major contributions to this debate include the climate change communication 'Winning the battle against climate change' (published in 2005), the Green Paper on Energy Efficiency (2005), the Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2006), the ongoing works of the High Level Group on Competitiveness, Energy and the Environment (2006) and the enquiry into the energy sector by DG Competition of the European Commission in 2006. The Spring European Council in March 2006 welcomed the Energy Policy Green Paper and committed itself adopting a prioritised Action Plan at its spring session in 2007, to be prepared by the European Commission and the Energy Council. Early next year, the European Commission will table both the EU Strategic Energy Review, accompanied by a number of sectoral policies and a Green Paper on future climate change policy for the period post-2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Both the EU Strategic Energy Review and the post-2012 Green Paper will outline the European Union (EU) 'energy and climate change vision' and propose a roadmap towards achieving EU energy and climate change objectives, namely, how to ensure the competitiveness of European industries while at the same time combating climate change and ensuring security of energy supply. To contribute to this debate, the CEPS multi-stakeholder Task Force on 'energy policy for Europe' has presented this Interim Report, which attempts to develop the key elements for an EU energy policy framework. Although this report will focus

  20. The International Carbon Market Risks, Regulation and Its Revelation%国际碳市场的风险、监管及其对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海涌; 张伟伟; 李泓仪

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the carbon trading market has witnessed an unprecedented development with the continuous market expansion, carbon trading scheme is becoming mature. Meanwhile, the risks of carbon trading are mounting and carbon trading security becomes increasingly more prominent. Currently, the main carbon trading risks include fishing, VAT fraud, money laundering, insider trading and market manipulate, etc. And the main regulation measures to manage these risks include single EU registry, carbon proof of identity ( POI), reverse charge mechanism, and so on. All these supervision measures will provide reference to the construction and perfection of the carbon trading market in China.%近年来,国际碳交易市场的规模不断扩大,碳交易机制日渐成熟;与此同时,碳交易风险不断加大,安全问题日益突出。当前国际碳交易中存在的风险主要包括网络钓鱼欺诈、增值税舞弊、利用碳交易洗钱、内部交易与操纵市场等问题。为应对这些风险,国际上采取了共同注册制度、碳身份证明、碳税的反向征收等主要监管手段。上述监管手段将为我国建立和完善碳交易市场提供参考。

  1. The social impacts of carbon markets in Costa Rica: A case study of the Huetar-Norte region

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, M; Porras, I.T.; Moreno, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses the impacts of the payments for environmental services (PES) programme in Costa Rica in relation to reforestation activities for the establishment of carbon sinks. The methodology used is the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA), which is based on five assets: financial, human, social, physical and natural. The study shows that the PES programme has had a significant impact on financial assets, not so much through the payments themselves but from the income expected from...

  2. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  3. Carbon Markets and REDD in South-East Asia: An Interview with Chris Lang from REDD-Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chris Lang is a climate justice activist and currently runs REDD-Monitor, a website that follows projects and developments around REDD (www.redd-monitor.org. The acronym REDD refers to Re- ducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and is a UN programme that aims to offer incentives for countries in the Global South to reduce emissions from deforestation by creating financial values for the forest carbon stocks. In this interview, Lang talks about structural shortcomings of REDD and the danger of carbon cowboys, provides an insight in the 1 billion dollar agreement between Norway and Indonesia, and discusses the relation between REDD and indigenous peoples’ rights. ----- Chris Lang ist Klimaaktivist und betreibt derzeit die Webseite REDD-Monitor, die Projekte und En- twicklungen rund um REDD verfolgt (www.redd-monitor.org. Die Abkürzung REDD bezieht sich auf das UN-Programm Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, das darauf abzielt, Anreize für Länder des globalen Südens zu schaffen, ihre Emissionen aus Abholzung durch finanzielle Werte für den Kohlenstoffgehalt der Wälder zu reduzieren. In diesem Interview spricht Lang über strukturelle Schwächen von REDD und der Gefahr durch carbon cowboys. Er gibt einen Einblick in das 1-Milliarde-Dollar Abkommen zwischen Norwegen und Indonesien und diskutiert die Beziehung zwischen REDD und den Rechten indigener Völker.

  4. Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, José D.; Zieman, Joseph C.; O'Halloran, Thomas L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.

    2010-06-01

    We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from -20 to -25 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1 between March and May. Respiration (Rd) was highly variable (2.81 ± 2.41 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1), reaching peak values during the summer wet season. During the winter dry season, forest CO2 assimilation increased with the proportion of diffuse solar irradiance in response to greater radiative transfer in the forest canopy. Surface water salinity and tidal activity were also important controls on NEE. Daily light use efficiency was reduced at high (>34 parts per thousand (ppt)) compared to low (level rise and climate change.

  5. Marketing Analysis of the Forest Ecosystem Service Based on Carbon Sequestration Trade Theory%基于森林碳汇的生态系统服务市场化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉娥; 文冰

    2011-01-01

    As the "Kyoto Protocol" became effective, some forest carbon sequestration projects have been undergone in China, which provided the building of market-oriented compensation of forest ecosystem service with a new approach.The SWOT analysis was conducted on the building of ecological compensation market for forest resources in the light of the trade theory of forest carbon sequestration, and some countermeasures were proposed to set up and improve the service market for forest ecosystem in China.%生效后开展的森林碳汇项目,为我国森林生态系统服务市场化建设提供了新途径.从森林碳汇贸易视角对补偿市场建设进行SWOT分析,提出完善我国森林生态系统服务市场化的对策.

  6. The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Gimeno, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of fast food consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and BMI. Methods The within-country association between fast food consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1999 and 2008 was explored through multivariate panel regression models, after adjustment for per capita gross domestic product, urbanization, trade openness, lifestyle indicators and other covariates. The possible mediating effect of annual per capita intake of soft drinks, animal fats and total calories on the association between fast food consumption and BMI was also analysed. Two-stage least squares regression models were conducted, using economic freedom as an instrumental variable, to study the causal effect of fast food consumption on BMI. Findings After adjustment for covariates, each 1-unit increase in annual fast food transactions per capita was associated with an increase of 0.033 kg/m2 in age-standardized BMI (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.013–0.052). Only the intake of soft drinks – not animal fat or total calories – mediated the observed association (β: 0.030; 95% CI: 0.010–0.050). Economic freedom was an independent predictor of fast food consumption (β: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.16–0.37). When economic freedom was used as an instrumental variable, the association between fast food and BMI weakened but remained significant (β: 0.023; 95% CI: 0.001–0.045). Conclusion Fast food consumption is an independent predictor of mean BMI in high-income countries. Market deregulation policies may contribute to the obesity epidemic by facilitating the spread of fast food. PMID:24623903

  7. Women's status and carbon dioxide emissions: A quantitative cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, Christina; York, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women's traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women's status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women's political status and CO(2) emissions per capita. We find that CO(2) emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally. PMID:23017863

  8. You Made El Team-O! The Transnational Browning of the National Basketball Association through the “Noche Latina” Marketing Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Moraga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay pushes beyond the black-white binary in an effort to expand understandings into the relationship between sport, Latinidad, and global capitalism in the 21st century. Through a discursive analysis into the National Basketball Association (NBA outreach policies, I ask: do recent shifts in the NBA’s marketing strategies, while alluding towards social inclusion and multicultural diversity, also contribute to the containment, exclusion, and marginalization to the fastest growing minority group in the United States: the Latina/o. By conducting a textual analysis into the NBA’s Noche Latina campaign, this essay makes the case that while the NBA may be another example of browning the sporting gaze the gaze remains fixed upon Western capitalist notions of identity and representation. An aim of this study seeks to highlight the contradictions within U.S. based-sport marketing in hopes that sport fans, pundits and academics alike might grapple with and strive towards understanding how phenomena like “Noche Latina” repackages racialized, sexist and cultural tropes for global television audiences and social media users alike.

  9. The Energy Market 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  10. The Energy Market 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  11. ‘Women in motion’ in a world of nation-states, market forces, and gender power relations

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter provides concluding reflections from a set of nineteen case studies of transnational and intranational migration and mobility. It contrasts the ‘sedentary bias’ present in policy regimes and associated thought centred on nation-states, where movement is seen as exceptional, including normatively exceptional, with the centrality of movement in the processes of socio-economic change and evolution, particularly those promoted under capitalist systems of ...

  12. Climate change influence on organic carbon remobilization, transport and burial in mangrove forests of Everglades National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J.; Smith, T. J.; Sanders, C. J.

    2013-05-01

    Mangrove ecosystems store large quantities of organic carbon (OC), burying it in their soils at a greater rate than terrestrial forests, thus providing an important negative climate change feedback. However, mangrove ecosystem response to climate change-induced stressors will determine if mangrove ecosystems continue to be a sink for OC. The threats of rising sea level outpacing mangrove forest soil accretion and the increased wave energy associated with this rise are two potential climate change stressors that may alter the carbon balance in mangrove ecosystems. The threat from wave energy is amplified during storm events, which may become more intense and/or frequent with climate change. Climate change-amplified storms could increasingly damage mangrove forests along the coastline, remobilizing and exposing previously buried OC to oxidation, and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We investigate the fate of this remobilized OC by examining soil cores from two sites within Everglades National Park. Soil accretion rates and OC burial rates within a storm surge deposit are compared to long-term rates (i.e., last 100 years). The sites are 4 and 10 km inland from the coast and data show these mangrove soils are accreting at a rate sufficient to keep pace with the current rate of sea-level rise. The accretion rates range from 2.5 to 3.6 mm yr-1 and are much greater within the storm surge deposit, reaching as high as 6.5 mm yr-1. We also discovered enhanced rates of OC burial within this same storm surge deposit which are approximately 2-fold greater than the long-term rates. Our findings indicate that these enhanced accretion and OC burial rates are due to inland transport of marine carbonate material and OC remobilized from along the coast during the storm. Furthermore, we find OC burial rates within the storm deposit at the site 10 km inland are substantially greater than the site 4 km inland, while mass accumulation rates show the opposite trend

  13. European union pellet demand and its influence on forest market and carbon sequestration in the southeast U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudy, R. [North Carolina State Univ. and Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, address: Bielawy (Poland)], e-mail: rpchudy@ncsu.edu; Abt, R.C.; Cubbage, F.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Forestry and Environmental Resources, Raleigh (United States); Jonsson, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Inst foer sydsvensk skogsvetenskap, Alnarp (Sweden); Prestemon, J.P. [North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Forestry and Environmental Resources, Raleigh (United States); United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Research Triangle Park (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The growing importance of wood-pellets trade between United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU) has been observed recently. This research focuses on the EU biomass imports from the Southeastern U.S. It seeks to quantify the effects of trade-based interactions between the Southeastern U.S. and the EU wood-based bioenergy sector in terms of timber prices, production, and EU imports of feedstock. The Sub-regional Timber Supply Model (SRTS) was used to simulate market responses to changes in woody biomass consumption in the U.S. and EU between 2008 and 2038. Results indicate that the price of imported wood pellets in the EU is sensitive to future U.S. renewable energy policies, the developments of which are so far uncertain.

  14. Research on the Ninth National University Games Market Development%第九届全国大学生运动会市场开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范婷; 张玉杰

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料法和逻辑分析法研究了即将于2012年9月8日在天津举行的第九届全国大学生运动会的市场开发情况。研究结果为:每届大运会主办城市都不一样影响大运会与城市人文环境相融合形成属于自己的独具一格的赛事品牌。全国大学生运动会的赛事运营模式是主办城市的市政府牵头、成立赛事委员会来对赛事进行运作管理。第九届全国大学生运动会的每个赞助等级的赞助企业过于单一并且不知名。第九届全国大学生运动会市场开发方式有:赞助商计划、特许经营计划、纪念品开发计划、其他项目开发计划,并针对以上结论提出了有关建议。%This paper studied the Ninth National University Games market development which will be held at September 8,2012 in Tianjin with the methods of literature material law and Logical analysis.The research results are: the differences of the host cities at each national university games influence its combining the humanistic environment of the host city to take shape special game brand.The event operation mode of national university games is: municipal government of the host city organizes the race committee to manage the events.Most of sponsored enterprises of every sponsorship level are unnameble.The market development way of the national university games is: sponsors plan,franchise business plan,souvenir development plan,and other project development plan.This paper put forward several suggestions based on the conclusions.

  15. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meezan, N. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Le Pape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berzak Hopkins, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divol, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ho, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Milovich, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pak, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ralph, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thomas, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tommasini, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haan, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacPhee, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNaney, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatarik, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spears, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benedetti, L. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dewald, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fittinghoff, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, O. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robey, H. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khan, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Callahan, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamza, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Biener, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Celliers, P. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Braun, D. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Erskine, D. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prisbrey, S. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wallace, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kozioziemski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dylla-Spears, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sater, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Collins, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Storm, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsing, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atherton, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindl, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gatu-Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Petrasso, R. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Rinderknecht, H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Rosenberg, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Séguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Zylstra, A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Knauer, J. P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Grim, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guler, N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Merrill, F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kyrala, G. A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Moreno, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hoover, D. E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wild, C. [Diamond Materials GmbH, Freiburg (Germany); Werner, E. [Diamond Materials GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5 g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2 mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2× higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He = 0.03 mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity = 410 ± 20 km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  16. Marketing theories and concepts for the international construction industry: a study of their applicability at the global, national and corporate perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pheng, L. S.

    1990-01-01

    The role and applicability of marketing theories and concepts are explored at three levels of analysis for the international construction industry. Developments of the theoretical constructs are traced as marketing evolves to encompass an international perspective. The relevance and need for marketing in the construction industry was examined. Four schools of thought were identified before the strategic significance of marketing in the market place was reviewed and argued. The ...

  17. Quantifying uncertainties influencing the long-term impacts of oil prices on energy markets and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, David L.; Jewell, Jessica; Krey, Volker; Bazilian, Morgan; Fay, Marianne; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-07-01

    Oil prices have fluctuated remarkably in recent years. Previous studies have analysed the impacts of future oil prices on the energy system and greenhouse gas emissions, but none have quantitatively assessed how the broader, energy-system-wide impacts of diverging oil price futures depend on a suite of critical uncertainties. Here we use the MESSAGE integrated assessment model to study several factors potentially influencing this interaction, thereby shedding light on which future unknowns hold the most importance. We find that sustained low or high oil prices could have a major impact on the global energy system over the next several decades; and depending on how the fuel substitution dynamics play out, the carbon dioxide consequences could be significant (for example, between 5 and 20% of the budget for staying below the internationally agreed 2 ∘C target). Whether or not oil and gas prices decouple going forward is found to be the biggest uncertainty.

  18. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming: Chapter C in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Covault, Jacob A.; Craddock, William H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used for the national CO2 assessment is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rock within the Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins of Wyoming. It focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed, as specified in the methodology, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data in a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

  19. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt: Chapter E in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Brennan, Sean T.; Doolan, Colin A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows up on previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of 14 storage assessment units (SAUs) in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and eight SAUs in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt (WIUTB). The GGRB and WIUTB are contiguous with nearly identical geologic units; however, the GGRB is larger in size, whereas the WIUTB is more structurally complex. This report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries, as well as their sealing and reservoir units, are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are typically provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. This geologic information was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of variably attributed well data and a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling.

  20. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Columbia Basin of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and the Western Oregon-Washington basins: Chapter D in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Jacob A.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Freeman, P.A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Eocene and Oligocene sedimentary rocks within the Columbia, Puget, Willapa, Astoria, Nehalem, and Willamette Basins of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. The designated sealing unit in the Columbia Basin is tentatively chosen to be the ubiquitous and thick Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group. As a result of uncertainties regarding the seal integrity of the Columbia River Basalt Group, the SAUs were not quantitatively assessed. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data, a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on the cell maps.

  1. National 2010 survey on the awareness and opinion of the French about geological carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the 2010 CIRED / TNS Sofres public opinion survey about geological storage of CO2 in France. The first survey, in April 2007, demonstrated a broad consensus for action against climate change. Three years later in March 2010, even a wide support for action remains, the public opinion was marked from the Copenhagen fiasco and the 'climate-gate'. More generally, in a context of global economic crisis, compared to 2007 the economy/environment balance moves back in 2010 towards the former term. Thus, 62% of the French answered that there is a need to act against climate change, that is 17 points less than three years ago. And 67% estimated that 'the priority must go to the protection of the environment' instead of the economy, that is 11 points less. The 2007 survey suggested that 6% of the respondents were able to define correctly geological storage of CO2. The approval rate was 59% at first, but fell to 38% after reading about the risks of the technology. Three years later, the context included emerging CCS projects in France, a (failed) carbon tax proposal and sustained debates on climate change. While CCS has never been a hot topic in the media, it moved from being inexistent to a few specific papers each semesters in important newspapers and some TV / radio air-time. Between 2007 and 2010 the notoriety of CCS increased in France, but the rates of approval mostly stagnated: 57% at first, falling to 37% after the reading on risks. The expression 'stockage geologique du CO2' is now recognized by one third of the French, and about 17% can provide an exact definition. There remain an ambiguity with sequestration in forests, and the mental image of storing CO2 in underground caves or vessels remains widespread. Our study shows a statistically significant positive correlation between more information and a favorable opinion towards geological sequestration. The opinion of respondents is more stable when

  2. Building capacity for national level carbon Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) systems for a ``Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'' (REDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N.; Goetz, S. J.; Baccini, A.; Walker, W. S.; Ndunda, P.; Mekui, P.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Knight, D.

    2010-12-01

    An international policy mechanism is under negotiation for compensating tropical nations that succeed in lowering their greenhouse gas emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation, responsible for approximately one-fifth of worldwide carbon emissions. One of the barriers to its success is the adoption of a unique MRV system and the participation of developing countries in carbon monitoring. A successful REDD policy must rely on a robust, scalable, cost effective method that will allow the Measurement Reporting and Verification from local to national scales, while also developing well-trained technical personnel to implement national REDD carbon monitoring systems. Participation of governments and forest stakeholders in forest and carbon monitoring methods at WHRC is achieved through ongoing technical workshops which include training of participants to collect field data to calibrate biomass models, and an annual Scholar’s Program where forest officers from the tropical regions of Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia work with Woods Hole Research Center scientsts to improve skills in forest measurement and remote sensing monitoring techniques . Capacity building activities focus on technical aspects and approaches to forest-cover and carbon mapping and the use of satellite imagery together with ground-based measurement techniques in the development of forest cover and carbon-stock maps. After two years, the three-year project has involved more than 200 forest specialists from governments and NGOs in Bolivia, Cambodia, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Kenya, Uganda, Vietnam and Zambia, among others with participation of ten scholars actively participating in the developement of National REDD plans for forest mapping and monitoring. Field Training Mbandaka- DR Congo 2010

  3. An integrated approach to scale up the market penetration of low carbon technologies in developing countries and water scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michelle Angela

    Water scarcity is a global challenge that stifles social and economic growth. There is a growing concern to examine the water-energy nexus to understand the importance of applying energy and water interactions to technology. In developing countries there are many communities that live off-grid in remote region with no access to electricity or clean water. Additionally, there are developed countries that are located in regions with electricity but no access to clean water. Recent developments in renewable energy technology and energy policies have greatly reduced the costs of renewable energy making them more attractive and affordable. The purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the main barriers to deploying renewables to non-Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (non-OECD) countries and member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This dissertation examines the potential of renewable desalination technology systems across emerging countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for investors interested in entering this market. The combined chapters seek to address potential problems regarding the costs, methods, and tools required for the implementation of the appropriate water purification technologies for off-grid, community scale infrastructures.

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the first week after the seven-day national holiday(October 1-7),the Chinese economy resumed its fast-growing pace.The mainland stock mar- ket hurdled to record highs on consecutive days.China Reinsurance Group eyed a mainland stock market debut by restructuring into a shareholding company.The Shanghai-listed China Minsheng Banking Corp. announced plans to buy 20 percent of the U.S.,UCBH Holdings Inc.,becoming the first Chinese bank to enter the U.S.market.On the foreign trade front,the European Commission decided to end quotas on Chinese textile imports and will introduce a"double checking system"instead.Meanwhile,to boost imports,China cut the import tariff on audio and video products in a bid to curb the surging trade surplus.

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2011-01-01

    Housing Conundrum The once-bullish property market is tapering off,as government measures to cool the market take effect.In August,24 out of 70 monitored major cities reported month-on-month increases in prices of new commercial residences,down from 39 in July,said the National Bureau of Statistics.Meanwhile,16 cities experienced price declines,compared with 14 in the previous month.Prices stood unchanged in 30cities.AS for second hand homes,prices rose in 27 cities in August,decreasing from 36 cities in July.Also,26 cities saw their prices head lower,an increase of four cities from July.Policymakers have tried all levers to let air out of the real estate bubble.The government will expand purchase restrictions to second- and third-tier cities where prices arc skyrocketing.

  6. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  7. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  8. Trends of nuclear power in U.S.A. Nuclear power big nation intending to survive in liberation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in the end of 1998, 104 units of nuclear power plants with 100.16 MkW of electric power are in operation in U.S.A. This power corresponds to almost twice of Japan and France which are the second and the third nuclear big nations in the world, respectively. On actual result of operation in 1998, they occupy 18.7 % of total power generation in U.S.A., and upgrading of their recent operation rate is remarkable (from 71 % in 1997 to 78 % in 1998) to show more than 90 % in most of nuclear power stations. As decline of nuclear power trends to be told recently, actual results of operation in previously established nuclear power stations are much favorable. Here were investigated on maintenance of competitive power in liberation, effort to solution of wastes problem, re-evaluation of nuclear power due to environmental regulation, and R and D aiming at its innovative technology on nuclear power. U.S.A. always leads allover of the world, of course in the nuclear power. It has a possibility to form in Europe and Japan after 10 to 20 years to occur in U.S.A. at present, and it seems to affect largely on future trends of nuclear power in the world. (G.K.)

  9. The new role of national oil companies - NOCs in international energy markets: a study case of BRICS; O novo papel das national oil companies - NOCs nos mercados internacionais de energia: um estudo de caso das BRICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Marcelo Marinho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    remarkable change is observed in the environment of the oil and gas industry from the beginning of this decade in view of several factors: raise of technical ability and investments in R and D by the National Oil Companies (NOCs); rising tendency of oil price - result of economical expansion of China and India - despite momentary falls; nationalization of oil and gas reserves in several countries and technological transfer from oil companies to services companies. Herewith a high degree of reserves concentration of oil and gas production was acquired toward a few companies and countries. According the PFC Energy, in 2009 NOCs held 77% of world reserves of oil and 51% of gas against 7% and 9% respectively of the International Oil Companies (IOCs), with impact on oil geopolitics and energy market. Contrarily, IOCs are also redefining their role in this 'chess game' of oil geopolitics due above all to the direction of exploitation programs for deep waters in the few remained areas, to the high investments in R and D to raise the recovery factor of the mature fields and to rendering specialized services to the NOCs. The objective of this research is to consider the new strategies of the NOCs, their influences in the economic and energetic policies of the home countries of the companies as well as the IOCS, their influences in the concentration of the reserves and production, integration with the productive chain and participation in several sectors of industry. (author)

  10. Validation of the methodology for the quantitative determination of lead in cosmetics dyes available in the national market by atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical methodology was validated to quantify lead in cosmetics dyes available on the national market, by the method of atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame. The samples were digested by wet digestion with HNO3 to 65% m/m in a microwave oven, the percentage of recovery for the digestion of samples of 0,25 g and 0,45 g in 5,00 mL was of 100,5±0,5. The field of optimal linearity detection limit was 5,0 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0,9998. The limits of detection and quantification limits determined graphically by the method of row errors for linear regression of 0,12±0,02 mg/L and 0,21±0,02 mg/L, respectively. Precision was evaluated determining the repeatability as standard deviation of five replicas of a positive dye for lead, according to the definition of the ISO, 2√2*, and obtained a value of 2,3. The veracity was determined through percentages of recovery assessed, adding aliquots of lead patterns to dye samples and compared with the same mass to which they are not make additions. The dye samples were obtained at point of sale, such as pharmacies, beauty suppliers, supermarkets, sales of natural products and the central market of San Jose. The dyes tested contain lead acetates active ingredient, these are: Doni, Mont D'Or, Matador y Siempre Joven; they are produced locally, Youthair brand and American manufacturing. (author)

  11. Market Squid Ecology Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific...

  12. Market Squid Population Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains population dynamics data on paralarvae, juvenile and adult market squid collected off California and the US Pacific Northwest. These data were...

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese stock markets plunged along with their global counterparts-the benchmark index lost 26.82 percent in the first half of this year, the worst performance among nations worldwide. China’s manu- facturing sector slowed and was clouded by a sense of pessimism as the June purchasing managers’ index dropped by 1.8 percentage points compared with May. Electronic manufacturer Foxconn plans to build a new large-scale plant in Henan Province to cut costs. Ping An Insurance tries to merge two banks to establish a stronger banking presence. Shanghai topped other cities as the most important financial center in China and a growing world financial hub.

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China achieved its development goals in 2009, as re- flected in the strong economic data released by the National Bureau of Statistics on January 21. The GDP was 33.5 trillion yuan ($4.9 trillion) in 2009, growing 8.7 percent year on year. The fallout of Japan Airlines’ dec- laration of bankruptcy triggered anxieties among domestic airlines whose market share was also challenged by fierce international competition and high-speed railways. The domestic economic recovery was also mirrored in the robust performance of booming Internet businesses. By LIU YUNYUN

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese Government, concerned about the stumbling domestic stock markets, has repeatedly emphasized the importance of "maintaining stability." China National Petroleum Corp. reported losses in its oil refinery business during the first half of the year. Domestic consumption, a major pillar of economic growth, rose substantially in June, up 23 percent year on year. Dabao, a well-known Chinese cosmetics brand, was officially acquired by Johnson & Johnson. China now plans to spend more money to help small and medium-sized companies boost employment.

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The National Bureau of Statistics released major economic figures for February on March 11. The bureau’s spokesman said the Chinese economy had no signs of overheating. The mainland continued to take the lead in global car sales with domestic brands taking the largest share. The first inland duty-free zone will be built in Chongqing to encourage growth in the upper Yangtze River region. Airline companies worry the rapidly expanding high-speed railways may absorb 60 percent of their market.

  17. Carbon inequality at the sub-national scale: A case study of provincial-level inequality in CO{sub 2} emissions in China 1997-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke-Sather, Afton, E-mail: Afton.Clarke-Sather@colorado.edu [Scientific Information Center for Resources and Environment, Lanzhou Branch of the National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder, 260 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Qu Jiansheng [Scientific Information Center for Resources and Environment, Lanzhou Branch of the National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems, Research School of Arid Environment and Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Wang Qin [MOE Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems, Research School of Arid Environment and Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zeng Jingjing [Scientific Information Center for Resources and Environment, Lanzhou Branch of the National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 8 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental Systems, Research School of Arid Environment and Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)

    2011-09-15

    This study asks whether sub-national inequalities in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions mirror international patterns in carbon inequality using the case study of China. Several studies have examined global-level carbon inequality; however, such approaches have not been used on a sub-national scale. This study examines inter-provincial inequality in CO{sub 2} emissions within China using common measures of inequality (coefficient of variation, Gini Index, Theil Index) to analyze provincial-level data derived from the IPCC reference approach for the years 1997-2007. It decomposes CO{sub 2} emissions inequality into its inter-regional and intra-regional components. Patterns of per capita CO{sub 2} emissions inequality in China appear superficially similar to, though slightly lower than, per capita income inequality. However, decomposing these inequalities reveals different patterns. While inter-provincial income inequality is highly regional in character, inter-provincial CO{sub 2} emissions inequality is primarily intra-regional. While apparently similar, global patterns in CO{sub 2} emissions are not mirrored at the sub-national scale. - Highlights: > Carbon inequality is different in character within China than at global scale. > Interprovincial CO{sub 2} emissions inequality in China is slightly lower than income inequality. > Interprovincial GDP inequality in China is regional in character. > Interprovincial CO{sub 2} emissions inequality in China is not regional in character.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT: Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao set several national economic targets for this year at the annual session of the National People’s Congress in Beijing, and said parts of the central budget would be allocated to various sectors to shore up economic growth. State-owned enterprises administered by the Central Government reported dismal profits of $97 billion last year, a 30-percent year-on-year decrease. Spurred by the government stimulus plans, the purchase managers’ index continued to rise for the third consecutive month in February, reflecting managers’restored confidence in the country’s economic prospects. China increased its holdings of U.S. treasury securities last December to $727.4 billion, making it the largest holder of such investments. Sanlu dairy brand, which lost its credibility in the tainted milk scandal, was officially eliminated from the market after it was bought by Beijing-based dairy producer Sanyuan Group.

  19. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s stock market must have a touch of spring fever. Just two weeks ago, the number of new fund accounts in January surged to 1.85 million, five times more than the same period of the previous year. But a week later fund management companies suffered from customers pulling out. Experts warned of a bubble in the stock market but securities companies seemed confident. Meanwhile, Agricultural Bank of China has a lot more spring in its step toward listing. Seeing three other Big Four banks being list- ed, Agricultural Bank of China certainly doesn’t want to be left behind. It is sparing no efforts in delving into its inner problems and the Big Four banks will likely enjoy a complete family reunion in the stock markets in 2008. In other news, China’s no spring chicken. It knows its way around the international trade game, and is dealing with unfair trade allegations from both the United States and the European Union. China is also fighting back, protecting itself from dumping from other nations as well. Finally, Lenovo isn’t full of the joys of spring. Its lack of profitability in America is becoming an eyesore on the company’s financial reports. By LIU YUNYUN